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Sample records for treating water-reactive wastes

  1. Treating water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated

  2. A process for treating radioactive water-reactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G.; Munger, D.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and other locations in the complex of experimental and production facilities operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have generated an appreciable quantity of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) enacted by the United States Congress in 1976 and subsequently amended in 1984, 1986, and 1988 requires that every hazardous waste must be rendered nonhazardous before disposal. Many of the wastes generated by the DOE complex are both hazardous and radioactive. These wastes, called mixed wastes, require applying appropriate regulations for radioactive waste disposal and the regulations under RCRA. Mixed wastes must be treated to remove the hazardous waste component before they are disposed as radioactive waste. This paper discusses the development of a treatment process for mixed wastes that exhibit the reactive hazardous characteristic. Specifically, these wastes react readily and violently with water. Wastes such as lithium hydride (LiH), sodium metal, and potassium metal are the primary wastes in this category

  3. Method of treating waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, James P.; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1995-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  4. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    When CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) treated wood is removed from service and turns into waste, the contents of Cu, Cr and As is still high due to the strong fixation of CCA in the wood. This high content of toxic compounds presents a disposal challenge. Incineration of CCA treated waste wood...... study the utility of the method Electrodialytic Remediation was demonstrated for handling of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale. The electrodialytic remediation method, which uses a low level DC current as the cleaning agent, combines elektrokinetic movement of ions in the wood matrix with the princi...

  6. Apparatus and method for treating waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the packaging of waste material in a vessel, comprising: a vessel entry station having inlet and outlet doors; a filling station downstream of the vessel entry station and having a filling position to which vessels are transferred from the entry station through the outlet door, the filling station having filling means for introducing radioactive waste into the vessel; a mixing station having a mixing position to which a vessel is transferred from the filling position; a capping station having a capping position to which a vessel is transferred from the mixing position; and means for effecting transfer of a vessel through the apparatus. Radiation shielding is provided. (U.K.)

  7. Chemically treated carbon black waste and its potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Pengwei; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Ng, Wei Cheng; Zhen, Xu [NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, 138602 (Singapore); Dai, Yanjun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tong, Yen Wah [NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, 138602 (Singapore); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Ting, Yen-Peng [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Koh, Shin Nuo [Sembcorp Industries Ltd., 30 Hill Street #05-04, 179360 (Singapore); Wang, Chi-Hwa, E-mail: chewch@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Neoh, Koon Gee, E-mail: chenkg@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Hazardous impurities separated from carbon black waste with little damage to solid. • Heavy metals were effectively removed from carbon black waste by HNO{sub 3} leaching. • Treated carbon black waste has high adsorption capacity (∼356.4 mg{sub dye}/g). • Carbon black waste was also found to show high electrical conductivity (10 S/cm). - Abstract: In this work, carbon black waste – a hazardous solid residue generated from gasification of crude oil bottom in refineries – was successfully used for making an absorbent material. However, since the carbon black waste also contains significant amounts of heavy metals (especially nickel and vanadium), chemical leaching was first used to remove these hazardous impurities from the carbon black waste. Acid leaching with nitric acid was found to be a very effective method for removal of both nickel and vanadium from the carbon black waste (i.e. up to 95% nickel and 98% vanadium were removed via treatment with 2 M nitric acid for 1 h at 20 °C), whereas alkali leaching by using NaOH under the same condition was not effective for removal of nickel (less than 10% nickel was removed). Human lung cells (MRC-5) were then used to investigate the toxicity of the carbon black waste before and after leaching. Cell viability analysis showed that the leachate from the original carbon black waste has very high toxicity, whereas the leachate from the treated samples has no significant toxicity. Finally, the efficacy of the carbon black waste treated with HNO{sub 3} as an absorbent for dye removal was investigated. This treated carbon black waste has high adsorption capacity (∼361.2 mg {sub dye}/g {sub carbonblack}), which can be attributed to its high specific surface area (∼559 m{sup 2}/g). The treated carbon black waste with its high adsorption capacity and lack of cytotoxicity is a promising adsorbent material. Moreover, the carbon black waste was found to show high electrical conductivity (ca. 10 S

  8. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    When CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) treated wood is removed from service and turns into waste, the contents of Cu, Cr and As is still high due to the strong fixation of CCA in the wood. This high content of toxic compounds presents a disposal challenge. Incineration of CCA treated waste wood...... is not allowed in Denmark, instead the wood is to be land filled until new methods for handling the wood are available. Since the amounts of CCA treated wood being removed from service is expected to increase in the years to come, the need of finding alternative handling methods is very relevant. In this present...... study the utility of the method Electrodialytic Remediation was demonstrated for handling of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale. The electrodialytic remediation method, which uses a low level DC current as the cleaning agent, combines elektrokinetic movement of ions in the wood matrix with the princi...

  9. Process for treating radioactive waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuasa, Yoshiyuki; Nagao, Hiroyuki; Takiguchi, Yukio; An, Bunzai; Tsuda, Koji.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To securely perform separation and enrichment of radioactive rare gases to store safely them for a long period of time. Structure: The wastes extracted by an air extractor are processed by a heater and a recombiner and hydrogen and oxygen are changed into water thereby and it is passed through a gas and water separator to be dewatered, after which water and carbon dioxide gas are removed by passing through a delay pipe, filter, and water- and carbon dioxide gas removing device and then fed to a lower temperature adsorbing device to adsorb and remove the radioactive rare gases. This low temperature adsorbing device is composed of two towers, one of which is designed to saturate the radioactive rare gases, which are processed by a heater and passed through a recycle line to meet raw gases. Then, it is fed to the other lower temperature adsorbing device and this cycle is repeated to enrich the radioactive rare gases. Oxygen and impurities in the enriched gases are removed by the impurity removing device and thereafter are stored in a gas holder and finally sealed in a cylinder. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Quality of Vegetable Waste Silages Treated with Various Carbohydrate Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ridwan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of vegetable waste silages, using rice bran, onggok (cassava flour waste and pollard as carbohydrate sources. Vegetable waste was collected from local traditional market, consisted of corn husk, chinese cabbage and cabbage. Research was held in randomized block design consisted of six treatments with 3 replications. Treatments were (T1 vegetable waste + rice bran, (T2 vegetable waste + rice bran + rice straw, (T3 vegetable waste + onggok, (T4 vegetable waste + onggok + rice straw, (T5 vegetable waste + pollard, (T6 vegetable waste + pollard + rice straw. Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 was used as innoculant. The quality of silages was evaluated by measuring pH, temperature, population of lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid production. Nutrient characteristic was determined by proximate and fiber analysis. Results showed that pH of silages were not affected by treatments, but silage treated with rice bran, with or without rice straw addition, had higher temperature compared with others (29 oC or 28.3 oC. The highest population of lactic acid bacteria (1.65 x 109 cfu/g was found in silage using rice straw and onggok (T4, but the highest lactic acid production (0.41% was measured in silage using rice straw and rice bran (T2. In general, the use of rice bran as carbohydrate sources gave the highest lactic acid production followed by pollard and onggok. Different carbohydrate source gave different nutrients characteristic. Although the result was not significantly different, silage with highest protein content was measured in silage with pollard as carbohydrate source, followed with rice bran and onggok. The result showed that all carbohydrate sources used in this experiment can be used as silage ingredient resulting in good vegetable waste silage.

  11. Suitability of green solvent in pre treating agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Li Wan; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Chua, Adeline Seak May

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Agricultural wastes such as palm oil residue, rice husk and sugarcane bagasse have been found to occupy the largest fraction in the total biomass generated in Malaysia. These residues are normally lacking of commercial values and have limited alternative uses. Since they are being generated substantially every year, their disposal has caused a serious problem to the society and the environment. Hence, it is essential to discover the potentials of converting these wastes into wealth. One of the major drawbacks which hinder their effective utilization is due to their recalcitrant nature. Thus, pretreatment is necessary in order to disrupt the complex carbohydrate structures in the substrate and improves its digestibility. The present study showed the efficiencies of various mediums namely ionic liquid, acid, alkali and water in pre treating sugarcane bagasse. The performances of these pretreatment mediums were evaluated by the reducing sugar generated after enzymatically hydrolysed the treated substrate. The results obtained were compared with the untreated sugarcane bagasse. In this study, substrate treated by ionic liquid has yielded the highest amount of reducing sugar followed by alkali treated substrate. The performance of untreated bagasse is found to be better than acid and water treated bagasse. These results showed that ionic liquid which has been identified as the green solvent can be an effective medium in pre treating the sugarcane bagasse. This finding has given a new prospect in the production of value added products from agricultural wastes. (author)

  12. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  13. Evaluation of Trichoderma harzanium treated cassava waste on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... The effects of the fungus, Trichoderma harzanium, treated cassava waste on milk quantity and quality were investigated in a ... secondary cell wall with high cellulose and lignin content, both of which are barrier to .... udders were washed clean with warm detergent water and later rinsed with warm water.

  14. A New Technology for Treating Pulp Waste with Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaozhen; Tian, Zhongyu

    2009-10-01

    New methods for both the treatment of pulp waste liquor called black liquor (BL) and the recovery of chemicals by using plasma, and the concentration of BL with the freezing technique were developed. The new methods aiming at the pilot plant scale are described and the experiments in a small-scale research facility for demonstration and test are presented. The energy consumption for treating waste liquid is 1 kg/kWh. Plasma processing can reduce the costs for treatment and eliminate pollution.

  15. A new way of treating french radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard Rottner; Fabrice Jannot [ONECTRA (France); Lena Bergstroem [STUDSVIK Nuclear AB (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    STUDSVIK and ONECTRA have built a partnership in order to offer the French market new radwaste treatment services, by putting together their specific knowledge about radioactive waste treatment by combining and completing each other's specific knowledge. STUDSVIK provides services related to incineration, melting and recycling of waste originating from the nuclear industry and fuel fabrication plants. ONECTRA is a well known specialist about nuclear dismantling studies or operations driving, nuclear tools design, environmental engineering, chemical or radiological remediation, and nuclear project management. The goal of this partnership is to propose new solutions to treat radwaste, such as to: lower the global waste management price, Offer solutions for 'exotic' waste, provide recycling operations French nuclear Industry. The overall objectives with STUDSVIK's metal scrap treatment are to reduce the amount of waste having to be disposed of and to recycle valuable metals. The residual weight after treatment is normally between 2% and 7% of the incoming weight, depending on the activity content and combination of metals. Moreover, ONECTRA's specific developments for decontamination processes can lead to treat parts with higher levels of activity than what was done by STUDSVIK before. Experience from volume reduction has made it possible to develop a new approach for treatment of used steam generators. During the second half of 2005 this new method is used for treating a steam generator from a Swedish PWR. FREE RELEASE is a current operation in Europe, following the RP 89 European commission's recommendations, table 3-1. STUDSVIK is free-releasing metals since more than 15 years, with a long time partnership with the Steel Industry( ex: metallic waste from UK, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Belgium, a.s.o.). The waste owner gives an acceptance guarantee for return of secondary waste (like filter dust, material sorted out, slags, a

  16. BIOSORPTION OF CONGO RED BY HYDROGEN PEROXIDE TREATED TENDU WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Nagda ، V. S. Ghole

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid wastes from agro-industrial operations can be recycled as non-conventional adsorbents if they are inert and harmless and reduce the cost of wastewater treatment. Tendu leaf Diospyros melanoxylon is the second largest forest product in India after timber and is exclusively used in making local cigarette called Bidi. Waste leaf cutting remaining after making cigarette was used in present study as a biosorbent for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution. It was treated with hydrogen peroxide to obtain biosorbent with increased adsorption capacity. Batch type experiments were conducted to study the influence of different parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration and dosage of adsorbent on biosorption evaluated. The adsorption occured very fast initially and attains equilibrium within 60 min at pH= 6.2 and the equilibrium attained faster after hydrogen peroxide modification. Kinetic studies showed that the biosorption of Congo red on tendu waste followed pseudo-second-order rate equation. The data fitted well to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Comparison was done on the extent of biosorption between untreated and treated forms of the tendu waste. The maximum adsorption capacity for untreated tendu waste was found to be 46.95 mg/g, which was enhanced by 2.8 times after hydrogen peroxide treatment and was found to be 134.4 mg/g. The adsorption process was in conformity with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms for Congo red adsorption from aqueous solution. The study demonstrated use of milder chemical treatment of tendu waste to obtain a biosorbent with enhanced dye removal capacity.

  17. Selion offers a unique system for treating liquid nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusa, E.; Kurki, H. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    Studies on the treatment of liquid nuclear waste have been conducted actively in the IVO Group since the early 1980s. And the work has borne fruit: the CsTreat and SrTreat ion exchange products, developed by the IVO Group, were launched three years ago. The ion exchangers have already been in full use at a number of sites throughout the world. In addition, they are currently being tested at many nuclear research institutes and power plants in the USA, Japan and Europe

  18. Control and treating technique of the nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohira, Shigeru; Hayashi, Takumi

    1997-01-01

    In the large scale tritium treating and producing facilities such as ITER and others, they are presumed by absorbing, solving and diffusing tritium to various materials to be polluted instruments and equipments to become wastes by their partial or whole exchanges, recoveries, modifications, dismantlements and so forth. From a viewpoint of safety for the tritium, the following operations seem to be important among changing a part or whole of the objective instruments and equipments to wastes with finally disposable forms: to reduce the tritium remained volume as much as possible before the operations of exchange, dismantlement and so on, from viewpoint of risk reduction of the tritium emission into operation environment and outer environment; to reduce the tritium emission into the operation environment and circumference environment at operations of exchange, dismantlement and so on; to reduce the tritium leakage from the waste in storage and transportation before treatment; to protect the tritium pollution expansion at mechanical treatment processes such as cutting, pressing and so forth; and to reduce sufficiently the tritium concentration in the wastes to be disposed by proper treatment on a base of spirit of ALARA. (G.K.)

  19. Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Timothy; Tolaymat, Thabet; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Dubey, Brajesh; Stook, Kristin; Wadanambi, Lakmini

    2004-01-01

    Leaching of arsenic, chromium, and copper from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching procedures, including the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), extraction procedure toxicity method (EPTOX), waste extraction test (WET), multiple extraction procedure (MEP), and modifications of these procedures which utilized actual MSW landfill leachates, a construction and demolition (C and D) debris leachate, and a concrete enhanced leachate. Additional experiments were conducted to assess factors affecting leaching, such as particle size, pH, and leaching contact time. Results from the regulatory leaching tests provided similar results with the exception of the WET, which extracted greater quantities of metals. Experiments conducted using actual MSW leachate, C and D debris leachate, and concrete enhanced leachate provided results that were within the same order of magnitude as results obtained from TCLP, SPLP, and EPTOX. Eleven of 13 samples of CCA-treated dimensional lumber exceeded the US EPA's toxicity characteristic (TC) threshold for arsenic (5 mg/L). If un-weathered arsenic-treated wood were not otherwise excluded from the definition of hazardous waste, it frequently would require management as such. When extracted with simulated rainwater (SPLP), 9 of the 13 samples leached arsenic at concentrations above 5 mg/L. Metal leachability tended to increase with decreasing particle size and at pH extremes. All three metals leached above the drinking water standards thus possibly posing a potential risk to groundwater. Arsenic is a major concern from a disposal point of view with respect to ground water quality

  20. Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications for waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy; Tolaymat, Thabet; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Dubey, Brajesh; Stook, Kristin; Wadanambi, Lakmini

    2004-10-18

    Leaching of arsenic, chromium, and copper from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching procedures, including the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), extraction procedure toxicity method (EPTOX), waste extraction test (WET), multiple extraction procedure (MEP), and modifications of these procedures which utilized actual MSW landfill leachates, a construction and demolition (C and D) debris leachate, and a concrete enhanced leachate. Additional experiments were conducted to assess factors affecting leaching, such as particle size, pH, and leaching contact time. Results from the regulatory leaching tests provided similar results with the exception of the WET, which extracted greater quantities of metals. Experiments conducted using actual MSW leachate, C and D debris leachate, and concrete enhanced leachate provided results that were within the same order of magnitude as results obtained from TCLP, SPLP, and EPTOX. Eleven of 13 samples of CCA-treated dimensional lumber exceeded the US EPA's toxicity characteristic (TC) threshold for arsenic (5 mg/L). If un-weathered arsenic-treated wood were not otherwise excluded from the definition of hazardous waste, it frequently would require management as such. When extracted with simulated rainwater (SPLP), 9 of the 13 samples leached arsenic at concentrations above 5 mg/L. Metal leachability tended to increase with decreasing particle size and at pH extremes. All three metals leached above the drinking water standards thus possibly posing a potential risk to groundwater. Arsenic is a major concern from a disposal point of view with respect to ground water quality.

  1. Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications for waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Timothy [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States)]. E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu; Tolaymat, Thabet [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Solo-Gabriele, Helena [Department of Civil Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0630 (United States); Dubey, Brajesh [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Stook, Kristin [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Wadanambi, Lakmini [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States)

    2004-10-18

    Leaching of arsenic, chromium, and copper from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching procedures, including the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), extraction procedure toxicity method (EPTOX), waste extraction test (WET), multiple extraction procedure (MEP), and modifications of these procedures which utilized actual MSW landfill leachates, a construction and demolition (C and D) debris leachate, and a concrete enhanced leachate. Additional experiments were conducted to assess factors affecting leaching, such as particle size, pH, and leaching contact time. Results from the regulatory leaching tests provided similar results with the exception of the WET, which extracted greater quantities of metals. Experiments conducted using actual MSW leachate, C and D debris leachate, and concrete enhanced leachate provided results that were within the same order of magnitude as results obtained from TCLP, SPLP, and EPTOX. Eleven of 13 samples of CCA-treated dimensional lumber exceeded the US EPA's toxicity characteristic (TC) threshold for arsenic (5 mg/L). If un-weathered arsenic-treated wood were not otherwise excluded from the definition of hazardous waste, it frequently would require management as such. When extracted with simulated rainwater (SPLP), 9 of the 13 samples leached arsenic at concentrations above 5 mg/L. Metal leachability tended to increase with decreasing particle size and at pH extremes. All three metals leached above the drinking water standards thus possibly posing a potential risk to groundwater. Arsenic is a major concern from a disposal point of view with respect to ground water quality.

  2. Treating landfill gas hydrogen sulphide with mineral wool waste (MWW) and rod mill waste (RMW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergersen, Ove; Haarstad, Ketil

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas is a major odorant at municipal landfills. The gas can be generated from different waste fractions, for example demolition waste containing gypsum based plaster board. The removal of H2S from landfill gas was investigated by filtering it through mineral wool waste products. The flow of gas varied from 0.3 l/min to 3.0 l/min. The gas was typical for landfill gas with a mean H2S concentration of ca. 4500 ppm. The results show that the sulphide gas can effectively be removed by mineral wool waste products. The ratios of the estimated potential for sulphide precipitation were 19:1 for rod mill waste (RMW) and mineral wool waste (MWW). A filter consisting of a mixture of MWW and RMW, with a vertical perforated gas tube through the center of filter material and with a downward gas flow, removed 98% of the sulfide gas over a period of 80 days. A downward gas flow was more efficient in contacting the filter materials. Mineral wool waste products are effective in removing hydrogen sulphide from landfill gas given an adequate contact time and water content in the filter material. Based on the estimated sulphide removal potential of mineral wool and rod mill waste of 14 g/kg and 261 g/kg, and assuming an average sulphide gas concentration of 4500 ppm, the removal capacity in the filter materials has been estimated to last between 11 and 308 days. At the studied location the experimental gas flow was 100 times less than the actual gas flow. We believe that the system described here can be upscaled in order to treat this gas flow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Membrane technology for treating of waste nanofluids coolant: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohruni, Amrifan Saladin; Yuliwati, Erna; Sharif, Safian; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi

    2017-09-01

    The treatment of cutting fluids wastes concerns a big number of industries, especially from the machining operations to foster environmental sustainability. Discharging cutting fluids, waste through separation technique could protect the environment and also human health in general. Several methods for the separation emulsified oils or oily wastewater have been proposed as three common methods, namely chemical, physicochemical and mechanical and membrane technology application. Membranes are used into separate and concentrate the pollutants in oily wastewater through its perm-selectivity. Meanwhile, the desire to compensate for the shortcomings of the cutting fluid media in a metal cutting operation led to introduce the using of nanofluids (NFs) in the minimum quantity lubricant (MQL) technique. NFs are prepared based on nanofluids technology by dispersing nanoparticles (NPs) in liquids. These fluids have potentially played to enhance the performance of traditional heat transfer fluids. Few researchers have studied investigation of the physical-chemical, thermo-physical and heat transfer characteristics of NFs for heat transfer applications. The use of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technique by NFs application is developed in many metal cutting operations. MQL did not only serve as a better alternative to flood cooling during machining operation and also increases better-finished surface, reduces impact loads on the environment and fosters environmental sustainability. Waste coolant filtration from cutting tools using membrane was treated by the pretreated process, coagulation technique and membrane filtration. Nanomaterials are also applied to modify the membrane structure and morphology. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is the better choice in coolant wastewater treatment due to its hydrophobicity. Using of polyamide nanofiltration membranes BM-20D and UF-PS-100-100, 000, it resulted in the increase of permeability of waste coolant filtration. Titanium dioxide

  4. Multi-phased anaerobic baffled reactor treating food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, A; Chen, C-L; Rajagopal, R; Wu, D; Mao, Y; Ho, I J R; Lim, J W; Wang, J-Y

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to identify the performance of a multi-phased anaerobic baffled reactor (MP-ABR) with food waste (FW) as the substrate for biogas production and thereby to promote an efficient energy recovery and treatment method for the wastes with high organic solid content through phase separation. A four-chambered ABR was operated at an HRT of 30 days with an OLR of 0.5-1.0 g-VS/Ld for a period of 175 days at 35 ± 1°C. Consistent overall removal efficiencies of 85.3% (CODt), 94.5% (CODs), 89.6% (VFA) and 86.4% (VS) were observed throughout the experiment displaying a great potential to treat FW. Biogas generated was 215.57 mL/g-VS removed d. Phase separation was observed and supported by the COD and VFA trends, and an efficient recovery of bioenergy from FW was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioremediation and degradation of CCA-treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2004-01-01

    Bioprocessing CCA wood waste is an efficient and economical alternative to depositing the waste in landfills, especially if landfill restrictions on CCA waste are imposed nation wide. We have developed bioremediation and degradation technologies for microbial processing of CCA waste. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood decay fungi,...

  6. Effect of drying on leaching testing of treated municipal solid waste incineration APC-residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incinerators are hazardous waste according to European legislation and must be treated prior to landfilling. Batch and column leaching data determine which type of landfill can receive the treated APC-residues. CEN standards are prescribed...

  7. Analytical characterization of an industrial waste treated by gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, M.D.; Larsen, D.W.; Manahan, S.E. [University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1999-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that an effective general treatment for hazardous wastes is sorption of the waste onto a specially prepared, macroporous coal char followed by gasification of the mixture in reverse mode. In the present study, an industrial waste comprised of styrene manufacturing and petroleum byproducts was gasified, and the waste, coal, virgin char, and char/waste mixture (before and after gasification) were examined by various instrumental methods, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and ultimate and proximate analyses, to determine which methods give useful information. The composition of the waste was found to be 38% water, 27% inorganic, and 35% organic. NMR showed that the organic components are a mixture of aliphatic and olefinic/aromatics. About 8% of the sludge is chromatographable and GC/MS revealed the presence of aromatics and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Solid-state NMR showed that the sludge components are strongly immobilized on the char up to a 1:1 (wt:wt) ratio. SEM results showed changes in the char macroporous surface as waste is incorporated by the char and as the mixture is subsequently gasified. In addition, a portion of the elemental content of the char surface was revealed by energy dispersive (EDAX) measurements. IR photoaccoustic spectroscopy showed that peaks attributable to aqueous and organic fractions of the waste disappear upon gasification. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Effects of treated waste water irrigation on some qualitative charcterstics of forage sorghum, corn and millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza emami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of irrigation with different levels of urban treated waste water on feeding value of forage sorghum (Var. Speed feed and Sugar graze, maize (Var. SC 704 and millet (Var. Nutrifeed an experiment was conducted at Experimental Station No.1, Astan Qods Razavi Mashhad, and Animal Nutrition Laboratory, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Four varieties of forage plants with five levels of treated waste water: %0, %25, %50, %75 and %100 were compared in a split-plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications per treatment. Feeding values of forage plants such as Crude Protein content (CP, Neutral Detergent Fiber content (NDF, in vitro Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD, Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD and D-Value were measured. Results showed that treated waste water irrigation had a significant effect on crude protein content. The highest crude protein content was shown at % 100 treated waste water ( %13.76 and the lowest was shown at % treated waste water (%9.54. There were no significant differences between %0 and %25, and also %75 and %100 treated waste water in terms of crude protein content, but there were significant differences between %50 and other treated waste water treatments (except 75% treatments. There were no significant difference between irrigation with different levels of treated waste water in terms of NDF, in vitro DMD, OMD, and D-Value. There were significant differences between forage plants in all studied characteristics, but there were no significant differences on interactions between forage plants and different levels of treated waste water treatments. Forage maize had the highest in vitro DMD at %75 treated waste water and forage sorghum (var. Speed feed had the lowest in vitro DMD at %0 treated waste water treatments with averages of %77.57 and %61.6, respectively. The results indicated that treated waste water increased the percentage of crude

  9. Potential application of biodrying to treat solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Badrus; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Hadiwidodo, Mochtar; Sutrisno, Endro; Purwono; Wardana, Irawan Wisnu

    2018-02-01

    The generation of solid waste around the world creates problems if not properly managed. The method of processing solid waste by burning or landfill is currently not optimal. The availability of land where the final processing (TPA) is critical, looking for a new TPA alternative will be difficult and expensive, especially in big cities. The processing of solid waste using bio drying technology has the potential to produce renewable energy and prevention of climate change. Solid waste processing products can serve as Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), reduce water content of solid waste, meningkatkan kualitas lindi and increase the amount of recycled solid waste that is not completely separated from home. Biodrying technology is capable of enhancing the partial disintegration and hydrolysis of macromolecule organic compounds (such as C-Organic, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, total nitrogen). The application of biodrying has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and dinitrooksida (N2O). These gases cause global warming.

