WorldWideScience

Sample records for treatment efficiency analysis

  1. Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency in a Soft Drinks Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguniewicz-Zabłocka, Joanna; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    During manufacturing processes, most industrial plants generate wastewater which could become harmful to the environment. Discharge of untreated or improperly treated industrial wastewaters into surface water could, in fact, lead to deterioration of the receiving water body's quality. This paper concerns wastewater treatment solutions used in the soft drink production industry: wastewater treatment plant effectiveness analysis was determined in terms of basic pollution indicators, such as BOD, COD, TSS and variable pH. Initially, the performance of mechanic-biological systems for the treatment of wastewater from a specific beverages production process was studied in different periods, due to wastewater flow fluctuation. The study then showed the positive effects on treatment of wastewater augmentation by methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus salts dosed into it during the treatment process. Results confirm that after implemented modification (methanol, nitrogen and phosphorus additions) pollution removal occurs mostly with higher efficiency.

  2. Measuring and explaining eco-efficiencies of wastewater treatment plants in China: An uncertainty analysis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Zhang, Xinyi; Zeng, Siyu

    2017-04-01

    In the context of sustainable development, there has been an increasing requirement for an eco-efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Data envelopment analysis (DEA), a technique that is widely applied for relative efficiency assessment, is used in combination with the tolerances approach to handle WWTPs' multiple inputs and outputs as well as their uncertainty. The economic cost, energy consumption, contaminant removal, and global warming effect during the treatment processes are integrated to interpret the eco-efficiency of WWTPs. A total of 736 sample plants from across China are assessed, and large sensitivities to variations in inputs and outputs are observed for most samples, with only three WWTPs identified as being stably efficient. Size of plant, overcapacity, climate type, and influent characteristics are proven to have a significant influence on both the mean efficiency and performance sensitivity of WWTPs, while no clear relationships were found between eco-efficiency and technology under the framework of uncertainty analysis. The incorporation of uncertainty quantification and environmental impact consideration has improved the liability and applicability of the assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of small cyclones efficiency for primary treatment of incineration gases of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasz, M.R.T.; Massarani, G.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an efficient gas treatment system, especially small diameter cyclones. The high efficiency justifies the interest in the application in radioactive wastes incinerators because it reduces the amount of radioactive ashes of other gas cleaning steps. The first stage of this work is to establish some promising configurations of high efficiency cyclones through modeling (neural networks). After construction of the equipment , the operation conditions of each small diameter cyclone were obtained and the viability of adaptation of a Post-cyclone (PoC) was also evaluated to increase the efficiency. The results show the effectiveness of the small diameter cyclone PoC set. The efficiency in optimized conditions can be higher than 98% for fine materials (D 50 s = 3,5 g/cm 3 ). (author)

  4. Efficiency, effectiveness and treatment stability of clear aligners: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M; Liu, R; Ni, Z; Yu, Z

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the orthodontic literature with regard to efficiency, effectiveness and stability of treatment outcome with clear aligners compared with treatment with conventional brackets. An electronic search without time or language restrictions was undertaken in October 2014 in the following electronic databases: Google Scholar, the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, Scopus, CENTRAL, MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. Quality assessment of the included articles was performed. Two authors were responsible for study selection, validity assessment and data extraction. Four controlled clinical trials including a total of 252 participants satisfied the inclusion criteria. We grouped the trials into four main comparisons. One randomized controlled trial was classified as level 1B evidence, and three cohort studies were classified as level 2B evidence. Clear aligners appear to have a significant advantage with regard to chair time and treatment duration in mild-to-moderate cases based on several cross-sectional studies. No other differences in stability and occlusal characteristics after treatment were found between the two systems. Despite claims about the effectiveness of clear aligners, evidence is generally lacking. Shortened treatment duration and chair time in mild-to-moderate cases appear to be the only significant effectiveness of clear aligners over conventional systems that are supported by the current evidence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Analysis of energy efficiency and energy consumption costs: a case study for regional wastewater treatment plant in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azuana Ramli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the possibilities of increasing energy efficiency in the central region wastewater treatment plant by focusing on two aspects: biogas production and prediction of energy production. The analysis is based on one of the biggest central region wastewater treatment plants in Malaysia. After studying the energy efficiency, which consists of optimization of energy consumption and enhancing gas generation, the prediction of power consumption is performed using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model. The prediction results are compared with the linear regression method. Comparison shows that even though the total cost of savings is greater by using linear regression, the prediction through ARIMA is more accurate and has smaller root mean square error. The implementation of these two aspects managed to increase energy efficiency by 10% of energy recovery that could further reduce electricity cost and reduction of sludge cake disposal off site. The study recommends other aspects, such as modification in setting up the frequency of variable speed drive for aerators and blowers and optimizing number of feeds into train unit processes within aeration tanks in increasing energy efficiency.

  6. Technical efficiency of rural primary health care system for diabetes treatment in Iran: a stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani, Mostafa; Farzadfar, Farshad; Majdzadeh, Reza; Mohammad, Kazem; Motevalian, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to explore the technical efficiency (TE) of the Iranian rural primary healthcare (PHC) system for diabetes treatment coverage rate using the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) as well as to examine the strength and significance of the effect of human resources density on diabetes treatment. In the SFA model diabetes treatment coverage rate, as a output, is a function of health system inputs (Behvarz worker density, physician density, and rural health center density) and non-health system inputs (urbanization rate, median age of population, and wealth index) as a set of covariates. Data about the rate of self-reported diabetes treatment coverage was obtained from the Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance Survey, data about health system inputs were collected from the health census database and data about non-health system inputs were collected from the census data and household survey. In 2008, rate of diabetes treatment coverage was 67% (95% CI: 63%-71%) nationally, and at the provincial level it varied from 44% to 81%. The TE score at the national level was 87.84%, with considerable variation across provinces (from 59.65% to 98.28%).Among health system and non-health system inputs, only the Behvarz density (per 1000 population)was significantly associated with diabetes treatment coverage (β (95%CI): 0.50 (0.29-0.70), p  < 0.001). Our findings show that although the rural PHC system can considered efficient in diabetes treatment at the national level, a wide variation exists in TE at the provincial level. Because the only variable that is predictor of TE is the Behvarz density, the PHC system may extend the diabetes treatment coverage by using this group of health care workers.

  7. Efficiency analysis of orthokeratological correction in the treatment of progressive myopia in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgova Е.А.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of orthokeratological correction in the treatment of progressive myopia in children. Material and methods. A retrospective study correction of myopia orthokeratology lenses of 100 patients (178 eyes with an established diagnosis of myopia of an average degree, undergoing treatment at the Clinic of eye diseases of SSMU. Group I consisted of 50 patients who received OK-correction lenses "Emerald" by Euclid Systems Corporation (USA. The wear time is 2 years. Group II included 50 people (87 eyes, using spectacle correction during the same time. Patients underwent visual acuity testing, biomicroscopy, refractometry, determination of reserves of accommodation, ultrasonic biometry (IOL-Master, CarlZeiss is a measurement of the size of the front-sadayoshi eyeball, survey after 2 years of using the selected correction. Results. Comparative analysis showed that the use of OK lenses for patients with myopia of an average degree resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of progression of myopia. In the background wearing OK lenses for 2 years has been the increase PZO, PZO dynamics were 0.09±0.05 mm. For the correction of progressive myopia spectacle lens changes were more significant, the dynamics of early school leaving amounted to 0,36±0,11 mm. Conclusion. The identified inhibitory effect of OK-lenses on myopia progression, confirmed by the indices of refraction and ultrasound biometry within 2 years of the study. The data allow us to recommend OK-therapy, as an effective tool for progressive myopia.

  8. A systematic methodology for the robust quantification of energy efficiency at wastewater treatment plants featuring Data Envelopment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, S; Hospido, A; Lema, J M; Mauricio-Iglesias, M

    2018-05-10

    This article examines the potential benefits of using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for conducting energy-efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). WWTPs are characteristically heterogeneous (in size, technology, climate, function …) which limits the correct application of DEA. This paper proposes and describes the Robust Energy Efficiency DEA (REED) in its various stages, a systematic state-of-the-art methodology aimed at including exogenous variables in nonparametric frontier models and especially designed for WWTP operation. In particular, the methodology systematizes the modelling process by presenting an integrated framework for selecting the correct variables and appropriate models, possibly tackling the effect of exogenous factors. As a result, the application of REED improves the quality of the efficiency estimates and hence the significance of benchmarking. For the reader's convenience, this article is presented as a step-by-step guideline to guide the user in the determination of WWTPs energy efficiency from beginning to end. The application and benefits of the developed methodology are demonstrated by a case study related to the comparison of the energy efficiency of a set of 399 WWTPs operating in different countries and under heterogeneous environmental conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plants: A data envelopment analysis approach integrating technical, economic, and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellet, Lledó; Molinos-Senante, María

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential to compare their performance and consequently to identify the best operational practices that can contribute to the reduction of operational costs. Previous studies have evaluated the efficiency of WWTPs using conventional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. Most of these studies have considered the operational costs of the WWTPs as inputs, while the pollutants removed from wastewater are treated as outputs. However, they have ignored the fact that each pollutant removed by a WWTP involves a different environmental impact. To overcome this limitation, this paper evaluates for the first time the efficiency of a sample of WWTPs by applying the weighted slacks-based measure model. It is a non-radial DEA model which allows assigning weights to the inputs and outputs according their importance. Thus, the assessment carried out integrates environmental issues with the traditional "techno-economic" efficiency assessment of WWTPs. Moreover, the potential economic savings for each cost item have been quantified at a plant level. It is illustrated that the WWTPs analyzed have significant room to save staff and energy costs. Several managerial implications to help WWTPs' operators make informed decisions were drawn from the methodology and empirical application carried out. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A comprehensive analysis of China's regional energy saving and emission reduction efficiency: From production and treatment perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Lv, Lin; Sun, Jiasen; Ji, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues have recently aroused increasing interest in China and many approaches are used to evaluate energy and environmental performance. In this paper, a two-stage network DEA framework is applied to evaluate the efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction in China during the period of the eleventh five-year plan, from 2006 to 2010. In this study, economic activities are divided into production and treatment processes. This is different from previous research which generally focused on either environmental efficiency or energy efficiency, omitting the integration of energy and environmental measures. Today, energy saving and emission reduction are both parts of the basic state policy of China and are equally important. The empirical results in this study show that: (i) eastern China has the best energy saving and emission reduction efficiency, performing is better than western and central China. (ii) The efficiency of the production process in central China is better than that in western China while the western area performs better than the central area in term of treatment efficiency. (iii) Integrated efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction of China was relatively stable in the five years and the pollution treatment efficiency maintained a rising trend. -- Highlights: •We measured China's regional energy saving and emission reduction efficiency using two-stage DEA approach. •The production and treatment processes are incorporated in evaluation. •Eastern China performs best in terms of energy saving and emission reduction efficiency. •Integrated efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction of China kept a stable trend during 2006–2010

  11. Is treatment with liraglutide efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita Raya, Pedro; Reyes García, Rebeca

    2014-04-01

    In the current context of limited economic and health resources, efficiency of drug treatments is of paramount importance, and their clinical effects and related direct costs should therefore be analyzed. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which, in addition to its normoglycemic effects, induces a significant improvement in body weight and several cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the available evidence about the effects of liraglutide upon cardiovascular risk factors and how these improve its cost-effectiveness profile. Despite the relatively higher cost of liraglutide as compared to other alternative therapies, liraglutide has been shown to be cost-effective when clinical indicators and total costs associated to T2DM management are analyzed. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. A quality and efficiency analysis of the IMFASTTM segmentation algorithm in head and neck 'step and shoot' IMRT treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Larry D.; Chang, Sha X.; Cullip, Timothy J.; Siochi, Alfredo C.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of segmentation algorithms used in IMFAST for 'step and shoot' IMRT treatment delivery is evaluated for three head and neck clinical treatments of different optimization objectives. The segmentation uses the intensity maps generated by the in-house TPS PLANUNC using the index-dose minimization algorithm. The dose optimization objectives include PTV dose uniformity and dose volume histogram-specified critical structure sparing. The optimized continuous intensity maps were truncated into five and ten intensity levels and exported to IMFAST for MLC segments optimization. The MLC segments were imported back to PLUNC for dose optimization quality calculation. The five basic segmentation algorithms included in IMFAST were evaluated alone and in combination with either tongue and groove/match line correction or fluence correction or both. Two criteria were used in the evaluation: treatment efficiency represented by the total number of MLC segments and optimization quality represented by a clinically relevant optimization quality factor. We found that the treatment efficiency depends first on the number of intensity levels used in the intensity map and second the segmentation technique used. The standard optimal segmentation with fluence correction is a consistent good performer for all treatment plans studied. All segmentation techniques evaluated produced treatments with similar dose optimization quality values, especially when ten-level intensity maps are used

  13. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for delivery of hypofractionated stereotactic lung radiotherapy: A dosimetric and treatment efficiency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, Samuel D.; Matuszak, Martha M.; Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Grills, Inga S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/objective(s): Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) allows for intensity-modulated radiation delivery during gantry rotation with dynamic MLC motion, variable dose rates and gantry speed modulation. We compared VMAT plans with 3D-CRT for hypofractionated lung radiotherapy. Materials/methods: Twenty-one 3D-CRT plans for Stage IA lung cancer previously treated stereotactically were selected. VMAT plans were generated by optimizing machine aperture shape and radiation intensity at 10 deg. intervals. A partial arc range of 180 deg. was manually selected to coincide with tumor location. The arc was resampled down to 5 deg. intervals to ensure dose calculation accuracy. Identical planning objectives were used for VMAT/3D-CRT. Parameters assessed included dose to PTV and organs-at-risk (OAR), monitor units, and multiple conformity and homogeneity indices. Plans were delivered to a phantom for time comparison. Results: Lung V 20/12.5/10/5 were less with VMAT (relative reduction 4.5%, p = .02; 3.2%, p = .01; 2.6%, p = .01; 4.2%, p = .03, respectively). Mean/maximum-doses to PTV, dose to additional OARs, 95% isodose line conformity, and target volume homogeneity were equivalent. VMAT improved conformity at both the 80% (1.87 vs. 1.93, p = .08) and 50% isodose lines (5.19 vs. 5.65, p = .01). Treatment times were reduced significantly with VMAT (mean 6.1 vs. 11.9 min, p < .01). Conclusions: Single arc VMAT planning achieves highly conformal dose distributions while controlling dose to critical structures, including significant reduction in lung dose volume parameters. Employing a VMAT technique decreases treatment times by 37-63%, reducing the chance of error introduced by intrafraction variation. The quality and efficiency of VMAT is ideally suited for stereotactic lung radiotherapy delivery.

  14. Efficient Incremental Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Many data-intensive applications require real-time analytics over streaming data. In a growing number of domains -- sensor network monitoring, social web applications, clickstream analysis, high-frequency algorithmic trading, and fraud detections to name a few -- applications continuously monitor stream events to promptly react to certain data conditions. These applications demand responsive analytics even when faced with high volume and velocity of incoming changes, large numbers of users, a...

  15. The Probabilistic Efficiency Frontier: A Framework for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Germany Put into Practice for Hepatitis C Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Sadler, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen) adapted the efficiency frontier (EF) approach to conform to statutory provisions on cost-effectiveness analysis of health technologies. EF serves as a framework for evaluating cost-effectiveness and indirectly for pricing and reimbursement decisions. To calculate an EF on the basis of single multidimensional benefit by taking patient preferences and uncertainty into account; to evaluate whether EF is useful to inform decision makers about cost-effectiveness of new therapies; and to find whether a treatment is efficient at given prices demonstrated through a case study on chronic hepatitis C. A single multidimensional benefit was calculated by linear additive aggregation of multiple patient-relevant end points. End points were identified and weighted by patients in a previous discrete-choice experiment (DCE). Aggregation of overall benefit was ascertained using preferences and clinical data. Monte-Carlo simulation was applied. Uncertainty was addressed by price acceptability curve (PAC) and net monetary benefit (NMB). The case study illustrates that progress in benefit and efficiency of hepatitis C virus treatments could be depicted very well with the EF. On the basis of cost, effect, and preference data, the latest generations of interferon-free treatments are shown to yield a positive NMB and be efficient at current prices. EF was implemented taking uncertainty into account. For the first time, a DCE was used with the EF. The study shows how DCEs in combination with EF, PAC, and NMB can contribute important information in the course of reimbursement and pricing decisions. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling Vertical Flow Treatment Wetland Hydraulics to Optimize Treatment Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    be forced to flow in a 90 serpentine manner back and forth as it moves upward through the wetland (think waiting in line at Disneyland ). This...Flow Treatment Wetland Hydraulics to Optimize Treatment Efficiency 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  17. Efficiency of hospital cholera treatment in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creamer Germán

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the efficiency of cholera treatment in three hospitals representative of the Ecuadorian public health system in order to provide hospital directors and administrators and health service policy-makers with information to plan responses to future epidemics and to reduce the costs of cholera treatment in general. For the study, total and excess cholera treatment costs were calculated using hospital files and statistics and an in-hospital surveillance system of the cholera cases. The type and quantity of each input used for each treatment were analyzed, as well as the number of days hospitalized, according to the severity of the illness. With this process, excess costs were determined in relation to a "treatment norm" that would have been appropriate for each patient. The researchers found that 45% of the cholera treatment costs were excessive. The most important contributor was excess recurrent costs (90%, including extended hospital stays, disproportionate use of intravenous rehydration solutions, and unnecessary laboratory tests. Excess capital costs, from land, buildings, and hospital equipment, represented 10% of the total excess treatment costs. No significant relationship was found between treatment costs and the severity of the illness, nor between costs and a patient's age. A patient's sex appeared to be an important variable, with the cost of treating women being notably higher than for men. An inverse relationship was found between treatment costs and the complexity of the hospital. The researchers concluded there was an inefficient use of resources in the treatment of cholera in the three hospitals where the research was performed.

  18. Efficient Strictness Analysis of Haskell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Damm; Hjæresen, Peter; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Strictness analysis has been a living field of investigation since Mycroft's original work in 1980, and is getting increasingly significant with the still wider use of lazy functional programming languages. This paper focuses on an actual implementation of a strictness analyser for Haskell....... The analyser uses abstract interpretation with chaotic fixpoint iteration. The demand-driven nature of this iteration technique allows us to use large domains including function domains in the style of Burn et al. 1986 and Wadler 87 and retain reasonable efficiency. The implementation, furthermore, allows us...

  19. [Metformin efficiency for the adolescent PCOS treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedikova, S; Sirakov, M; Boyadzhieva, M

    2012-01-01

    PCOS is a polyglandular heterogenic metabolic condition, which frequency in adolescence is defined between 11-26%. There are some aspects of PCOS which can be seen in a regular puberty and vice versa. This makes the adolescent PCOS a condition which is rather complicated to diagnose as well as to treat. The pathophysiology of PCOS is not fully clarified, but is well established the fundamental role of the insulin resistance and the hyperinsulinemia. This fact explains the detailed investigations of the insulin sensitizers use for the PCOS treatment. Nevertheless there is insufficient experience with this medication group for the adolescent PCOS treatment in Bulgaria. To evaluate the Metformin efficiency for the adolescent PCOS treatment. This is a prospective study including 55 girls with menstrual irregularities aged between 13 and 18 years. None of the subjects had previously been diagnosed with any endocrine pathology or had received any hormonal treatment for at least three months prior to their evaluation. They have been evaluated according to the diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adolescence accepted in 2010. The incidence of PCOS in our research was 38.9%. In 66.7% of them the body mass index was higher than normal. Insulin resistance was diagnosed in 90.5%. The insulin resistance was improved in 80% of the PCOS patients after six months therapy with Metformin 2 x 850 mg/p.d. The menstrual function was regulated in 77.8% of the cases.

  20. Comparative analysis between horizontal and vertical heater treaters: identification and analysis of efficiency variables for oil treatment; Analise comparativa entre tratadores termicos horizontais e verticais: levantamento de variaveis criticas a eficiencia do processamento primario do oleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, Fabricio de Queiroz; Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Brazilian onshore oil and gas production scenario has undergone changes with the maturity of fields and the prioritization of investments towards offshore projects. Added to the issue of lack of investment issue, the increasing production of formation water, which has already exceeded the production of the oil itself. With that comes the need to study the efficiency of process stages. It is common to find oil treatment plants (ETOS) limiting production operations due to lack of capacity to deal with increasing volumes of produced water. The critical moment of an ETO in onshore operations is the 'breaking' of emulsion (water in oil) usually performed by heater treaters. This article offers a comparative analysis between horizontal (TTH) and vertical (TTV) heater treaters, indicating the main variables and demonstrating opportunities for internalization of traditional and innovative technologies in horizontal systems that result in energy efficiency, optimization of the specification of oil (for marketing) and reduced operating costs. (author)

  1. Field-analysis of potable water quality and ozone efficiency in ozone-assisted biological filtration systems for surface water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanacic, Enisa; Stavrinides, John; McMartin, Dena W

    2016-11-01

    Potable water treatment in small communities is challenging due to a complexity of factors starting with generally poor raw water sources, a smaller tax and consumption base that limit capital and operating funds, and culminating in what is typically a less sophisticated and robust water treatment plant for production and delivery of safe, high quality potable water. The design and optimization of modular ozone-assisted biological filtration systems can address some of these challenges. In surface water treatment, the removal of organic matter (e.g., dissolved organic carbon - DOC), inorganic nutrients and other exposure-related contaminants (e.g., turbidity and dissolved solids) from the raw water source is essential. Thus, a combination of chemical and biological oxidation processes can produce an effective and efficient water treatment plant design that is also affordable and robust. To that end, the ozone-assisted biological filtration water treatment plants in two communities were evaluated to determine the efficacy of oxidation and contaminant removal processes. The results of testing for in-field system performance indicate that plant performance is particularly negatively impacted by high alkalinity, high organics loading, and turbidity. Both bicarbonate and carbonate alkalinity were observed to impede ozone contact and interaction with DOC, resulting in lower than anticipated DOC oxidation efficiency and bioavailability. The ozone dosage at both water treatment plants must be calculated on a more routine basis to better reflect both the raw water DOC concentration and presence of alkalinities to ensure maximized organics oxidation and minimization of trihalomethanes production. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Ion implantation as an efficient surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straede, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Ion beam processing has for several years been well established in the semiconductor industry. In recent years ion implantation of tool steels, ceramics and even plastics has gained increasing industrial awareness. The development of ion implantation to a commercially viable surface treatment of tools and spare parts working in production type environments is very dependent on technical merits, economic considerations, competing processes and highly individual barriers to acceptance for each particular application. Some examples of this will be discussed. The development of the process is very closely linked with the development of high current accelerators and their ability to efficiently manipulate the samples being treated, or to make sample manipulation superfluous by using special beam systems like the PSII. Furthermore, the ability to produce high beam currents (mA) of a wide variety of ions is crucial. Previously, it was broadly accepted that ion implantation of tools on a commercial basis generally had to be limited to nitrogen implantation. The development of implanters which can produce high beam currents of ions like B + , C + , Ti + , Cr + and others is rapidly changing this situation, and today an increasing number of commercial implantations are performed with these ions although nitrogen is still successfully used in the majority of commercial implantation. All in all, the recent development of equipment makes it possible to a higher extent than before to tailor the implantation to a specific situation. The emerging new possibilities in this direction will be discussed, and a broad selection of practical examples of ion implantation at standard low temperatures of tools and spare parts will be given. Furthermore, very interesting results have been obtained recently by implanting nitrogen at elevated temperatures, which yields a relatively deep penetration of the implanted ions. (orig./WL)

  3. ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY AMONG SOYBEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Analysis, Resource use efficiency, Farmers, production function analysis, Benue, Nigeria. ... Soybean seeds also contain about 20% oil on a dry matter basis, and this ..... Manual for training in Seed Technology.

  4. Efficiency and safety of laser photocoagulation with or without intravitreal ranibizumab for treatment of diabetic macular edema: a systematic review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Wei Qian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the therapeutic effect and safety of laser photocoagulation along with intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR versus laser therapy in treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME. METHODS: Pertinent publications were identified through comprehensive searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs comparing IVR+laser to laser monotherapy in patients with DME. Therapeutic effect estimates were determined by weighted mean differences (WMD of change from baseline in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT at 6, 12, or 24mo after initial treatment, and the risk ratios (RR for the proportions of patients with at least 10 letters of improvement or reduction at 12mo. Data regarding major ocular and nonocular adverse events (AEs were collected and analyzed. The Review Manager 5.3.5 was used. RESULTS: Six RCTs involving 2069 patients with DME were selected for this Meta-analysis. The results showed that IVR+laser significantly improved BCVA compared with laser at 6mo (WMD: 6.57; 95% CI: 4.37-8.77; P<0.00001, 12mo (WMD: 5.46; 95% CI: 4.35-6.58; P<0.00001, and 24mo (WMD: 3.42; 95% CI: 0.84-5.99; P=0.009 in patients with DME. IVR+laser was superior to laser in reducing CRT at 12mo from baseline with statistical significance (WMD: -63.46; 95% CI: -101.19 to -25.73; P=0.001. The pooled RR results showed that the proportions of patients with at least 10 letters of improvement or reduction were in favor of IVR+laser arms compared with laser (RR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.77-2.57; P<0.00001 and RR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.22-0.62; P=0.0002, respectively. As for AEs, the pooled results showed that a significantly higher proportion of patients suffering from conjunctival hemorrhage (study eye and diabetic retinal edema (fellow eye in IVR+laser group compared to laser group (RR: 3.29; 95% CI: 1.53-7.09; P=0.002 and RR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.24-7.32; P=0.01, respectively. The

  5. Production and efficiency analysis with R

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This textbook introduces essential topics and techniques in production and efficiency analysis and shows how to apply these methods using the statistical software R. Numerous small simulations lead to a deeper understanding of random processes assumed in the models and of the behavior of estimation techniques. Step-by-step programming provides an understanding of advanced approaches such as stochastic frontier analysis and stochastic data envelopment analysis. The text is intended for master students interested in empirical production and efficiency analysis. Readers are assumed to have a general background in production economics and econometrics, typically taught in introductory microeconomics and econometrics courses.

  6. Efficient visible-light photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous NO with graphitic carbon nitride (g–C_3N_4) activated by the alkaline hydrothermal treatment and mechanism analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Haoyu; Ou, Man; Zhong, Qin; Zhang, Shule; Yu, Lemeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Various porous g–C_3N_4 samples were obtained by the alkaline hydrothermal treatment. • 0.12CN possesses the largest BET specific surface area and pore volume. • The NO conversion in the presence of 0.12CN reaches 40.4%. • Reasons for the enhanced PCO performance with treated g–C_3N_4 was analyzed. • Further mechanism of the PCO of NO relevant with active species was investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of NO (∼400 ppm) in the presence of the graphitic carbon nitride (g–C_3N_4) treated by the alkaline hydrothermal treatment is evaluated. Various g–C_3N_4 samples were treated in different concentrations of NaOH solutions and the sample treated in 0.12 mol L"−"1 of NaOH solution possesses the largest BET specific surface area as well as the optimal ability of the PCO of NO. UV–vis diffuse reflection spectra (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were also conducted, and the highly improved photocatalytic performance is ascribed to the large specific surface area and high pore volume, which provides more adsorption and active sites, the wide visible-light adsorption edge and the narrow band gap, which is favorable for visible-light activation, as well as the decreased recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes, which could contribute to the production of active species. Fluorescence spectra and a trapping experiment were conducted to further the mechanism analysis of the PCO of NO, illustrating that superoxide radicals (·O_2"−) play the dominant role among active species in the PCO of NO.

  7. [Treatment of neonatal jaundice by efficient phototherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, G

    1985-01-01

    Idiopathic neonatal jaundice derives from an initial insufficiency of all processes which metabolize hydrophobic bilirubin into diglucuronide excretable in bile. The term 'neonatal hyperbilirubinemia' should only be used when there is a potential risk of bilirubin intoxication. Thus, the concept hyperbilirubinemia is not necessarily linked to the exceeding of a certain threshold value, but rather to the maturity of the child and its clinical condition. In this sense, hyperbilirubinemia is, therefore, always a syndrome requiring treatment. Besides substitution transfusion, which is highly effective per se, but risky and costly, enzyme induction (e.g., by administration of phenobarbital) represents an elegant causal therapy; however, because of its slow onset of action, it has to be given prophylactically to almost all newborns. In addition, this method requires a general induction of all microsomal enzyme systems, and is hence a major intervention in the process of maturation of the neonatal enzyme systems. Therefore, phototherapy must be regarded as the treatment of choice in cases of idiopathic neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. It leads to a bypassing of the hepatic enzyme insufficiency in that by interaction between light with a wavelength of around 460 nm and the bilirubin molecules in the skin, an isomeric, water-soluble, renally secretable bilirubin is produced. The effect of phototherapy, i.e., the reduction in the serum bilirubin concentration under phototherapy, may be described as a simple e-function. The evaluation of this regular occurrence provides important information applicable to the phototherapy procedure: it should not be initiated prematurely, the duration of radiation should be as short as possible, the irradiated surface as large as possible, the radiation source should be exploited to a maximum by keeping the distance from the light source short and using lateral reflectors. As supporting measures intestinal lavage, early oral administration of

  8. Efficiency analysis of using tailored individual doses of radioiodine and fine tuning using a low-dose antithyroid drug in the treatment of Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Jiang; Dong, Yan-Yu; Wang, Yi-Wei; Wang, Kai-Hua; Zeng, Qun-Yan

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of using tailored individual doses of radioiodine (¹³¹I) and fine tuning using low-dose antithyroid drug (ATD) in the treatment of Graves' disease, and an attempt to establish a therapeutic strategy that can keep both high rate of euthyroidism and low incidence of hypothyroidism. The dose of radioiodine was calculated using the calculated dose formula, and low-dose ATD was used as a way of fine tuning during follow-up. The intended dose of radioiodine was modified according to the patient's age at radioiodine therapy, thyroid size, and duration of hyperthyroidism before radioiodine therapy in the study group; it was set as 2.96 MBq/g of thyroid in the control group. Twenty patients with Graves' disease were nonrandomly assigned to the control group and 98 patients with Graves' disease to the study group. The outcomes, which included euthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and persistent hyperthyroidism, were determined according to the patients' states at the end of follow-up. In the study group, 74 patients (75.5%) achieved the euthyroid state, six patients (6.1%) became hypothyroid, and 18 patients (18.4%) remained hyperthyroid. The rate of euthyroidism was statistically different between the study group and the control group (75.5 vs. 50%, P=0.03). Of 98 patients with Graves' disease in the study group, 19 patients were additionally treated with ATD during follow-up, and 12 patients achieved euthyroidism. In different age groups or duration of hyperthyroidism groups, the rate of euthyroidism was not statistically different among subgroups of goiter grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3 (P>0.05). Similarly, in different age groups or duration of hyperthyroidism groups, the incidence of hypothyroidism was not statistically different among subgroups of goiter grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3 (P>0.05). However, binary logistic regression analysis showed that thyroid size was associated with overtreatment and undertreatment in our study. Individual doses of

  9. Electrocoagulation efficiency of the tannery effluent treatment using aluminium electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Fornari, Marilda M T; Módenes, Aparecido N; Palácio, Soraya M; Trigueros, Daniela E G; Borba, Fernando H; Kroumov, Alexander D

    2009-01-01

    An electro-coagulation laboratory scale system using aluminium plates electrodes was studied for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants as a by-product from leather finishing industrial process. A fractional factorial 2(3) experimental design was applied in order to obtain optimal values of the system state variables. The electro-coagulation (EC) process efficiency was based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total suspended solid, total fixed solid, total volatile solid, and chemical element concentration values. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for final pH, total fixed solid (TFS), turbidity and Ca concentration have confirmed the predicted models by the experimental design within a 95% confidence level. The reactor working conditions close to real effluent pH (7.6) and electrolysis time in the range 30-45 min were enough to achieve the cost effective reduction factors of organic and inorganic pollutants' concentrations. An appreciable improvement in COD removal efficiency was obtained for electro-coagulation treatment. Finally, the technical-economical analysis results have clearly shown that the electro-coagulation method is very promising for industrial application.

  10. Efficiency analysis system of material management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Śliwczyński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Significant scope of enterprise's efficiency management is improving of material management process both the strategic and operational level. The complexity of material flow processes can lead to a threat such as distraction and disintegration of analysis focusing on many different factors influenced on effective sourcing and procurement management, transport and warehousing processes, inventory management, working capital and cash flow management. Material and methods: The presented article focuses on multidimensional and multi-criteria analysis of material management efficiency that is considered as decision support system. Authors have presented results of the research regarding ineffective material management confirm insufficient analytical supporting in various decisions of procurement operations. Results and conclusions: Based on research results authors presented in the article model of efficiency analysis system of material management.

  11. Comparative analysis of technical efficiencies between compound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the level of technical efficiency in the compound and non compound farms in Imo state. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 food crop farmers from two out of the three agricultural zones in Imo state. Using the Chow (1960) analysis of covariance technique ...

  12. Wastewater treatment facilities: Energy efficient improvements and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkle, R.; Gray, R.; Delzel, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has worked with both the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the US Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance to local governments. Based on a recent study conducted by Ecotope for WSEO, local governments spend an estimated $45 million on utility bills statewide. Water and wastewater facilities account for almost a third of this cost. As a result, WSEO decided to focus its efforts on the energy intensive water and wastewater sector. The ultimate goal of this project was to develop mechanisms to incorporate energy efficiency improvements into wastewater treatment facilities in retrofits and during upgrades, remodels, and new construction. Project activities included the following: The review of the existing regulatory environment for treatment system construction, A summary of financing options for efficiency improvements in treatment facilities, A literature review of energy efficiency opportunities in treatment plants, Survey and site visits to characterize existing facilities in Washington State, Estimates of the energy efficiency and cogeneration potential in the sector, and A case study to illustrate the implementation of an efficiency improvement in a treatment facility

  13. Confidential telephone in constitutions of brazil and portugal: analysis of measure in law of treatment and jurisprudential and protection limit between poor and efficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Prezzi Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the requirements of the wiretapping Brazil and Portugal, basing the analysis on constitutional norms and standards infra. The analysis involves the understanding of rights linked to personal intimacy and privacy and the possibility that it has investigated the target of disclosure of telephone records through telephone interception, having secured the material access to justice, and, therefore, these respected rights. Checked out the concept of access to fair legal system (material and also the formal access to make possible the understanding and presentation of the results obtained from the Brazilian courts and the Portuguese courts.

  14. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  15. Balancing efficiency, equity and feasibility of HIV treatment in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltussen, Rob; Mikkelsen, Evelinn; Tromp, Noor

    2013-01-01

    , and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to construct an evidence-base on the feasibility, efficiency, and equity of programme options including trade-offs. The approach provides programmatic guidance on the choice of treatment strategies at various decisions levels based on a sound conceptual framework......, it is now facing major concerns regarding (i) efficiency: alternative treatment policies may save more lives for the same budget; (ii) equity: there are large inequalities in who receives treatment; (iii) feasibility: still only 52% of the eligible population receives treatment.Hence, decisions...

  16. Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Travaini-Lima

    Full Text Available AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m² and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D and rainy (R seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA, were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre-treatment

  17. Efficient Fixed-Offset GPR Scattering Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Chen, Xianyao

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetic scattering by buried three-dimensional penetrable objects, as involved in the analysis of ground penetrating radar systems, is calculated using the extended Born approximation. The involved scattering tensor is calculated using fast Fourier transforms (FFT's). We incorporate...... in the scattering calculation the correct radiation patterns of the ground penetrating radar antennas by using their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra. Finally, we derive an efficient FFT-based method to analyze a fixed-offset configuration in which the location of the transmitting antenna is different...

  18. Quantitative analysis of forest fire extinction efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Castillo-Soto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Evaluate the economic extinction efficiency of forest fires, based on the study of fire combat undertaken by aerial and terrestrial means. Area of study, materials and methods: Approximately 112,000 hectares in Chile. Records of 5,876 forest fires that occurred between 1998 and 2009 were analyzed. The area further provides a validation sector for results, by incorporating databases for the years 2010 and 2012. The criteria used for measuring extinction efficiency were economic value of forestry resources, Contraction Factor analysis and definition of the extinction costs function. Main results: It is possible to establish a relationship between burnt area, extinction costs and economic losses. The method proposed may be used and adapted to other fire situations, requiring unit costs for aerial and terrestrial operations, economic value of the property to be protected and speed attributes of fire spread in free advance. Research highlights: The determination of extinction efficiency in containment works of forest fires and potential projection of losses, different types of plant fuel and local conditions favoring the spread of fire broaden the admissible ranges of a, φ and Ce considerably.

  19. Improve photocurrent quantum efficiency of carbon nanotube by chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongguang; Wei Jinquan; Jia Yi; Li Zhen; Zhu Hongwei; Wang Kunlin; Wu Dehai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The QE of photocurrent for the H 2 O 2 -treated CNTs reaches to 5.28% at U bias = 0.1 V. ► Moderate chemical treatment can enhance the QE of photocurrent of CNTs. ► Excessive chemical treatment decreases the photocurrent quantum efficiency of CNTs. - Abstract: High photocurrent quantum efficiency (QE) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is important to their photovoltaic applications. The ability of photocurrent generation of CNTs depends on their band structure and surface state. For given CNTs, it is possible to improve the QE of photocurrent by chemical modification. Here, we study the effects of simple chemical treatment on the QE of CNTs by measuring the photocurrent of macroscopic CNT bundles. The QE of the H 2 O 2 -treated CNT bundle reaches 5.28% at 0.1 V bias voltage at a laser (λ = 473 nm) illumination, which is 85% higher than that of the pristine sample. But the QE of the CNTs treated in concentrated HNO 3 is lower than that of the pristine sample. It shows that moderate chemical treatment can enhance the photocurrent QE and excessive chemical treatment will decrease the QE because of introducing lots of structural defects.

  20. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  1. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic tank, a microalgae tank, an upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands with cultivation of Zantedeschia aethiopica L. A plant efficiency of 90% of organic matter removal was obtained, resulting in a suitable effluent for fertigation, including Na and Ca elements that showed high levels due to the accumulation of organic matter in the upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands. The WWTP removes nitrogen and phosphorus by the action of microalgae and macrophytes used in the process. The final effluent includes important agricultural elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium and, together with the load of organic matter and salts, meets the determination of NBR 13,969/1997 (Standard of the Brazilian Technical Standards Association for reuse in agriculture, but periodic monitoring of soil salinity is necessary.

  2. Treatment efficiency in wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality by quantitative removal of microbial indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Kantachote

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment in a wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality through stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands was monitored by using the bacterial indicators, total coliforms (TC, fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci (FS, and photosynthetic microbes. The sequence of water flow in the wastewater treatment plant is as follows: primary or anaerobic pond (P, facultative pond (F, maturation pond (M, constructed wetlands (W1, W2 and W3, and an effluent storage pond (S for the treated wastewater. The wastewater treatment plant has an approximate area of 3,264,000 m2 (2,040 rai and its dry weather flow was running at only 40,000 m3/ day. There were 10 sampling times used for all the 7 ponds during July-October, 2006.Statistical analysis using a Two-Factorial Design model, indicated that pond types significantly affected temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, and pH (p<0.05, whereas the time of sampling during the day had a significant effect (p<0.05 only on the temperature and light intensity available to the ponds. There were also significant different removal efficiencies of the different bacterial indicator groups tested (p<0.05. The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant effectively removed TC, FC, E. coli, and FS as follows, 99.8%, 99.8%, 75.8% and 98.8%, respectively. The amounts of bacterial indicators, except for E. coli, showed a negative correlation with levels of light intensity and DO, whereas there was no correlation between the pH and the different indicator bacteria. There was a positive middle level correlation between pHand chlorophyll a.There were five different divisions of photosynthetic organisms detected throughout the plant as follows, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, and Pyrrhophyta. The least diversity was found in the anaerobic pond (P as there were only 15 genera. Euglena, an indicator of dirty water, was detected only in this pond. The

  3. Optimization analysis of propulsion motor control efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Qingnan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper aims to strengthen the control effect of propulsion motors and decrease the energy used during actual control procedures.[Methods] Based on the traditional propulsion motor equivalence circuit, we increase the iron loss current component, introduce the definition of power matching ratio, calculate the highest efficiency of a motor at a given speed and discuss the flux corresponding to the power matching ratio with the highest efficiency. In the original motor vector efficiency optimization control module, an efficiency optimization control module is added so as to achieve motor efficiency optimization and energy conservation.[Results] MATLAB/Simulink simulation data shows that the efficiency optimization control method is suitable for most conditions. The operation efficiency of the improved motor model is significantly higher than that of the original motor model, and its dynamic performance is good.[Conclusions] Our motor efficiency optimization control method can be applied in engineering to achieve energy conservation.

  4. Sterols indicate water quality and wastewater treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichwaldt, Elke S; Ho, Wei Y; Zhou, Wenxu; Ghadouani, Anas

    2017-01-01

    As the world's population continues to grow, water pollution is presenting one of the biggest challenges worldwide. More wastewater is being generated and the demand for clean water is increasing. To ensure the safety and health of humans and the environment, highly efficient wastewater treatment systems, and a reliable assessment of water quality and pollutants are required. The advance of holistic approaches to water quality management and the increasing use of ecological water treatment technologies, such as constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs), challenge the appropriateness of commonly used water quality indicators. Instead, additional indicators, which are direct measures of the processes involved in the stabilisation of human waste, have to be established to provide an in-depth understanding of system performance. In this study we identified the sterol composition of wastewater treated in WSPs and assessed the suitability of human sterol levels as a bioindicator of treatment efficiency of wastewater in WSPs. As treatment progressed in WSPs, the relative abundance of human faecal sterols, such as coprostanol, epicoprostanol, 24-ethylcoprostanol, and sitostanol decreased significantly and the sterol composition in wastewater changed significantly. Furthermore, sterol levels were found to be correlated with commonly used wastewater quality indicators, such as BOD, TSS and E. coli. Three of the seven sterol ratios that have previously been used to track sewage pollution in the environment, detected a faecal signal in the effluent of WSPs, however, the others were influenced by high prevalence of sterols originating from algal and fungal activities. This finding poses a concern for environmental assessment studies, because environmental pollution from waste stabilisation ponds can go unnoticed. In conclusion, faecal sterols and their ratios can be used as reliable indicators of treatment efficiency and water quality during wastewater

  5. Efficiency in the Worst Production Situation Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamrul Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA measures relative efficiency among the decision making units (DMU without considering noise in data. The least efficient DMU indicates that it is in the worst situation. In this paper, we measure efficiency of individual DMU whenever it losses the maximum output, and the efficiency of other DMUs is measured in the observed situation. This efficiency is the minimum efficiency of a DMU. The concept of stochastic data envelopment analysis (SDEA is a DEA method which considers the noise in data which is proposed in this study. Using bounded Pareto distribution, we estimate the DEA efficiency from efficiency interval. Small value of shape parameter can estimate the efficiency more accurately using the Pareto distribution. Rank correlations were estimated between observed efficiencies and minimum efficiency as well as between observed and estimated efficiency. The correlations are indicating the effectiveness of this SDEA model.

  6. Study of wastewater treatment plants efficiency using radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawi, W. D. A.

    2010-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate and diagnose hydrodynamic behavior of the Military Hospital wastewater treatment plant. The plant comprises two units of treatment, each of them has a separate system. The investigation was carried out using ''1''3''1I as a radiotracer. The concept of residence time distribution (RTD) was used to investigate the efficiency of the aeration tanks, secondary clarifiers and chlorine tanks. Preliminary treatment and modeling of the trace data was performed using two software package applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) namely 4621 counter version 1.0.0 and RTD software. Plug flow pattern (parallel flow) was detected in the aeration tank and secondary clarifier of system 1 in one unit, while no homogeneous mixing was observed in the chlorine tank. Short - circuiting (by - passing) was evident in the aeration tank of system 2 in the other unit, which significantly reduced the operating efficiency. The percentage of dead volumes clearly suggests that the aeration tank and secondary clarifier were well utilized in the whole plant. (Author)

  7. Efficient sampling algorithms for Monte Carlo based treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMarco, J.J.; Solberg, T.D.; Chetty, I.; Smathers, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient sampling algorithms are necessary for producing a fast Monte Carlo based treatment planning code. This study evaluates several aspects of a photon-based tracking scheme and the effect of optimal sampling algorithms on the efficiency of the code. Four areas were tested: pseudo-random number generation, generalized sampling of a discrete distribution, sampling from the exponential distribution, and delta scattering as applied to photon transport through a heterogeneous simulation geometry. Generalized sampling of a discrete distribution using the cutpoint method can produce speedup gains of one order of magnitude versus conventional sequential sampling. Photon transport modifications based upon the delta scattering method were implemented and compared with a conventional boundary and collision checking algorithm. The delta scattering algorithm is faster by a factor of six versus the conventional algorithm for a boundary size of 5 mm within a heterogeneous geometry. A comparison of portable pseudo-random number algorithms and exponential sampling techniques is also discussed

  8. [Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95%) or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

  9. DEA Window Analysis for Measuring Port Efficiencies in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Pjevčević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method in measuring and analyzing the efficiencies of ports on the river Danube. DEA window analysis is used to determine the efficiency of ports and to observe the possibility of changes in the port efficiency over time. A study is conducted to evaluate the efficiencies of ports on the territory of Serbia in order to identify the sources of inefficiencies and formulate proposals for improving the services of those ports and their operations through a four-year window analysis with port efficiency trends and average efficiencies. The progress is made in the measurement of port efficiency in relation to port productive activities - total area of warehouses, quay length, number of cranes and port throughput, for the Serbian river ports. Keywords: river ports, total area of warehouses, quay length, number of cranes, port throughput, port efficiency, DEA window analysis

  10. Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analysis of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency of Smallholders ... socio-economic characteristics which influence technical efficiency in maize production. ... Ministry of Agriculture and livestock, records, books, reports and internet.

  11. Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živaljević Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95% or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. Methods. Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. Results. Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. Conclusion. Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

  12. Enhancing Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment Efficiency for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoqian

    To improve efficiency and safety of anti-cancer therapies the researchers and clinicians alike are prompted to develop targeted combined therapies that especially minimize damage to healthy tissues while eradicating the body of cancerous tissues. Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that cold plasma induced cell death. In this study, we seek to integrate the medical application of CAP. We proposed and implemented 3 novel ideas to enhance efficacy and selectivity of cancer therapy. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. We determined a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of CAP, including output voltage, treatment time, and gas flow-rate. We varied the characteristics of the cold plasma in order to obtain different major species (such as O, OH, N2+, and N2 lines). "plasma dosage" D ~ Q * V * t. is defined, where D is the entire "plasma dosage"; Q is the flow rate of feeding gas; V is output voltage; t is treatment time. The proper CAP dosage caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the normal human astrocytes E6/E7 cells. We demonstrated there is a synergy between AuNPS and CAP in cancer therapy. Specifically, the concentration of AuNPs plays an important role on plasma therapy. At an optimal concentration, gold nanoparticles can significantly induce U87 cell death up to a 30% overall increase compared to the control group with the same plasma dosage but no AuNPs applied. The ROS intensity of the corresponding conditions has a reversed trend compared to cell viability. This matches with the theory that intracellular ROS accumulation results in oxidative stress, which further changes the intracellular pathways, causing damage to the proteins, lipids and DNA. Our results show that this synergy has great potential in improving the

  13. Efficiency of Intraligamentary Anesthesia of Inferior Molars for Endodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The periodontal ligament injection appears to be the most consistently reliable in achieving clinically adequate pulpal anaesthesia. Materials and Methods: 130 inferior molar teeth; technique: The tooth was first cleaned with chlorhexidine 0.2% solution. The penetration of the ligament is performed with special intraligamentary needle (30 G - 9, 17,21 mm “sliding” along the side of the tooth, 300º angle between the needle and the tooth, having taken the care of determining support points which will prevent the needle from twisting. The penetration must be deep enough to obtain the seal required for the injection, injection for each root in particular points; volume of solution per root is 0.2-0.4 ml. Results: In 125 cases the technique was absolutely efficient. In only 5 cases with pulpitis chronica ulcerosa there was need for additional intrapulpal anesthesia. Conclusions: The method could be used as a primary anesthetic method for endodontic treatment.

  14. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Gheethi AA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the efficiency of coagulation process by using chemical (ferrous sulphate and natural coagulants (Moringa oleifera seeds were investigated. The raw laundry wastewater samples were collected from laundromat located at Taman Universiti, Parit Raja. The characteristics of these wastes were determined and then the wastewater was subjected for the treatment process consisted of three units including aeration, coagulation and sedimentation process. The chemical and natural coagulants were used with four dosage (30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L−1 and the coagulation process was carried out at room temperature (25±2ºC for one hour. The results revealed that the laundry wastewater have high concentrations of turbidity (57.8-68.1 NTU and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD (423-450 mg L−1 with pH value between 7.96 and 8.37. M. oleifera seeds exhibited high efficiency for removal of turbidity (83.63% with 120 mg L−1 of dosage, while 30 mg L−1 of FeSO4 was the best for removal of COD (54.18%. However, both parameters still more than Standard B for wastewater disposal suggesting the need to increase the period of coagulation process with M. oleifera seeds or to subject of the treated effluents for a secondary coagulation process with natural coagulant products to improve the characteristics of laundry wastewater without a secondary products as that generated with the chemical coagulants.

  15. Analysis of China department water consumption efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Jia-Hong

    2018-03-01

    The water comparable non-competitive input-out model of China in 2002, 2007 and 2012 is established to calculate the department water consumption efficiency. The water direct and complete consumption coefficients of 38 departments are analysed. Agriculture and Electricity and steam supply have the highest water consumption coefficients and utilize water resource mainly by the direct way. Manufacture of food products and tobacco products, Manufacture of textiles, Manufacture of wearing apparel and leather products and Information service activities have high water complete consumption coefficients and affect water consumption mainly by the indirect way. Water complete consumption efficiency measures the efficiency from the view of final product, which reflected the department water use driving force more precisely.

  16. An efficient framework for photon Monte Carlo treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, Michael K; Manser, Peter; Frei, Daniel; Volken, Werner; Mini, Roberto; Born, Ernst J

    2007-01-01

    Currently photon Monte Carlo treatment planning (MCTP) for a patient stored in the patient database of a treatment planning system (TPS) can usually only be performed using a cumbersome multi-step procedure where many user interactions are needed. This means automation is needed for usage in clinical routine. In addition, because of the long computing time in MCTP, optimization of the MC calculations is essential. For these purposes a new graphical user interface (GUI)-based photon MC environment has been developed resulting in a very flexible framework. By this means appropriate MC transport methods are assigned to different geometric regions by still benefiting from the features included in the TPS. In order to provide a flexible MC environment, the MC particle transport has been divided into different parts: the source, beam modifiers and the patient. The source part includes the phase-space source, source models and full MC transport through the treatment head. The beam modifier part consists of one module for each beam modifier. To simulate the radiation transport through each individual beam modifier, one out of three full MC transport codes can be selected independently. Additionally, for each beam modifier a simple or an exact geometry can be chosen. Thereby, different complexity levels of radiation transport are applied during the simulation. For the patient dose calculation, two different MC codes are available. A special plug-in in Eclipse providing all necessary information by means of Dicom streams was used to start the developed MC GUI. The implementation of this framework separates the MC transport from the geometry and the modules pass the particles in memory; hence, no files are used as the interface. The implementation is realized for 6 and 15 MV beams of a Varian Clinac 2300 C/D. Several applications demonstrate the usefulness of the framework. Apart from applications dealing with the beam modifiers, two patient cases are shown. Thereby

  17. Factors affecting energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, H.N.; Friggens, N.C.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Schmidely, P.

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to explore the correlation between energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows, and to study nutritional and animal factors that influence these efficiencies, as well as their relationship. Treatment mean values were extracted from 68 peer-reviewed studies, including

  18. [The Probabilistic Efficiency Frontier: A Value Assessment of Treatment Options in Hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Sadler, Andrew

    2017-06-19

    Background The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) recommends the concept of the efficiency frontier to assess health care interventions. The efficiency frontier supports regulatory decisions on reimbursement prices for the appropriate allocation of health care resources. Until today this cost-benefit assessment framework has only been applied on the basis of individual patient-relevant endpoints. This contradicts the reality of a multi-dimensional patient benefit. Objective The objective of this study was to illustrate the operationalization of multi-dimensional benefit considering the uncertainty in clinical effects and preference data in order to calculate the efficiency of different treatment options for hepatitis C (HCV). This case study shows how methodological challenges could be overcome in order to use the efficiency frontier for economic analysis and health care decision-making. Method The operationalization of patient benefit was carried out on several patient-relevant endpoints. Preference data from a discrete choice experiment (DCE) study and clinical data based on clinical trials, which reflected the patient and the clinical perspective, respectively, were used for the aggregation of an overall benefit score. A probabilistic efficiency frontier was constructed in a Monte Carlo simulation with 10000 random draws. Patient-relevant endpoints were modeled with a beta distribution and preference data with a normal distribution. The assessment of overall benefit and costs provided information about the adequacy of the treatment prices. The parameter uncertainty was illustrated by the price-acceptability-curve and the net monetary benefit. Results Based on the clinical and preference data in Germany, the interferon-free treatment options proved to be efficient for the current price level. The interferon-free therapies of the latest generation achieved a positive net cost-benefit. Within the decision model, these therapies

  19. Efficiency analysis of container ports and terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades the steady growth of seaborne trade has resulted in the increase of container ships, container ports and their terminals. The structure of the shipping market is, moreover, continuously evolving. On the carrier side, shipping companies form consortia and alliances; on the port side, global terminal operators and dedicated container terminals are emerging. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of container ports and terminals and to study...

  20. Analysis of the CVT Efficiency by Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Croitorescu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available All vehicle manufacturers desire an ideal vehicle that has the highest powertrain efficiency, best safety factor and ease of maintenance while being environmentally friendly. These highly valued vehicle development characteristics are only reachable after countless research hours. One major powertrain component to be studied in relation to these demands is the Continuous Variable Transmission that a Hybrid Electric Vehicle is equipped with. The CVT can increase the overall powertrain efficiency, offering a continuum variable gear ratios between established minimum and maximum limits. This paper aims to determine the losses of a CVT, operating on a HEV. Using simulation, the losses were computed and the fuel economy was analyzed. During various modes of operation, such as electric, regenerative braking, engine charge for maintaining the battery state of charge, the losses and their dependence with the control properties were analyzed. A relevant determination of precise losses is able to reduce them by using appropriate materials for their components and fluids, more efficient technical manufacturing and usage solutions and innovative control strategy.

  1. Analysis of efficiency of the Brazilian international airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rodriguez Brochado

    2008-07-01

    Brazil. Analysis of correlations was used to select the 0 variable most representative of this system and after that, it was calculated efficiency of the system for classic and inverted the borders by means of model BCC guided for output. Finally, it was possible to identify which improvements are necessary for the inefficient airports, in way to identify which improvements are necessary to operational level to reach the efficiency. Key-words: Data Envelopment Analysis, Efficiency, Airports.

  2. Conditional Order-m Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment Plants: The Role of Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Fuentes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing economic and environmental importance of managing water resources at a global level also entails greater efforts and interest in improving the functioning and efficiency of the increasingly more numerous wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. In this context, this study analyzes the efficiency of a uniform sample of plants of this type located in the region of Valencia (Spain. The type of efficiency measure used for this (conditional order-m efficiency allows continuous and discrete contextual variables to be directly involved in the analysis and enables the assessment of their statistical significance and effect (positive or negative. The main findings of the study showed that the quality of the influent water and also the size and age of the plants had a significant influence on their efficiency levels. In particular, as regards the effect of such variables, the findings pointed to the existence of an inverse relationship between the quality of the influent water and the efficiency of the WWTPs. Also, a lower annual volume of treated water and more modern installations showed a positive influence. Additionally, the average efficiency levels observed turned out to be higher than those reported in previous studies.

  3. ORADEA URBAN BUS SYSTEM ENERGY EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIBOR L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brief description of Public Transport Company and network in Oradea, passenger statistics, analysis of energy consumption, passenger/kilometer parameter evaluation, compare liquid fuel and electricity consumption, cost reduction, optimization.

  4. Principal Component Analysis as an Efficient Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses the principal component analysis (PCA) to examine the possibility of using few explanatory variables (X's) to explain the variation in Y. It applied PCA to assess the performance of students in Abia State Polytechnic, Aba, Nigeria. This was done by estimating the coefficients of eight explanatory variables in a ...

  5. Efficient and robust analysis of interlaboratory studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Jaap; Cofino, Wim P.; Torfs, Paul J.J.F.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present the ab-initio derivation of an estimator for the mean and variance of a sample of data, such as obtained from proficiency tests. This estimator has already been used for some time in this kind of analyses, but a thorough derivation together with a detailed analysis of its

  6. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SABAU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze economic efficiency in broilers fattening . In this purpose , the study was carried out at Breading Prod Commercial Company, Giarmata, Timis County . The economic and financial results of two series of broilers fattening have been comparatively analyzed based on the following specific indicators variable costs ( one day chicken supply , medicines, disinfectants , veterinary services , straw bed, feeding, fuels, electricity , watering , labor force , fixed costs ( rent, interest, fixed assets depreciation , communication and other taxes , total production costs , cost per marketed broiler, cost per square meter , cost per kg live weight , gross margin , incomes ( incomes coming from marketed broilers and subsidies , profit, profit rate , profit per marketed broiler, profit per square meter, profit per kg live weight , costs to 1,000 incomes and incomes to 1,000 costs. This comparison proved that the higher the chickens series size , the higher costs and incomes . The both fatenning series have profitable but the series S2 registered lower financial performances .

  7. Exploiting partial knowledge for efficient model analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Nuno; Cunha, Alcino; Pessoa, Eduardo José Dias

    2017-01-01

    The advancement of constraint solvers and model checkers has enabled the effective analysis of high-level formal specification languages. However, these typically handle a specification in an opaque manner, amalgamating all its constraints in a single monolithic verification task, which often proves to be a performance bottleneck. This paper addresses this issue by proposing a solving strategy that exploits user-provided partial knowledge, namely by assigning symbolic bounds to the problem’s ...

  8. The efficiency of subset selection of an almost best treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1991-01-01

    A generalized goal using subset selection is discussed for the location parameter case. This goal is to select a non-empty subset from a set of k (k \\geq 2) treatments that contains at least one \\epsilon-best treatment with confidence level P*. For a set of treatments an \\epsilon-best treatment is

  9. Efficiency of Polish metallurgical industry based on data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to compare the technical efficiency of 12 sectors manufacturing basic metals and metal products in Poland. This article presents the use of Data Envelopment Analysis models, to determine overall technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of metallurgical branches in Poland. The average technical efficiency of metallurgical industry in Poland was quite high. The analysis gives a possibility to create a ranking of sectors. Three branches were found to be fully efficient: manufacture of basic iron and steel and of ferroalloys, manufacture of basic precious and other non - ferrous metals and manufacture of tubes, pipes, hollow profiles and related fittings, of steel. The results point out the reasons of the inefficiency and provide improving directions for the inefficient sectors.

  10. Multidirectional analysis of technical efficiency for pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labajavo, Katarina; Hansson, Helena; Asmild, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Declining profitability and ongoing structural changes in the pig sector require thorough efficiency analysis of individual production factors. In this study we calculated technical efficiency indices for each input and output using multidirectional efficiency analysis and examined the relationship...... between ‘farm-specific characteristics’ and input and output technical efficiencies by production type (piglet, growing-finishing, finish-to-farrow). The results indicated that advisory services and farm location were not significantly correlated with technical efficiency. Similar results were obtained...... for ‘housing practices’, with the exception of the latest technology such as heated floors in relation to input labour technical efficiency for growing-finishing and finish-to-farrow productions. Use of written instructions for feeding for growing-finishing and finish-to-farrow production and written...

  11. Multi-Directional Non-Parametric Analysis of Agricultural Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balezentis, Tomas

    This thesis seeks to develop methodologies for assessment of agricultural efficiency and employ them to Lithuanian family farms. In particular, we focus on three particular objectives throughout the research: (i) to perform a fully non-parametric analysis of efficiency effects, (ii) to extend...... to the Multi-Directional Efficiency Analysis approach when the proposed models were employed to analyse empirical data of Lithuanian family farm performance, we saw substantial differences in efficiencies associated with different inputs. In particular, assets appeared to be the least efficiently used input...... relative to labour, intermediate consumption and land (in some cases land was not treated as a discretionary input). These findings call for further research on relationships among financial structure, investment decisions, and efficiency in Lithuanian family farms. Application of different techniques...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL EFFICIENCY IN CROATIA USING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Rabar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, regional efficiency of Croatian counties is measured in three-year period (2005-2007 using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The set of inputs and outputs consists of seven socioeconomic indicators. Analysis is carried out using models with assumption of variable returns-to-scale. DEA identifies efficient counties as benchmark members and inefficient counties that are analyzed in detail to determine the sources and the amounts of their inefficiency in each source. To enable proper monitoring of development dynamics, window analysis is applied. Based on the results, guidelines for implementing necessary improvements to achieve efficiency are given. Analysis reveals great disparities among counties. In order to alleviate naturally, historically and politically conditioned unequal county positions over which economic policy makers do not have total control, categorical approach is introduced as an extension to the basic DEA models. This approach, combined with window analysis, changes relations among efficiency scores in favor of continental counties.

  13. APPLICATION OF PULSE-PERIODICAL MODE FOR IMPROVEMENT OF LASER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to estimate an application of pulse-periodical mode for improvement of laser treatment efficiency. Laser technologies have been widely used in the processes of material treatment with the purpose to provide them the required surface properties and also for high accuracy cutting of sheet materials. Application of complex treatment is of great interest and especially when it is used for worn-out surfaces with formation of a coating by gas-flame laying of powder mixture of specific composition and subsequent laser fusion.Increase of laser unit capacity is very important task for higher efficiency of laser technology application in mechanical engineering. Nowadays technological processes using lasers with high average power (more than 100 W have been applying only sources that are working in two modes, namely: continuous and pulse- periodical (P-P with pulse repetition rate from some units to several hundred hertz and pulse duration within dozens to hundreds of microseconds and even within milliseconds. On the other hand, in some cases shielding effect of plasma cloud formed during laser alloying, cladding or welding reduces the efficiency of laser treatment up to 50 % depending on plasma composition and laser beam length. High frequency P-P laser systems with high average power working in mode of Q-factor modulation allow to realize principally other mechanism of irradiation interaction with materials that is an ablation. In this case it is possible to provide local energy release both in space and time.The performed analysis has revealed that P-P mode of laser operation for a majority of treatment processes is much better and more efficient from energetic point of view in comparison with the continuous mode. On the basis of the developments it is possible to make a conclusion that there is a possibility to create laser systems working in high frequency P-P mode with high average power above hundreds watt.

  14. Competition Efficiency Analysis of Croatian Junior Wrestlers in European Championship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Slacanac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Croatian junior wrestler won a bronze medal at the European Championship 2016 year. Considering the potential of our wrestlers there is an obvious need of technical and tactical analysis so our juniors and seniors U23 wrestlers would be able to achieve even better results. Match analysis were conducted by LongoMatch 0.20.1. Seven matches of Croatian wrestlers were analysed. Time parameters, score efficiency, technical efficiency and tactical structure were observed and analysed from the aspect of attack and defence phase and successful/unsuccessful techniques. This paper shows descriptive parameters and competitor efficiency were calculated. The results show a great number of positive score in a standing position in relation to parterre position. The parameters of competitive efficiency (0.49 points per minute show better attacking efficiency (1.32 points per minute in relation to defence efficiency (0.83 points per minute. Croatian wrestlers achieve less score per minute in relation with elite wrestlers, but it is visible a significant progress in technical and tactical efficiency in relation in the past three year. According to place realization of technique, Croatian wrestlers realized more technique in the center, while opponents realized technique in the zone and moving to the zone. Further analysis of efficiency and individualisation training will improve efficiency of Croatian national wrestlers.

  15. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  16. Efficiency in the Community College Sector: Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Belfield, Clive

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates technical efficiency scores across the community college sector in the United States. Using stochastic frontier analysis and data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System for 2003-2010, we estimate efficiency scores for 950 community colleges and perform a series of sensitivity tests to check for robustness. We…

  17. THE EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF SINGAPORE REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen Chiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the REIT industry is relatively new in Singapore, the objective of this research is to examine the operation efficiency among firms in the industry through the method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. In addition, the method of Tobit regression is applied to investigate the impact factors on efficiency. The results are as follows. First, none of 14 firms analyzed performs relatively efficiently based on the average efficiency scores over the sample periods of 2007 to first quarter of 2015. Nevertheless, it is found that First REIT and Suntec REIT are the most efficient and least efficient REITs respectively. Second, ROA is positively correlated to efficiency scores while the negative relationship is found with the debt ratio. Third, regarding property-type, retail REITSs perform better than commercial ones on average. However, the most efficient group is “others” which consists of one hospitality/residential REITs, one healthcare REITs, and three industrial REITs. Fourth, geographical diversification may not affect REIT’s efficiency. Meanwhile, REITs holding more properties overseas perform better than their counterparts on average. Last, in regards to size, small-size REITs significantly perform better in efficiency than those in other categories. Especially, medium-size and largesize REITs do not have significant differences on average in efficiency.

  18. Energy efficiency determinants: An empirical analysis of Spanish innovative firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Campi, María Teresa; García-Quevedo, José; Segarra, Agustí

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which innovative Spanish firms pursue improvements in energy efficiency (EE) as an objective of innovation. The increase in energy consumption and its impact on greenhouse gas emissions justifies the greater attention being paid to energy efficiency and especially to industrial EE. The ability of manufacturing companies to innovate and improve their EE has a substantial influence on attaining objectives regarding climate change mitigation. Despite the effort to design more efficient energy policies, the EE determinants in manufacturing firms have been little studied in the empirical literature. From an exhaustive sample of Spanish manufacturing firms and using a logit model, we examine the energy efficiency determinants for those firms that have innovated. To carry out the econometric analysis, we use panel data from the Community Innovation Survey for the period 2008–2011. Our empirical results underline the role of size among the characteristics of firms that facilitate energy efficiency innovation. Regarding company behaviour, firms that consider the reduction of environmental impacts to be an important objective of innovation and that have introduced organisational innovations are more likely to innovate with the objective of increasing energy efficiency. -- Highlights: •Drivers of innovation in energy efficiency at firm-level are examined. •Tangible investments have a greater influence on energy efficiency than R&D. •Environmental and energy efficiency innovation objectives are complementary. •Organisational innovation favors energy efficiency innovation. •Public policies should be implemented to improve firms’ energy efficiency

  19. A treatment of thermal efficiency improvement in the Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji; Nakanishi, Shigeyasu; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Ishigai, Seikan.

    1982-01-01

    So far, as the working fluid for power-generating plants, mainly water and air (combustion gas) have been used. In this study, in regeneration and isothermal compression processes being considered as the means for the efficiency improvement in Brayton cycle, the investigation of equivalent graphical presentation method with T-S diagrams, the introduction of the new characteristic number expressing the possibility of thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, and the investigation of the effect of the difference of working fluid on thermal efficiency were carried out. Next, as the cycle approximately realizing isothermal compression process with condensation process, the super-critical pressure cycle with liquid phase compression was rated, and four working fluids, NH 3 , SO 2 , CO 2 and H 2 O were examined as perfect gas and real gas. The advantage of CO 2 regeneration for the thermal efficiency improvement was clarified by using the dimensionless characteristic number. The graphical presentation of effective work, the thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, the thermal efficiency improvement by making compression process isothermal, the effect on thermal efficiency due to various factors and working fluids, the characteristic number by regeneration, and the application to real working fluids are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. Efficiency of sewage treatment with septic tanks followed by constructed wetlands with different support materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvio Sandri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to assess the efficiency of a sewage treatment plant comprised of three compartmentalized septic tanks installed in series followed by three parallel wetlands and seeded with species Typha sp. with subsurface flow, filled with support material of natural gravel, gravel # 2 and washed gravel, respectively. The station treats sewage generated at Unity University for Science and Technology, State University of Goiás – UnUCET/UEG. A total of 20 sewage samples were collected in order to evaluate treatment efficiency from November to December 2010 and March to April 2011. The points of analysis were at the input of the first tank (raw sewage, the output of the third septic tank and the outputs of each of the three wetlands. The total removal efficiencies were: 65.40% for chemical oxygen demand; 79.01% for biochemical oxygen demand; 59.79% for total solids; 87.12% for the total suspended solids; 92.00% for total coliforms; 95.71% for E. coli and 82.54% for turbidity. The system was effective for the treatment of sewage, within the current legislative parameters for pH, turbidity, total solids and biochemical oxygen demand. No significant difference was observed between the three different means of support, suggesting that gravel, natural gravel and washed gravel may potentially be used to fill wetlands.

  1. Applying DEA sensitivity analysis to efficiency measurement of Vietnamese universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Huyen Nguyen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of 30 doctorate-granting universities, the universities or the higher education institutes with PhD training programs, in Vietnam, applying the sensitivity analysis of data envelopment analysis (DEA. The study uses eight sets of input-output specifications using the replacement as well as aggregation/disaggregation of variables. The measurement results allow us to examine the sensitivity of the efficiency of these universities with the sets of variables. The findings also show the impact of variables on their efficiency and its “sustainability”.

  2. Assessment of academic departments efficiency using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah R. Agha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this age of knowledge economy, universities play an important role in the development of a country. As government subsidies to universities have been decreasing, more efficient use of resources becomes important for university administrators. This study evaluates the relative technical efficiencies of academic departments at the Islamic University in Gaza (IUG during the years 2004-2006. Design/methodology/approach: This study applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA to assess the relative technical efficiency of the academic departments. The inputs are operating expenses, credit hours and training resources, while the outputs are number of graduates, promotions and public service activities. The potential improvements and super efficiency are computed for inefficient and efficient departments respectively. Further, multiple linear -regression is used to develop a relationship between super efficiency and input and output variables.Findings: Results show that the average efficiency score is 68.5% and that there are 10 efficient departments out of the 30 studied. It is noted that departments in the faculty of science, engineering and information technology have to greatly reduce their laboratory expenses. The department of economics and finance was found to have the highest super efficiency score among the efficient departments. Finally, it was found that promotions have the greatest contribution to the super efficiency scores while public services activities come next.Research limitations/implications: The paper focuses only on academic departments at a single university. Further, DEA is deterministic in nature.Practical implications: The findings offer insights on the inputs and outputs that significantly contribute to efficiencies so that inefficient departments can focus on these factors.Originality/value: Prior studies have used only one type of DEA (BCC and they did not explicitly answer the question posed by the inefficient

  3. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice - Plant response and treatment efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, Paer; Dahlin, Torleif; Dimitriou, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Landfill leachates usually need to be treated before discharged, and using soil-plant systems for this has gained substantial interest in Sweden and in the UK. A three-year field study was conducted in central Sweden to quantify plant response, treatment efficiency and impact on groundwater quality of landfill leachate irrigation of short-rotation willow coppice (Salix). Two willow varieties were tested and four irrigation regimes in sixteen 400-m 2 plots. The willow plants did not react negatively, despite very high annual loads of nitrogen (≤2160 kg N/ha), chloride (≤8600 kg Cl/ha) and other elements. Mean annual growth was 1.5, 9.8 and 12.6 tonnes DM/ha during years 1-3. For one of two willow varieties tested, relative leaf length accurately predicted growth rate. Irrigation resulted in elevated groundwater concentrations of all elements applied. Treatment efficiency varied considerably for different elements, but was adequate when moderate loads were applied. - Short-rotation willow coppice was successfully used for treating a strong landfill leachate in central Sweden over three years.

  4. Analysis of nuclear reaction products and materials; Preliminary treatment of uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo.

    1976-01-01

    Pre-treatment of samples is necessary to be done in order to achieve the efficient steps and accurate results of uranium analysis. The pre-treatment is particularly affected by the type of sample, the uranium concentration predicated in the sample, and the uranium analytical method which will be applied. A brief discussion about the pre-treatment of uranium analysis in the uranium ore processing and the reprocessing of spent fuel is given. (author)

  5. An analysis of mobile whole blood collection labor efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William N; Dayton, Paula J; Raife, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    Labor efficiency is desirable in mobile blood collection. There are few published data on labor efficiency. The variability in the labor efficiency of mobile whole blood collections was analyzed. We determined to improve our labor efficiency using lean manufacturing principles. Workflow changes in mobile collections were implemented with the goal of minimizing labor expenditures. To measure success, data on labor efficiency measured by units/hour/full-time equivalent (FTE) were collected. The labor efficiency in a 6-month period before the implementation of changes, and in months 1 to 6 and 7 to 12 after implementation was analyzed and compared. Labor efficiency in the 6-month period preceding implementation was 1.06 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. In months 1 to 6, labor efficiency declined slightly to 0.92 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE (p = 0.016 vs. preimplementation). In months 7 to 12, the mean labor efficiency returned to preimplementation levels of 1.09 ±0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. Regression analysis correlating labor efficiency with total units collected per drive revealed a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.48 for the aggregate data from all three periods), indicating that nearly half of labor efficiency was associated with drive size. The lean-based changes in workflow were subjectively favored by employees and donors. The labor efficiency of our mobile whole blood drives is strongly influenced by size. Larger drives are more efficient, with diminishing returns above 40 units collected. Lean-based workflow changes were positively received by employees and donors. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Survey of disinfection efficiency of small drinking water treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey involving 181 water treatment plants across 7 provinces of South Africa: Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Western Cape was undertaken to identify the challenges facing small water treatment plants (SWTPs) in South Africa . Information gathered included ...

  7. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  8. Efficiency of combined treatment and conventional physical treatment in bilateral knee arthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Bojičić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Degenerative joint disease, which is standardized in Europe by the name of arthrosis or osteoarthrosis, while in the Anglo-Saxon literature is in use for a long time by the name of osteoarthritis (OA although this is not a classical inflammation,is the most common joint disease in general and the most common cause of functional damage of the musculoskeletal system. Recently, the term osteoarthritisappears more frequently in domestic literature. Arthroses are degenerative joint diseases with progressive character, also one of the most frequent diseases in orthopedics. The disease fi rst affects the articular cartilage, then the bony edges of the articular surfaces, and then the articular lining.Methods: Retrospective analysis and evaluation of data of treated patients, with the "Praxis" physical treatment during the period of time from 2000 to the end of 2010 on a sample of 79 patients,valorized the efficacy of Praxis treatment. The  correlation of these results, with valorisation of the efficacy of standard physical treatment in clinics D.Z. " Novi Grad " on a sample of 81 patients, during the period of time from 2000 to the end of 2010, a statistical analysis was performed for comparing the effi cacy of the two methods.Results: There is a functional difference after therapy of bilateral gonarthrosis in clinics D.Z. "Novi Grad" and "Praxis" with statistical reliability.Conclusion: A combined approach in the treatment of knee arthrosis has a wider range of treatment procedures, comprehensively approaches to the problem and gives better results, so we can say that this method has priority compared to the standard approach to the knee arthrosis treatment.

  9. Tool for efficient intermodulation analysis using conventional HB packages

    OpenAIRE

    Vannini, G.; Filicori, F.; Traverso, P.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and efficient approach is proposed for the intermodulation analysis of nonlinear microwave circuits. The algorithm, which is based on a very mild assumption about the frequency response of the linear part of the circuit, allows for a reduction in computing time and memory requirement. Moreover. It can be easily implemented using any conventional tool for harmonic-balance circuit analysis

  10. Non-parametric analysis of production efficiency of poultry egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-parametric analysis of production efficiency of poultry egg farmers in Delta ... analysis of factors affecting the output of poultry farmers showed that stock ... should be put in place for farmers to learn the best farm practices carried out on the ...

  11. Efficiency of laser treatment in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gita; Lange, Bibi; Wanscher, Jens Højberg

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown the effect of laser treatment on epistaxis in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). At the present time, only very few prospective trials have been performed, and many studies are based on patients' subjective assessment of the severity of epistaxis....... This prospective study measures the objective effect of laser treatment in HHT patients with mild to moderate epistaxis. We introduce an objective measure to assess the severity of epistaxis: the bleeding time (BT). Before and after treatment, the quality of life, as measured by the patient, was assessed...

  12. Modeling technical efficiency of inshore fishery using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rahayu; Zahid, Zalina; Khairi, Siti Shaliza Mohd; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh

    2016-10-01

    Fishery industry contributes significantly to the economy of Malaysia. This study utilized Data Envelopment Analysis application in estimating the technical efficiency of fishery in Terengganu, a state on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia, based on multiple output, i.e. total fish landing and income of fishermen with six inputs, i.e. engine power, vessel size, number of trips, number of workers, cost and operation distance. The data were collected by survey conducted between November and December 2014. The decision making units (DMUs) involved 100 fishermen from 10 fishery areas. The result showed that the technical efficiency in Season I (dry season) and Season II (rainy season) were 90.2% and 66.7% respectively. About 27% of the fishermen were rated to be efficient during Season I, meanwhile only 13% of the fishermen achieved full efficiency 100% during Season II. The results also found out that there was a significance difference in the efficiency performance between the fishery areas.

  13. Efficiency analysis of a cogeneration and district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.; Le, Minh N.; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency analysis, accounting for both energy and exergy considerations, of a design for a cogeneration-based district energy system. A case study is considered for the city of Edmonton, Canada, by the utility Edmonton Power. The original concept using central electric chillers, as well as two variations (one considering single-effect and the other double-effect absorption chillers) are examined. The energy- and exergy-based results differ markedly (e.g., overall energy efficiencies are shown to vary for the three configurations considered from 83% to 94%, and exergy efficiencies from 28% to 29%, respectively). For the overall processes, as well as individual subprocesses and selected combinations of subprocesses, the exergy efficiencies are generally found to be more meaningful and indicative of system behaviour than the energy efficiencies

  14. Efficiency of Livestock Residue Treatment in Geomembrane Digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Pérez González

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of twelve 10 m3 geomembrane biodigesters to treat swine and cattle residuals was assessed. The study took place at the Cooperative of Credits and Services (CCS of the municipality of Cumanayagua, Cienfuegos, Cuba. Its goal was to evaluate feasibility of technology implementation in Cuba. The effluent physical and chemical indicators were determined at entry and exit from biodigesters. The biodigesters charged with pig manure were able to remove 75.88% COD, and up to 66-44% SS. Besides, 64.79% of the contaminating organic load was converted into volatile products during biofermentation. Meanwhile, the biodigesters charged with cattle manure removed 60.42% of COD, and up to 67.67% of SS; 61.51% of the organic contaminating load was converted in volatile products. It was concluded that the biodigesters had acceptable efficiency values, and that the technology can be applied in Cuba.

  15. Timely and efficient planning of treatments through intelligent scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Braaksma, Aleida

    2015-01-01

    When people experience health problems, this often leads to a period of concern and stress. Both for patients’ physical and mental well-being, it is essential that healthcare processes are organized in the best possible way. This thesis aims to support hospitals in realizing excellent quality of patient service, whilst utilizing resources efficiently. By developing methodologies based on techniques from operations research, also known as mathematical decision theory, the research presented pr...

  16. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  17. Tolerance analysis on diffraction efficiency and polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency for harmonic diffractive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mao

    2016-10-01

    In this dissertation, the mathematical model of effect of manufacturing errors including microstructure relative height error and relative width error on diffraction efficiency for the harmonic diffractive optical elements (HDEs) is set up. According to the expression of the phase delay and diffraction efficiency of the HDEs, the expression of diffraction efficiency of refraction and diffractive optical element with the microstructure height and periodic width errors in fabrication process is presented in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of manufacturing errors on diffraction efficiency for the harmonic diffractive optical elements is studied, and diffraction efficiency change is analyzed as the relative microstructure height-error in the same and in the opposite sign as well as relative width-error in the same and in the opposite sign. Example including infrared wavelength with materials GE has been discussed in this paper. Two kinds of manufacturing errors applied in 3.7 4.3um middle infrared and 8.7-11.5um far infrared optical system which results in diffraction efficiency and PIDE of HDEs are studied. The analysis results can be used for manufacturing error control in micro-structure height and periodic width. Results can be used for HDEs processing.

  18. Efficiency of photodynamic treatment in patients with early gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. V. Filonenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of photodynamic therapy for early gastric cancer is described in the article. The treatment results in 68 patients who were excluded for convenient surgical treatment because of advanced age or severe co-morbidity are represented. 63 patients had single tumor, 5 patients – 2 tumors. Four Russian agents: photogem, photosens, radaсhlorin and alasens, were used for photodynamic therapy. The treatment session was performed under local anesthesia during routine endoscopy with diode laser with wavelength consistent with photosensitizer (photogem – 630 nm, photosens – 670 nm, alasens-induced protoporphyrin IX – 635 nm, radaсhlorin – 662 nm. The short-term results were analyzed 1 month after treatment according to endoscopy, morphological study, CT, ultrasound or endosonography. For 73 lesions complete regression was observed in 53 (72.6% and partial regression in 20 tumors (27.4%. The efficacy of photodynamic therapy was shown to be directly associated with tumor size. Thus, for tumors up to 1 cm regression occurred in 100% of cases, up to 1.5 cm – in 70.8%, up to 3 cm – in 65.2%, up to 5 cm – in 58.3%. The median survival rates accounted for 7.31 years, 3-year survival – 83±5%, 5-year - 69±8%. The experience showed that the developed method of photodynamic therapy was promising in treatment for early gastric cancer as an alternative to surgery. 

  19. Environmental efficiency analysis of power industry in China based on an entropy SBM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yan; Xing, Xinpeng; Fang, Kuangnan; Liang, Dapeng; Xu, Chunlin

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the environmental efficiency of power industry in China, this paper first proposes a new non-radial DEA approach by integrating the entropy weight and the SBM model. This will improve the assessment reliability and reasonableness. Using the model, this study then evaluates the environmental efficiency of the Chinese power industry at the provincial level during 2005–2010. The results show a marked difference in environmental efficiency of the power industry among Chinese provinces. Although the annual, average, environmental efficiency level fluctuates, there is an increasing trend. The Tobit regression analysis reveals the innovation ability of enterprises, the proportion of electricity generated by coal-fired plants and the generation capacity have a significantly positive effect on environmental efficiency. However the waste fees levied on waste discharge and investment in industrial pollutant treatment are negatively associated with environmental efficiency. - Highlights: ► We assess the environmental efficiency of power industry in China by E-SBM model. ► Environmental efficiency of power industry is different among provinces. ► Efficiency stays at a higher level in the eastern and the western area. ► Proportion of coal-fired plants has a positive effect on the efficiency. ► Waste fees and the investment have a negative effect on the efficiency

  20. Financial analysis of fuel treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fight; Roger D.; R. James. Barbour

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information and discussion that will be helpful in promoting thoughtful design of fire hazard reduction treatments to meet the full range of management objectives. Thoughtful design requires an understanding of the costs and potential revenues of applying variations of fire hazard reduction treatments in a wide range of stand...

  1. CONCEPTUAL BASES OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENT SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT OF COMBINED UNITS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Shtepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of the shortcomings of the existing water purification systems is conducted. In order to ensure environmental safety and energy savings it is proposed to use the combined units, including physical, chemical, physical-and-chemical and biological methods. The attention is driven to the fact that the most effective way to maintain current water purification is an adaptive control system. The shortcomings of the management of water treatment units were revealed and it was proposed to produce their synthesis based on the mathematical apparatus of artificial intelligence systems. Taking into account the requirements of the environmental safety and the need in the energy savings, the energy efficiency criteria of combined system functioning has been developed. At an industrial plant (slaughterhouse wastewater treatment the compliance of the production conditions of the criterion has been undertaken that confirmed the criterion relevance and usefulness as applied to the synthesis of energy-efficient control systems. A synthetic control system combined the water treatment plants. Having based on the preliminary research and analysis of the current work in the subject area the architecture of a control system of combined water treatment units that use intelligent technology was developed. The key functional of the unit – information-analytical subsystem of the formation control actions including: multilayer perceptrons self-organization Kohonen network, fuzzy cognitive map. The basic difference between the developed design and its analogues is the ability to adjust the settings of equipment adaptively on the basis of processing sensor data, information on the price of consumables, volley discharges of pollutants, a sudden change in the flow and other force majeure. Adjustment of the parameters of the control system is carried out with the use of experimental and analytical data stored in the knowledge base of technological

  2. Efficiency of different coagulants combination for the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    tannery effluents, the lowest value for color (246.67 in Hazen unit) was found in the treatment T5, pH value 7.13 ... osmosis process with a view to reuse it again ... is comprised of two units. ..... are hydrolyzed into mononuclear and multi nuclear.

  3. Effluent treatment efficiency and compliance monitoring in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of effluent treatment at the Eleme Petrochemical Industry, Port Harcourt, Nigeria was monitored weekly for six weeks to assess their level of compliance with the Directorate of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines and standards for environmental safety. Effluent samples were taken from the untreated ...

  4. Java technology for implementing efficient numerical analysis in intranet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hee Yong; Ko, Sung Ho

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces some useful Java technologies for utilizing the internet in numerical analysis, and suggests one architecture performing efficient numerical analysis in the intranet by using them. The present work has verified it's possibility by implementing some parts of this architecture with two easy examples. One is based on Servlet-Applet communication, JDBC and swing. The other is adding multi-threads, file transfer and Java remote method invocation to the former. Through this work it has been intended to make the base for the later advanced and practical research that will include efficiency estimates of this architecture and deal with advanced load balancing

  5. ``Living off the land'': resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Odum, H. T.; Brown, M. T.; Alling, A.

    Bioregenerative life support technologies for space application are advantageous if they can be constructed using locally available materials, and rely on renewable energy resources, lessening the need for launch and resupply of materials. These same characteristics are desirable in the global Earth environment because such technologies are more affordable by developing countries, and are more sustainable long-term since they utilize less non-renewable, imported resources. Subsurface flow wetlands (wastewater gardens™) were developed and evaluated for wastewater recycling along the coast of Yucatan. Emergy evaluations, a measure of the environmental and human economic resource utilization, showed that compared to conventional sewage treatment, wetland wastewater treatment systems use far less imported and purchased materials. Wetland systems are also less energy-dependent, lessening dependence on electrical infrastructure, and require simpler maintenance since the system largely relies on the ecological action of microbes and plants for their efficacy. Detailed emergy evaluations showed that wetland systems use only about 15% the purchased emergy of conventional sewage systems, and that renewable resources contribute 60% of total emergy used (excluding the sewage itself) compared to less than 1% use of renewable resources in the high-tech systems. Applied on a larger scale for development in third world countries, wetland systems would require 1/5 the electrical energy of conventional sewage treatment (package plants), and save 2/3 of total capital and operating expenses over a 20-year timeframe. In addition, there are numerous secondary benefits from wetland systems including fiber/fodder/food from the wetland plants, creation of ecosystems of high biodiversity with animal habitat value, and aesthestic/landscape enhancement of the community. Wetland wastewater treatment is an exemplar of ecological engineering in that it creates an interface ecosystem to handle

  6. How technological potentials are undermined by economic and behavioural responses. The treatment effect of endogenous energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Helena; Tode, Christian; Koeln Univ.

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide spend increasing amounts of money on policy schemes to reduce energy consumption and related carbon emissions. We investigate the actual treatment effect of energy efficiency measures and therein compare actual demand responses to technological potentials. Based on a demand system analysis of household data and by approximating unobserved energy awareness, we find economic and behavioural responses that counteract expected savings from energy efficiency. Results show strong rebound and even back ring effects but also suggest heterogeneity of the effectiveness driven by behavioural concepts, such as sunk cost fallacy or habit formation. Understanding these can contribute to target-oriented policy designs and increased effectiveness and efficiency of policies.

  7. How technological potentials are undermined by economic and behavioural responses. The treatment effect of endogenous energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Helena; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2015-06-15

    Governments worldwide spend increasing amounts of money on policy schemes to reduce energy consumption and related carbon emissions. We investigate the actual treatment effect of energy efficiency measures and therein compare actual demand responses to technological potentials. Based on a demand system analysis of household data and by approximating unobserved energy awareness, we find economic and behavioural responses that counteract expected savings from energy efficiency. Results show strong rebound and even back ring effects but also suggest heterogeneity of the effectiveness driven by behavioural concepts, such as sunk cost fallacy or habit formation. Understanding these can contribute to target-oriented policy designs and increased effectiveness and efficiency of policies.

  8. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Seeds for Treatment of Laundry Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Gheethi AA; Mohamed RMSR; Wurochekke AA; Nurulainee NR; Mas Rahayu J; Amir Hashim MK

    2017-01-01

    Laundry wastewater has simple characteristics in which the detergents compounds are the main constitutes. But these compounds have adverse effects on the aquatic organisms in the natural water bodies which received these wastes without treatment. Few studies were conducted on these wastes because it represent a small part of the total wastewater generated from different human activities. Moreover, the coagulation process for laundry wastewater might be effective to remove of detergents compou...

  9. Improving the efficiency of plasma heat treatment of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabdrakhmanov, Az T; Israphilov, I H; Galiakbarov, A T; Samigullin, A D; Gabdrakhmanov, Al T

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an effective way of the plasma hardening the surface layer at the expense combined influence of the plasma jet and a cold air flow. After that influence occurs a distinctive by plasma treatment microstructure with increased microhardness (an increase of 35%) and depth. There is proposed an improved design of the vortex tube for receiving the air flow with a temperature of 20 C to - 120C. (paper)

  10. Aerosol Mass Scattering Efficiency: Generalized Treatment of the Organic Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, R. M.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Lovejoy, E. R.; Tolbert, M. A.; Baynard, T.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are complex mixtures of organic and inorganic compounds. Current efforts to provide a simplified parameterization to describe the RH dependence of water uptake and associated optical properties lack the capability to include any dependence on the composition of the organic fraction. Using laboratory generated aerosol we have investigated the validity of such simplified treatment of organic fraction and estimated potential biases. In this study, we use cavity ring-down aerosol extinction photometry (CRD-AEP) to study the relative humidity (RH) dependence of the light extinction of aerosols, σep, simultaneously considering the influence of particle size, chemical composition, and mixing state (internal and external mixtures). We have produced internally mixed aerosol systems including; ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride, dicarboxylic acids, sugars, amino acids and humic acid. These aerosols are produced with an atomizer and size-selected with a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA). The particles then enter into a CRD-AEP to measure dry extinction, σep(Dry), after which they travel into a RH conditioner and another CRD-AEP to measure the humidified aerosol extinction, fσ(ep)RH. The ratio of the humidified extinction to the dry extinction is fσ(ep)RH. Representative organic compounds were found to have fσ(ep)RH values that are much smaller than pure salts; though the fσ(ep)RH values vary little within the organic compounds studied. In addition, we have found that treating the inorganic/organic aerosols as external mixtures is generally correct to within ~10%, indicating appropriate simplified treatment of the RH dependence of atmospheric aerosol according to inorganic/organic fraction. In this presentation, we include recommendations for the generalized treatment of the organic fraction, exceptions to this generalized behavior, and estimates of the potential bias caused by generalized treatment.

  11. Techno-economical efficiency and productivity change of wastewater treatment plants: the role of internal and external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sancho, F; Molinos-Senante, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2011-12-01

    Efficiency and productivity are important measures for identifying best practice in businesses and optimising resource-use. This study analyses how these two measures change across the period 2003-2008 for 196 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Spain, by using the benchmarking methods of Data Envelopment Analysis and the Malmquist Productivity Index. To identify which variables contribute to the sustainability of the WWTPs, differences in efficiency scores and productivity indices for external factors are also investigated. Our results indicate that both efficiency and productivity decreased over the five years. We verify that the productivity drop is primarily explained by technical change. Furthermore, certain external variables affected WWTP efficiency, including plant size, treatment technology and energy consumption. However, plants with low energy consumption are the only ones which improve their productivity. Finally, the benchmarking analyses proved to be useful as management tools in the wastewater sector, by providing vital information for improving the sustainability of plants.

  12. The lower limit of interval efficiency in Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani Parchikolaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In data envelopment analysis technique, the relative efficiency of the homogenous decision making units is calculated. These calculations are done based on the classical model of linear programming such as CCR,BCC,.... Because of maximizing the weighted sum of outputs to that in inputs of one unit under certain conditions, the obtained efficiency in all of these models is the upper limit of exact relative efficiency. In other words, the efficiency is calculatedfrom the optimistic viewpoint. To caculated the lower limit of efficiency, i.e. the efficiency obtained from a pessimistic viewpoint for certain weights, the existing models cannot calculate the exact lower limit and in some cases, there exist some models that show an incorrect lower limit. Through the model introduced in the present study, we can calculate the exact lower limit of the interval efficiency. The designed model can be obtained by minimizing the ratio of weighted sum of outputs to that of inputs for every unit under certion conditions. The exact lower limit can be calculated in all states through our adopted model.

  13. Analysis of energy end-use efficiency policy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado, Rocío Román; Díaz, María Teresa Sanz

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of saving measures and energy efficiency entails the need to evaluate achievements in terms of energy saving and spending. This paper aims at analysing the effectiveness and economic efficiency of energy saving measures implemented in the Energy Savings and Efficiency Action Plan (2008–2012) (EAP4+) in Spain for 2010. The lack of assessment related to energy savings achieved and public spending allocated by the EAP4+ justifies the need of this analysis. The results show that the transport and building sectors seem to be the most important, from the energy efficiency perspective. Although they did not reach the direct energy savings that were expected, there is scope for reduction with the appropriate energy measures. For the effectiveness indicator, the best performance are achieved by public service, agricultural and fisheries and building sectors, while in terms of energy efficiency per monetary unit, the best results are achieved by transport, industry and agriculture sectors. Authors conclude that it is necessary that central, regional and local administrations will get involved, in order to get better estimates of the energy savings achieved and thus to affect the design of future energy efficiency measures at the lowest possible cost to the citizens. - Highlights: • Energy end-use efficiency policy is analysed in terms of energy savings and spending. • The energy savings achieved by some measures are not always provided. • The total energy savings achieved by transport and building sectors are large. • Different levels of administration should get involved in estimating energy savings.

  14. On the Use of Student Data in Efficiency Analysis--Technical Efficiency in Swedish Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    While individual data form the base for much empirical analysis in education, this is not the case for analysis of technical efficiency. In this paper, efficiency is estimated using individual data which is then aggregated to larger groups of students. Using an individual approach to technical efficiency makes it possible to carry out studies on a…

  15. Selection of efficient etchants for nondestructive treatment of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, V.N.; Fomin, A.V.; Tomashik, Z.F.

    1996-01-01

    The scheme for studying etching processes of semiconductor materials and developing new etchants for different semiconductors is proposed. The scheme includes the experiment mathematical planning, computerized physicochemical modeling, kinetic studies, investigation of surface layers, formed by etching. Such on approach makes it possible to optimize the etchant composition in every concrete cage. The scheme is tested in the course of developing optimal methodologies of preepitaxial treatment and selection of etchants composition for semiconductor compounds of the A 1 B 6 and A 3 B 5 type. 13 refs., 4 figs

  16. Analysis of farm household technical efficiency in small-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied to farm-level cross-sectional data collected in mid-2013 after the implementation of CIP activities. Our empirical results indicate that CIP participants and improved farmers (using using both traditional and modern hives) had the highest average levels of technical efficiencies.

  17. Measuring Eco-efficiency of Production with Data Envelopment Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Kortelainen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Aggregation of environmental pressures into a single environmental damage index is a major challenge of eco-efficiency measurement. This article examines how the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method can be adapted for this purpose. DEA accounts for substitution possibilities between different

  18. Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Small Holder Maize Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the level of technical efficiency of smallholder maize producers and identify its determinants in Horo Guduru Wollega zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A Cobb-Douglass stochastic production function model was used for the analysis. To specify technical inefficiency effects ...

  19. ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS IN RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS IN RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY IN MULTIPLE CROPPING SYSTEM BY SMALL-HOLDER FARMERS IN EBONYI STATE OF ... high cost of modern inputs, lack of adequate finance and lack of collaterals among others served as major constraints, which constituted29%, 36%, 33% and 22% ...

  20. Analysis of resource use efficiency among soybean ( Glycine max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, 87.5% of the farmers were in their active age, and 81.7% utilized their personal saving as a major source of finance for production. The result of the production function analysis indicated that 87.21% of the variation in the output of soybean is explained for by the independent variables. Resource-use efficiency ...

  1. Efficiency analysis of hydrogen production methods from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ptasinski, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Hydrogen is considered as a universal energy carrier for the future, and biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of hydrogen. This article presents an efficiency analysis of hydrogen production processes from a variety of biomass feedstocks by a thermochemical method –

  2. Efficiency evaluation of treatment of atrial rhythm disorders on the left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, J.L.; Mansour, H.; Victor, F.; De Place, C.; Carre, F.; Daubert, J.C.; Borguet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this prospective study was to evaluate the development and evolution of the LV function after treatment of atrial arrhythmias, evolving for at least three months, associated to an alteration of the LV function. Twelve patients (61.3 ± 13.9 years) were divided into two groups: Gr1 - treatment by cardio-version or radiofrequency; Gr2 - pharmacological treatment or ablation of atrial-ventricular junction and implantation of a cardiac pacemaker. An examination including ECG, Holter, test-to-effort, echocardiography, cavitary angio-scintigraphy was effectuated 48 h and 6 weeks after reduction. A net clinic amelioration was observed in the evolution, confirmed by results of the echocardiographic and angio-scintigraphic examinations (with a correlation coefficient of 0.87). In exchange, between the two examinations, there is no significant difference for the test-to-effort with medium or maximal cardiac frequencies and the diameters or tele-diastolic and tele-systolic volumes for echography. After the multi-variable analysis the initial angio-scintigraphic measurement of the LV function is a good predictive factor in ameliorating the LV function in patients maintained in sinusal rhythm. In conclusion, the angio-scintigraphy permits predicting the treatment efficiency of the atrial arrhythmias on the LV function

  3. Investigation of skin cancer treatment efficiency by raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. S.; Kim, D. W. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    From the successful perform of the molecular structures of various kinds of human skin cancer. We can predict the types of cancer when a small abnormal change change occurs on skin by raman spectrum. When we applied the cancer causing chemicals, bezopyrene, to nude mouse, it did not develop to cancer. But we had radiated UV light after developed to skin cancer in a few days. We can deduce the development of human skin cancer from the result of nude mouse skin cancer, because the two skin are structurally very similar to each other. From the results of own research we could conform the UV light is essential for the development of skin cancer. The results of own research can be directly apply to early detection and proper treatment of skin cancer in hospital. 32 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  4. TOBACCO SMOKING AND LUNG DISEASES: EFFICIENCY OF TREATMENT APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nikitin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents data on the significant increase of tobacco smoking prevalence and its harmful effect on the development and course of chronic respiratory diseases: tuberculosis, pneumonia, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Negative consequences of tobacco smoking are caused by chronic intoxication of the host by the components of tobacco smoke providing impact on various organs and cells of the host, thus causing a big variety of diseases. Both active and passive smoking deteriorates their course and increase the risk of exacerbation, hinders taking control over the disease and interferes with adequate response to drugs.Current approaches to treatment of tobacco addiction have been presented. There are several ways to overcome nicotine addiction – drug therapy and the other forms of therapy. Integrated approach to tobacco smoking management allows achieving success in 30% of cases within short period of time with continuous and quality remissions. 

  5. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of thermal efficiency and power of Minto engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wei; Hou, Jingxin; Zhang, Yang; Ji, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Minto engine is a kind of liquid piston heat engine that operates on a small temperature gradient. But there is no power formula for it yet. And its thermal efficiency is low and formula sometimes is misused. In this paper, deriving the power formula and simplifying the thermal efficiency formula of Minto engine based on energy distribution analysis will be discussed. To improve the original Minto engine, a new design of improved Minto engine is proposed and thermal efficiency formula and power formula are also given. A computer program was developed to analyze thermal efficiency and power of original and improved Minto engines operating between low and high-temperature heat sources. The simulation results show that thermal efficiency of improved Minto engine can reach over 7% between 293.15 K and 353.15 K which is much higher than that of original one; the temperature difference between upper and lower containers is lower than half of that between low and high temperature of heat sources when the original Minto engines output the maximum power; on the contrary, it is higher in the improved Minto engines. -- Highlights: ► The thermal efficiency formula of Minto engine is simplified and the power formula is established. ► A high-powered design of improved Minto engine is proposed. ► A computer simulation program based on real operating environment is developed.

  7. Joint environmental and cost efficiency analysis of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Eric; Barnum, Darold

    2009-01-01

    Fossil-fuel based electricity generation produces the largest proportion of human-related carbon pollution in the United States. Hence, fuel choices by steam plants are key determinants of the industry's impact on national and global greenhouse gas emissions, and key foci for climate change policy. Yet, little research has been done to examine the economic and environmental tradeoffs among the different types of fuels that are used by these plants. This paper applies a Data Envelopment Analysis procedure that incorporates the materials balance principle to estimate the allocations of coal, gas and oil inputs that minimize carbon emissions and costs. Using EIA 906 and FERC 423 data, the paper estimates cost/carbon tradeoffs facing two sets of plants: those that use coal and gas inputs, and those that use coal, gas and oil inputs. Findings for our three-input sample show that there would be a 79% increase in cost for moving from the cost-efficient point to the carbon efficient point, while there would be a 38% increase in carbon for moving from the carbon efficient point to the cost-efficient point. These conclusions indicate that, in general, the gap between efficient cost and efficient environmental production is wide, and would require substantial policy intervention, technological change or market adjustment before it could be narrowed. However, our examination of individual plants shows that what is true in general is often not true for specific plants. Some plants that are currently less efficient than those on the production frontier could produce the same amount of electricity with less carbon output and less fuel input. Additionally, many plants on the production frontier could improve both cost and carbon efficiency by changing their mixture of fossil-fuel inputs. (author)

  8. Comparative analysis of energy efficiency in water users associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadia, R.; Rocamora, M. C.; Corcoles, J. I.; Ruiz-Canales, A.; Martinez-Romero, A.; Moreno, M. A.

    2010-07-01

    The government of Spain has developed an energy strategy that includes a campaign of energy audits in water users associations (WUAs) in order to improve energy efficiency in irrigation. A guideline for energy audits has been developed, standardizing the audit process in WUAs. This guideline has been implemented in 22 WUAs in the Castilla-La Mancha, Valencia, and Murcia Regions. In this paper, an analysis of the indicators proposed in the guideline is performed, and the indicators that most represent energy efficiency of WUAs are identified. Also, the suitability of the proposed indicators and classifications under different conditions are discussed. In addition, a cluster analysis is performed on WUAs to classify them according to their energetic aspects. Results show that indicators global energy efficiency (GEE) and active energy consumed per hectare (EacSr) are not adequate for analysing the evolution of energy consumption in a WUA. The most representative energy indicators are those expressing ratios between energy consumption and water volume supplied to the users as the indicators active energy consumed per volume unit (EacVs) and energy cost per volume unit (CENVs). It is conclude that using the current methodology for calculate the supply energy efficiency indicator (SEE), GEE is not an adequate indicator for energy classification of WUAs, and also that the results of the energy analysis must be used to propose measures for energy conservation and energy cost reduction. (Author) 14 refs.

  9. Treatment systems for liquid wastes generated in chemical analysis laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linda Berrio; Oscar Beltran; Edison Agudelo; Santiago Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, handling of liquid wastes from chemical analysis laboratories is posing problems to different public and private organizations because of its requirements of an integrated management. This article reviews various treatment technologies and its removal efficiencies in order to establish criteria for selecting the system and the appropriate variables to achieve research objectives as well as environmental sustainability. Review begins with a description of the problem and continues with the study of treatments for laboratory wastes. These technologies are segregated into physicochemical and biological treatments that comprise a variety of processes, some of which are considered in this review.

  10. Healthcare efficiency assessment using DEA analysis in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefko, Robert; Gavurova, Beata; Kocisova, Kristina

    2018-03-09

    A regional disparity is becoming increasingly important growth constraint. Policy makers need quantitative knowledge to design effective and targeted policies. In this paper, the regional efficiency of healthcare facilities in Slovakia is measured (2008-2015) using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The DEA is the dominant approach to assessing the efficiency of the healthcare system but also other economic areas. In this study, the window approach is introduced as an extension to the basic DEA models to evaluate healthcare technical efficiency in individual regions and quantify the basic regional disparities and discrepancies. The window DEA method was chosen since it leads to increased discrimination on results especially when applied to small samples and it enables year-by-year comparisons of the results. Two stable inputs (number of beds, number of medical staff), three variable inputs (number of all medical equipment, number of magnetic resonance (MR) devices, number of computed tomography (CT) devices) and two stable outputs (use of beds, average nursing time) were chosen as production variable in an output-oriented 4-year window DEA model for the assessment of technical efficiency in 8 regions. The database was made available from the National Health Information Center and the Slovak Statistical Office, as well as from the online databases Slovstat and DataCube. The aim of the paper is to quantify the impact of the non-standard Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) variables as the use of medical technologies (MR, CT) on the results of the assessment of the efficiency of the healthcare facilities and their adequacy in the evaluation of the monitored processes. The results of the analysis have shown that there is an indirect dependence between the values of the variables over time and the results of the estimated efficiency in all regions. The regions that had low values of the variables over time achieved a high degree of efficiency and vice versa. Interesting

  11. Efficiency of crude oil markets: Evidences from informational entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2012-01-01

    The role of crude oil as the main energy source for the global economic activity has motivated the discussion about the dynamics and causes of crude oil price changes. An accurate understanding of the issue should provide important guidelines for the design of optimal policies and government budget planning. Using daily data for WTI over the period January 1986–March 2011, we analyze the evolution of the informational complexity and efficiency for the crude oil market through multiscale entropy analysis. The results indicated that the crude oil market is informationally efficient over the scrutinized period except for two periods that correspond to the early 1990s and late 2000s US recessions. Overall, the results showed that deregulation has improved the operation of the market in the sense of making returns less predictable. On the other hand, there is some evidence that the probability of having a severe US economic recession increases as the informational efficiency decreases, which indicates that returns from crude oil markets are less uncertain during economic downturns. - Highlights: ► Entropy concepts are used to characterize crude oil prices. ► An index of market efficiency is introduced. ► Except for periods of economic recession, the crude oil market is informationally efficient.

  12. Measuring the efficiency of large pharmaceutical companies: an industry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, Fernando; Lozano, Jesús; Ponte, Borja; de la Fuente, David

    2017-06-01

    This paper evaluates the relative efficiency of a sample of 37 large pharmaceutical laboratories in the period 2008-2013 using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. We describe in detail the procedure followed to select and construct relevant inputs and outputs that characterize the production and innovation activity of these pharmaceutical firms. Models are estimated with financial information from Datastream, including R&D investment, and the number of new drugs authorized by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considering the time effect. The relative performances of these firms-taking into consideration the strategic importance of R&D-suggest that the pharmaceutical industry is a highly competitive sector given that there are many laboratories at the efficient frontier and many inefficient laboratories close to this border. Additionally, we use data from S&P Capital IQ to analyze 2071 financial transactions announced by our sample of laboratories as an alternative way to gain access to new drugs, and we link these transactions with R&D investment and DEA efficiency. We find that efficient laboratories make on average more financial transactions, and the relative size of each transaction is larger. However, pharmaceutical companies that simultaneously are more efficient and invest more internally in R&D announce smaller transactions relative to total assets.

  13. Analysis of Public Sector Efficiency in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lovre

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The public sector in developed countries went through various forms of transformation in the twentieth century. The expansion of the public sector resulted in high levels of public spending in developed countries. The financial crisis of 2008 led to recessions in the economies of developed countries, the public debt growth, and actualized the issue of the public sector optimal size and efficiency. This study analysed the public sector efficiency in 19 developed countries. The analysis focuses on the relationship between the size of public expenditure and economic growth in the global financial crisis and the measures implemented. The aim of the research in this paper is a comparison of total and partial efficiency of the public sector in developed countries, in order to determine the characteristics of the public sector operations. The comparison covers the areas of the public sector operations in order to identify sources of inefficiency. Partial and overall efficiency of countries are analysed with different size and concept of the public sector, to determine the relationship between the public sector size, efficiency and welfare of citizens. The research results clearly indicate (unjustified state intervention in developed countries.

  14. CLINICAL-PHARMACOLOGICAL VALUE OF TREATMENT EFFICIENCY OF BHP-PATIENTS BY ANTITHROMBOTIC THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Svistunov

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with BHP need in pharmacological treatment of thrombosis the most often in the first 3 cases because has dysfunctions of platelets and coagulation. According to results of analysis of efficiency antithrombotic therapy in BHP-patients confirmed clinical and biochemical influence antithrombotic therapy by Ticlid 250 mg twice on the day in comparison with Aspirin 100 mg and Dipiridomol 25 mg on the basic therapy of the BHP by Permixon 160 mg. The received results have had statistically meant differences. Manifestation of BHP and value QOL and others urodynamic complications most often appear on the basic specific monotherapy of BHP and lost after antithrombotic therapy for 1-3 months. The important complications of antithrombotic therapy of BHP-patients did not observe.