  10. Potential application of biodrying to treat solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Badrus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of solid waste around the world creates problems if not properly managed. The method of processing solid waste by burning or landfill is currently not optimal. The availability of land where the final processing (TPA is critical, looking for a new TPA alternative will be difficult and expensive, especially in big cities. The processing of solid waste using bio drying technology has the potential to produce renewable energy and prevention of climate change. Solid waste processing products can serve as Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF, reduce water content of solid waste, meningkatkan kualitas lindi and increase the amount of recycled solid waste that is not completely separated from home. Biodrying technology is capable of enhancing the partial disintegration and hydrolysis of macromolecule organic compounds (such as C-Organic, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, total nitrogen. The application of biodrying has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and dinitrooksida (N2O. These gases cause global warming.

  11. Rheological characterisation of biologically treated and non-treated putrescible food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Munir, M T; Sun, Jiyang; Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Young, Brent R

    2018-01-01

    Food waste is gaining increasing attention worldwide due to growing concerns over its environmental and economic costs. Understanding the rheological behaviour of food waste is critical for effective processing so rheological measurements were carried out for different food waste compositions at 25, 35 and 45 °C. Food waste samples of various origins (carbohydrates, vegetables & fruits, and meat), anaerobically digested and diluted samples were used in this study. The results showed that food waste exhibits shear-thinning flow behaviour and viscosity of food waste is a function of temperature and composition. The composition of food waste affected the flow properties. Viscosity decreased at a given temperature as the proportion of carbohydrate increased. This may be due to the high water content of vegetable & fruits as the total solids fraction is likely to be a key controlling factor of the rheology. The Herschel-Bulkley model was used successfully to model food waste flow behaviour. Also, a higher strain was needed to break down the structure of the food waste as digestion time increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Summary of PCP-Treated Wood Waste Management at Army Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broder, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... At most installations, the PCP-treated wood waste is either shredded and composted for use as mulch on the installation or ft is disposed of in a sanitary landfill at a cost of around $30 per ton...

  13. Long-term emissions from mechanically biologically treated waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste treatment in passively aerated open windrows, using the Dome Aeration Technology (DAT), was identified as an appropriate technology due to low construction and operational resource requirements. Three self-aerated windrows were set up at the Bisasar Road Landfill in order to study the efficiency of the process ...

  14. Experimental and modelling studies on a laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sughosh, P; White, James; Sivakumar Babu, G L

    2017-07-01

    The performance of an anaerobic bioreactor in treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste was investigated using experimental and modelling techniques. The key parameters measured during the experimental test period included the gas yield, leachate generation and settlement under applied load. Modelling of the anaerobic bioreactor was carried out using the University of Southampton landfill degradation and transport model. The model was used to simulate the actual gas production and settlement. A sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential model parameters are the monod growth rate and moisture. In this case, pH had no effect on the total gas production and waste settlement, and only a small variation in the gas production was observed when the heat transfer coefficient of waste was varied from 20 to 100 kJ/(m d K) -1 . The anaerobic bioreactor contained 1.9 kg (dry) of mechanically biologically treated waste producing 10 L of landfill gas over 125 days.

  15. Development of a database system for the management of non-treated radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Antônio Juscelino; Freire, Carolina Braccini; Cuccia, Valeria; Santos, Paulo de Oliveira; Seles, Sandro Rogério Novaes; Haucz, Maria Judite Afonso, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.br, E-mail: cbf@cdtn.br, E-mail: vc@cdtn.br, E-mail: pos@cdtn.br, E-mail: seless@cdtn.br, E-mail: hauczmj@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The radioactive waste produced by the research laboratories at CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, is stored in the Non-Treated Radwaste Storage (DRNT) until the treatment is performed. The information about the waste is registered and the data about the waste must to be easily retrievable and useful for all the staff involved. Nevertheless, it has been kept in an old Paradox database, which is now becoming outdated. Thus, to achieve this goal, a new Database System for the Non-treated Waste will be developed using Access® platform, improving the control and management of solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in CDTN. The Database System consists of relational tables, forms and reports, preserving all available information. It must to ensure the control of the waste records and inventory. In addition, it will be possible to carry out queries and reports to facilitate the retrievement of the waste history and localization and the contents of the waste packages. The database will also be useful for grouping the waste with similar characteristics to identify the best type of treatment. The routine problems that may occur due to change of operators will be avoided. (author)

  16. Development of a database system for the management of non-treated radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Antônio Juscelino; Freire, Carolina Braccini; Cuccia, Valeria; Santos, Paulo de Oliveira; Seles, Sandro Rogério Novaes; Haucz, Maria Judite Afonso

    2017-01-01

    The radioactive waste produced by the research laboratories at CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, is stored in the Non-Treated Radwaste Storage (DRNT) until the treatment is performed. The information about the waste is registered and the data about the waste must to be easily retrievable and useful for all the staff involved. Nevertheless, it has been kept in an old Paradox database, which is now becoming outdated. Thus, to achieve this goal, a new Database System for the Non-treated Waste will be developed using Access® platform, improving the control and management of solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in CDTN. The Database System consists of relational tables, forms and reports, preserving all available information. It must to ensure the control of the waste records and inventory. In addition, it will be possible to carry out queries and reports to facilitate the retrievement of the waste history and localization and the contents of the waste packages. The database will also be useful for grouping the waste with similar characteristics to identify the best type of treatment. The routine problems that may occur due to change of operators will be avoided. (author)

  17. Fracture analysis of cement treated demolition waste using a lattice model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Houben, L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fracture properties of cement treated demolition waste were investigated using a lattice model. In practice the investigated material is applied as a cement treated road base/subbase course. The granular aggregates used in this material were crushed recycled concrete and masonry. This results in six

  18. Process for treating waste gases from a reactor equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuasa, Yoshiyuki; Tani, Akira; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; An, Bunzai; Tsuda, Koji.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To prevent discharge of waste gases having a high radioactivity density into atmosphere at the time of failure or damages of machineries, piping and seals in valves or the like. Structure: Hydrogen and stream contained in waste gases from a turbine condenser are removed by a re-coupler unit, cooler and water-gas separator, and radioactive substances are attenuated and removed by a delay pipe and filter, after which water and carbon dioxide gas are removed by a water-carbon dioxide gas remover unit and cooled by a heat exchanger, and thereafter introduced into a rectification tower. A vacuum pump is installed on the purifying gas line at the outlet of the heat exchanger, whereby process for adsorbing and removing water and carbon dioxide gas and process for rectifying and separating the radioactive rare gas are accomplished under negative pressures. A heater is installed on the liquid taking-out line from the bottom of the rectification tower to heat and vaporize the taken out liquid by means of a heater, after which the liquid is returned to inlet of an air extractor and the impurities are removed by the re-coupler. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., Lima, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  20. Mini-review of the geotechnical parameters of municipal solid waste: Mechanical and biological pre-treated versus raw untreated waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Igor

    2016-09-01

    The most viable option for biostabilisation of old sanitary landfills, filled with raw municipal solid waste, is the so-called bioreactor landfill. Even today, bioreactor landfills are viable options in many economically developing countries. However, in order to reduce the biodegradable component of landfilled waste, mechanical and biological treatment has become a widely accepted waste treatment technology, especially in more prosperous countries. Given that mechanical and biological treatment alters the geotechnical properties of raw waste material, the design of sanitary landfills which accepts mechanically and biologically treated waste, should be carried out with a distinct set of geotechnical parameters. However, under the assumption that 'waste is waste', some design engineers might be tempted to use geotechnical parameters of untreated raw municipal solid waste and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste interchangeably. Therefore, to provide guidelines for use and to provide an aggregated source of this information, this mini-review provides comparisons of geotechnical parameters of mechanical and biological pre-treated waste and raw untreated waste at various decomposition stages. This comparison reveals reasonable correlations between the hydraulic conductivity values of untreated and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste. It is recognised that particle size might have a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity of both municipal solid waste types. However, the compression ratios and shear strengths of untreated and pre-treated municipal solid waste do not show such strong correlations. Furthermore, another emerging topic that requires appropriate attention is the recovery of resources that are embedded in old landfills. Therefore, the presented results provide a valuable tool for engineers designing landfills for mechanical and biological pre-treated waste or bioreactor landfills for untreated raw

  1. Vitrification technology for treating low-level waste from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oniki, Toshiro; Nabemoto, Toyonobu; Fukui, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    The development of technologies for treating nuclear waste generated by nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants during their operation or decommissioning is underway both in Japan and abroad. Of the many types of treatment technologies that have been developed, vitrification technology is attracting attention as being the most promising technology for converting such waste into a stable state. As a brief review of technical developments aimed at reducing nuclear waste and finding a solution to the final disposal issue, this paper describes approaches to completing the development of vitrification technology in Japan, including IHI's activities. (author)

  2. Natural aggregate totally replacement by mechanically treated concrete waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junak Jozef

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from the research focused on the utilization of crushed concrete waste aggregates as a partial or full replacement of 4/8 and 8/16 mm natural aggregates fraction in concrete strength class C 16/20. Main concrete characteristics such as workability, density and compressive strength were studied. Compressive strength testing intervals for samples with recycled concrete aggregates were 2, 7, 14 and 28 days. The amount of water in the mixtures was indicative. For mixture resulting consistency required slump grade S3 was followed. Average density of all samples is in the range of 2250 kg/m3 to 2350 kg/m3. The highest compressive strength after 28 days of curing, 34.68 MPa, reached sample, which contained 100% of recycled material in 4/8 mm fraction and 60% of recycled aggregates in 8/16 mm fraction. This achieved value was only slightly different from the compressive strength 34.41 MPa of the reference sample.

  3. utilization of some agricultural wastes in treating water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, H.M.H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Rice husks, a locally available agricultural by-product, were investigated with aim of producing good adsorbing materials suitable for remediating water pollution . Raw lignocellulose was treated through various procedures: simple carbonization to high temperature, pyrolysis under flowing steam at moderate temperatures and chemical activation with H 3 PO 4 followed by pyrolysis at moderate temperature . A partially deashed precursor was obtained by boiling in alkali solution, thereafter botanical residue was steam activated at a single temperature, and leachate acidified whereby silica was precipitated, many types of adsorbents were thus derived: chars, activated carbon and silica. the obtained various categories of sorbents were characterized by different techniques to asses their physico-chemical and adsorptive properties . this involved: ash content, thermogravimetry, FTIR, electron microscopy, N 2 gas adsorption at 77 k and adsorption capacity from solution using probe molecules

  4. Anaerobic biogranulation in a hybrid reactor treating phenolic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, Anushyaa; Gupta, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Granulation was examined in four similar anaerobic hybrid reactors 15.5 L volume (with an effective volume of 13.5 L) during the treatment of synthetic coal wastewater at the mesophilic temperature of 27 ± 5 deg. C. The hybrid reactors are a combination of UASB unit at the lower part and an anaerobic filter at the upper end. Synthetic wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2240 mg/L, phenolics concentration of 752 mg/L and a mixture of volatile fatty acids was fed to three hybrid reactors. The fourth reactor, control system, was fed with a wastewater containing sodium acetate and mineral nutrients. Coal waste water contained phenol (490 mg/L); m-, o-, p-cresols (123.0, 58.6, 42 mg/L); 2,4-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-dimethyl phenols (6.3, 6.3, 4.4 and 21.3 mg/L) as major phenolic compounds. A mixture of anaerobic digester sludge and partially granulated sludge (3:1) were used as seed materials for the start up of the reactors. Granules were observed after 45 days of operation of the systems. The granules ranged from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in diameter with good settling characteristics with an SVI of 12 mL/g SS. After granulation, the hybrid reactor performed steadily with phenolics and COD removal efficiencies of 93% and 88%, respectively at volumetric loading rate of 2.24 g COD/L d and hydraulic retention time of 24 h. The removal efficiencies for phenol and m/p-cresols reached 92% and 93% (corresponding to 450.8 and 153 mg/L), while o-cresol was degraded to 88% (corresponding to 51.04 mg/L). Dimethyl phenols could be removed completely at all the organic loadings and did not contribute much to the residual organics. Biodegradation of o-cresol was obtained in the hybrid-UASB reactors

  5. Environmental modelling of use of treated organic waste on agricultural land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Schmidt, S.

    2006-01-01

    . THE IFEU PROJECT, ORWARE and EASEWASTE are life cycle assessment (LCA) models containing more detailed land application modules. A case study estimating the environmental impacts from land application of 1 ton of composted source sorted organic household waste was performed to compare the results from......, Denmark). DST and IWM are life cycle inventory (LCI) models, thus not performing actual impact assessment. The DST model includes only one water emission (biological oxygen demand) from compost leaching in the results and IWM considers only air emissions from avoided production of commercial fertilizers...... assessment of environmental effects from land application of treated organic MSW: DST (Decision Support Tool, USA), IWM (Integrated Waste Management, UK), THE IFEU PROJECT (Germany), ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch, Sweden) and EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies...

  6. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood in a 2 m3 pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Waste wood that has been treated with chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) poses a potential environmental problem due to the content of copper, chromium and arsenic. A pilot plant for electrodialytic remediation of up to 2 m3 wood has been designed and tested and the results are presented here. Several...

  7. PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM DIRECT BURNING OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL-TREATED WOOD WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study to identify potential air pollution problems from the combustion of waste wood treated with pentachlorophenol preservative for energy production in a boiler. The study emphasized the characterization of the products of incomplete combustion (PI...

  8. Hanford/Rocky Flats collaboration on development of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction to treat mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.; Biyani, R.K.; Brown, C.M.; Teter, W.L.

    1995-11-01

    Proposals for demonstration work under the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Focus Area, during the 1996 through 1997 fiscal years included two applications of supercritical carbon dioxide to mixed waste pretreatment. These proposals included task RF15MW58 of Rocky Flats and task RL46MW59 of Hanford. Analysis of compatibilities in wastes and work scopes yielded an expectation of substantial collaboration between sites whereby Hanford waste streams may undergo demonstration testing at Rocky Flats, thereby eliminating the need for test facilities at Hanford. This form of collaboration is premised the continued deployment at Rocky Flats and the capability for Hanford samples to be treated at Rocky Flats. The recent creation of a thermal treatment contract for a facility near Hanford may alleviate the need to conduct organic extraction upon Rocky Flats wastes by providing a cost effective thermal treatment alternative, however, some waste streams at Hanford will continue to require organic extraction. Final site waste stream treatment locations are not within the scope of this document

  9. Steam reforming as a method to treat Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes a Sandia program that included partnerships with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Synthetica Technologies, Inc. to design and test a steam reforming system for treating Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes. The benefits of steam reforming the wastes include the resolution of tank safety issues and improved radionuclide separations. Steam reforming destroys organic materials by first gasifying, then reacting them with high temperature steam. Tests indicate that up to 99% of the organics could be removed from the UST wastes by steam exposure. In addition, it was shown that nitrates in the wastes could be destroyed by steam exposure if they were first distributed as a thin layer on a surface. High purity alumina and nickel alloys were shown to be good candidates for materials to be used in the severe environment associated with steam reforming the highly alkaline, high nitrate content wastes. Work was performed on designing, building, and demonstrating components of a 0.5 gallon per minute (gpm) system suitable for radioactive waste treatment. Scale-up of the unit to 20 gpm was also considered and is feasible. Finally, process demonstrations conducted on non-radioactive waste surrogates were carried out, including a successful demonstration of the technology at the 0.1 gpm scale

  10. Chemical characteristics and methane potentials of source-separated and pre-treated organic municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Svärd, Å; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    A research project has investigated the biogas potential of pre-screened source-separated organic waste. Wastes from five Danish cities have been pre-treated by three methods: screw press; disc screen; and shredder and magnet. This paper outlines the sampling procedure used, the chemical composit...... composition of the wastes and the estimated methane potentials.......A research project has investigated the biogas potential of pre-screened source-separated organic waste. Wastes from five Danish cities have been pre-treated by three methods: screw press; disc screen; and shredder and magnet. This paper outlines the sampling procedure used, the chemical...

  11. Waste minimization methods for treating analytical instrumentation effluents at the source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.A.; Barnhart, C.

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to reduce the amount of hazardous waste being generated by the Savannah River Siste Defense Waste Processing Technology-analytical Laboratory (DWPT-AL). A detailed characterization study was performed on 12 of the liquid effluent streams generated within the DWPT-AL. Two of the streams were not hazardous, and are now being collected separately from the 10 hazardous streams. A secondary goal of the project was to develop in-line methods using primarily adsorption/ion exchange columns to treat liquid effluent as it emerges from the analytical instrument as a slow, dripping flow. Samples from the 10 hazardous streams were treated by adsorption in an experimental apparatus that resembled an in-line or at source column apparatus. The layered adsorbent bed contained activated carbon and ion exchange resin. The column technique did not work on the first three samples of the spectroscopy waste stream, but worked well on the next three samples which were treated in a different column. It was determined that an unusual form of mercury was present in the first three samples. Similarly, two samples of a combined waste stream were rendered nonhazardous, but the last two samples contained acetylnitrile that prevented analysis. The characteristics of these streams changed from the initial characterization study; therefore, continual, in-deptch stream characterization is the key to making this project successful

  12. Unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of LLW [i.e., Government and commerical (fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle)] that is generated at LWR plants. Many different chemical engineering unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at LWR plants include adsorption, evaporation, calcination, centrifugation, compaction, crystallization, drying, filtration, incineration, reverse osmosis, and solidification of waste residues. The treatment of these various streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described. The various treatment options for concentrates or solid wet wastes, and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting and shredding. Organic materials [liquids (e.g., oils or solvents) and/or solids], could be incinerated in most cases. The filter sludges, spent resins, and concentrated liquids (e.g., evaporator concentrates) are usually solidified in cement, or urea-formaldehyde or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Incinerator ashes can also be incorporated in these binding agents. Asphalt has not yet been used. This paper presents a brief survey of operational experience at LWRs with various unit operations, including a short discussion of problems and some observations on recent trends

  13. Method of treating the waste liquid of a washing containing a radioactive substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaguchi, Yusuke; Tsuyuki, Takashi; Kaneko, Masato; Sato, Yasuhiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To separate waste liquid resulting from washing and which contains a radioactive substance and surface active agent into high purity water and a solid waste substance containing a small quantity of surface active agent. Structure: To waste liquid from a waste liquid tank is added a pH adjusting agent for adjusting the pH to 5.5, and the resultant liquid is sent to an agglomeration reaction tank, in which an inorganic agglomerating agent is added to the waste liquid to cause a major proportion of the radioactive substance and surface active agent to form flocks produced through agglomeration. Then, the waste liquid is sent from the agglomeration reaction tank to a froth separation tank, to which air is supplied through a perforated plate to cause frothing. The over-flowing liquid is de-frothed, and then the insoluble matter is separated as sludge, followed by hydroextraction and drying for solidification. The treated liquid extracted from a froth separation tank is sent to an agglomerating agent recovery tank for separation of the agglomeration agent, and then the residual surface active agent is removed by adsorption in an active carbon adsorption tower, followed by concentration by evaporation in an evaporating can. The concentrated liquid is extracted and then solidified with cement or asphalt. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Biologically Pre-Treated Habitation Waste Water as a Sustainable Green Urine Pre-Treat Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Thompson, Bret; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Morse, Audra; Meyer, Caitlin; Callahan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recover water from urine and flush water is a critical process to allow long term sustainable human habitation in space or bases on the moon or mars. Organic N present as urea or similar compounds can hydrolyze producing free ammonia. This reaction results in an increase in the pH converting ammonium to ammonia which is volatile and not removed by distillation. The increase in pH will also cause precipitation reactions to occur. In order to prevent this, urine on ISS is combined with a pretreat solution. While use of a pretreatment solution has been successful, there are numerous draw backs including: storage and use of highly hazardous solutions, limitations on water recovery (less than 85%), and production of brine with pore dewatering characteristics. We evaluated the use of biologically treated habitation wastewaters (ISS and early planetary base) to replace the current pretreat solution. We evaluated both amended and un-amended bioreactor effluent. For the amended effluent, we evaluated "green" pretreat chemicals including citric acid and citric acid amended with benzoic acid. We used a mock urine/air separator modeled after the urine collection assembly on ISS. The urine/air separator was challenged continually for >6 months. Depending on the test point, the separator was challenged daily with donated urine and flushed with amended or un-amended reactor effluent. We monitored the pH of the urine, flush solution and residual pH in the urine/air separator after each urine event. We also evaluated solids production and biological growth. Our results support the use of both un-amended and amended bioreactor effluent to maintain the operability of the urine /air separator. The ability to use bioreactor effluent could decrease consumable cost, reduce hazards associated with current pre-treat chemicals, allow other membrane based desalination processes to be utilized, and improve brine characteristics.

  15. Extant contents of chromium, copper and arsenic in waste CCA-treated timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Keiko; Uchida, Shinpei; Honma, Yoshinori; Sera, Koichiro; Saitoh, Katsumi

    2009-01-01

    The segregation and disposal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste when recycling building waste materials is a serious issue. We examined the contents of CCA preserved cedar timber by PIXE analysis. CCA preserved timber contained large amounts of these metals both on the surface and core of the wood. The ratio of chromium, copper and arsenic contained on the surface was 1:2:1, and in contrast, the ratio in the core was 1:1:2. In other words, the arsenic content was highest in the core. Moreover, the chemical form of arsenic in both parts of the wood was only inorganic arsenic; the same form of arsenic in preservative components known as carcinogenic substances. These findings mean that the complete separation of waste CCA preserved timber from construction and demolition wood is needed. (author)

  16. Electron beam induced dis-infection of biologically treated waste water effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, K.P.; Khader, S.A.; Sarma, K.S.S.

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of water is need of the hour as there is vast gap between demand and supply. The waste water generated in conventional waste water treatment plant can be recycled for irrigation. The presence of pathogenic micro-organism makes it unsafe for this purpose. EB is very effective in killing all forms of pathogens. The biologically treated waste water effluent was used for this purpose. The pathogen count reduced to undetectable level with the EB dose of 0.45 kGy. The BOD and COD values were within the permissible limit. The other physico-chemical parameters remained unaltered. The ability of EB to deliver higher dose rates makes it ideal for handling large volumes of effluent generated in megacities. (author)

  17. Identification of Entamoeba moshkovskii in Treated Waste Water Used for Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Heredia, Rubén Darío; Ortiz, Carolina; Mazo, Martín; Clavijo-Ramírez, Carlos Arturo; Lopez, Myriam Consuelo

    2016-03-01

    We conducted an observational study to determine the prevalence of Entamoeba spp., in samples collected in a waste water treatment plant that provides water for agricultural irrigation. Samples were collected weekly over a period of 10 weeks at representative contamination stages from within the treatment plant. Protozoan identification was performed via light microscopy and culture. PCR amplification of small subunit rRNA gene sequences of E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was performed in culture positive samples. Light microscopy revealed the presence of Entamoeba spp., in 70% (14/20) of the raw waste water samples and in 80% (8/10) of the treated water samples. PCR amplification after culture at both 24 and 37°C revealed that 100% (29/29) of the raw waste water samples and 78.6% (11/14) of the treated waste water were positive for E. moshkovskii. We report the first isolation of E. moshkovskii in Colombia, confirmed by PCR. Recent reports of E. moshkovskii pathogenic potential suggest this finding could constitute a public health risk for people exposed to this water.

  18. Regressional modeling of electrodialytic removal of Cu, Cr and As from CCA treated timber waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, E.E.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    ) removal of Cu, Cr and As from CCA treated timber waste. The method uses a low-level direct current as the cleaning agent, combining the electrokinetic movement of ions in the matrix with the principle of electrodialysis. The technique was tested in eight experiments using a laboratory cell on sawdust...... of out-of-service CCA treated Pinus pinaster Ait. poles. The experiments differ because the sawdust was saturated with different assisting agents and different percentages of them. In order to select the best assisting agent in jointly removing the three metals and subsequently the best percentage...

  19. Reuse of a treated red mud bauxite waste: studies on environmental compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Claudia; Cremisini, Carlo; Massanisso, Paolo; Pinto, Valentina; Torricelli, Leonardo

    2005-01-14

    Red mud is the major solid waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite (Bayer process). Environmental "compatibility" of a treated red mud was studied in order to evaluate its possible recycling in environmental compartments. The leaching test requested by the Italian law on treated solid waste to be "re-introduced in the environment" was performed on this material. Moreover, in order to better evaluate the environmental compatibility, three different types of eco-toxicological tests were applied (Microtox test, ASTM microalgae toxicity test and sea urchin embryo toxicity test). These "chemical" and eco-toxicological tests gave encouraging results. The possibility to use this material for treating contaminated waters and soils was evaluated, again with particular attention to the Italian regulatory system, through experiments on the treated red mud metal trapping ability and on the subsequent release of trapped metals, at low pH conditions. The treated red mud showed a general high metal trapping capacity and the release at low pH was generally low.