  15. Enhancing dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency by anode surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chao-Hsuan; Lin, Hsin-Han; Chen, Chin-Cheng; Hong, Franklin C.-N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, titanium substrates treated with HF solution and KOH solution sequentially forming micro- and nano-structures were used for the fabrication of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). After wet etching treatments, the titanium substrates were then exposed to the O 2 plasma treatment and further immersed in titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) solution. The process conditions for producing a very thin TiO 2 blocking layer were studied, in order to avoid solar cell current leakage for increasing the solar cell efficiency. Subsequently, TiO 2 nanoparticles were spin-coated on Ti substrates with varied thickness. The dye-sensitized solar cells on the titanium substrates were subjected to simulate AM 1.5 G irradiation of 100 mW/cm 2 using backside illumination mode. Surface treatments of Ti substrate and TiO 2 anode were found to play a significant role in improving the efficiency of DSSC. The efficiencies of the backside illumination solar cells were raised from 4.6% to 7.8% by integrating these surface treatments. - Highlights: • The flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) device can be fabricated. • Many effective surface treatment methods to improve DSSC efficiency are elucidated. • The efficiency is dramatically enhanced by integrating surface treatment methods. • The back-illuminated DSSC efficiency was raised from 4.6% to 7.8%

  16. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Qing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-20

    China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components

  17. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Technical Efficiency of Thai Manufacturing SMEs: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Charoenrat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA major motivation of this study is to examine the factors that are the most important in contributing to the relatively poor efficiency performance of Thai manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. The results obtained will be significant in devising effective policies aimed at tackling this poor performance.This paper uses data on manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region of Thailand in 2007 as a case study, by applying a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA and a technical inefficiency effects model. The empirical results obtained indicate that the mean technical efficiency of all categories of manufacturing SMEs in theNorth-eastern region is 43%, implying that manufacturing SMEs have high levels of technical inefficiency in their production processes.Manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region are particularly labour-intensive. The empirical results of the technical inefficiency effects model suggest that skilled labour, the municipal area and ownership characteristics are important firm-specific factors affecting technical efficiency. The paper argues that the government should play a more substantial role in developing manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern provinces through: providing training programs for employees and employers; encouraging a greater usage of capital and technology in the production process of SMEs; enhancing the efficiency of state-ownedenterprises; encouraging a wide range of ownership forms; and improving information and communications infrastructure.

  19. Efficiency Assessment of Inbound Tourist Service Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The successful and sustainable development of inbound tourism necessitates a long-term commitment, balancing between tourism supply and tourist demands. This study manipulated a performance appraisal of tourism service quality in Taiwan with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA by employing input and output constructs to assess service quality efficiency. The empirical results of the estimation of technical efficiency (TE revealed that (1 the domestic tourism market is competitive, but still needs enhancements for tourism service; (2 Mainland Chinese tourists had the highest score among all foreign tourists, followed by Hong Kong and Macau tourists, tourists from other countries, Japanese tourists, and South Korean tourists; and (3 South Korean tourists had higher travel expenditure than others, but felt less satisfaction with travel services, which can be regarded as inefficient. Tourists from other countries had lower travel expenditure, but had higher satisfaction levels, which was considered efficient based on input and output index. The findings could contribute to bridging the gap between research and practice in assessing the efficiency of inbound tourist service. Tourism practitioners should be aware of tourists’ needs and interests, as these could be key fundamentals for improving tourists’ satisfaction with Taiwan’s service offerings.

  20. Smoothed Particle Hydro-dynamic Analysis of Improvement in Sludge Conveyance Efficiency of Screw Decanter Centrifuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong [Korea Testing and Research Institute, Kwachun (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    A centrifuge works on the principle that particles with different densities will separate at a rate proportional to the centrifugal force during high-speed rotation. Dense particles are quickly precipitated, and particles with relatively smaller densities are precipitated more slowly. A decanter-type centrifuge is used to remove, concentrate, and dehydrate sludge in a water treatment process. This is a core technology for measuring the sludge conveyance efficiency improvement. In this study, a smoothed particle hydro-dynamic analysis was performed for a decanter centrifuge used to convey sludge to evaluate the efficiency improvement. This analysis was applied to both the original centrifugal model and the design change model, which was a ball-plate rail model, to evaluate the sludge transfer efficiency.

  1. Smoothed Particle Hydro-dynamic Analysis of Improvement in Sludge Conveyance Efficiency of Screw Decanter Centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dae Woong

    2015-01-01

    A centrifuge works on the principle that particles with different densities will separate at a rate proportional to the centrifugal force during high-speed rotation. Dense particles are quickly precipitated, and particles with relatively smaller densities are precipitated more slowly. A decanter-type centrifuge is used to remove, concentrate, and dehydrate sludge in a water treatment process. This is a core technology for measuring the sludge conveyance efficiency improvement. In this study, a smoothed particle hydro-dynamic analysis was performed for a decanter centrifuge used to convey sludge to evaluate the efficiency improvement. This analysis was applied to both the original centrifugal model and the design change model, which was a ball-plate rail model, to evaluate the sludge transfer efficiency.

  2. Evaluation of the treatment efficiencies of paper mill whitewaters in terms of organic composition and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, Anna; Malmqvist, Asa; Lacorte, Silvia; Welander, Thomas; Barcelo, Damia

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of several lab scale treatments (aerobic, anaerobic and ozone or combination of these) was evaluated using two packaging board mill whitewaters. The effect of the different treatments on the elimination of the organic load, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the toxicity was tested as well as the relationship between these parameters. Biocides, phenolic compounds, surfactants, plasticiziers and wood extractives were identified in untreated and treated whitewaters by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A strong dependency on the water type and treatment efficiency was observed, being the combination of anaerobic and aerobic treatments the best option to reduce the organic contaminants in these waters, although in some cases, the toxicity did not decrease. However, ozone as post-treatment permitted a further reduction of organic compounds, toxicity and COD. - Aerobic and anaerobic treatments remove organic compounds in paper mill effluents but toxicity remains

  3. Studies of Some Parameters Affecting The Efficiency and Accuracy of The Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zaghloul, R.A.; Sroor, A.; Abdel Sabour, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The present studies deal with the optimum physical conditions which seriously affect the neutron activation analysis technique efficiency. An experimental work for the efficiency calibration of hyper pure germanium detectors especially for environmental studies is presented. This work showed that the tested parameters, under consideration, distance, mass and measured time, reveal a significant effect on the obtained data. These results, intern, affect the accuracy of the measurements. Further work on the test of other parameters is planned in our laboratory using special treatments and applying special computer programs

  4. An efficiency improvement in warehouse operation using simulation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samattapapong, N.

    2017-11-01

    In general, industry requires an efficient system for warehouse operation. There are many important factors that must be considered when designing an efficient warehouse system. The most important is an effective warehouse operation system that can help transfer raw material, reduce costs and support transportation. By all these factors, researchers are interested in studying about work systems and warehouse distribution. We start by collecting the important data for storage, such as the information on products, information on size and location, information on data collection and information on production, and all this information to build simulation model in Flexsim® simulation software. The result for simulation analysis found that the conveyor belt was a bottleneck in the warehouse operation. Therefore, many scenarios to improve that problem were generated and testing through simulation analysis process. The result showed that an average queuing time was reduced from 89.8% to 48.7% and the ability in transporting the product increased from 10.2% to 50.9%. Thus, it can be stated that this is the best method for increasing efficiency in the warehouse operation.

  5. Effects of iron and calcium carbonate on contaminant removal efficiencies and microbial communities in integrated wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhimiao; Song, Xinshan; Zhang, Yinjiang; Zhao, Yufeng; Wang, Bodi; Wang, Yuhui

    2017-12-01

    In the paper, we explored the influences of different dosages of iron and calcium carbonate on contaminant removal efficiencies and microbial communities in algal ponds combined with constructed wetlands. After 1-year operation of treatment systems, based on the high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis of microbial communities, the optimal operating conditions were obtained as follows: the ACW10 system with Fe 3+ (5.6 mg L -1 ), iron powder (2.8 mg L -1 ), and CaCO 3 powder (0.2 mg L -1 ) in influent as the adjusting agents, initial phosphorus source (PO 4 3- ) in influent, the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus (N/P) of 30 in influent, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. Total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency were improved significantly. The hydrolysis of CaCO 3 promoted the physicochemical precipitation in contaminant removal. Meanwhile, Fe 3+ and iron powder produced Fe 2+ , which improved contaminant removal. Iron ion improved the diversity, distribution, and metabolic functions of microbial communities in integrated treatment systems. In the treatment ACW10, the dominant phylum in the microbial community was PLANCTOMYCETES, which positively promoted nitrogen removal. After 5 consecutive treatments in ACW10, contaminant removal efficiencies for TN and TP respectively reached 80.6% and 57.3% and total iron concentration in effluent was 0.042 mg L -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Eficacia de los productos para el tratamiento de las úlceras por presión: una revisión sistemática con metaanálisis Efficiency of the products for pressure ulcers treatment: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pedro García Fernández

    2007-03-01

    extracted were general data, data on clinical efficiency, data of cost-effectiveness and data about dressing performance. To estimate the effect we used the relative risk (RR with a 95% confidence interval. A meta-analysis (random effects model was carried out when appropriate. Results: 66 potentially relevant studies were identified. 30 were excluded because of scoring CASP< 5 and 10 were not considered for analysis because of a very low quality of evidence. A meta-analysis shows the advantage of the use of hydrocolloid (HCL vs. TT (RR= 2.05 IC 95% 1.20-3.52. Individual studies that do not permit metaanalysis show the advantage of other products of MET vs. TT and a metaanalysis of all studies comparing MET vs. TT confirms it (RR= 1.61 IC 95% 1.28-2.02. There are no differences in clinical efficiency of HCL vs. polyurethane foam (PF (RR= 1.11 IC 95% 0.60-2.05, nor between other products. Different studies show that products based on MET (HCL and PF are more cost-effective than the TT. Foams show greater exudates absorption capacity and are removed easier than HCL. Conclusions: They are many studies with a very low quality of evidence or with too small a sample, which does not permit to consider them. Products based on MET for PU treatment have greater clinical efficiency and are more cost-effective than TT. There is no difference in the clinical efficiency between different types of MET products. Foams advantage HCL in comfort and exudates absorption.

  7. Air emissions perspective on energy efficiency: An empirical analysis of China’s coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Quande; Li, Xin; Li, Li; Zhen, Wei; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the static and dynamic energy efficiency in China’s coastal areas. • Both environmental pollutants and greenhouse gas are considered. • Global benchmark technology is incorporated into the related DEA models. • China’s coastal areas have great potential of air emissions reduction. • Technological progress is main driven factor to improve energy efficiency. - Abstract: Improving energy efficiency has been recognized as the most effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect and achieve sustainable development. From the perspective of air emissions, this paper adopts data envelopment analysis approach to evaluate the energy efficiency in China’s coastal areas over the period of 2000–2012. Carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are treated as undesirable outputs of energy consumptions. The proposed global Epsilon-based measure is used to estimate the static energy efficiency with an annual cross-section of data. The weights of the three undesirable outputs are determined according to their treatment costs. A global Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index based on directional distance function is employed to dynamically evaluate the energy efficiency. The results indicate the following in China’s coastal areas: (1) the level of economic development is positively related to energy efficiency scores; (2) energy efficiency scores decrease when considering undesirable outputs except Beijing and Hainan; (3) the Circum-Bohai Sea Economic Region greatly improves energy efficiency and has great potential of air emission; (4) the annual growth rate of Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index change is overestimated; (5) energy efficiency improvement is mainly driven by technological improvement, and scale efficiency and management level are the main obstacles.

  8. Efficient analysis of macromolecular rotational diffusion from heteronuclear relaxation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosset, Patrice; Hus, Jean-Christophe; Blackledge, Martin; Marion, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    A novel program has been developed for the interpretation of 15 N relaxation rates in terms of macromolecular anisotropic rotational diffusion. The program is based on a highly efficient simulated annealing/minimization algorithm, designed specifically to search the parametric space described by the isotropic, axially symmetric and fully anisotropic rotational diffusion tensor models. The high efficiency of this algorithm allows extensive noise-based Monte Carlo error analysis. Relevant statistical tests are systematically applied to provide confidence limits for the proposed tensorial models. The program is illustrated here using the example of the cytochrome c' from Rhodobacter capsulatus, a four-helix bundle heme protein, for which data at three different field strengths were independently analysed and compared

  9. Analysis of remote working practice AND CALCULATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ermakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to description of working from home practice at Allianz Insurance UK и Ernst & Young, UK & Ireland. It fulfilled the analysis of the best practices in the use of new forms of social and labor relations - remote work. The characteristics of using types of distance work, the policy of implementation and realization of such work in the company, the criteria for the transfer of employees to work remotely, the possibility of a flexible approach to workflow are given. The calculation of the economic efficiency of technology telecommuting at an aviation company of the Russian Federation is done. The method of calculating the cost-effectiveness based on several factors, such as costs for the organization and content of the workplace, change in labor productivity and others, was proposed by the authors. The calculation of economic efficiency by using the number of working hours, the impact on capital inputs and the impact on quit rates is considered.

  10. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective

  11. Unified Analysis of Multi-Chamber Contact Tanks and Mixing Efficiency Based on Vorticity Field. Part I: Hydrodynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Demirel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-chamber contact tanks have been extensively used in industry for water treatment to provide potable water to communities, which is essential for human health. To evaluate the efficiency of this treatment process, flow and tracer transport analysis have been used in the literature using Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS and large-eddy simulations (LES. The purpose of this study is two-fold. First a unifying analysis of the flow field is presented and similarities and differences in the numerical results that were reported in the literature are discussed. Second, the vorticity field is identified as the key parameter to use in separating the mean flow (jet zone and the recirculating zones. Based on the concepts of vorticity gradient and flexion product, it is demonstrated that the separation of the recirculation zone and the jet zone, fluid-fluid flow separation, is possible. The separation of the recirculation zones and vortex core lines are characterized using the definition of the Lamb vector. The separated regions are used to characterize the mixing efficiency in the chambers of the contact tank. This analysis indicates that the recirculation zone and jet zone formation are three-dimensional and require simulations over a long period of time to reach stability. It is recognized that the characteristics of the jet zones and the recirculation zones are distinct for each chamber and they follow a particular pattern and symmetry between the alternating chambers. Hydraulic efficiency coefficients calculated for each chamber show that the chambers having an inlet adjacent to the free surface may be designed to have larger volumes than the chambers having wall bounded inlets to improve the efficiency of the contact tank. This is a simple design alternative that would increase the efficiency of the system. Other observations made through the chamber analysis are also informative in redefining the characteristics of the efficiency of the

  12. Measuring sustainability by Energy Efficiency Analysis for Korean Power Companies: A Sequential Slacks-Based Efficiency Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency has been widely regarded as one of the most cost-effective ways to improve sustainability and mitigate climate change. This paper presents a sequential slack-based efficiency measure (SSBM application to model total-factor energy efficiency with undesirable outputs. This approach simultaneously takes into account the sequential environmental technology, total input slacks, and undesirable outputs for energy efficiency analysis. We conduct an empirical analysis of energy efficiency incorporating greenhouse gas emissions of Korean power companies during 2007–2011. The results indicate that most of the power companies are not performing at high energy efficiency. Sequential technology has a significant effect on the energy efficiency measurements. Some policy suggestions based on the empirical results are also presented.

  13. Buildings Energy Efficiency: Interventions Analysis under a Smart Cities Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Battista

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the world’s population lives in urban areas and in inefficient buildings under the energy point of view. Starting from these assumptions, there is the need to identify methodologies and innovations able to improve social development and the quality of life of people living in cities. Smart cities can be a viable solution. The methodology traditionally adopted to evaluate building energy efficiency starts from the structure’s energy demands analysis and the demands reduction evaluation. Consequently, the energy savings is assessed through a cascade of interventions. Regarding the building envelope, the first intervention is usually related to the reduction of the thermal transmittance value, but there is also the need to emphasize the building energy savings through other parameters, such as the solar gain factor and dye solar absorbance coefficients. In this contribution, a standard building has been modeled by means of the well-known dynamic software, TRNSYS. This study shows a parametrical analysis through which it is possible to evaluate the effect of each single intervention and, consequently, its influence on the building energy demand. Through this analysis, an intervention chart has been carried out, aiming to assess the intervention efficiency starting from the percentage variation of energy demands.

  14. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  15. Tool Efficiency Analysis model research in SEMI industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key goals in SEMI industry is to improve equipment through put and ensure equipment production efficiency maximization. This paper is based on SEMI standards in semiconductor equipment control, defines the transaction rules between different tool states,and presents a TEA system model which is to analysis tool performance automatically based on finite state machine. The system was applied to fab tools and verified its effectiveness successfully, and obtained the parameter values used to measure the equipment performance, also including the advices of improvement.

  16. The Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organization of production of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF in Ukraine becomes an especially topical and at the same time complex scientific and applied task, taking into consideration criteria of the techno-ecological and economic rationality. The article presents a methodical approach to the comparative analysis of efficiency of the main methods and technologies for the synthetic liquid fuels production and a carried out testing, the results of which allowed to conclude that the most rational is the technology of indirect coal liquefaction based on coal thermal plasma gasification.

  17. Recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Pil-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Qureshi, T.I.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities of recycling of waste bread as culture media for efficient biological treatment of wastewater were investigated. In order to get the highest growth of microorganism for increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system, different compositions of waste bread and skim milk with and without adding Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) were tested. Mixed waste bread compositions with added PAC showed relatively higher number of microorganisms than the compositions without added PAC. A composition of 40% mixed waste bread and 60% skim milk produced highest number of microorganisms with subsequent increased contaminants' removal efficiency of the system. 'Contrast' alone showed lower contaminants' removal efficiency than mixed bread compositions. Use of waste bread in the composition of skim milk reduced cost of using foreign source of nutrients in biological treatment of wastewater and also facilitated waste bread management through recycling. (author)

  18. Portuguese state university performance according to students: an efficiency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Wagner Mainardes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research project is to evaluate the performance of Portuguese state universities in accordance with the expectations and satisfactions of their students and through recourse to the DEA methodology and thus representing one of the very few studies analysing university performance based upon student perceptions. According to an output oriented Variable Returns to Scale model, handling the responses returned by 1,669 students, the results demonstrate that faculties generally attain a good relationship between student expectations and their levels of satisfaction. We furthermore conclude that university scale does not guarantee efficiency. Hence, irrespective of size, universities are able to ensure the satisfaction of their students. Finally, the results show that satisfying only certain expectations related to specific aspects does not prove sufficient to guaranteeing overall student satisfaction. The analysis also correspondingly finds that while some decision making units prove efficient in satisfying expectations on specific aspects, they fail to attain such efficiency in the overall perspective of students.

  19. Efficiency analysis of energy networks: An international survey of regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, Aoife Brophy; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Incentive regulation for networks has been an important part of the reform agenda in a number of countries. As part of this regulatory process, incentives are put in place to improve the cost efficiency of network companies by rewarding good performance relative to a pre-defined benchmark. The techniques used to establish benchmarks are central to the efficiency improvements that are ultimately achieved. Much experience has been gained internationally in the application of benchmarking techniques and we now have a solid understanding of the main indicators of best practice. What we are lacking is a more complete understanding of the factors that influence choice of methods by regulators. In this paper, we present the results of an international survey of energy regulators in 40 countries conducted electronically between June and October 2008. Regulators from European, Australasian and Latin American countries are represented in the survey. Our results show that benchmarking techniques are now widespread in the regulation of gas and electricity networks. Best practice, however, is limited to a small number of regulators. We conclude by summarising existing trends and offering some recommendations on overcoming barriers to best practice efficiency analysis.

  20. Modelling and analysis of solar cell efficiency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmer, Sven; Greulich, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    We present an approach to model the distribution of solar cell efficiencies achieved in production lines based on numerical simulations, metamodeling and Monte Carlo simulations. We validate our methodology using the example of an industrial feasible p-type multicrystalline silicon “passivated emitter and rear cell” process. Applying the metamodel, we investigate the impact of each input parameter on the distribution of cell efficiencies in a variance-based sensitivity analysis, identifying the parameters and processes that need to be improved and controlled most accurately. We show that if these could be optimized, the mean cell efficiencies of our examined cell process would increase from 17.62% ± 0.41% to 18.48% ± 0.09%. As the method relies on advanced characterization and simulation techniques, we furthermore introduce a simplification that enhances applicability by only requiring two common measurements of finished cells. The presented approaches can be especially helpful for ramping-up production, but can also be applied to enhance established manufacturing.

  1. Improvement of quantum efficiency in green light-emitting diodes with pre-TMIn flow treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of pre-trimethlyindium (TMIn) flow on the improved electrical characteristics and highly stable temperature properties of InGaN green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are discussed. For the LED sample with a pre-TMIn flow treatment, the tunnelling of injected carriers associated with threading defects is significantly reduced, which promotes the diffusion-recombination of injected carriers, as well as the overall emission efficiency of the LED. In addition, the pre-TMIn flow treatment evidently reduces the dependence of external quantum efficiency on temperature and efficiency droop of green LEDs. As a result, we conclude that the pre-TMIn flow treatment is a promising scheme for the improvement of output performance of InGaN-based green LEDs.

  2. Potential exposure and treatment efficiency of nanoparticles in water supplies based on wastewater reclamation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Peter; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity brings an increased focus on wastewater reclamation for drinking water supply. Meanwhile, the production volume of nanoparticles (NPs) is rapidly increasing, but to date there has been little attention given to the fate of NPs in water systems based on wastewater reclamation. We have...... investigated the possible concentrations of silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in tap water for water supplies based on reclaimed wastewater. Tap water concentrations of the NPs were assessed by mass flow analyses of two typical wastewater reclamation concepts: 1) advanced...... studies are available on the removal efficiencies of NPs by advanced water treatment processes with a majority of the identified studies focusing on removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plants and fate in surface waters. The NP removal efficiency of several treatment processes is unknown...

  3. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; Hullebusch, Eric D. van; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A.

    2016-01-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween"® 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween"® 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R"2 > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween"® 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween"® 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  4. Efficient Analysis of Simulations of the Sun's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, C. W.; Martínez-Sykora, J.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamics in the solar atmosphere, including solar flares, coronal mass ejections, micro-flares and different types of jets, are powered by the evolution of the sun's intense magnetic field. 3D Radiative Magnetohydrodnamics (MHD) computer simulations have furthered our understanding of the processes involved: When non aligned magnetic field lines reconnect, the alteration of the magnetic topology causes stored magnetic energy to be converted into thermal and kinetic energy. Detailed analysis of this evolution entails tracing magnetic field lines, an operation which is not time-efficient on a single processor. By utilizing a graphics card (GPU) to trace lines in parallel, conducting such analysis is made feasible. We applied our GPU implementation to the most advanced 3D Radiative-MHD simulations (Bifrost, Gudicksen et al. 2011) of the solar atmosphere in order to better understand the evolution of the modeled field lines.

  5. Efficiency limit factor analysis for the Francis-99 hydraulic turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Zhang, L. X.; Guo, J. P.; Guo, Y. K.; Pan, Q. L.; Qian, J.

    2017-01-01

    The energy loss in hydraulic turbine is the most direct factor that affects the efficiency of the hydraulic turbine. Based on the analysis theory of inner energy loss of hydraulic turbine, combining the measurement data of the Francis-99, this paper calculates characteristic parameters of inner energy loss of the hydraulic turbine, and establishes the calculation model of the hydraulic turbine power. Taken the start-up test conditions given by Francis-99 as case, characteristics of the inner energy of the hydraulic turbine in transient and transformation law are researched. Further, analyzing mechanical friction in hydraulic turbine, we think that main ingredients of mechanical friction loss is the rotation friction loss between rotating runner and water body, and defined as the inner mechanical friction loss. The calculation method of the inner mechanical friction loss is given roughly. Our purpose is that explore and research the method and way increasing transformation efficiency of water flow by means of analysis energy losses in hydraulic turbine.

  6. Inform: Efficient Information-Theoretic Analysis of Collective Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Moore

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of collective behavior has traditionally relied on a variety of different methodological tools ranging from more theoretical methods such as population or game-theoretic models to empirical ones like Monte Carlo or multi-agent simulations. An approach that is increasingly being explored is the use of information theory as a methodological framework to study the flow of information and the statistical properties of collectives of interacting agents. While a few general purpose toolkits exist, most of the existing software for information theoretic analysis of collective systems is limited in scope. We introduce Inform, an open-source framework for efficient information theoretic analysis that exploits the computational power of a C library while simplifying its use through a variety of wrappers for common higher-level scripting languages. We focus on two such wrappers here: PyInform (Python and rinform (R. Inform and its wrappers are cross-platform and general-purpose. They include classical information-theoretic measures, measures of information dynamics and information-based methods to study the statistical behavior of collective systems, and expose a lower-level API that allow users to construct measures of their own. We describe the architecture of the Inform framework, study its computational efficiency and use it to analyze three different case studies of collective behavior: biochemical information storage in regenerating planaria, nest-site selection in the ant Temnothorax rugatulus, and collective decision making in multi-agent simulations.

  7. On analysis of operating efficiency of autonomous ventilation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostuganov Arman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the causes and consequences of malfunctioning of natural and mechanical ventilation systems in civil buildings of Russia. Furthermore it gives their classification and analysis based on the literature review. On the basis of the analysis technical solutions for improving the efficiency of ventilation systems in civil buildings are summarized and the field of their application is specified. Among the offered technical solutions the use of autonomous ventilation systems with heat recovery is highlighted as one of the most promising and understudied. Besides it has a wide range of applications. The paper reviews and analyzes the main Russian and foreign designs of ventilation systems with heat recovery that are mostly used in practice. Three types of such systems: UVRK-50, Prana-150, ТеFо are chosen for consideration. The sequence of field tests of selected autonomous ventilation systems have been carried out in order to determine the actual air exchange and efficiency of heat recovery. The paper presents the processed results of the research on the basis of which advantages and disadvantages of the tested ventilation systems are identified and recommendations for engineering and manufacturing of new design models of autonomous ventilation systems with heat recovery are formulated.

  8. Analysis of product efficiency of hybrid vehicles and promotion policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyundo; Oh, Inha

    2010-01-01

    The key aim of this study is to evaluate the product efficiency of current hybrid vehicles and suggest effective policies to promote hybrid vehicles in the Korean automobile market and development trends of hybrid vehicles. The efficiency levels for car models sold in Korea, including hybrid ones, were measured using the recently developed discrete additive data envelopment analysis (DEA) model that reflects consumer preference. The result of the analysis shows that current hybrid vehicles on the market are still at lower competitive advantage than traditional car models with conventional combustion engines and we can suggest a mix of incentive policies to promote the competitiveness of hybrid vehicles. In addition, we also identify two distinctive trends of hybrid vehicle development: environment-oriented hybrid vehicles and performance-oriented hybrid vehicles. It implies that the government should take account of development trends of hybrid vehicles to achieve the policy goals in designing support schemes and automobile companies that are willing to develop hybrid vehicles can also gain some insights for making strategic decisions. (author)

  9. Thrust Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, and the Role of VDF in Hall Thruster Performance Analysis (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, C. W; Hargus, William A; Brown, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    ...) of the propellant jet on the conversion of anode electrical energy to jet kinetic energy. This enabled a mathematically rigorous distinction to be made between thrust efficiency and energy efficiency...

  10. Thrust Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, and the Role of VDF in Hall Thruster Performance Analysis (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, C. W; Hargus, William A; Brown, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    ...) of the propellant jet on the conversion of anode electrical energy to jet kinetic energy. This enabled a mathematically rigorous distinction to be made between thrust efficiency and energy efficiency...

  11. Workflow efficiency for the treatment planning process in CT-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Anthony L; Benedict, Stanley; Montemayor, Eliseo; Hunt, Jon Paul; Wright, Cari; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S

    2016-01-01

    To investigate process efficiency, we present a prospective investigation of the treatment planning phase of image-guided brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancer using a specific checklist. From October 2012 to January 2014, 76 BT procedures were consecutively performed. Prospective data on the CT-based treatment planning process was collected using a specific checklist which details the following steps: (1) dosimetry planning, (2) physician review start, (3) physician review time, (4) dosimetry processing, (5) physics review start, (6) physics review, and (7) procedural pause. Variables examined included the use of a pre-BT MRI, clinic duty conflicts, resident teaching, and the use of specific BT planners. Analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and analysis of variance. Seventy-five prospectively gathered checklists comprised this analysis. The mean time for treatment planning was 95 minutes (med 94, std 18). The mean intervals in the above steps were (1) = 42, (2) = 5, (3) = 19, (4) = 10, (5) = 6, (6) = 13, and (7) = 26 minutes. There was no statistical difference in patients who had a pre-BT MRI. Resident teaching did not influence time, p = 0.17. Treatment planning time was decreased with a specific planner, p = 0.0015. A skillful team approach is required for treatment planning efficiency in image-guided BT. We have found that the specific BT planners can have a significant effect on the overall planning efficiency. We continue to examine clinical and workflow-related factors that will enhance our safety and workflow process with BT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Enhanced energy efficiency in waste water treatment plants; Steigerung der Energieeffizienz auf kommunalen Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkern, Bernd; Maier, Werner; Schneider, Ursula [iat - Ingenieurberatung fuer Abwassertechnik, Darmstadt und Stuttgart, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    In order to implement the requests of EU-IPCC-directive in a new decree for waste water treatment in Germany, best available techniques have to be defined to optimize energy efficiency in waste water treatment plants (WWTP). Therefore energy efficiency was investigated for common treatment processes and new technologies like membrane filtration, co-digestion or phosphorus recycling. In addition, the occurrence of different technologies for waste water and sludge treatment was evaluated for different size ranges of treatment plants (in population equivalents, PE) nationwide in Germany. The definition of actual and aimed values for specific energy consumption (in kWh/(PE.a)) allowed to calculate the potential energy savings in WWTP and the additional consumption due to new processes on a national level. Under consideration of the reciprocations between optimized energy consumption in WWTP and operation practice, toe-holds to increase energy efficiency according to their relevancy for the national balance could be listed. Case studies prove the feasibility of the investigated techniques and allow proposals for minimum requirements in legal regulation concerning energy efficiency in WWTP. (orig.)

  13. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for determination of organic matter removal efficiency at water treatment works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Bieroza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter (OM in drinking water treatment is a common impediment responsible for increased coagulant and disinfectant dosages, formation of carcinogenic disinfection-by products, and microbial re-growth in distribution system. The inherent heterogeneity of OM implies the utilization of advanced analytical techniques for its characterization and assessment of removal efficiency. Here, the application of simple fluorescence excitation-emission technique to OM characterization in drinking water treatment is presented. The fluorescence data of raw and clarified water was obtained from 16 drinking water treatment works. The reduction in fulvic-like fluorescence was found to significantly correlate with OM removal measured with total organic carbon (TOC. Fluorescence properties, fulvic- and tryptophan-like regions, were found to discriminate OM fractions of different removal efficiencies. The results obtained in the study show that fluorescence spectroscopy provides a rapid and accurate characterization and quantification of OM fractions and indication of their treatability in conventional water treatment.

  14. Efficiency of physicochemical and biological treatments of vinasse and their influence on indigenous microbiota for disposal into the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Cassia Roberta; Mesquita, Vanessa Alvarenga; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-11-01

    Molasses-based distilleries are one of the most polluting industries generating large volumes of high strength wastewater called vinasse. Different processes covering anaerobic, aerobic as well as physicochemical methods have been employed to treat this effluent. This study evaluated the microbial communities present in the vinasse during different stages of its treatment by traditional and molecular methods. The analysis of the efficiency of each treatment was performed by physicochemical parameters and toxicity analysis. The treatment of vinasse was performed in the following steps: high flow fermentation; filtration; chemical flakes; low-flow fermentation; filtration; and neutralization. The physicochemical analysis in different stages of the vinasse treatment demonstrated that phases of treatment influenced the performance of the evaluated parameters. Among the 37 parameters, 9 were within the limits established by the Commission for Environmental Policy of Minas Gerais, Brazil (COPAM), especially BOD (96.7% of pollution reduction), suspended solids (99.9%), pH, copper (88%), iron (92.9%), and manganese (88%). Some parameters, even after treatment, did not fit the maximum allowed by legislation. The microbial population decreased reaching 3 log CFU/ml present in the steps of the flakes chemical and disinfection treatment of vinasse. Lactobacillus brevis and Pichia kudriavzevii were present in all stages of the treatments, showing that these microorganisms were resistant and demonstrated that they might be important in the treatment of vinasse. The vinasse showed a significant reduction of pollution load after the disinfection treatment however still should not be discarded into water bodies because the high values of tannins and sediment solids, but suggest the use of the effluent in the cooling coil during the distillation process of the beverage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonality as a Factor of Resort Treatment Efficiency of Patients with Cerebral Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr N. Bitsadze

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the results of examination of 369 patients with cerebrovascular disorders considers the features of seasonality impact on the cerebral haemodynamics correction and climatic balneotherapy efficiency in the course of subtropical balneotherapy resort treatment. The findings indicate the necessity to differentiate the approaches to patients with cerebrovascular disorders referral to resort treatment and climatic balneotherapy procedures prescription, considering both cerebral ischemia stage and seasonality.

  16. Improvement of the current efficiency of an Al-Zn-In anode by heat-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Shih, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Aluminum anodes, each having one of several heat-treatments [namely as-cast (A), furnace-cooled (B), quenched (C), and quenched and aged (D-1)] were electrically coupled to structural steels to provide cathodic protection. The electro-chemical potential of each galvanic couple depended on the type of heat-treatment: anodes A, B, and C exhibited a potential of -1.10V, and anode D-1 was somewhat less negative at -0.95V. Empirical relationships between galvanic current density and area ratio (AR), based on 120h tests, have been established. Surface examination showed that anodes A, B, and C corrode uniformly, whereas anode D-1 dissolves locally. Results showed that the current efficiency of a sacrificial aluminum anode is dependent on its microstructure, which is, in turn, affected by its heat-treatment. Both anodes A and B possessed an equilibrium precipitate of In and the corresponding efficiencies did not vary with time. However, anode C, and especially anode D-1, suffered from aging, and their efficiencies varied with time. The microstructure of anode C contained thermal defects such as dislocation loops, while anode D-1 contained both dislocation loops and microsegregates. Results confirm that as-cast and furnace-cooled anodes have the best efficiencies (94-98%), while quenched and aged anodes have significantly lower efficiencies

  17. Analysis the Efficiency and Productivity of Indonesian Pharmaceutical Public Companies Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Hanggraeni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As one of the biggest medicines market in the South East Asia, the pharmaceutical industry inIndonesia has a huge potential market. However, the majority supply of raw materials has been imported.Besides, regulations of the Health Ministry and the Trade Ministry have still hampered mostplayers in Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, this study used Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA models to analyze efficiency and productivity change in the Indonesian pharmaceutical industrybetween 2006 and 2011, listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange and also supported by applyingefficiency financial ratio. This study finds that the decision for the most relatively efficient companyis different using DEA compared to efficiency financial ratios, yet DEA has better measurement ofefficiency. It is proven by one of State-owned Enterprises has been evaluated underperformed by thefinancial ratio analysis, unexpectedly is efficient using the DEA approach. This study has also proposedand tested a hypothesis on the average efficiency to check if the domestic and foreign pharmaceuticalcompanies differ in their efficiency but the result implies that there is no significant statisticaldifference among them. This study indicates that firms having dominant contribution in selling overthe-counter medicines are more efficient than selling ethical medicines. Lastly, technological changecontribution has more influence to productivity change instead of pure technical efficiency change inIndonesia pharmaceutical companies.

  18. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various

  19. Orthodontic treatment: Introducing finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Leeuwen, E.J. van

    1998-01-01

    The aim of orthodontic treatment is the displacement of teeth by means ofspecial appliances, like braces and brackets. Through these appliances the orthodontist can apply a set of forces to the teeth which wilt result in its displacement through the jawbone. Finite Element analysis of this process

  20. ETV REPORT: EVALUATION OF HYDROMETRICS, INC., HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSE OSMOSIS (HERO™) INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrometrics, founded in 1979 and located in Helena, MT, manufactures a commercial-ready High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) industrial wastewater treatment system. The system uses a three-stage reverse osmosis process to remove and concentrate metals for recovery while prod...

  1. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF MACHINERY FOR PRE-SOWING TREATMENT OF RADISH SEEDS FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of pre-sowing treatment of radish seeds aimed at increasing of seed production, yield and its productivity in protected area are presented. The density fractionation of radish seeds by gravity separator is recommended for improvement of planting material quality and increasing of utilization efficiency of frame area.

  2. Commercial Discount Rate Estimation for Efficiency Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Underlying each of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) federal appliance and equipment standards are a set of complex analyses of the projected costs and benefits of regulation. Any new or amended standard must be designed to achieve significant additional energy conservation, provided that it is technologically feasible and economically justified (42 U.S.C. 6295(o)(2)(A)). A proposed standard is considered economically justified when its benefits exceed its burdens, as represented by the projected net present value of costs and benefits. DOE performs multiple analyses to evaluate the balance of costs and benefits of commercial appliance and equipment e efficiency standards, at the national and individual building or business level, each framed to capture different nuances of the complex impact of standards on the commercial end user population. The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis models the combined impact of appliance first cost and operating cost changes on a representative commercial building sample in order to identify the fraction of customers achieving LCC savings or incurring net cost at the considered efficiency levels.1 Thus, the choice of commercial discount rate value(s) used to calculate the present value of energy cost savings within the Life-Cycle Cost model implicitly plays a key role in estimating the economic impact of potential standard levels.2 This report is intended to provide a more in-depth discussion of the commercial discount rate estimation process than can be readily included in standard rulemaking Technical Support Documents (TSDs).

  3. Acquisition System Verification for Energy Efficiency Analysis of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and fossil fuel depletion foster interest in improving energy efficiency in buildings. There are different methods to achieve improved efficiency; one of them is the use of additives, such as phase change materials (PCMs. To prove this method’s effectiveness, a building’s behaviour should be monitored and analysed. This paper describes an acquisition system developed for monitoring buildings based on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA and with a 1-wire bus network as the communication system. The system is empirically tested to prove that it works properly. With this purpose, two experimental cubicles are made of self-compacting concrete panels, one of which has a PCM as an additive to improve its energy storage properties. Both cubicles have the same dimensions and orientation, and they are separated by six feet to avoid shadows. The behaviour of the PCM was observed with the acquisition system, achieving results that illustrate the differences between the cubicles directly related to the PCM’s characteristics. Data collection devices included in the system were temperature sensors, some of which were embedded in the walls, as well as humidity sensors, heat flux density sensors, a weather station and energy counters. The analysis of the results shows agreement with previous studies of PCM addition; therefore, the acquisition system is suitable for this application.

  4. Improvement of powertrain efficiency through energy breakdown analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, Lorenzo; Repetto, Matteo; Prato, Alessandro Pini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy breakdown analysis for the vehicular powertrain. • Model for road vehicles simulation in different missions. • Implemented powertrain management strategies: intelligent gearbox, Stop and Start, free wheel. • Innovative hybrid powertrain turned to engine thermodynamic cycles minimization. • Evaluation of fuel savings associated to each management strategy. - Abstract: A vehicular powertrain can be thought as an energy conversion chain, each component being characterized by its efficiency. Significant global efficiency improvements can be achieved once is identified the system energy breakdown, individuating the losses connected to each powertrain component; it is then possible to carry out the most appropriate interventions. This paper presents a simulation study of a diesel-fuelled commercial vehicle powertrain based on the above summarized point of view. The work aims at individuating the energy flows involved in the system during different missions, proposing an intelligent combination of technical solutions which minimize fuel consumption. Through a validated Matlab–Simulink model, able to indicate the powertrain energy breakdown, simulations are carried out to evaluate the fuel saving associated to a series of powertrain management logics which lead to the minimization of engine losses, the recovery of reverse power in deceleration and braking, the elimination of useless engine cycles. Tests were performed for different real missions (urban, extra-urban and highway). The results obtained point out a –23% fuel consumption (average value for urban, extra-urban and highway missions) compared to the traditional powertrain. Clearly, such result affects positively the CO 2 emission

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE PERSONNEL POTENTIAL EFFICIENCY OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Юрьевна Клищенко

    2017-03-01

    The study revealed common patterns of the personnel potential efficiency of the pharmaceutical institution. It was found that pharmaceutical institutions need qualified professionals with a high level of practical training, ready to immediately join the working process. It was noted that only 47 % of graduates are prepared to work in the specialty chosen. We studied the length of employment with one employer. The analysis of the main problems making pharmaceutical professionals to change their work is performed. During the questioning of pharmaceutical students it was noted that a large number of students (32,89 % feel uncertainty about their further employment and 47 % of respondents are going to work in the profession.

  6. Physiological analysis for enhancing radiation use efficiency (RUE) in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punzalan, B.; Calibo, S.; Jagadish, S.V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Global dimming, or the decrease in global irradiance has been observed in the last 50 years at a rate of 2.7% per decade. Potential consequences of reduced solar radiation include a decline in total biomass production and productivity. Systematic studies involving rice and its ability to utilize available radiation efficiently under tropical conditions are limited. The study was conducted at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines, during the wet season of 2011 to physiologically analyze enhanced radiation use efficiency (RUE) under natural field conditions with limited sunlight. Five varieties were selected from previous seasons' experiments involving 48 different entries. Among the five entries, two with low yield under low solar radiation were selected to serve as checks. Growth analysis for estimating total biomass production and partitioning was done at key growth stages i.e. mid-tillering, panicle initiation, flowering, 15 days after flowering (15 DAF), and physiological maturity, coupled with analysis of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). Yield and yield components were recorded at maturity. Results show that poor-performing varieties IR40 and IR54 had significantly more panicles than the other three varieties at flowering, indicating a higher sink to source ratio. NSIC RC 222 had the highest RUE of 1.33, while a 22% reduction in RUE was observed among the poor-performing varieties, which also had the lowest leaf area index (LAI) at 15 DAF. Data on thousand-grain weight revealed that IR40 and IR54 had smaller grain size. In conclusion, the authors hypothesize that either insufficient production or inefficient translocation of NSC might be causing the reduced grain size in poor-performing varieties

  7. Hidden costs of antiretroviral treatment: the public health efficiency of drug packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Crespo, Àngels; Llibre, Josep M; Cardona-Peitx, Glòria; Sala-Piñol, Ferran; Clotet, Bonaventura; Bonafont-Pujol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    While the overall percentage of unused antiretroviral medicines returned to the hospital pharmacy is low, their cost is quite high. Adverse events, treatment failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, pregnancy, or treatment simplification are common reasons for unplanned treatment changes. Socially inefficient antiretroviral packages prevent the reuse of drugs returned to the hospital pharmacy. We defined antiretroviral package categories based on the excellence of drug packaging and analyzed the number of pills and costs of drugs returned during a period of 1 year in a hospital-based HIV unit attending to 2,413 treated individuals. A total of 6,090 pills (34% of all returned antiretrovirals) - with a cost of 47,139.91 € - would be totally lost, mainly due to being packed up in the lowest efficiency packages. Newer treatments are packaged in low-excellence categories of packages, thus favoring the maintenance of these hidden costs in the near future. Therefore, costs of this low-efficiency drug packaging, where medication packages are started but not completed, in high-cost medications are substantial and should be properly addressed. Any improvement in the packaging by the manufacturer, and favoring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity, and convenience are similar), should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets.

  8. Efficiency evaluation for nanomaterials applied in well bottom zone treatment after completion of well construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREZINA Olga Anatolyevna,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficient development of low production wells is not possible without the bottom zone treatment, both during the well development phase when its construction is completed and in the process of flow rate reduction during the operation phase. The efficiency evaluation for the new technology, including one in which nanomaterials are used, implies comparison of the actual level achieved after the new technology has been applied with the projected baseline level that might be achieved by the previously applied technique. The paper presents geological and statistical modeling of the bottom zone acid-implosion treatment performed with the hydrochloric acid solution in combination with the shock-wave effect characterized by cyclic recurrence and dynamic mode. The analyzed results have been achieved in the low permeable carbonate reservoir of a very complex geological structure in oil operating facility. The nature and the extent of geological-technological parameters influence on the acidimplosion treatment results were determined by the multiple regression method, and the most influential parameters were selected; recommendations for boreholes selection and technological parameters of treatment were made. Models to forecast flow rate and oil production growth, reduction of fractional oil content in the well production, the acid-implosion impact duration were elaborated. The models can be used to evaluate efficiency of bottom zone treatment technologies after completion of well construction with nanomaterials application.

  9. Nitrogen Removal Efficiency at Centralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak Noophan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, influents and effluents from centralized domestic wastewater treatment systems in Bangkok (Rattanakosin, Dindaeng, Chongnonsi, Nongkhaem, and Jatujak were randomly collected in order to measure organic nitrogen plus ammonium-nitrogen (total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and total volatile suspended solids by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 1998. Characteristics of influent and effluent (primary data of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment system from the Drainage and Sewerage Department of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration were used to analyze efficiency of systems. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was used to identify specific nitrifying bacteria (ammonium oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrosomonas spp. and nitrite oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp.. Although Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp. were found, Nitrospira spp. was most prevalent in the aeration tank of centralized wastewater treatment systems. Almost all of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok are designed for activated sludge type biological nutrient removal (BNR. However, low efficiency nitrogen removal was found at centralized wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok. Influent ratio of TOC:N at centralized treatment plant is less than 2.5. Centralized wastewater treatment systems have not always been used suitability and used successfully in some areas of Bangkok Thailand.

  10. Comparison of steam sterilization conditions efficiency in the treatment of Infectious Health Care Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamari, Olivia; Mouaffak, Lara; Kamel, Ramza; Brandam, Cedric; Lteif, Roger; Salameh, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Many studies show that the treatment of Infectious Health Care Waste (IHCW) in steam sterilization devices at usual operating standards does not allow for proper treatment of Infectious Health Care Waste (IHCW). Including a grinding component before sterilization allows better waste sterilization, but any hard metal object in the waste can damage the shredder. The first objective of the study is to verify that efficient IHCW treatment can occur at standard operating parameters defined by the contact time-temperature couple in steam treatment systems without a pre-mixing/fragmenting or pre-shredding step. The second objective is to establish scientifically whether the standard operation conditions for a steam treatment system including a step of pre-mixing/fragmenting were sufficient to destroy the bacterial spores in IHCW known to be the most difficult to treat. Results show that for efficient sterilization of dialysis cartridges in a pilot 60L steam treatment system, the process would require more than 20 min at 144°C without a pre-mixing/fragmenting step. In a 720L steam treatment system including pre-mixing/fragmenting paddles, only 10 min at 144°C are required to sterilize IHCW proved to be sterilization challenges such as dialysis cartridges and diapers in normal conditions of rolling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Super-compactor and grouting. Efficient and safe treatment of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hongyou; Starke, Holger; Muetzel, Wolfgang; Winter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The conditioning and volume reduction of nuclear waste are increasingly important factors throughout the world. Efficient and safe treatment of nuclear waste therefore plays a decisive role. Babcock Noell designed, manufactured and supplied a complete waste treatment facility for conditioning of the solid radioactive waste of a nuclear power plant to China. This facility consists of a Sorting Station, a Super-Compactor, a Grouting Unit with Capping Device and other auxiliary equipment which is described in more detail in the following article. This article gives an overview of the efficient and safe treatment of nuclear waste. Babcock Noell is a subsidiary of the Bilfinger Power Systems and has 40 years of experience in the field of design, engineering, construction, static and dynamic calculations, manufacturing, installation, commissioning, as well as in the service and operation of a wide variety of nuclear components and facilities worldwide.

  12. Energy efficiency in Germany - a meta-analysis. Analysis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauernhansl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The Stuttgart Institute of energy efficiency in production compiled the first meta-analysis ''Energy Efficiency in Germany''.It provides facts and figures on the development atatus and knowledge level of energy efficiency in Germany. The study shows the contribution have been made by individual measures and the potentials which are known, but have not yet been lifted. For this meta-analysis more than 250 items available from research institutions, government departments, professional and industry associations have been identified with the main topic of energy efficiency and evaluated. It provides an overview of the status of development and is an important reference work for industry, associations and politics. [de

  13. The efficiency of life insurance and family Takaful in Malaysia: Relative efficiency using the stochastic cost frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharin, Roziana; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on the Stochastic cost Frontier Analysis (SFA) approach, in an attempt to measure the relationship between efficiency and organizational structure for Takaful and insurance operators in Malaysia's dual financial system. This study applied a flexible cost functional form i.e., Fourier Flexible Functional Form, for a sample consisting of 19 firms, chosen between 2002 and 2010, by employing the Battese and Coelli invariant efficiency model. The findings show that on average, there is a significant difference in cost efficiency between the Takaful industry and the insurance industry. It was found that Takaful has lower cost efficiency than conventional insurance, which shows that the organization form has an influence on efficiency. Overall, it was observed that the level of efficiency scores for both life insurance and family Takaful do not vary across time.

  14. Analysis of differential lipofection efficiency in primary and established myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampinella, Francesca; Lechardeur, Delphine; Zanetti, Elena; MacLachlan, Ian; Benharouga, Mohammed; Lukacs, Gergely L; Vitiello, Libero

    2002-02-01

    In this study we have compared the process of lipid-mediated transfection in primary and established myoblasts, in an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the scarce transfectability of the former. We determined the metabolic stability of cytoplasmically injected and lipofected DNA in primary and established myoblasts and carried out a comparative time course analysis of luciferase reporter-gene expression and DNA stability. The efficiency of the transcription-translation machinery of the two cell types was compared by intranuclear injection of naked plasmid DNA encoding luciferase. Subcellular colocalization of fluorescein-labeled lipopolyplexes with specific endosomal and lysosomal markers was performed by confocal microscopy to monitor the intracellular trafficking of plasmid DNA during transfection. The metabolic stability of plasmid DNA was similar in primary and established myoblasts after both lipofection and cytoplasmic injection. In both cell types, lipofection had no detectable effect on the rate of cell proliferation. Confocal analysis showed that nuclear translocation of transfected DNA coincided with localization in a compartment devoid of endosome- or lysosome-specific marker proteins. The residency time of plasmid DNA in this compartment differed for primary and established myoblasts. Our findings suggest that the lower transfectability of primary myoblasts is mostly due to a difference in the intracellular delivery pathway that correlates with more rapid delivery of internalized complex to the lysosomal compartment.

  15. Analysis of efficiency and profitability of franchise services

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA MARTIN, CONSTANTINO JOSE; Medal Bartual, Amparo; Peris-Ortiz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyses the relative efficiency of franchise services and characterises the best companies, confirming the relationship between efficiency and profit. These companies are from the trade and other services sector , the main group of service-providing companies in the Spanish economy. The methodology calls for first comparing the relative efficiency of franchisers and ownership enterprises. Second, the focus turns to the most efficient franchise services, usin...

  16. Eco-efficiency analysis of Spanish WWTPs using the LCA + DEA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Chenel, Sergio; Marín-Navarro, Desirée; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are regarded as units designed for the efficient removal of organic matter and nutrients from polluted wastewaters, avoiding their discharge into the environment. Despite these benefits, they have also been found to be highly energy intensive, with consequent increased emissions in terms of greenhouse gases and other environmental impacts. Therefore, it has become imperative to monitor thoroughly the overall functioning of WWTPs from an integrated perspective with the aim of understanding how these can improve their eco-efficiency. In this case study, a group of 113 WWTPs located in regions across Spain were analysed using the methodology that combines life cycle assessment (LCA) and data envelopment analysis (DEA). The aim of this work was to determine the operational efficiency of each unit in order to obtain environmental benchmarks for inefficient plants. Thereafter, the environmental gains linked with the inputs reduction proposed for the DEA model for each unit were computed in order to verify eco-efficiency criteria. The operational complexity of WWTPs resulted in several identified factors affecting their efficiency which are discussed in depth, including the size of the facility, the climatic influence, the influent load and the over- or underuse of the plant.

  17. Hidden costs of antiretroviral treatment: the public health efficiency of drug packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu-Crespo À

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Àngels Andreu-Crespo,1,* Josep M Llibre,2,3,* Glòria Cardona-Peitx,1 Ferran Sala-Piñol,1 Bonaventura Clotet,2,4 Xavier Bonafont-Pujol1 1Pharmacy Department, 2HIV Unit and “Lluita contra la SIDA” Foundation, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, 3Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 4Universitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya (UVIC-UCC, Vic, Barcelona, Spain *These authors contributed equally to the work Abstract: While the overall percentage of unused antiretroviral medicines returned to the hospital pharmacy is low, their cost is quite high. Adverse events, treatment failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, pregnancy, or treatment simplification are common reasons for unplanned treatment changes. Socially inefficient antiretroviral packages prevent the reuse of drugs returned to the hospital pharmacy. We defined antiretroviral package categories based on the excellence of drug packaging and analyzed the number of pills and costs of drugs returned during a period of 1 year in a hospital-based HIV unit attending to 2,413 treated individuals. A total of 6,090 pills (34% of all returned antiretrovirals – with a cost of 47,139.91€ – would be totally lost, mainly due to being packed up in the lowest efficiency packages. Newer treatments are packaged in low-excellence categories of packages, thus favoring the maintenance of these hidden costs in the near future. Therefore, costs of this low-efficiency drug packaging, where medication packages are started but not completed, in high-cost medications are substantial and should be properly addressed. Any improvement in the packaging by the manufacturer, and favoring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity, and convenience are similar, should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets. Keywords: antiretroviral treatment, cost efficacy, drug packaging, treatment change

  18. Efficiency of a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treatment System in an Arid Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Albalawneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and treatment efficiency of the Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland treatment system (HSF-CW in an arid climate. Seventeen sub-surface, horizontal-flow HSF-CW units have been operated for approximately three years to improve the quality of partially-treated municipal wastewater. The studied design parameters included two sizes of volcanic tuff media (i.e., fine or coarse, two different bed dimensions (i.e., long and short, and three plantation types (i.e., reed, kenaf, or no vegetation as a control. The effluent Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, and phosphorus from all of the treatments were significantly lower as compared to the influent and demonstrated a removal efficiency of 55%, 51%, 67%, and 55%, respectively. There were significant increases in Electrical Conductivity (EC, sulfate, and calcium in the effluent of most HSF-CWs due to evaporative concentration and mineral dissolution from the media. The study suggests that unplanted beds with either fine or coarse media are the most suitable combinations among all of the studied designs based on their treatment efficiency and less water loss in arid conditions.