  20. Development of the fluidized bed thermal treatment process for treating mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semones, G.B.; Williams, P.M.; Stiefvater, S.P.; Mitchell, D.L.; Roecker, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed system is being developed at Rocky Flats for the treatment of mixed waste (a mixture of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste). The current program builds on experience gained in the 1970's and 1980's in tests with bench-scale, pilot-scale, and demonstration-scale fluidized bed systems. The system operates at low temperatures (∼ 525--600 degree C) which eliminates many of the disadvantages associated with high temperature thermal treatment processes. The process has shown the ability to destroy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) with 99.9999% (''six-nines'') destruction efficiency in tests monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The bed makes use of in situ neutralization of acidic off-gases by incorporating sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) in the bed media. This eliminates using wet scrubbers to treat the off-gas; these produce a high volume of secondary waste. Once in operation, it is expected that the fluidized bed process will yield up to a 40:1 reduction in the volume of the waste

  1. The residuals analysis project: Evaluating disposal options for treated mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    For almost four years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Facility Compliance Act Disposal Workgroup has been working with state regulators and governors' offices to develop an acceptable configuration for disposal of its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). These interactions have resulted in screening the universe of potential disposal sites from 49 to 15 and conducting ''performance evaluations'' for those fifteen sites to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of MLLW. In the residuals analysis project, we estimated the volume of DOE's MLLW that will require disposal after treatment and the concentrations of radionuclides in the treated waste. We then compared the radionuclide concentrations with the disposal limits determined in the performance evaluation project for each of the fifteen sites. The results are a scoping-level estimate of the required volumetric capacity for MLLW disposal and the identification of waste streams that may pose problems for disposal based on current treatment plans. The analysis provides technical information for continued discussions between the DOE and affected States about disposal of MLLW and systematic input to waste treatment developers on disposal issues

  2. An emissions audit of a biomass combustor burning treated wood waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.M.; Jones, H.H.; King, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the Emissions Audit carried out on a Biomass Combustor burning treated wood waste at the premises of a furniture manufacturer. The Biomass Combustor was tested in two firing modes; continuous fire and modulating fire. Combustion chamber temperatures and gas residence times were not measured. Boiler efficiencies were very good at greater than 75% in both tests. However, analysis of the flue gases indicated that improved efficiencies are possible. The average concentrations of CO (512mgm -3 ) and THC (34mgm -3 ) for Test 1 were high, indicating that combustion was poor. The combustor clearly does not meet the requirements of the Guidance Note for the Combustion of Wood Waste. CO 2 and O 2 concentrations were quite variable showing that combustion conditions were fairly unstable. Improved control of combustion should lead to acceptable emission concentrations. (Author)

  3. Oxalic acid as an assisting agent for the electrodialytic remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo P.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    1999-01-01

    The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber.......The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber....

  4. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Santhosh, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m 3 to 10.3 kN/m 3 at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43

  5. Restoration of Wadi Aquifers by Artificial Recharge with Treated Waste Water

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2012-04-26

    Fresh water resources within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are a rare and precious commodity that must be managed within a context of integrated water management. Wadi aquifers contain a high percentage of the naturally occurring fresh groundwater in the Kingdom. This resource is currently overused and has become depleted or contaminated at many locations. One resource that could be used to restore or enhance the fresh water resources within wadi aquifers is treated municipal waste water (reclaimed water). Each year about 80 percent of the country\\'s treated municipal waste water is discharged to waste without any beneficial use. These discharges not only represent a lost water resource, but also create a number of adverse environmental impacts, such as damage to sensitive nearshore marine environments and creation of high-salinity interior surface water areas. An investigation of the hydrogeology of wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia revealed that these aquifers can be used to develop aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) systems that will be able to treat the impaired-quality water, store it until needed, and allow recovery of the water for transmittal to areas in demand. Full-engineered ARR systems can be designed at high capacities within wadi aquifer systems that can operate in concert with the natural role of wadis, while providing the required functions of additional treatment, storage and recovery of reclaimed water, while reducing the need to develop additional, energy-intensive desalination to meet new water supply demands. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  6. Improved Process Used to Treat Aqueous Mixed Waste Results in Cost Savings and Improved Worker Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, D.S.; Preuss, D.E.; Belcher, K.J.; Rock, C.M.; Bray, W.S.; Herman, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an improved process implemented at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to treat aqueous mixed waste. This waste is comprised of radioactively-contaminated corrosive liquids with heavy metals. The Aqueous Mixed Waste Treatment System (AMWTS) system components include a reaction tank and a post-treatment holding tank with ancillary piping and pumps; and a control panel with pumping/mixing controls; tank level, temperature and pH/Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) indicators. The process includes a neutralization step to remove the corrosive characteristic, a chromium reduction step to reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, and a precipitation step to convert the toxic metals into an insoluble form. Once the toxic metals have precipitated, the resultant sludge is amenable to stabilization and can be reclassified as a low-level waste if the quantity of leachable toxic metals, as determined by the TCLP, is below Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). To date, six batches in eight have passed the UTS. The AMWTS is RCRA permitted and allows for the compliant treatment of mixed waste prior to final disposal at a Department of Energy (DOE) or commercial radioactive waste disposal facility. Mixed wastes eligible for treatment include corrosive liquids (pH 12.5) containing EPA-regulated toxic metals (As, Ba, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ag, Se, Hg) at concentrations greater than the RCRA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) limit. The system has also been used to treat corrosive wastes with small quantities of fissionable materials. The AMWTS is a significant engineered solution with many improvements over the more labor intensive on-site treatment method being performed within a ventilation hood used previously. The previously used treatment system allowed for batch sizes of only 15-20 gallons whereas the new AMWTS allows for the treatment of batches up to 75 gallons; thereby reducing batch labor and supply costs by 40-60% and reducing analytical

  7. Method and equipment for treating waste water resulting from the technological testing processes of NPP equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, M. C.; Valeca, S.; Iorga, C.

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods and technologies coupled together with advanced equipment for treating residual substances resulted from technological processes are mandatory measures for all industrial facilities. The correct management of the used working agents and of the all wastes resulted from the different technological process (preparation, use, collection, neutralization, discharge) is intended to reduce up to removal of their potential negative impact on the environment. The high pressure and temperature testing stands from INR intended for functional testing of nuclear components (fuel bundles, fuelling machines, etc.) were included in these measures since the use of oils, demineralized water chemically treated, greases, etc. This paper is focused on the method and equipment used at INR Pitesti in the chemical treatment of demineralized waters, as well as the equipment for collecting, neutralizing and discharging them after use. (authors)

  8. Diversity of fungi in creosote-treated crosstie wastes and their resistance to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Lee, Hwanhwi; Choi, Yong-Seok; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok; Huh, Na-Yoon; Lee, Sangjoon; Lim, Young Woon; Lee, Sung-Suk; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2010-05-01

    This study was conducted to generate information regarding the diversity of fungi inhabiting creosote-treated wood in a storage yard for crosstie wastes in Gwangmyeong, Korea. Additionally, the resistance to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of indigenous fungi that mainly occupy creosote-treated wood was evaluated. We isolated fungi from the surface and inner area of crosstie wastes and identified them using a combination of traditional methods and molecular techniques. Overall, 179 isolates including 47 different species were isolated from 240 sampling sites. The identified fungal species included 23 ascomycetes, 19 basidiomycetes, and 5 zygomycetes. Three species, Alternaria alternata, Irpex lacteus, and Rhizomucor variabilis, were the most frequently isolated ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and zygomycetes, respectively. The results of this study showed that there was a large difference in the fungal diversity between the surface and the inner area. Additionally, zygomycetes and ascomycetes were found to have a greater tolerance to PAHs than basidiomycetes. However, two basidiomycetes, Heterobasidion annosum and Schizophyllum commune, showed very high resistance to PAHs, even in response to the highest concentration (1,000 ppm), which indicates that these species may play a role in the degradation of PAHs.

  9. Effect on Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Treated Waste Water for Mixing and Curing of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Kanwal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of the available resources is imperative approach to achieve the apex of productivity. The modern world is focusing on the conditioning, sustainability and recycling of the assets by imparting innovative techniques and methodologies. Keeping this in view, an experimental study was conducted to evaluate the strength of concrete made with treated waste water for structural use. In this study ninetysix cylinders of four mixes with coarse aggregates in combination with FW (Fresh Water, WW (Wastewater, TWW (Treated Wastewater and TS (Treated Sewagewere prepared. The workability of fresh concrete was checked before pouring of cylinders. The test cylinders were left for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days for curing. After curing, the compressive strength was measured on hardened concrete cylinders accordingly. Test results showed that workability of all the four mixes were between 25-50mm but ultimate compressive strength of concrete with WW was decreased and with TWW, TS at the age of 28 days do not change significantly. This research will open a new wicket in the horizon of recycling of construction materials. The conditioning and cyclic utilization will reduce the cost of the construction and building materials as well as minimize the use of natural resources. This novelty and calculating approach will save our natural assets and resources.

  10. Evaluation of ultrafiltration membranes for treating low-level radioactive contaminated liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenst, J.W.; Roberts, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed on Waste Disposal Facility (WD) influent using Romicon hollow fiber ultrafiltration modules with molecular weight cutoffs ranging from 2000 to 80,000. The rejection of conductivity was low in most cases. The rejection of radioactivity ranged from 90 to 98%, depending on the membrane type and on the feed concentration. Typical product activity ranged from 7 to 100 dis/min/ml of alpha radiation. Experiments were also performed on alpha-contaminated laundry wastewater. Results ranged from 98 to >99.8%, depending on the membrane type. This yielded a product concentration of less than 0.1 dis/min/ml of alpha radiation. Tests on PP-Building decontamination water yielded rejections of 85 to 88% alpha radiation depending on the membrane type. These experiments show that the ability to remove radioactivity by membrane is a function of the contents of the waste stream because the radioactivity in the wastewater is in various forms: ionic, polymeric, colloidal, and absorbed onto suspended solids. Although removal of suspended or colloidal material is very high, removal of ionic material is not as effective. Alpha-contaminated laundry wastewater proved to be the easiest to decontaminate, whereas the low-level PP-Building decontamination water proved to be the most difficult to decontaminate. Decontamination of the WD influent, a combined waste stream, varied considerably from day to day because of its constantly changing makeup. The WD influent was also treated with various substances, such as polyelectrolytes, complexing agents, and coagulants, to determine if these additives would aid in the removal of radioactive material from the various wastewaters by complexing the ionic species. At the present time, none of the additives evaluated has had much effect; but experiments are continuing

  11. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and two organochlorine pesticides (DDT and BHC) in crops irrigated with secondary treated waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Virendra K; Upadhyay, Alka R; Tripathi, B D

    2009-09-01

    Four crop plants Oryza sativa (rice), Solanum melongena (brinjal), Spinacea oleracea (spinach) and Raphanus sativus (radish) were grown to study the impact of secondary treated municipal waste water irrigation. These plants were grown in three plots each of 0.5 ha, and irrigated with secondary treated waste water from a sewage treatment plant. Sludge from the same sewage treatment plant was applied as manure. Cultivated plants were analyzed for accumulation of heavy metals and pesticides. Results revealed the accumulation of six heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) as well as two pesticides [1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane; DDT] and benzene hexa chloride (BHC). Order of the plants for the extent of bioaccumulation was S. oleracea > R. sativus > S. melongena > O. sativa. The study has shown the secondary treated waste water can be a source of contamination to the soil and plants.

  12. From hazardous waste to valuable raw material: hydrolysis of CCA-treated wood for the production of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakola, Maija; Kallioinen, Anne; Leskelä, Markku; Repo, Timo

    2013-05-01

    Solid wood, metal finnish: Instead of burning waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenite (CCA) or disposing of it in landfills, the CCA-treated wood can be used as a raw material for the production of chemicals. Catalytic or alkaline oxidation together with very mild sulfuric acid extraction produces an easily enzymatically hydrolyzable material. Usage as a raw material for the chemical industry in this manner demonstrates a sustainable and value-added waste management process. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  14. Bacterial community analysis in upflow multilayer anaerobic reactor treating high-solids organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Si-Kyung; Jung, Kyung-Won; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kwon, Joong-Chun; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Shin, Seung Gu

    2017-09-01

    A novel anaerobic digestion configuration, the upflow multi-layer anaerobic reactor (UMAR), was developed to treat high-solids organic wastes. The UMAR was hypothesized to form multi-layer along depth due to the upflow plug flow; use of a recirculation system and a rotating distributor and baffles aimed to assist treating high-solids influent. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and methane (CH 4 ) production rate were 89% and 2.10 L CH 4 /L/d, respectively, at the peak influent COD concentration (110.4 g/L) and organic loading rate (7.5 g COD/L/d). The 454 pyrosequencing results clearly indicated heterogeneous distribution of bacterial communities at different vertical locations (upper, middle, and bottom) of the UMAR. Firmicutes was the dominant (>70%) phylum at the middle and bottom parts, while Deltaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi were only found in the upper part. Potential functions of the bacteria were discussed to speculate on their roles in the anaerobic performance of the UMAR system. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1226-1234, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water

  16. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  17. Removal of viruses and indicators by anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating animal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin; Xagoraraki, Irene; Wallace, James; Bickert, William; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Rose, Joan B

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate treatment of agricultural waste is necessary for the protection of public health in rural areas because land-applied animal manure may transmit zoonotic disease. In this study, we evaluated the potential of using a pilot anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to treat agricultural waste. The AnMBR system, following a conventional complete mix anaerobic digester (CMAD), achieved high removals of biological and chemical agents. The mean log(10) removals of Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and coliphage by the AnMBR were 5.2, 6.1, 6.4, and 3.7, respectively, and for the CMAD were 1.5, 1.2, 0.1, and 0.5, respectively. Compared with other indicators, coliphage was observed most frequently and had the highest concentration in effluent samples. Bovine adenoviruses and bovine polymaviruses (BPyV) were monitored in this study using nested PCR methods. All of the CMAD influent and CMAD effluent samples were positive for both viruses, and three AnMBR effluent samples were BPyV positive. The mean removals of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphate, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, and volatile solids by the entire system were 31, 96, 92, 82, and 91%, respectively, but there was no removal of ammonium. When the AnMBR was operated independent of the CMAD, AnMBR achieved similar E. coli and enterococci removals as the combined CMAD/AnMBR system. The high quality of effluent produced by the pilot AnMBR system in this study demonstrated that such systems can be considered as alternatives for managing animal manure.

  18. Solidification and Biotoxicity Assessment of Thermally Treated Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bing; Deng, Yi; Yang, Yuanyi; Tan, Swee Ngin; Liu, Qianni; Yang, Weizhong

    2017-06-10

    In the present work, thermal treatment was used to stabilize municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, which was considered hazardous waste. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that, after the thermal process, the leaching concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn decreased from 8.08 to 0.16 mg/L, 0.12 to 0.017 mg/L and 0.39 to 0.1 mg/L, respectively, which well met the limits in GB5085.3-2007 and GB16689-2008. Thermal treatment showed a negative effect on the leachability of Cr with concentrations increasing from 0.1 to 1.28 mg/L; nevertheless, it was still under the limitations. XRD analysis suggested that, after thermal treatments, CaO was newly generated. CaO was a main contribution to higher Cr leaching concentrations owing to the formation of Cr (VI)-compounds such as CaCrO₄. SEM/EDS tests revealed that particle adhesion, agglomeration, and grain growth happened during the thermal process and thus diminished the leachability of Pb, Cu, and Zn, but these processes had no significant influence on the leaching of Cr. A microbial assay demonstrated that all thermally treated samples yet possessed strong bactericidal activity according to optical density (OD) test results. Among all samples, the OD value of raw fly ash (RFA) was lowest followed by FA700-10, FA900-10, and FA1100-10 in an increasing order, which indicated that the sequence of the biotoxicity for these samples was RFA > FA700-10 > FA900-10 > FA1100-10. This preliminary study indicated that, apart from TCLP criteria, the biotoxicity assessment was indispensable for evaluating the effect of thermal treatment for MSWI fly ash.

  19. Evaluation of a new pulping technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Larsen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A new technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion was assessed, and its performance was compared to existing alternative pre-treatment technologies. This pre-treatment technology is based on waste pulping with water, using a specially developed...... screw mechanism. The pre-treatment technology rejects more than 95% (wet weight) of non-biodegradable impurities in waste collected from households and generates biopulp ready for anaerobic digestion. Overall, 84-99% of biodegradable material (on a dry weight basis) in the waste was recovered......-pulping technology showed higher biodegradable material recovery, lower electricity consumption and comparable water consumption. The higher material recovery achieved with the technology was associated with greater transfer of nutrients (N and P), carbon (total and biogenic) but also heavy metals (except Pb...

  20. Microbial population dynamics during startup and overload conditions of anaerobic digesters treating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMahon, K.D.; Zheng, D.; Stams, A.J.M.; Mackie, R.I.; Raskin, L.

    2004-01-01

    Microbial population dynamics were investigated during start-up and during periods of overload conditions in anaerobic co-digesters treating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. Changes in community structure were monitored using ribosomal RNA-based oligonucleotide probe hybridization to measure

  1. Impact of coagulant and flocculant addition to an anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) treating waste-activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, G.; Lopes, Wilton; Zhou, Z.; Guo, H.; de Kreuk, M.K.; Spanjers, H.L.F.M.; van Lier, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of flocculation aid (FA) addition to an anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) (7 L, 35°C) treating waste-activated sludge (WAS). The experiment consisted of three distinct periods. In period 1 (day 1–86), the reactor was operated as a

  2. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-level Waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-06-30

    The DOE proposes to construct, operate, and decontaminate/decommission a TRU Waste Treatment Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The four waste types that would be treated at the proposed facility would be remote-handled TRU mixed waste sludge, liquid low-level waste associated with the sludge, contact-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids, and remote-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids. The mixed waste sludge and some of the solid waste contain metals regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and may be classified as mixed waste. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with five alternatives--No Action, the Low-Temperature Drying Alternative (Preferred Alternative), the Vitrification Alternative, the Cementation Alternative, and the Treatment and Waste Storage at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Alternative.

  3. Comparison of slagging pyrolysis and molten salt incinerators for treating TRU waste at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    For the comparison, it is assumed that the waste product is required to meet the acceptance criteria of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, i.e., low leachability. Slagging pyrolysis incinerates combustible waste and melts noncombustible waste; the resulting slag forms a glass of low leachability. In the molten salt incinerator, combustion occurs at low temperatures with no accumulation of explosive gases, but the waste must have been previously sorted into combustibles and noncombustibles and then shredded. The economics, safety, and technical features are compared. Advantages, disadvantages, and areas of technical uncertainty of the two systems are listed. Development costs and schedules for the two types of incinerators are discussed

  4. Feasibility of thermophilic anaerobic processes for treating waste activated sludge under low HRT and intermittent mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Wanderli; Magnus, Bruna Scandolara; Guimarães, Lorena Bittencourt; Gottardo, Marco; Belli Filho, Paulo

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) arises as an optimized solution for the waste activated sludge (WAS) management. However, there are few feasibility studies using low solids content typically found in the WAS, and that consider uncommon operational conditions such as intermittent mixing and low hydraulic retention time (HRT). In this investigation, a single-stage pilot reactor was used to treat WAS at low HRT (13, 9, 6 and 5 days) and intermittent mixing (withholding mixing 2 h prior feeding). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion (55 °C) was initiated from a mesophilic digester (35 °C) by the one-step startup strategy. Although instabilities on partial alkalinity (1245-3000 mgCaCO 3 /L), volatile fatty acids (1774-6421 mg/L acetic acid) and biogas production (0.21-0.09 m 3 /m 3 reactor .d) were observed, methanogenesis started to recover in 18 days. The thermophilic treatment of WAS at 13 and 9 days HRT efficiently converted VS into biogas (22 and 21%, respectively) and achieved high biogas yield (0.24 and 0.22 m 3 /kgVS fed , respectively). Intermittent mixing improved the retention of methanogens inside the reactor and reduced the washout effect even at low HRT (5% TS). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Counter-current acid leaching process for copper azole treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Amélie; Riche, Pauline; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Cooper, Paul; Morris, Paul

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for copper extraction from copper azole treated wood waste for recycling of wood and copper. The leaching process uses three acid leaching steps with 0.1 M H2SO4 at 75degrees C and 15% slurry density followed by three rinses with water. Copper is recovered from the leachate using electrodeposition at 5 amperes (A) for 75 min. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed achieving > or = 94% copper extraction from the wood during the 10 cycles; 80-90% of the copper was recovered from the extract solution by electrodeposition. The counter-current leaching process reduced acid consumption by 86% and effluent discharge volume was 12 times lower compared with the same process without use of counter-current leaching. However, the reuse of leachates from one leaching step to another released dissolved organic carbon and caused its build-up in the early cycles.

  6. Use to titanium-treated zeolite for plutonium, strontium, and cesium removal from West Valley alkaline wastes and sludge wash wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Hara, F.T.

    1993-01-01

    Zeolite (IONSIV IE-96) treated with a titanium (Ti) solution will extract traces of plutonium (Pu), strontium (Sr), and cesium (Cs) found in the West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS) alkaline supernatant and alkaline sludge water washes. Small ion exchange columns containing Ti-treated zeolite have been successfully tested at WVNS and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the removal of Pu. Full-scale ion exchange processing of sludge wash solution is now being developed at WVNS for use in FY 1992. Commercial manufacturing options for the production of the Ti-treated zeolite were investigated. The Ti-treated zeolite may have application at Hanford and at other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for the removal of low-level concentrations of Cs, Sr, and Pu from alkaline waste streams

  7. Pre-treating anaerobic mixed microflora with waste frying oil: A novel method to inhibit hydrogen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieenia, Razieh; Pivato, Alberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Christina; Cossu, Raffaello

    2018-01-01

    An innovative method was introduced to inhibit methanogenic H 2 consumption during dark fermentative hydrogen production by anaerobic mixed cultures. Waste frying oil was used as an inhibitor for hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Simultaneous effect of waste frying oil concentrations (0-20 g/L) and initial pH (5.5, 6.5 and 7.5) on inhibition of methanogenic H 2 consumption and enhancement of H 2 accumulation were investigated using glucose as substrate. Enhanced hydrogen yields with decreased methane productions were observed with increasing the waste frying oil concentrations. On average, CH 4 productions from glucose in the cultures received 10 g/L WFO were reduced by 88%. Increased WFO concentration up to 20 g/L led to negligible CH 4 productions and in turn enhanced H 2 yields. Hydrogen yields of 209.26, 195.35 and 185.60 mL/g glucose added were obtained for the cultures pre-treated with 20 g/L waste frying oil with initial pH of 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5 respectively. H 2 production by pre-treated cultures was also studied using a synthetic food waste. Anaerobic mixed cultures were pre-treated with 10 g/L WFO and varying durations (0, 24 and 48 h). A H 2 yield of 71.46 mL/g VS was obtained for cultures pre-treated with 10 g/L WFO for 48 h that was 475% higher than untreated control. This study suggests a novel and inexpensive approach for suppressing hydrogenotrophic methanogens during dark fermentative H 2 production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The application of reused powdered wastes as adsorbent for treating arsenic containing mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youn-Jong; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Choi, Sang-Il

    2008-07-15

    This study examined the potential reuse of powdered wastes (PW) generated during the sanding and sawing process in a local chemical company in Korea with the viewpoint of the recycling these wastes and minimizing the level of contamination. The PW contained 40-60% aluminum hydroxide and 30-45% matrix resin. As a potential adsorbent, the suitability of thermal treated PW to remove arsenic from synthetic and real wastewater was investigated. As a pretreatment process, the reused adsorbent from PW was calcined at 550 degrees C for 3 hrs in a furnace. The calcination characteristics of PW were examined both quantitatively and qualitatively by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and qualitatively by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The major inorganic composition of the calcined PW (CPW) was aluminum oxide with poor crystallinity. The CPW contained well developed meso-pores (0.143 cm(3) g(-1)) and showed a specific surface area of 234 m(2) g(-1). The pH of the zero point charge (pH(pzc)) of the CPW was determined to be 7.8 by acid-base titration. From the batch adsorption tests, the complete removal of arsenic (up to 20 mg L(-1)) was observed with CPW (2 g) at pH ranging from 3.0 to 8.0. However, there was a significant decrease in arsenate adsorption at higher pH. A kinetics study indicated that the uptake of arsenate followed a second-order rate equation. In the presence of sulfate, the removal of arsenate was increasingly affected by the sulfate concentration. The application of CPW to the removal of 4 different real mine drainages was also carried out. Mine drainage contains a relatively high arsenate concentration as well as sulfate. Whilst the amount of arsenic removed from real mine drainage by CPW was slightly lower than that removed from synthetic wastewater due to competitive sorption by multiple ions, the adsorption of arsenate showed rapid removal within 10 min with good removal efficiency, which meets the national wastewater discharge limits. These results suggest that CPW

  9. Treating waste waters in the meat industry; Tratamiento de aguas residuales en industrias carnicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancela Carral, M. A.; Taboas Araujo, R.

    2002-07-01

    This article reports on a study of the production process in a meat processing facility ( a pig abattoir). The production process chart was analysed, focussing on the stages that use water as a raw material and those in which waste waters are generated. The contaminating parameters of the waste waters generated were then analysed and the treatment of the waste waters a physico/chemical treatment in this case describe. Finally, an economic analysis was made of the waste water treatment plant's operating costs as a guide. (Author) 12 refs.

  10. Instability of infiltration fronts due to long term irrigation of treated waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuther, Frederic; Weller, Ulrich; Schlüter, Steffen; Wallach, Rony; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation of treated waste water (TWW) is a common practice in arid and semiarid areas as it combines a sustainable, all-season available water recourse and the recycling of nutrients. Previous studies have shown that organic compounds can affect wettability of mineral surfaces and may change soil structure. Since TWW provides high loads of organic material, long-term irrigation can lead to persistent structure alteration, hydrophobicity, preferential flow, and leaching of chemicals and nutrients. In this study we (i) developed a new approach to quantify water movement in undisturbed soil cores via X-ray radiography and (ii) detected instabilities of water infiltration in soils irrigated with TWW since more than 20 years. We investigated soil samples from two orchards in Israel with long-term irrigation of TWW, one of them additionally irrigated with fresh water. The samples provide two different soil textures, and two different treatments of irrigation: fresh water and TWW. Furthermore, we included seasonal dependencies (dry season and rainy season) to determine persistency of effects. Undisturbed, cylindrical soil samples were taken from the upper soil layer (0-20cm) and irrigation experiments were performed inside an X-ray system. Via image analysis we quantified the infiltration front propagation and spatial moisture distribution as a function of time and repeated the experiments with different initial moisture contents. In this study we show that the stability of infiltration front in these soils is dependent on the irrigated water quality and on the initial water content. Furthermore, we demonstrate that long-term irrigation of TWW can lead to a persistent change in wettability, independent of the season. This study provides experimental evidence about importance of optimizing irrigation management to prevent preferential flow.

  11. Biosorption of diazinon by a pre-treated alimentary industrial waste: equilibrium and kinetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddou Mezenner, N.; Lagha, H.; Kais, H.; Trari, M.

    2017-11-01

    This study explores the feasibility of pre-treated coffee waste (PCW) as biosorbent for the removal of diazinon. The effect of the pesticide concentration (6-20 mg L-1), contact time, adsorbent dose (0.2-1.2 g L-1), solution pH (3-11.5), temperature (15-40 °C) and co-existing inorganic ions (H2PO4 -, NO3 -) on the diazinon biosorption over PCW is investigated. The experimental results indicate an optimal pH of 7.3 for the diazinon elimination on PCW (1 g L-1). The Langmuir model describes well the isotherm data with a high regression coefficient ( R 2 > 0.990) and a maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of 18.52 mg g-1 at 15 °C. It is also observed that the intra-particle diffusion is not the rate-controlling step. A comparison is evaluated between the pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models; the experimental data are well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The biosorption capacity decreases with increasing temperature for a diazinon concentration of 10 mg L-1. The negative enthalpy Δ H° (-63.57 kJ/mol) indicates that the diazinon biosorption onto PCW is exothermic. Under optimal conditions, the biosorption reaches 95% after 90 min. The removal efficiency decreases from 95 to 65.67 and 48.9% for the diazinon alone and in the presence of NO3 - and H2PO4 - (100 mg L-1), respectively.

  12. [Study of the variations in level of fecal contamination of waste water treated at the Charguia purification plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, M; Alouini, Z

    1988-01-01

    The quantitative study of bacterian contamination and its variations versus time has been investigated in waste water treated at Charguia sewage treatment plant. In this work we have described the daily and seasonal variations of faecal contamination test germs. The study of daily variations shows that the station entrence numbers of germs may show rapid but not great changes. In the study of seasonal variations, the autumn-spring comparison alone has proved important variations.

  13. Evaluation of a new pulping technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Larsen, Bjarne; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    A new technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion was assessed, and its performance was compared to existing alternative pre-treatment technologies. This pre-treatment technology is based on waste pulping with water, using a specially developed screw mechanism. The pre-treatment technology rejects more than 95% (wet weight) of non-biodegradable impurities in waste collected from households and generates biopulp ready for anaerobic digestion. Overall, 84-99% of biodegradable material (on a dry weight basis) in the waste was recovered in the biopulp. The biochemical methane potential for the biopulp was 469 ± 7 mL CH4/g ash-free mass. Moreover, all Danish and European Union requirements regarding the content of hazardous substances in biomass intended for land application were fulfilled. Compared to other pre-treatment alternatives, the screw-pulping technology showed higher biodegradable material recovery, lower electricity consumption and comparable water consumption. The higher material recovery achieved with the technology was associated with greater transfer of nutrients (N and P), carbon (total and biogenic) but also heavy metals (except Pb) to the produced biomass. The data generated in this study could be used for the environmental assessment of the technology and thus help in selecting the best pre-treatment technology for source separated organic household waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kida, Akiko; Noma, Yukio; Terazono, Atsushi; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47-170×10(-6) f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Waste from rearing and slaughter of poultry – treat to the environment or feedstock for energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Myszograj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of poultry has systematically grown for over 10 years. In 2007, Poland, with the participation of 11% dealt third place in Europe in the production of poultry meat with the input of 11% has taken the third place in Europe after France and the UK (about 14%. Intensification of poultry production on one hand provides to higher profitability, on the other hand generates more and more waste products, such as manure, slaughter wastes, dead birds, and the emission of gases (e.g. ammonia into the environment. Management of waste in breeding and slaughter plants of poultry rarely complies with current regulations. This is connected with high costs of waste disposal hazardous to the environment, harmful and dangerous to human health. because of chemical composition and potential health risks. The article, based on literature data and our own research, characterizes the waste from rearing and slaughter of poultry and define the possible ways to negative impact on human health: directly by microbial infections or indirectly by emissions of ammonia to the atmosphere, the migration of pollutants into groundwater and surface water. Options of waste utilization in methane fermentation process have been presented. This technology reduces the risk of environmental hazard , while allowing for recovery renewable energy of biogas from biowaste. Waste from the turkey farm and slaughterhouse (the size of slaughterhouse about 26,000 units per week were of mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Nine types of waste: turkey manure on straw, fresh straw used for bedding, heads, guts, feet and feathers were chosen. Flotation sediment, sewage from the slaughtering and chemical sludge was also fermented. High potential for methane from slaughterhouse waste (ca. 73% and manure (63%, indicate for simultaneous disposal and energy recovery from methane fermentation process.

  16. A mesophilic anaerobic digester for treating food waste: process stability and microbial community analysis using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; He, Qin; Ma, Yao; Wang, Xiaoming; Peng, Xuya

    2016-04-25

    Anaerobic digesters become unstable when operated at a high organi c loading rate (OLR). Investigating the microbial community response to OLR disturbance is helpful for achieving efficient and stable process operation. However, previous studies have only focused on community succession during different process stages. How does community succession influence process stability? Is this kind of succession resilient? Are any key microbial indicator closely related to process stability? Such relationships between microbial communities and process stability are poorly understood. In this study, a mesophilic anaerobic digester for treating food waste (FW) was operated to study the microbial diversity and dynamicity due to OLR disturbance. Overloading resulted in proliferation of acidogenic bacteria, and the resulting high volatile fatty acid (VFA) yield triggered an abundance of acetogenic bacteria. However, the abundance and metabolic efficiency of hydrogenotrophic methanogens decreased after disturbance, and as a consequence, methanogens and acetogenic bacteria could not efficiently complete the syntrophy. This stress induced the proliferation of homoacetogens as alternative hydrogenotrophs for converting excessive H2 to acetate. However, the susceptible Methanothrix species also failed to degrade the excessive acetate. This metabolic imbalance finally led to process deterioration. After process recovery, the digester gradually returned to its original operational conditions, reached close to its original performance, and the microbial community profile achieved a new steady-state. Interestingly, the abundance of Syntrophomonas and Treponema increased during the deteriorative stage and rebounded after disturbance, suggesting they were resilient groups. Acidogenic bacteria showed high functional redundancy, rapidly adapted to the increased OLR, and shaped new microbial community profiles. The genera Syntrophomonas and Treponema were resilient groups. This observation

  17. Application of anaerobic digestion products of municipal solid food wastes in treating wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    G. Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the breakdown of biodegradable organic material by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen or in an oxygen-starved environment.This technology is superior to the landfilling and also the aerobic composting. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the effluent Volatile Fatty Acids from the anaerobic acidogenesis of the food waste can be used du to its high value in organic elements, as an external carbon source for the denitrificationin in waste water treatme...

  18. Develop of a model to minimize and to treat waste coming from the chemical laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Hernandez, M.

    2000-01-01

    They were investigated and proposed alternative of minimization and treatment of waste organic type coming from chemical laboratories, considering as alternative the disposition for the drainage, the chemical treatment of the waste, the disposition in sanitary fillers, the creation of a cellar to recycle material, the incineration, the distillation and the possibility to establish an agreement with the company Cements INCSA to discard the materials in the oven to cements of this enterprise. the methodology had as first stage the summary of information about the production of residuals for Investigation Center or Academic Unit. For this they were considered the laboratories of investigation of the CICA, CELEQ, CIPRONA, LAYAFA, and the laboratories of teaching of the sections of Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physicochemical, Pharmacognosy, Drugs Analysis, Physicopharmacy, Histology and Physiology. Additionally, you considers the office of purveyor of the Microbiology School. Subsequently one carries out an analysis of costs to determine which waste constituted most of the waste generated by the University, as for cost and volume. Then, they were carried out classifications of the materials according to chemical approaches, classification of the NFPA and for data of combustion heats. Once carried out this classification and established the current situation of the laboratories considered as for handling and treatment of waste, they proceeded to evaluate and select treatment options and disposition of waste considering advantages and disadvantages as for implementation possibility and cost stops this way a minimization model and treatment that it can be implemented in the University to settle down [es

  19. Methane production from thermophilic co‐digestion of dairy manure and waste milk obtained from therapeutically treated cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Masahiro; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Methane production from co‐digestion of dairy manure and waste milk, milk from cows treated with antibiotics for mastitis, was tested in a 2 × 4 factorial design. Four different waste milk percentages (w/w): 0% (SM), 10% (SMWM10), 20% (SMWM20) and 30% (SMWM30), were tested with two slurry percentages (w/w): 50% (A) and 25% (B) and the rest being manure at 55°C for 12 days in batch digesters. The results analyzed using a Gompertz model showed SMWM10 produced the highest methane production potential (Pm)/g volatile solids added followed by SM in both A and B. This Pm of SMWM10 in A and B was statistically non‐significant (P > 0.05). More than 96% of cefazolin‐resistant bacteria and 100% of multi‐drug‐resistant bacteria reductions were observed in all the treatments. Inclusion of waste milk at 10% in single stage digester enhances the methane production from dairy manure and could offer added benefit of waste milk treatment and disposal. PMID:27169788

  20. Methane production from thermophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk obtained from therapeutically treated cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneragama, Nilmini; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2017-02-01

    Methane production from co-digestion of dairy manure and waste milk, milk from cows treated with antibiotics for mastitis, was tested in a 2 × 4 factorial design. Four different waste milk percentages (w/w): 0% (SM), 10% (SMWM10), 20% (SMWM20) and 30% (SMWM30), were tested with two slurry percentages (w/w): 50% (A) and 25% (B) and the rest being manure at 55°C for 12 days in batch digesters. The results analyzed using a Gompertz model showed SMWM10 produced the highest methane production potential (P m )/g volatile solids added followed by SM in both A and B. This P m of SMWM10 in A and B was statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). More than 96% of cefazolin-resistant bacteria and 100% of multi-drug-resistant bacteria reductions were observed in all the treatments. Inclusion of waste milk at 10% in single stage digester enhances the methane production from dairy manure and could offer added benefit of waste milk treatment and disposal. © 2016 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajón Fernández, Y; Soares, A; Villa, R; Vale, P; Cartmell, E

    2014-05-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 M fractions into batch ADs treating food waste or sewage sludge. Daily specific methane (CH4) production increased 11-16% for food waste and 96-138% for sewage sludge over the first 24h. Potential CO2 reductions of 8-34% for sewage sludge and 3-11% for food waste were estimated. The capacity of ADs to utilise additional CO2 was demonstrated, which could provide a potential solution for onsite sequestration of CO2 streams while enhancing renewable energy production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial Characterization of Solid-Wastes Treated with Heat Melt Compaction Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard F.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; McCoy, LaShelle E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The research purpose of the project was to determine the fate of microorganisms in space-generated solid wastes after processing by a Heat Melt Compactor (HMC), which is a candidate solid waste treatment technology. Five HMC product disks were generated at Ames Research Center (ARC), Waste Management Systems element. The feed for two was simulated space-generated trash and feed for three was Volume F compartment wet waste returned on STS 130. Conventional microbiological methods were used to detect and enumerate microorganisms in HMC disks and in surface swab samples of HMC hardware before and after operation. Also, biological indicator test strips were added to the STS trash prior to compaction to test if HMC processing conditions, 150 C for approx 3 hr and dehydration, were sufficient to eliminate the test bacteria on the strips. During sample acquisition at KSC, the HMC disk surfaces were sanitized with 70% alcohol to prevent contamination of disk interiors. Results from microbiological assays indicated that numbers of microbes were greatly reduced but not eliminated by the 70% alcohol. Ten 1.25 cm diameter cores were aseptically cut from each disk to sample the disk interior. The core material was run through the microbial characterization analyses after dispersal in sterile diluent. Low counts of viable bacteria (5 to 50 per core) were found but total direct counts were 6 to 8 orders of magnitude greater. These results indicate that the HMC operating conditions might not be sufficient for complete waste sterilization, but the vast majority of microbes present in the wastes were dead or non-cultivable after HMC treatment. The results obtained from analyses of the commercial spore test strips that had been added fo the wastes prior to HMC operation further indicated that the HMC was sterilizing the wastes. Nearly all strips were recovered from the HMC disks and all of these were negative for spore growth when run through the manufacturer's protocol. The 10(exp 6

  3. Utilization of chemically treated municipal solid waste (spent coffee bean powder) as reinforcement in cellulose matrix for packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagamani, Senthil Muthu Kumar; Nagarajan, Rajini; Jawaid, Mohammad; Anumakonda, Varadarajulu; Siengchin, Suchart

    2017-11-01

    As the annual production of the solid waste generable in the form of spent coffee bean powder (SCBP) is over 6 million tons, its utilization in the generation of green energy, waste water treatment and as a filler in biocomposites is desirable. The objective of this article is to analyze the possibilities to valorize coffee bean powder as a filler in cellulose matrix. Cellulose matrix was dissolved in the relatively safer aqueous solution mixture (8% LiOH and 15% Urea) precooled to -12.5°C. To the cellulose solution (SCBP) was added in 5-25wt% and the composite films were prepared by regeneration method using ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. Some SCBP was treated with aq. 5% NaOH and the composite films were also prepared using alkali treated SCBP as a filler. The films of composites were uniform with brown in color. The cellulose/SCBP films without and with alkali treated SCBP were characterized by FTIR, XRD, optical and polarized optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. The maximum tensile strength of the composite films with alkali treated SCBP varied between (106-149MPa) and increased with SCBP content when compared to the composites with untreated SCBP. The thermal stability of the composite was higher at elevated temperatures when alkali treated SCBP was used. Based on the improved tensile properties and photo resistivity, the cellulose/SCBP composite films with alkali treated SCBP may be considered for packaging and wrapping of flowers and vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emissions of organics from bioslurry reactors treating soil contaminated with wood preserving waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.F.; Smith, M.; Hessling, J.; Dosani, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a part of the work conducted for a joint Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) project and a study for the EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) that is developing information for Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT). The project was conducted at the US EPA Test and Evaluation Center located at the Gest Street Waste Water Treatment Plant in Cincinnati, Ohio. The contaminated soil chosen for the test of the effectiveness of bioslurry reactors for the degradation of wood preserving wastes was a soil from the Burlington Northern NPL site in Brainerd, Minnesota. The overall results of the soil treatment are presented in a paper titled Slurry Reactor Bioremediation of Soil-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hyrocarbon by Alan Jones, Madonna Brinkmann, and William Mahaffey of Ecova Corporation. Air sampling was conducted to characterize the off-gases emitted from the bioreactors during the operations and to determine organic constituent loss through volatilization. 1 tab

  5. Feasibility study and concepts for use of compact process units to treat Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Bond, W.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Harrington, F.E.; Malkemus, D.W.; Peishel, F.L.; Yarbro, O.O.

    1994-06-01

    A team of experienced radiochemical design engineers and chemists was assembled at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (USTID) Program to evaluate the feasibility and perform a conceptual study of options for the use of compact processing units (CPUs), located at the Hanford, Washington, waste tank sites, to accomplish extensive pretreatment of the tank wastes using the clean-option concept. The scope of the ORNL study included an evaluation of the constraints of the various chemical process operations that may be employed and the constraints of necessary supporting operations. The latter include equipment maintenance and replacement, process control methods, product and by-product storage, and waste disposal

  6. Long-Term Emission Factors for Land Application of Treated Organic Municipal Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Nielsen, Martin P.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The agro-ecosystem model Daisy was used to explore the long-term fate of nitrogen (N) after land application of compost and digestate (based on source separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW)). The cumulative crop N yield response and emissions for mineral fertilizer (MF), anaerobically...... digested organic waste (MSW-D), and composted organic waste (MSW-C) were derived by fitting a linear mixed model to the outcomes of the simulations. The non-linearity of crop N yield responses and emission responses to increasing N fertilizer application was addressed by dividing these responses into high...... and low crop response conditions. The crop N yield response and five emission pathways (NO3− leaching to groundwater, NO3− and NH4+ loss to surface water, and NH3 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere) were quantified as environmental inventory factors, which were calculated for both high and low response...

  7. Feasibility study and concepts for use of compact process units to treat Hanford tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.D.; Bond, W.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Harrington, F.E.; Malkemus, D.W.; Peishel, F.L.; Yarbro, O.O.

    1994-06-01

    A team of experienced radiochemical design engineers and chemists was assembled at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (USTID) Program to evaluate the feasibility and perform a conceptual study of options for the use of compact processing units (CPUs), located at the Hanford, Washington, waste tank sites, to accomplish extensive pretreatment of the tank wastes using the clean-option concept. The scope of the ORNL study included an evaluation of the constraints of the various chemical process operations that may be employed and the constraints of necessary supporting operations. The latter include equipment maintenance and replacement, process control methods, product and by-product storage, and waste disposal.

  8. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative...

  9. Evaluation of XRF and LIBS technologies for on-line sorting of CCA-treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Townsend, Timothy G; Hahn, David W; Moskal, Thomas M; Hosein, Naila; Jambeck, Jenna; Jacobi, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Contamination of wood waste with chromated copper arsenate greatly limits recycling opportunities for the wood waste as a whole. Separation of CCA-treated wood from other wood types is one means by which such contamination can be removed. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate two detector technologies for sorting CCA-treated wood from other wood types. The detector technologies evaluated included X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The XRF detector system utilized in this study was capable of rapidly detecting the presence of CCA in painted wood, wet wood, heartwood, sapwood, and at portions of the wood containing knots. Furthermore, the XRF system was capable of distinguishing between CCA-treated wood and wood treated with alternative wood treatment preservatives, but was limited by the fact that it was not designed for on-line operation so tests were conducted in a batch mode on a conveyor. The analysis time used in this study (3 s) can be decreased significantly for an XRF system designed specifically for on-line operation. The LIBS system developed for this study was found to effectively identify CCA-treated wood for pieces ranging in thickness from 1 to 8 cm. High sorting efficiencies were noted when 10 laser shots were taken on a piece of wood. Furthermore, the LIBS system was found to be effective for identifying wood that has been coated with stains and paints in addition to identifying wood that has been CCA treated. The major drawback with the LIBS system developed in this study was the limited laser pulse energy. With an increase in laser pulse energy it is anticipated that the working focal length of the LIBS system can be increased to enable the monitoring of wood samples of more variable thicknesses. Limitations associated with analysis of very rotted pieces of wood and wet wood can also be overcome by using a higher pulse energy laser. Overall, both technologies show incredible promise for

  10. Surface treated carbon catalysts produced from waste tires for fatty acids to biofuel conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, Zachary D.; Adhikari, Shiba P.; Wright, Marcus W.; Lachgar, Abdessadek; Li, Yunchao; Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2018-02-06

    A method of making solid acid catalysts includes the step of sulfonating waste tire pieces in a first sulfonation step. The sulfonated waste tire pieces are pyrolyzed to produce carbon composite pieces having a pore size less than 10 nm. The carbon composite pieces are then ground to produce carbon composite powders having a size less than 50 .mu.m. The carbon composite particles are sulfonated in a second sulfonation step to produce sulfonated solid acid catalysts. A method of making biofuels and solid acid catalysts are also disclosed.

  11. Microbial Characterization Space Solid Wastes Treated with a Heat Melt Compactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard F.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; McCoy LaShelle E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    The on going purpose of the project efforts was to characterize and determine the fate of microorganisms in space-generated solid wastes before and after processing by candidate solid waste processing. For FY 11, the candidate technology that was assessed was the Heat Melt Compactor (HMC). The scope included five HMC. product disks produced at ARC from either simulated space-generated trash or from actual space trash, Volume F compartment wet waste, returned on STS 130. This project used conventional microbiological methods to detect and enumerate microorganisms in heat melt compaction (HMC) product disks as well as surface swab samples of the HMC hardware before and after operation. In addition, biological indicators were added to the STS trash prior to compaction in order to determine if these spore-forming bacteria could survive the HMC processing conditions, i.e., high temperature (160 C) over a long duration (3 hrs). To ensure that surface dwelling microbes did not contaminate HMC product disk interiors, the disk surfaces were sanitized with 70% alcohol. Microbiological assays were run before and after sanitization and found that sanitization greatly reduced the number of identified isolates but did not totally eliminate them. To characterize the interior of the disks, ten 1.25 cm diameter core samples were aseptically obtained for each disk. These were run through the microbial characterization analyses. Low counts of bacteria, on the order of 5 to 50 per core, were found, indicating that the HMC operating conditions might not be sufficient for waste sterilization. However, the direct counts were 6 to 8 orders of magnitude greater, indicating that the vast majority of microbes present in the wastes were dead or non-cultivable. An additional indication that the HMC was sterilizing the wastes was the results from the added commercial spore test strips to the wastes prior to HMC operation. Nearly all could be recovered from the HMC disks post-operation and all

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and chemically enhanced primary-treated sludge under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obulisamy, Parthiba Karthikeyan; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with primary sewage sludge is beneficial for urban centers, while the optimized conditions reported in the literature are not locally suitable for Hong Kong. Therefore, the present study was aimed to develop an optimized mixing ratio of food waste to chemically enhanced primary-treated sewer sludge (CEPT) for co-digestion using batch tests under mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The mixing ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 (v v(-1)) of food waste to CEPT sludge was tested under the following conditions: temperature - 35°C and 55°C; pH - not regulated; agitation - 150 rpm and time - 20 days. The thermophilic incubations led a good hydrolysis rate and 2-12-fold higher enzyme activities than in mesophilic incubations for different mixing ratios. While the acidogenesis were found retarded that leading to 'sour and stuck' digestion for all mixing ratio of food waste to CEPT sludge from thermophilic incubations. The measured zeta potential was most favourable (-5 to -16.8 mV) for methane production under thermophilic incubations; however the CH4 recovery was less than that in mesophilic incubations. The results suggested that the quick hydrolysis and subsequent acid accumulation under thermophilic incubation lead to inhibited methanogenesis at the early stage than in mesophilic systems. It is concluded that buffer addition is therefore required for any mixing ratio of food waste to CEPT sludge for improved CH4 recovery for both mesophilic and thermophilic operations.

  13. Mixture optimization of cement treated demolition waste with recycled masonry and concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.X.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Shui, Z.H,

    2011-01-01

    Due to environmental reasons and the shortage of natural resources, it is greatly valuable to recycle construction and demolition waste (CDW) as much as possible. One of effective ways to reuse more CDW is to produce a cemented road base material. The recycled CDW however is a mix of recycled

  14. Investigation of combined effect of mixture variables on mechanical properties of cement treated demolition waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Shui, Z.

    2012-01-01

    One of high efficient ways to reuse the recycled construction and demolition waste (CDW) is to consider it as a road base material. The recycled CDW however is mainly a mix of recycled masonry and concrete with a wide variation in composition. This results that the mechanical properties of cement

  15. Method and apparatus for treating gaseous effluents from waste treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Philip A.; Kujawa, Stephan T.

    2000-01-01

    Effluents from a waste treatment operation are incinerated and oxidized by passing the gases through an inductively coupled plasmas arc torch. The effluents are transformed into plasma within the torch. At extremely high plasma temperatures, the effluents quickly oxidize. The process results in high temperature oxidation of the gases without addition of any mass flow for introduction of energy.

  16. Hydrothermal carbonization of autoclaved municipal solid waste pulp and anaerobically treated pulp digestate

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the autoclaved organic fraction of municipal solid waste pulp (OFMSW) and the digestate from OFMSW pulp after anaerobic digestion (AD) were processed by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) at 200, 250, and 300 °C for 30 min and 2 h. The focus of this work was to evaluate the potential fo...