  19. Models for electricity market efficiency and bidding strategy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hui

    This dissertation studies models for the analysis of market efficiency and bidding behaviors of market participants in electricity markets. Simulation models are developed to estimate how transmission and operational constraints affect the competitive benchmark and market prices based on submitted bids. This research contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, transmission and operational constraints, which have been neglected in most empirical literature, are considered in the competitive benchmark estimation model. Second, the effects of operational and transmission constraints on market prices are estimated through two models based on the submitted bids of market participants. Third, these models are applied to analyze the efficiency of the Electric Reliability Council Of Texas (ERCOT) real-time energy market by simulating its operations for the time period from January 2002 to April 2003. The characteristics and available information for the ERCOT market are considered. In electricity markets, electric firms compete through both spot market bidding and bilateral contract trading. A linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium (SFE) model with transmission constraints is proposed in this dissertation to analyze the bidding strategies with forward contracts. The research contributes to the literature in several aspects. First, we combine forward contracts, transmission constraints, and multi-period strategy (an obligation for firms to bid consistently over an extended time horizon such as a day or an hour) into the linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium framework. As an ex-ante model, it can provide qualitative insights into firms' behaviors. Second, the bidding strategies related to Transmission Congestion Rights (TCRs) are discussed by interpreting TCRs as linear combination of forwards. Third, the model is a general one in the sense that there is no limitation on the number of firms and scale of the transmission network, which can have

  20. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  1. Cationic polyacrylamide enhancing cellulase treatment efficiency of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-05-01

    Cellulase treatment for decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity of dissolving pulp is a promising approach to reduce the use of toxic chemicals, such as hypochlorite in the dissolving pulp manufacturing process in the industry. Improving the cellulase treatment efficiency during the process is of practical interest. In the present study, the concept of using cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) to enhance the cellulase treatment efficiency was demonstrated. This was mainly attributed to the increased cellulase adsorption onto cellulose fibers based on the patching/bridging mechanism. Results showed that the cellulase adsorption was increased by about 20% with the addition of 250 ppm of CPAM under the same conditions as those of the control. It was found that the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase for the cellulase treatment was enhanced from using CPAM. The CPAM-assisted cellulase treatment concept may provide a practical alternative to the present hypochlorite-based technology for viscosity control in the industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy efficiency and econometric analysis of broiler production farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidari, M.D.; Omid, M.; Akram, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the energy consumption per 1000 bird for the broiler production in Yazd province, Iran. The data were collected from 44 farms by using a face-to-face questionnaire method during January–February 2010. The collected information was analyzed using descriptive statistics, economic analysis and stochastic frontier production function. The production technology of the farmer was assumed to be specified by the Cobb–Douglas (CD) production function. Total input energy was found to be 186,885.87 MJ (1000 bird) −1 while the output energy was 27,461.21 MJ (1000 bird) −1 . The values of specific energy and energy ratio were calculated at 71.95 MJ kg −1 and 0.15, respectively. The sensitivity of energy inputs was estimated using the marginal physical productivity (MPP) method. The MPP value showed the high impact of human labor and machinery energy inputs on output energy. Returns to scale (RTS) values for broiler were found to be 0.96; thus, there prevailed a decreasing RTS for the estimated model. The net return was found positive, as 1386.53 $ (1000 bird) −1 and the benefit to cost ratio from broiler production was calculated to be 1.38. The study revealed that production of meat was profitable in the studied area. -- Highlights: ► We determined the energy use efficiency (EUE) for the broiler production as 0.15, indicating inefficiency use of energy in these farms. ► Total input and output energies were found to be 186,885.87 MJ (1000 bird) −1 and 27,461.21 MJ (1000 bird) −1 , respectively. ► Cobb–Douglas (CD) frontier production function was found useful in developing econometric model for broiler production. ► The results of budgetary analysis indicate production of meat in broiler farms is profitable in the studied area.

  3. An efficient phased mission reliability analysis for autonomous vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remenyte-Prescott, R., E-mail: R.Remenyte-Prescott@nottingham.ac.u [Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Andrews, J.D. [Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Chung, P.W.H. [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Autonomous systems are becoming more commonly used, especially in hazardous situations. Such systems are expected to make their own decisions about future actions when some capabilities degrade due to failures of their subsystems. Such decisions are made without human input, therefore they need to be well-informed in a short time when the situation is analysed and future consequences of the failure are estimated. The future planning of the mission should take account of the likelihood of mission failure. The reliability analysis for autonomous systems can be performed using the methodologies developed for phased mission analysis, where the causes of failure for each phase in the mission can be expressed by fault trees. Unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs) are of a particular interest in the aeronautical industry, where it is a long term ambition to operate them routinely in civil airspace. Safety is the main requirement for the UAV operation and the calculation of failure probability of each phase and the overall mission is the topic of this paper. When components or subsystems fail or environmental conditions throughout the mission change, these changes can affect the future mission. The new proposed methodology takes into account the available diagnostics data and is used to predict future capabilities of the UAV in real time. Since this methodology is based on the efficient BDD method, the quickly provided advice can be used in making decisions. When failures occur appropriate actions are required in order to preserve safety of the autonomous vehicle. The overall decision making strategy for autonomous vehicles is explained in this paper. Some limitations of the methodology are discussed and further improvements are presented based on experimental results.

  4. An efficient phased mission reliability analysis for autonomous vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyte-Prescott, R.; Andrews, J.D.; Chung, P.W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous systems are becoming more commonly used, especially in hazardous situations. Such systems are expected to make their own decisions about future actions when some capabilities degrade due to failures of their subsystems. Such decisions are made without human input, therefore they need to be well-informed in a short time when the situation is analysed and future consequences of the failure are estimated. The future planning of the mission should take account of the likelihood of mission failure. The reliability analysis for autonomous systems can be performed using the methodologies developed for phased mission analysis, where the causes of failure for each phase in the mission can be expressed by fault trees. Unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs) are of a particular interest in the aeronautical industry, where it is a long term ambition to operate them routinely in civil airspace. Safety is the main requirement for the UAV operation and the calculation of failure probability of each phase and the overall mission is the topic of this paper. When components or subsystems fail or environmental conditions throughout the mission change, these changes can affect the future mission. The new proposed methodology takes into account the available diagnostics data and is used to predict future capabilities of the UAV in real time. Since this methodology is based on the efficient BDD method, the quickly provided advice can be used in making decisions. When failures occur appropriate actions are required in order to preserve safety of the autonomous vehicle. The overall decision making strategy for autonomous vehicles is explained in this paper. Some limitations of the methodology are discussed and further improvements are presented based on experimental results.

  5. The analysis of ink jet printed eco-font efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastko Milošević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of eco-font for office printing is one of sustainable, “green” printing concepts, which besides obvious economic benefits, as a result has a certain effect on environmental sustainability as well. The fundamental problem that this practice faces is decreased quality of text printed using eco-fonts comparing to those printed with regular fonts. The aim of this research is eco-font efficiency estimation, i.e. determination of toner usage reduction level of ink jet printed documents typed with this font type, as well as estimation of the extent humans perceive differences between text printed with eco-font and the one printed by its „non-eco“ equivalent. Combining instrumental measuring method and digital image analysis, it was found that this simple principle (eco-font utilization enables substantial toner usage reduction for an ink jet printing system, while visual test showed that visual experience of text printed using eco-font is sufficient. In addition, awareness of benefits that eco-font utilization brings, change users’ attitude towards eco-font quality.

  6. Advances in Water Use Efficiency in Agriculture: A Bibliometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Velasco-Muñoz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water use efficiency in agriculture (WUEA has become a priority given increasing limitations on hydric resources. As a result, this area of research has increased in importance, becoming one of the most prolific lines of study. The main aim of this study was to present a review of worldwide WUEA research over the last 30 years. A bibliometric analysis was developed based on the Scopus database. The sample included 6063 articles. The variables analyzed were: articles per year, category, journal, country, institution, author, and keyword. The results indicate that a remarkable growth in the number of articles published per year is occurring. The main category is environmental science and the main journal Agricultural Water Management. The countries with the highest number of articles were China, the United States of America, and India. The institution that published the most articles was the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the authors from China also were the most productive. The most frequently used keywords were irrigation, crop yield, water supply, and crops. The findings of this study can assist researchers in this field by providing an overview of worldwide research.

  7. Analysis of combustion efficiency in a pelletizing furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Vieira de Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to assess how much the improvement in the combustion reaction efficiency can reduce fuel consumption, maintaining the same thermal energy rate provided by the reaction in a pelletizing furnace. The furnace for pelletizing iron ore is a complex thermal machine, in terms of energy balance. It contains recirculation fan gases and constant variations in the process, and the variation of a single process variable can influence numerous changes in operating conditions. This study demonstrated how the main variables related to combustion in the burning zone influence fuel consumption (natural gas from the furnace of the Usina de Pelotização de Fábrica (owned by VALE S/A, without changing process conditions that affect production quality. Variables were analyzed regarding the velocity and pressure of the fuel in the burners, the temperature of the combustion air and reactant gases, the conversion rate and the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of the reaction. For the analysis, actual data of the furnace in operation was used, and for the simulation of chemical reactions, the software Gaseq® was used. The study showed that the adjustment of combustion reaction stoichiometry provides a reduction of 9.25% in fuel consumption, representing a savings of US$ 2.6 million per year for the company.

  8. Efficiency analysis of Chinese industry: A directional distance function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Michio; Tanaka, Katsuya

    2007-01-01

    Two efficiency measures of Chinese industry were estimated at the provincial level from 1994 to 2002, using a directional output distance function. One is a traditional efficiency measure that considers only desirable output, while the other considers both desirable and undesirable outputs simultaneously. A comparison of the two measures revealed that efficiency levels are biased only if desirable output is considered. Five coastal provinces/municipalities that have attracted a large amount of foreign direct investment are found to be the most efficient when only desirable output is considered, and also when both desirable and undesirable outputs are considered. However, omitting undesirable output tends to lead to an overestimate of industrial efficiency levels in Shandong, Sichuan, and Hebei provinces. We also found that a province's industrial structure has significant effects on its efficiency levels

  9. Role of the substrate reflectance and surface-bulk treatments in CsI quantum efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B K; Nitti, M A; Valentini, A

    2003-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated the following aspects related to the quantum efficiency of CsI photocathodes: the type of substrate, the film thickness and the effect of a 'bulk treatment' during the film growth. We discovered that, using a high reflectivity aluminium substrate, the photoemission of very thin CsI film is enhanced. Our study also revealed that photocathodes become less sensitive to moisture when a negative bias voltage is applied to the substrate during the film deposition process.

  10. An Analysis of Logistics Efficiency in PT. XYZ Surabaya Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Leevana, Elyn

    2015-01-01

    Logistic efficiency is an important element in enhancement of company's competitiveness. Therefore, this research is conducted to investigate factors that influence logistics efficiency using the study case from PT. XYZ. PT. XYZ is a company in distribution industry that distributes palm oil products and other food products from the manufacturer to retail businesses. The researcher will analyze factors that influence logistics efficiency, measured by transportation costs in this research.Rese...

  11. Army Materiel Requirements Documents: Qualitative Analysis of Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    focuses on the program’s time to execute their mission based off the MRDs/MCDs. We measure efficiency based on two BPP initiatives: (1) Build...definitions of each BPP initiative during our interviews. A poor rating indicates the requirement documents did not sufficiently support the program...in terms of efficiency and effectiveness according to BPP initiatives. For efficiency, we assign a qualitative measure based on SME responses across

  12. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-04-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween(®) 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween(®) 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R(2) > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween(®) 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween(®) 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  13. Increasing Water System Efficiency with Ultrafiltration Pre-treatment in Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majamaa, Katariina; Suarez, Javier; Gasia Eduard

    2012-09-01

    Water demineralization with reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has a long and successful history in water treatment for power plants. As the industry strives for more efficient, reliable and compact water systems, pressurized hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) has become an increasingly appealing pre-treatment technology. Compared to conventional, non- membrane based pretreatments, ultrafiltration offers higher efficiency in the removal of suspended solids, microorganisms and colloidal matter, which are all common causes for operational challenges experienced in the RO systems. In addition, UF is more capable of handling varying feed water qualities and removes the risk of particle carry-over often seen with conventional filtration techniques. Ultrafiltration is a suitable treatment technology for various water types from surface waters to wastewater, and the more fluctuating or challenging the feed water source is, the better the benefits of UF are seen compared to conventional pretreatments. Regardless of the feed water type, ultrafiltration sustains a constant supply of high quality feed water to downstream RO, allowing a more compact and cost efficient RO system design with improved operational reliability. A detailed focus on the design and operational aspects and experiences of two plants is provided. These examples demonstrate both economical UF operation and tangible impact of RO process improvement. Experience from these plants can be leveraged to new projects. (authors)

  14. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Hazard analyses were performed to evaluate the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment process was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. The analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public. The following selected hazardous scenarios received increased attention: •Scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy, controls were identified in the What-If analysis table that prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release. •Scenarios with significant consequences that could impact personnel outside the immediate operations area, quantitative analyses were performed to determine the potential magnitude of the scenario. The set of “critical controls” were identified for these scenarios (see Section 4) which prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release of events with significant consequences.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Maize Immature Embryos Reveals the Roles of Cysteine in Improving Agrobacterium Infection Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Fu, Junjie; Wang, Guoying; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Yunjun

    2017-01-01

    Maize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency has been greatly improved in recent years. Antioxidants, such as, cysteine, can significantly improve maize transformation frequency through improving the Agrobacterium infection efficiency. However, the mechanism underlying the transformation improvement after cysteine exposure has not been elucidated. In this study, we showed that the addition of cysteine to the co-cultivation medium significantly increased the Agrobacterium infection efficiency of hybrid HiII and inbred line Z31 maize embryos. Reactive oxygen species contents were higher in embryos treated with cysteine than that without cysteine. We further investigated the mechanism behind cysteine-related infection efficiency increase using transcriptome analysis. The results showed that the cysteine treatment up-regulated 939 genes and down-regulated 549 genes in both Z31 and HiII. Additionally, more differentially expressed genes were found in HiII embryos than those in Z31 embryos, suggesting that HiII was more sensitive to the cysteine treatment than Z31. GO analysis showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly involved in the oxidation reduction process. The up-regulation of these genes could help maize embryos to cope with the oxidative stress stimulated by Agrobacterium infection. The down-regulated genes were mainly involved in the cell wall and membrane metabolism, such as, aquaporin and expansin genes. Decreased expression of these cell wall integrity genes could loosen the cell wall, thereby improving the entry of Agrobacterium into plant cells. This study offers insight into the role of cysteine in improving Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize immature embryos. PMID:29089955

  16. Permeable treatment wall design and cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manz, C.; Quinn, K.

    1997-01-01

    A permeable treatment wall utilizing the funnel and gate technology has been chosen as the final remedial solution for one industrial site, and is being considered at other contaminated sites, such as a closed municipal landfill. Reactive iron gates will be utilized for treatment of chlorinated VOCs identified in the groundwater. Alternatives for the final remedial solution at each site were evaluated to achieve site closure in the most cost effective manner. This paper presents the remedial alternatives and cost analyses for each site. Several options are available at most sites for the design of a permeable treatment wall. Our analysis demonstrates that the major cost factor's for this technology are the design concept, length, thickness, location and construction methods for the reactive wall. Minimizing the amount of iron by placement in the most effective area and construction by the lowest cost method is critical to achieving a low cost alternative. These costs dictate the design of a permeable treatment wall, including selection of a variety of alternatives (e.g., a continuous wall versus a funnel and gate system, fully penetrating gates versus partially penetrating gates, etc.). Selection of the appropriate construction methods and materials for the site can reduce the overall cost of the wall

  17. WE-H-BRC-04: Implement Lean Methodology to Make Our Current Process of CT Simulation to Treatment More Efficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddu, S; Morrow, A; Krishnamurthy, N; McVicker, A; Deb, N; Rangaraj, D [Scott & White Hospital, Temple, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Our goal is to implement lean methodology to make our current process of CT simulation to treatment more efficient. Methods: In this study, we implemented lean methodology and tools and employed flowchart in excel for process-mapping. We formed a group of physicians, physicists, dosimetrists, therapists and a clinical physics assistant and huddled bi-weekly to map current value streams. We performed GEMBA walks and observed current processes from scheduling patient CT Simulations to treatment plan approval. From this, the entire workflow was categorized into processes, sub-processes, and tasks. For each process we gathered data on touch time, first time quality, undesirable effects (UDEs), and wait-times from relevant members of each task. UDEs were binned per frequency of their occurrence. We huddled to map future state and to find solutions to high frequency UDEs. We implemented visual controls, hard stops, and documented issues found during chart checks prior to treatment plan approval. Results: We have identified approximately 64 UDEs in our current workflow that could cause delays, re-work, compromise the quality and safety of patient treatments, or cause wait times between 1 – 6 days. While some UDEs are unavoidable, such as re-planning due to patient weight loss, eliminating avoidable UDEs is our goal. In 2015, we found 399 issues with patient treatment plans, of which 261, 95 and 43 were low, medium and high severity, respectively. We also mapped patient-specific QA processes for IMRT/Rapid Arc and SRS/SBRT, involving 10 and 18 steps, respectively. From these, 13 UDEs were found and 5 were addressed that solved 20% of issues. Conclusion: We have successfully implemented lean methodology and tools. We are further mapping treatment site specific workflows to identify bottlenecks, potential breakdowns and personnel allocation and employ tools like failure mode effects analysis to mitigate risk factors to make this process efficient.

  18. WE-H-BRC-04: Implement Lean Methodology to Make Our Current Process of CT Simulation to Treatment More Efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddu, S; Morrow, A; Krishnamurthy, N; McVicker, A; Deb, N; Rangaraj, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal is to implement lean methodology to make our current process of CT simulation to treatment more efficient. Methods: In this study, we implemented lean methodology and tools and employed flowchart in excel for process-mapping. We formed a group of physicians, physicists, dosimetrists, therapists and a clinical physics assistant and huddled bi-weekly to map current value streams. We performed GEMBA walks and observed current processes from scheduling patient CT Simulations to treatment plan approval. From this, the entire workflow was categorized into processes, sub-processes, and tasks. For each process we gathered data on touch time, first time quality, undesirable effects (UDEs), and wait-times from relevant members of each task. UDEs were binned per frequency of their occurrence. We huddled to map future state and to find solutions to high frequency UDEs. We implemented visual controls, hard stops, and documented issues found during chart checks prior to treatment plan approval. Results: We have identified approximately 64 UDEs in our current workflow that could cause delays, re-work, compromise the quality and safety of patient treatments, or cause wait times between 1 – 6 days. While some UDEs are unavoidable, such as re-planning due to patient weight loss, eliminating avoidable UDEs is our goal. In 2015, we found 399 issues with patient treatment plans, of which 261, 95 and 43 were low, medium and high severity, respectively. We also mapped patient-specific QA processes for IMRT/Rapid Arc and SRS/SBRT, involving 10 and 18 steps, respectively. From these, 13 UDEs were found and 5 were addressed that solved 20% of issues. Conclusion: We have successfully implemented lean methodology and tools. We are further mapping treatment site specific workflows to identify bottlenecks, potential breakdowns and personnel allocation and employ tools like failure mode effects analysis to mitigate risk factors to make this process efficient.

  19. Analysis of factors affecting the technical efficiency of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study estimated the technical efficiency of cocoa producers and the socioeconomic factors influencing technical efficiency and identified the constraints to cocoa production. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select 180 cocoa farmers who were interviewed for the study. Data on the inputs used and ...

  20. Analysis of Cherenkov counter efficiencies for E691

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremaldi, L.; Elliott, J.; Gibney, M.; Nauenberg, U.

    1985-01-01

    A program is outlined which simulates Cherenkov counters. The program can compute the effect of the magnetic field on the efficiencies of Cherenkov counters. It also tells what cone to mirror distance gives the highest collection efficiency and at which target position should the laser be placed to represent the direction of the actual Cherenkov light the mirror sees

  1. Economic efficiency analysis of electron accelerator for irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huidong; Chen Ronghui

    2003-01-01

    The fixed assets, running cost and economic efficiency were discussed in this paper. For building electron accelerator of 10 MeV and 3 kW, the running cost is one time higher than building cobalt source at 2.22 x 10 15 Bq, but economic efficiency of building a electron accelerator is much higher than building a cobalt source

  2. Spectral Efficiency Analysis for Multicarrier Based 4G Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Nuno; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Frederiksen, Flemming Bjerge

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a spectral efficiency definition is proposed. Spectral efficiency for multicarrier based multiaccess techniques, such as OFDMA, MC-CDMA and OFDMA-CDM, is analyzed. Simulations for different indoor and outdoor scenarios are carried out. Based on the simulations, we have discussed ho...

  3. Gasoline taxes or efficiency standards? A heterogeneous household demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Using detailed consumer expenditure survey data and a flexible semiparametric dynamic demand model, this paper estimates the price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity of gasoline demand at the household level. The goal is to assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and vehicle fuel efficiency standards on fuel consumption. The results reveal substantial interaction between vehicle fuel efficiency and the price elasticity of gasoline demand: the improvement of vehicle fuel efficiency leads to lower price elasticity and weakens consumers’ sensitivity to gasoline price changes. The offsetting effect also differs across households due to demographic heterogeneity. These findings imply that when gasoline taxes are in place, tightening efficiency standards will partially offset the strength of taxes on reducing fuel consumption. - Highlights: • Model household gasoline demand using a semiparametric approach. • Estimate heterogeneous price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity. • Assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and efficiency standards. • Efficiency standards offset the impact of gasoline taxes on fuel consumption. • The offsetting effect differs by household demographics

  4. Comparative environmental analysis of waste brominated plastic thermal treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bientinesi, M.; Petarca, L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research activity is to investigate the environmental impact of different thermal treatments of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), applying a life cycle assessment methodology. Two scenarios were assessed, which both allow the recovery of bromine: (A) the co-combustion of WEEE and green waste in a municipal solid waste combustion plant, and (B) the staged-gasification of WEEE and combustion of produced syngas in gas turbines. Mass and energy balances on the two scenarios were set and the analysis of the life cycle inventory and the life cycle impact assessment were conducted. Two impact assessment methods (Ecoindicator 99 and Impact 2002+) were slightly modified and then used with both scenarios. The results showed that scenario B (staged-gasification) had a potentially smaller environmental impact than scenario A (co-combustion). In particular, the thermal treatment of staged-gasification was more energy efficient than co-combustion, and therefore scenario B performed better than scenario A, mainly in the impact categories of 'fossil fuels' and 'climate change'. Moreover, the results showed that scenario B allows a higher recovery of bromine than scenario A; however, Br recovery leads to environmental benefits for both the scenarios. Finally the study demonstrates that WEEE thermal treatment for energy and matter recovery is an eco-efficient way to dispose of this kind of waste

  5. SEM Analysis of Surface Impact on Biofilm Antibiotic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luciana Calheiros; Mergulhão, Filipe José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the effect of ampicillin treatment on Escherichia coli biofilms formed on two surface materials with different properties, silicone (SIL) and glass (GLA). Epifluorescence microscopy (EM) was initially used to assess biofilm formation and killing efficiency on both surfaces. This technique showed that higher bacterial colonization was obtained in the hydrophobic SIL than in the hydrophilic GLA. It has also shown that higher biofilm inactivation was attained for GLA after the antibiotic treatment (7-log reduction versus 1-log reduction for SIL). Due to its high resolution and magnification, SEM enabled a more detailed analysis of the antibiotic effect on biofilm cells, complementing the killing efficiency information obtained by EM. SEM micrographs revealed that ampicillin-treated cells have an elongated form when compared to untreated cells. Additionally, it has shown that different materials induced different levels of elongation on cells exposed to antibiotic. Biofilms formed on GLA showed a 37% higher elongation than those formed on SIL. Importantly, cell elongation was related to viability since ampicillin had a higher bactericidal effect on GLA-formed biofilms. These findings raise the possibility of using SEM for understanding the efficacy of antimicrobial treatments by observation of biofilm morphology.

  6. Academic Performance and Burnout: An Efficient Frontier Analysis of Resource Use Efficiency among Employed University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of university student burnout on academic achievement. With a longitudinal sample of working undergraduate university business and economics students, we use a two-step analytical process to estimate the efficient frontiers of student productivity given inputs of labour and capital and then analyse the potential determinants…

  7. Memory-efficient analysis of dense functional connectomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Loewe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of the human brain relies on the interplay and integration of numerous individual units within a complex network. To identify network configurations characteristic of specific cognitive tasks or mental illnesses, functional connectomes can be constructed based on the assessment of synchronous fMRI activity at separate brain sites, and then analyzed using graph-theoretical concepts. In most previous studies, relatively coarse parcellations of the brain were used to define regions as graphical nodes. Such parcellated connectomes are highly dependent on parcellation quality because regional and functional boundaries need to be relatively consistent for the results to be interpretable. In contrast, dense connectomes are not subject to this limitation, since the parcellation inherent to the data is used to define graphical nodes, also allowing for a more detailed spatial mapping of connectivity patterns. However, dense connectomes are associated with considerable computational demands in terms of both time and memory requirements. The memory required to explicitly store dense connectomes in main memory can render their analysis infeasible, especially when considering high-resolution data or analyses across multiple subjects or conditions. Here, we present an object-based matrix representation that achieves a very low memory footprint by computing matrix elements on demand instead of explicitly storing them. In doing so, memory required for a dense connectome is reduced to the amount needed to store the underlying time series data. Based on theoretical considerations and benchmarks, different matrix object implementations and additional programs (based on available Matlab functions and Matlab-based third-party software are compared with regard to their computational efficiency in terms of memory requirements and computation time. The matrix implementation based on on-demand computations has very low memory requirements thus enabling

  8. Memory-Efficient Analysis of Dense Functional Connectomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Kristian; Donohue, Sarah E; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Kruse, Rudolf; Borgelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The functioning of the human brain relies on the interplay and integration of numerous individual units within a complex network. To identify network configurations characteristic of specific cognitive tasks or mental illnesses, functional connectomes can be constructed based on the assessment of synchronous fMRI activity at separate brain sites, and then analyzed using graph-theoretical concepts. In most previous studies, relatively coarse parcellations of the brain were used to define regions as graphical nodes. Such parcellated connectomes are highly dependent on parcellation quality because regional and functional boundaries need to be relatively consistent for the results to be interpretable. In contrast, dense connectomes are not subject to this limitation, since the parcellation inherent to the data is used to define graphical nodes, also allowing for a more detailed spatial mapping of connectivity patterns. However, dense connectomes are associated with considerable computational demands in terms of both time and memory requirements. The memory required to explicitly store dense connectomes in main memory can render their analysis infeasible, especially when considering high-resolution data or analyses across multiple subjects or conditions. Here, we present an object-based matrix representation that achieves a very low memory footprint by computing matrix elements on demand instead of explicitly storing them. In doing so, memory required for a dense connectome is reduced to the amount needed to store the underlying time series data. Based on theoretical considerations and benchmarks, different matrix object implementations and additional programs (based on available Matlab functions and Matlab-based third-party software) are compared with regard to their computational efficiency. The matrix implementation based on on-demand computations has very low memory requirements, thus enabling analyses that would be otherwise infeasible to conduct due to

  9. Efficiency of electrical coagulation process using aluminum electrodes for municipal wastewater treatment: a case study at Karaj wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Gholami Yengejeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reuse of treated municipal wastewater is an important source of water for different purposes. This study evaluated the efficiency of the electrocoagulation process in removing turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrate, and phosphate from wastewater at the treatment facility in Karaj, Iran. Methods: This experimental study was performed at a pilot scale and in a batch system. A 4-liter tank made from safety glass with 4 plate electrodes made from aluminum was unipolarly connected to a direct current power supply with a parallel arrangement. Wastewater samples were taken from the influent at the Karaj wastewater treatment facility. Rates of turbidity, TSS, COD, nitrate, and phosphate removal under different conditions were determined. Results: The highest efficiency of COD, TSS, nitrate, turbidity, and phosphate elimination was achieved at a voltage of 30 volts and a reaction time of 30 minutes. The rates were 88.43%, 87.39%, 100%, 80.52%, and 82.69%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, electrocoagulation is an appropriate method for use in removing nitrate, phosphate, COD, turbidity, and TSS from wastewater.

  10. [Reflections about the efficiency criteria for cancer treatments during marketing authorization application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannin, Noémie; Blois-Da Conceição, Stéphanie; Protière, Christel

    2013-03-01

    Although clear and validated recommendations exist concerning the evaluation of cancer treatments at the international level, the criteria retained to obtain the marketing authorization (MA) are multiple and heterogeneous. This qualitative survey explores the opinion related to the assessment of cancer treatment among the several concerned population. By the way of semi-structured interviews, our aim was to elicit perceptions toward the criteria which should be retained during the process of MA, by patients, oncologists, members of the pharmaceutical industry, health decision-makers and general population. Our survey emphasizes the variability of the significations associated with the criteria of efficiency of cancer treatments according to the characteristics of the respondents. We also have observed some common expectations from patients and oncologists toward the economic and political aspect, but also from the whole respondents toward the importance of the comfort of the patients. Lastly, the necessity to define specific criteria related to clinical cases emerges.

  11. Measuring the efficiency of a healthcare waste management system in Serbia with data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkovic, Branislava; Andrejic, Milan; Vidovic, Milorad

    2012-06-01

    In 2007, the Serbian Ministry of Health initiated specific activities towards establishing a workable model based on the existing administrative framework, which corresponds to the needs of healthcare waste management throughout Serbia. The objective of this research was to identify the reforms carried out and their outcomes by estimating the efficiencies of a sample of 35 healthcare facilities engaged in the process of collection and treatment of healthcare waste, using data envelopment analysis. Twenty-one (60%) of the 35 healthcare facilities analysed were found to be technically inefficient, with an average level of inefficiency of 13%. This fact indicates deficiencies in the process of collection and treatment of healthcare waste and the information obtained and presented in this paper could be used for further improvement and development of healthcare waste management in Serbia.

  12. Environmental Efficiency Analysis of Listed Cement Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s cement production has been the highest worldwide for decades and contributes significant environmental pollution. Using a non-radical DEA model with slacks-based measure (SBM, this paper analyzes the environmental efficiency of China’s listed cement companies. The results suggest that the average mean of the environmental efficiency for the listed cement enterprises shows a decreasing trend in 2012 and 2013. There is a significant imbalance in environmental efficiency in these firms ranging from very low to very high. Further investigation finds that enterprise size and property structure are key factors. Increasing production concentration and decreasing the share of government investment could improve the environmental efficiency. The findings also suggest that effectively monitoring pollution products can improve environmental efficiency quickly, whereas pursuit for excessive profitability without keeping the same pace in energy saving would cause a sharp drop in environmental efficiency. Based on these findings, we proposed that companies in the Chinese cement sector might consider restructuring to improve environmental efficiency. They also need to make a trade-off between profitability and environmental protection. Finally, the Chinese government should reduce ownership control and management interventions in cement companies.

  13. Profitability and efficiency of Italian utilities: cluster analysis of financial statement ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, E.

    2008-01-01

    The last ten years have witnessed conspicuous changes in European and Italian regulation of public utility services and in the strategies of the major players in these fields. In response to these changes Italian utilities have made a variety of choices regarding size, presence in more or less capital-intensive stages of different value chains, and diversification. These choices have been implemented both through internal growth and by means of mergers and acquisitions. In this context it is interesting to try to establish whether there is a nexus between these choices and the performance of Italian utilities in terms of profitability and efficiency. Therefore statistical multivariate analysis techniques (cluster analysis and factor analysis) have been applied to several ratios obtained from the 2005 financial statement of 34 utilities. First, a hierarchical cluster analysis method has been applied to financial statement data in order to identify homogeneous groups based on several indicators of the incidence of costs (external costs, personnel costs, depreciation and amortization), profitability (return on sales, return on assets, return on equity) and efficiency (in the utilization of personnel, of total assets, of property, plant and equipment). Five clusters have been found. Then the clusters have been characterized in terms of the aforementioned indicators, the presence in different stages of the energy value chains (electricity and gas) and other descriptive variables (such as turnover, number of employees, assets, percentage of property, plant and equipment on total assets, sales revenues from electricity, gas, water supply and sanitation, waste collection and treatment and other services). In a second round cluster analysis has been preceded by factor analysis, in order to find a smaller set of variables. This procedure has revealed three not directly observable factors that can be interpreted as follows: i) efficiency in ordinary and financial management

  14. Improving efficiency and safety in external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery using a Kaizen approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ajay; Adair, Nilda; O'Brien, Mildred; Naparstek, Nikoleta; Cangelosi, Thomas; Zuvic, Petrina; Joseph, Sherin; Meier, Jason; Bloom, Beatrice; Potters, Louis

    Modern external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery processes potentially increase the number of tasks to be performed by therapists and thus opportunities for errors, yet the need to treat a large number of patients daily requires a balanced allocation of time per treatment slot. The goal of this work was to streamline the underlying workflow in such time-interval constrained processes to enhance both execution efficiency and active safety surveillance using a Kaizen approach. A Kaizen project was initiated by mapping the workflow within each treatment slot for 3 Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators. More than 90 steps were identified, and average execution times for each were measured. The time-consuming steps were stratified into a 2 × 2 matrix arranged by potential workflow improvement versus the level of corrective effort required. A work plan was created to launch initiatives with high potential for workflow improvement but modest effort to implement. Time spent on safety surveillance and average durations of treatment slots were used to assess corresponding workflow improvements. Three initiatives were implemented to mitigate unnecessary therapist motion, overprocessing of data, and wait time for data transfer defects, respectively. A fourth initiative was implemented to make the division of labor by treating therapists as well as peer review more explicit. The average duration of treatment slots reduced by 6.7% in the 9 months following implementation of the initiatives (P = .001). A reduction of 21% in duration of treatment slots was observed on 1 of the machines (P Kaizen approach has the potential to improve operational efficiency and safety with quick turnaround in radiation therapy practice by addressing non-value-adding steps characteristic of individual department workflows. Higher effort opportunities are identified to guide continual downstream quality improvements. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by

  15. Energy efficiency analysis of reconfigured distribution system for practical loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In deregulated rate structure, the performance evaluation of distribution system for energy efficiency includes; loss minimization, improved power quality, loadability limit, reliability and availability of supply. Energy efficiency changes with the variation in loading pattern and the load behaviour. Further, the nature of load at each node is not explicitly of any one type rather their characteristics depend upon the node voltages. In most cases, load is assumed to be constant power (real and reactive. In this paper voltage dependent practical loads are represented with composite load model and the energy efficiency performance of distribution system for practical loads is evaluated in different configurations of 33-node system.

  16. Energy Efficiency Analysis for Dynamic Routing in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizcaíno, Jorge López; Ye, Yabin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency in telecommunication networks is gaining more relevance as the Internet traffic is growing. The introduction of OFDM and dynamic operation opens new horizons in the operation of optical networks, improving the network flexibility and its efficiency. In this paper, we compare...... the performance in terms of energy efficiency of a flexible-grid OFDM-based solution with a fixed-grid WDM network in a dynamic scenario with time-varying connections. We highlight the benefits that the bandwidth elasticity and the flexibility of selecting different modulation formats can offer compared...

  17. MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTION OF BOILER LOSSES AND BOILER EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Chayalakshmi C.L

    2018-01-01

    MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTION OF BOILER LOSSES AND BOILER EFFICIENCY ABSTRACT Calculation of boiler efficiency is essential if its parameters need to be controlled for either maintaining or enhancing its efficiency. But determination of boiler efficiency using conventional method is time consuming and very expensive. Hence, it is not recommended to find boiler efficiency frequently. The work presented in this paper deals with establishing the statistical mo...

  18. Review: Efficiency of physical and chemical treatments on the inactivation of dairy bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marta Guglielmotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages can cause great economic losses due to fermentation failure in dairy plants. Hence, physical and chemical treatments of raw material and/or equipment are mandatory to maintain phage levels as low as possible. Regarding thermal treatments used to kill pathogenic bacteria or achieve longer shelf-life of dairy products, neither low temperature long time (LTLT nor high temperature short time (HTST pasteurization were able to inactivate most lactic acid bacteria (LAB phages. Even though most phages did not survive 90ºC for 2 min, there were some that resisted 90ºC for more than 15 min (conditions suggested by the International Dairy Federation, IDF, for complete phage destruction. Among biocides tested, ethanol showed variable effectiveness in phage inactivation, since only phages infecting dairy cocci and Lactobacillus helveticus were reasonably inactivated by this alcohol, whereas isopropanol was in all cases highly ineffective. In turn, peracetic acid has consistently proved to be very fast and efficient to inactivate dairy phages, whereas efficiency of sodium hypochlorite was variable, even among different phages infecting the same LAB species. Both alkaline chloride foam and ethoxylated nonylphenol with phosphoric acid were remarkably efficient, trait probably related to their highly alkaline or acidic pH values in solution, respectively. Photocatalysis using UV light and TiO2 has been recently reported as a feasible option to industrially inactivate phages infecting diverse LAB species. Processes involving high pressure were barely used for phage inactivation, but until now most studied phages revealed high resistance to these treatments. To conclude, and given the great phage diversity found on dairies, it is always advisable to combine different anti-phage treatments (biocides, heat, high pressure, photocatalysis, rather than using them separately at extreme conditions.

  19. Heterogeneous photocatalysis for air and water treatment: Fundamental needs for quantum efficiency enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollis, D.F. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    In the remediation industries, a useful treatment technology must be {open_quotes}general, robust, and cheap{close_quotes}. Among oxidation processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is now broadly demonstrated to destroy common water and air contaminants. The potential process uses of highly stable titania, long lived lamps (one year), and room temperature operation, indicating a simple and robust process. We are left to address the third criterion: Can photocatalysis be {open_quotes}cheap{close_quotes}? In both liquid phase and gas phase treatment and purification by photocatalysis, it is established that the primary barrier to commercialization is often cost. Cost in return is dominated by the efficiency with which solar or lamp photons are harvested for productive light, and subsequent dark, reactions. This paper therefore defines fundamental needs in photocatalysis for pollution control in terms of activities which could lead to quantum efficiency enhancement. We first recall three related definitions. The quantum yield (QY) is the ratio of molecules of reactant converted per photon absorbed, a fundamental quantity. A less fundamental, but more easily measured variable is the quantum efficiency (QE), the ratio of molecules converted per photon entering the reactor. A third variable is the energy required per order of magnitude pollutant reduction, or EEO, a definition which provides for easy energy cost comparisons among different technologies. Each measure cited here reflects the photon, and thus the electrical, cost of this photochemistry.

  20. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  1. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis: durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project examined the life cycle and economic efficiency of two pavement marking : materials inlaid tape and thermoplastic to find the most economical product for specific : traffic and weather conditions. Six locations in the state of Ma...

  2. Analysis of railroad energy efficiency in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide information about railroad fuel efficiency that may be useful in evaluating transportation energy policies and assessing the sustainability of potential projects. The specific objectives are to (1) develop rail...

  3. Bank branch operating efficiency: evaluation with data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Talebi Zarinkamar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of similar units has been a popular research especially when the units were mostly non-financial. Even, similar financial units may not be necessarily evaluated based on traditional financial figures such as return of equities, return of assets, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of 30 branches of an Iranian bank named Bank Mellat. The study considers four inputs including operating expenses, interest paid, capital expenditures and fixed assets. In addition, we use customers’ bank deposit, commissions and loans paid as output parameters. Using three different data envelopment analyses, the study measures the relative efficiencies of all units. The preliminary results indicate that most banks were working under desirable level of efficiency.

  4. TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENT MARKET HYPOTHESIS IN A FRONTIER MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    MOBEEN Ur Rehman; WAQAS Bin Khidmat

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on identifying the major financial indicators or ratios that play a crucial role in determining the prices of the securities. Also the volatility of the prices of securities on the basis of previous performance of the companies will help us to understand the applicability of efficient market hypothesis in our emerging financial market. The scope of this paper is to investigate the weak form of market efficiency in the Karachi stock exchange. This paper will help the investo...

  5. Detector Simulation: Data Treatment and Analysis Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, J

    2011-01-01

    Detector Simulation in 'Data Treatment and Analysis Methods', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '4.1 Detector Simulation' of Chapter '4 Data Treatment and Analysis Methods' with the content: 4.1 Detector Simulation 4.1.1 Overview of simulation 4.1.1.1 Uses of detector simulation 4.1.2 Stages and types of simulation 4.1.2.1 Tools for event generation and detector simulation 4.1.2.2 Level of simulation and computation time 4.1.2.3 Radiation effects and background studies 4.1.3 Components of detector simulation 4.1.3.1 Geometry modeling 4.1.3.2 External fields 4.1.3.3 Intro...

  6. Efficient treatment of aniline containing wastewater in bipolar membrane microbial electrolysis cell-Fenton system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Jin, Xiangdan; Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-08-01

    Aniline-containing wastewater can cause significant environmental problems and threaten the humans's life. However, rapid degradation of aniline with cost-efficient methods remains a challenge. In this work, a novel microbial electrolysis cell with bipolar membrane was integrated with Fenton reaction (MEC-Fenton) for efficient treatment of real wastewater containing a high concentration (4460 ± 52 mg L -1 ) of aniline. In this system, H 2 O 2 was in situ electro-synthesized from O 2 reduction on the graphite cathode and was simultaneously used as source of OH for the oxidation of aniline wastewater under an acidic condition maintained by the bipolar membrane. The aniline was effectively degraded following first-order kinetics at a rate constant of 0.0166 h -1 under an applied voltage of 0.5 V. Meanwhile, a total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency of 93.1 ± 1.2% was obtained, revealing efficient mineralization of aniline. The applicability of bipolar membrane MEC-Fenton system was successfully demonstrated with actual aniline wastewater. Moreover, energy balance showed that the system could be a promising technology for removal of biorefractory organic pollutants from wastewaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High efficiency and low cost preparation of size controlled starch nanoparticles through ultrasonic treatment and precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanjiao; Yan, Xiaoxia; Wang, Qian; Ren, Lili; Tong, Jin; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to develop an approach to produce size controlled starch nanoparticles (SNPs), via precipitation with high efficiency and low cost. High concentration starch aqueous pastes (up to 5wt.%) were treated by ultrasound. Viscosity measurements and size exclusion chromatography characterization revealed that, after 30min ultrasonic treatment, viscosity of the starch pastes decreased two orders of magnitude and the weight average molecular weight of the starch decreased from 8.4×10 7 to 2.7×10 6 g/mol. Dynamic light scattering measurements and scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the SNPs prepared from the starch pastes with ultrasonic treatments were smaller (∼75nm) and more uniform. Moreover, SNPs could be obtained using less non-solvents. X-ray diffraction results indicated that effect of the ultrasonic treatment on crystalline structure of the SNPs was negligible. Ultrasound can be utilized to prepare smaller SNPs through nanoprecipitation with higher efficiency and lower cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Method of improving the decontaminating efficiency of ruthenium in evaporating treatment of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kanya; Yamana, Hajime; Takeda, Seiichiro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To significantly improve the ruthenium removing efficiency in a nitric acid solution in an acid recovery system for the recovery of nitric acid from nitric acid liquid wastes through evaporating condensation. Method: Upon evaporating treatment of nitric acid solution containing ruthenium by supplying and heating the solution to a nitric acid evaporating device, hydrazine is previously added to the nitric acid solution. Hydrazine and intermediate reaction product of hydrazine such as azide causes a reduction reaction with intermediate reaction product of ruthenium tetraoxide to suppress the oxidation of ruthenium and thereby improve the decontaminating efficiency of ruthenium. The amount of hydrazine to be added is preferably between 20 - 500 mg/l and most suitably between 200 - 2000 mg/l per one liter of the liquid in the evaporating device. (Seki, T.)

  9. Evaluation of home-made teas efficiency from medicinal plants used on childish diarrhea treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Magda Moreira; Silva, Maria Jose de Sousa Ferreira da

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this work is to verify whether the home-made teas form Brazilian plants, used for control of childish diarrhea have been efficient reaching the composition recommended by World Health Organizations (WHO). This work has been carried out using the neutron activation analysis and the TRIGA MARK I reactor, the IPR-R1, in the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Energy efficiency analysis and implementation of AES on an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, David

    The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rjimen and endorsed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 2001. It was designed to replace the aging Data Encryption Standard (DES) and be useful for a wide range of applications with varying throughput, area, power dissipation and energy consumption requirements. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are flexible and reconfigurable integrated circuits that are useful for many different applications including the implementation of AES. Though they are highly flexible, FPGAs are often less efficient than Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs); they tend to operate slower, take up more space and dissipate more power. There have been many FPGA AES implementations that focus on obtaining high throughput or low area usage, but very little research done in the area of low power or energy efficient FPGA based AES; in fact, it is rare for estimates on power dissipation to be made at all. This thesis presents a methodology to evaluate the energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs and proposes a novel FPGA AES implementation which is highly flexible and energy efficient. The proposed methodology is implemented as part of a novel scripting tool, the AES Energy Analyzer, which is able to fully characterize the power dissipation and energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs. Additionally, this thesis introduces a new FPGA power reduction technique called Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating (OCOG) which is used in the proposed energy efficient implementation. The AES Energy Analyzer was able to estimate the power dissipation and energy efficiency of the proposed AES design during its most commonly performed operations. It was found that the proposed implementation consumes less energy per operation than any previous FPGA based AES implementations that included power estimations. Finally, the use of Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating on an AES cipher

  11. ENHANCEMENT OF PHENOL REMOVAL EFFICIENCY IN DORA REFINERY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah F. Sharif

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the sanctions imposed on Iraq by the United Nations, programmed maintenance and wearing parts replacement has not been performed according to schedules in DORA Refinery Wastewater Unit, which resulted in higher phenol content and BOD5 in effluents disposed to river. The investigations showed that two main reasons were behind this problem: Firstly, increased emissions of hydrocarbons in the complexity of refinery equipment and Secondly, the decreased efficiency of the aerators in the biological. During the last few months, phenol average concentration in the effluent, after biological treatment was found to be between 0.06-0.13 mg/L, while COD was exceeding 110 mg/L after treatment in the same period. Considerable enhancement, has been indicated recently, after the following performances: First: Recycling wastewater from some heat exchangers, and the segregation of low and high strength of wastewaters, Second: Minimizing emissions of hydrocarbons from fluid catalytic cracking and steam cracking, Third: Replacement of driving motors of the aerators in the biological treatment unit. After replacement of these units, a significant decrease in phenol concentration was obtained in purified water (0.03-0.05 mg/L and COD of 60 mg/L before the tertiary treatment. It is concluded that a better quality of effluents has been obtained after a series of emissions control and wastewater treatment unit equipment maintenance performances.

  12. Developing an efficient scheduling template of a chemotherapy treatment unit: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Z; Elmekkawy, Ty; Bates, S

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to improve the performance of a Chemotherapy Treatment Unit by increasing the throughput and reducing the average patient's waiting time. In order to achieve this objective, a scheduling template has been built. The scheduling template is a simple tool that can be used to schedule patients' arrival to the clinic. A simulation model of this system was built and several scenarios, that target match the arrival pattern of the patients and resources availability, were designed and evaluated. After performing detailed analysis, one scenario provide the best system's performance. A scheduling template has been developed based on this scenario. After implementing the new scheduling template, 22.5% more patients can be served. 1. CancerCare Manitoba is a provincially mandated cancer care agency. It is dedicated to provide quality care to those who have been diagnosed and are living with cancer. MacCharles Chemotherapy unit is specially built to provide chemotherapy treatment to the cancer patients of Winnipeg. In order to maintain an excellent service, it tries to ensure that patients get their treatment in a timely manner. It is challenging to maintain that goal because of the lack of a proper roster, the workload distribution and inefficient resource allotment. In order to maintain the satisfaction of the patients and the healthcare providers, by serving the maximum number of patients in a timely manner, it is necessary to develop an efficient scheduling template that matches the required demand with the availability of resources. This goal can be reached using simulation modelling. Simulation has proven to be an excellent modelling tool. It can be defined as building computer models that represent real world or hypothetical systems, and hence experimenting with these models to study system behaviour under different scenarios.1, 2 A study was undertaken at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario to identify the issues behind the long waiting

  13. Highly efficient and energy-saving sectional treatment of landfill leachate with a synergistic system of biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation on a boron-doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guohua; Pang Yaning; Liu Lei; Gao Junxia; Lv Baoying

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a synergistic combination of the biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation (SBEO) of landfill leachate with sectional treatment on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode is proposed. The first stage involves the synergistic system of biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation. Then, the second stage is followed by individual biochemical treatment. Comparisons among the SBEO, electrochemical oxidation, biochemical treatment and biochemical treatment with the pretreatment of electrochemical oxidation are made systematically, which show that this method is both highly efficient and energy-saving. The higher TOC removal and low energy cost on the BDD electrode can be explained by the conversion of the bio-refractory pollutants to biodegradable organics in the electrochemical oxidation process, improving the current efficiency and reducing the energy cost. The treated wastewater is degraded only with biochemical treatment in the second stage, which further improves efficiency and reduced the energy cost.

  14. Esophageal achalasia: retrospective analysis of treatment during 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Štupnik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Esophageal achalasia (EA is a primary esophageal motility disorder of unclear aetiology. Standard treatments of EA are: pneumatic balloon dilation (PBD of the lower esophageal sphyncter (LES and surgical cleaving of the muscle by Heller myotomy. Although the treatment effectively cures dysphagia, the symptoms recur in about a half of the patients. Our point of interest was long-term effectiveness of EA treatment at our department. METHODSWe made a retrospective analysis of EA patients treated at our department of thoracic surgery during the 2000–2010 period.RESULTSIn 11 years we performed 187 PBD and 22 laparoscopic myotomies (LM in 148 patients. Three years after the procedure 65 % of patients after PBD and 90 % of patients after LM showed no signs of disease. The risk of recurrence was 3.56-times greater (p = 0.03 after PBD (in comparison to LM, whereas patients older than 50 years bear 0.51-times lower risk (p = 0.02. The most significant complicatios were esophageal perforation in 3 patients (1.6 % after PBD and gastroesophageal reflux in 3 patients (15 % after LM.CONCLUSIONSPBD is a fast, simple, inexpensive and very efficient method of EA treatment, which can be safely performed in almost every patient. LM is far more expensive and a more complicated method that is more suitable for younger patients, in whom PBD is less effective.

  15. Efficiency Analysis of Financial Management Administration of ABC Hospital using Financial Ratio Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Jonny

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the financial performance of ABC hospital within the period of 2012 to 2013. To overcome the problems faced by the hospital related to how to measure and presented its financial performance in which financial ratio analysis was undertaken. These financial ratios were employed to measure the liquidity, assets utilization, long-term solvency and profitability of the hospital. This analysis was conducted in order to prove whether the hospital has been managed efficiently or not in accordance to Indonesian Hospital Quality Accreditation as stated in its clause on Administration Standard No. 5 Parameter No. 3 that the hospital financial management shall be conducted in appropriate way in order to guarantee its operation efficiently. The result showed that overall financial performance of ABC hospital increased considerably in those two years of the analysis. A significant change was occurred on its solvency ratio which was decreased from -2% to -8%, indicating its loose dependency due to its founder’s strong financial support. Therefore, based on this favorable result, the hospital was regarded to have efficient hospital management and thus, together with other standard fulfillment, it was accredited by Indonesian Health Ministry.

  16. Efficient transformer study: Analysis of manufacture and utility data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkes, Klaehn [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cordaro, Joe [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McIntosh, John [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Benjamin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hammerstrom, Donald [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-16

    Distribution transformers convert power from the distribution system voltage to the end-customer voltage, which consists of residences, businesses, distributed generation, campus systems, and manufacturing facilities. Amorphous metal distribution transformers (AMDT) are also more expensive and heavier than conventional silicon steel distribution transformers. This and the difficulty to measure the benefit from energy efficiency and low awareness of the technology have hindered the adoption of AMDT. This report presents the cost savings for installing AMDT and the amount of energy saved based on the improved efficiency.

  17. Robustness analysis of the efficiency in PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigazo, Alberto; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    topology and control strategy but also on the characteristics of the employed components. The aim of this paper is evaluate the effect of physical variations associated to the main components on the overall efficiency of PV inverters. It is concluded that a statistical evaluation of the power converter......During last years an increasing attention has been paid to the efficiency of grid-connected PV inverters. They are manufactured from a number of discrete components and by using a certain topology and control strategy. Hence, the performance of a certain PV inverter not only depends on the selected...

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in wastewater treatment plants and drinking water treatment plants: Removal efficiency and exposure risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs. The average total PFASs concentrations in the three selected WWTPs were 19.6-232 ng/L in influents, 15.5-234 ng/L in effluents, and 31.5-49.1 ng/g dry weight in sludge. The distribution pattern of PFASs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples, indicating strong partition of PFASs with long carbon chains to sludge. In the WWTPs, most PFASs were not eliminated efficiently in conventional activated sludge treatment, while the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) and Unitank removed approximately 50% of long chain (C ≥ 8) perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). The daily mass loads of total PFASs in WWTPs were in the range of 1956-24773 mg in influent and 1548-25085 mg in effluent. PFASs were found at higher concentrations in the wastewater from plant A with some industrial wastewater input than from the other two plants (plant B and plant C) with mainly domestic wastewater sources. Meanwhile, the average total PFASs concentrations in the two selected DWTPs were detected at 4.74-14.3 ng/L in the influent and 3.34-13.9 ng/L in the effluent. In DWTPs, only granular activated carbon (GAC) and powder activated carbon (PAC) showed significant removal of PFASs. The PFASs detected in the tap water would not pose immediate health risks in the short term exposure. The findings from this

  19. [Efficiency of combined methods of hemorroid treatment using hal-rar and laser destruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodoman, G V; Kornev, L V; Shalaeva, T I; Malushenko, R N

    2017-01-01

    To develop the combined method of treatment of hemorrhoids with arterial ligation under Doppler control and laser destruction of internal and external hemorrhoids. The study included 100 patients with chronic hemorrhoids stage II and III. Combined method of HAL-laser was used in study group, HAL RAR-technique in control group 1 and closed hemorrhoidectomy with linear stapler in control group 2. Сomparative evaluation of results in both groups was performed. Combined method overcomes the drawbacks of traditional surgical treatment and limitations in external components elimination which are inherent for HAL-RAR. Moreover, it has a higher efficiency in treating of hemorrhoids stage II-III compared with HAL-RAR and is equally safe and well tolerable for patients. This method does not increase the risk of recurrence, reduces incidence of complications and time of disability.

  20. Radioprotectors effect on the efficiency of combined treatment of radiation injuries (review of the literature)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farshatov, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Therapeutic efficiency of radioprotector action (cystamine, in particular) under isolated and combined (in combination with burns, mechanical injuries of skull, brain, limbs internal organs etc.) radiation affection is discussed on the basis of experiment data, obtained by different authors. The conclusion is drawn, that under combined radiation affections with leading radial component, radioprotectors provide for approximately the same protection effect as under isolated radioactive irradiation by a corresponding dose. In combination with radial and nonradial injury means they can sufficiently reduce lethality and create better conditions for favourable course of burn deseases and mechanical injuries. It is pointed out, that preliminary protection gains decisive value in cases, when under combined radiation affection the radial component prevails. In this case radiosensitive tissue protection becomes necessary condition for the victim's life preservation, complication frequency reduction and improvement of treatment results. Advisability of inclusion of medical protection means into the step-by-step treatment system, wile foreseeing both isolated and combined radiation affections, is shown

  1. Modernization and efficiency of heat treatment and heating up plants; Modernisierung und Effizienz von Thermoprozessanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Peter [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany); Kuehn, Friedhelm [Ingenieurbuero fuer Waermebehandlung, Industrieoefen und Energieberatung, Muelheim (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    A goal of this contribution is to show, using examples of the thermal heat treatment industry and the thermal processing units used there (Beltype plants, routary hearth, walking hearth, walking beam, pusher type furnaces and gas carburizing plants as well as case hardening plants), which increases in efficiency within and outside of the actual thermal treatment process and the necessary thermal processing units for the order are available today. From the possibilities of the reduction of energy employment resulting from that, a high potential for the discharge of the environment can be derived. The economic effect concerning energy employment and saving possibilities will also be considered. Concluding, examples of case-hardening show which variants of a change of process present themselves partially in the future, in order to achieve substantial production increases and thus energy cost reductions. (orig.)

  2. Rearrangement of 5-trimethylsilylthebaine on treatment with L-selectride: an efficient synthesis of (+)-bractazonine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weibin; Wu, Huifang; Bernard, Denzil; Metcalf, Matthew D; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Flippen-Anderson, Judith L; MacKerell, Alexander D; Coop, Andrew

    2003-03-07

    Treatment of 5-trimethylsilylthebaine with L-Selectride gave rise to a rearrangement to 10-trimethylsilylbractazonine through migration of the phenyl group, whereas treatment of thebaine with strong Lewis acids is known to lead to a similar rearrangement through migration of the alkyl bridge to give, after reduction, (+)-neodihydrothebaine. It is suggested that the rearrangement of the alkyl group of thebaine is favored due to the formation of a tertiary benzylic cation. However, for 5-trimethylsilylthebaine, the lithium ion of L-Selectride acts as the Lewis acid and the beta-silyl effect dominates in the stabilization of any positive charge. This rearrangement provides a clear example of the greater relative migratory aptitude of phenyl groups over alkyl groups, and provides an efficient synthesis of (+)-bractazonine from thebaine.

  3. Determination of the efficiency of sawdust and coco fiber used as Biofilter for pollutant removal for the treatment of wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Vicente Reyes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water is a resource used by mankind for industrial and domestic needs, which once used, is discharged into the public sewer system or septic tanks. This project proposes an ecological alternative for the treatment of wastewater from domestic use named Biofilter, which is built of living material (worms and inert material (chip and gravel, which filters the wastewater; the biological filter has shown high efficiency in the removal of organic matter and pathogens. The field work was carried out with experimental biological filters, to ascertain the best composition of inert material, different variants were used. Two experimental Biofilters, one using sawdust and the other coco fiber were used in the treatment of domestic wastewater; treated samples from each reactor were subjected to laboratory analysis. The analysis and interpretation of results showed that the Biofilter using sawdust removed 53.53 % of pollutants and is outside the required norm for wastewater treatment and the Biofilter using coco fiber removed 82.37 % of contaminants and is within the Environmental Quality Norm and Effluent Discharge: Water Resource.

  4. Air contamination analysis during emergency medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Fukutsu, K.; Yuuki, M.; Akashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    After radiological emergencies, patients contaminated with radioactivity are taken to radiation emergency hospitals for treatment. Numerical simulations using the computer software 'Flow Designer R were made in order to evaluate indoor air contamination caused by the breathing out of contaminated air. The National Inst. of Radiological Sciences facility was used for the numerical evaluation. Results indicate that the dispersion of contaminated air depends on the characteristics of the contaminants, and that the dispersion range was limited and localised. Only medical staff standing in a special position near the patient was exposed to almost un-diluted contaminated air. Highly contaminated air was evacuated with a local exhaust pump system. Room air quality was monitored using a continuous air sampling system, but it was found that the sampling point was not representative for the purpose of radiation protection. From the air-flow analysis, some problems that affect radiological safety were revealed and valuable information and measures for preventing secondary contamination were determined. (authors)

  5. Analysis of Technical Efficiency among Swamp Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the Technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 159 swamp rice farmers. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the stochastic frontier production function. The results showed ...

  6. An analysis of the productivity and technical efficiency of smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used the stochastic frontier production function to analyse the productivity and technical efficiency of 4 different agricultural production systems in Ethiopia; namely, irrigated seasonal farms on traditional irrigation systems, irrigated seasonal farms on modern communal irrigation systems, rainfed seasonal farms for ...

  7. Higher Education and Efficiency in Europe: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency of higher education in equalizing the feasible wages obtained for men and women in the labour market. To do that, It is estimated two stochastic frontiers. The first one measures the effect of higher education inside the group of men and women for six European countries. The results indicate that in Denmark,…

  8. Efficiency and credit ratings: a permutation-information-theory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bariviera, Aurelio Fernandez; Martinez, Lisana B; Zunino, Luciano; Belén Guercio, M; Rosso, Osvaldo A

    2013-01-01

    The role of credit rating agencies has been under severe scrutiny after the subprime crisis. In this paper we explore the relationship between credit ratings and informational efficiency of a sample of thirty nine corporate bonds of US oil and energy companies from April 2008 to November 2012. For this purpose we use a powerful statistical tool, relatively new in the financial literature: the complexity–entropy causality plane. This representation space allows us to graphically classify the different bonds according to their degree of informational efficiency. We find that this classification agrees with the credit ratings assigned by Moody’s. In particular, we detect the formation of two clusters, which correspond to the global categories of investment and speculative grades. Regarding the latter cluster, two subgroups reflect distinct levels of efficiency. Additionally, we also find an intriguing absence of correlation between informational efficiency and firm characteristics. This allows us to conclude that the proposed permutation-information-theory approach provides an alternative practical way to justify bond classification. (paper)

  9. Analysis of economic efficiency in cocoa production in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the economic efficiency of resource utilization in cocoa production of the cocoa farmers in Ghana to provide information for effective application and management of farm inputs on cocoa farms and policy recommendation. A random sample of 300 farmers in the Eastern, Ashanti ...

  10. Intensity and efficiency analysis of assets use when monitoring the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors define the gap as an underestimated part of assets and identify it with the company's goodwill. The authors research the practical application area of the business activity indicators, including for the grounded management decisions concerning the evaluation of investment attractiveness and efficiency of assets ...

  11. Does Competition Improve Public School Efficiency? A Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Kaustav

    2010-01-01

    Proponents of educational reform often call for policies to increase competition between schools. It is argued that market forces naturally lead to greater efficiencies, including improved student learning, when schools face competition. In many parts of the country, public schools experience significant competition from private schools; however,…

  12. Efficient Provision of Employment Service Outputs: A Production Frontier Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Edward S.; Stafford, Frank P.

    1985-01-01

    This article develops a production frontier model for the Employment Service and assesses the relative efficiency of the 51 State Employment Security Agencies in attaining program outcomes close to that frontier. This approach stands in contrast to such established practices as comparing programs to their own previous performance. (Author/CT)

  13. Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Technical Efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the relationship between technical efficiency of women rubber tappers in Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Benin City. A total of 60 women were selected through purposive and random sampling techniques and served with a structured interview schedule. Data collected were subjected to ...

  14. Physiological response, molecular analysis and water use efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a view to study the effects of irrigation scheduling on the water use efficiency and physiological response and molecular basis of maize hybrids of different maturity groups, a field experiment was conducted at Water Management Research Center (WMRC), Belvatagi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India ...

  15. Pulsed Electric Field inactivation of microbial cells: the use of ceramic layers to increase the efficiency of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzichemi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on bacteria and plant or animal cells has been investigated since the early 1960s. High electric fields pulses (20-70 kV/cm, 1-10 μs) are reported to cause rupture of the cellular lipid membrane, through the mechanism of irreversible electroporation. Quantitative description of cell inactivation kinetics is based on the analysis of stability of lipid bilayers under electric fields and the thermal fluctuations associated with the production of pores. PEF has been successfully applied to inactivation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in many sorts of liquids, such as milk, fruit juices and liquid eggs. In all these media, the level of inactivation could reach the 5 Logs for an approximate range of pulses of 100-200, and an energy consumption of ∼ 10-100 kJ/kg. The advantages of PEF are the superior maintenance of functional and nutritional levels (if compared to traditional thermal treatment), continuous treatment and short processing times, while the current high costs of this technique make it more suitable for treatment of expensive media. We present a solution to the problem of volumes in PEF treatment through the use of high permittivity ceramics, while retaining the same inactivation efficiency and improving the duration of the electrodes.

  16. Pulsed Electric Field inactivation of microbial cells: the use of ceramic layers to increase the efficiency of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzichemi, M.

    2009-12-01

    The impact of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on bacteria and plant or animal cells has been investigated since the early 1960s. High electric fields pulses (20-70 kV/cm, 1-10 μs) are reported to cause rupture of the cellular lipid membrane, through the mechanism of irreversible electroporation. Quantitative description of cell inactivation kinetics is based on the analysis of stability of lipid bilayers under electric fields and the thermal fluctuations associated with the production of pores. PEF has been successfully applied to inactivation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in many sorts of liquids, such as milk, fruit juices and liquid eggs. In all these media, the level of inactivation could reach the 5 Logs for an approximate range of pulses of 100-200, and an energy consumption of ˜ 10-100 kJ/kg. The advantages of PEF are the superior maintenance of functional and nutritional levels (if compared to traditional thermal treatment), continuous treatment and short processing times, while the current high costs of this technique make it more suitable for treatment of expensive media. We present a solution to the problem of volumes in PEF treatment through the use of high permittivity ceramics, while retaining the same inactivation efficiency and improving the duration of the electrodes.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT ON TAPIOCA WASTEWATER PRE-CHLORINATION TOWARD EFFICIENCY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy Mulyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to study about influence of calcium hypochlorite dosage adjustment on tapioca wastewater chlorination toward efficiency of activated sludge treatment especially at MLVSS profile and percentage of COD removal. This research mainly divided into pre-chlorination and activated sludge treatment. Pre-chlorination taken place for 60 minutes at pH 8. The variation of calcium hypochlorite dosages which used are 58, 59, and 60 mg/L. Pre-chlorination effluent with no free chlorine residual then becomes activated sludge treatment influent. Sampling has done each aeration time interval 0, 2, 4, and 6 hour for analysis of COD and MLVSS content. Research result generally shows that addition of aeration time for each variation of calcium hypochlorite dosage will increase MLVSS and decrease COD content. Smallest value of COD effluent could achieved in the activated sludge treatment with calcium hipochlorite dosage 60 mg/L addition at influent during 4 hours aeration time. Addition of 58 mg/l calcium hypochlorite results highest MLVSS and percentage of COD removal.

  18. Pulsed Electric Field inactivation of microbial cells: the use of ceramic layers to increase the efficiency of treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzichemi, M. [Physics Department, University of Milano - Bicocca (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The impact of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on bacteria and plant or animal cells has been investigated since the early 1960s. High electric fields pulses (20-70 kV/cm, 1-10 mus) are reported to cause rupture of the cellular lipid membrane, through the mechanism of irreversible electroporation. Quantitative description of cell inactivation kinetics is based on the analysis of stability of lipid bilayers under electric fields and the thermal fluctuations associated with the production of pores. PEF has been successfully applied to inactivation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in many sorts of liquids, such as milk, fruit juices and liquid eggs. In all these media, the level of inactivation could reach the 5 Logs for an approximate range of pulses of 100-200, and an energy consumption of approx 10-100 kJ/kg. The advantages of PEF are the superior maintenance of functional and nutritional levels (if compared to traditional thermal treatment), continuous treatment and short processing times, while the current high costs of this technique make it more suitable for treatment of expensive media. We present a solution to the problem of volumes in PEF treatment through the use of high permittivity ceramics, while retaining the same inactivation efficiency and improving the duration of the electrodes.

  19. Surgical treatment analysis of idiopathic esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, José Luis Braga de; Said, Marcelo Manzano; Pereira, Douglas Rizzanti; Amaral, Paula Casals do; Lima, Juliana Carolina Alves; Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic esophageal achalasia is an inflammatory disease of unknown origin, characterized by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter in response to swallowing, with consequent dysphagia. To demonstrate the results of surgical therapy in these patients, evaluating the occurred local and systemic complications. Were studied retrospectively 32 patients, 22 of whom presented non-advanced stage of the disease (Stage I/II) and 10 with advanced disease (Stage III/IV). All of them had the clinical conditions to be submitted to surgery. The diagnoses were done by clinical, endoscopic, cardiological, radiological and esophageal manometry analysis. Pre-surgical evaluation was done with a questionnaire based on the most predisposing factors in the development of the disease and the surgical indication was based on the stage of the disease. The patients with non-advanced stages were submitted to cardiomyotomy with fundoplication, wherein in the post-surgical early assessment, only one (4,4%) presented pulmonary infection, but had a good outcome. In patients with advanced disease, seven were submitted to esophageal mucosectomy preserving the muscular layer, wherein one patient (14,2%) presented dehiscence of gastric cervical esophagus anastomosis as well as pulmonary infection; all of these complications were resolved with proper specific treatment; the other three patients with advanced stage were submitted to transmediastinal esophagectomy; two of them presented hydropneumothorax with good evolution, and one of them also presented fistula of the cervical esophagogastric anastomosis, but with spontaneous healing after conservative treatment and nutritional support. The two patients with fistula of the cervical anastomosis progressed to stenosis, with good results after endoscopic dilations. In the medium and long term assessment done in 23 patients, all of them reported improvement in life quality, with return to swallowing. The

  20. Determining the Life Cycle Energy Efficiency of Six Biofuel Systems in China: A Data Envelopment Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2014-01-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has...

  1. The Impact of Psycho-Education on in Vitro Fertilisation Treatment Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevska, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the efficiency of psycho-education of candidates for the IVF in stress, anxiety and depression decreasing, and the impact of the psycho educative techniques on the successfulness of the treatment. A random sample of 64 candidates for IVF treatment is divided in two groups: control group without psycho-education (32 candidates) and intervention group of 32 candidates included in psycho-education. Depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS) was used as a psychometric test. It's a multiple choice, self-reported inventory for measuring the levels of stress, anxiety and severity of depression. For statistic evaluation SPSS software was used. The study shows that the intervention group included in psycho-education has a signifycantly lower scores on stress (t = 3.201, p stress decreasing, as well as significant impact in the successfulness of the treatment. It was pointed out that psychological support of candidates for IVF is important for the lessening of the negative emotional reactions of candidates as well as for the successfulness of the treatment.

  2. Determination of pharmaceutical residues and assessment of their removal efficiency at the Daugavgriva municipal wastewater treatment plant in Riga, Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholds, I; Muter, O; Pugajeva, I; Rusko, J; Perkons, I; Bartkevics, V

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products (PPs) belong to emerging contaminants that may accumulate along with other chemical pollutants in wastewaters (WWs) entering industrial and/or urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In the present study, the technique of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-HRMS) was applied for the analysis of 24 multi-class PPs in WW samples collected at different technological stages of Daugavgriva WWTP located in Riga, Latvia. Caffeine and acetaminophen levels in the range of 7,570-11,403 ng/L and 810-1,883 ng/L, respectively, were the predominant compounds among 19 PPs determined in the WW. The results indicate that aerobic digestion in biological ponds was insufficiently effective to degrade most of the PPs (reduction efficiency <0-50.0%) with the exception of four PPs that showed degradation efficiency varying from 55.0 to 99.9%. Tests of short-term chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis for PP degradation in WW samples were performed, and the results reflected the complexity of different degradation mechanisms and physicochemical transformations of PPs. The toxicological studies of WW impact on Daphnia magna indicated gradual reduction of the total toxicity through the treatment stages at the WWTP.

  3. Evaluation of photodynamic treatment efficiency on glioblastoma cells received from malignant lesions: initial studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Kyurkchiev, Dobroslav; Tumangelova-Yuzeir, Kalina; Angelov, Ivan; Genova-Hristova, Tsanislava; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Minkin, Krassimir

    2018-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy is well-established and extensively used method in treatment of different cancer types. This research reveals its potential in the treatment of cultivated human glioblastoma cells with adherent morphology. As the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of the drugs is a significant problem that could not be solved easily for large biomolecules, we search for an appropriate low-molecular weight photosensitizer that could be applied for photodynamic treatment of glioblastoma cells. We used delta-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), which could pass BBB and plays the role of precursor of a protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) - photosensitizer, that is accumulated selectively in the tumour cells and could be a proper tool in PDT of glioblastoma. However, differences from patient to patient and between the cell activities could also lead to different effectiveness of the PDT treatment of the tumour areas. Therefore in our study we investigated not only the effect of using different fluence rates and light doses, but aims to establish more efficient values for further clinical applications for each sub-type of the GBM lesions. For the needs of PDT application an illumination device was developed in Laboratory of Biophotonics, BAS based on light-emitting diode (LED) matrix light sources for therapeutic application emitting at 635 nm. The device is optimized for PDT in combination with aminolevulinic acid/protoporphyrin IX applied as a photosensitizer drug. By the means of FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson, USA) and Cell Quest Software was made evaluation of PDT effect on used human glioblastoma cells. Treatment of glioblastoma tumours continues to be a very serious issue and there is growing need in development of new concepts, methods and cancer-fighting strategies. PDT may contribute in accomplishing better results in cancer treatment and can be applied as well in combination with other techniques.

  4. Separation efficiency of two waste polymer fibers for oily water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the efficiency of two different waste polymeric materials as the filter media in a laboratory-scale bed coalescer in the horizontal fluid flow mode, operating in a steady-state regime. The applied materials are: waste polyethylene terephthalate from textile industry, BA1 and waste polypropylene from carpet industry, PP. Using these compressible fiber polymeric materials, high bed porosity (up to 98% could be obtained. The investigation was carried out over a wide range of working conditions. Bed permeability was varied in the range from 0.18•10-9 to 5.389•10-9 m2. Operating fluid velocity was varied from 19 to 80 m/h, until the critical velocity was reached. Different oily wastewaters were used in the experiments. Oily wastewater is defined as the oil-inwater emulsion model prepared using mineral oils of different physico-chemical characteristics: crude oil (A from Vojvodina region, two vacuum distillation fractions (A1, A4, and blended petroleum product with a high paraffinic content (P1. Both applied polymeric materials, BA1 and PP, showed high separation efficiency for treatment of all investigated oily wastewater. However, the BA1 material showed higher efficiency in a wider range of bed permeability and physico-chemical characteristics of oil. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172022

  5. [Considerations about the efficiency of treatment regimens with fixed Rifampicin-Isoniazid combinations in pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Ioana; Husar, Iulia; Didilescu, C; Stoicescu, I P

    2004-01-01

    Here are presented the results of a prospective, randomized study regarding the efficiency of regimens with fixed drug combination Rifampicin-Isoniazide manufactured by Antibiotics S.A. of Iasi in comparison with single drugs routinely used in treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Newly diagnosed (confirmed by smear and culture) pulmonary tuberculosis patients were selected, and those who accepted to be included in the study, were admitted to the National Institute of Pneumology "Marius Nasta" between August 2001 and September 2002. At the time of admission, they were randomized into two groups: 20 patients received fixed drug combination RMP300 HIN150, and 18 patients received RMP and HIN in single drug tablets (2 patients were excluded). The follow-up of the patients was for one year from the date of enclosure. The smear conversion rate was 83,3% for the patients using single drug tablets, and 70% for those using fixed drug combination, motivated with some more severe TB patterns. The success rate was 100% for all TB patients. Although the present study was done for few patients, we can say that it demonstrated the same efficiency of fixed drug combination produced in Romania, with the single drug tablets, and it suggests a better compliance to treatment with a lower price.

  6. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MNP Henares

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3 with three treatments (constructed wetlands and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm. The means of suspended particulate material (SPM, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, P-orthophosphate (PO4-P and total phosphorus (TP of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05. The effluent treated in Ec and EcSm wetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%, TKN (33.7% and PO4-P (26.7% was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P. The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients.

  7. Efficiency of an emissions payment system for nitrogen in sewage treatment plants - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmaeus, J Mikael; Ek, Mats; Åmand, Linda; Roth, Susanna; Baresel, Christian; Olshammar, Mikael

    2015-05-01

    An emissions payment system for nitrogen in Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) was evaluated using a semi-empirical approach. The system was based on a tariff levied on each unit of nitrogen emitted by STPs, and profitable measures to reduce nitrogen emissions were identified for twenty municipal STPs. This was done through direct involvement with the plant personnel and the results were scaled up to cover all treatment plants larger than 2000 person equivalents in the Swedish tributary areas of the Kattegat and the Baltic Proper. The sum of costs and nitrogen reductions were compared with an assumed command-and-control regulation requiring all STPs to obtain 80% total nitrogen reduction in their effluents. Costs for the latter case were estimated using a database containing standard estimates for reduction costs by six specified measures. For both cases a total reduction target of 3000 tonnes of nitrogen was set. We did not find that the emissions payment system was more efficient in terms of total reduction costs, although some practical and administrative advantages could be identified. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate the performance of policy instruments on a case-by-case basis since the theoretical efficiency is not always reflected in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficiency and safety of the intraluminal stent as a treatment malignant obstruction of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xixiang; Si Tongguo; Pan Xiaohui; Yang Hui; Nan Yi; Huang Linfen; Feng Xiaofeng; Mao Aiwu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of intraluminal stent as a treatment of malignant obstruction of digestive tract and esophago-bronchial fistula. Methods: In total 71 patients suffered with malignant obstruction or esophago-bronchial fistula were treated with permanent nickel-titanium alloy, partially covered stents. All the procedures were performed under DSA guidance. Inserted via the oral anal access, the stents were placed at the sites of obstructions or the fistulas. Esophagogram or colonogram were done before and post the intervention. The clinical efficiency was assessed by function of swallowing or defecation in follow-up. Results: In 62 patients (96.9%), function of swallowing was restored after the stent was placed in upper digestive tract without drinking triggered coughing. Symptoms were immediately relieved after the stent was placed in sigmoid colon or rectum. Displacement of stents was seen in 2 cases (2.8%); restenosis in 2 (2.8%); hoarse voice was noted in 1 case (1.4%); intense thoracic pain was complained in 2 cases (2.8%); mild pain was noted in 12 cases (16.9%); and massive hemorrhage was complicated in 1 case (1.4%). All complications were successfully controlled after proper treatment. Conclusion: It is an effective, easy and safe method to treat malignant obstruction of digestive tract or esophago-bronchial fistula using partially covered nickel-titanium alloy stent. (authors)

  9. Microbial Removal Efficiency of UV in Tehran Shahid Mahallati Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Dabbagh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Shahid Mahallati Wastewater Treatment Plant was selected for installing a UV disinfection unit to investigate its germicidal effect on microbial removal. Low pressure mercury lamps were used to generate germicidal ultraviolet radiation (UV-C. The UV system was operated over a period of 6 months that included both warm and cold seasons. A maximum UV disinfection efficiency of 14.4m3/h was recorded for the system on the basis of design criteria within turbidity ranges of 9 to 32 NTU. The minimum UV dose applied in the UV unit was 40000 µW.s/cm2 and the highest bacterial density in the UV unit influent was 5.6*107. Effluent total coliform or fecal coliform enumeration after exposure to UV ray showed the microbial density decreasing from four logs, or 99.99%, to as high as six logs, or 99.9999% removal efficiency, under different conditions. Effluent microbial densities in terms of total and fecal coliforms were below 1000MPN/100mL and 400MPN/100mL, respectively. These values comply with wastewater discharge or agricultural irrigation standards according to Iran Department of Environment. From our results, it is concluded that UV disinfection may be an effective technique for wastewater disinfection in Iranian wastewater treatment plants.

  10. Accurate, stable and efficient Navier-Stokes solvers based on explicit treatment of the pressure term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Hans; Liu Jianguo

    2004-01-01

    We present numerical schemes for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations based on a primitive variable formulation in which the incompressibility constraint has been replaced by a pressure Poisson equation. The pressure is treated explicitly in time, completely decoupling the computation of the momentum and kinematic equations. The result is a class of extremely efficient Navier-Stokes solvers. Full time accuracy is achieved for all flow variables. The key to the schemes is a Neumann boundary condition for the pressure Poisson equation which enforces the incompressibility condition for the velocity field. Irrespective of explicit or implicit time discretization of the viscous term in the momentum equation the explicit time discretization of the pressure term does not affect the time step constraint. Indeed, we prove unconditional stability of the new formulation for the Stokes equation with explicit treatment of the pressure term and first or second order implicit treatment of the viscous term. Systematic numerical experiments for the full Navier-Stokes equations indicate that a second order implicit time discretization of the viscous term, with the pressure and convective terms treated explicitly, is stable under the standard CFL condition. Additionally, various numerical examples are presented, including both implicit and explicit time discretizations, using spectral and finite difference spatial discretizations, demonstrating the accuracy, flexibility and efficiency of this class of schemes. In particular, a Galerkin formulation is presented requiring only C 0 elements to implement

  11. Fast Postmoisture Treatment of Luminescent Perovskite Films for Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoran; Li, Xiaomin; Yuan, Mingjian; Yang, Xuyong

    2018-04-01

    Despite the recent advances in the performance of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), the effects of water on the perovskite emissive layer and its electroluminescence are still unclear, even though it has been previously demonstrated that moisture has a significant impact on the quality of perovskite films in the fabrication process of perovskite solar cells and is a prerequisite for obtaining high-performance PeLEDs. Here, the effects of postmoisture on the luminescent CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 (MAPbBr 3 ) perovskite films are systematically investigated. It is found that postmoisture treatment can efficiently control the morphology and growth of perovskite films and only a fast moisture exposure at a 60% high relative humidity results in significantly improved crystallinity, carrier lifetime, and photoluminescence quantum yield of perovskite films. With the optimized moisture-treated perovskite films, a high-performance PeLED is fabricated, exhibiting a maximum current efficiency of 20.4 cd A -1 , which is an almost 20-fold enhancement when compared with perovskite films without moisture treatment. The results provide valuable insights into the moisture-assisted growth of luminescent perovskite films and will aid in the development of high-performance perovskite light-emitting devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Non-parametric analysis of technical efficiency: factors affecting efficiency of West Java rice farms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdik, František

    -, č. 286 (2006), s. 1-45 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rice farms * data envelopment analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp286.pdf

  13. Catalysts Efficiency Evaluation by using CC Analysis Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study emphasizes the necessity of the catalysts efficiency testing. Diagnosis systems using lambda probes are based on the capacity of the catalyst oxygen storage. Comparing the lambda probe signals upstream and downstream of catalyst provides an indication on catalyst activity, although the correlation between oxygen storage capacity and catalyst efficiency is still difficult. Diagnosis for the 1.4 Renault Clio Symbol was accomplished in the Road Vehicles Lab at the Politehnica University of Timisoara using AVL Dicom 4000. The tests showed that the engine worked with lean mixture being necessary a fuel mixture correction calculated by the control unit ECU. A compensation of 0.14 % vol is required for the engine correct operation and emissions integration within permissible limits

  14. A study on the assessment of treatment technologies for efficient remediation of radioactively-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Shin, Seung Su; KIm, Sun Il [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Soil can be contaminated by radioactive materials due to nuclide leakage following unexpected situations during the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Soil decontamination is necessary if contaminated land is to be reused for housing or industry. The present study classifies various soil remediation technologies into biological, physics/chemical and thermal treatment and analyzes their principles and treatment materials. Among these methods, this study selects technologies and categorizes the economics, applicability and technical characteristics of each technology into three levels of high, medium and low by weighting the various factors. Based on this analysis, the most applicable soil decontamination technology was identified.

  15. C-5M Fuel Efficiency Through MFOQA Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    then contribute to more accurate fuel loading and more efficient fleet fuel usage. Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) data uses the quick access ...into the ranges in Table 2. Visual Basic ( VBA ) code was written to quickly parse an entire mission (one of the thirty samples) into usable cruise...segments within the Altitude ranges of Table 2. The logic for focusing upon stable cruise flight segments was outlined in Chapter II. The VBA code

  16. The Design and Analysis of Efficient Learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    31] describe in detail how this can be done efficiently; see also Duda and Hart [22]. Let a&,..., &d be the resulting solution, and let h0 = Fd=1 af...Measure. Wiley, second edition, 1986. [13] Anselm Blumer, Andrzej Ehrenfeucht, David Haussler, and Manfred K. Warmuth. Occam’s razor. Information...Processing Letters, 24(6):377-380, April 1987. [14] Anselm Blumer, Andrzej Ehrenfeucht, David Haussler, and Manfred K. Warmuth. Learn- ability and the

  17. Drains and Drainage Capabilities: Quantitative Analysis of Drain Efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andaç Aykan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to compare the efficiency of the same type of but different-sized silicone drains at different surgical procedures. Material and Methods: Twenty-four patients, who had different diagnoses and were operated between 2011 and 2013, were included. In all patients, 7- and 10-mm silicone-ended, Jackson–Pratt drains were used. Drains that were under 30 cc/day removed. The connection tube and perforated silicone end were examined due to the clot content. All drain efficiencies were calculated, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Seven of the 24 patients (29.2% were males and 17 (70.8% were females; the mean age was 39.0±11.4 years. Totally, 49 drains were used, of which 25 (51% were 7 mm and 24 (49% were 10 mm in size. Median removal time was the 5th day (2–12 for the 7-mm drains and the 6th day (3–14 for the 10-mm drains. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for drain removal time (p=0.268. Further, there was no difference at the connection tube and silicone end for clot content between the 7- and 10-mm drains (p=0.58. For the drainage volume and efficiency, no difference was observed between the groups (p=0.146. Conclusion: In this study it was observed that there is no difference in the drainage volume and efficiency between different-sized Jackson–Pratt drains.

  18. Analysis of the efficiency of the Iberian power futures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitan Herraiz, Alvaro; Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Market efficiency is analysed for the Iberian Power Futures Market and other European Power Markets, as well as other fuel markets through evaluation of ex-post Forward Risk Premium. The equilibrium price from compulsory call auctions for distribution companies within the framework of the Iberian Power Futures Market is not optimal for remuneration purposes as it seems to be slightly upward biased. In the period considered (August 2006-July 2008), monthly futures contracts behave similarly to quarterly contracts. Average risk premia have been positive in power and natural gas markets but negative in oil and coal markets. Different hypotheses are tested regarding increasing volatility with maturity and regarding Forward Risk Premium variations (decreasing with variance of spot prices during delivery period and increasing with skewness of spot prices during delivery period). Enlarged data sets are recommended for stronger test results. Energy markets tend to show limited levels of market efficiency. Regarding the emerging Iberian Power Futures Market, price efficiency is improved with market development of all the coexistent forward contracting mechanisms and with further integration of European Regional Electricity Markets. (author)

  19. Analysis of entropy extraction efficiencies in random number generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-05-01

    Random numbers (RNs) have applications in many areas: lottery games, gambling, computer simulation, and, most importantly, cryptography [N. Gisin et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 145]. In cryptography theory, the theoretical security of the system calls for high quality RNs. Therefore, developing methods for producing unpredictable RNs with adequate speed is an attractive topic. Early on, despite the lack of theoretical support, pseudo RNs generated by algorithmic methods performed well and satisfied reasonable statistical requirements. However, as implemented, those pseudorandom sequences were completely determined by mathematical formulas and initial seeds, which cannot introduce extra entropy or information. In these cases, “random” bits are generated that are not at all random. Physical random number generators (RNGs), which, in contrast to algorithmic methods, are based on unpredictable physical random phenomena, have attracted considerable research interest. However, the way that we extract random bits from those physical entropy sources has a large influence on the efficiency and performance of the system. In this manuscript, we will review and discuss several randomness extraction schemes that are based on radiation or photon arrival times. We analyze the robustness, post-processing requirements and, in particular, the extraction efficiency of those methods to aid in the construction of efficient, compact and robust physical RNG systems.

  20. The efficiency effects of bank mergers: An analysis of case studies in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu DQ Le

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs Data Envelopment Analysis to examine the relative efficiency for Vietnamese banks from 2008 to 2015. Efficiency level is relatively high and remains stable over the examined period, suggesting the banking system is less affected by the global financial crisis. More specifically, technical efficiency and scale efficiency in Vietnamese banking is examined when controlling for problem loans. We suggest that controlling for the exogenous impact of problem loans is important for joint-stock banks. Furthermore, our results do not support the hypothesis that acquiring banks are more efficient than the acquired banks. The efficiency improved in majority of merger cases and was not related to acquiring bank’s efficiency advantage over its targets. Small-and medium- banks should be promoted in future acquisitions as a means to enjoying efficiency gains. Finally, there are mixed results on the extent to which the benefits of efficiency gains are passed on to the public.

  1. Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure Cost, Revenue and Profit Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Kočišová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature analysing efficiency of financial institutions has enveloped rapidly over the last years. Most studies have focused on the input side analysing input technical and cost efficiency. Only few studies have examined the output side evaluating output technical and revenue efficiency. We know that both sides are relevant when evaluating efficiency of financial institutions. Therefore the primary purpose of this paper is to review a number of approaches for efficiency measurement. In particular, the concepts of cost, revenue and profit functions are discussed. We apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA to a sample of Slovak and Czech commercial banks during years 2009–2013 comparing the efficiencies by either minimizing cost or maximizing revenue and profit. The results showed that the level of average revenue efficiency was the highest and the average profit efficiency was the lowest one. As can be seen the Czech banks were more cost, revenue and profit efficient than Slovak ones during the whole analysed period.

  2. Eco-efficiency analysis methodology on the example of the chosen polyolefins production

    OpenAIRE

    K. Czaplicka-Kolarz; D. Burchart-Korol; P. Krawczyk

    2010-01-01

    the chosen polyolefins production. The article presents also main tools of eco-efficiency analysis: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Net Present Value (NPV).Design/methodology/approach: On the basis of LCA and NPV of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) production, eco-efficiency analysis is conducted.Findings: In this article environmental and economic performance of the chosen polyolefins production was presented. The basis phases of eco-efficiency methodology...

  3. [Etiological analysis and individualized treatment of pharyngeal paraesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhengcai; Gong, Xuhong; Lou, Fangyi; He, Lanjuan; Zhu, Qiaoying

    2009-07-01

    To analyze the nosazontology of pharyngeal paraesthesia and investigate the treatment. Two hundred and twelve misdiagnosed pharyngeal paraesthesia patients were investigated by history inquiry, routine examination, 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring, barium X-ray of the oesophagus, anxieties-athymic private measuring scale, coefficient of variation of the R-R (CVR-R), bioavailable testosterone detection (Bio-T), erection experiment and questionnaire about man climacteric syndrome. The concomitant symptoms and positions of pharyngeal paresthesia were also studied. We adopted individuallized sequential multi-therapy for every patient according to the cause of disease. The cause of disease within 212 cases of pharyngeal paraesthesia included 62 psychic trauma, 32 endocrine system disease, 106 upper gastrointestinal disease, circulatory disease, 9 circulatory disease, 3 idiopathic. With individualized treatment, 110 cases had fully recovered, 63 cases excellence and 31 cases utility, and the efficiency rate was 96.23%. Pharyngeal paraesthesia can be caused by several factors. Thorough examination and comprehensive analysis should be applied to those incurable patient who has been treated for a long time. Short course of treatment and irrational drug use are the main causes of short-term recurrence and unsatisfactory curative effect.

  4. Diffraction efficiency and noise analysis of hidden image holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Puodžiukynas, Linas

    2017-01-01

    recorded in a photoresist layer spin-coated on glass substrates applying laser interference lithography technique. Both analogue and digital analysis approaches showed the similar results thus confirming the appropriateness of the used analysis methods. It was found that holograms recorded at higher laser...

  5. Investigation of endogenous biomass efficiency in the treatment of unhairing effluents from the tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlaik, Najwa; Bouzid, Jalel; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassad; Woodward, Steve; Mechichi, Tahar

    2009-08-01

    The tanning industry is of great economic importance worldwide; however, the potential environmental impact of tanning is significant. An important component in tanning is the removal of hair from the hide (unhairing), a process which generates considerable amounts of toxic effluent characterized by a high concentration of sulphur, rich mineral compounds, a high alkalinity and a high organic load. The purpose of the work described here was to evaluate the biodegradability of the unhairing wastewater by endogenous biomass in batch culture and continuous systems. The detoxification of the effluent was assessed by seed germination tests. The batch culture experiments showed that variations in COD, temperature and pH significantly affected the endogenous biomass growth and activity. The optimal treatment condition corresponded to an initial COD of 6 g/L, pH of 7 and 30 degrees C. Under continuous culture conditions, the reactor was fed for 48 days with the unhairing effluent. The optimal COD removal efficiency was 85.5%. During treatment, a transformation of sulphides into thiosulphates and then sulphates was also observed. The effect of untreated and treated unhairing wastewater on seed germination of different plant species was studied. The data suggested that treatment decreased the wastewater toxicity. Indeed, germination was inhibited when the effluent dilution was lower than 20% and 10% for treated and untreated wastewater, respectively.

  6. Efficiency and resistance of the artificial oxalate protection treatment on marble against chemical weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, B.; Pamplona, M.; Selvaggi, R.; Miliani, C.; Matteini, M.; Sgamellotti, A.; Brunetti, B.

    2007-01-01

    The artificial oxalate protection method was analyzed in laboratory experiments in order to achieve an optimum treatment application and concentration giving rise to its most effective protective nature. Spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared, Micro-Raman and UV-vis colorimetry), microscopic (scanning electron microscope) and contact-angle analyses were carried out to characterize Carrara marble samples before and after application of the treatment to validate its efficiency. The resistance effects against chemical weathering were subsequently observed in a lab-controlled weak acid rain experiment. An acid spray at pH 5.5, representative of normal rain was used to provoke degrade of natural marble, marble treated with the artificial oxalate protective at concentrations of 0.4 and 5% and marble treated with a commercial organic silicon product. Run-off solutions sampled at timely intervals were tested for any change in pH followed by ion chromatography measurements for the presence of calcium ions in solution. The chromatography results of the oxalate treatment applied at a 5% concentration are analogous to an organic commercial product indicating its validity as a method for the conservation of carbonate substrates conferring protection to stone materials against acid environments

  7. Efficiency and resistance of the artificial oxalate protection treatment on marble against chemical weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Pamplona, M. [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica do Instituto Superior Tecnico Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Selvaggi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Miliani, C. [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)]. E-mail: miliani@thch.unipg.it; Matteini, M. [CNR Istituto, Conservazione e Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali (ICVBC), Via Madonna del Piano, 10, Edifico C-50019, Florence (Italy); Sgamellotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Brunetti, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    The artificial oxalate protection method was analyzed in laboratory experiments in order to achieve an optimum treatment application and concentration giving rise to its most effective protective nature. Spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared, Micro-Raman and UV-vis colorimetry), microscopic (scanning electron microscope) and contact-angle analyses were carried out to characterize Carrara marble samples before and after application of the treatment to validate its efficiency. The resistance effects against chemical weathering were subsequently observed in a lab-controlled weak acid rain experiment. An acid spray at pH 5.5, representative of normal rain was used to provoke degrade of natural marble, marble treated with the artificial oxalate protective at concentrations of 0.4 and 5% and marble treated with a commercial organic silicon product. Run-off solutions sampled at timely intervals were tested for any change in pH followed by ion chromatography measurements for the presence of calcium ions in solution. The chromatography results of the oxalate treatment applied at a 5% concentration are analogous to an organic commercial product indicating its validity as a method for the conservation of carbonate substrates conferring protection to stone materials against acid environments.

  8. Study on efficient methods for removal and treatment of graphite blocks in a gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, S.; Shirakawa, M.; Murakami, T.

    2001-01-01

    Tokai Power Station (GCR, 166 MWe) started its commercial operation on July 1966 and ceased activities at the end of March 1998 after 32 years of operation. The decommissioning plans are being developed, to prepare for near future dismantling. In the study, the methods for removal of the graphite blocks of about 1,600 ton have been developed to carrying it out safely and in a short period of time, and the methods of treatment of graphite have also been developed. All technological items have been identified for which R and D work will be required for removal from the core and treatment for disposal. (1) In order to reduce the programme required for the dismantling of reactor internals, an efficient method for removal of the graphite blocks is necessary. For this purpose the design of a dismantling machine has been investigated which can extract several blocks at a time. The conceptual design has being developed and the model has been manufactured and tested in a mock-up facility. (2) In order to reduce disposal costs, it will be necessary to segment the graphite blocks, maximising the packing density available in the disposal containers. Some of the graphite blocks will be cut into pieces longitudinally by a remote machine. Relevant technical matters have been identified, such as graphite cutting methods, the nature of fine particles arising from the cutting operation, the treatment of fine particles for disposal, and the method of mortar filling inside the waste container. (author)

  9. Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinzinger, Franziska

    2010-07-01

    fertiliser could be substituted by nutrients recovered from wastewater; for the case study of Arba Minch this substitution amounts to a maximum of 16%. Factors such as the transport of source separated flows or complex nutrient recovery processes can result in an increasing energy demand. However, source separation and recovery processes can also lead to energy reduction, for example, by urine diversion (minus 12% for the case of Hamburg) or by the use of biogas from anaerobic treatment plants (minus 38% for the case of Arba Minch). The energy efficiency depends on determinant parameters, e.g. the amount of co-digested organic waste. The impact of these parameters can be simulated in the model. Source-separating wastewater systems can reduce the use of natural water resources, for example, by reduced flush water consumption or greywater recycling. The integration of cost estimates with material and energy flow analyses, allows a cost-effectiveness appraisal of the system developments. Assumptions such as whether the costs refer to a new development or the modification of existing infrastructure have a major impact on the cost comparison. Where the sanitation system is improved, there is invariably an increase in costs when compared to the current situation. But in addition, financial benefits can be generated. For each case study, a discussion of the driving forces, preconditions and starting points for implementation, complements the comparative assessment. In addition, potential obstacles for transformation are discussed. The study shows that the method of using combined cost, energy and material flow analysis yields purposeful insights into the resource efficiency of alternative sanitation systems. This can contribute comprehensively to system analysis and decision support. (orig.)

  10. The Efficiency Analysis of the Augmented Reality Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovilė Kurpytė

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the investigation of the efficiency of augmented reality algorithm that depends on the rotation angles and lighting conditions. The following were the target subject parameters: three degrees of freedom perspective of the rotation and side lighting that forms a shadow. Static parameters of subjects with the ability to change them were as follow: the distance between the marker and the camera, camera, processor, and the distance from the light source. The study is based on an open source Java programming language algorithm, where the algorithm is tested with 10 markers. It was found that the rotation error did not exceed 2%.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Efficiency estimation methods of chemical radiation treatment of patients with disseminated cervicalcancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yivankova, V.S.; Nesterenko, T.M.; Khranovs'ka, N.M.; Baranovs'ka, L.M.; Khrulenko, T.V.; Shevchenko, G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Institute developed methods chemoradiotherapy (CRT) patients with locally advanced cancers of the cervix (cervical cancer MR). Before treatment patients underwent complex examination, including DNA index determination by laser DNA flow cytometry based on biopsies of the cervix. During concomitant radiotherapy were used cytotoxic drugs in radiomodifying doses. Conducted to investigate the possibility of monitoring the effectiveness of treatment at the subcellular level. The treatment and analysis of the clinical and instrumental monitoring data in 79 patients with MR of cervical cancer (63 patients studied and 16 - control group). Effectiveness of CRT was evaluated by the degree of tumor regression, the dynamics of indicators DNA status of cervical cells and severity of toxic effects. Analysis of the direct method results CRT showed that the dynamics of DNA clones of tumor status correlates with clinical data obtained in response to cytotoxic therapy MR cervical cancer. Positive response of tumors in patients with cervical cancer MR after a full course chemoradiation increased by 25,0 % in comparison with standard methods. Toxic effects of treatment on the number and severity of patients in the study group did not differ from the control group, did not exceed the second degree

  12. Towards Energy Efficiency: Forecasting Indoor Temperature via Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pardo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The small medium large system (SMLsystem is a house built at the Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera (CEU-UCH for participation in the Solar Decathlon 2013 competition. Several technologies have been integrated to reduce power consumption. One of these is a forecasting system based on artificial neural networks (ANNs, which is able to predict indoor temperature in the near future using captured data by a complex monitoring system as the input. A study of the impact on forecasting performance of different covariate combinations is presented in this paper. Additionally, a comparison of ANNs with the standard statistical forecasting methods is shown. The research in this paper has been focused on forecasting the indoor temperature of a house, as it is directly related to HVAC—heating, ventilation and air conditioning—system consumption. HVAC systems at the SMLsystem house represent 53:89% of the overall power consumption. The energy used to maintain temperature was measured to be 30%–38:9% of the energy needed to lower it. Hence, these forecasting measures allow the house to adapt itself to future temperature conditions by using home automation in an energy-efficient manner. Experimental results show a high forecasting accuracy and therefore, they might be used to efficiently control an HVAC system.

  13. An Efficiency Analysis of Augmented Reality Marker Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurpytė Dovilė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on the investigation of augmented reality system which is designed for identification and augmentation of 100 different square markers. Marker recognition efficiency was investigated by rotating markers along x and y axis directions in range from −90° to 90°. Virtual simulations of four environments were developed: a an intense source of light, b an intense source of light falling from the left side, c the non-intensive light source falling from the left side, d equally falling shadows. The graphics were created using the OpenGL graphics computer hardware interface; image processing was programmed in C++ language using OpenCV, while augmented reality was developed in Java programming language using NyARToolKit. The obtained results demonstrate that augmented reality marker recognition algorithm is accurate and reliable in the case of changing lighting conditions and rotational angles - only 4 % markers were unidentified. Assessment of marker recognition efficiency let to propose marker classification strategy in order to use it for grouping various markers into distinct markers’ groups possessing similar recognition properties.

  14. Resource Use Efficiency Analysis for Potato Production in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Sapkota

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Potato is one of the most important staple foods supporting food security and livelihood to millions of marginalized and poor farmers in Nepal. Generally the smallholders’ farmers, especially those located in remote villages are inadequately informed about technical knowledge, inputs and efficient use of resources causing poor production and low productivity. Thus, the present survey aimed to examine the efficiency of resources used in potato production in Baglung District, one of the remote hilly place located in Central Himalaya. The total of 120 potato growing households was selected using simple random sampling technique from the two potato pocket in 2016. The regression coefficients of each inputs using Cobb-Douglas production function were estimated using Stata software. Our results showed that major inputs such as labor, bullock, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and intercultural operations were overused and need to decrease in terms of cost by 109, 177, 51 and 185%, respectively for its optimum allocation. Similarly, seed was found underused and need to increase its cost by 70% for optimum allocation. We concluded that inadequate training, exposure, knowledge gap and extension service to farmers in study sites were the reasons that farmers were using their resources inefficiently. It is recommended that the farmers involved in potato farming in the surveyed sites should be provided with additional proper technical knowledge for optimizing the use of resources which would help to increase the production and return from potato production.

  15. An efficient parallel stochastic simulation method for analysis of nonviral gene delivery systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy has a great potential to become an effective treatment for a wide variety of diseases. One of the main challenges to make gene therapy practical in clinical settings is the development of efficient and safe mechanisms to deliver foreign DNA molecules into the nucleus of target cells. Several computational and experimental studies have shown that the design process of synthetic gene transfer vectors can be greatly enhanced by computational modeling and simulation. This paper proposes a novel, effective parallelization of the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) for pharmacokinetic models that characterize the rate-limiting, multi-step processes of intracellular gene delivery. While efficient parallelizations of the SSA are still an open problem in a general setting, the proposed parallel simulation method is able to substantially accelerate the next reaction selection scheme and the reaction update scheme in the SSA by exploiting and decomposing the structures of stochastic gene delivery models. This, thus, makes computationally intensive analysis such as parameter optimizations and gene dosage control for specific cell types, gene vectors, and transgene expression stability substantially more practical than that could otherwise be with the standard SSA. Here, we translated the nonviral gene delivery model based on mass-action kinetics by Varga et al. [Molecular Therapy, 4(5), 2001] into a more realistic model that captures intracellular fluctuations based on stochastic chemical kinetics, and as a case study we applied our parallel simulation to this stochastic model. Our results show that our simulation method is able to increase the efficiency of statistical analysis by at least 50% in various settings. © 2011 ACM.

  16. Energy use efficiency in the Indian manufacturing sector: An interstate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Kankana

    2008-01-01

    This paper approaches the measurement of energy efficiency from a production theoretic framework and uses Data Envelopment Analysis to measure energy efficiency in the Indian manufacturing sector. Using data from the Annual Survey of Industries for the years 1998-99 through 2003-04, the study compares the energy efficiency in manufacturing across states, based on several models. The results show considerable variation in energy efficiency across states. Comparing the results across our models, we find that the relative pricing of energy does not provide the appropriate incentives for energy conservation. A second-stage regression analysis reveals that states with a larger share of manufacturing output in energy-intensive industries have lower energy efficiency. Also, higher quality labor force associates with higher energy efficiency. Finally, the power sector reforms have not yet had any significant impact on achieving energy efficiency

  17. Mixed waste treatment model: Basis and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, B.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) required treatment system capacities for risk and cost calculation. Los Alamos was tasked with providing these capacities to the PEIS team. This involved understanding the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste, making the necessary changes to correct for problems, categorizing the waste for treatment, and determining the treatment system requirements. The treatment system requirements depended on the incoming waste, which varied for each PEIS case. The treatment system requirements also depended on the type of treatment that was desired. Because different groups contributing to the PEIS needed specific types of results, we provided the treatment system requirements in a variety of forms. In total, some 40 data files were created for the TRU cases, and for the MLLW case, there were 105 separate data files. Each data file represents one treatment case consisting of the selected waste from various sites, a selected treatment system, and the reporting requirements for such a case. The treatment system requirements in their most basic form are the treatment process rates for unit operations in the desired treatment system, based on a 10-year working life and 20-year accumulation of the waste. These results were reported in cubic meters and for the MLLW case, in kilograms as well. The treatment system model consisted of unit operations that are linked together. Each unit operation's function depended on the input waste streams, waste matrix, and contaminants. Each unit operation outputs one or more waste streams whose matrix, contaminants, and volume/mass may have changed as a result of the treatment. These output streams are then routed to the appropriate unit operation for additional treatment until the output waste stream meets the treatment requirements for disposal. The total waste for each unit operation was calculated as well as the waste for each matrix treated by the unit

  18. EFFICIENCY OF THE CHEMICAL TREATMENT AGAINST THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN SEED MAIZE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Raspudić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a chemical treatment against larvae of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner. The experiment was set up in 2010 and 2011 in Čepin (eastern Croatia in two treatments: control treatment and insecticide treatment. The trial involved two hybrids of FAO group 400: PR37N01 and PR37F73. Biology of pests was monitored in order to determine population size and larvae development stage as well as the optimal time of insecticide application. After determination of thresholds, maize was treated with chemical formulations of active substance dimethoate. Towards the end of vegetation, length of stem damage, number of larvae in maize stalk and ear as well as grain yield were recorded by dissection of maize stalks. Statistical analysis shows that year, hybrid and chemical treatment significantly influenced the incidence of this pest and justified the use of chemical preparations with mandatory monitoring biology of this pest.

  19. Energy efficiency analysis: biomass-to-wheel efficiency related with biofuels production, fuel distribution, and powertrain systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV, and battery electric vehicles (BEV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW analysis including three separate conversion elements--biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case--corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. SIGNIFICANCE: In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year, through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens.

  20. Energy Efficiency Analysis: Biomass-to-Wheel Efficiency Related with Biofuels Production, Fuel Distribution, and Powertrain Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2011-01-01

    Background Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW) analysis including three separate conversion elements -- biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case – corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. Significance In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass) would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year), through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens. PMID:21765941

  1. Energy efficiency analysis: biomass-to-wheel efficiency related with biofuels production, fuel distribution, and powertrain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW) analysis including three separate conversion elements--biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case--corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass) would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year), through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens.

  2. Study of the efficiency of some water treatment unit that present in houses in Erbil city-Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Janan. Jabbar.; Hanna, Aveen. Matti.

    2017-09-01

    Many people in Erbil city started more than two decade to put special treatment units in their houses to purified water to become safer for drinking uses. The aim of this study was determine the efficiency of six kind water treatment units which include (two replicate of Crystal Water Purifier, So-Safe Water Filter, R O Water Purifier, Kontec Water Purified and Al-Kawther Purified Water). Water samples were collected in two sites one before and other after treatment unit. Each sample was collect with three replication during May to October-2016. Analyzed for Major cations concentration (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium), anions concentration (nitrate and chloride) and hydrogen ion concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and total hardness by using standard methods. The water quality index values for all raw water sample befor and after treatment was good and excellent respectively for drinking purposes. Efficiency of So-Safe Water Filter was 66.32% it means was more efficiency than others special water treatment units while in RO Water Purifier was 27.14%, means less efficiency than other water purifier water under this study. Values for major cations, anions and others chemicals characteristics in the water samples after treatment became lower concentrations than befor treatment, likely an indication that these were removed by treatment. According to guideline of world health organization all of variables except total hardness befor treatment are safe and suitable for drinking purposes.

  3. STUDIES ON THE EFFICIENCY OF GRUNDWATER TREATMENT PROCESS WITH ADSORPTION ON ACTIVATED ALUMINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szatyłowicz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The one of inorganic sorbents used in water treatment technology is activated alumina. Recommended by the European Commission to remove inorganic impurities, such as arsenic, fluoride, selenium and silicates. The adsorbent is usually applied in granular form, under flow conditions. It can become absorbent material increasingly used due to the presence of arsenic beside iron and manganese in groundwater intakes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of groundwater treatment in the technological system containing adsorption on activated alumina. The experiment was performed on test model CE 581 manufactured by G.U.N.T. Hamburg, in which can extract four treatment stages. The first stage is used in a gravel filter of grain size 1-2 mm, in the second sand filter of grain size 0.4-0.8 mm. The third and fourth phase includes two adsorbers. The first adsorber comprises activated alumina (Al2O3 and the other comprises a granular activated carbon. The study was conducted at different speeds of filtration: 5, 10 and 15 m/h. In the raw water samples and the purified water samples after each treatment step were determined the following parameters: pH, O2 concentration, electrolytic conductivity, SO42-, concentration, NO3- concentration, PO43- concentration, Cl-concentration, color, turbidity, iron and manganese concentration, CODMn, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, content of dissolved substances. Conducted research indicates that optimum filtration rate for most pollution is 15 m/h. Moreover, the presence of activated alumina has contributed to increasing the efficiency of nitrate (V and phosphate (V ions removal.