  17. Different systems and approaches to treat municipal solid waste. A state-of the art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, A.; Euler, H.; Klopotek, F.; Kellner, C. [TBW GmbH, Sustainable Techno-logies Building and Business Consultants, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion is still a fairly new technology in the area of utilisation of organic residues, in particular as far as treatment of household wastes and integration of agricultural production is concerned. In the last few years, a number of different processes and concepts, with a variety of different intentions, have been developed and established on the European market, in particular in Germany. Actual categories and parameters, used to analyse, structure and compare available treatment systems, are not yet fully satisfying. The presentation will consist of the following elements: 1. Factors influencing the market of the technology in the recent past. 2. Brief comparison of features of anaerobic solid waste digestion with land filling, composting and incineration. 3. Brief comparison between some European and Non-European countries, concerning municipal solid waste digestion. 4. Main topics in the actual German Anaerobic Municipal Solid Waste Treatment (AMSWT) debate. 5. Comparison of some existing AMSWT systems and concepts. 6. Presentation of a comprehensive structure, covering the main technical elements of any of the different technologies available. 7. Outlook. (au)

  18. A Framework for Treating Uncertainty to Facilitate Waste Disposal Decision Making - Application of the Approach to GCD Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.J.; Cochran, J.R.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for treating uncertainty in the performance assessment process to efficiently address regulatory performance objectives for radioactive waste disposal and discusses the application of the approach at the Greater Confinement Disposal site. In this approach, the performance assessment methodology uses probabilistic risk assessment concepts to guide effective decisions about site characterization activities and provides a path toward reasonable assurance regarding regulatory compliance decisions. Although the approach is particularly amenable to requirements that are probabilistic in nature, the approach is also applicable to deterministic standards such as the dose-based and concentration-based requirements

  19. Dynamics of microbial community in a mesophilic anaerobic digester treating food waste: Relationship between community structure and process stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; He, Qin; Ma, Yao; Wang, Xiaoming; Peng, Xuya

    2015-01-01

    Organic loading rate (OLR) disturbances were introduced into a mesophilic anaerobic digester treating food waste (FW) to induce stable and deteriorative phases. The microbial community of each phase was investigated using 454-pyrosequencing. Results show that the relative abundance of acid-producing bacteria and syntrophic volatile fatty acid (VFA) oxidizers increased dramatically at deteriorative phase, while the dominant methanogens did not shift from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic groups. The mismatching between bacteria and methanogens may partially be responsible for the process deterioration. Moreover, the succession of predominant hydrogenotrophic methanogens reduced the consumption efficiency of hydrogen; meanwhile, the dominant Methanosaeta with low acetate degradation rate, and the increase of inhibitors concentrations further decreased its activity, which may be the other causes for the process failure. These results improve the understanding of the microbial mechanisms of process instability, and provide theoretical basis for the efficient and stable operation of anaerobic digester treating FW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Facts about Nuclear Waste Safety - How the issue is being treated in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The fear of radioactive discharges and releases particularly from severe nuclear accidents and radioactive waste is central to public concern about nuclear activities. This fear was witnessed when Ghana began to suffer shortage in electricity supply from the hydroelectric power station at Akosombo and debates began on Ghana's energy mix and alternate options. As in every country, dependable and continuous supply of electricity is a prerequisite for ensuring sustainable development. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was confronted at that time more than ever with the problem of public education on nuclear power safety to enhance public acceptance. This paper presents what the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission is doing to communicate facts and education about nuclear waste safety to the Ghanaian public and to facilitate the comparison of risk from nuclear reactors and disposal facilities with risks from other forms of technology. The paper also tells of the usefulness of and difficulties in using Jos Draiger and John Lakey's manual on Radiation and Radiation Protection to educate pupils in the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission Preparatory School. The difficulties in communication of facts about nuclear, radiation and waste safety in Ghana, because of the different languages and dialects used by Ghanaians in the rural areas of Ghana. As a large number of factors influence decision making in the energy sector. To assist energy planners, the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission carried out assessments of alternative energy sources, covering a broad range of technical, economic and environmental factors. Cost-benefit and risk-benefit analyses place the nuclear power option on a scale comparable to the other electricity generating technologies. How come then that nuclear power option has so much negative publicity? The conclusion is drawn that literacy in nuclear radiation and waste safety is needed at all levels of the Ghanaian society. As inadequate perception of radiation risk

  1. What is the most environmentally beneficial way to treat commercial food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, James W; Barlaz, Morton A

    2011-09-01

    Commercial food waste represents a relatively available high-quality feedstock for landfill diversion to biological treatment. A life-cycle assessment was performed for commercial food waste processed through aerobic composting systems of varying complexity, anaerobic digestion, and landfills with and without gas collection and energy recovery, as well as a bioreactor landfill. The functional unit was 1000 kg of food waste plus 550 kg of branches that are used as a bulking agent. For each alternative, global warming potential, NO(x) and SO(2) emissions, and total net energy use were determined. Anaerobic digestion was the most environmentally beneficial treatment option, leading to -395 kg net CO(2)e per functional unit. This result was driven by avoided electricity generation and soil carbon storage from use of the resulting soil amendment. The composting alternatives led to between -148 and -64 kg net CO(2)e, whereas the landfill alternatives led to the emission of -240 to 1100 kg CO(2)e. A traditional landfill with energy recovery was predicted to have lower emissions than any of the composting alternatives when a fertilizer offset was used. There is variation in the results based on uncertainty in the inputs, and the relative rankings of the alternatives are dependent on the soil amendment offset that is used. The use of compost to offset peat has greater emission offsets than the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  2. Application of anaerobic digestion products of municipal solid food wastes in treating wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is the breakdown of biodegradable organic material by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen or in an oxygen-starved environment.This technology is superior to the landfilling and also the aerobic composting. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the effluent Volatile Fatty Acids from the anaerobic acidogenesis of the food waste can be used du to its high value in organic elements, as an external carbon source for the denitrificationin in waste water treatment plants . The results showed that Volatile Fatty Acids concentration in mg COD/L in the fermentation was in the range between 3,300 mg COD/L and 6,560 mgCOD/L.The n-butiric acid had the highest concentration in mgCOD/L followed by the propionic and acetic acid, while the valeric acid had the lowest concentration. As well as the concentration of the acetic and valeric acid were stable over the time. Opposite to these, the propionic and n-butyric acid showed high variability in the concentration, especially the n-butyric acid. The specific denitrification rate tests tests showed that the ethanol cultivated biomass was more successful in using the effluent of the food waste digestion as carbon source than methanol cultivated biomass.The specific denitrification reta tests results of our experiment, showed that the average of 0.15 an 0.51 mg N/mg for methanol and ethanol cultivated biomass respectively.

  3. Investigation on the efficiency of treated Palm Tree waste for removal of organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, Karima; El HajjajiI, Souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek

    2017-04-01

    Development of the industrial sector generates several problems of environmental pollution. This issue rises concern among scientific community and decision makers, in this work; we e interested in water resources polluted by the chemical substances, which can cause various problems of health. As an example, dyes generated by different industrial activities such as textile, cosmetic, metal plating, leather, paper and plastic sectors, constitute an important source of pollution. In this work, we aim at investigating the efficiency of palm tree waste for removal of dyes from polluted solution. Our work presents a double environmental aspect, on one hand it constitutes an attempt for valorization of Palm Tree waste, and on the other hand it provides natural adsorbent. The study focuses on the effectiveness of the waste in removing Methylene Bleu and Methyl Orange taken as models of pollutants from aqueous solution. Kinetics and isotherm experiments were conducted in order to determine the sorption behavior of the examined dye. The effects of initial dye and adsorbent concentrations are considered. The results indicate that the correlation coefficient calculated from pseudo-second order equation was higher than the other kinetic equations, indicating that equilibrium data fitted well with pseudo-second order model where adsorption process was chemisorption. The adsorption equilibrium was well described by Langmuir isotherm model.

  4. Evaluating the potential for environmental pollution from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste: a new mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, T G; Frostick, L E

    2014-07-15

    The potential for pollution from arsenic, chromium and copper in chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste was assessed using two lysimeter studies. The first utilised lysimeters containing soil and CCA wood waste mulch exposed to natural conditions over a five month period. The second study used the same lysimeter setup in a regulated greenhouse setting with a manual watering regime. Woodchip, soil and leachate samples were evaluated for arsenic, chromium and copper concentrations. Resultant concentration data were used to produce mass balances, an approach thus far unused in such studies. This novel analysis revealed new patterns of mobility and distribution of the elements in the system. The results suggest that CCA wood waste tends to leach on initial exposure to a leachant and during weathering of the wood. When in contact with soil, metal(loid) transport is reduced due to complexation reactions. With higher water application or where the adsorption capacity of the soil is exceeded, the metal(loid)s are transported through the soil column as leachate. Overall, there was an unexplained loss of metal(loid)s from the system that might be attributed to volatilisation of arsenic and plant uptake. This suggests a hitherto unidentified risk to both the environment and human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization mixtures of thick gypsum with addition of treated waste from laminated plasterboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Orejón, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available nvironmental protection involves the reuse of construction and demolition waste. In order to improve recycling, waste from laminated plasterboards is used in the cement and laminated gypsum boards manufacture.This article analyzes the use of ground and burnt laminated plasterboard (BLG waste mixed with thick gypsum (TG. Physical-mechanical characterization of superficial hardness and mechanical strength has been performed on different batches of plaster powder materials with different BLG waste particle sizes to determine its suitability. Coarse particle sizes were preferred in order to reduce the waste treatment. From all the mixtures studied, the one with the best results was TG + 5% BLG1.25 which forms a material of higher superficial hardness and strength. The results obtained in the study have proved suitable products for building use (both as renders and as prefabricated elements enabling for a reduction in the consumption of natural resources.La protección del medio ambiente implica la reutilización de los residuos de construcción y demolición. Los residuos de placas de yeso laminado se utilizan en la fabricación de cemento y de placas de yeso laminado. En este artículo se ha estudiado la utilización deresiduos de placa de yeso laminado cocido (YLC mezclado con yeso grueso (YG, realizándose la caracterización físico-mecánica de dureza superficial y resistencias mecánicas, para determinar su idoneidad formando materiales de yeso en polvo con distintas granulometrías de residuos de (YLC, teniendo preferencia por granulometrías gruesas, que reducen el tratamiento del residuo. De las mezclas estudiadas la que mejores resultados ha ofrecido es YG + 5%YLC1,25 formando un material de mayor dureza superficial y resistencia. De los resultados obtenidos en el estudio se puede afirmar que se han conseguido productos aptos para su utilización en edificación posibilitando una reducción del consumo de recursos naturales.

  6. Economic and environmental sustainability of an AnMBR treating urban wastewater and organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretel, R; Moñino, P; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic and environmental sustainability of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating urban wastewater (UWW) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at ambient temperature in mild/hot climates. To this aim, power requirements, energy recovery from methane (biogas methane and methane dissolved in the effluent), consumption of reagents for membrane cleaning, and sludge handling (polyelectrolyte and energy consumption) and disposal (farmland, landfilling and incineration) were evaluated within different operating scenarios. Results showed that, for the operating conditions considered in this study, AnMBR technology is likely to be a net energy producer, resulting in considerable cost savings (up to €0.023 per m(3) of treated water) when treating low-sulphate influent. Life cycle analysis (LCA) results revealed that operating at high sludge retention times (70 days) and treating UWW jointly with OFMSW enhances the overall environmental performance of AnMBR technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Heat-treated Clay Minerals in the Context of Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo, E. N.; Wang, Y.; Kruichak, J. N.; Mills, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Clay minerals are likely candidates to aid in nuclear waste isolation due to their low permeability, favorable swelling properties, and high cation sorption capacities. Establishing the thermal limit for clay minerals in a nuclear waste repository is a potentially important component of repository design, as flexibility of the heat load within the repository can have a major impact on the selection of repository design. For example, the thermal limit plays a critical role in the time that waste packages would need to cool before being transferred to the repository. Understanding the chemical and physical changes, if any, that occur in clay minerals at various temperatures above the current thermal limit (of 100 °C) can enable decision-makers with information critical to evaluating the potential trade-offs of increasing the thermal limit within the repository. Most critical is gaining understanding of how varying thermal conditions in the repository will impact radionuclide sorption and transport in clay materials either as engineered barriers or as disposal media. A variety of repository-relevant clay minerals (illite, mixed layer illite/smectite, and montmorillonite), were heated for a range of temperatures between 100-1000 °C. These samples were characterized to determine surface area, mineralogical alteration, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Our results show that for conditions up to 500 °C, no significant change occurs, so long as the clay mineral remains mineralogically intact. At temperatures above 500 °C, transformation of the layered silicates into silica phases leads to alteration that impacts important clay characteristics. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's Nation Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND Number: SAND2015-6524 A

  8. Evaluation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for absorbers used to treat liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.; Stamberg, K.

    1995-11-01

    The chemical and radiation stability of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in the form of beads (B-PAN), similar to the beads of composite absorbers, and one selected composite absorber (ammonium molybdophosphate, the active component in PAN binder [AMP-PAN], a prospective candidate for the treatment of acidic wastes) were studied. Aqueous 1M HNO 3 + 1M NaNO 3 , 1M NaOH + 1M NaNO 3 , and 1M NaOH were chosen as simulants of DOE acidic and alkaline wastes. In addition,radiation stability was determined indistilled water. The chemical stability of B-PAN and AMP-PAN beads was tested for a period up to one month of contact with the solution at ambient temperature. The radiation stability of the beads was checked in a radiation dose range 10 3 --10 6 Gy (10 5 --10 8 rads). In acidic solutions the stability of PAN binder was proved not to be limited by either chemical or radiation decomposition. PAN binder may thus be used for preparing composite absorbers for treatment of acid wastes from DOE facilities. The same conclusion is valid for alkaline solutions with pH up to 13. In highly alkaline solutions (concentration of NAOH higher than I M) and in the presence of NaNO 3 , the stability of the tested polyacrylonitrile polymer was sufficient for applications not extending over 10 days. Cross-linking of the polymer caused by ionizing radiation was found to have a positive influence on chemical stability. This effect enables a longer period of applicability of PAN-based composite absorbers. Because of the high sorption rate achievable with PAN-based absorbers, the stability achieved is sufficient for most applications in the DOE complex. The chemical stability of binding polymer may also be further improved by testing another, more suitable type of polymer from the broad family of polyacrylonitrile polymers

  9. Treating waste waters produced by coffee pulping plants in Cuba; Depuracion de las aguas residuales producidas en las plantas despulpadoras de cafe en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, Y.; Martinez Luzardo, F.; Sorinas, L.; Ricardo, H. [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnologia Nucleares. La Habana. Cuba (Cuba)

    2000-07-01

    Waste waters from the wet pulping of coffee are a major source of contamination in the coffee-growing of coffee-producing countries. The coffee industry is regarded as one of the most contaminating in the areas where the coffee wet-processing facilities are located. At the present time, the such facilities damp their waste into oxidation lagoons or straight into the nearest rivers and storm drains without any prior threatment or following treatments which are inefficient and incapable of removing the highly toxic organic compounds this waste contains. This article reports on an analysis of the technologies studied for treating these waste waters and evaluates the different treatments and other factors to be taken into consideration in this regard. Finally it describes a physico-chemical technology for treating the waste waters from the coffee wet-processing plants that employs sedimentation as the primary treatment. An overall description is given of a pilot plant able to treat a waste flow of m3/hour. The effectiveness of the process in eliminating contaminating organic loads presents in the waste waters is analysed. (Author) 17 refs.

  10. New strains of oil-degrading microorganisms for treating contaminated soils and wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratova, A. Yu; Panchenko, L. V.; Semina, D. V.; Golubev, S. N.; Turkovskaya, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Two new strains Achromobacter marplatensis101n and Acinetobacter sp. S-33, capable of degrading 49 and 46% of oil within 7 days were isolated, identified, and characterized. The application of A. marplatensis 101n in combination with ammonium nitrate (100 mg·kg-1) for 30 days of cultivation resulted in the degradation of 49% of the initial total petroleum hydrocarbon content (274 g·kg-1) in the original highly acid (pH 4.9) oil-contaminated waste. Up to 30% of oil sludge added to a liquid mineral medium at a concentration of 15% was degraded after 10 days of cultivation of A. marplatensis 101n. Application of yellow alfalfa (Medicago falcata L.) plants with Acinetobacter sp. S-33 for bioremediation of oil-sludge-contaminated soil improved the quality of cleanup in comparison with the bacterium- or plant-only treatment. Inoculation of Acinetobacter sp. S-33 increased the growth of both roots and shoots by more than 40%, and positively influenced the soil microflora. We conclude that the new oil-degrading strains, Acinetobacter sp. S-33 and A. marplatensis 101n, can serve as the basis for new bioremediation agents for the treatment of oil contaminated soils and waste.

  11. Production of bioethanol from pre-treated cotton fabrics and waste cotton materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Svetlana; Lazić, Vesna; Veljović, Đorđe; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2017-05-15

    This study highlights the potential of cotton fabric as a promising feedstock for the production of bioethanol as renewable biofuel. The effect of corona pre-treatment of non-mercerized and mercerized cotton fabrics on glucose and ethanol yield is discussed. Fermentation kinetics for ethanol production and the basic process parameters were assessed and compared. Corona pre-treatment of cotton fabrics led to an increase in the glucose yield (compared to control sample) during enzymatic hydrolysis, and consequently the ethanol yield during fermentation by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus. The system with mercerized cotton fabric was found to be superior obtaining an ethanol productivity of 0.900g/Lh and ethanol yield of 0.94g/g (based on glucose) after 6h of fermentation time. The similar results were obtained during processing of waste cotton materials performed under the same process conditions. The obtained results showed that cotton fabric could become an alternative feedstock for the bioethanol production. For potential industrial implementation the waste mercerized cotton scraps would be the materials of choice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of cellulose nanoparticles from blue agave waste treated with environmentally friendly processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Eduardo; Fernández-Rodríguez, Javier; Barbosa, Ananda M; Gordobil, Oihana; Carreño, Neftali L V; Labidi, Jalel

    2018-03-01

    Tequila elaboration leaves two main byproducts that are undervalued (bagasse and leaves). Organosolv pulping and Total Chlorine Free bleaching were integrated to obtain cellulose fibers from agricultural waste which consisted of blue agave bagasse and leaf fibers; together they represent a green process which valorizes biomass waste. The obtained celluloses were characterized by FT-IR, colorimetry, and SEM and their extraction yields were evaluated. These celluloses were used to produce cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibers. First, an acid hydrolysis was performed in a sonication bath to induce cavitation during the reaction to produce cellulose nanocrystals. Then a high-pressure homogenization was selected to produce cellulose nanofibers. These nanocelluloses were characterized by powder XRD, Nanosizer, zeta potential, NMR, and electronic microscopy. Results showed that cellulose from organosolv pulps bleached with TCF bleaching is suitable for nanocellulose production. Moreover, the use of a new step to separate cellulose nanocrystals resulted in yields almost doubling traditional yields, while the rest of the properties remained within the expected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The potential of Pleurotus-treated olive mill solid waste as cattle feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtay, Ariel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Eitam, Harel; Brosh, Arieh; Orlov, Alla; Tadmor, Yaakov; Izhaki, Ido; Kerem, Zohar

    2009-12-01

    The aims of the current study were to follow: (1) the capability of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade cell wall components and soluble phenols of the olive mill solid waste (OMSW), and improve it for ruminant nutrition (2) the fate of oil and the lipid-soluble compounds tocopherols, squalene and beta-sitosterol in the fermented OMSW. A significant decrease in oil and lipid-soluble compounds with a concomitant shift in the fatty acid profile and degradation of soluble phenols took place already after 14 d. The utilization of lipids by the fungus shifted the degradation of the structural carbohydrates to a later stage, and significantly reduced the metabolizable energy of the OMSW. We propose that edible fungi with reduced lipase activity would preserve the energy and health promoting ingredients of the oil, and force the fungus to degrade structural carbohydrates, thus improving its digestibility.

  14. The technology and economics of treating waste water with electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation from electron beam accelerators is considered in this paper for the disinfection of waste water. Combinations of radiation with oxygen, chlorine, heat and retention media are discussed as possible methods to reduce the dosage requirements and the treatment costs. The production of ozone by the irradiation of oxygen is also evaluated as an alternative method of using this form of energy. The capital and operating costs for large electron beam facilities are analyzed to show the favorable trends with rising power levels. Cost comparisons between 'conventional' disinfection processes and two radiation processes are presented and discussed. The results of these cost analyses support the premise that electron beam radiation should be evaluated as a likely competitor to ozonation or carbon filtration for large sewage treatment plants. (orig.) [de

  15. The technology and economics of treating waste water with electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation from electron beam accelerators is considered in this paper for the disinfection of waste water. Combinations of radiation with oxygen, chlorine, heat and retention media are discussed as possible methods to reduce the dosage requirements and the treatment costs. The production of ozone by the irradiation of oxygen is also evaluated as an alternative method of using this form of energy. The capital and operating costs for large electron beam facilities are analyzed to show the favorable trends with rising power levels. Cost comparisons between conventional disinfection processes and two radiation processes are presented and discussed. The results of these cost analyses support the premise that electron beam radiation should be evaluated as a likely competitor to ozonation or carbon filtration for large sewage treatment plants. (author)

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in activated carbons prepared from hydrothermally treated waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wenming; Björkman, Eva; Yun, Yifeng; Lilliestråle, Malte; Hedin, Niklas

    2014-03-01

    Particles of iron oxide (Fe3O4 ; 20–40 nm) were embedded within activated carbons during the activation of hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biomasses in a flow of CO2. Four different HTC biomass samples (horse manure, grass cuttings, beer production waste, and biosludge) were used as precursors for the activated carbons. Nanoparticles of iron oxide formed from iron catalyst included in the HTC biomasses. After systematic optimization, the activated carbons had specific surface areas of about 800 m2g1. The pore size distributions of the activated carbons depended strongly on the degree of carbonization of the precursors. Activated carbons prepared from highly carbonized precursors had mainly micropores, whereas those prepared from less carbonized precursors contained mainly mesopores. Given the strong magnetism of the activated carbon–nano-Fe3O4 composites, they could be particularly useful for water purification.

  17. Sampling and Analysis Plan for N-Springs ERA pump-and-treat waste media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovich, M.T.

    1996-07-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan details the administrative procedures to be used to conduct sampling activities for characterization of spent ion-exchange resin, clinoptilolite, generated from the N-Springs pump-and-treat expedited response action. N-Springs (riverbank seeps) is located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site. Groundwater contained in the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit is contaminated with various radionuclides derived from wastewater disposal practices and spills associated with 100-N Reactor Operations

  18. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and surrounding contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  19. Retention of contaminants in northern natural peatlands treating mine waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn

    2014-05-01

    The mining industry in Finland is growing, leading to an increasing number of working and proposed mine sites. As a consequence, the amount of mine waste waters created is likewise increasing. This poses a great challenge for water management and purification, as these mine waste waters can lead to severe environmental and health consequences when released to receiving water bodies untreated. In the past years, the use of natural peatlands for cost-effective passive waste water treatment has been increasing. In this study, the fate of mine water contaminants in a treatment peatland receiving process waters from the Kittilä gold mine was investigated. Special attention was paid to the fate of potentially harmful substances such as arsenic, antimony or nickel. During the 4 years of operation, the peatland removed contaminants from process waters at varying efficiencies. While arsenic, antimony and nickel were retained at high efficiencies (>80% retention), other contaminants such as zinc, sulfate or iron were not retained or even leaching from the peatland. Soil samples taken in 2013 showed a linear increase of arsenic, antimony and nickel concentration in the peatland as compared to earlier sampling times, in agreement with the good retention efficiencies for those contaminants. Measured concentrations exceeded guideline values for contaminated soils, indicating that the prolonged use of treatment peatlands leads to high soil contamination and restrict further uses of the peatlands without remediation measures. Soil and pore water samples were taken along a transect with varying distance from the process water distribution ditch and analyzed for total and more easily mobile concentrations of contaminants (peat soil) as well as total and dissolved contaminants (water samples). Concentrations of contaminants such as arsenic, manganese or antimony in peat and pore water samples were highest near the distribution ditch and decreased with increasing distance from the

  20. Biomethane Production as an Alternative Bioenergy Source from Codigesters Treating Municipal Sludge and Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Evren Ersahin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery potential of a mesophilic co-digester treating OFMSW and primary sludge at an integrated biomethanization plant was investigated based on feasibility study results. Since landfilling is still the main solid waste disposal method in Turkey, land scarcity will become one of the most important obstacles. Restrictions for biodegradable waste disposal to sanitary landfills in EU Landfill Directive and uncontrolled long-term contamination with gas emissions and leachate necessitate alternative management strategies due to rapid increase in MSW production. Moreover, since energy contribution from renewable resources will be required more in the future with increasing oil prices and dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources, the significance of biogas as a renewable fuel has been increased in the last decade. Results indicated that almost 93% of annual total cost can be recovered if 100% renewable energy subsidy is implemented. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 26 heavy good vehicles or 549 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed biomethanization plant (PE = 100,000; XPS = 61 g TS/PE⋅day; XSS-OFMSW=50 g TS/PE⋅day.

  1. Evaluation of the 5 and 8 pH point titration methods for monitoring anaerobic digesters treating solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannecke, T P W; Lampens, D R A; Ekama, G A; Volcke, E I P

    2015-01-01

    Simple titration methods certainly deserve consideration for on-site routine monitoring of volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and alkalinity during anaerobic digestion (AD), because of their simplicity, speed and cost-effectiveness. In this study, the 5 and 8 pH point titration methods for measuring the VFA concentration and carbonate system alkalinity (H2CO3*-alkalinity) were assessed and compared. For this purpose, synthetic solutions with known H2CO3*-alkalinity and VFA concentration as well as samples from anaerobic digesters treating three different kind of solid wastes were analysed. The results of these two related titration methods were verified with photometric and high-pressure liquid chromatography measurements. It was shown that photometric measurements lead to overestimations of the VFA concentration in the case of coloured samples. In contrast, the 5 pH point titration method provides an accurate estimation of the VFA concentration, clearly corresponding with the true value. Concerning the H2CO3*-alkalinity, the most accurate and precise estimations, showing very similar results for repeated measurements, were obtained using the 8 pH point titration. Overall, it was concluded that the 5 pH point titration method is the preferred method for the practical monitoring of AD of solid wastes due to its robustness, cost efficiency and user-friendliness.

  2. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies for sorption of Ni (II from aqueous solution using formaldehyde treated waste tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Shah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sorption characteristic of Ni (II from aqueous solution using formaldehyde treated waste tea leaves as a low cost sorbent has been studied. The effect of pH, contact time, sorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated in batch experiments. The equilibrium data were fitted into four most common isotherm models; Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R. The Langmuir model described the sorption isotherm best with maximum monolayer sorption capacity of 120.50 mg g−1. Four kinetic models, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion and Elovich were employed to explain the sorption mechanism. The kinetics of sorption data showed that the pseudo-second-order model is the best with correlation coefficient of 0.9946. The spontaneous and exothermic nature of the sorption process was revealed from thermodynamic investigations. The effect of some common alkali and alkaline earth metal ions were also studied which showed that the presence of these ions have no effect on the sorption of Ni (II. The results showed that waste tea leaves have the potential to be used as a low cost sorbent for the removal of Ni (II from aqueous solutions.