  4. Efficiency of Magnetic Field Treatment on Pressure Sores in Bedridden Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Özdemir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure sores are an important source of complications in patients who are immobilized and bedridden. We aimed to investigate the efficiency of magnetic field treatment in pressure sores. Material and Methods: This was a randomized, double blind controlled design study. 20 patients in the study group received magneto-therapy, once a day for 30 minutes and with 150G, keeping to the BTL09 magnetotherapy device’s program. In the control group, 20 patients received the dressing only once a day. The surface areas of the pressure sores were evaluated at the onset of the treatment (1st day, and on the 7th and 15th days.Results: When within group comparisons were conducted, a significant difference was observed between the 1st and 7th day, 7th and 15th day, and 1st and 15th day measures in both the groups in terms of the scar area. The average healing time for the treatment group was 10.80±4.06 (6-20 days, and the average healing time for the control group was 18.85±9.75 (5-32 days. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (z=-2.114, p=0.034. Also, there was a significant difference in the scar area between the two groups in the 15th day measure (z=-3.818, p=0.000.Conclusion: The healing process of the tissue can be accelerated.with the use of magnetotherapy in the treatment of pressure sores of stage II and III,

  5. Chemical treatments for increasing the efficiency of B7 ordered packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titescu, Gh.; Predescu, S.

    1997-01-01

    Efforts to improve the contact elements, particularly, the isotopic and mass exchange elements, resulted in a new highly performing ordered packing made of metallic net. Research directed to improve the functional characteristics of these packings, destined to heavy water separation processes by vacuum isotopic distillations, continued. A special goal was deposing oxide layers on the metallic surface to increase the wettability and, implicitly, the separation efficiency of the packings. Surface treatments are based on the contact of the material in given conditions with oxidizers such as KMnO 4 , H 2 O 2 , K 2 Cr 2 O 7 . At present, the experiments aim at correlating the functional characteristics and the morphologic characteristics of the oxide layers formed on their surface

  6. CLINICAL EFFICIENCY OF APITHERAPY IN TREATMENT OF UDDER WOUNDS IN HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Čengić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey, pollen and propolis have been used since the ancient times in the treatment of infected wounds. These substances express antimicrobial activity even against microorganisms resistant to conventional antibiotics and antiseptics. The goal of the research is to answer the question of whether these substances could help in healing of the udder wounds under the real field conditions. Substances subject to research were mixed in a remedy, which was applied directly into the udder wounds once daily.The wounds were treated with “Apimelem” during May and June, 2012. “Apimelem” applied into the udder wounds gave good results in elimination of infection, prevention of reinfection and faster tissue healing. Prepared “Apimelem” proved efficient, nontoxic and financially affordable, this is especially important for poor or natural disaster- affected areas.Key words: infected wound, “Apimelem”, antimicrobic activity, udder, cow

  7. Treatment of plutonium contaminated ashes by electrogenerated Ag(II): a new, simple and efficient process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Saulze, J.L.; Bourges, J.; Lecomte, M.; Koehly, G.

    1990-01-01

    Incineration is a very attractive technique for managing plutonium contaminated solid wastes, allowing for large volume and mass reduction factors. After waste incineration, the plutonium is concentrated in the ashes and an efficient method must be designed for its recovery. To achieve this goal, a process based on the dissolution of plutonium in nitric solution under the agressive action of electrogenerated Ag(II) was developed. This process is very simple, requiring very few steps. Plutonium recovery yields up to 98% can be obtained and, in addition, the plutonium bearing solutions generated by the treatment can be processed by the PUREX technique for plutonium recovery. This process constitutes the basis for the development of industrial facilities: 1) a pilot facility is being built in MARCOULE (COGEMA, UP1 plant), to treat active ash in 1990; 2) an industrial facility will be built in the MELOX plant under construction at MARCOULE (COGEMA plant)

  8. Radioactive gas standby treatment apparatus with high efficiency rechargeable charcoal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, T.N.; Spulgis, I.S.

    1975-01-01

    Described is a standby gas treatment system for removal of radioactive release from a nuclear containment structure not only during normal purge operations but also in the event of a design basis accident. Ventiduct trains arranged in parallel so that one is redundant are each operative to extract dust in excess of 0.3 microns and adsorb radioactive iodine and compounds thereof at 99.9 percent plus efficiency. A rechargeable gasketless charcoal filter in each train can be filled or emptied without removing the filter enclosures per se. Laminar flow filter beds entirely encapsulate the gas stream to provide low gas velocity and even distribution across the charcoal cage without channeling, thereby securing long residence time

  9. Radioactive gas standby treatment apparatus with high efficiency rechargeable charcoal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, T.N.; Spulgis, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a standby gas treatment system for removal of radioactive release from a nuclear containment structure not only during normal purge operations but also in the event of a design basis accident. Ventiduct trains arranged in parallel so that one is redundant are each operative to extract dust in excess of 0.3 microns and adsorb radioactive iodine and compounds thereof at 99.9 percent plus efficiency. A rechargeable gasketless charcoal filter in each train can be filled or emptied without removing the filter enclosures per se. Laminar flow filter beds entirely encapsulate the gas stream to provide low gas velocity and even distribution across the charcoal cage without channeling, thereby securing long residence time. 2 claims, 9 drawing figures

  10. Orthodontic Class II:1 treatment-efficiency and outcome quality of Herbst-multibracket appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, N; Ruehl, J; Ruf, S

    2017-12-08

    The aim of this retrospective investigation was to assess the efficiency and outcome quality of Class II:1 treatment (Tx). The investigation is based on the evaluation of all Class II:1 patients that ever (1986-2014) started Tx with a Herbst appliance and subsequently a multibracket appliance (MBA) at the study center. Study casts from before Tx, after Herbst-MBA Tx, and (if available) after ≥ 24 months of retention were evaluated using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index, the Ahlgren scale, and standard occlusal variables. In total, 526 Class II:1 patients with a mean pre-Tx age of 14.4 years (range 9.8-44.4) had received Herbst-MBA Tx; 18 patients discontinued Tx before completion. For 240 patients, data from ≥ 24 months of retention were available. The pre-Tx PAR score of 32.4 ± 8.83 was reduced to 8.0 ± 4.51 during Tx. A slight increase to 8.8 ± 5.11 occurred during retention. The percentage of patients which could be assigned to the category "greatly improved" was 62% after Tx and 57% after retention; only 2-3% had to be assigned to the category "worse/no different." The outcome ratings according to the Ahlgren scale revealed 17% excellent, 35% good, 45% satisfactory, and 3% unsuccessful results. Class II:1 Tx using Herbst-MBA is an efficient approach in orthodontic care. During a mean active Tx period of 2 years, high-quality results can be obtained in the majority of patients. The present investigation is the first to investigate a large unselected cohort of consecutive Herbst-MBA patients to determine representative data on the efficiency and the outcome quality of this Tx approach.

  11. Treatment for stable HIV patients in England: can we increase efficiency and improve patient care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Elisabeth; Ogden, David; Ehrlich, Alice; Hay, Phillip

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the costs and potential efficiency gains of changing the frequency of clinic appointments and drug dispensing arrangements for stable HIV patients compared to the costs of hospital pharmacy dispensing and home delivery. We estimated the annual costs per patient (HIV clinic visits and either first-line treatment or a common second-line regimen, with some patients switching to a second-line regimen during the year). The cost of three-, four- and six-monthly clinic appointments and drug supply was estimated assuming hospital dispensing (incurring value-added tax) and home delivery. Three-monthly appointments and hospital drug dispensing (baseline) were compared to other strategies. The baseline was the most costly option (£10,587 if first-line treatment and no switch to second-line regimen). Moving to six-monthly appointments and home delivery yielded savings of £1883 per patient annually. Assuming patients start on different regimens and may switch to second-line therapies, six-monthly appointments and three-monthly home delivery of drugs is the least expensive option and could result in nearly £2000 savings per patient. This translates to annual cost reduction of about £8 million for the estimated 4000 eligible patients not currently on home delivery in London, England. Different appointment schedules and drug supply options should be considered for stable HIV patients based on efficiency gains. However, this should be assessed for individual patients to meet their needs, especially around adherence and patient support. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. APINetworks Java. A Java approach to the efficient treatment of large-scale complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Caro, Camelia; Niño, Alfonso; Reyes, Sebastián; Castillo, Miriam

    2016-10-01

    We present a new version of the core structural package of our Application Programming Interface, APINetworks, for the treatment of complex networks in arbitrary computational environments. The new version is written in Java and presents several advantages over the previous C++ version: the portability of the Java code, the easiness of object-oriented design implementations, and the simplicity of memory management. In addition, some additional data structures are introduced for storing the sets of nodes and edges. Also, by resorting to the different garbage collectors currently available in the JVM the Java version is much more efficient than the C++ one with respect to memory management. In particular, the G1 collector is the most efficient one because of the parallel execution of G1 and the Java application. Using G1, APINetworks Java outperforms the C++ version and the well-known NetworkX and JGraphT packages in the building and BFS traversal of linear and complete networks. The better memory management of the present version allows for the modeling of much larger networks.

  13. Raise of efficiency of flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water from reclaimed land by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Yamazaki, Masao; Sawai, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    When rain falls on the coastal reclaimed land filled with home garbage in Tokyo, a large quantity of water containing much organic contaminant flows out. It is difficult to treat this water exuding from reclaimed land by conventional method. Because the water with low BOD which is difficult to treat by biological process flows out for long period after the stabilization of reclaimed land. When the water is treated by flocculation and precipitation, the substances with high molecular weight are easily removed, but the rate of removal of fulvic acid with low molecular weight, which accounts for more than 60% of the composition of the water, is very poor. Therefore, it was examined to change the fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation, and to improve the efficiency of the flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water. Exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and it was separated into humic acid and fulvic acid. The Co-60 gamma ray of 5 kCi was irradiated to the samples. The experimental method and the results are reported. The change of fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation was most efficient at pH 2.2. More than 90% of organic contaminants was able to be removed. (Kako, I.)

  14. Electrochemical extraction of chlorides from reinforced concrete: variables affecting treatment efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Climent, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of applying electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE to a series of chloride-contaminated concrete specimens. Experimental conditions were varied to study the efficiency of this technique under different circumstances. The survey covered the possible relationship between efficiency and the location of the sampling point, current density, type of concrete and treatment intermittence. Experiments were also conducted with different reinforcement configurations used in standard structural members such as columns and beams to ascertain the impact of rebar geometry.Este documento aporta los resultados de investigaciones realizadas en diferentes estudios en los que se aplicó la técnica de Extracción Electroquímica de Cloruros (EEC a diferentes estructuras de hormigón contaminado con cloruros. Se cambiaron las condiciones experimentales con el fin de estudiar la eficiencia de la misma en cada una de ellas. Se estudió la dependencia con la posición del punto de toma de las muestras, con la densidad de corriente aplicada, con el tipo de hormigón utilizado y con las paradas realizadas en etapas intermedias del tratamiento. Para ver la influencia de la disposición geométrica de las armaduras,se realizó una experiencia con tipos diferentes de disposiciones de las armaduras, correspondiente a componentes estructurales típicos como los pilares y las vigas.

  15. An efficient algebraic approach to observability analysis in state estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneda, R.E.; Solares, C.; Conejo, A.J. [University of Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Castillo, E. [University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    An efficient and compact algebraic approach to state estimation observability is proposed. It is based on transferring rows to columns and vice versa in the Jacobian measurement matrix. The proposed methodology provides a unified approach to observability checking, critical measurement identification, determination of observable islands, and selection of pseudo-measurements to restore observability. Additionally, the observability information obtained from a given set of measurements can provide directly the observability obtained from any subset of measurements of the given set. Several examples are used to illustrate the capabilities of the proposed methodology, and results from a large case study are presented to demonstrate the appropriate computational behavior of the proposed algorithms. Finally, some conclusions are drawn. (author)

  16. ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY OF INVESTMENT IN THE EU AGRICULTURAL FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Krstić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is understanding of the importance of financial support for agricultural development and achieved results. The aim is an assessment of the importance of the European Union funds intended for agricultural and rural development. In accordance with the purpose and objectives of the research, we analyze the efficiency of investment in the European Union agricultural funds. Also, the interdependence between agriculture expenditures from the European Union funds and results achieved in agriculture in the European Union countries is examined in this paper. Homogeneity of the European Union countries, according to agricultural expenditures and agricultural results is analyzed. The results of this research highlight the importance of financial support provided from the European Union funds for agricultural and rural development.

  17. Energy efficiency measures in China: A three-stage DEA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Xiong, Siqin; Ma, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    This paper measures energy efficiency of 30 regions in China during 2010-2014 by using the three-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) model. The results indict that environmental factors and random error both have significant impacts on energy efficiency. After eliminating these influences, the results present that the energy efficiency in developed regions is almost higher than that in undeveloped or resource-rich regions and low scale technical efficiency is the main constraining factor in inefficient regions. Based on the efficiency characteristics, this paper divides all regions into four types and provide differential energy strategies.

  18. Efficient population-scale variant analysis and prioritization with VAPr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Amanda; Mark, Adam M; Mazzaferro, Carlo; Xu, Guorong; Fisch, Kathleen M

    2018-04-06

    With the growing availability of population-scale whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing, demand for reproducible, scalable variant analysis has spread within genomic research communities. To address this need, we introduce the Python package VAPr (Variant Analysis and Prioritization). VAPr leverages existing annotation tools ANNOVAR and MyVariant.info with MongoDB-based flexible storage and filtering functionality. It offers biologists and bioinformatics generalists easy-to-use and scalable analysis and prioritization of genomic variants from large cohort studies. VAPr is developed in Python and is available for free use and extension under the MIT License. An install package is available on PyPi at https://pypi.python.org/pypi/VAPr, while source code and extensive documentation are on GitHub at https://github.com/ucsd-ccbb/VAPr. kfisch@ucsd.edu.

  19. Design of sample analysis device for iodine adsorption efficiency test in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jinnan

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, iodine adsorption efficiency test is used to check the iodine adsorption efficiency of the iodine adsorber. The iodine adsorption efficiency can be calculated through the analysis of the test sample, and thus to determine if the performance of the adsorber meets the requirement on the equipment operation and emission. Considering the process of test and actual demand, in this paper, a special device for the analysis of this kind of test sample is designed. The application shows that the device is with convenient operation and high reliability and accurate calculation, and improves the experiment efficiency and reduces the experiment risk. (author)

  20. Efficient training of multilayer perceptrons using principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzmann, Christoph; Urbanczik, Robert; Biehl, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A training algorithm for multilayer perceptrons is discussed and studied in detail, which relates to the technique of principal component analysis. The latter is performed with respect to a correlation matrix computed from the example inputs and their target outputs. Typical properties of the training procedure are investigated by means of a statistical physics analysis in models of learning regression and classification tasks. We demonstrate that the procedure requires by far fewer examples for good generalization than traditional online training. For networks with a large number of hidden units we derive the training prescription which achieves, within our model, the optimal generalization behavior

  1. Importance of food waste pre-treatment efficiency for global warming potential in life cycle assessment of anaerobic digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, My; Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    treatment of the refuse. The objective of this study was to investigate how FW pre-treatment efficiency impacts the environmental performance of waste management, with respect to global warming potential (GWP). The modeling tool EASETECH was used to perform consequential LCA focusing on the impact...

  2. Efficient health care service delivery using network analysis: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    critical path) and less important together with their time duration. The average total time spent in the hospital was 43 minutes but with effective capacity planning using network analysis the total time was reduced to 18 minutes and the critical path ...

  3. More efficient mushroom canning through pinch and exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Sman, van der Ruud G.M.; Westerik, Nieke; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Dewi, Belinda P.C.; Boom, Remko M.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional production of canned mushrooms involves multiple processing steps as vacuum hydration, blanching, sterilization, etc. that are intensive in energy and water usage. We analyzed the current mushroom processing technique plus three alternative scenarios via pinch and exergy analysis.

  4. Efficient explicit formulation for practical fuzzy structural analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a practical approach based on High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) for analysing the response of structures with fuzzy parameters. The proposed methodology involves integrated finite element modelling, HDMR based response surface generation, and explicit fuzzy analysis procedures.

  5. Efficient Context Switching for the Stack Cache: Implementation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Naji, Amine

    2015-01-01

    , the analysis of the stack cache was limited to individual tasks, ignoring aspects related to multitasking. A major drawback of the original stack cache design is that, due to its simplicity, it cannot hold the data of multiple tasks at the same time. Consequently, the entire cache content needs to be saved...

  6. Evaluating a Collaborative Approach to Improve Prior Authorization Efficiency in the Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Emily E; Vranek, Kathryn; Hynicka, Lauren M; Gripshover, Janet; Potosky, Darryn; Mattingly, T Joseph

    A team-based approach to obtaining prior authorization approval was implemented utilizing a specialty pharmacy, a clinic-based pharmacy technician specialist, and a registered nurse to work with providers to obtain approval for medications for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the time to approval for prescribed treatment of HCV infection. A retrospective observational study was conducted including patients treated for HCV infection by clinic providers who received at least 1 oral direct-acting antiviral HCV medication. Patients were divided into 2 groups, based on whether they were treated before or after the implementation of the team-based approach. Student t tests were used to compare average wait times before and after the intervention. The sample included 180 patients, 68 treated before the intervention and 112 patients who initiated therapy after. All patients sampled required prior authorization approval by a third-party payer to begin therapy. There was a statistically significant reduction (P = .02) in average wait time in the postintervention group (15.6 ± 12.1 days) once adjusted using dates of approval. Pharmacy collaboration may provide increases in efficiency in provider prior authorization practices and reduced wait time for patients to begin treatment.

  7. Treatment Model in Children with Speech Disorders and Its Therapeutic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barberena, Luciana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Speech articulation disorders affect the intelligibility of speech. Studies on therapeutic models show the effectiveness of the communication treatment. Objective To analyze the progress achieved by treatment with the ABAB—Withdrawal and Multiple Probes Model in children with different degrees of phonological disorders. Methods The diagnosis of speech articulation disorder was determined by speech and hearing evaluation and complementary tests. The subjects of this research were eight children, with the average age of 5:5. The children were distributed into four groups according to the degrees of the phonological disorders, based on the percentage of correct consonants, as follows: severe, moderate to severe, mild to moderate, and mild. The phonological treatment applied was the ABAB—Withdrawal and Multiple Probes Model. The development of the therapy by generalization was observed through the comparison between the two analyses: contrastive and distinctive features at the moment of evaluation and reevaluation. Results The following types of generalization were found: to the items not used in the treatment (other words, to another position in the word, within a sound class, to other classes of sounds, and to another syllable structure. Conclusion The different types of generalization studied showed the expansion of production and proper use of therapy-trained targets in other contexts or untrained environments. Therefore, the analysis of the generalizations proved to be an important criterion to measure the therapeutic efficacy.

  8. Analysis of efficiency of waste reverse logistics for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Marcelo M

    2013-10-01

    Brazil is an agricultural country with the highest pesticide consumption in the world. Historically, pesticide packaging has not been disposed of properly. A federal law requires the chemical industry to provide proper waste management for pesticide-related products. A reverse logistics program was implemented, which has been hailed a great success. This program was designed to target large rural communities, where economy of scale can take place. Over the last 10 years, the recovery rate has been very poor in most small rural communities. The objective of this study was to analyze the case of this compulsory reverse logistics program for pesticide packaging under the recent Brazilian Waste Management Policy, which enforces recycling as the main waste management solution. This results of this exploratory research indicate that despite its aggregate success, the reverse logistics program is not efficient for small rural communities. It is not possible to use the same logistic strategy for small and large communities. The results also indicate that recycling might not be the optimal solution, especially in developing countries with unsatisfactory recycling infrastructure and large transportation costs. Postponement and speculation strategies could be applied for improving reverse logistics performance. In most compulsory reverse logistics programs, there is no economical solution. Companies should comply with the law by ranking cost-effective alternatives.

  9. Efficient iris texture analysis method based on Gabor ordinal measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajouri, Imen; Aydi, Walid; Ghorbel, Ahmed; Masmoudi, Nouri

    2017-07-01

    With the remarkably increasing interest directed to the security dimension, the iris recognition process is considered to stand as one of the most versatile technique critically useful for the biometric identification and authentication process. This is mainly due to every individual's unique iris texture. A modestly conceived efficient approach relevant to the feature extraction process is proposed. In the first place, iris zigzag "collarette" is extracted from the rest of the image by means of the circular Hough transform, as it includes the most significant regions lying in the iris texture. In the second place, the linear Hough transform is used for the eyelids' detection purpose while the median filter is applied for the eyelashes' removal. Then, a special technique combining the richness of Gabor features and the compactness of ordinal measures is implemented for the feature extraction process, so that a discriminative feature representation for every individual can be achieved. Subsequently, the modified Hamming distance is used for the matching process. Indeed, the advanced procedure turns out to be reliable, as compared to some of the state-of-the-art approaches, with a recognition rate of 99.98%, 98.12%, and 95.02% on CASIAV1.0, CASIAV3.0, and IIT Delhi V1 iris databases, respectively.

  10. Efficient photon treatment planning by the use of Swiss Monte Carlo Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, M K; Manser, P; Frei, D; Volken, W; Mini, R; Born, E J

    2007-01-01

    Currently photon Monte Carlo treatment planning (MCTP) for a patient stored in the patient database of a treatment planning system (TPS) usually can only be performed using a cumbersome multi-step procedure where many user interactions are needed. Automation is needed for usage in clinical routine. In addition, because of the long computing time in MCTP, optimization of the MC calculations is essential. For these purposes a new GUI-based photon MC environment has been developed resulting in a very flexible framework, namely the Swiss Monte Carlo Plan (SMCP). Appropriate MC transport methods are assigned to different geometric regions by still benefiting from the features included in the TPS. In order to provide a flexible MC environment the MC particle transport has been divided into different parts: source, beam modifiers, and patient. The source part includes: Phase space-source, source models, and full MC transport through the treatment head. The beam modifier part consists of one module for each beam modifier. To simulate the radiation transport through each individual beam modifier, one out of three full MC transport codes can be selected independently. Additionally, for each beam modifier a simple or an exact geometry can be chosen. Thereby, different complexity levels of radiation transport are applied during the simulation. For the patient dose calculation two different MC codes are available. A special plug-in in Eclipse providing all necessary information by means of Dicom streams was used to start the developed MC GUI. The implementation of this framework separates the MC transport from the geometry and the modules pass the particles in memory, hence no files are used as interface. The implementation is realized for 6 and 15 MV beams of a Varian Clinac 2300 C/D. Several applications demonstrate the usefulness of the framework. Apart from applications dealing with the beam modifiers, three patient cases are shown. Thereby, comparisons between MC

  11. Analysis of remote working practice AND CALCULATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Ermakov; A. V. Savyolova

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to description of working from home practice at Allianz Insurance UK и Ernst & Young, UK & Ireland. It fulfilled the analysis of the best practices in the use of new forms of social and labor relations - remote work. The characteristics of using types of distance work, the policy of implementation and realization of such work in the company, the criteria for the transfer of employees to work remotely, the possibility of a flexible approach to workflow are given. The cal...

  12. Efficiency of different hormonal treatments for estrus synchronization in tropical Santa Inês sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texeira, Tarcísio Alves; da Fonseca, Jeferson Ferreira; de Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria Gonçalves; de Rezende Carvalheira, Luciano; de Moura Fernandes, Daniel Andrews; Brandão, Felipe Zandonadi

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of (i) the duration of hormone treatment with progestogen sponges during the seasonal anestrus and (ii) the administration of two doses of prostaglandin at 7 days apart during the breeding season on reproductive parameters of Santa Inês ewes. In experiment 1, 32 ewes received intravaginal MAP sponges for 6 (G6 days), 9 (G9 days), or 12 (G12days) days and 75 μg D-cloprostenol i.m. and 300 IU eCG i.m. 1 day before sponge removal. In experiment 2, 23 ewes received two doses of 0.48-mg sodium cloprostenol i.m. 7 days apart. Ovarian follicular dynamic was assessed through transrectal ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected daily to determine progesterone concentrations. In experiment 1, estrus and ovulation rates did not differ (P > 0.05) among protocols and between cyclic and acyclic ewes at the beginning of the experiment. The G9 days treatment showed a lower dispersion of ovulations in relation to onset of estrus when compared to G6 days and G12 days. In experiment 2, all ewes exhibit estrus and ovulated after the second dose of prostaglandin, although ewes that were in diestrus at D0 showed subluteal concentrations of progesterone during the follicle development stage of the treatment. In conclusion, the use of progestogen device during 9 days promotes lower dispersion of ovulation when compared to its use for 6 or 12 days, and the protocol of two doses of prostaglandin 7 days apart synchronizes estrus efficiently but results in follicular development under low progesterone concentrations.

  13. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion in Skin Cancer Radiation Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Shin; Cheol; Lee, Kyung Jae; Jung, Sung Min; Oh, Tae Seong; Park, Jong Il; Shin, Hyun Kye [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The sufficiency of skin dose and the reemergence of patient set-up position to the success of skin cancer radiation treatment is a very important element. But the conventional methods to increase the skin dose were used to vacuum cushion, bolus and water tank have several weak points. For this reason, we produced Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion and evaluated the efficiency of the Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion in skin cancer Radiation treatment. We measured absolute dose for 3 materials (Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion, bolus and solid water phantom) and compared each dose distribution. We irradiated 6 MV 100 MU photon radiation to every material of 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm thickness at three times. We measured absolute dose and compared dose distribution. Finally we inspected the CT simulation and radiation therapy planing using the Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion. Absolute dose of Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion was similar to absolute dose of bolus and solid water phantom's result in each thickness. it Showed only the difference of 0.1-0.2% between each material. Also the same result in dose distribution comparison. About 97% of the dose distribution was within the margin of error in the prescribed ranges (100{+-}3%), and achieved the enough skin dose (Gross Tumor Volume dose : 100{+-}5%) in radiation therapy planing. We evaluated important fact that Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion is no shortage of time to replace the soft tissue equivalent material and normal vacuum cushion at the low energy radiation transmittance. Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion can simultaneously achieve the enough skin dose in radiation therapy planing with maintaining normal vacuum cushion' function. Therefore as above We think that Foxtail Millet Vacuum Cushion is very useful in skin cancer radiation treatment.

  14. Biological indicators capable of assessing thermal treatment efficiency of hydrocarbon mixture-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangang; Zhan, Xinhua; Zhou, Lixiang; Lin, Yusuo

    2010-08-01

    In China, there are many special sites for recycling and washing the used drums, which release a variety of C5-C40 hydrocarbon mixture into the soil around the site. The remediation of these contaminated sites by thermal treatment is adopted ubiquitously and needs to be assessed. Here we report the feasibility of biological indicators applied to assess thermal treatment efficiency in such contaminated soil. A series of biological indicators, including seed germination index (SGI), root elongation index (REI), plant growth height, biomass, carbon dioxide evolved (CDE), soil respiration inhibition (SRI) and soil enzymatic activities, were employed to monitor or assess hydrocarbon mixture removal in thermal treated soil. The results showed that residual hydrocarbon mixture content correlated strongly negatively with SGI for sesamum (Sesamum indicum L.), plant height, and biomass for ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the concentration ranges of 0-3990, 0-3170 and 0-2910 mg kg(-1), respectively. In contrast, REI for sesamum was positively correlated with residual hydrocarbon mixture content from 0 to 1860 mg kg(-1). In addition, both CDE and SRI demonstrated that 600 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content caused the highest amount of soil carbon dioxide emission and inhabitation of soil respiration. The results of soil enzymes indicated that 1000 mg kg(-1) of residual hydrocarbon mixture content was the threshold value of stimulating or inhibiting the activities of phosphatase and catalase, or completely destroying the activities of dehydrogenase, invertase, and urease. In conclusion, these biological indicators can be used as a meaningful complementation for traditional chemical content measurement in evaluating the environmental risk of the contaminated sites before and after thermal treatment. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An analysis of stock market efficiency: Developed vs Islamic stock markets using MF-DFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Aun R.; Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Bacha, Obiyathulla I.; Masih, Mansur

    An efficient market has been theoretically proven to be a key component for effective and efficient resource allocation in an economy. This paper incorporates econophysics with Efficient Market Hypothesis to undertake a comparative analysis of Islamic and developed countries’ markets by extending the understanding of their multifractal nature. By applying the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) we calculated the generalized Hurst exponents, multifractal scaling exponents and generalized multifractal dimensions for 22 broad market indices. The findings provide a deeper understanding of the markets in Islamic countries, where they have traces of highly efficient performance particularly in crisis periods. A key finding is the empirical evidence of the impact of the ‘stage of market development’ on the efficiency of the market. If Islamic countries aim to improve the efficiency of resource allocation, an important area to address is to focus, among others, on enhancing the stage of market development.

  16. Industrial energy efficiency with CO2 emissions in China: A nonparametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, F.; Fan, L.W.; Zhou, P.; Zhou, D.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Global awareness on energy security and climate change has created much interest in assessing economy-wide energy efficiency performance. A number of previous studies have contributed to evaluate energy efficiency performance using different analytical techniques among which data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently received increasing attention. Most of DEA-related energy efficiency studies do not consider undesirable outputs such as CO 2 emissions in their modeling framework, which may lead to biased energy efficiency values. Within a joint production framework of desirable and undesirable outputs, in this paper we construct both static and dynamic energy efficiency performance indexes for measuring industrial energy efficiency performance by using several environmental DEA models with CO 2 emissions. The dynamic energy efficiency performance indexes have further been decomposed into two contributing components. We finally apply the indexes proposed to assess the industrial energy efficiency performance of different provinces in China over time. Our empirical study shows that the energy efficiency improvement in China's industrial sector was mainly driven by technological improvement. - Highlights: ► China's industrial energy efficiency is evaluated by DEA models with CO 2 emissions. ► China's industrial energy efficiency improved by 5.6% annually since 1997. ► Industrial energy efficiency improvement in China was mainly driven by technological improvement.

  17. Efficiency analysis of alternative refrigerants for ejector cooling cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Bartosz; Kasperski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Advantages of using alternative refrigerants as ejector refrigerants were presumed. • Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. (1999) was prepared. • Optimal temperature range of primary vapor for each working fluid was calculated. - Abstract: Computer software, basing on the theoretical model of Huang et al. with thermodynamic properties of selected refrigerants, was prepared. Investigation was focused on alternative refrigerants that belong to two groups of substances: common solvents (acetone, benzene, cyclopentane, cyclohexane and toluene) and non-flammable synthetic refrigerants applied in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) (R236ea, R236fa, R245ca, R245fa, R365mfc and RC318). Refrigerants were selected to detect a possibility to use them in ejector cooling system powered by a high-temperature heat source. A series of calculations were carried out for the generator temperature between 70 and 200 °C, with assumed temperatures of evaporation 10 °C and condensation 40 °C. Investigation revealed that there is no single refrigerant that ensures efficient operation of the system in the investigated temperature range of primary vapor. Each substance has its own maximum entrainment ratio and COP at its individual temperature of the optimum. The use of non-flammable synthetic refrigerants allows obtaining higher COP in the low primary vapor temperature range. R236fa was the most beneficial among the non-flammable synthetic refrigerants tested. The use of organic solvents can be justified only for high values of motive steam temperature. Among the solvents, the highest values of entrainment ratio and COP throughout the range of motive temperature were noted for cyclopentane. Toluene was found to be an unattractive refrigerant from the ejector cooling point of view

  18. Measuring the relative efficiency of Ilam hospitals using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Fazeli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency is one of the most important issues among hospitals in today's economy. These days, we hear that cost reduction is a necessity for survival of business owners and one primary to reduce the expenditures is to increase relative efficiency. The proposed study of this paper first uses output oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA to measure the relative efficiencies of nine hospitals. The proposed model uses four types of employee namely specialists, physicians, technicians and other staffs as input parameters. The model also uses the number of surgeries, hospitalized and radiography as the outputs of the proposed model. Since the implementation of DEA leads us to have more than one single efficient unit, we implement supper efficiency technique to measure the relative efficiency of efficient units.

  19. The relative efficiency of bank branches in lending and borrowing: An application of data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G van der Westhuizen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relative efficiency of fifty-two branches of a small South African bank was estimated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA.  A factor responsible for the difference in efficiency between branches might be the difference in managing the asset (loans and the liability (deposit side of the balance sheet.  For this reason, the relative efficiency of the lending and borrowing activities was also estimated and compared to the relative efficiency of the combined (lending and borrowing activities.In the case of the efficiency estimates for loans and deposits, the indications are that the branches were more efficient in managing the liability side (deposits than  in managing the asset side (loans.  This means that purchased funds were not utilised efficiently.

  20. Super-Efficiency and Sensitivity Analysis Based on Input-Oriented DEA-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mozaffari∗

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a method of finding super-efficiency scores and modification of input-oriented models for sensitivity analysis of decision making units. First, by using DEA-R (ratiobased DEA models in the input orientation, the models of superefficiency and also models of super-efficiency modification are suggested. Second, the worst-case scenarios are considered where the efficiency of the test DMU is deteriorating while the efficiencies of the other DMUs are improving. Then, by combining these two ideas, a model is suggested which increases the super-efficiency score and modifies the change ranges in order to preserve the performance class. In the end, the super-efficiency and change interval of efficient decision making units for 23 branches of Zone 1 of the Islamic Azad University are calculated

  1. Change Best: Task 2.3. Analysis of policy mix and development of Energy Efficiency Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, P.; Vethman, P.

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the Change Best project is to promote the development of an energy efficiency service (EES) market and to give good practice examples of changes in energy service business, strategies, and supportive policies and measures in the course of the implementation of Directive 2006/32/EC on Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services. This report addresses task 2.3: Analysis of policy mix and development of Energy Efficiency Services.

  2. Using Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure International Agricultural Efficiency and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Arnade, Carlos Anthony

    1994-01-01

    Numerous methods for measuring multifactor productivity have been used by economists. This report uses a recently developed approach, data envlopment analysis, to measure productivity. This method can be used not only to calculate productivity but also to divide productivity measures into indices that measure technical efficiency and technical change. Technical efficiency measures the efficiency with which resources are used. Technical change measures changes in output arising from improved t...

  3. Effective and efficient analysis of spatio-temporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongnan

    Spatio-temporal data mining, i.e., mining knowledge from large amount of spatio-temporal data, is a highly demanding field because huge amounts of spatio-temporal data have been collected in various applications, ranging from remote sensing, to geographical information systems (GIS), computer cartography, environmental assessment and planning, etc. The collection data far exceeded human's ability to analyze which make it crucial to develop analysis tools. Recent studies on data mining have extended to the scope of data mining from relational and transactional datasets to spatial and temporal datasets. Among the various forms of spatio-temporal data, remote sensing images play an important role, due to the growing wide-spreading of outer space satellites. In this dissertation, we proposed two approaches to analyze the remote sensing data. The first one is about applying association rules mining onto images processing. Each image was divided into a number of image blocks. We built a spatial relationship for these blocks during the dividing process. This made a large number of images into a spatio-temporal dataset since each image was shot in time-series. The second one implemented co-occurrence patterns discovery from these images. The generated patterns represent subsets of spatial features that are located together in space and time. A weather analysis is composed of individual analysis of several meteorological variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, dew point, wind, clouds, visibility and so on. Local-scale models provide detailed analysis and forecasts of meteorological phenomena ranging from a few kilometers to about 100 kilometers in size. When some of above meteorological variables have some special change tendency, some kind of severe weather will happen in most cases. Using the discovery of association rules, we found that some special meteorological variables' changing has tight relation with some severe weather situation that will happen

  4. Deferred tax analysis and impact on firm's economic efficiency ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Category of deferred income tax is a complex topic including the whole accounting system and the income tax. Calculation method can be time-consuming and demanding a high quality system of analytical evidence and a system of valuation and demanding the high level of accountants' knowledge. The aim in the theoretical level was to analyze process of calculation and recording of deferred tax. Importance of recording of deferred tax and the impact on financial analysis ratios was analyzed. Fourteen business entities were examined. Deferred tax recording is a legal way to reduce retained earnings a to protect of its careless alocation.

  5. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  6. Ownership and technical efficiency of hospitals: evidence from Ghana using data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehu-Appiah, Caroline; Sekidde, Serufusa; Adjuik, Martin; Akazili, James; Almeida, Selassi D; Nyonator, Frank; Baltussen, Rob; Asbu, Eyob Zere; Kirigia, Joses Muthuri

    2014-04-08

    In order to measure and analyse the technical efficiency of district hospitals in Ghana, the specific objectives of this study were to (a) estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of government, mission, private and quasi-government district hospitals in Ghana in 2005; (b) estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient; and (c) use Tobit regression analysis to estimate the impact of ownership on hospital efficiency. In the first stage, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate the efficiency of 128 hospitals comprising of 73 government hospitals, 42 mission hospitals, 7 quasi-government hospitals and 6 private hospitals. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed against hospital ownership variable using a Tobit model. This was a retrospective study. In our DEA analysis, using the variable returns to scale model, out of 128 district hospitals, 31 (24.0%) were 100% efficient, 25 (19.5%) were very close to being efficient with efficiency scores ranging from 70% to 99.9% and 71 (56.2%) had efficiency scores below 50%. The lowest-performing hospitals had efficiency scores ranging from 21% to 30%.Quasi-government hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.9%) followed by public hospitals (70.4%), mission hospitals (68.6%) and private hospitals (55.8%). However, public hospitals also got the lowest mean technical efficiency scores (27.4%), implying they have some of the most inefficient hospitals.Regarding regional performance, Northern region hospitals had the highest mean efficiency score (83.0%) and Volta Region hospitals had the lowest mean score (43.0%).From our Tobit regression, we found out that while quasi-government ownership is positively associated with hospital technical efficiency, private ownership negatively affects hospital efficiency. It would be prudent for policy-makers to examine the

  7. Efficiency Analysis of a Wave Power Generation System by Using Multibody Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Soo; Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Jung Hee; Sung, Yong Jun

    2016-01-01

    The energy absorption efficiency of a wave power generation system is calculated as the ratio of the wave power to the power of the system. Because absorption efficiency depends on the dynamic behavior of the wave power generation system, a dynamic analysis of the wave power generation system is required to estimate the energy absorption efficiency of the system. In this study, a dynamic analysis of the wave power generation system under wave loads is performed to estimate the energy absorption efficiency. RecurDyn is employed to carry out the dynamic analysis of the system, and the Morison equation is used for the wave load model. According to the results, the lower the wave height and the shorter the period, the higher is the absorption efficiency of the system

  8. Efficiency Analysis of a Wave Power Generation System by Using Multibody Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Sohn, Jeong Hyun [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hee; Sung, Yong Jun [INGINE Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The energy absorption efficiency of a wave power generation system is calculated as the ratio of the wave power to the power of the system. Because absorption efficiency depends on the dynamic behavior of the wave power generation system, a dynamic analysis of the wave power generation system is required to estimate the energy absorption efficiency of the system. In this study, a dynamic analysis of the wave power generation system under wave loads is performed to estimate the energy absorption efficiency. RecurDyn is employed to carry out the dynamic analysis of the system, and the Morison equation is used for the wave load model. According to the results, the lower the wave height and the shorter the period, the higher is the absorption efficiency of the system.

  9. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  10. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  11. Efficiency assessment of wind farms in China using two-stage data envelopment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yunna; Hu, Yong; Xiao, Xinli; Mao, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The efficiency of China’s wind farms is assessed by data envelopment analysis. • Tobit model is used to analyze the impact of uncontrollable factors on efficiency. • Sensitivity analysis is conducted to verify the stability of evaluation results. • Efficiency levels of Chinese wind farms are relatively high in general. • Age and wind curtailment rate negatively affect the productive efficiency. - Abstract: China has been the world’s leader in wind power capacity due to the promotion of favorable policies. Given the rare research on the efficiency of China’s wind farms, this study analyzes the productive efficiency of 42 large-scale wind farms in China using a two-stage analysis. In the first stage, efficiency scores of wind farms are determined with data envelopment analysis and the sensitivity analysis is conducted to verify the robustness of efficiency calculation results. In the second stage, the Tobit regression is employed to explore the relationship between the efficiency scores and the environment variables that are beyond the control of wind farms. According to the results, all wind farms studied operate at an acceptable level. However, 50% of them overinvest in the installed capacity and about 48% have the electricity-saving potential. The most important factors affecting the efficiency of wind farms are the installed capacity and the wind power density. In addition, the age of the wind farm and the wind curtailment rate have a negative effect on productive efficiency, whereas the ownership of the wind farm has no significant effect. Findings from this study may be helpful for stakeholders in the wind industry to select wind power projects, optimize operational strategies and make related policies.

  12. Efficiency analysis and assessment of interlocking PVC sheet piling walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of PVC sheet piling in marine environments offers a number of unique advantages that include weight saving, corrosion resistance and environmentally safe material. In this study, one of the widely used classical methods as well as a finite element analysis are used to analyze such sheet piling walls. The analysis focuses on the effect of some important parameters on the wall global behavior, bending moments, stresses and deflections. The parameters include wall cross-section, wall height, embedment depth, number and spacing of anchor rods, and type of soil and loading conditions. Furthermore, the effect of the shape of the wall cross-section and the location of the interlocking joints has been studied by using plane frame and arch-like models. Results indicate that the finite element modeling is an effective tool for numerical approximation of soil-structure interaction problems. The required theoretical embedment depth is nearly 30 % of the clear wall height. Also, the modulus of subgrade reaction has a minor effect on both cantilever wall and one anchor sheet-pile wall. Finally, lateral (horizontal) action shows that deep sections tend to behave like an arch under radial loading which might increase normal stresses at some critical sections

  13. Resource and environment efficiency analysis of provinces in China: A DEA approach based on Shannon's entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Yiwen; Yang Feng

    2010-01-01

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely used in energy efficiency and environment efficiency analysis in recent years. Based on the existing environment DEA technology, this paper presents several DEA models for estimating the aggregated efficiency of resource and environment. These models can evaluate DMUs' energy efficiencies and environment efficiencies simultaneously. However, efficiency ranking results obtained from these models are not the same, and each model can provide some valuable information of DMUs' efficiencies, which we could not ignore. Under this situation, it may be hard for us to choose a specific model in practice. To address this kind of performance evaluation problem, the current paper extends Shannon-DEA procedure to establish a comprehensive efficiency measure for appraising DMUs' resource and environment efficiencies. In the proposed approach, the measure for evaluating a model's importance degree is provided, and the targets setting approach of inputs/outputs for DMU managers to improve DMUs' energy and environmental efficiencies is also discussed. We illustrate the proposed approach using real data set of 30 provinces in China.

  14. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoli, Chuka; Boutonnet, Magali; Järås, Sven; Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  15. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoli, Chuka [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden); Boutonnet, Magali; Jaeras, Sven [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Chemical Technology (Sweden); Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna, E-mail: gkr@kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Environmental Microbiology (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  16. Centrifugal compressor efficiency improvement and its environmental impact in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viholainen, J.; Grönman, K.; Jaatinen-Värri, A.; Grönman, A.; Ukkonen, P.; Luoranen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy performance and environmental impact of the compressor operation was studied. • Diffusers can offer significant energy savings in aeration compressor tasks. • Diffusers used in compressors reduce the environmental impact of the machine use. • The influence of additional material and diffuser manufacturing is insignificant. - Abstract: Energy costs typically dominate the life-cycle costs of centrifugal compressors used in various industrial and municipal processes, making the compressor an attractive target for energy efficiency improvements. This study considers the achievable energy savings of using three different diffuser types in a centrifugal compressor supporting a typical end-use process in a waste water treatment plant. The effect of the energy efficiency improvements on the annual energy use and the environmental impacts are demonstrated with energy calculations and life-cycle assessment considering the selected compressor task in the waste water aeration. Besides the achievable energy saving benefits in the wastewater aeration process, the presented study shows the influence of the additional material needed in the diffuser manufacturing on the total greenhouse gas emissions of the compressor life-cycle. According to the calculations and assessment results, the studied diffuser types have a significant effect on the compressor energy use and environmental impacts when the compressor is operated in the aeration task. The achievable annual energy savings in this case were 2.5–4.9% in comparison with the baseline scenario. Also, the influence of the additional material and energy use for manufacturing the diffuser are insignificant compared with the avoided greenhouse gas reduction potential

  17. The application of polyelectrolytes to improve liquid radwaste treatment system radionuclide removal efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homyk, W.A.; Spall, M.J.; Vance, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    At nuclear plants, miscellaneous waste water treated in the liquid radwaste processing system contains a significant fraction of suspended particulate materials ranging in size from a few microns down to the submicron region. The fewer particles that typically exist as colloids are generally negatively charged by virtue of inorganic and organic anions absorbed onto the particle surfaces. Because many of the radionuclides exist as colloids and resist agglomeration and settling they are not easily removed by mechanical filtration or ion exchange processes. The colloidal materials will easily pass through most filters with conventional pore size ratings and through most ion exchange media. This leads to poor decontamination Factors (dFs) and higher radionuclide releases to the environment. A laboratory-scale testing program was conducted at Indian Point Unit No. 2 to determine the effectiveness of the use of organic polyelectrolytes to destabilize colloidal suspensions in liquid radwaste. Destabilizing colloidal suspensions will improve the removal efficiencies of the suspended material by typical filtration and ion exchange processes. The increased removal efficiencies will provide increased dFs in the liquid radwaste treatment system. The testing focused on identifying the specific organic polyelectrolytes and the associated dosages which would be effective in destabilizing the colloidal suspensions on actual waste water samples. The testing also examined the filtration characteristics of the water source to determine filter parameters such as: body feed material, body feed dosages, specific flow rates, etc., which would provide the basis for the design of filtration systems for these applications. The testing effort and the major conclusions from this investigation are given. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Protein-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: time efficient potential-water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chuka; Boutonnet, Magali; Järås, Sven; Rajarao-Kuttuva, Gunaratna

    2012-10-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience suggest that the existing issues involving water quality could be resolved or greatly improved using nanomaterials, especially magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for the development and use, in association with natural coagulant protein for water treatment. The nanoparticles size, morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. Purified Moringa oleifera protein was attached onto microemulsions-prepared magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ME-MION) to form stable protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (PMO+ME-MION). The turbidity removal efficiency in both synthetic and surface water samples were investigated and compared with the commonly used synthetic coagulant (alum) as well as PMO. More than 90 % turbidity could be removed from the surface waters within 12 min by magnetic separation of PMO+ME-MION; whereas gravimetrically, 70 % removal in high and low turbid waters can be achieved within 60 min. In contrast, alum requires 180 min to reduce the turbidity of low turbid water sample. These data support the advantage of separation with external magnetic field (magnetophoresis) over gravitational force. Time kinetics studies show a significant enhancement in ME-MION efficiency after binding with PMO implying the availability of large surface of the ME-MION. The coagulated particles (impurities) can be removed from PMO+ME-MION by washing with mild detergent or cleaning solution. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surface water turbidity removal using protein-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle.

  19. Estimating shadow prices and efficiency analysis of productive inputs and pesticide use of vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, Alphonse G.; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Emvalomatis, Grigorios

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes technical efficiency and the value of the marginal product of productive inputs vis-a-vis pesticide use to measure allocative efficiency of pesticide use along productive inputs. We employ the data envelopment analysis framework and marginal cost techniques to estimate

  20. Efficient CFIE-MOM Analysis of 3-D PEC Scatterers in Layered Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, E.; Meincke, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient technique for analysis of arbitrary closed perfectly conducting (PEC) scatterers in layered media. The technique is based on a method of moments (MoM) solution of the combined field integral equation (CFIE). The high efficiency is obtained by employing an accurate...

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY. CUSTOMIZE ON HEALTHCARE SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    CLAUDIU CICEA

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency in health service sector is very important because the health sector is a major consumer of resources (especially financial). In this paper the author aims to analyze the efficiency in a social sector (healthcare system) based on cost-benefit analysis.

  2. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  3. Efficiency evaluation test of waste non-destructive analysis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kouichi; Ogasawara, Kensuke; Nisizawa, Ichio

    2000-03-01

    A device for non-destructive analysis of plutonium in alpha solid waste has been installed in NUCEF; Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility. The device has been designed to determine the amount of radioisotopes in carton-boxes, 45 l steel cans and 200 l steel cans containing relatively low density waste. Considering the waste density and the heterogeneity of radio-sources, the proper distance between the detector and the waste, and the open degree of the collimator have been settled, because real waste may contain several kinds of material and the heterogeneity of radioactivity. It has been confirmed from the evaluation of the detect limit that plutonium of about 8 MBq can be determined with the accuracy of 10% and the device may be proper for the practical application. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the clinical efficiency of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in the treatment of sciatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gündoğdu Zafer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of clinical efficiancy of fluoroscopy-accompanied transforaminal epidural steroid injection in patients with symptomatic lumbar foraminal intervertebral disc herniation and foraminal stenosis. Methods: Fifty patients, who underwent fluoroscopic-guided epidural steroid injection between 19.12.2013 - 28.02.2014, were evaluated retrospectively. Pain levels of patients before the procedure, after 3 weeks and after 6 months were compared using visuel analog scale (VAS. Fifty percent or more decrease, less than 50% decrease and no change in VAS were evaluated as sufficient response, insufficient response and unresponsiveness, respectively. The patients were asked whether they would undergo this process again and “Yes”, “Maybe” and “No” answers were evaluated for patient satisfaction score. Results: In 50 patients (32 female, 18 male, average pain levels were found to be 8.4 (VAS 7-9, 4.3 (VAS 1-9 and 4.4 (VAS 0-9 before the procedure, 3 weeks after the procedure and 6 months after the procedure, respectively. While thirty-seven (74% of the patients were found to have sufficient response to treatment 3 weeks after the procedure, 10 (20% patients were found to have insufficient response. There was no response to treatment in 3 (6% patients. While thirty-five (70% of the patients were found to have sufficient response to treatment 6 months after the procedure, 10 (20% patients were found to have insufficient response. Six months after the procedure, there was no response to treatment in 5 patients (%10. Statistically significant improvement was observed when the pre and post-procedure VAS scores were compared. Forty (80% patients gave the answer “Yes” to the question whether they would undergo this procedure again. Conclusion: We found that fluoroscopic guided transforaminal epidural steroid injection is effective in pain relief in patients with lumbar foraminal intervertebral disc herniation and foraminalstenosis

  5. Local structure analysis of materials for increased energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medling, Scott

    In this dissertation, a wide range of materials which exhibit interesting properties with potential for energy efficiency applications are investigated. The bulk of the research was conducted using the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique. EXAFS is a powerful tool for elucidating the local structure of novel materials, and it's advantages are presented in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, I present details on two new techniques which are used in studies later in this dissertation, but are also promising for other, unrelated studies and, therefore, warrant being discussed generally. I explain the presence of and present a method for subtracting the X-ray Raman background in the fluorescence window when collecting fluorescence EXAFS data of a dilute dopant Z in a Z+1 host. I introduce X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and discuss the process to reduce XMCD data, including the self-absorption corrections for low energy K-edges. In Chapter 4, I present a series of investigations on ZnS:Cu electroluminescent phosphors. Optical microscopy indicates that the emission centers do not degrade uniformly or monotonically, but rather, most of the emission centers blink on and off during degradation. The effect of this on various proposed degradation mechanisms is discussed. EXAFS data of ZnS:Cu phosphors ground to enable thinner, lower-voltage devices indicate that grinding preferentially causes damage to the CuS nanoprecipitates, quenching electroluminescence (EL) and concluding that smaller particles must be built up from nanoparticles instead. EXAFS data of nanoparticles show that adding a ZnS shell outside a ZnS:Cu core provides significant additional encapsulation of the Cu, increasing photoluminescence and indicating that this may increase EL if devices can be fabricated. Data from extremely dilute (0.02% Cu) ZnS:Cu nanoparticles is presented in order to specifically study the non-precipitate and suggests that the Cu dopant substitutes for Zn and is

  6. Chiropractic: Is it Efficient in Treatment of Diseases? Review of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Salehi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chiropractic is a complementary medicine that has been growing increasingly in different countries over recent decades. It addresses the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the neuromusculoskeletal system disorders and their effects on the whole body health. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of chiropractic in the treatment of different diseases. To gather data, scientific electronic databases, such as Cochrane, Medline, Google Scholar, and Scirus were searched and all systematic reviews in the field of chiropractic were obtained. Reviews were included if they were specifically concerned with the effectiveness of chiropractic treatment, included evidence from at least one clinical trial, included randomized studies and focused on a specific disease. The research data including the article’s first author’s name, type of disease, intervention type, number and types of research used, meta-analysis, number of participants, and overall results of the study, were extracted, studied and analyzed. Totally, 23 chiropractic systematic reviews were found, and 11 articles met the defined criteria. The results showed the influence of chiropractic on improvement of neck pain, shoulder and neck trigger points, and sport injuries. In the cases of asthma, infant colic, autism spectrum disorder, gastrointestinal problems, fibromyalgia, back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome, there was no conclusive scientific evidence. There is heterogeneity in some of the studies and also limited number of clinical trials in the assessed systematic reviews. Thus, conducting comprehensive studies based on more reliable study designs are highly recommended.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of the efficiency of high-temperature steam electrolysis system for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyi, Liu; Bo, Yu; Jingming, Xu; Jing, Chen

    High-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), a reversible process of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in principle, is a promising method for highly efficient large-scale hydrogen production. In our study, the overall efficiency of the HTSE system was calculated through electrochemical and thermodynamic analysis. A thermodynamic model in regards to the efficiency of the HTSE system was established and the quantitative effects of three key parameters, electrical efficiency (η el), electrolysis efficiency (η es), and thermal efficiency (η th) on the overall efficiency (η overall) of the HTSE system were investigated. Results showed that the contribution of η el, η es, η th to the overall efficiency were about 70%, 22%, and 8%, respectively. As temperatures increased from 500 °C to 1000 °C, the effect of η el on η overall decreased gradually and the η es effect remained almost constant, while the η th effect increased gradually. The overall efficiency of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with the HTSE system under different conditions was also calculated. With the increase of electrical, electrolysis, and thermal efficiency, the overall efficiencies were anticipated to increase from 33% to a maximum of 59% at 1000 °C, which is over two times higher than that of the conventional alkaline water electrolysis.

  8. Recovery of soil unicellular eukaryotes: an efficiency and activity analysis on the single cell level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentendu, Guillaume; Hübschmann, Thomas; Müller, Susann; Dunker, Susanne; Buscot, François; Wilhelm, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Eukaryotic unicellular organisms are an important part of the soil microbial community, but they are often neglected in soil functional microbial diversity analysis, principally due to the absence of specific investigation methods in the special soil environment. In this study we used a method based on high-density centrifugation to specifically isolate intact algal and yeast cells, with the aim to analyze them with flow cytometry and sort them for further molecular analysis such as deep sequencing. Recovery efficiency was tested at low abundance levels that fit those in natural environments (10(4) to 10(6) cells per g soil). Five algae and five yeast morphospecies isolated from soil were used for the testing. Recovery efficiency was between 1.5 to 43.16% and 2 to 30.2%, respectively, and was dependent on soil type for three of the algae. Control treatments without soil showed that the majority of cells were lost due to the method itself (58% and 55.8% respectively). However, the cell extraction technique did not much compromise cell vitality because a fluorescein di-acetate assay indicated high viability percentages (73.3% and 97.2% of cells, respectively). The low abundant algae and yeast morphospecies recovered from soil were cytometrically analyzed and sorted. Following, their DNA was isolated and amplified using specific primers. The developed workflow enables isolation and enrichment of intact autotrophic and heterotrophic soil unicellular eukaryotes from natural environments for subsequent application of deep sequencing technologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. REMOTE SENSING EFFICIENCY FOR URBAN ANALYSIS OF MECCA AND SURROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Imam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is considered the spiritual capital of one and a half billion worldwide Muslims. The city is visited by millions of pilgrims every year. It has undergone significant changes in land cover (LC since the government first embarked on a series of ambitious development projects 20 years ago to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and citizens. The main objective of our study is to detect, identify, analyze and measure the evolving land cover and urban morphology composition from multi-temporal satellite images. To characterize the morphological change during a period of twenty years, four satellite images, acquired in 1998 by Landsat TM and in 2003, 2008 and 2013 by Landsat ETM+, were classified into five main categories: Urban, Street, Soil and Vegetation. In addition, DEM has been extracted and included as Mountain. Change detection (CD analysis is applied using post-classification comparison and GIS. As part of the study, morphological index, such as, Entropy is included for better understanding of urban structures behaviour. Mecca and its surroundings show a noticeable increase in urban and vegetation cover. Urban cover (UC changes were divided into five radial directions: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, East, and Northwest. These changes are influenced by mountain ranges surrounding the city and the highways. These revelations can play a significant role towards future planning and development activities, which may further promote urban growth.

  10. Remote Sensing Efficiency for Urban Analysis of Mecca and Surrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Ayman; Alhaddad, Bahaa; Roca, Josep

    2016-06-01

    Situated in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is considered the spiritual capital of one and a half billion worldwide Muslims. The city is visited by millions of pilgrims every year. It has undergone significant changes in land cover (LC) since the government first embarked on a series of ambitious development projects 20 years ago to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and citizens. The main objective of our study is to detect, identify, analyze and measure the evolving land cover and urban morphology composition from multi-temporal satellite images. To characterize the morphological change during a period of twenty years, four satellite images, acquired in 1998 by Landsat TM and in 2003, 2008 and 2013 by Landsat ETM+, were classified into five main categories: Urban, Street, Soil and Vegetation. In addition, DEM has been extracted and included as Mountain. Change detection (CD) analysis is applied using post-classification comparison and GIS. As part of the study, morphological index, such as, Entropy is included for better understanding of urban structures behaviour. Mecca and its surroundings show a noticeable increase in urban and vegetation cover. Urban cover (UC) changes were divided into five radial directions: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, East, and Northwest. These changes are influenced by mountain ranges surrounding the city and the highways. These revelations can play a significant role towards future planning and development activities, which may further promote urban growth.

  11. Efficiency of naproxen/esomeprazole in association for osteoarthrosis treatment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Margarita; Tornero, Jesús; Zamorano, José Luis; Oyagüez, Itziar; Casado, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Covisa, Joaquín; Lanas, Angel

    2014-01-01

    To assess, from the perspective of the National Healthcare System, the efficiency of a fixed-dose combination of naproxen and esomeprazole (naproxen/esomeprazole) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) compared to other NSAID, alone or in combination with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). A Markov model was used; it included different health states defined by gastrointestinal (GI) events: dyspepsia, symptomatic or complicated ulcer; or cardiovascular (CV) events: myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure. The model is similar to the one used by NICE in its NSAID evaluation of OA published in 2008. The total costs (€, 2012), including drug and event-related costs, and the health outcomes expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) were estimated in patients with increased GI risk, aged 65 or over, for a 1-year time horizon and a 6-month treatment with celecoxib (200mg/day), celecoxib+PPI, diclofenac (150mg/day)+PPI, etoricoxib (60mg/day), etoricoxib+PPI, ibuprofen (1,800mg/day)+PPI, naproxen (1,000mg/day)+PPI or naproxen/esomeprazole (naproxen 1,000mg/esomeprazole 40mg/day). The selected PPI was omeprazole (20mg/day). Naproxen/esomeprazole was a dominant strategy (more effective and less costly) compared to celecoxib, etoricoxib and diclofenac+PPI. Celecoxib+PPI and etoricoxib+PPI were more effective. Considering a cost-effectiveness threshold of €30,000 per additional QALY, naproxen/esomeprazole was cost-effective compared to ibuprofen+PPI and naproxen+PPI with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of €15,154 and €5,202 per additional QALY, respectively. A fixed-dose combination of naproxen and esomeprazole is a cost-effective, and even dominant, alternative compared to other options in OA patients with increased GI risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. An empirical analysis of China's energy efficiency from both static and dynamic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaohua; Feng, Chao; Zhang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the global DEA (data envelopment analysis), this paper analyzes China's energy efficiency from both static and dynamic perspectives based on China's provincial panel data for the period of 2001–2010. We present the evolution of energy efficiency in China from 2001 to 2010, and identify the key factors influencing the energy efficiency from the aspects of technical progress, productive scale and management level. The results show that there was an overall declining trend for China's energy efficiency from 2001 to 2005, and technical regress and the decrease in scale efficiency were the main reasons for this decline. Then an overall rising trend appeared during 2005–2010, and technical progress was the most important motivation for this increase. Moreover, among the three main regions in China, the eastern China was leading in the energy efficiency during the sample period, while the energy efficiency in western China fell far behind since the beginning. And the energy efficiency in central China was in the middle. This indicates that west region may be China's promising growth engine of energy efficiency in the future, and further technical progress is thought to be the key motivation for this improvement. - Highlights: • We analyze China's energy efficiency from both static and dynamic perspectives. • The global DEA (data envelopment analysis) method is utilized in this paper. • Technical progress is the key factor for the change of China's energy efficiency. • There are significant differences in energy efficiency of different regions in China. • Western area is China's promising growth engine of energy efficiency in the future

  13. Efficiency enhancement of silicon nanowire solar cells by using UV/Ozone treatments and micro-grid electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Subramani, Thiyagu; Sun, Yonglie; Jevasuwan, Wipakorn; Fukata, Naoki

    2018-05-01

    Silicon nanowire solar cells were fabricated by metal catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) followed by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In this study, we investigated two effects, a UV/ozone treatment and the use of a micro-grid electrodes, to enhance light absorption and reduce the optic losses in the solar cell device. The UV/ozone treatment successfully improved the conversion efficiency. The micro-grid electrodes were then applied in solar cell devices subjected to a back surface field (BSF) treatment and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). These effects improved the conversion efficiency from 9.4% to 10.9%. Moreover, to reduce surface recombination and improve the continuity of front electrodes, we optimized the etching time of the MCEE process, giving a high efficiency of 12.3%.

  14. EFFICIENCY OF PRE-TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE DUMPS BY GASEOUS DESORPTION (STRIPPING OF AMMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the efficiency of pre-treatment of landfill leachate by gaseous desorption of ammonia. The research was done on a municipal non-hazardous waste dump in Krosno (Sub-Carpathian Province, Poland. The pretreatment provided a favorable BOD5/COD ratio in leachate. Also concentrations of 16 PAHs and heavy metals did not exceed the legal limits. However, gaseous desorption of ammonia was insufficiently efficient in recovering ammonia nitrogen from leachate.

  15. Hydrotalcites: a highly efficient ecomaterial for effluent treatment originated from carbon nanotubes chemical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, O L; Stefani, D; Parizotto, N V; Filho, A G Souza, E-mail: oalves@iqm.unicamp.br [Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P. O. Box 6154, 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-06

    It has been reported that a mixture of carboxylated carbonaceous fragments (CCFs), so called oxidation debris, are generated during carbon nanotubes chemical processing using oxidant agents such as HNO{sub 3}. The elimination of these fragments from carbon nanotubes surface has been point out to be a crucial step for an effective functionalization of the nanotubes as well as for improving the material. However, this process can introduce a potential environmental problem related water contamination because these CCFs can be viewed as a mixture of carbonaceous polyaromatic systems similar to humic substances and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The negative aspects of humic substances and DOM to water quality and wastewater treatment are well known. Since carbon nanotubes industry expands at high rates it is expected that effluent containing oxidation debris will increase since HNO{sub 3} chemical processing is the most applied method for purification and functionalization of carbon nanotubes. In this work, we have demonstrated that Hydrotalcites (HT) are highly efficient to remove oxidation debris from effluent solution originated from HNO{sub 3}-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The strategy presented here is a contribution towards green chemistry practices and life cycle studies in carbon nanotubes field.

  16. Efficiency of combined process of ozone and bio-filtration in the treatment of secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Smriti; Tripathi, B D

    2011-07-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the efficiency of the combined process of biofiltration with ozonation to improve the quality of secondary effluent. The secondary effluent from the Dinapur Sewage Treatment Plant Varanasi, India was used in this work. The process of biofiltration with the plant species of Eichornia crassipes and Lemna minor, at a flow rate of 262 ml min(-1) and plant density of 30 mg L(-1) for 48 h, in combination with the process of ozonation with ozone dose of 10 mg L(-1) and contact time of 5 min was applied. Results revealed that combined process was statistically most suitable for the highest degradation of physico-chemical and microbial parameters with improving BDOC value. The biofiltration process is able to remove highest percentage of toxic heavy metals from the secondary effluent without production of toxicity. This technique is highly recommendable for tropical wastewater where sewage is mixed with industrial effluents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficiency analysis on a two-level three-phase quasi-soft-switching inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Pan; Wu, Weimin; Huang, Min

    2013-01-01

    When designing an inverter, an engineer often needs to select and predict the efficiency beforehand. For the standard inverters, plenty of researches are analyzing the power losses and also many software tools are being used for efficiency calculation. In this paper, the efficiency calculation...... for non-conventional inverters with special shoot-through state is introduced and illustrated through the analysis on a special two-level three-phase quasi-soft-switching inverter. Efficiency comparison between the classical two-stage two-level three-phase inverter and the two-level three-phase quasi......-soft-switching inverter is carried out. A 10 kW/380 V prototype is constructed to verify the analysis. The experimental results show that the efficiency of the new inverter is higher than that of the traditional two-stage two- level three-phase inverter....

  18. EFFICIENCY OF THE ACROMEGALIC PATIENTS’ TREATMENT WITH DIFFERENT DOSES OF SANDOSTATIN LAR IN MOSCOW REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dreval’

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Somatostatin analogues therapy is an important part of the acromegalic patients’ treatment. Aim: Assessment of treatment efficiency for patients with acromegaly using different doses of somatostatin analogues. Materials and methods: The data of 128 acromegaly patients registered in Moscow Region were analyzed, 79 (61.7% of them were treated with somatostatin analogues. The treatment was started with a dose of 20 mg. If the target levels of growth hormone (GH and type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 were not achieved within 6-12 months, the dose was increased to 30 mg, and then to 40 mg. If GH and IGF-1 levels fell under the target values, the dose was decreased to 10 mg. The rate of achievement of optimal GH and IGF-1 levels was analyzed depending on the somatostatin analogue doses used. Results: The percentage of the acromegalic patients who were under the first and the second lines of drug therapy, was almost similar:  55.7 and 44.3%, respectively. Sandostatin LAR in dose of 10 mg was given to 4 (5.1% of 79 patients, 20 mg – to 33 (41.8%, 30 mg – to 11 (13.9%, and 40 mg – to 31 (39.2% patients. The target levels of GH and IGF-1 were achieved in 57.6, 54.5, and 32.2% of patients, who received preparation in doses 20, 30, and 40 mg, respectively. Achievement of, at least, one planned criterium (GH or IGF-1 was additionally noted in 10 of 33 (30.3%, 4 of 11 (36.2%, and 9 of 31 (29% patients within these study groups. The rate of side effects didn’t increase with the raising of оctreotide dose. Conclusion: Application of long-acting release octreotide (Sandostatin-LAR in doses of 30 and 40 mg is safe and allows to increase percentage of acromegalic patients who achieve a biochemical control over acromegaly.

  19. Improving domestic wastewater treatment efficiency with constructed wetland microbial fuel cells: Influence of anode material and external resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Clara; Puigagut, Jaume

    2018-08-01

    For the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the operation of constructed wetlands as microbial fuel cells (CW-MFCs) for both the improvement of wastewater treatment efficiency and the production of energy. However, there is still scarce information on design and operation aspects to maximize CW-MFCs efficiency, especially for the treatment of real domestic wastewater. The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of treatment efficiency improvement carried out by membrane-less MFCs simulating a core of a shallow un-planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. The influence of the external resistance (50, 220, 402, 604 and 1000Ω) and the anode material (graphite and gravel) on treatment efficiency improvement were addressed. To this purpose, 6 lab-scale membrane-less MFCs were set-up and loaded in batch mode with domestic wastewater for 13weeks. Results showed that 220Ω was the best operation condition for maximising MFCs treatment efficiency, regardless the anode material employed. Gravel-based anode MFCs operated at closed circuit showed ca. 18%, 15%, 31% and 25% lower effluent concentration than unconnected MFCs to the COD, TOC, PO 4 -3 and NH 4 + -N, respectively. Main conclusion of the present work is that constructed wetlands operated as MFCs is a promising strategy to improve domestic wastewater treatment efficiency. However, further studies at pilot scale under more realistic conditions (such as planted systems operated under continuous mode) shall be performed to confirm the findings here reported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.; Lekov, A.; Chan, P.; Dunham Whitehead, C.; Meyers, S.; McMahon, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    2006-03-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered. (author)

  1. Social efficiency of hospital care delivery: frontier analysis from the consumer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Patrick M; Moises, James; Valdmanis, Vivian Grace

    2011-02-01

    The efficiency of hospital services and patients' access to hospitals are both important health care policy issues. In the past, research has relied on studying these topics separately. In this article, we measure both efficiency and access at the same time using data envelopment analysis (DEA). By including both the technically efficient use of resources, as well as the patients' travel distances, we found increases in social efficiency when patients' travel distances were taken into account. When compared with patients with nonurgent conditions, we found that patients suffering from conditions requiring urgent attention were treated at closer hospitals, increasing the social efficiency. Insurance coverage and hospital ownership were also examined. Our findings corroborated past literature in the hospital and travel distance literature and set out a framework for future research. Perhaps most important, we demonstrate the techniques needed to incorporate broader measures of social costs into studies of hospital efficiency.

  2. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Chan, Peter; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered

  3. An analysis of factors that influence the technical efficiency of Malaysian thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, Kok Fong; Coelli, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are to measure the technical efficiency levels of Malaysian thermal power plants and to investigate the degree to which various factors influence efficiency levels in these plants. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) methods are applied to plant-level data over an eight year period from 1998 to 2005. This is the first comprehensive analysis (to our knowledge) of technical efficiency in the Malaysian electricity generation industry using parametric method. Our empirical results indicate that ownership, plant size and fuel type have a significant influence on technical efficiency levels. We find that publicly-owned power plants obtain average technical efficiencies of 0.68, which is lower than privately-owned power plants, which achieve average technical efficiencies of 0.88. We also observe that larger power plants with more capacity and gas-fired power plants tend to be more technically efficient than other power plants. Finally, we find that plant age and peaking plant type have no statistically significant influence on the technical efficiencies of Malaysian thermal power plants. - Highlights: ► We examine the technical efficiency (TE) levels of Malaysian thermal power plants. ► We also investigate the degree to which various factors influence efficiency levels in these plants. ► Stochastic frontier analysis methods are used. ► Average plant would have to increase their TE level by 21% to reach the efficient frontier. ► Ownership, plant size and fuel type have a significant influence on the TE levels.

  4. Functional analysis and treatment of diurnal bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Davenport, Katy; Britt, Courtney; Ninci, Jennifer; Garner, Jennifer; Moore, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    An analogue functional analysis identified attention as a function for a 5-year-old boy's bruxism (teeth grinding). Functional communication training resulted in a reduction of bruxism and an increase in alternative mands for attention. Results were maintained 3 weeks following the intervention. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. EPP Energy Efficiency Calculation and Influencing Factor Analysis: Cases in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency power plant (EPP promotes the use of energy efficiency power plant technology and energy efficient equipment, coupled with its low-input, zero pollution, zero emissions, and other advantages, having an important role in the control of energy consumption and energy saving. In order to carry out scientific EPP investment decisions, the level of energy efficiency is an important basis for investment decisions. This paper introduces total factor energy efficiency (TFEE in energy efficiency calculation of EPP, constructs energy efficiency calculation model considering environmental benefits, and takes the micro and macro cases in China for analysis; the results show that the TFEE of both single energy efficiency project and EPP are at a relatively high level (above 0.7, and there is a huge gap between calculation results considering and without considering the environmental benefit. In order to discuss energy efficiency influencing factors, the paper analyzes generalized technological advances variation feature of China typical provinces implementing EPP based on generalized technological advances decomposition model by Malmquist index, finding that the steady growth of M index in these provinces is derived from the management level of implementation of EPP and the large-scale production capacity of formation and management. We hope the models and conclusions could provide some references on EPP energy efficiency calculation and decision.

  6. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Coprophagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Anna D.; Roane, Henry S.; Veenstra, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    Coprophagia, the ingestion of fecal matter, occurs among some individuals with developmental disabilities and is associated with a variety of health risks (e.g., diarrhea, intestinal parasites, blood-borne pathogens; Parry-Jones & Parry-Jones, 1992). Studies that have evaluated operant-based treatments of coprophagia have been limited by a lack of…

  7. Energy efficiency of China's industry sector: An adjusted network DEA (data envelopment analysis)-based decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingnan; Wang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The process of energy conservation and emission reduction in China requires the specific and accurate evaluation of the energy efficiency of the industry sector because this sector accounts for 70 percent of China's total energy consumption. Previous studies have used a “black box” DEA (data envelopment analysis) model to obtain the energy efficiency without considering the inner structure of the industry sector. However, differences in the properties of energy utilization (final consumption or intermediate conversion) in different industry departments may lead to bias in energy efficiency measures under such “black box” evaluation structures. Using the network DEA model and efficiency decomposition technique, this study proposes an adjusted energy efficiency evaluation model that can characterize the inner structure and associated energy utilization properties of the industry sector so as to avoid evaluation bias. By separating the energy-producing department and energy-consuming department, this adjusted evaluation model was then applied to evaluate the energy efficiency of China's provincial industry sector. - Highlights: • An adjusted network DEA (data envelopment analysis) model for energy efficiency evaluation is proposed. • The inner structure of industry sector is taken into account for energy efficiency evaluation. • Energy final consumption and energy intermediate conversion processes are separately modeled. • China's provincial industry energy efficiency is measured through the adjusted model.

  8. Detailed analysis of the effect of the turbine and compressor isentropic efficiency on the thermal and exergy efficiency of a Brayton cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and exergy analysis of a Brayton cycle with an ideal gas is given. The irreversibility of the adiabatic processes in turbine and compressor is taken into account through their isentropic efficiencies. The net work per cycle, the thermal efficiency and the two exergy efficiencies are expressed as functions of the four dimensionless variables: the isentropic efficiencies of turbine and compressor, the pressure ratio, and the temperature ratio. It is shown that the maximal values of the net work per cycle, the thermal and the exergy efficiency are achieved when the isentropic efficiencies and temperature ratio are as high as possible, while the different values of pressure ratio that maximize the net work per cycle, the thermal and the exergy efficiencies exist. These pressure ratios increase with the increase of the temperature ratio and the isentropic efficiency of compressor and turbine. The increase of the turbine isentropic efficiency has a greater impact on the increase of the net work per cycle and the thermal efficiency of a Brayton cycle than the same increase of compressor isentropic efficiency. Finally, two goal functions are proposed for thermodynamic optimization of a Brayton cycle for given values of the temperature ratio and the compressor and turbine isentropic efficiencies. The first maximizes the sum of the net work per cycle and thermal efficiency while the second the net work per cycle and exergy efficiency. In both cases the optimal pressure ratio is closer to the pressure ratio that maximizes the net work per cycle.

  9. Improving the sludge disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinkaya, S; Sevimli, M F; Aygün, A

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious problems encountered in biological wastewater treatment processes is the production of waste activated sludge (WAS). Sonication, which is an energy-intensive process, is the most powerful sludge pre-treatment method. Due to lack of information about the combined pre-treatment methods of sonication, the combined pre-treatment methods were investigated and it was aimed to improve the disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining sonication with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods in this study. The process performances were evaluated based on the quantities of increases in soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), protein and carbohydrate. The releases of soluble COD, carbohydrate and protein by the combined methods were higher than those by sonication, alkalization and thermal pre-treatment alone. Degrees of sludge disintegration in various options of sonication were in the following descending order: sono-alkalization > sono-thermal pre-treatment > sonication. Therefore, it was determined that combining sonication with alkalization significantly improved the sludge disintegration and decreased the required energy to reach the same yield by sonication. In addition, effects on sludge settleability and dewaterability and kinetic mathematical modelling of pre-treatment performances of these methods were investigated. It was proven that the proposed model accurately predicted the efficiencies of ultrasonic pre-treatment methods.

  10. EFFICIENCY OF PROSTHETIC TREATMENT WITH POST RESECTION PROSTHESES WITH SOLID SUBSTITUTE PART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gerdzhikov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to track the effectiveness of prosthetic treatment with post resection dentures with solid substitute part and their role in the restoration of damaged functions. Materials and methods: The study included 14 patients (9 men and 5 women with different size and location of defects in the upper jaw treated in the period 2010-2016 with post resection prostheses with a solid substitute part. The impressions were taken with irreversible hydrocolloid impression material. The prostheses were completed by heat-curing acrylic with low quantity residual monomer. The effectiveness of prosthetics was evaluated by the method of Mihaylov for both oral-nasal examination of the pressure with the device "Oronasopneumotest." For objectifying and assess the occlusal-articulation ratios was held computerized occlusal analysis with the system T-SCAN 8. Results: The results showed successful obturation and sealing of defects in all patients. It was found satisfactory recovery of the speaking function and normalization of occlusal-articulation ratios. Conclusion: The prosthetic treatment with post resection prostheses with a solid substitute part allows successful recovery of the lost speech and chewing functions, helping to restore self esteem and social rehabilitation of patients.

  11. Nitrate Waste Treatment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Terrence Kerwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-07-05

    This plan is designed to outline the collection and analysis of nitrate salt-bearing waste samples required by the New Mexico Environment Department- Hazardous Waste Bureau in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (Permit).

  12. Efficiency of the health extension programme in Tigray, Ethiopia: a data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemma Hailemariam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2004, the government of Ethiopia has made a bold decision to strengthen and expand its primary health care system by launching the Health Extension Program (HEP. While the scaling up of the HEP is necessary to achieve the aim of universal access to primary health care, close attention should be paid to the performance of the program. Using a data envelopment analysis this study aimed at (i to estimate the technical efficiency of a sample of health posts in rural Tigray, ii to identify those factors which might be explaining the efficiency results. Methods Efficiency was measured using a data envelopment analysis model. A Tobit model was performed to identify factors associated with efficiency. Seven rural districts (out of 35 were purposely chosen. Input/output information was collected from the database of the Tigray Health Bureau during July 2007-June 2008. Information was also collected on environmental factors that might influence the efficiency outcomes through a structured questionnaire from the correspondent district health officers. Results Analysis was based on data from 60 health posts. The mean scores for technical and scale efficiency were 0.57 (SD = 0.32 and 0.95 (SD = 0.11 respectively. Out of the 60 health posts, 15 (25.0% were found to be technically efficient constituting the best practice frontier. Thirty eight (63.3% were operating at their most productive scale size. In the regression analysis, none of the variables was significantly associated with the efficiency outcome. Conclusion There is a need to review the management of the health information system in the region. The findings have also revealed that only a quarter of the health posts are working efficiently and pointed the need for improvement. A closer monitoring of the health extension programme is required in order to achieve the best possible performance.

  13. IMRT: Improvement in treatment planning efficiency using NTCP calculation independent of the dose-volume-histogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorov, Grigor N.; Chow, James C.L.; Grigorov, Lenko; Jiang, Runqing; Barnett, Rob B.

    2006-01-01

    The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) is a predictor of radiobiological effect for organs at risk (OAR). The calculation of the NTCP is based on the dose-volume-histogram (DVH) which is generated by the treatment planning system after calculation of the 3D dose distribution. Including the NTCP in the objective function for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan optimization would make the planning more effective in reducing the postradiation effects. However, doing so would lengthen the total planning time. The purpose of this work is to establish a method for NTCP determination, independent of a DVH calculation, as a quality assurance check and also as a mean of improving the treatment planning efficiency. In the study, the CTs of ten randomly selected prostate patients were used. IMRT optimization was performed with a PINNACLE3 V 6.2b planning system, using planning target volume (PTV) with margins in the range of 2 to 10 mm. The DVH control points of the PTV and OAR were adapted from the prescriptions of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol P-0126 for an escalated prescribed dose of 82 Gy. This paper presents a new model for the determination of the rectal NTCP ( R NTCP). The method uses a special function, named GVN (from Gy, Volume, NTCP), which describes the R NTCP if 1 cm 3 of the volume of intersection of the PTV and rectum (R int ) is irradiated uniformly by a dose of 1 Gy. The function was 'geometrically' normalized using a prostate-prostate ratio (PPR) of the patients' prostates. A correction of the R NTCP for different prescribed doses, ranging from 70 to 82 Gy, was employed in our model. The argument of the normalized function is the R int , and parameters are the prescribed dose, prostate volume, PTV margin, and PPR. The R NTCPs of another group of patients were calculated by the new method and the resulting difference was <±5% in comparison to the NTCP calculated by the PINNACLE3 software where Kutcher's dose

  14. A critique of non-parametric efficiency analysis in energy economics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chien-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The paper reexamines non-additive environmental efficiency models with weakly-disposable undesirable outputs appeared in the literature of energy economics. These efficiency models are used in numerous studies published in this journal and other energy-related outlets. Recent studies, however, have found key limitations of the weak-disposability assumption in its application to environmental efficiency analysis. It is found that efficiency scores obtained from non-additive efficiency models can be non-monotonic in pollution quantities under the weak-disposability assumption — which is against common intuition and the principle of environmental economics. In this paper, I present taxonomy of efficiency models found in the energy economics literature and illustrate the above limitations and discuss implications of monotonicity from a practical viewpoint. Finally, I review the formulations for a variable returns-to-scale technology with weakly-disposable undesirable outputs, which has been misused in a number of papers in the energy economics literature. An application to evaluating the energy efficiencies of 23 European Union states is presented to illustrate the problem. - Highlights: • Review different environmental efficiency model used in energy economics studies • Highlight limitations of these environmental efficiency models • These limitations have not been recognized in the existing energy economics literature. • Data from 23 European Union states are used to illustrate the methodological consequences

  15. Functional efficiency comparison between split- and parallel-hybrid using advanced energy flow analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, Philipp; Lin, Mengyan [Romax Technology, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The following paper presents a comparative efficiency analysis of the Toyota Prius versus the Honda Insight using advanced Energy Flow Analysis methods. The sample study shows that even very different hybrid concepts like a split- and a parallel-hybrid can be compared in a high level of detail and demonstrates the benefit showing exemplary results. (orig.)

  16. Parallel scalability and efficiency of vortex particle method for aeroelasticity analysis of bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Khaled Ibrahim; Morgenthal, Guido

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the scalability and efficiency of a simulation framework based on the vortex particle method. The code is applied for the numerical aerodynamic analysis of line-like structures. The numerical code runs on multicore CPU and GPU architectures using OpenCL framework. The focus of this paper is the analysis of the parallel efficiency and scalability of the method being applied to an engineering test case, specifically the aeroelastic response of a long-span bridge girder at the construction stage. The target is to assess the optimal configuration and the required computer architecture, such that it becomes feasible to efficiently utilise the method within the computational resources available for a regular engineering office. The simulations and the scalability analysis are performed on a regular gaming type computer.

  17. Technical- and environmental-efficiency analysis of irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab, Pakistan using data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  18. Quantifying and improving the efficiency of Gamma Knife treatment plans for brain metastases: results of a 1-year audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gavin; Hatfield, Paul; Loughrey, Carmel; Reiner, Beatrice; Bownes, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A method for quantifying the efficiency of Gamma Knife treatment plans for metastases was previously implemented by the authors to retrospectively identify the least efficient plans and has provided insights into improved planning strategies. The aim of the current work was to ascertain whether those insights led to improved treatment plans. Following completion of the initial study, a 1-year audit of metastasis plans created at St. James's Institute of Oncology was carried out. Audited recent plans were compared with the earlier plans of the initial study, in terms of their efficiency and dosimetric quality. The statistical significance of any differences between relevant plan parameters was quantified by Mann-Whitney U-tests. Comparisons were made between all plans and repeated for a reduced set of plans from which the smallest lesions treated with a single 4-mm shot were excluded. The plan parameters compared were a plan efficiency index (PEI), the number of shots, Paddick conformity index (PCI), gradient index (GI), and percent coverage (of the lesion by the prescription isodose). A total of 157 metastatic lesions were included in the audit and were compared with 241 in the initial study. In a comparison of all cases, the audited plans achieved a higher median PEI score than did the earlier plans from the initial study (1.08 vs 1.02), indicating improved efficiency of the audited plans. When the smallest lesions (for which there was little scope for varying plan strategy) were discounted, the improvement in median PEI score was greater (1.23 vs 1.03, p planning strategy yielding these efficiency improvements did not rely on the use of significantly fewer shots (median 11 vs 11 shots, p = 0.924), nor did it result in significant detriment to dosimetric quality (median coverage 99% vs 99%, median PCI 0.84 vs 0.83, p = 0.449, and median GI 2.72 vs 2.67, p = 0.701, audited plans vs initial plans, respectively). Choice of planning strategy can substantially affect

  19. Design of field experiments: Influence of treatment response relative to standard deviation and blocking factor characteristics on efficient blocking strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selection of experimental design can markedly influence efficiency of field research. This study used Monte Carlo simulations to compare the ability of different field experimental designs to distinguish defined treatment differences, and the paper concludes with a section on practical use of the in...

  20. Impact of protein pre-treatment conditions on the iron encapsulation efficiency of whey protein cold-set gel particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Jong, G.A.H. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility for iron fortification of food using protein gel particles in which iron is entrapped using cold-set gelation. The aim is to optimize the iron encapsulation efficiency of whey protein by giving the whey protein different heat treatment prior to gelation with

  1. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Photographs and drawings were edited into a book in relation with a joint project for environment preservation technologies in high-efficiency extraction and treatment of mineral resources, and detail design for a pilot plant. The book classified the related devices into fabricated devices, purchased devices and electrical devices, and contains detailed drawings and photographs thereof. (NEDO)

  2. Grain intermodal terminals: evaluation of pure technical efficiency by Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Mendonça Peixoto

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aimed to verify if terminals with productive efficiency also have pure technical efficiency, using DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis technique. The research approach was the qualitative-quantitative or mixed, with exploratory purpose; the research method defined was the case study (multicases; data were collected through interviews using a structured questionnaire and non-probability for convenience sampling. While the application of Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR model observed that only three (4, 7 and 11, of the twelve analyzed Decision Making Units (DMUs have total technical efficiency, through Banker, Charnes and Cooper (BCC model, it was possible to observe that these terminals were the only ones with pure technical efficiency. The three inefficient DMUs (1, 2 and 12 showed pure technical efficiency, suggesting that these terminals might present probable scale operations’ inefficiency, aspect not addressed in this paper.

  3. Evaluation of Technical Efficiency in Indian Sugar Industry: An Application of Full Cumulative Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil KUMAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the inter-temporal and inter-state variations in technical and scale efficiency levels of Indian sugar industry. In the first stage, full cumulative data envelopment analysis (FCDEA is used to derive efficiency scores for 12 major sugar producing states. The panel data truncated regression is employed in the second stage to assess the key factors explaining the observed variations in the efficiency levels. The results suggest that the extent of technical inefficiency in Indian sugar industry is about 35.5 percent per annum, and the observed technical inefficiency stems primarily due to managerial inefficiency rather scale inefficiency. Also, a precipitous decline in the level of technical efficiency has been noticed in the postreforms period relative to the level observed in the pre-reforms period. The availability of skilled labour and profitability have been found to be most significant determinants of technical efficiency in Indian sugar industry.

  4. An application of data envelopment analysis for measuring the relative efficiency in banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soltanifar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of banking industry has been a popular subject among both practitioners and academicians. Data envelopment analysis (DEA has been widely applied for different purposes. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of various banks located in province of Semnan, Iran. The proposed study uses DEA method to rank all units and using Anderson and Peterson method (1993 [Andersen, P., & Petersen, N. C. (1993. A procedure for ranking efficient units in data envelopment analysis. Management Science, 39, 1261-1264], we provide some super efficiency for inefficient units. The study also provides reference numbers for inefficient units and gives some target values for all inefficient units.

  5. Exploring the existence of Kuznets curve in countries' environmental efficiency using DEA window analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkos, George Emm.; Tzeremes, Nickolaos G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper, using data envelopment (DEA) window analysis and generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators, examines the existence of a Kuznets type relationship between countries' environmental efficiency and national income. Specifically, it measures the environmental efficiency of 17 OECD countries by constructing environmental efficiency ratios for the time period 1980-2002. The analysis with the application of dynamic panel data reveals that there isn't a Kuznets type relationship between environmental efficiency and income. Allowing for dynamic effects we find that the adjustment to the target ratio is instantaneous. We also find that increased economic activity does not always ensure environmental protection and thus the path of growth is important in addition to the growth itself. (author)

  6. Exploring the existence of Kuznets curve in countries' environmental efficiency using DEA window analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halkos, George Emm.; Tzeremes, Nickolaos G. [Department of Economics, University of Thessaly, Korai 43, 38333, Volos (Greece)

    2009-05-15

    This paper, using data envelopment (DEA) window analysis and generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators, examines the existence of a Kuznets type relationship between countries' environmental efficiency and national income. Specifically, it measures the environmental efficiency of 17 OECD countries by constructing environmental efficiency ratios for the time period 1980-2002. The analysis with the application of dynamic panel data reveals that there isn't a Kuznets type relationship between environmental efficiency and income. Allowing for dynamic effects we find that the adjustment to the target ratio is instantaneous. We also find that increased economic activity does not always ensure environmental protection and thus the path of growth is important in addition to the growth itself. (author)

  7. Development of an empirical model of turbine efficiency using the Taylor expansion and regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xiande; Xu, Yu

    2011-01-01

    The empirical model of turbine efficiency is necessary for the control- and/or diagnosis-oriented simulation and useful for the simulation and analysis of dynamic performances of the turbine equipment and systems, such as air cycle refrigeration systems, power plants, turbine engines, and turbochargers. Existing empirical models of turbine efficiency are insufficient because there is no suitable form available for air cycle refrigeration turbines. This work performs a critical review of empirical models (called mean value models in some literature) of turbine efficiency and develops an empirical model in the desired form for air cycle refrigeration, the dominant cooling approach in aircraft environmental control systems. The Taylor series and regression analysis are used to build the model, with the Taylor series being used to expand functions with the polytropic exponent and the regression analysis to finalize the model. The measured data of a turbocharger turbine and two air cycle refrigeration turbines are used for the regression analysis. The proposed model is compact and able to present the turbine efficiency map. Its predictions agree with the measured data very well, with the corrected coefficient of determination R c 2 ≥ 0.96 and the mean absolute percentage deviation = 1.19% for the three turbines. -- Highlights: → Performed a critical review of empirical models of turbine efficiency. → Developed an empirical model in the desired form for air cycle refrigeration, using the Taylor expansion and regression analysis. → Verified the method for developing the empirical model. → Verified the model.

  8. Surgical Treatment of Subungual Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Wide Excision of the Nail Unit and Skin Graft Reconstruction: An Evaluation of Treatment Efficiency and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topin-Ruiz, Solène; Surinach, Catherine; Dalle, Stéphane; Duru, Gérard; Balme, Brigitte; Thomas, Luc

    2017-05-01

    The best surgical treatment modalities for subungual squamous cell carcinoma (SUSCC) without bone invasion need to be determined. The limited available data on Mohs micrographic surgery do not demonstrate its use as a standard procedure. A previous study in a limited series of patients has shown that wide surgical excision of the nail unit was associated with a low rate of recurrence. To confirm the efficiency of wide surgical excision of the nail unit with full-thickness skin graft reconstruction on a series of patients with SUSCC with an extended follow-up and to evaluate short- and long-term postoperative morbidity and patient satisfaction. A consecutive series of 55 patients with biopsy-proven SUSCC without bone invasion treated by wide surgical excision of the nail unit followed by full-thickness skin graft reconstruction from January 1, 2000, to August 31, 2012 were included. After a minimum follow-up of 5 years, the recurrences were collected from the referring physicians. Statistical analysis was conducted from January 1 to June 30, 2016. Demographic data, pathologic characteristics of tumors, postoperative follow-up, and recurrences were collected from medical records. Patients' satisfaction with surgery, quality of life, and delayed postoperative morbidity (functional outcome and sensory disorders) were assessed from a questionnaire mailed to patients and physicians. Among the 55 patients (23 women and 32 men; mean age, 64 years), the mean follow-up was 6.6 years (range, 5.0-11.2 years), with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Fifty-two questionnaires (95%) were returned. Two recurrences were observed. Minor early postoperative complications, such as graft infection and delayed wound healing, were seen in 6 patients; 8 patients experienced severe pain. Late postoperative complications included hypersensitivity to mechanical shocks (39 of 51 patients [76%]), mildly increased sensitivity to cold (38 of 51 patients [75%]), loss of fine touch sensation (17 of 35

  9. [Catheter-related bladder discomfort after urological surgery: importance of the type of surgery and efficiency of treatment by clonazepam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maro, S; Zarattin, D; Baron, T; Bourez, S; de la Taille, A; Salomon, L

    2014-09-01

    Bladder catheter can induce a Catheter-Related Bladder Discomfort (CRBD). Antagonist of muscarinic receptor is the gold standard treatment. Clonazepam is an antimuscarinic, muscle relaxing oral drug. The aim of this study is to look for a correlation between the type of surgical procedure and the existence of CRBD and to evaluate the efficiency of clonazepam. One hundred patients needing bladder catheter were evaluated. Sexe, age, BMI, presence of diabetes, surgical procedure and existence of CRBD were noted. Pain was evaluated with analogic visual scale. Timing of pain, need for specific treatment by clonazepam and its efficiency were noted. Correlation between preoperative data, type of surgical procedure, existence of CRBD and efficiency of treatment were evaluated. There were 79 men and 21 women (age: 65.9 years, BMI: 25.4). Twelve patients presented diabetes. Surgical procedure concerned prostate in 39 cases, bladder in 19 cases (tumor resections), endo-urology in 20 cases, upper urinary tract in 12 cases (nephrectomy…) and lower urinary tract in 10 cases (sphincter, sub-uretral tape). Forty patients presented CRBD, (pain 4.5 using VAS). This pain occurred 0.6 days after surgery. No correlation was found between preoperative data and CRBD. Bladder resection and endo-urological procedures were surgical procedures which procured CRBD. Clonazepam was efficient in 30 (75 %) out of 40 patients with CRBD. However, it was less efficient in case of bladder tumor resection. CRBD is frequent and occurred immediately after surgery. Bladder resection and endo-urology were the main surgical procedures which induced CRBD. Clonazepam is efficient in 75 %. Bladder resection is the surgical procedure which is the most refractory to treatment. 5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring the efficiency of dental departments in medical centers: a nonparametric analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue

    2002-12-01

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA), a cross-sectional study design based on secondary data analysis, was used to evaluate the relative operational efficiency of 16 dental departments in medical centers in Taiwan in 1999. The results indicated that 68.7% of all dental departments in medical centers had poor performance in terms of overall efficiency and scale efficiency. All relatively efficient dental departments were in private medical centers. Half of these dental departments were unable to fully utilize available medical resources. 75.0% of public medical centers did not take full advantage of medical resources at their disposal. In the returns to scale, 56.3% of dental departments in medical centers exhibited increasing returns to scale, due to the insufficient scale influencing overall hospital operational efficiency. Public medical centers accounted for 77.8% of the institutions affected. The scale of dental departments in private medical centers was more appropriate than those in public medical centers. In the sensitivity analysis, the numbers of residents, interns, and published papers were used to assess teaching and research. Greater emphasis on teaching and research in medical centers has a large effect on the relative inefficiency of hospital operation. Dental departments in private medical centers had a higher mean overall efficiency score than those in public medical centers, and the overall efficiency of dental departments in non-university hospitals was greater than those in university hospitals. There was no information to evaluate the long-term efficiency of each dental department in all hospitals. A different combination of input and output variables, using common multipliers for efficiency value measurements in DEA, may help establish different pioneering dental departments in hospitals.

  11. Energy efficiency and policy in Swedish pulp and paper mills: A data envelopment analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomberg, Jerry; Henriksson, Eva; Lundmark, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides an empirical assessment of the electricity efficiency improvement potential in the Swedish pulp and paper industry by employing data envelopment analysis (DEA) and mill-specific input and output data for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. The empirical results are discussed in relation to the reported outcomes of the Swedish voluntary energy efficiency programme PFE. The estimated electricity efficiency gap is relatively stable over the time period; it equals roughly 1 TWh per year for the sample mills and this is three times higher than the corresponding self-reported electricity savings in PFE. This result is largely a reflection of the fact that in the pulp and paper industry electricity efficiency improvements are typically embodied in the diffusion of new capital equipment, and there is a risk that some of the reported measures in PFE simply constitute an inefficient speed-up of capital turnover. The above does not preclude, though, that many other measures in PFE may have addressed some relevant market failures and barriers in the energy efficiency market. Overall the analysis suggests that future energy efficiency programs could plausibly be better targeted at explicitly promoting technological progress as well as at addressing the most important information and behaviour-related failures. - Highlights: ► We provide an empirical assessment of the electricity efficiency improvement potential in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. ► The empirical results are discussed in relation to the reported outcomes of the Swedish voluntary energy efficiency programme PFE. ► The estimated electricity efficiency gap is relatively stable over the time period and equals roughly 1 TWh for the sample mills (three times higher than the corresponding self-reported electricity savings in PFE). ► The results suggest that future energy efficiency programs could be better targeted at explicitly promoting technological progress as well as at addressing the

  12. Eco-efficiency analysis of techniques for disposal of urban solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrijevas, Cibele

    2010-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is one of the major problems of modern society. In this sense it is necessary to discuss solutions to the fate of waste generated daily, increasingly in larger amounts, being imperative to advance the search for alternatives, not only in search of new technologies and solutions, as well as the improvement of methodologies currently employed to solve this relevant issue, especially in large urban centers. This paper presents the results of a comparative economic-environmental assessment performed by a method developed by BASF, two potential technologies: landfill and incineration with energy recovery. To facilitate the work, the information used were both real data - landfill and incinerator - Essencis Solucoes Ambientais S.A., (assuming some assumptions) and the use of secondary data, using the study of Arena et al., 2003. This ecoefficiency analysis tool covers the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which is a technique to evaluate the inputs and outputs of matter and energy and the potential environmental impacts associated with all stages of resource extraction and their transformations , and the use and final disposal of the product. The data in the environmental assessment are presented according to major categories, using a weighting method developed by BASF and understand the consumption of natural resources, consumption of energy resources, air emissions, water and soil, potential for human toxicity, accidents work, occupational diseases and land use. Economic evaluation in this work took into account the costs involved in operation and maintenance of disposal techniques or treatment of waste. The comparative study found the treatment or disposal of 7.324109 billion kilograms of waste. As a result, the array of eco-efficiency indicates that the incinerator is the alternative that stands out, considering the environmental and economic profile, within the assumptions made in this study and taking into account which is a

  13. Assessing the technical efficiency of health posts in rural Guatemala: a data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Alison R; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Strengthening health service delivery to the rural poor is an important means of redressing inequities. Meso-level managers can help enhance efficiency in the utilization of existing resources through the application of practical tools to analyze routinely collected data reflecting inputs and outputs. This study aimed to assess the efficiency and change in productivity of health posts over two years in a rural department of Guatemala. Data envelopment analysis was used to measure health posts' technical efficiency and productivity change for 2008 and 2009. Input/output data were collected from the regional health office of Alta Verapaz for 34 health posts from the 19 districts comprising the health region. Technical efficiency varied widely across health posts, with mean scores of 0.78 (SD=0.24) and 0.75 (SD=0.21) in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Overall, productivity increased by 4%, though 47% of health posts experienced a decline in productivity. Results were combined on a bivariate plot to identify health posts at the high and low extremes of efficiency, which should be followed up to determine how and why their production processes are operating differently. Assessing efficiency using the data that are available at the meso-level can serve as a first step in strengthening performance. Further work is required to support managers in the routine application of efficiency analysis and putting the results to use in guiding efforts to improve service delivery and increase utilization.

  14. The Efficiency of Split Panel Designs in an Analysis of Variance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Guo; Liu, Hai-Jun

    2016-01-01

    We consider split panel design efficiency in analysis of variance models, that is, the determination of the cross-sections series optimal proportion in all samples, to minimize parametric best linear unbiased estimators of linear combination variances. An orthogonal matrix is constructed to obtain manageable expression of variances. On this basis, we derive a theorem for analyzing split panel design efficiency irrespective of interest and budget parameters. Additionally, relative estimator efficiency based on the split panel to an estimator based on a pure panel or a pure cross-section is present. The analysis shows that the gains from split panel can be quite substantial. We further consider the efficiency of split panel design, given a budget, and transform it to a constrained nonlinear integer programming. Specifically, an efficient algorithm is designed to solve the constrained nonlinear integer programming. Moreover, we combine one at time designs and factorial designs to illustrate the algorithm’s efficiency with an empirical example concerning monthly consumer expenditure on food in 1985, in the Netherlands, and the efficient ranges of the algorithm parameters are given to ensure a good solution. PMID:27163447

  15. Energy efficiency barriers in commercial and industrial firms in Ukraine: An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochman, Gal; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2017-01-01

    Improvement in energy efficiency is one of the main options to reduce energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. However, large-scale deployment of energy-efficient technologies is constrained by several factors. Employing a survey of 509 industrial and commercial firms throughout Ukraine and a generalized ordered logit model, we quantified the economic, behavioral, and institutional barriers that may impede the deployment of energy-efficient technologies. Our analysis shows that behavioral barriers resulted from lack of information, knowledge, and awareness are major impediments to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies in Ukraine, and that financial barriers may further impede investments in these technologies especially for small firms. This suggests that carefully targeted information provisions and energy audits will enhance Ukrainian firms' investments in energy-efficient technologies to save energy consumption, improve productivity, and reduce carbon emissions from the productive sectors. - Highlights: • Employing a survey of 509 industrial and commercial firms throughout Ukraine • A generalized ordered logit model is used in the analysis. • The paper quantifies the economic, behavioral, and institutional barriers to energy-efficient technologies. • Behavioral barriers are major impediments to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. • Financial barriers may further impede investments in these technologies especially for small firms.

  16. Analysis of the efficiency-integration nexus of Japanese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Aun R.; Arshad, Shaista

    2017-03-01

    This paper attempts a novel approach in analysing the Japanese economy through a dual-dimension analysis of its stock market, examining the efficiency and market integration. Taking a period of 24 years, this study employs MFDFA and MGARCH to understand how the efficiency and integration of the stock market faired during different business cycle phases of the Japanese economy. The results showed improving efficiency over the time period. For the case of market integration, our findings conform to recent literature on business cycles and stock market integration that every succeeding recession creates a break into integration levels resulting in a decrease.

  17. Association of genetic markers with the efficiency of tocilizumab treatment for rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Anatolyevna Guseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the association of polymorphic variants of the genes playing a pivotal role in the processes of inflammation with the efficiency of tocilizumab (TCZ therapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 43 patients with active RA resistant to standard therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs who had previously received no genetically engineered biological agents. The patients received 6 intravenous infusions of TCZ in a dose of 8 mg/kg at 4-week intervals. DAS28 was used to evaluate the efficiency of TCZ therapy. Polymorphisms in the genes of interleukin 6 (IL-6 (-174G/C, IL-6 receptor (IL-6R (+358A/C, tumor necrosis factor-а (TNF-а (-308A/G, IL-10(-592A/C, -1082A/G, TNF^-Induced protein 3 - TNF-αIP3 T/C (rs675520, TNF-αIP3A/G (rs6920220, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 - МСР1 (+2581A/G were detected by a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay using fluorescently-labeled specific hybridization primers, followed by melting curve estimation by means of a DT-96 detecting amplifier (ZAO «Scientific Production Firm DNA-Technology», Russia. Results. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a therapeutic response to the first TCZ infusion was associated with the polymorphism of the TNF-а (-308A/G gene; the odds ratio (OR was 8.0 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-52.8] (p = 0.03. The carriers of the GG genotype demonstrated a less marked response than those of the AG genotype (the AA genotype was not found. After the sixth TCZ infusion, there was an obvious trend towards a statistically significant correlation of the clinical response with the polymorphism of the TNF- аIP3 A/G (rs6920220 gene (OR = 5.5; 95% CI 0.9-32.6; p = 0.06. A good response was more frequently observed in the carriers of the homozygous GG genotype than in those of the AA/AG genotypes (68.6 and 31.4%, respectively and, conversely, a moderate response was more common in the carriers

  18. Industrial applications using BASF eco-efficiency analysis: perspectives on green engineering principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonnard, David R; Kicherer, Andreas; Saling, Peter

    2003-12-01

    Life without chemicals would be inconceivable, but the potential risks and impacts to the environment associated with chemical production and chemical products are viewed critically. Eco-efficiency analysis considers the economic and life cycle environmental effects of a product or process, giving these equal weighting. The major elements of the environmental assessment include primary energy use, raw materials utilization, emissions to all media, toxicity, safety risk, and land use. The relevance of each environmental category and also for the economic versus the environmental impacts is evaluated using national emissions and economic data. The eco-efficiency analysis method of BASF is briefly presented, and results from three applications to chemical processes and products are summarized. Through these applications, the eco-efficiency analyses mostly confirm the 12 Principles listed in Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37(5), 94A), with the exception that, in one application, production systems based on bio-based feedstocks were not the most eco-efficient as compared to those based on fossil resources. Over 180 eco-efficiency analyses have been conducted at BASF, and their results have been used to support strategic decision-making, marketing, research and development, and communication with external parties. Eco-efficiency analysis, as one important strategy and success factor in sustainable development, will continue to be a very strong operational tool at BASF.

  19. Assessing efficiency and effectiveness of Malaysian Islamic banks: A two stage DEA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Norbaizura; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Mohd, Muhammad Azri

    2014-06-01

    Islamic banks in Malaysia are indispensable players in the financial industry with the growing needs for syariah compliance system. In the banking industry, most recent studies concerned only on operational efficiency. However rarely on the operational effectiveness. Since the production process of banking industry can be described as a two-stage process, two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) can be applied to measure the bank performance. This study was designed to measure the overall performance in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of Islamic banks in Malaysia using Two-Stage DEA approach. This paper presents analysis of a DEA model which split the efficiency and effectiveness in order to evaluate the performance of ten selected Islamic Banks in Malaysia for the financial year period ended 2011. The analysis shows average efficient score is more than average effectiveness score thus we can say that Malaysian Islamic banks were more efficient rather than effective. Furthermore, none of the bank exhibit best practice in both stages as we can say that a bank with better efficiency does not always mean having better effectiveness at the same time.

  20. Efficient surrogate models for reliability analysis of systems with multiple failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichon, Barron J.; McFarland, John M.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2011-01-01

    Despite many advances in the field of computational reliability analysis, the efficient estimation of the reliability of a system with multiple failure modes remains a persistent challenge. Various sampling and analytical methods are available, but they typically require accepting a tradeoff between accuracy and computational efficiency. In this work, a surrogate-based approach is presented that simultaneously addresses the issues of accuracy, efficiency, and unimportant failure modes. The method is based on the creation of Gaussian process surrogate models that are required to be locally accurate only in the regions of the component limit states that contribute to system failure. This approach to constructing surrogate models is demonstrated to be both an efficient and accurate method for system-level reliability analysis. - Highlights: → Extends efficient global reliability analysis to systems with multiple failure modes. → Constructs locally accurate Gaussian process models of each response. → Highly efficient and accurate method for assessing system reliability. → Effectiveness is demonstrated on several test problems from the literature.

  1. Environmental risk assessment of effluents as a whole emerging contaminant: Efficiency of alternative tertiary treatments for wastewater depuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garduño, B; Pintado-Herrera, M G; Biel-Maeso, M; Rueda-Márquez, J J; Lara-Martín, P A; Perales, J A; Manzano, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2017-08-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) and regulated compounds (RCs) from three different WWTP effluents were measured in the current study. The efficiency of two tertiary treatments, Photobiotreatment (PhtBio) and Multi-Barrier Treatment (MBT), for removing contaminants was determined. Results indicated different percentages of removal depending on the treatment and the origin of the effluent. Risk Quotients (RQs) were determined for different species of algae, Daphnia, and fish. RQ results revealed diverse risk values depending on the bioindicator species. Tonalide, galaxolide (fragrances), and ofloxacin (antibiotic) were the most persistent and harmful substances in tested effluents. "Negligible risk" category was reached since a wide diversity of ECs were removed by MBT with high removal percentages. Contrarily, PhtBio was effective only in the depuration of certain chemical compounds, and its efficiency depended on the composition of the raw effluent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Technical efficiency of Shiraz school of medicine in research and education domains: a data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Somayeh; Rezaee, Rita; Hatam, Nahid; Delavari, Sajad

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency evaluation of universities and faculties is one of the tools that help managers to identify the departments' strengths and weakness. The main objective of the present research was to measure and compare the technical efficiency of Shiraz school of medicine departments using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique. This cross-sectional and retrospective study was performed on clinical and non-clinical departments in research and education domains over the period of 2006 to 2011. Different inputs and outputs were considered for research and educational domain separately. Efficiency was measured based on the observed optimal performance. Findings showed that pathology and anatomy departments achieved the score of 100 in technical efficiency in education during 2006 to 2011. During this period, parasitology, psychiatric and pediatrics department's achieved the score of 100 for technical efficiency in research domain. The lowest mean of relative educational efficiency belonged to orthopedic department; as to relative research efficiency, the lowest mean was shown in orthopedics and genetics departments. The mean technical efficiency of non-medical departments in education and research domain was 91.93 and 76.08, respectively, while the mean technical efficiency of the clinical department in educational and research fields was 91.02 and 82.23, respectively. Using multiple input and output in DEA technique provided a comprehensive evaluation of efficiency in Shiraz school of medicine departments. The DEA could successfully estimate the technical efficiency of the departments in research and educational fields. Moreover, the deficiency in each department was found; this could help them to plan for improvement.