  3. Self-healing anticorrosive organic coating based on an encapsulated water reactive silyl ester: synthesis and proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, S.J.; Fischer, H.R.; White, P.A.; Mardel, J.; González-García, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Hughes, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a self-healing anticorrosive organic coating based on an encapsulated water reactive organic agent is presented. A reactive silyl ester is proposed as a new organic reactive healing agent and its synthesis, performance, incorporation into an organic coating and evaluation of

  4. Approaches for treating uncertainty in the long term performance assessment of a geological waste repository in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, J.; Volckaert, G.; Wemaere, I.; Mallants, D.

    1998-01-01

    In Belgium the current strategy for high-level waste disposal is the geological disposal in a plastic clay layer. The performance assessment approach consists of a systematic scenario selection based on the FEP (features, events and processes) methodology followed by consequence analyses for the selected scenarios. In these consequence analyses the different sources of uncertainty are systematically considered. For the normal evolution scenario, i.e. the scenario which includes all FEP's which are about certain to occur, a stochastic technique of the Monte Carlo type is applied for treating uncertainty. For the altered evolution scenarios a deterministic approach is generally used to evaluate the uncertainties on the long-term. In the case of altered evolution scenarios, comparisons of fluxes from the far field into the biosphere with those calculated for the normal evolution scenario are used, beside dose calculations, to evaluate the safety consequences. Some typical examples of the above approaches will be presented. (author)

  5. Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.

  6. Long-term performance of aged waste forms treated by stabilization/solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antemir, Aurora; Hills, Colin D.; Carey, Paula J.; Gardner, Kevin H.; Bates, Edward R.; Crumbie, Alison K.

    2010-01-01

    Current regulatory testing of stabilized/solidified (S/S) soils is based on short-term performance tests and is insufficient to determine their long-term stability or expected service life. In view of this, and the significant lack of data on long-term field performance in the literature, S/S material has been extracted from full-scale remedial operations and examined using a variety of analytical techniques to evaluate field performance. The results, including those from X-ray analytical techniques, optical and electron microscopy and leaching tests are presented and discussed. The microstructure of retrieved samples was found to be analogous to other cement-based materials, but varied according to the soil type, the contaminants present, the treatment applied and the field exposure conditions. Summary of the key microstructural features in the USA and UK is presented in this work. The work has shown that during 16 years of service the S/S wastes investigated performed satisfactorily.

  7. Aluminothermic reduction of Cr2O3 contained in the ash of thermally treated leather waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Wenzel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the viability of utilising ashes with high chromium oxide content, obtained by thermal treatment of footwear leather waste, in the production of low-carbon ferrochromium alloy (Fe-Cr-LC by aluminothermic reduction was investigated. The following key-factors were selected for process modelling: the quantity of aluminium (Al employed in the reaction, the iron amount added, the iron compound (Fe and/or Fe2O3 used, and the chromic acid addition. The process was investigated using a 2(4 full factorial design where the percentage of Cr2O3 reduced was used as the response. Variance analysis was employed to determine the significant effects and to validate the obtained model. The model was useful for finding the optimal operating conditions, including the maximisation of chromium conversion and the gross margin. Both resulted in similar process conditions, with 76.8±12.3% of chromium being reduced to the metallic phase, and 1.65±0.52 USD (kg ash-1 as the gross margin. The qualities of some alloys obtained were investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (SEM/EDS. The results showed that the main problem for these alloys in a standard specification was the P and S content, suggesting that a pre-treatment is required.

  8. Archaea and Bacteria Acclimate to High Total Ammonia in a Methanogenic Reactor Treating Swine Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition by ammonium at concentrations above 1000 mgN/L is known to harm the methanogenesis phase of anaerobic digestion. We anaerobically digested swine waste and achieved steady state COD-removal efficiency of around 52% with no fatty-acid or H2 accumulation. As the anaerobic microbial community adapted to the gradual increase of total ammonia-N (NH3-N from 890±295 to 2040±30 mg/L, the Bacterial and Archaeal communities became less diverse. Phylotypes most closely related to hydrogenotrophic Methanoculleus (36.4% and Methanobrevibacter (11.6%, along with acetoclastic Methanosaeta (29.3%, became the most abundant Archaeal sequences during acclimation. This was accompanied by a sharp increase in the relative abundances of phylotypes most closely related to acetogens and fatty-acid producers (Clostridium, Coprococcus, and Sphaerochaeta and syntrophic fatty-acid Bacteria (Syntrophomonas, Clostridium, Clostridiaceae species, and Cloacamonaceae species that have metabolic capabilities for butyrate and propionate fermentation, as well as for reverse acetogenesis. Our results provide evidence countering a prevailing theory that acetoclastic methanogens are selectively inhibited when the total ammonia-N concentration is greater than ~1000 mgN/L. Instead, acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens coexisted in the presence of total ammonia-N of ~2000 mgN/L by establishing syntrophic relationships with fatty-acid fermenters, as well as homoacetogens able to carry out forward and reverse acetogenesis.

  9. Optimization of micro-aeration intensity in acidogenic reactor of a two-phase anaerobic digester treating food waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Suyun [Department of Environmental and Low-Carbon Science, School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Selvam, Ammaiyappan [Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Wong, Jonathan W.C., E-mail: jwcwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of micro-aeration on acidogenesis and hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. • Micro-aeration at 258 L-air/kg TS/d increased the VFAs production 3-fold. • High aeration leads to loss of substrate through microbial biomass and respiration. • Optimum aeration increased methane recovery while high aeration intensity reduced methane yield. - Abstract: Micro-aeration is known to promote the activities of hydrolytic exo-enzymes and used as a strategy to improve the hydrolysis of particulate substrate. The effect of different micro-aeration rates, 0, 129, 258, and 387 L-air/kg TS/d (denoted as LBR-AN, LBR-6h, LBR-3h and LBR-2h, respectively) on the solubilization of food waste was evaluated at 35 °C in four leach bed reactors (LBR) coupled with methanogenic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Results indicate that the intensity of micro-aeration influenced the hydrolysis and methane yield. Adequate micro-aeration intensity in LBR-3h and LBR-2h significantly enhanced the carbohydrate and protein hydrolysis by 21–27% and 38–64% respectively. Due to the accelerated acidogenesis, more than 3-fold of acetic acid and butyric acid were produced in LBR-3h as compared to the anaerobic treatment LBR-AN resulting in the maximum methane yield of 0.27 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} in the UASB. The performance of LBR-6h with inadequate aeration was similar to that of LBR-AN with a comparable hydrolysis degree. Nevertheless, higher aeration intensity in LBR-2h was also unfavorable for methane yield due to significant biomass generation and CO{sub 2} respiration of up to 18.5% and 32.8% of the total soluble hydrolysate, respectively. To conclude, appropriate micro-aeration rate can promote the hydrolysis of solid organic waste and methane yield without undesirable carbon loss and an aeration intensity of 258 L-air/kg TS/d is recommended for acidogenic LBR treating food waste.

  10. Optimization of micro-aeration intensity in acidogenic reactor of a two-phase anaerobic digester treating food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Suyun; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of micro-aeration on acidogenesis and hydrolysis of food waste was investigated. • Micro-aeration at 258 L-air/kg TS/d increased the VFAs production 3-fold. • High aeration leads to loss of substrate through microbial biomass and respiration. • Optimum aeration increased methane recovery while high aeration intensity reduced methane yield. - Abstract: Micro-aeration is known to promote the activities of hydrolytic exo-enzymes and used as a strategy to improve the hydrolysis of particulate substrate. The effect of different micro-aeration rates, 0, 129, 258, and 387 L-air/kg TS/d (denoted as LBR-AN, LBR-6h, LBR-3h and LBR-2h, respectively) on the solubilization of food waste was evaluated at 35 °C in four leach bed reactors (LBR) coupled with methanogenic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Results indicate that the intensity of micro-aeration influenced the hydrolysis and methane yield. Adequate micro-aeration intensity in LBR-3h and LBR-2h significantly enhanced the carbohydrate and protein hydrolysis by 21–27% and 38–64% respectively. Due to the accelerated acidogenesis, more than 3-fold of acetic acid and butyric acid were produced in LBR-3h as compared to the anaerobic treatment LBR-AN resulting in the maximum methane yield of 0.27 L CH 4 /g VS added in the UASB. The performance of LBR-6h with inadequate aeration was similar to that of LBR-AN with a comparable hydrolysis degree. Nevertheless, higher aeration intensity in LBR-2h was also unfavorable for methane yield due to significant biomass generation and CO 2 respiration of up to 18.5% and 32.8% of the total soluble hydrolysate, respectively. To conclude, appropriate micro-aeration rate can promote the hydrolysis of solid organic waste and methane yield without undesirable carbon loss and an aeration intensity of 258 L-air/kg TS/d is recommended for acidogenic LBR treating food waste

  11. Water reduction by constructed wetlands treating waste landfill leachate in a tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yuka; Ishigaki, Tomonori; Ebie, Yoshitaka; Sutthasil, Noppharit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Yamada, Masato

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges in landfill leachate management is the prevention of environmental pollution by the overflow of untreated leachate. To evaluate the feasibility of constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of waste landfill leachate in tropical regions, water reduction and pollutant removal by a CW subjected to different flow patterns (i.e., horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) and free water surface (FWS)) were examined in both rainy and dry seasons in Thailand. A pilot-scale CW planted with cattail was installed at a landfill site in Thailand. With HSSF, the CW substantially removed pollutants from the landfill leachate without the need to harvest plants, whereas with FWS, it only slightly removed pollutants. Under both flow patterns, the CW significantly reduced the leachate volume to a greater extent than surface evaporation, which is regarded as an effect of the storage pond. Additionally, water reduction occurred regardless of season and precipitation, within the range 0-9 mm d(-1). In the case of low feeding frequency, water reduction by the CW with HSSF was lower than that with FWS. However, high feeding frequency improved water reduction by the CW with HSSF and resulted in a similar reduction to that observed with FWS, which exhibited maximum evapotranspiration. In terms of water reduction, with both HSSF in conjunction with high frequency feeding and FWS, the CW provided a high degree of evapotranspiration. However, pollutant removal efficiencies with HSSF were higher than for FWS. The present study suggested that CWs with HSSF and high frequency feeding could be useful for the prevention of uncontrollable dispersion of polluted leachate in the tropical climate zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased bioavailability of metals in two contrasting agricultural soils treated with waste wood-derived biochar and ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, P; Quilliam, R S; Deluca, T H; Vamerali, T; Jones, D L

    2014-03-01

    Recycled waste wood is being increasingly used for energy production; however, organic and metal contaminants in by-products produced from the combustion/pyrolysis residue may pose a significant environmental risk if they are disposed of to land. Here we conducted a study to evaluate if highly polluted biochar (from pyrolysis) and ash (from incineration) derived from Cu-based preservative-treated wood led to different metal (e.g., Cu, As, Ni, Cd, Pb, and Zn) bioavailability and accumulation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In a pot experiment, biochar at a common rate of 2 % w/w, corresponding to ∼50 t ha(-1), and an equivalent pre-combustion dose of wood ash (0.2 % w/w) were added to a Eutric Cambisol (pH 6.02) and a Haplic Podzol (pH 4.95), respectively. Both amendments initially raised soil pH, although this effect was relatively short-term, with pH returning close to the unamended control within about 7 weeks. The addition of both amendments resulted in an exceedance of soil Cu statutory limit, together with a significant increase of Cu and plant nutrient (e.g., K) bioavailability. The metal-sorbing capacity of the biochar, and the temporary increase in soil pH caused by adding the ash and biochar were insufficient to offset the amount of free metal released into solution. Sunflower plants were negatively affected by the addition of metal-treated wood-derived biochar and led to elevated concentration of metals in plant tissue, and reduced above- and below-ground biomass, while sunflower did not grow at all in the Haplic Podzol. Biochar and ash derived from wood treated with Cu-based preservatives can lead to extremely high Cu concentrations in soil and negatively affect plant growth. Identifying sources of contaminated wood in waste stream feedstocks is crucial before large-scale application of biochar or wood ash to soil is considered.

  13. USING THE SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS TO TREAT RESIDUAL MERCURY WASTES FROM GOLD MINING OPERATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERMAN,B.ADAMS,J.KALB,P.WAN,R.Y.LEVIER,M.

    2003-02-24

    Large quantities of mercury are generated as a by-product during the processing of gold ore following mining operations. Newmont Mining Corporation (NMC), which operates some of the world's largest gold mines, sought a method to permanently ''retire'' its mercury by-products, thereby avoiding potential environmental liability. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization-Solidification (SPSS) is an innovative technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated materials, such as soil, sludge and debris. BNL conducted a treatability study to determine the potential applicability of SPSS for treatment of Newmont mercury, and the treated product passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test for toxicity. The SPSS process has been shown to be effective on radioactive and nonradioactive mercury and mercury-contaminated materials with a pilot-scale batch system capable of producing 0.03 m{sup 3} (1 ft{sup 3}) per batch. Engineering scale-up issues are discussed and material property tests addressing these issues are described.

  14. Biotic and abiotic processes contribute to successful anaerobic degradation of cyanide by UASB reactor biomass treating brewery waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Domen; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Pirc, Elizabeta Tratar; Jerman, Vesna; Insam, Heribert; Logar, Romana Marinšek; Stres, Blaž

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to the general aerobic detoxification of industrial effluents containing cyanide, anaerobic cyanide degradation is not well understood, including the microbial communities involved. To address this knowledge gap, this study measured anaerobic cyanide degradation and the rearrangements in bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor biomass treating brewery waste water using bio-methane potential assays, molecular profiling, sequencing and microarray approaches. Successful biogas formation and cyanide removal without inhibition were observed at cyanide concentrations up to 5 mg l(-1). At 8.5 mg l(-1) cyanide, there was a 22 day lag phase in microbial activity, but subsequent methane production rates were equivalent to when 5 mg l(-1) was used. The higher cumulative methane production in cyanide-amended samples indicated that part of the biogas was derived from cyanide degradation. Anaerobic degradation of cyanide using autoclaved UASB biomass proceeded at a rate more than two times lower than when UASB biomass was not autoclaved, indicating that anaerobic cyanide degradation was in fact a combination of simultaneous abiotic and biotic processes. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes for the first time identified and linked the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal genus Methanosarcina sp. as important microbial groups involved in cyanide degradation. Methanogenic activity of unadapted granulated biomass was detected at higher cyanide concentrations than reported previously for the unadapted suspended biomass, making the aggregated structure and predominantly hydrogenotrophic nature of methanogenic community important features in cyanide degradation. The combination of brewery waste water and cyanide substrate was thus shown to be of high interest for industrial level anaerobic cyanide degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of different extracting solutions on the electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated wood waste Part I. - Behaviour of Cu and Cr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, E.; Ribeiro, A. B.; Mateus, E.

    2004-01-01

    Removal of Cu and Cr from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste under batch electrodialytic conditions was studied. The effect of different types of extracting solutions, such as deionised water or aqueous solutions of NaCl, formic acid, oxalic acid, and EDTA, on the magnitude and di...

  16. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative for the European Union member countries were considered. For AD, biogas utilisation with a biogas engine was considered and two potential situations investigated - biogas combustion with (1) combined heat and power production (CHP) and (2) electricity production only. For incineration, four technology options currently available in Europe were covered: (1) an average incinerator with CHP production, (2) an average incinerator with mainly electricity production, (3) an average incinerator with mainly heat production and (4) a state-of-the art incinerator with CHP working at high energy recovery efficiencies. The study was performed using a life cycle assessment in its consequential approach. Furthermore, the role of waste-sorting guidelines (defined by the material fractions allowed for SSOHW) in relation to GWP of treating overall SSOHW with AD was investigated. A case-study of treating 1tonne of SSOHW under framework conditions in Denmark was conducted. Under the given assumptions, vegetable food waste was the only material fraction which was always better for AD compared to incineration. For animal food waste, kitchen tissue, vegetation waste and dirty paper, AD utilisation was better unless it was compared to a highly efficient incinerator. Material fractions such as moulded fibres and dirty cardboard were attractive for AD, albeit only when AD with CHP and incineration with mainly heat production were compared. Animal straw, in contrast, was always better to incinerate. Considering the total amounts of individual material fractions in waste generated within households in Denmark, food waste (both animal and vegetable derived) and kitchen tissue are the main material

  17. Development of biofilters to treat the pesticides wastes from spraying applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, O; de Vleeschouwer, C; Cors, F; Weickmans, B; de Ryckel, B; Pussemier, L; Debongnie, Ph; Culot, M

    2005-01-01

    Several studies carried out in Europe showed the importance of direct losses to the contamination of surface water by pesticides. These pesticides losses can occur at the farm site when the sprayer equipment is filled with the pesticide formulation (spills, overflowing, leaking) and during the clean-up (rinsing) of the sprayer after the treatment. In Belgium studies are carried out on biofilters to treat in an efficient way effluents containing pesticides. The biofilter substrate is elaborated from a homogenised mixture of local soil, chopped straw and peat or composted material, able to absorb or degrade the active substances. Biofilters consist in systems of 2 or 3 units depending on the spray equipment of the farmer and on the configuration of the farmyard. Each unit is made from a 1 m3 plastic container and the different units are stacked in a vertical pile and connected between them using plastic valves and pipes. Eight pilot systems were installed in March 2002 in seven farms and in one agricultural school, all selected in the loamy region of Belgium specialised in arable crops such as cereals, sugar beets and vegetables. The efficacy (yield) of the systems was determined by measuring the balance of the inputs and outputs of the pesticides. Results were expressed in percent of pesticide retained on the biofilters. The results obtained after two years with 5 tracer pesticides (atrazine, carbofuran, diuron, lenacil and simazine) brought on the biofilter installations are very satisfactory since the percentage of retention is generally higher than 95% of the amount applied. In the beginning of 2004, ten new pilot biofilters were installed in several farms or agricultural technical centres (producing cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables, fruits or ornamental plants), and in a municipal maintenance service. Some biofilters were installed in duplicate in order to compare the efficacy of different substrates. The efficacy of the biofilters was studied for the

  18. Study of factors involved in the gravimetric separation process to treat soil contaminated by municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouedhen, Ikbel; Coudert, Lucie; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy

    2018-03-01

    The current research investigated the effectiveness of a gravimetric process (shaking table) to treat soil contaminated by municipal solid waste. A detailed characterization of the inorganic pollutants was performed, followed by concentrating the metals within smaller volumes using the shaking table technology. The densimetric examination of the 1-2 mm and 0.250-1 mm fractions of the contaminated soil showed that lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and tin (Sn) were mostly concentrated in the heavy fraction (metal removals > 50%). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with elemental analysis indicated the relevance of using gravimetric processes to treat this soil sample. The influence of shaking table parameters was determined using a Box-Behnken design. The tilt and washing water flow demonstrated significant effects on the motion of the 1-2 mm soil fraction and on the removal of Pb, Cu, and Sn. The results obtained under the optimal settings of the shaking table defined using the Box-Behnken methodology when treating the 1-2 mm fraction were close to those obtained when using dense media separation. The recovered mass of the concentrate was approximately 20.8% (w.w -1 ) of the total mass. The removals of Pb, Cu, and Sn were estimated to be 67.3%, 54.5% and 54.6% respectively. The predicted and experimental mass distributions of the medium (1-2 mm) and fine-sized (0.250-1 mm) particles were compared successively under some selected conditions. The mass distribution of both fractions showed similar tendencies in response to the forces applied by each condition. However, lowering the forces induced by the bumping action and the flowing film was recommended so as to efficiently treat the fine fraction (0.250-1 mm). The recovered mass of the concentrate (10%) was slightly lower than that obtained by dense media separation (13%). However, satisfactory removal yields were obtained for Pb, Cu, and Sn (42.7%, 23.6%, and 35% respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. An example of treated waste water use for soil irrigation in the SAFIR project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, L.; Jovanovic, Z.; Stikic, R.; Blagojevic, S.; Kloppmann, W.

    2009-04-01

    The safe use of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation needs to address the risks for humans (workers, exposed via contact with irrigation water, soil, crops and food, consumers, exposed via ingestion of fresh and processed food), for animals (via ingestion of crops on soil), for the crops and agricultural productivity (via salinity and trace element uptake), for soil (via accumulation or release of pollutants) as well as for surface, groundwaters and the associated ecosystems (via runoff and infiltration, Kass et al., 2005, Bouwer, 2000). In this context, the European FP6 SAFIR project (Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management) investigates the geochemical quality of the root zone soil, knowing it is the main transit and storage compartment for pollutants. The type of reaction (sorption, co-precipitation…) and the reactive mineral phases also determine the availability of trace elements for the plant and determine the passage towards crops and products. Reactions of the infiltrating water with the soil solid phase are important for the solute cycling, temporary fixation and remobilisation of trace pollutants. Therefore the soil water quality was directly or indirectly assessed. Direct measurements of soil water were made through porous cups. The experiments were carried out during the growing season of 2006, 2007 and 2008 in a vegetable commercial farm, located at 10 km north of Belgrade. The soil is silty clayey, and developed on alluvial deposits. It was classified as humogley according to USDA Soil Classification. The climate of the field side is a continental type with hot and dry summers and cold and rainy winters. As in the rest of Serbia, farm suffers from water deficits during the main growing season. The initial soil quality was assessed through a sampling campaign before the onset of first year irrigation; the soil quality was then monitored throughout three years. Soil sampling

  20. Treating municipal solid waste leachate in a pilot scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor under tropical temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Alizadeh Shooshtari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of this study was to investigate an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB reactor efficiency in treating municipal landfill leachate, under tropical temperature. Materials and Methods: A 30-liter pilot-scale UASB reactor was used to treat the municipal solid waste leachate, under tropical temperature, for 230 days. The reactor was inoculated with 10 liters of anaerobic sludge from an anaerobic digester, in an agro industry′s wastewater treatment plant. The Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS of sludge were 65 g/L, with volatile suspended solids to suspended solids (VSS/SS ratio of 0.74. The reactor was operated in mesophilic (34 - 39°C temperature. Results: After reaching a stable operation, the reactor was exposed to raw leachate, with mean chemical oxygen demand (COD concentrations of 35 g/L. The leachate was diluted to 9 - 10 g/L at Organic Loading Rates (OLRs of 2, 6, 12, 15 g COD/L.d and decreased again to 12 g COD/L.d, resulting in 45, 76, 84, 68, and 79% removal efficiency and increased again to 87% removal efficiency for COD, at Hydraulic Retention Times (HRTs of 6, 1.6, 0.83, and 0.67 days, respectively, in the UASB. In the reactor used in this study, the heavy metals were removed by adsorption on biomass, and the maximum removal rate was 68% for Zinc (Zn. Conclusions: It was concluded that the optimum OLR for diluted leachate up to 10 g COD/l, was 12 g COD/L.d at an HRT of 0.67 day (16 hours.

  1. Suitability assessment of grey water quality treated with an upflow-downflow siliceous sand/marble waste filtration system for agricultural and industrial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Safa; Riahi, Khalifa; Hamrouni, Hédi; Thayer, Béchir Ben

    2017-04-01

    The present study examines the suitability assessment of an upflow-downflow siliceous sand/marble waste filtration system for treatment and reuse of grey water collected from bathrooms of the student residential complex at the Higher Institute of Engineering Medjez El Bab (Tunisia). Once the optimization of grey water pre-treatment system has been determined, the filtration system was operated at different hydraulic loading rate and media filter proportions in order to assess the suitability of treated grey water for irrigational purpose according to salinity hazard, sodium hazard, magnesium hazard, permeability index, water infiltration rate, and widely used graphical methods. Suitability of the treated grey water for industrial purpose was evaluated in terms of foaming, corrosion, and scaling. Under optimal operational conditions, results reveals that treated grey water samples with an upflow-downflow siliceous sand/marble waste filtration system may be considered as a good and an excellent water quality suitable for irrigation purpose. However, treated grey water was found not appropriate for industrial purpose due to high concentrations of calcium and sodium that can generate foaming and scaling harm to boilers. These results suggest that treated grey water with an upflow-downflow siliceous sand/marble waste filtration system would support production when used as irrigation water.

  2. Dry anaerobic digestion of rejects from pre-treated food waste; Torroetning av rejekt fraan foerbehandling av matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Irene [NSR, Helsingborg (Sweden); Murto, Marika; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Bioteknik, LTH, Lund (Sweden); Rosqvist, Haakan [Rosqvist Resurs, Klaagerup (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    When the organic fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is digested anaerobically in a continuously stirred tank reactor there is a need for a pretreatment to make the waste pumpable and remove contaminants. In one type of pretreatment the material passes through a screw press which separates waste in a liquid fraction and a dry fraction (the reject). At NSR this technique is used and at present the reject is incinerated. A previous study has shown that about 30 % of the methane potential of the incoming organic waste can be found in the reject. The aim of the present project was to investigate the possibilities of realizing the methane potential through batch wise dry anaerobic digestion followed by composting as an alternative to incineration. In the technique used in the present project the material was digested in an anaerobic leach-bed with recirculation of leachate over the bed. It is important that the material is sufficiently porous to let the leachate spread evenly through the leach-bed. Treatment of reject and a mixture of reject and structural material were tested to investigate if the addition of structural material had an effect on the porosity. The flow of liquid through a leach-bed of reject and one of reject mixed with structural material was studied using LiBr as tracer. The digestate from the dry digestion process was composted, and the resulting compost was evaluated. The odor from the digestate, the active compost and the compost product was measured by analyzing the odor in the air of the porous space in heaps of the different materials. This was used to evaluate the risk of odor problems. The dry digestion and the tracer experiment both showed that mixing the reject with structural material had a positive effect on the flow of liquid through the material and the digestion process. Addition of structural material to the reject was needed in order to achieve an efficient digestion process. Using tracers proved to be a useful way of

  3. An Investigation on Cocombustion Behaviors of Hydrothermally Treated Municipal Solid Waste with Coal Using a Drop-Tube Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of replacing Indonesian coal (INC with hydrothermally treated municipal solid waste (MSWH in cocombustion with high ash Indian coal (IC. The combustion efficiencies and emissions (CO, NO of MSWH, INC and their blends with IC for a series of tests performed under a range of temperatures and air conditions were tested in a drop-tube reactor (DTR. The results showed the following. The combustion efficiency of IC was increased by blending both MSWH and INC and CO emission was reduced with increasing temperature. For NO emission, the blending of MSWH led to the increase of NO concentration whereas the effects of INC depended on the temperature. The combustion behaviors of IC-MSWH blend were comparable to those of the IC-INC blend indicating it is possible for MSWH to become a good substitute for INC supporting IC combustion. Moreover, the CO emission fell while the NO emission rose with increasing excess air for IC-MSWH blend at 900°C and the highest combustion efficiency was obtained at the excess air of 1.9. The existence of moisture in the cocombustion system of IC-MSWH blend could slightly improve the combustion efficiency, reduce CO, and increase NO.