  3. An analysis of Spain's global and environmental efficiency from a European Union perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Díaz, María Teresa; Velasco-Morente, Francisco; Yñiguez, Rocío; Díaz-Calleja, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable economic growth from the environmental point of view is one of the commitments of the EU-28. Different measures have been implemented to deal with this issue. This work analyses Spain’s natural efficiency and management efficiency, in their static and dynamic sense, for the years 2005–2012, in comparison EU-28. The analysis has been carried out using the Malmquist Index and natural and managerial efficiency. Three variables have been considered as inputs: work, gross fixed capital formation and final energy consumption. Two variables are the outputs: the GDP as a desirable output and greenhouse effect gas emissions as an undesirable output. The result is that Spain’s managerial efficiency and natural efficiency are, though their values are lower, evolving in a similar manner to those of the countries which have been at the heart of the EU longer. These levels of efficiency are higher than those of the block of countries which have joined the EU-28 more recently. The natural Malmquist Index results indicate that these are the countries which have had a greater growth in productivity, above Spain’s and the average of the more “veteran” countries. - Highlights: • Analyze the environmental efficiency of Spain with DEA methodology. • The Spain’s natural efficiency and management efficiency, (2005–2012) are studied in comparison EU-28. • Spain’s managerial efficiency and natural efficiency are evolving in a similar manner to the western EU. • Natural Malmquist Index indicate that these are the countries which have had a greater growth in productivity, above Spain’s.

  4. How efficient are referral hospitals in Uganda? A data envelopment analysis and tobit regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujasi, Paschal N; Asbu, Eyob Z; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2016-07-08

    Hospitals represent a significant proportion of health expenditures in Uganda, accounting for about 26 % of total health expenditure. Improving the technical efficiency of hospitals in Uganda can result in large savings which can be devoted to expand access to services and improve quality of care. This paper explores the technical efficiency of referral hospitals in Uganda during the 2012/2013 financial year. This was a cross sectional study using secondary data. Input and output data were obtained from the Uganda Ministry of Health annual health sector performance report for the period July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013 for the 14 public sector regional referral and 4 large private not for profit hospitals. We assumed an output-oriented model with Variable Returns to Scale to estimate the efficiency score for each hospital using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with STATA13. Using a Tobit model DEA, efficiency scores were regressed against selected institutional and contextual/environmental factors to estimate their impacts on efficiency. The average variable returns to scale (Pure) technical efficiency score was 91.4 % and the average scale efficiency score was 87.1 % while the average constant returns to scale technical efficiency score was 79.4 %. Technically inefficient hospitals could have become more efficient by increasing the outpatient department visits by 45,943; and inpatient days by 31,425 without changing the total number of inputs. Alternatively, they would achieve efficiency by for example transferring the excess 216 medical staff and 454 beds to other levels of the health system without changing the total number of outputs. Tobit regression indicates that significant factors in explaining hospital efficiency are: hospital size (p Uganda.

  5. Spatial econometric analysis of factors influencing regional energy efficiency in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Malin; Chen, Yu; An, Qingxian

    2018-05-01

    Increased environmental pollution and energy consumption caused by the country's rapid development has raised considerable public concern, and has become the focus of the government and public. This study employs the super-efficiency slack-based model-data envelopment analysis (SBM-DEA) to measure the total factor energy efficiency of 30 provinces in China. The estimation model for the spatial interaction intensity of regional total factor energy efficiency is based on Wilson's maximum entropy model. The model is used to analyze the factors that affect the potential value of total factor energy efficiency using spatial dynamic panel data for 30 provinces during 2000-2014. The study found that there are differences and spatial correlations of energy efficiency among provinces and regions in China. The energy efficiency in the eastern, central, and western regions fluctuated significantly, and was mainly because of significant energy efficiency impacts on influences of industrial structure, energy intensity, and technological progress. This research is of great significance to China's energy efficiency and regional coordinated development.

  6. Investigation on the Efficiency of Financial Companies in Malaysia with Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng Siew, Lam; Kah Fai, Liew; Weng Hoe, Lam

    2018-04-01

    Financial ratio and risk are important financial indicators to evaluate the financial performance or efficiency of the companies. Therefore, financial ratio and risk factor are needed to be taken into consideration to evaluate the efficiency of the companies with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. In DEA model, the efficiency of the company is measured as the ratio of sum-weighted outputs to sum-weighted inputs. The objective of this paper is to propose a DEA model by incorporating the financial ratio and risk factor in evaluating and comparing the efficiency of the financial companies in Malaysia. In this study, the listed financial companies in Malaysia from year 2004 until 2015 are investigated. The results of this study show that AFFIN, ALLIANZ, APEX, BURSA, HLCAP, HLFG, INSAS, LPI, MNRB, OSK, PBBANK, RCECAP and TA are ranked as efficient companies. This implies that these efficient companies have utilized their resources or inputs optimally to generate the maximum outputs. This study is significant because it helps to identify the efficient financial companies as well as determine the optimal input and output weights in maximizing the efficiency of financial companies in Malaysia.

  7. Comparison of the efficiencies of attached- versus suspended-growth SBR systems in the treatment of recycled paper mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Abu Hasan, Hassimi; Abd Rahim, Reehan Adnee

    2015-11-01

    The complexity of residual toxic organics from biologically treated effluents of pulp and paper mills is a serious concern. To date, it has been difficult to choose the best treatment technique because each of the available options has advantages and drawbacks. In this study, two different treatment techniques using laboratory-scale aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were tested with the same real recycled paper mill effluent to evaluate their treatment efficiencies. Two attached-growth SBRs using granular activated carbon (GAC) with and without additional biomass and a suspended-growth SBR were used in the treatment of real recycled paper mill effluent at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in the range of 800-1300 mg/L, a fixed hydraulic retention time of 24 h and a COD:N:P ratio of approximately 100:5:1. The efficiency of this biological treatment process was studied over a 300-day period. The six most important wastewater quality parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, ammonia (expressed as NH3-N), phosphorus (expressed as PO4(3)-P), colour, and suspended solids (SS), were measured to compare the different treatment techniques. It was determined that these processes were able to almost completely and simultaneously eliminate COD (99%) and turbidity (99%); the removals of NH3-N (90-100%), PO4(3)-P (66-78%), colour (63-91%), and SS (97-99%) were also sufficient. The overall performance results confirmed that an attached-growth SBR system using additional biomass on GAC is a promising configuration for wastewater treatment in terms of performance efficiency and process stability under fluctuations of organic load. Hence, this hybrid system is recommended for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Hsu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA and scattered- (VB oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA and gravels (HB. The BOD, NO3−, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg. The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values.

  10. Latent human error analysis and efficient improvement strategies by fuzzy TOPSIS in aviation maintenance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Chuan; Hsieh, Min-Chih

    2016-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a latent human error analysis process, to explore the factors of latent human error in aviation maintenance tasks, and to provide an efficient improvement strategy for addressing those errors. First, we used HFACS and RCA to define the error factors related to aviation maintenance tasks. Fuzzy TOPSIS with four criteria was applied to evaluate the error factors. Results show that 1) adverse physiological states, 2) physical/mental limitations, and 3) coordination, communication, and planning are the factors related to airline maintenance tasks that could be addressed easily and efficiently. This research establishes a new analytic process for investigating latent human error and provides a strategy for analyzing human error using fuzzy TOPSIS. Our analysis process complements shortages in existing methodologies by incorporating improvement efficiency, and it enhances the depth and broadness of human error analysis methodology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. High efficient multifunctional Ag_3PO_4 loaded hydroxyapatite nanowires for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yaling; Zhou, Hangyu; Zhu, Genxing; Shao, Changyu; Pan, Haihua; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The multifunctional Ag_3PO_4 loaded hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires were synthesized via a facile in-situ precipitation method. • By optimizing the initial concentration of AgNO_3, the well-distributed Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites could be achieved. • The Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites showed excellent photocatalytic performance for the decomposition of dyes under visible light irradiation. • The maximum absorption capacity of the Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites for Pb(II) was 250 mg/g, approximately three times as that of pure HAP. • The Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites also exhibited excellent antibacterial activities even at relative low concentrations. - Abstract: Organic, inorganic, and biological pollutants are typical water contaminants and they seriously affect water quality. In this study, we suggested that a novel multifunctional Ag_3PO_4 loaded hydroxyapatite (HAP) material can remove the typical pollutants from water. The Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites were synthesized facilely via in-situ precipitation of Ag_3PO_4 on the pre-existing HAP nanowires. By optimizing the composition of Ag_3PO_4 and HAP, the material could achieve an optimal photocatalytic activity to decompose rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiations with enhanced pH stability. Besides, the adsorption of Pb(II) on the Ag_3PO_4/HAP reached a maximum capacity of 250 mg/g and this value was approximately three times as that of pure HAP. Furthermore, the composite material exhibited excellent antibacterial activities towards gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacterium (Stphylococcus aureus). The results highlighted the cooperative effect between Ag_3PO_4 and hydroxyapatite (HAP). The simultaneous removals of dyes, toxic metal ions, and bacteria with a high efficiency followed an easy approach for the purification of contaminated water via the rationally designed material, in which the Ag_3PO_4/HAP composite might be developed

  12. Stochastic modelling to evaluate the economic efficiency of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of

  13. Numerical analysis of turbine blade tip treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswamy, Nath S.; Whitaker, Kevin W.

    1992-01-01

    Three-dimensional solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for a turbine blade with a turning angle of 180 degrees have been computed, including blade tip treatments involving cavities. The geometry approximates a preliminary design for the GGOT (Generic Gas Oxidizer Turbine). The data presented here will be compared with experimental data to be obtained from a linear cascade using original GGOT blades. Results have been computed for a blade with 1 percent clearance, based on chord, and three different cavity sizes. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 4 x 10 exp 7. The grid contains 39,440 points with 10 spanwise planes in the tip clearance region of 5.008E-04 m. Streamline plots and velocity vectors together with velocity divergence plots reveal the general flow behavior in the clearance region. Blade tip temperature calculations suggest placement of a cavity close to the upstream side of the blade tip for reduction of overall blade tip temperature. The solutions do not account for the relative motion between the endwall and the turbine blade. The solutions obtained are generally consistent with previous work done in this area,

  14. Improving distillation method and device of tritiated water analysis for ultra high decontamination efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Chien-Kung

    2015-01-01

    It is important that monitoring environmental tritiated water for understanding the contamination dispersion of the nuclear facilities. Tritium is a pure beta radionuclide which is usually measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The average energy of tritum beta is only 5.658 keV that makes the LSC counting of tritium easily be interfered by the beta emitted by other radionuclides. Environmental tritiated water samples usually need to be decontaminated by distillation for reducing the interference. After Fukushima Nucleaer Accident, the highest gross beta concentration of groundwater samples obtained around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is over 1,000,000 Bq/l. There is a need for a distillation with ultra-high decontamination efficiency for environmental tritiated water analysis. This study is intended to improve the heating temperature control for better sub-boiling distillation control and modify the height of the container of the air cooling distillation device for better fractional distillation effect. The DF of Cs-137 of the distillation may reach 450,000 which is far better than the prior study. The average loss rate of the improved method and device is about 2.6% which is better than the bias value listed in the ASTM D4107-08. It is proven that the modified air cooling distillation device can provide an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost and effective way of purifying water samples for higher beta radionuclides contaminated water samples which need ultra-high decontamination treatment. - Highlights: • The improvements of method and device make the decontaminatin factor (DF) of Cs-137 of distillation reach over 450,000. • The decontamination factor ( DF) value may be increased about 20 times by increasing the height of the container from 7 cm to 20 cm. • The device provides an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost, stable and effective way for the distillation of triated water analysis.

  15. Improving primary health care facility performance in Ghana: efficiency analysis and fiscal space implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novignon, Jacob; Nonvignon, Justice

    2017-06-12

    Health centers in Ghana play an important role in health care delivery especially in deprived communities. They usually serve as the first line of service and meet basic health care needs. Unfortunately, these facilities are faced with inadequate resources. While health policy makers seek to increase resources committed to primary healthcare, it is important to understand the nature of inefficiencies that exist in these facilities. Therefore, the objectives of this study are threefold; (i) estimate efficiency among primary health facilities (health centers), (ii) examine the potential fiscal space from improved efficiency and (iii) investigate the efficiency disparities in public and private facilities. Data was from the 2015 Access Bottlenecks, Cost and Equity (ABCE) project conducted by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. The Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) was used to estimate efficiency of health facilities. Efficiency scores were then used to compute potential savings from improved efficiency. Outpatient visits was used as output while number of personnel, hospital beds, expenditure on other capital items and administration were used as inputs. Disparities in efficiency between public and private facilities was estimated using the Nopo matching decomposition procedure. Average efficiency score across all health centers included in the sample was estimated to be 0.51. Also, average efficiency was estimated to be about 0.65 and 0.50 for private and public facilities, respectively. Significant disparities in efficiency were identified across the various administrative regions. With regards to potential fiscal space, we found that, on average, facilities could save about GH₵11,450.70 (US$7633.80) if efficiency was improved. We also found that fiscal space from efficiency gains varies across rural/urban as well as private/public facilities, if best practices are followed. The matching decomposition showed an efficiency gap of 0.29 between private

  16. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF PLANT-ASSOCIATED BACTERIA AND THEIR POTENTIAL IN ENHANCING PHYTOREMEDIATION EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Piński

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants in order to cleanup pollutants including xenobiotics and heavy metals from soil, water and air. Inoculation of plants with plant growth promoting endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria can enhance efficiency of phytoremediation. Genomic analysis of four plant-associated strains belonging to the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia species revealed the presence of genes encoding proteins involved in plant growth promotion, biocontrol of phytopathogens, biodegradation of xenobiotics, heavy metals resistance and plant-bacteria-environment interaction. The results of this analysis suggest great potential of bacteria belonging to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia species in enhancing phytoremediation efficiency.

  17. Technical efficiency of women's health prevention programs in Bucaramanga, Colombia: a four-stage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Myriam; Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Heredia-Pi, Ileana

    2016-10-13

    Primary Health Care (PHC) is an efficient strategy to improve health outcomes in populations. Nevertheless, studies of technical efficiency in health care have focused on hospitals, with very little on primary health care centers. The objective of the present study was to use the Data Envelopment Analysis to estimate the technical efficiency of three women's health promotion and disease prevention programs offered by primary care centers in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Efficiency was measured using a four-stage data envelopment analysis with a series of Tobit regressions to account for the effect of quality outcomes and context variables. Input/output information was collected from the institutions' records, chart reviews and personal interviews. Information about contextual variables was obtained from databases from the primary health program in the municipality. A jackknife analysis was used to assess the robustness of the results. The analysis was based on data from 21 public primary health care centers. The average efficiency scores, after adjusting for quality and context, were 92.4 %, 97.5 % and 86.2 % for the antenatal care (ANC), early detection of cervical cancer (EDCC) and family planning (FP) programs, respectively. On each program, 12 of the 21 (57.1 %) health centers were found to be technically efficient; having had the best-practice frontiers. Adjusting for context variables changed the scores and reference rankings of the three programs offered by the health centers. The performance of the women's health prevention programs offered by the centers was found to be heterogeneous. Adjusting for context and health care quality variables had a significant effect on the technical efficiency scores and ranking. The results can serve as a guide to strengthen management and organizational and planning processes related to local primary care services operating within a market-based model such as the one in Colombia.

  18. Evaluation of the efficiency of combination palliative treatment in patients with metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Experience with combination treatment, i.e. systemic therapy in combination with palliative surgery, in the treatment of metastatic kidney cancer is very rarely described in world literature.Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination treatment in combination with palliative cytoreductive surgery and targeted therapy and to define optimal indications for combination treatment.Subjects and methods. Data on 47 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC who received systemic (targeted therapy in combination or after incomplete cytoreduction (iCR were analyzed in this retrospective study. The proportion of men and women was 72.3 % and 27.7 %, respectively; their ratio was 2.6:1. All the patients (100% underwent surgical treatment as nephrectomy or kidney resection for primary tumor. In the patients who had received radical treatment in different periods, the median relapse-free survival was 25.3 (0-187 months; the mean follow-up duration in the study was 33.2 (27.4–39.0 months. Out of the histological characteristics of a primary tumor, its Fuhrman grade was studied. Prior to initiation of mRCC therapy, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC prognosis groups were assessed; the patients were divided into good (n = 9 (19.1 %, interim (n = 28 (59.6 %, and bad (n = 10 (21.3 % prognosis groups. Their total somatic status was separately rated using the ECOG scale: 0, (n = 10 (21.3%, 1 (n = 24 (51.1 %, and 2, (n = 13 (27.6 %. The sites of metastases were as follows: the lung (n = 29, bones (n = 18, adrenals (n = 11, recurrence in the removed kidney bed (n = 10, and liver (n = 10. Multiple organ involvements were detected in 22 (46.8 % patients. There were more than 5 metastases in one organ in 18 (40.0 % patients and only 15 (33.3 % were found to have a single focus in one organ. Whether iCR might be used as a separate line treatment was studied. A comparative analysis was made between 2 groups of

  19. Treatment Efficiency by means of a Nonthermal Plasma Combined with Heterogeneous Catalysis of Odoriferous Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from the Thermal Drying of Landfill Leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Almarcha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to assess the odoriferous volatile organic compounds depuration efficiency of an experimental nonthermal plasma coupled to a catalytic system used for odor abatement of real emissions from a leachate thermal drying plant installed in an urban solid waste landfill. VOC screening was performed by means of HRGC-MS analysis of samples taken at the inlet and at the outlet of the nonthermal plasma system. Odor concentration by means of dynamic olfactometry, total organic carbon, mercaptans, NH3, and H2S were also determined in order to assess the performance of the system throughout several days. Three plasma frequencies (100, 150, and 200 Hz and two catalyst temperatures (150°C and 50°C were also tested. Under conditions of maximum capacity of the treatment system, the results show VOC depuration efficiencies around 69%, with average depuration efficiencies between 44 and 95% depending on the chemical family of the substance. Compounds belonging to the following families have been detected in the samples: organic acids, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, pyrazines, and reduced sulphur compounds, among others. Average total organic carbon removal efficiency was 88%, while NH3 and H2S removal efficiencies were 88% and 87%, respectively, and odor concentration abatement was 78%.

  20. Influence of cable losses on the economic analysis of efficient and sustainable electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobão, J.A.; Devezas, T.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing energy needs are accompanied by environmental responsibilities, since nowadays electricity companies operate in a competitive and sustainable energy framework. In this context, any proposal for action on energy efficiency becomes important for consumers to minimize operational costs. In electrical installations, electricity consumption can be decreased by reducing losses in the cables, associated with the overall efficiency of the equipment, allowing a better use of the installed power. The losses must be analysed in conjunction with all loads that contribute to the currents in the sections of an electrical installation. When replacing equipment in output distribution boxes with more efficient ones, the current in those sections is reduced in association with the decrease in power losses. This decrease, often forgotten, is taken into account in this work for the economic analysis of efficiency and sustainable electrical equipment. This paper presents a new software application that compares and chooses the best investment in the acquisition of electrical equipment. Simulation results obtained with the new software application are provided and are then validated with experimental results from a real electrical installation. - Highlights: • Any proposal for action on energy efficiency is important for consumers. • Electricity consumption can be decreased by reducing losses in the cables. • A new software application that compares and chooses the best investment is provided. • The economic analysis of efficiency and sustainable electrical equipment is carried out. • Simulation results are validated with experimental results from a real electrical installation

  1. Evaluating Technical Efficiency of Nursing Care Using Data Envelopment Analysis and Multilevel Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ari; Park, Chang Gi; Scott, Linda D

    2016-05-23

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is an advantageous non-parametric technique for evaluating relative efficiency of performance. This article describes use of DEA to estimate technical efficiency of nursing care and demonstrates the benefits of using multilevel modeling to identify characteristics of efficient facilities in the second stage of analysis. Data were drawn from LTCFocUS.org, a secondary database including nursing home data from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting System and Minimum Data Set. In this example, 2,267 non-hospital-based nursing homes were evaluated. Use of DEA with nurse staffing levels as inputs and quality of care as outputs allowed estimation of the relative technical efficiency of nursing care in these facilities. In the second stage, multilevel modeling was applied to identify organizational factors contributing to technical efficiency. Use of multilevel modeling avoided biased estimation of findings for nested data and provided comprehensive information on differences in technical efficiency among counties and states. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Analysis of Production Funds Efficiency in the Country’s Crane Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Valėnaitė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological aspects of the production funds analysis. In this work the study of literature which examines the basic and transferable funds is presented. Much attention is paid to the analysis of basic production funds in the crane sector. Analysis of the basic production funds in the country’s crane sector is presented. Special attention is paid to the structure of the cranes park and crane utilization efficiency. In the analysis of basic production funds, the factors that impede the efficiency of production funds were established as follows: the greatest negative impact on basic production funds efficiency of businesses was in small tower crane fleet; a small range of tower cranes in the park is reducing the technical possibilities of the lease. Basing on the analysis and observation of tower cranes installation and dismantling, the poor supply of the parts for the work place, lack of competence and motivation of the support staff have been ascertained. After elimination of these factors it is possible to raise the efficiency of the main production funds.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Evaluating efficiency levels comparatively: Data envelopment analysis application for Turkish textile and apparel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Saricam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to show the usage of DEA in efficiency measurement.Design/methodology/approach: The efficiencies of textile and apparel companies were analyzed by input-oriented DEA model under variable return to scale assumption. The textile and apparel companies quoted in Istanbul Stock Exchange for the period 2003 and 2008 were evaluated in terms of efficiency level providing a framework for the calculation of input excesses and output shortages.Findings: The analysis revealed that the average efficiency scores of the apparel industry was higher than the textile industry and two industries together. The companies in the apparel industry should overcome the lack of insufficient level of exports whereas the textile industry needs to increase gross value added in order to be more efficient.Research limitations/implications: Because of missing data, four companies from textile industry and one company from apparel industry were ignored although they took place in the records of Istanbul Stock Exchange.Practical implications: This study provided a framework for DEA application in determination and comparison of efficiency performance in an industry level.Originality/value: Selecting the groups compared as textile industry, apparel industry and the two industries in general allowed discussing the comparative efficiencies of two industries eliminating the industry specific pitfalls.

  4. Analysis and Optimization of Wireless Power Transfer Efficiency Considering the Tilt Angle of a Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer (WPT based on magnetic resonant coupling is a promising technology in many industrial applications. Efficiency of the WPT system usually depends on the tilt angle of the transmitter or the receiver coil. This work analyzes the effect of the tilt angle on the efficiency of the WPT system with horizontal misalignment. The mutual inductance between two coils located at arbitrary positions with tilt angles is calculated using a numerical analysis based on the Neumann formula. The efficiency of the WPT system with a tilted coil is extracted using an equivalent circuit model with extracted mutual inductance. By analyzing the results, we propose an optimal tilt angle to maximize the efficiency of the WPT system. The best angle to maximize the efficiency depends on the radii of the two coils and their relative position. The calculated efficiencies versus the tilt angle for various WPT cases, which change the radius of RX (r2 = 0.075 m, 0.1 m, 0.15 m and the horizontal distance (y = 0 m, 0.05 m, 0.1 m, are compared with the experimental results. The analytically extracted efficiencies and the extracted optimal tilt angles agree well with those of the experimental results.

  5. Efficiency analysis of wood processing industry in China during 2006-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Baolong; Li, Yanxuan

    2018-03-01

    The wood processing industry is an important industry which affects the national economy and social development. The data envelopment analysis model (DEA) is a quantitative evaluation method for studying industrial efficiency. In this paper, the wood processing industry of 8 provinces in southern China is taken as the study object, and the efficiency of each province in 2006 to 2015 was measured and calculated with the DEA method, and the efficiency changes, technological changes and Malmquist index were analyzed dynamically. The empirical results show that there is a widening gap in the efficiency of wood processing industry of the 8 provinces, and the technological progress has shown a lag in the promotion of wood processing industry. According to the research conclusion, along with the situation of domestic and foreign wood processing industry development, the government must introduce relevant policies to strengthen the construction of the wood processing industry technology innovation policy system and the industrial coordinated development system.

  6. Assessing eco-efficiency: A metafrontier directional distance function approach using life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán-Esteve, Mercedes; Reig-Martínez, Ernest; Estruch-Guitart, Vicent

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability analysis requires a joint assessment of environmental, social and economic aspects of production processes. Here we propose the use of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), a metafrontier (MF) directional distance function (DDF) approach, and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), to assess technological and managerial differences in eco-efficiency between production systems. We use LCA to compute six environmental and health impacts associated with the production processes of nearly 200 Spanish citrus farms belonging to organic and conventional farming systems. DEA is then employed to obtain joint economic-environmental farm's scores that we refer to as eco-efficiency. DDF allows us to determine farms' global eco-efficiency scores, as well as eco-efficiency scores with respect to specific environmental impacts. Furthermore, the use of an MF helps us to disentangle technological and managerial eco-inefficiencies by comparing the eco-efficiency of both farming systems with regards to a common benchmark. Our core results suggest that the shift from conventional to organic farming technology would allow a potential reduction in environmental impacts of 80% without resulting in any decline in economic performance. In contrast, as regards farmers' managerial capacities, both systems display quite similar mean scores.

  7. Assessing eco-efficiency: A metafrontier directional distance function approach using life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrán-Esteve, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.beltran@uv.es [Department of Applied Economics II, University of Valencia (Spain); Reig-Martínez, Ernest [Department of Applied Economics II, University of Valencia, Ivie (Spain); Estruch-Guitart, Vicent [Department of Economy and Social Sciences, Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    Sustainability analysis requires a joint assessment of environmental, social and economic aspects of production processes. Here we propose the use of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), a metafrontier (MF) directional distance function (DDF) approach, and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), to assess technological and managerial differences in eco-efficiency between production systems. We use LCA to compute six environmental and health impacts associated with the production processes of nearly 200 Spanish citrus farms belonging to organic and conventional farming systems. DEA is then employed to obtain joint economic-environmental farm's scores that we refer to as eco-efficiency. DDF allows us to determine farms' global eco-efficiency scores, as well as eco-efficiency scores with respect to specific environmental impacts. Furthermore, the use of an MF helps us to disentangle technological and managerial eco-inefficiencies by comparing the eco-efficiency of both farming systems with regards to a common benchmark. Our core results suggest that the shift from conventional to organic farming technology would allow a potential reduction in environmental impacts of 80% without resulting in any decline in economic performance. In contrast, as regards farmers' managerial capacities, both systems display quite similar mean scores.

  8. A framework for establishing the technical efficiency of Electricity Distribution Counties (EDCs) using Data Envelopment Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullarkey, Shane; Caulfield, Brian; McCormack, Sarah; Basu, Biswajit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Six models are employed to establish the technical efficiency of Electricity Distribution Counties. • A diagnostic parameter is incorporated to account for differences across Electricity Distribution Counties. • The amalgamation of Electricity Distribution Counties leads to improved efficiency in the production of energy. - Abstract: European Energy market liberalization has entailed the restructuring of electricity power markets through the unbundling of electricity generation, transmission and distribution, supply activities and introducing competition into electricity generation. Under these new electricity market regimes, it is important to have an evaluation tool that is capable of examining the impacts of these market changes. The adoption of Data Envelopment Analysis as a form of benchmarking for electricity distribution regulation is one method to conduct this analysis. This paper applies a Data Envelopment Analysis framework to the electricity distribution network in Ireland to explore the merits of using this approach, to determine the technical efficiency and the potential scope for efficiency improvements through reorganizing and the amalgamation of the distribution network in Ireland. The results presented show that overall grid efficiency is improved through this restructuring. A diagnostic parameter is defined and pursued to account for aberrations across Electricity Distribution Counties as opposed to the traditionally employed environmental variables. The adoption of this diagnostic parameter leads to a more intuitive understanding of Electricity Distribution Counties

  9. Efficient treatment of pigmented B16 melanoma using photosensitized long-circulating magnetofullerenosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinec, Peter; Babincova, Melania; Sourivong, Paul; Leszczynska, Danuta

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic targeting was used for melanoma treatment with magnetofullerenosomes. After their intravenous administration, a permanent magnet was attached to the surface of B16 tumors in C57 mice for 24 h, followed by irradiation with an infrared laser pulse and subsequent illumination with a 776 nm diode laser for conventional photodynamic treatment. Tumor response was substantially better than that obtained with either treatment alone

  10. Stochastic modelling to evaluate the economic efficiency of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Borne, van den, B.H.P.; Swinkels, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of subclinical mastitis is traditionally no common practice. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis. Factors in the model include, amongst others, the probability of spontaneous cure, probability of the cow becoming clinically diseased, trans...

  11. Efficiency Evaluation of Filtration with Fluidized Bed for Treatment of Secondary Effluents for Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosaini; Rohallah Moradi; Gholam Hossain Safari

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Recently, deficient in atmospheric drop and discharges of wastewater effluents leads to serious threat for water resource. For that reason, for prevention of water source pollution and also reuse of wastewater effluents, treatment of such effluents seems to be necessary. Methods: In this work, fluidized bed reactor with a filter was used for treatment of effluents from Shahrak Gharb wastewater treatment plant. Various parameters such as BOD5, COD, TS, TP, TN and t...

  12. Treatment of porcine donor cells and reconstructed embryos with the antioxidant melatonin enhances cloning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yun-Wei; An, Lei; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yong; Yin, Qiu-Dan; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Xin-Zhang; Qian-Zhang; Yang, Mei-Ling; Min-Guo; Wu, Zhong-Hong; Tian, Jian-Hui

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of melatonin during the culture of donor cells and cloned embryos on the in vitro developmental competence and quality of cloned porcine embryos. At concentrations of 10(-6 )M or 10(-8) M, melatonin significantly enhanced the proliferation of porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs), and the blastocyst rate was significantly increased in the 10(-10) M melatonin-treated donor cell group. Cloned embryo development was also improved in embryo culture medium that was supplemented with 10(-9) M or 10(-12) M melatonin. When both donor cells and cloned embryos were treated with melatonin, the cleavage rate and total cell number of blastocysts were not significantly affected; however, the blastocyst rate was increased significantly (20.0% versus 11.7%). TUNEL assays showed that combined melatonin treatment reduced the rate of apoptotic nuclei (3.6% versus 6.1%). Gene expression analysis of the apoptosis-related genes BAX, BCL2L1, and p53 showed that the expression of BCL2L1 was significantly elevated 2.7-fold relative to the control group, while the expression of BAX and p53 was significantly decreased by 3.7-fold and 23.2-fold, respectively. In addition, we detected the expression of two melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) in PFFs but not in porcine cloned embryos. We conclude that exogenous melatonin enhances the development of porcine cloned embryos and improves embryo quality by inhibiting p53-mediated apoptotic pathway. The proliferation of PFFs may be mediated by receptor binding, but the beneficial effects of melatonin on embryonic development may be receptor-independent, possibly through melatonin's ability to directly scavenge free radicals. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. External beam radiotherapy for subretinal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration: is this treatment efficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staar, Susanne; Krott, Ralf; Mueller, Rolf-Peter; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Heimann, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Control of the natural course of sub retinal neovascularization (SRNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is difficult. Only a subset of patients is suitable for laser coagulation. This prospective study aimed to determine the efficacy and individual benefit of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: The prospective trial included 287 patients with subfoveal neovascularization due to AMD which was verified by fluorescein angiography. Patients have been treated between January 1996 and October 1997. All patients received a total dose of 16 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions with 5-6 MeV photons based on computerized treatment planning in individual head mask fixation. This first analysis is based on 73 patients (50 women, 23 men, median age 74.3 years), with a median follow-up of 13.3 months and a minimum follow-up of 11 months. Results: All patients completed therapy and tolerability was good. First clinical control with second angiography was performed 6 weeks after irradiation, then in 3-month intervals. Eighteen patients with SRNV refusing radiotherapy served as a control group and were matched with 18 irradiated patients. After 7 months median visual acuity (VA) was 20/160 for the irradiated and 20/400 for the untreated patients. One year after radiotherapy final median VA was 20/400 in both groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that 16 Gy of conventionally fractionated external beam irradiation slows down the visual loss in exudative AMD for only a few months. Patients' reading vision could not be saved for a long-term run

  14. Automyelotherapy efficiency limit in treatment for acute radiation sickness as determined by experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Automyelotherapy is the most effective method for treatment of acute radiation sickness. Therapy with use of frozen long-storage hemopoietic cells owing to their complex procurement and storage may be recommended only to a limited cohort with a high risk for uncontrolled irradiation. Prognosis of substitution therapy outcome is based, firstly, on knowledge of a maximum irradiation dose at which a therapeutic effect is manifested. Such information may be obtained only in experiment. The object of research is to establish the upper limit of irradiation dose at which therapeutic results of automyelotherapy are manifested. Research was performed on guinea pigs irradiated with doses from 5 to 10 Gy. A bone marrow cell suspension was obtained from anesthetizied animals by diaphysis puncture and lavage of 2 tibial bones. An effective therapeutic dose of cells (120 mln) was transplanted which guaranteed 100% survival of animals irradiated with the dose of 8.5 Gy exceeding the minimum absolute lethal dose by 7%. As the irradiation dose was further increased up to 10, 11 and 13 Gy survival of treated animals decreased to 61, 55 and 22% respectively. Although all treated guinea pigs perished after irradiation with the dose of 15 Gy, their life span increased twice as much versus control and reached 9.5 days. Experimental data have confirmed that there is a limit of automyelotherapy efficacy. In the described experiment, it amounted to 15 Gy. The analysis of dose-effect'' relationship in treated and control animals has demonstrated DRF being equal to 1.8. This index characterizes the maximum therapeutic result of automyelotherapy. (author)

  15. Increase of efficiency of plant materials heat treatment in tubular reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Golubkovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture products of pyrolysis of plant materials in the form of waste of the main production can be applied as a source of heat and electric power. Besides, their use prevents ecological pollution of the soil and the atmosphere. Pyrolysis plants can be used for work with tubular reactors anywhere. Due to them farmers can dry grain, using waste heat of diesel generators, heatgenerators, boiler plants and receiving thus gaseous products, liquid and firm fractions. A technology based on cyclic and continuous plant mass movement by a piston in a pipe from a loading site to a place of unloading of a firm phase consistently through cameras of drying, pyrolysis, condensation of gaseous products. Exhaust furnace gases with a temperature up to 600 degrees Celsius are given countercurrent material movement from a power equipment. The gaseous, liquid and firm products from the pyrolysis camera are used for heat and electric power generation. Calculation of parameters of subdrying and pyrolysis cameras is necessary for effective and steady operation of the tubular reactor. The authors determined the speed of raw materials movement, and also duration of drying and pyrolysis in working chambers. An analysis of a simplified mathematical model of process was confirmed with results of experiments. Models of heat treatment of wet plant materials in tubular reactors are worked out on a basis of equality of speeds of material movement in the reactor and distribution of a temperature front in material on radius. The authors defined estimated characteristic for determination of tubular reactor productivity and size of heat, required for drying and pyrolysis.

  16. Efficiency in the reduction of chromium by a wild bacterium in a Batch treatment type using residual water substrate from the municipality of Pasto, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Lorena Guerrero Ceballos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficiency in the reduction of chromium in a Batch treatment type, using municipal residual water substrate inoculated with a wild bacterium. Materials and methods: The reduction percentage of hexavalent chromium of three wild bacteria previously isolated from residual water from the Pasto River was verified at laboratory scale (Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Paenibacillus sp.; the isolated that showed the highest percentage of reduction of Cr was selected and was subjected to different treatments. The analysis of results was done using descriptive statistics. Results: B. thuringiensis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and Paenibacillus sp., presented percentages of reduction of Cr (VI of 82,01%; 80,85% and 79,27%, respectively. It was determined that the third treatment (nonsterile water from the Pasto River with B. thuringiensis presented significant differences with regard to the other (p = 0.0001 α = 0.05, concluding that B. thuringiensis reduces in greater proportion the Cr (VI. The results found in this research are promising in the field of bioremediation of contaminated effluents with Chrome since they may be taken as the basis for implementing strategies of bioremediation on a large scale. Conclusion: The bacteria B. thuringiensis presented high efficiency in the reduction of hexavalent chromium (99.42% when implemented in a treatment at laboratory scale of residual nonsterile water.

  17. Healthcare sector efficiency in Gujarat (India: an exploratory study using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of efficiency in resource utilization in healthcare sector has been recognized globally. In this paper we focus on efficiency of healthcare system at sub-state level (i.e., district level in India using Gujarat state and its district level data for 2012-13. In spite of being an economically advanced state, in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR the state is not the lowest. We explore the reasons for relative performance of different districts with data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used IMR as output variables. Using principal component analysis we tried a sub-set of variables, which had low correlations. Thus, four factor scores relating to medical officer, lady medical officer, Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy doctor, pharmacist, were used for DEA. We have focused on Charnes, Cooper, and Rhodes scores (or constant returns to scale technical efficiency score, and discussed efficiency rankings based on these. Thus, our results pertaining to district level health system efficiency in Gujarat State indicate that some of the districts have low efficiency in utilization of inputs like doctors, beds and workload per health institutions. There are also other districts, which need more of these inputs, which may enhance their output and efficiency. Thus, it is suggested that the efficiency in Valsad needs an improvement much more than other districts, whereas districts like Ahmadabad and Surat need more of both medical manpower and facilities. Even in case of Vadodara and Rajkot, the ranking in terms of most of medical manpower and facilities is low and thus these districts may also be benefitted by additional inputs. Hence, there is a mix of both inefficiency and inadequacy of inputs, which is reflected in our results.

  18. The application of short-term efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. Material and Methods: The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men diagnosed with occupational dysphonia through videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR, as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel “a.” The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00. The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00. Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Conclusions: Efficiency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larynx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology. Med Pr 2015;66(2:225–234

  19. Assessing the Efficiency of commercial Tunisian Banks using Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssine Tlig

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector is of great importance to Tunisian's economy. Major commercial banks continue to spend high proportion of their budgets on new technologies and innovation in order to satisfy their customers and enhance their competitiveness. Consequently, performance analysis has become part of their management practices.This paper aims to evaluate the efficiency of commercial Tunisian banks in terms of several crisp and imprecise data. Two approaches of fuzzy data envelopment analysis (FDEA, the possibility approach and the approach based on relations between fuzzy numbers (BRONF, are used to obtain the efficiency score of each bank. The results show that, in a competitive environment, no-financial inputs and outputs should be taken into account in order to obtain credible and realistic efficiency scores.

  20. The Transfer efficiency analysis and modeling technology of new non - contact power transmission equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the shortcomings of current power transmission which is used in ultrasound - assisted machining and the different transfer efficiency caused by the related parameters of the electromagnetic converter, this paper proposes an analysis model of the new non-contact power transmission device with more stable output and higher transmission efficiency. Then By utilizing Maxwell finite element analysis software, this paper studies the law of the transfer efficiency of the new non-contact transformer and compares new type with traditional type with the method of setting the boundary conditions of non-contact power supply device. At last, combining with the practical application, the relevant requirements which have a certain reference value in the application are put forward in the actual processing.

  1. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  2. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part III. Consumer Behavior and Attitudes Toward Fuel Efficient Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part III consists of studies and reviews on: consumer awareness of fuel efficiency issues; consumer acceptance of fuel efficient vehicles; car size ch...

  3. Improving efficiency assessments using additive data envelopment analysis models: an application to contrasting dairy farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Diomedes Soteriades

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying holistic indicators to assess dairy farm efficiency is essential for sustainable milk production. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA has been instrumental for the calculation of such indicators. However, ‘additive’ DEA models have been rarely used in dairy research. This study presented an additive model known as slacks-based measure (SBM of efficiency and its advantages over DEA models used in most past dairy studies. First, SBM incorporates undesirable outputs as actual outputs of the production process. Second, it identifies the main production factors causing inefficiency. Third, these factors can be ‘priced’ to estimate the cost of inefficiency. The value of SBM for efficiency analyses was demonstrated with a comparison of four contrasting dairy management systems in terms of technical and environmental efficiency. These systems were part of a multiple-year breeding and feeding systems experiment (two genetic lines: select vs. control; and two feeding strategies: high forage vs. low forage, where the latter involved a higher proportion of concentrated feeds where detailed data were collected to strict protocols. The select genetic herd was more technically and environmentally efficient than the control herd, regardless of feeding strategy. However, the efficiency performance of the select herd was more volatile from year to year than that of the control herd. Overall, technical and environmental efficiency were strongly and positively correlated, suggesting that when technically efficient, the four systems were also efficient in terms of undesirable output reduction. Detailed data such as those used in this study are increasingly becoming available for commercial herds through precision farming. Therefore, the methods presented in this study are growing in importance.

  4. Efficient multiscale magnetic-domain analysis of iron-core material under mechanical stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikubo, Atsushi; Ito, Shumpei; Mifune, Takeshi; Matsuo, Tetsuji; Kaido, Chikara; Takahashi, Yasuhito; Fujiwara, Koji

    2018-05-01

    For an efficient analysis of magnetization, a partial-implicit solution method is improved using an assembled domain structure model with six-domain mesoscopic particles exhibiting pinning-type hysteresis. The quantitative analysis of non-oriented silicon steel succeeds in predicting the stress dependence of hysteresis loss with computation times greatly reduced by using the improved partial-implicit method. The effect of cell division along the thickness direction is also evaluated.

  5. A proxy approach to dealing with the infeasibility problem in super-efficiency data envelopment analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Gang; Zervopoulos, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Super-efficiency data envelopment analysis (SE-DEA) models are expressions of the traditional DEA models featuring the exclusion of the unit under evaluation from the reference set. The SE-DEA models have been applied in various cases such as sensitivity and stability analysis, measurement of productivity changes,outliers’ identification,and classification and ranking of decision making units (DMUs). A major deficiency in the SE-DEA models is their infeasibility in determining super-efficienc...

  6. Evaluation of treatment efficiency of processes for petroleum refinery`s wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, Kean Chin [National Univ. of Singapore, Kent Ridge (Singapore). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    Processes used in the treatment of a petroleum refinery wastewater included initial API oil separator to be followed by dissolved air flotation and extended aeration system. The use of extended aeration biological system proved to be an improvement but not a solution yet in such kind of treatment. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of treatment efficiency of processes for petroleum refinery`s wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, Kean Chin [National Univ. of Singapore, Kent Ridge (Singapore). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Processes used in the treatment of a petroleum refinery wastewater included initial API oil separator to be followed by dissolved air flotation and extended aeration system. The use of extended aeration biological system proved to be an improvement but not a solution yet in such kind of treatment. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. SU-E-P-27: Efficient Process for AccuBoost Planning and Treatment Delivery to Minimize Patient Compression Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iftimia, I; Talmadge, M; Halvorsen, P [Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To implement an efficient and robust process for AccuBoost planning and treatment delivery that can be safely performed by a single Physicist while minimizing patient’s total session time. Methods: Following a thorough commissioning and validation process, templates were created in the brachytherapy planning system for each AccuBoost applicator. Tables of individual and total nominal dwell times for each applicator as a function of separation were generated to streamline planning while an Excel-based nomogram provided by the vendor functions as a secondary verification of the treatment parameters. Tables of surface dose as a function of separation and applicator, along with concise guidance documents for applicator selection, are readily available during the planning process. The entire process is described in a set of detailed Standard Operating Procedures which, in addition to the items described above, include a verbal time-out between the primary planner and the individual performing the secondary verification as well as direct visual confirmation of applicator placement using an articulated mirror. Prior to treatment initiation, a final time-out is conducted with the Radiation Oncologist. Chart documentation is finalized after the patient is released from compression following completion of the treatment. Results: With the aforementioned procedures, it has been possible to consistently limit the time required to prepare each treatment such that the patient is typically under compression for less than 10 minutes per orientation prior to the initiation of the treatment, which is particularly important for APBI cases. This process can be overseen by a single physicist assisted by a dosimetrist and has been optimized during the past 16 months, with 180 treatment sessions safely completed to date. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the implementation of an efficient and robust process for real-time-planned AccuBoost treatments that effectively minimizes

  9. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system usually shows higher performance than other borehole thermal energy storage systems. Although there is a limitation in the widespread use of the HT-ATES system because of several technical problems such as clogging, corrosion, etc., it is getting more attention as these issues are gradually alleviated. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in two cases of HT-ATES system with a single well is conducted to select key parameters. For a fractional factorial design used to choose input parameters with uniformity, the optimal Latin hypercube sampling with an enhanced stochastic evolutionary algorithm is considered. Then, the recovery efficiency is obtained using a computer model developed by COMSOL Multiphysics. With input and output variables, the surrogate modeling technique, namely the Gaussian-Kriging method with Smoothly Clopped Absolute Deviation Penalty, is utilized. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on the variation decomposition. According to the result of sensitivity analysis, the most important input variables are selected and confirmed to consider the interaction effects for each case and it is confirmed that key parameters vary with the experiment domain of hydraulic and thermal properties as well as the number of input variables. - Highlights: • Main and interaction effects on recovery efficiency in HT-ATES was investigated. • Reliability depended on fractional factorial design and interaction effects. • Hydraulic permeability of aquifer had an important impact on recovery efficiency. • Site-specific sensitivity analysis of HT-ATES was recommended.

  10. Thermodynamic, energy efficiency, and power density analysis of reverse electrodialysis power generation with natural salinity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yip, N.Y.; Vermaas, D.A.; Nijmeijer, K.; Elimelech, M.

    2014-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) can harness the Gibbs free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for sustainable power generation. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of RED power generation, and assess the membrane power density. First, we

  11. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis phase II : durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report details the Phase II analysis of the life cycle and economic efficiency of inlaid tape : and thermoplastic. Waterborne paint was included as a non-durable for comparison purposes : only. In order to find the most economical product for sp...

  12. Comparison in decoloration efficiency among radiation, ultraviolet ray and Fenton oxidation treatment for aqueous solution of dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Toshishige; Sawai, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    To establish the methods of oxidation and decomposition treatment for dyeing waste water, the processes by radiation, ultraviolet ray and Fenton oxidation were examined comparatively for the decoloration efficiency. The dyes tested were commercially available reactive dyes, RBO-3R, DBR-BB, MBY-6GS and RBB-R. In the radiation process, the dye solution was irradiated with gamma ray of cobalt-60 while blowing air through it. Radiation process and Fenton oxidation were excellent for decoloration. Ultraviolet ray was low in the treatment efficiency, so it is not practical. In the radiation process, the addition of a reagent and the adjustment of pH are not required unlike the case of the Fenton oxidation process. Its continuous operation is also possible, so it is a highly practical means. (Mori, K.)

  13. Highly Efficient PCDTBT:PC71 BM Based Photovoltaic Devices without Thermal Annealing Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shao-Peng; Kong Wei-Guang; Liu Bo-Ya; Fu Guang-Sheng; Zheng Wen-Yao; Li Bao-Min; Liu Xian-Hao

    2011-01-01

    We propose an effective method to fabricate highly efficient organic photovoltaic cells based on poly [N-9 - heptadecanyl-2, 7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4'7'-di-2-thienyl-2'1'3-b-enzothiadiazole): [6,6]-phenyl C 71 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC 71 BM). A power conversion efficiency of as high as 5.6% and a fill factor of 53.7% are achieved from the optimized cells. The influence of surface morphology of the active layer on the performance of the cells is also investigated. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Efficiency snakes and energy ladders: A (meta-)frontier demand analysis of electricity consumption efficiency in Chinese households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadstock, David C.; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers presently lack access to quantified estimates – and hence an explicit understanding – of energy consumption efficiency within households, creating a potential gap between true efficiency levels and the necessarily assumed efficiency levels that policy makers adopt in designing and implementing energy policy. This paper attempts to fill this information gap by empirically quantifying electricity consumption efficiency for a sample of more than 7,000 households. Adopting the recently introduced ‘frontier demand function’ due to Filippini and Hunt (2011) but extending it into the metafrontier context – to control for structural heterogeneity arising from location type – it is shown that consumption efficiency is little more than 60% on average. This implies huge potential for energy reduction via the expansion of schemes to promote energy efficiency. City households, which are the wealthiest in the sample, are shown to define the metafrontier demand function (and hence have the potential to be the most efficient households), but at the same time exhibit the largest inefficiencies. These facts together allow for a potential refinement on the household energy ladder concept, suggesting that wealth affords access to the best technologies thereby increasing potential energy efficiency (the ‘traditional view of the household energy ladder), but complementary to this these same households are most inefficient. This has implications for numerous areas of policy, including for example the design of energy assistance schemes, identification of energy education needs/priorities as well more refined setting of subsidies/tax-credit policies. - Highlights: •Frontier demand functions are estimated for a sample of 7102 Chinese households. •Metafrontier methods capture heterogeneity arising from urban form (e.g. cities, towns and villages). •Wealthier houses have higher efficiency potential, but are in fact less efficient in their consumption of

  15. Improving the Efficiency of a Coagulation-Flocculation Wastewater Treatment of the Semiconductor Industry through Zeta Potential Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    López-Maldonado, Eduardo Alberto; Oropeza-Guzmán, Mercedes Teresita; Ochoa-Terán, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process used for semiconductor wastewater treatment was improved by selecting suitable conditions (pH, polyelectrolyte type, and concentration) through zeta potential measurements. Under this scenario the zeta potential, ζ, is the right parameter that allows studying and predicting the interactions at the molecular level between the contaminants in the wastewater and polyelectrolytes used for coagulation-flocculation. Additionally, this parameter is a k...

  16. Vegetated treatment area (VTAs) efficiencies for E. coli and nutrient removal on small-scale swine operations

    OpenAIRE

    R. Daren Harmel; Rehanon Pampell; Terry Gentry; Doug R. Smith; Chad Hajda; Kevin Wagner; Patti K. Smith; Rick L. Haney; Kori D. Higgs

    2018-01-01

    As small-scale animal feeding operations work to manage their byproducts and avoid regulation, they need practical, cost-effective methods to reduce environmental impact. One such option is using vegetative treatment areas (VTAs) with perennial grasses to treat runoff; however, research is limited on VTA effectiveness as a waste management alternative for smaller operations. This study evaluated the efficiencies of VTAs in reducing bacteria and nutrient runoff from small-scale swine operation...

  17. Pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A in untreated source and finished drinking water in Ontario, Canada - Occurrence and treatment efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleywegt, Sonya; Pileggi, Vince; Yang, Paul; Hao Chunyan; Zhao Xiaoming; Rocks, Carline; Thach, Serei; Cheung, Patrick; Whitehead, Brian

    2011-01-01

    pharmaceuticals and hormones and bisphenol A in aquatic environment of Ontario, Canada were determined in a 16-month survey. → IDMS analysis ensured monitoring data are with high precision and accuracy. → Reported the first detection of two antibiotics roxithromycin and enrofloxacin in aquatic environmental samples. → Compared removal efficiency of carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, and BPA in DWSs using granulated activated carbon and ultraviolet treatment processes.

  18. Pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A in untreated source and finished drinking water in Ontario, Canada - Occurrence and treatment efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleywegt, Sonya; Pileggi, Vince [Standards Development Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 40 St. Clair Avenue West, Toronto, Ontario, M4V 1M2 (Canada); Yang, Paul, E-mail: paul.yang@ontario.ca [Laboratory Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada); Hao Chunyan; Zhao Xiaoming [Laboratory Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada); Rocks, Carline [Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada); Thach, Serei [Laboratory Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada); Cheung, Patrick; Whitehead, Brian [Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    selected pharmaceuticals and hormones and bisphenol A in aquatic environment of Ontario, Canada were determined in a 16-month survey. {yields} IDMS analysis ensured monitoring data are with high precision and accuracy. {yields} Reported the first detection of two antibiotics roxithromycin and enrofloxacin in aquatic environmental samples. {yields} Compared removal efficiency of carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, and BPA in DWSs using granulated activated carbon and ultraviolet treatment processes.

  19. Efficient treatment of aniline containing wastewater in bipolar membrane microbial electrolysis cell-Fenton system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaohu; Jin, Xiangdan; Zhao, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    wastewater under an acidic condition maintained by the bipolar membrane. The aniline was effectively degraded following first-order kinetics at a rate constant of 0.0166 h−1 under an applied voltage of 0.5 V. Meanwhile, a total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency of 93.1 ± 1.2% was obtained, revealing...

  20. Efficiency of treatments for controlling Trichoderma spp during spawning in cultivation of lignicolous mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavolpe, María Belén; Mejía, Santiago Jaramillo; Albertó, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp is the cause of the green mold disease in mushroom cultivation production. Many disinfection treatments are commonly applied to lignocellulose substrates to prevent contamination. Mushroom growers are usually worried about the contaminations that may occur after these treatments during handling or spawning. The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth of the green mold Trichoderma sp on lignocellulose substrates after different disinfection treatments to know which of them is more effective to avoid contamination during spawning phase. Three different treatments were assayed: sterilization (121 °C), immersion in hot water (60 and 80 °C), and immersion in alkalinized water. Wheat straw, wheat seeds and Eucalyptus or Populus sawdust were used separately as substrates. After the disinfection treatments, bagged substrates were sprayed with 3 mL of suspension of conidia of Trichoderma sp (10(5) conidia/mL) and then separately spawned with Pleurotus ostreatus or Gymnopilus pampeanus. The growth of Trichoderma sp was evaluated based on a qualitative scale. Trichoderma sp could not grow on non-sterilized substrates. Immersions in hot water treatments and immersion in alkalinized water were also unfavorable treatments for its growth. Co- cultivation with mushrooms favored Trichoderma sp growth. Mushroom cultivation disinfection treatments of lignocellulose substrates influence on the growth of Trichoderma sp when contaminations occur during spawning phase. The immersion in hot water at 60 °C for 30 min or in alkalinized water for 36 h, are treatments which better reduced the contaminations with Trichoderma sp during spawning phase for the cultivation of lignicolous species.