  4. CCA-treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna; Weitz, Keith; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy; Thorneloe, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential and industrial applications. Although some countries have banned the use of the product for some applications, others have not, and the product continues to enter the waste stream from construction, demolition and remodeling projects. CCA-treated wood as a solid waste is managed in various ways throughout the world. In the US, CCA-treated wood is disposed primarily within landfills; however some of the wood is combusted in waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. In other countries, the predominant disposal option for wood, sometimes including CCA-treated wood, is combustion for the production of energy. This paper presents an estimate of the quantity of CCA-treated wood entering the disposal stream in the US, as well as an examination of the trade-offs between landfilling and WTE combustion of CCA-treated wood through a life-cycle assessment and decision support tool (MSW DST). Based upon production statistics, the estimated life span and the phaseout of CCA-treated wood, recent disposal projections estimate the peak US disposal rate to occur in 2008, at 9.7 million m(3). CCA-treated wood, when disposed with construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW), has been found to increase arsenic and chromium concentrations in leachate. For this reason, and because MSW landfills are lined, MSW landfills have been recommended as a preferred disposal option over unlined C&D debris landfills. Between landfilling and WTE for the same mass of CCA-treated wood, WTE is more expensive (nearly twice the cost), but when operated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulations, it produces energy and does not emit fossil carbon emissions. If the wood is managed via WTE, less landfill area is required, which could be an influential trade-off in some countries. Although metals are concentrated

  5. E-waste : Collect more, treat better; Tracking take-back system performance for eco-efficient electronics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation establishes a methodology for evaluating the performance of take-back and treatment systems for end-oflife electronics (e-waste). First, a comprehensive classification is developed to fully understand the complex characteristics of e-waste. A multivariate model is then created to

  6. Microbial population dynamics during startup of a full-scale anaerobic digester treating industrial food waste in Kyoto eco-energy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Michihiko; Inoue, Daisuke; Miyano, Tomoki; Liu, Tong Tong; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Kadoshin, Shiro

    2010-06-01

    The microbial community in a full-scale anaerobic digester (2300m3) treating industrial food waste in the Kyoto Eco-Energy Project was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Both thermophilic and mesophilic sludge of treated swine waste were seeded to the digestion tank. During the 150-day startup period, coffee grounds as a main food waste, along with potato, kelp and boiled beans, tofu, bean curd lees, and deep-fried bean curd were fed to the digestion process step-by-step (max. 40t/d). Finally, the methane yield reached 360m3/t-feed with 40days' retention time, although temporary accumulation of propionate was observed. Eubacterial communities that formed in the thermophilic digestion tank differed greatly from both thermophilic and mesophilic types of seed sludge. Results suggest that the Actinomyces/Thermomonospora and Ralstonia/Shewanella were contributors for hydrolyzation and degradation of food waste into volatile fatty acids. Acetate-utilizing methanogens, Methanosaeta, were dominant in seed sludges of both types, but they decreased drastically during processing in the digestion tank. Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter/Methanobacterium were, respectively, possible main contributors for methane production from acetate and H2 plus CO2. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Treating waste water of a corrugated cardboard box factory; Tratamiento del agua residual de una fabrica de cajas de carton ondulado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susial, P.; Fernandez-Hernandez, F.; Godoy, E.; Cabrera-Gonzalez, I.; Ramos Batista, M.

    2005-07-01

    The basic operations used in the laboratory were: coagulation with aluminium sulphate, flocculation with polyacrylamide, sedimentation, filtering and post-treatment by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. These processes were applied to the industrial waste water from cleaning the printing machines in a factory making corrugated cardboard boxes. The results of the jar test and the oxidising post-treatment applied to the coagulated and flocculated water are reported as dosage curves. The experimental work carried out showed that discontinuous operations, such as coagulation/flocculation/oxidation, are sufficient for treating industrial waste waters with a high polluting load. These techniques are particularly important when the effluent flow to be treated is not very big. (Author) 26 refs.

  8. Soil nutrient status and enzyme activity in post harvest soils treated with urban and agricultural waste composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K Jeevan; Ramalaxmi, Ch S

    2009-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the maximum loading rates of urban and agricultural waste composts on soil nutrient status and enzyme activity in vegetable-vegetable (tomato-bhendi) and cereal-pulse (maize-soybean) crop sequence for two years at College of Agriculture, Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad. During first season crops, the treatment with 40 tonnes USW compost ha(-1) showed maximum OC, i.e. 0.92 and 0.90% in maize and tomato fields, whereas in second year it was 0.92 and 0.93% in bhendi and soybean fields respectively. The nutrient reserves (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn) were more in composts treated plots over RDF and control. The available N content ranged from 196 kg ha(-1)(control) to 275 kg ha(-1) (40 tonnes USW compost per ha (TC16) in tomato, 205 kg ha(-1) (control) to 282 kg ha(-1) (T16) in maize, 183 kg ha(-1) (control) to 278 kg ha(-1) (T16) in bhendi, 191 kg ha(-1) (control) to 284 kg ha(-1) (T16) in soybean post harvest soils respectively. Availability of all the cationic micronutrients, i.e. Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were also significantly influenced by the application of composts. USW compost with 40 t ha(-1) exhibited more micronutrient build up. The higher availability at higher levels of composts was ascribed to mineralization of the compost, reduction in fixation by organic matter had complexing properties of these composts with micronutrients. The treatment with 40 t USW compost ha(-1) registered highest urease (20.1, 21.4, 20.9, 22.0 microg g(-1) soil), phosphatase (37.1, 40.9, 38.7, 41.0 microg g(-1) soil) and dehydrogenase (26.0, 28.6, 26.4, 29.0 microg g(-1) soil) activity in post harvest soils of tomato, maize, bhendi and soybean respectively, over other treatments and the lowest activity was observed in control plot.

  9. Solid-state fermentation and composting as alternatives to treat hair waste: A life-cycle assessment comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Eva; Komilis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    One of the wastes associated with leather production in tannery industries is the hair residue generated during the dehairing process. Hair wastes are mainly dumped or managed through composting but recent studies propose the treatment of hair wastes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) to obtain proteases and compost. These enzymes are suitable for its use in an enzymatic dehairing process, as an alternative to the current chemical dehairing process. In the present work, two different scenarios for the valorization of the hair waste are proposed and assessed by means of life-cycle assessment: composting and SSF for protease production. Detailed data on hair waste composting and on SSF protease production are gathered from previous studies performed by our research group and from a literature survey. Background inventory data are mainly based on Ecoinvent version 3 from software SimaPro® 8. The main aim of this study was to identify which process results in the highest environmental impact. The SSF process was found to have lower environmental impacts than composting, due to the fact that the enzyme use in the dehairing process prevents the use of chemicals traditionally used in the dehairing process. This permits to reformulate an industrial process from the classical approach of waste management to a novel alternative based on circular economy.

  10. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2003-01-01

    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filter in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration...... would teach during a 100-year period from a 0.5 m thick concrete stab exposed to water on one side. Leaching of the common ions Ca, Cl, Na and SO4 was increased 3-20 times from the specimens with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. However, the quantities leached were still...... modest. These experiments suggest that FGA from waste incineration after Ferrox-treatment could be re-used in CTB without compromising the strength and teaching from the base layer....

  11. Demonstration Testing of a Thermal Desorption Unit to Receive and Treat Waste with Unlimited Concentration of PCBs - 13437

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, Timothy L.; Palmer, Carl R.

    2013-01-01

    For the last nine years, EnergySolutions and TD*X Associates LP have teamed up to provide the most comprehensive organic removal treatment process in the radioactive waste industry. The high performance thermal desorption unit (HP-TDU) located at the EnergySolutions Clive facility in Utah has successfully processed over 1,850 tons of organically contaminated radioactive mixed waste. Products from the HP-TDU system include a radioactively contaminated dry solid material that can be disposed in the on-site landfill and an organic condensate with high thermal energy content that is generally below background radiation and capable of free-release to a non-radioactive incinerator. Over the years, Permits and approvals have been obtained through the state of Utah, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 8, and USEPA headquarters that enable the treatment of several waste categories including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, combustion-coded (CMBST) compounds, volatile metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The unit has recently successfully completed Demonstration Testing for PCB concentrations up to 660,000 ppm (parts per million). Solid processed material from this Demonstration Testing was less than two ppm PCBs in three separate treatment runs; reprocessing or additional treatment was not needed to meet this limit. Through post-demonstration permitting, the system is unlimited in scope as approval has been given to receive and solidify up to pure PCBs down to this processing limit concentration to complete treatment of mixed waste. (authors)

  12. Demonstration Testing of a Thermal Desorption Unit to Receive and Treat Waste with Unlimited Concentration of PCBs - 13437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Timothy L. [EnergySolutions, 423 West 300 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States); Palmer, Carl R. [TD.X Associates LP, 148 South Dowlen Road, PMB 700, Beaumont, TX 77707 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    For the last nine years, EnergySolutions and TD*X Associates LP have teamed up to provide the most comprehensive organic removal treatment process in the radioactive waste industry. The high performance thermal desorption unit (HP-TDU) located at the EnergySolutions Clive facility in Utah has successfully processed over 1,850 tons of organically contaminated radioactive mixed waste. Products from the HP-TDU system include a radioactively contaminated dry solid material that can be disposed in the on-site landfill and an organic condensate with high thermal energy content that is generally below background radiation and capable of free-release to a non-radioactive incinerator. Over the years, Permits and approvals have been obtained through the state of Utah, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 8, and USEPA headquarters that enable the treatment of several waste categories including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, combustion-coded (CMBST) compounds, volatile metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The unit has recently successfully completed Demonstration Testing for PCB concentrations up to 660,000 ppm (parts per million). Solid processed material from this Demonstration Testing was less than two ppm PCBs in three separate treatment runs; reprocessing or additional treatment was not needed to meet this limit. Through post-demonstration permitting, the system is unlimited in scope as approval has been given to receive and solidify up to pure PCBs down to this processing limit concentration to complete treatment of mixed waste. (authors)

  13. Symbiotic treatment. A new biological technology for treating waste waters from the canning industry; Depuracion simbiotica. Una nueva tecnologia biologica para la depuracion de aguas residuales del sector de conservas vegetales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayuso Garcia, L. M.; Canova Perez, J. L.; Llorens Pascual del Riquelme, M.; Saez Mercader, J.

    2008-07-01

    Many studies show that biological processes are the most suitable for the canned food industry waste water treatment. A new biological technology that minimizes the management, operation and maintenance problems associated to the waste water treatment is proposed. The results obtained in pilot plant of a new natural technology for treating waste water are presented in this paper. This technology was applied to the treatment of canned food industry waste water and received the effluent coming from peach and pear processing. A pilot plant composed of five treatment stages with vertical distribution has been constructed. This plant treats 80 l/h and have a surface of 1 m{sup 2}. The effluent of this plant complies the requirements established in Decreto 16/1999 (BORM no.97, 29 april 1999), about discharge of industrial waste water to sewers. (Author) 10 refs.

  14. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2003-01-01

    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filter in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration...... weeks. Cylinders (diameter 100 mm, length 150 mm) were drilled from these cubes for tank leaching experiments. Duplicate specimens were subject to compression strength testing and to tank leaching experiments. The compressive strength of the CTB fulfilled the Danish requirements for CTB, i.e. strength...... more than 5 MPa after 7 days. The tank leaching tests revealed that leaching of heavy metals was not significantly affected by the use of chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. Assuming that diffusion controls the leaching process it was calculated that less than 1% of the metals...

  15. A fast linear predictive adaptive model of packed bed coupled with UASB reactor treating onion waste to produce biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milquez-Sanabria, Harvey; Blanco-Cocom, Luis; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana

    2016-10-03

    Agro-industrial wastes are an energy source for different industries. However, its application has not reached small industries. Previous and current research activities performed on the acidogenic phase of two-phase anaerobic digestion processes deal particularly with process optimization of the acid-phase reactors operating with a wide variety of substrates, both soluble and complex in nature. Mathematical models for anaerobic digestion have been developed to understand and improve the efficient operation of the process. At present, lineal models with the advantages of requiring less data, predicting future behavior and updating when a new set of data becomes available have been developed. The aim of this research was to contribute to the reduction of organic solid waste, generate biogas and develop a simple but accurate mathematical model to predict the behavior of the UASB reactor. The system was maintained separate for 14 days during which hydrolytic and acetogenic bacteria broke down onion waste, produced and accumulated volatile fatty acids. On this day, two reactors were coupled and the system continued for 16 days more. The biogas and methane yields and volatile solid reduction were 0.6 ± 0.05 m 3 (kg VS removed ) -1 , 0.43 ± 0.06 m 3 (kg VS removed ) -1 and 83.5 ± 9.8 %, respectively. The model application showed a good prediction of all process parameters defined; maximum error between experimental and predicted value was 1.84 % for alkalinity profile. A linear predictive adaptive model for anaerobic digestion of onion waste in a two-stage process was determined under batch-fed condition. Organic load rate (OLR) was maintained constant for the entire operation, modifying effluent hydrolysis reactor feed to UASB reactor. This condition avoids intoxication of UASB reactor and also limits external buffer addition.

  16. Formation of metal agglomerates during carbonisation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste: Comparison between a lab scale and an industrial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsen, Lieve; Hacala, Amelie

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the results obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled to X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA) of the solid product after carbonisation of treated wood waste in a lab scale and in an industrial installation. These setups (lab scale and industrial) are characterized by different operating conditions of the carbonisation process. Moreover, the wood waste input to the processes differs significantly. From this study, it is clear that some similarities but also some differences exist between the lab scale study and the study with the industrial Chartherm plant. In both reactors, a metal (and mineral) agglomeration process takes place, even in the case of untreated wood. The agglomerates initially present in the wood input may serve as a seed for the metal agglomeration process during 'chartherisation'. The industrial setup leads to a broader range of agglomerates' size (0.1-50 μm) and composition (all possible combinations of Cu, Cr, As and wood minerals). Some agglomerates contain the three metals but the major part is a combination of wood minerals and one or two of the three preservative metals, while all agglomerates analysed in the lab scale product contain the three metals. The separate influence of wood input characteristics and process conditions cannot be derived from these experiments, but the observations suggest that the higher the CCA retention in the wood input is, the easier is the metal agglomeration process during chartherisation of CCA treated wood waste. From the analyses performed in this study it seems that copper behaves differently in the sense that it agglomerates easily, but the resulting particles are small (<1 μm)

  17. Initial Effects of Differently Treated Biogas Residues from Municipal and Industrial Wastes on Spring Barley Yield Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Prays

    Full Text Available Soil application of biogas residues (BGRs is important for closing nutrient cycles. This study examined the efficiency and impact on yields and yield formation of solid-liquid separated residues from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes (bio-waste in comparison to complete BGRs, nitrification inhibitor, agricultural BGRs, mineral fertilizer and unfertilized plots as control. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design on silt loam Cambisol. Biogas residues from four biogas plants were evaluated. Plants per m², ears per plant, grains per ear and thousand grain weight (TGW were measured at harvest. Fertilization with BGRs resulted in similar biomass yields compared with mineral fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer (71 dt/ha and plots fertilized with liquid fraction (59-62 dt/ha indicated a trend to higher yields than solid fraction or complete BGR due to its high ammonia content. Liquid fractions and fraction with nitrification inhibitor induced fewer plants per m² than corresponding solid and complete variants due to a potential phytotoxicity of high NH4-N concentration during germination. However, barley on plots fertilized with liquid fraction compensated the disadvantages at the beginning during the vegetation period and induced higher grain yields than solid fraction. This was attributable to a higher number of ears per plant and grains per ear. In conclusion, BGRs from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes can be used for soil fertilization and replace considerable amounts of mineral fertilizer. Our study showed that direct application of the liquid fraction of BGR is the most suitable strategy to achieve highest grain yields. Nevertheless potential phytotoxicity of the high NH4-N concentration in the liquid fraction should be considered.

  18. Initial Effects of Differently Treated Biogas Residues from Municipal and Industrial Wastes on Spring Barley Yield Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prays, Nadia; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Soil application of biogas residues (BGRs) is important for closing nutrient cycles. This study examined the efficiency and impact on yields and yield formation of solid-liquid separated residues from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes (bio-waste) in comparison to complete BGRs, nitrification inhibitor, agricultural BGRs, mineral fertilizer and unfertilized plots as control. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design on silt loam Cambisol. Biogas residues from four biogas plants were evaluated. Plants per m², ears per plant, grains per ear and thousand grain weight (TGW) were measured at harvest. Fertilization with BGRs resulted in similar biomass yields compared with mineral fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer (71 dt/ha) and plots fertilized with liquid fraction (59–62 dt/ha) indicated a trend to higher yields than solid fraction or complete BGR due to its high ammonia content. Liquid fractions and fraction with nitrification inhibitor induced fewer plants per m² than corresponding solid and complete variants due to a potential phytotoxicity of high NH4-N concentration during germination. However, barley on plots fertilized with liquid fraction compensated the disadvantages at the beginning during the vegetation period and induced higher grain yields than solid fraction. This was attributable to a higher number of ears per plant and grains per ear. In conclusion, BGRs from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes can be used for soil fertilization and replace considerable amounts of mineral fertilizer. Our study showed that direct application of the liquid fraction of BGR is the most suitable strategy to achieve highest grain yields. Nevertheless potential phytotoxicity of the high NH4-N concentration in the liquid fraction should be considered. PMID:27116355

  19. Initial Effects of Differently Treated Biogas Residues from Municipal and Industrial Wastes on Spring Barley Yield Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prays, Nadia; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Soil application of biogas residues (BGRs) is important for closing nutrient cycles. This study examined the efficiency and impact on yields and yield formation of solid-liquid separated residues from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes (bio-waste) in comparison to complete BGRs, nitrification inhibitor, agricultural BGRs, mineral fertilizer and unfertilized plots as control. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design on silt loam Cambisol. Biogas residues from four biogas plants were evaluated. Plants per m², ears per plant, grains per ear and thousand grain weight (TGW) were measured at harvest. Fertilization with BGRs resulted in similar biomass yields compared with mineral fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer (71 dt/ha) and plots fertilized with liquid fraction (59-62 dt/ha) indicated a trend to higher yields than solid fraction or complete BGR due to its high ammonia content. Liquid fractions and fraction with nitrification inhibitor induced fewer plants per m² than corresponding solid and complete variants due to a potential phytotoxicity of high NH4-N concentration during germination. However, barley on plots fertilized with liquid fraction compensated the disadvantages at the beginning during the vegetation period and induced higher grain yields than solid fraction. This was attributable to a higher number of ears per plant and grains per ear. In conclusion, BGRs from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes can be used for soil fertilization and replace considerable amounts of mineral fertilizer. Our study showed that direct application of the liquid fraction of BGR is the most suitable strategy to achieve highest grain yields. Nevertheless potential phytotoxicity of the high NH4-N concentration in the liquid fraction should be considered.

  20. Elemental analysis of ash residue from combustion of CCA treated wood waste before and after electrodialytic extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    . Chemical analyses of untreated and treated ash confirmed that most As, but only smaller amounts of Cu and Cr was removed due to the electrodialytic extraction. Overall metal contents in the original ash residue were: 1.4 g As, 2.76 g Cu and 2.48 g Cr, after electrodialytic extraction these amounts were...

  1. A comparative study on Cu, Cr and As removal from CCA-treated wood waste by dialytic and electrodialytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, Emiliya; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, electrodialytic and dialytic techniques were used for Cu, Cr and As removal from 20-years out-of-service CCA-treated Pinus pinaster Ait. pole. The effect of applying direct current, as "cleaning agent", of up to 120mA was investigated. Focus was given to a parallel comparison...

  2. Use of respirometer in evaluation of process and toxicity of thermophilic anaerobic digestion for treating kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Chien; Cheng, Kae-Yiin

    2007-07-01

    A thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAnD, 55 degrees C) system was adopted to hydrolyze the kitchen waste for 3 days, which was then fermented for a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The TAnD system performed much better than a similar system without thermal pre-treatment. A bubble respirometer was employed to study the effects of thermal pre-treatment, which showed that pre-treatment at 60 degrees C yielded the highest Total COD (TCOD) removal efficiency (79.2%) after 300h reaction. Respirometer results also indicated that oil and grease (O and G) began to inhibit the TAnD system at a concentration of approximately 1000mg/L and the gas production was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of approximately 7500mg/L of sodium.

  3. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  4. Comparison between mixed liquors of two side-stream membrane bioreactors treating wastewaters from waste management plants with high and low solids anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Fernández-Giménez, E; Álvarez-Requena, C; Muñagorri-Mañueco, F; Ortiz-Villalobos, G

    2016-09-01

    In the last years, biological treatment plants for the previously separated organic fraction from municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) have gained importance. In these processes a liquid effluent (liquid fraction from the digestate and leachate from composting piles), which has to be treated previously to its discharge, is produced. In this paper, the characteristics of the mixed liquor from two full-scale membrane bioreactors treating the effluents of two OFMSW treatment plants have been evaluated in view to study their influence on membrane fouling in terms of filterability. For that, the mixed liquor samples have been ultrafiltrated in an UF laboratory plant. Besides, the effect of the influent characteristics to MBRs and the values of the chemical and physical parameters of the mixed liquors on the filterability have been studied. Results showed that the filterability of the mixed liquor was strongly influenced by the soluble microbial products in the mixed liquors and the influent characteristics to MBR. Permeate flux of MBR mixed liquor treating the most polluted wastewater was considerable the lowest (around 20 L/m(2) h for some samples), what was explained by viscosity and soluble microbial products concentration higher than those measured in other MBR mixed liquor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treating waste waters in small agglomerations. The current situation, commitments and alternatives; Depuracion de las aguas residuales en pequenos nuclear. Situacion actual, compromisos y alternativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado Lara, R. [Universidad de Cantabria. (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    In 1991, the European Economic Community issued a directive on urban waste water treatment: (91/27/EEC). This directive laid down that such treatment had to be in place ny the period 2000-2005, depending on the application of different requirements according to the size of the agglomeration and the discharge area. A large number of sewage plants are being built in Spain at the present time, especially in medium-size and large agglomeration (pop>10.000 inhabitants). However, in the smaller agglomeration, over 50% of the waste waters have still to be treated. In agglomerations of less than 10.000 inhabitants, which make up 95% of the municipalities in Spain, it is possible to apply a greater diversity of treatments not all of them conventional that comply with the directive in question. Natural systems and biofilm processes are low-cost solutions that are well adapted to the natural environment. However, conventional technologies are virtually essential in medium-size and large agglomerations, as the lack of space and the exacting demands render them irreplaceable (Collado, 2002). This article describes the distribution of the municipalities in Spain according to the number of inhabitants, the current state os sewage treatment,the commitments made by the European Economic Community and the viable alternatives. Some comments have been added regarding the running of such systems and the need for them to be managed by associations of local councils or regional bodies. (Author)

  6. Isolation and characterization of dimethyl sulfide (DMS)-degrading bacteria from soil and biofilter treating waste gas containing DMS from the laboratory and pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Balendu Shekher; Juwarkar, Asha A; Satpute, D B; Mudliar, S N; Pandey, R A

    2012-07-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the sulfurous pollutants present in the waste gas generated from the pulp and paper industry. DMS has environmental health implications; therefore, it is necessary to treat the waste gas containing DMS prior to discharge into the environment. A bench-scale biofilter was operated in the laboratory as well as in a pulp and paper industry for the treatment of DMS. Both the biofilters were packed with pre-sterilized wood chips and cow dung/compost of the same origin seeded with biomass developed from garden soil enriched with DMS. The biofilters were operated for the generation of process parameters, and the potential microorganisms isolated from both the biofilters have been purified and characterized for degradation of DMS. Further, these cultures were purified on a basal medium using DMS as a sole carbon source for the growth. Further, the purified cultures were characterized through standard fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)-gas chromatography method, and the isolates were found to be mesophilic, aerobic microbes. These microbes were identified as Bacillus sphaericus-GC subgroup F, Paenibacillus polymyxa, B. sphaericus-GC subgroup F, B. sphaericus-GC subgroup F, and Bacillus megaterium-GC subgroup A, respectively. The potential culture for degradation of DMS was identified as B. sphaericus by 16s rRNA molecular analysis.

  7. Statistical optimization of process parameters for the simultaneous adsorption of Cr(VI) and phenol onto Fe-treated tea waste biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Balomajumder, Chandrajit

    2017-12-01

    In this study, simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and phenol from binary solution was carried out using Fe-treated tea waste biomass. The effect of process parameters such as adsorbent dose, pH, initial concentration of Cr(VI) (mg/L), and initial concentration of phenol (mg/L) was optimized. The analysis of variance of the quadratic model demonstrates that the experimental results are in good agreement with the predicted values. Based on experimental design at an initial concentration of 55 mg/L of Cr(VI), 27.50 mg/L of phenol, pH 2.0, 15 g/L adsorbent dose, 99.99% removal of Cr(VI), and phenol was achieved.

  8. An experimental study of factors in the recovery of plutonium from combustible wastes treated by incineration, pyrolysis and other processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, D.C.; McDonald, L.A.; Roberts, W.G.; Sutcliffe, P.W.; Wilkins, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The work described in this report is concerned with the incineration and pyrolysis of plutonium-contaminated combustible wastes, the leaching of the ashes and chars and the subsequent treatment of the leach solutions. A range of ashes and chars have been prepared from a range of plutonium-contaminated materials covering a variety of combustible materials (e.g. PVC, neoprene, Hypalon) and plutonium contaminants [e.g. PuO 2 , Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , (U, Pu)O 2 ]. Treatment temperatures in the range of 550-900 0 C have been investigated, the best results being obtained at or below 700 0 C with pyrolysis followed by char oxidation being the favoured process. A number of methods for treatment of the leach solutions have been considered and some have been investigated experimentally. Extraction of plutonium and americium with tributylphosphate (TBP) from a leach solution conditioned to 0.1 M H/+5 M NO 3 - has been studied. The key stage has been found to be the conditioning step where precautions must be taken to ensure that plutonium-containing precipitates and non-extractable plutonium are not formed. Consideration has also been given to treatment of the americium containing raffinates from a high acid TBP extraction and some methods have been investigated. A range of simple washing experiments have been carried out in order to compare the process with incineration/pyrolysis

  9. A bacterial population analysis of granular sludge from an anaerobic digester treating a maize-processing waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howgrave-Graham, A.R.; Wallis, F.M. (Natal Univ., Pietermaritzburg (ZA). Dept. of Microbiology and Plant Pathology); Steyn, P.L. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa))

    1991-01-01

    Microbial population studies were conducted on a dense granular sludge, with excellent settling, thickening and nutrient removal properties, from a South African clarigester treating effluent from a factory producing glucose and other carbohydrates from maize. The bacterial population comprised a heterogeneous group including acetogens, enterobacteria, sulphate-reducers, spirochaetes, heterofermentative lactobacilli and methanogens. The presence of these bacteria and lack of propionic acid and butyric acid bacteria suggests that the microbial activity of this anaerobic digester involved acetate and lactate metabolism rather than propionate or butyrate catabolism as a source of precursors for methane production. (author).

  10. A comparative study on Cu, Cr and As removal from CCA-treated wood waste by dialytic and electrodialytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, Emiliya; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, electrodialytic and dialytic techniques were used for Cu, Cr and As removal from 20-years out-of-service CCA-treated Pinus pinaster Ait. pole. The effect of applying direct current, as "cleaning agent", of up to 120mA was investigated. Focus was given to a parallel comparison...... incubation. Evaluation of the IARs of Cu, Cr and As showed that the rates of their appearance in the electrolytes were not linearly related to the current (except for Cr in the catholyte), mainly because of membrane retention. The maximum removal efficiencies obtained in a batch electrodialytic cell operated...

  11. Culture-independent analyses reveal novel Anaerolineaceae as abundant primary fermenters in anaerobic digesters treating waste activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for biogas production is reliant on the tightly coupled synergistic activities of complex microbial consortia. Members of the uncultured A6 phylotype, within the phylum Chloroflexi, are among the most abundant genus-level-taxa of mesophilic anaerobic digester systems treating...... to be anaerobic chemoorganoheterotrophs with a fermentative metabolism. Given their observed abundance, they are likely important primary fermenters in digester systems. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridisation probes designed in this study revealed their morphology to be short filaments present within...

  12. Waste vs Resource Management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...

  13. Culture-Independent Analyses Reveal Novel Anaerolineaceae as Abundant Primary Fermenters in Anaerobic Digesters Treating Waste Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. McIlroy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion for biogas production is reliant on the tightly coupled synergistic activities of complex microbial consortia. Members of the uncultured A6 phylotype, within the phylum Chloroflexi, are among the most abundant genus-level-taxa of mesophilic anaerobic digester systems treating primary and surplus sludge from wastewater treatment plants, yet are known only by their 16S rRNA gene sequence. This study applied metagenomics to obtain a complete circular genome (2.57 Mbp from a representative of the A6 taxon. Preliminary annotation of the genome indicates these organisms to be anaerobic chemoorganoheterotrophs with a fermentative metabolism. Given their observed abundance, they are likely important primary fermenters in digester systems. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridisation probes designed in this study revealed their morphology to be short filaments present within the flocs. The A6 were sometimes co-located with the filamentous Archaea Methanosaeta spp. suggesting potential undetermined synergistic relationships. Based on its genome sequence and morphology we propose the species name Brevefilum fermentans gen. nov. sp. nov.

  14. Prospects for co-firing of clean coal and creosote-treated waste wood at small-scale power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandersons Janis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available If a small-scale clean coal fueled power plant is co-fueled with 5% of creosote-treated used-up sleeper wood, the decontamination by carbonisation at 500 °C in an indirectly heated rotary kiln with the diameter 1.7 m and effective length 10 m can be realized. It should be included in the "3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant" system, which processes coal. It will improve the heat balance of the system, since the carbonisation of wood will deliver a lot of high caloricity pyroligneous vapour to the joint furnace of the "3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant". Pine wood sleeper sapwood contains 0.25% of sulphur, but the average pine sleeper wood (sapwood and heartwood 0.05% of sulphur. Most of the sulphur is lost with the pyroligneous vapour and burned in the furnace. Since the "3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant" is equipped with a flue gases cleaning system, the SO2 emission level will not exceed 5 mg/m3. The charcoal of the sapwood portion of sleepers and that of the average sleeper wood will contain 0.22% and 0.035% of sulphur, respectively. The increase of the carbonisation temperature does not substantially decrease the sulphur content in charcoal, although it is sufficiently low, and the charcoal can be co-fired with clean coal. The considered process is suitable for small power plants, if the biomass input in the common energy balance is 5 to 10%. If the mean distance of sleepers transportation for Central and Eastern Europe is estimated not to exceed 200 km, the co-combustion of clean coal and carbonized sleepers would be an acceptable option from the environmental and economic points of view.

  15. The calcination process in a system for washing, calcinating, and converting treated municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash into raw material for the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2011-07-01

    Calcination is the second step in a washing-calcination-conversion system in which treated municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and bottom ash can be reused as raw material in the cement industry and can decompose or stabilize hazardous compounds, reduce residue amounts, and alter residue characteristics. In this research, only fly ash is discussed. Chloride reduction is important if treated fly ash is to be reused in cement; however, the relationship between washed fly ash properties and chloride reduction by calcination is not well understood. This study used washed residues of three types of fly ash-raw fly ash (RFA) from the boiler or economizer of an incineration system, fly ash collected in a bag filter injected with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) for acid removal (CaFA), and fly ash collected in a bag filter injected with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) for acid removal (NaFA)-in calcination experiments with varying temperature (400-1100 degrees C) and atmosphere (100% nitrogen [N2] at 25 mL/min or 10% oxygen [O2] [90% N2] at fluxes of 25, 50, and 75 mL/min). From the perspective of chloride reduction, heating to 1000 degrees C with 1-hr heating time, 1-hr holding time, and an atmosphere of 10% O2/90% N2 was most suitable for calcination. Under these conditions, chloride levels were reduced by 91, 52, and 96% in washed residues of RFA, CaFA, and NaFA, respectively. Among the washed residues, the weight of the washed residue of NaFA decreased the most.

  16. Microbial Insight into a Pilot-Scale Enhanced Two-Stage High-Solid Anaerobic Digestion System Treating Waste Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD is a rapidly developed anaerobic digestion technique for treating municipal sludge, and has been widely used in Europe and Asia. Recently, the enhanced HSAD process with thermal treatment showed its advantages in both methane production and VS reduction. However, the understanding of the microbial community is still poor. This study investigated microbial communities in a pilot enhanced two-stage HSAD system that degraded waste activated sludge at 9% solid content. The system employed process “thermal pre-treatment (TPT at 70 °C, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD, and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD”. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanothermobacter spp. dominated the system with relative abundance up to about 100% in both TAD and MAD. Syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO bacteria were discovered in TAD, and they converted acetate into H2 and CO2 to support hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The microbial composition and conversion route of this system are derived from the high solid content and protein content in raw sludge, as well as the operational conditions. This study could facilitate the understanding of the enhanced HSAD process, and is of academic and industrial importance.

  17. Comprehensive monitoring and management of a long-term thermophilic CSTR treating coffee grounds, coffee liquid, milk waste, and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofie, Mohammad; Qiao, Wei; Li, Qian; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-01

    The CSTR process has previously not been successfully applied to treat coffee residues under thermophilic temperature and long term operation. In this experiment, the CSTR was fed with mixture substrate (TS ∼ 70 g/L) of coffee grounds, coffee wastewater, milk waste and municipal sludge and it was operated under 55 °C for 225 days. A steady state was achieved under HRT 30 days and OLR 4.0 kg-COD/m(3)/d. However, there was an 35 days inhibition with VFA accumulation (propionic acid 700-1900 mg/L) when doubling the OLR by shortening HRT to 15 days. But, an addition of microelements and sulfate (0.5 g/L) in feedstock increased reactor resilience and stability under high loading rate and propionic acid stress. Continuous monitoring of hydrogen in biogas indicated the imbalance of acetogenesis. The effectiveness of comprehensive parameters (total VFA, propionic acid, IA/PA, IA/TA and CH4 content) was proved to manage the thermophilic system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial Insight into a Pilot-Scale Enhanced Two-Stage High-Solid Anaerobic Digestion System Treating Waste Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Cao, Zhiping; Hu, Yuying; Wang, Xiaolu; Wang, Guangqi; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-30

    High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) is a rapidly developed anaerobic digestion technique for treating municipal sludge, and has been widely used in Europe and Asia. Recently, the enhanced HSAD process with thermal treatment showed its advantages in both methane production and VS reduction. However, the understanding of the microbial community is still poor. This study investigated microbial communities in a pilot enhanced two-stage HSAD system that degraded waste activated sludge at 9% solid content. The system employed process "thermal pre-treatment (TPT) at 70 °C, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD)". Hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanothermobacter spp. dominated the system with relative abundance up to about 100% in both TAD and MAD. Syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) bacteria were discovered in TAD, and they converted acetate into H₂ and CO₂ to support hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The microbial composition and conversion route of this system are derived from the high solid content and protein content in raw sludge, as well as the operational conditions. This study could facilitate the understanding of the enhanced HSAD process, and is of academic and industrial importance.

  19. Parameters affecting the stability of the digestate from a two-stage anaerobic process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzcinski, Antoine P.; Stuckey, David C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focused on the factors affecting the respiration rate of the digestate taken from a continuous anaerobic two-stage process treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The process involved a hydrolytic reactor (HR) that produced a leachate fed to a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). It was found that a volatile solids (VS) removal in the range 40-75% and an operating temperature in the HR between 21 and 35 o C resulted in digestates with similar respiration rates, with all digestates requiring 17 days of aeration before satisfying the British Standard Institution stability threshold of 16 mg CO 2 g VS -1 day -1 . Sanitization of the digestate at 65 o C for 7 days allowed a mature digestate to be obtained. At 4 g VS L -1 d -1 and Solid Retention Times (SRT) greater than 70 days, all the digestates emitted CO 2 at a rate lower than 25 mg CO 2 g VS -1 d -1 after 3 days of aeration, while at SRT lower than 20 days all the digestates displayed a respiration rate greater than 25 mg CO 2 g VS -1 d -1 . The compliance criteria for Class I digestate set by the European Commission (EC) and British Standard Institution (BSI) could not be met because of nickel and chromium contamination, which was probably due to attrition of the stainless steel stirrer in the HR.

  20. Performance comparison and economics analysis of waste stabilization ponds and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater: a case study of the Juja sewage treatment works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Njenga; Tebitendwa, Sylvie M; van Bruggen, Johan J A; Rousseau, Diederik P L; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-10-15

    The performance, effluent quality, land area requirement, investment and operation costs of a full-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) and a pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) were investigated between November 2010 to January 2011. Both systems gave comparable medium to high levels of organic matter and suspended solids removal. However, the WSP showed a better removal for Total Phosphorus (TP) and Ammonium (NH4(+)-N). Based on the population equivalent calculations, the land area requirement per person equivalent of the WSP system was 3 times the area that would be required for the HSSF-CW to treat the same amount of wastewater. The total annual cost estimates consisting of capital, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs were comparable for both systems. However, the evaluation of the capital cost of either system showed that it is largely influenced by the size of the population served, local cost of land and the construction materials involved. Hence, one can select either system in terms of treatment efficiency. When land is available other factor including the volume of wastewater or the investment, and O&M costs determine the technology selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Classification of waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenate and boron/fluorine preservatives; Classificacao de residuos de madeira tratada com preservativos a base de arseniato de cobre cromatado e de boro/fluor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrarini, Suzana Frighetto; Santos, Heldiane Souza dos; Miranda, Luciana Gampert; Azevedo, Carla M.N.; Pires, Marcal J.R., E-mail: suzana.ferrarini@gmail.com [Faculdade de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Maia, Sandra Maria [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Classification of waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and boron/fluorine preservatives, according to NBR 10004, was investigated. The leaching test (ABNT NBR 10005) for As and Cr, and solubilization test (ABNT NBR 10006) for F, were applied to out-of-service wooden poles. Concentrations of As and Cr in leachates were determined by ICP-MS and of F by ESI. Values for As were higher than 1 mg L{sup -1} classifying the waste as hazardous material (Class I) whereas values for F (> 1.5 mg L{sup -1}) were non-hazardous but indicated non-inert material (Class IIA). (author)

  2. Performances of nano filtration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in textile industry waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellouze, E.; Souissi, S.; Ben Amar, R.; Ben Salah, A.; Jrad, A.

    2009-01-01

    Textile industry process (dyeing, bleaching, printing and finishing) require a high-water consumption generating high amounts of water. Reactive dyeing of 1Kg of cotton requires about 150 Litres of water and 40g reactive dye resulting in a large volume of strongly coloured effluents. This fact in combination with the current water scarcity makes necessary textile waste water reuse. In this paper experimental results obtained from the treatment by different membranes Micro filtration (MF), Nano filtration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) of Sitex industry waste water pretreated by biological activated sludge are presented and compared. The results obtained from direct Nano filtration performed at different transmembrane pressures (8 - 1 m - 2 for a Volumetric Concentration Factor (VCF) of 4 and that the osmotic pressure π= 4Bars. A high quality of treated effluent in term of colour removal and desalination was obtained for a VCF of 2: salinity retention rate (RR) 57 pour cent and discoloration almost 100 pour cent at pressure of 12 bar. While, the permeate flux obtained using the combination MF/RO at a different pressures 25 - 1 m- 2 for a VCF of 6 indicating an important fouling. In this case, the osmotic pressure varied from 6 to 28 bars. The optimum salinity and colour retention rate (RR) were 86 pour cent and 100 pour cent respectively obtained at a VCF of 2.

  3. Testing to evaluate the suitability of waste forms developed for electrometallurgically treated spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel for disposal in the Yucca Mountain reporsitory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. E.

    2006-01-31

    The results of laboratory testing and modeling activities conducted to support the development of waste forms to immobilize wastes generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel and their qualification for disposal in the federal high-level radioactive waste repository are summarized in this report. Tests and analyses were conducted to address issues related to the chemical, physical, and radiological properties of the waste forms relevant to qualification. These include the effects of composition and thermal treatments on the phase stability, radiation effects, and methods for monitoring product consistency. Other tests were conducted to characterize the degradation and radionuclide release behaviors of the ceramic waste form (CWF) used to immobilize waste salt and the metallic waste form (MWF) used to immobilize metallic wastes and to develop models for calculating the release of radionuclides over long times under repository-relevant conditions. Most radionuclides are contained in the binder glass phase of the CWF and in the intermetallic phase of the MWF. The release of radionuclides from the CWF is controlled by the dissolution rate of the binder glass, which can be tracked using the same degradation model that is used for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glass. Model parameters measured for the aqueous dissolution of the binder glass are used to model the release of radionuclides from a CWF under all water-contact conditions. The release of radionuclides from the MWF is element-specific, but the release of U occurs the fastest under most test conditions. The fastest released constituent was used to represent all radionuclides in model development. An empirical aqueous degradation model was developed to describe the dependence of the radionuclide release rate from a MWF on time, pH, temperature, and the Cl{sup -} concentration. The models for radionuclide release from the CWF and MWF are both bounded by the HLW glass

  4. Radioactive waste management for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, W.A.

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive waste management practices at nuclear power plants are summarized. The types of waste produced and methods for treating various types of wastes are described. The waste management systems, including simplified flow diagrams, for typical boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are discussed. (U.S.)

  5. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale (1800'kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organi...

  6. CEA and its radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, S.

    1999-01-01

    CEA annually produces about 3500 tons of radioactive wastes in its 43 basic nuclear installations. CEA ranks third behind EDF and Cogema. Low-level wastes (A wastes) are sent to ANDRA (national agency for the management of nuclear wastes)whereas medium-level wastes (B wastes) are stored by CEA itself. CEA has checked off its storing places and has set up an installation Cedra to process and store ancient and new nuclear wastes. 3 other installations are planned to operate within 6 years: Agate (Cadarache) will treat liquid effluents, Stella (Saclay) will process liquid wastes that are beta or gamma emitters, and Atena (Marcoule) will treat and store radioactive sodium coming from Phenix reactor and IPSN laboratories. The use of plasma torch for vitrifying wastes is detailed, the management of all the nuclear wastes produced by CEA laboratories and installations is presented. (A.C.)

  7. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  8. Treating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Search FAQs Treating Infertility Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Treating Infertility Patient Education FAQs Treating Infertility Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Treating ...

  9. Characteristics of volatile compound emission and odor pollution from municipal solid waste treating/disposal facilities of a city in Eastern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hanwen; Duan, Zhenhan; Zhao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Transfer station, incineration plant, and landfill site made up the major parts of municipal solid waste disposal system of S city in Eastern China. Characteristics of volatile compounds (VCs) and odor pollution of each facility were investigated from a systematic perspective. Also major index...... related to odor pollution, i.e., species and concentration of VCs, olfactory odor concentration, and theoretic odor concentration, was quantified. Oxygenated compounds and hydrocarbons were the most abundant VCs in the three facilities. Different chemical species were quantified, and the following average...... in the waste tipping port of the incineration plant. A positive correlation between the olfactory and chemical odor concentrations was found with R2 = 0.918 (n = 15, P pollution risk transfer from landfill to incineration plant when adopting thermal technology to deal...

  10. Characteristics of volatile compound emission and odor pollution from municipal solid waste treating/disposal facilities of a city in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hanwen; Duan, Zhenhan; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Yanjun; Mustafa, Muhammad Farooq; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao

    2017-08-01

    Transfer station, incineration plant, and landfill site made up the major parts of municipal solid waste disposal system of S city in Eastern China. Characteristics of volatile compounds (VCs) and odor pollution of each facility were investigated from a systematic perspective. Also major index related to odor pollution, i.e., species and concentration of VCs, olfactory odor concentration, and theoretic odor concentration, was quantified. Oxygenated compounds and hydrocarbons were the most abundant VCs in the three facilities. Different chemical species were quantified, and the following average concentrations were obtained: transfer station, 54 VCs, 2472.47 μg/m 3 ; incineration plant, 75 VCs, 33,129.25 μg/m 3 ; and landfill site, 71 VCs, 1694.33 μg/m 3 . Furthermore, the average olfactory odor concentrations were 20,388.80; 50,677.50; and 4951.17, respectively. The highest odor nuisance was detected in the waste tipping port of the incineration plant. A positive correlation between the olfactory and chemical odor concentrations was found with R 2  = 0.918 (n = 15, P pollution risk transfer from landfill to incineration plant when adopting thermal technology to deal with the non-source-separated waste. Strong attention thus needs to be paid on the enclosed systems in incineration plant to avoid any accidental odor emission.

  11. Nutrient and enzymatic changes of hydrolysed tannery solid waste treated with epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae and phytotoxicity assessment on selected commercial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, B; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Wong, J W C; Selvam, A; Sekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    Animal fleshing (ANFL) is the predominant proteinaceous solid waste generated during processing of leather and it is confronting disposal problems. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae to utilize and transform the fermented ANFL in the solid state (SSF) and submerged state (SmF) into a value added product along a low residence period (25 days). A total of six treatment units containing different waste mixture compositions were established. Fifty healthy and non-clitellated earthworms were introduced in three different treatment containers: control, SSF, and SmF (+worm). Another set of treatment mixtures (control, SSF, SmF) was established without earthworms (-worm) to compare the results. The products were characterized for physico-chemical, enzymatic analysis and seedling growth parameters to compare the differences in the process with and without earthworms. The changes observed in the analytical parameters were in the following order: SSF > SmF > control mixtures (p product untreated by earthworms. The maximum enzymatic activities were observed after 21 days of vermicomposting. The relative seed germination of vermicompost extracts were in the order of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) > green gram (Vigna radiata) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus) > bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) and showed no phytotoxicity effects. The results indicated that the combination of both ANFL hydrolysis through fermentation and vermicomposting is a good alternative to the management of this kind of waste.

  12. Liquid secondary waste. Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during Site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility IDF). Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to demonstrate the waste form will provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF.

  13. Classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hideo; Kamike, Kozo; Komatu, Junji

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generally include nuclear fuels, materials contaminated with radioactive contaminants or neutron activation to be discarded. The solid wastes arising from the radiation control area in nuclear facilities are used to treat and stored as radioactive solid wastes at the operation of nuclear facilities in Japan. However, these wastes include many non-radioactive wastes. Especially, a large amount of wastes is expected to generate at the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the near future. It is important to classify these wastes into non-radioactive and radioactive wastes. The exemption or recycling criteria of radioactive solid wastes is under discussion and not decided yet in Japan. Under these circumstances, the Nuclear Safety Committee recently decided the concept on the category of non-radioactive waste for the wastes arising from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The concept is based on the separation and removal of the radioactively contaminated parts from radioactive solid wastes. The residual parts of these solid wastes will be treated as non-radioactive waste if no significant difference in radioactivity between the similar natural materials and materials removed the radioactive contaminants. The paper describes the procedures of classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes. (author)

  14. A method for treating bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Van Craaikamp, H.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Sierhuis, W.; Van Kooy, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    A method for treating bottom ash from a waste incineration plant. The invention relates in particular to a method for treating bottom ash from a domestic waste incineration plant. In accordance with the invention bottom ash having a size ranging up to 2 mm is treated by removing a previously

  15. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  16. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  17. Power station does not waste waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madeley, J.

    2000-03-01

    Two examples of the 'waste not, want not' philosophy is demonstrated by the examples of the Town of Holsworthy in the United Kingdom, and the Lerwick Waste to Energy Plant in the Shetland Islands of Scotland. In the case of the Town of Holsworthy, a power plant is under construction which, when completed, will generate electricity using 300 tonnes of cow dung and organic food waste per day to fuel two 'digesters' to heat the waste in order to release methane which will then be siphoned off to power gas engines to produce the electricity. The dung will be returned to the farmers (minus the methane) to spread on their fields. The Shetland Islands project uses an incineration plant to burn mostly municipal waste in a grate incinerator with a waste heat boiler. The waste consists of paper, glass, steel and aluminium cans, garden waste and other household materials. Clinical waste from hospitals, clinics, etc. is also included. The plant is designed to treat about 26,000 tonnes of waste a year. Burning is at the rate of 3.6 tonnes an hour at 850 degrees C. The grate is activated through a hydraulic oil system. Water in the boiler tubes is heated to 115 degrees C and pumped into the district heating system, a large centralized boiler, to distribute to houses and other buildings through underground pipes. Only heat from the hot water, not the hot water itself, is transferred through the pipes.

  18. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Modeling Treated LAW Feed Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DANIEL, WE

    2004-01-01

    This task examines the potential of the treated waste feed blends to form sodium-aluminum silicate precipitates when evaporated using the zeolite database. To investigate the behavior of the blended pretreated waste feed, an OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI ESP) model of the treated low activity waste (LAW) evaporator was built. A range of waste feed compositions representative of Envelope A, B, and C were then fed into the OLI model to predict various physical and chemical properties of the evaporator concentrates. Additional runs with treated LAW evaporator were performed to compare chemical and physical property model predictions and experimental results for small-scale radioactive tests of the treated feed evaporation process

  20. Hazardous waste treatment facility and skid-mounted treatment systems at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.; Zygmunt, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    To centralize treatment, storage, and staging areas for hazardous wastes, Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a 12,000-ft 2 hazardous waste treatment facility. The facility will house a treatment room for each of four kinds of wastes: nonradioactive characteristic wastes, nonradioactive listed wastes radioactive characteristic wastes, and radioactive listed wastes. The facility will be used for repacking labpacks, bulking small organic waste volumes, processing scintillation vials, treating reactives such as lithium hydride and pyrophoric uranium, treating contaminated solids such as barium sand, and treating plating wastes. The treated wastes will then be appropriately disposed of. This report describes the integral features of the hazardous waste treatment facility

  1. Mitigation of solid waste and reuse of effluent from paint and varnish automotive and industrial treated by irradiation at electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Fernando C.; Ribeiro, Marcia A.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Minamidani, Pedro T.; Guzella, Catia C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most representative industrial segments is the polymeric coatings for house paint, automotive, industrial, marine, maintenance, and repainting markets. The general consumption of paint market in 2010 was 438,364 10 3 gallons of paint, in Brazil. However, when produce paints and varnishes, various kinds of solid wastes and liquid effluent are generated. The present research focus on the effluent from resins, water base paint and paint for electrophoresis, automotive industry, and general industrial coatings. The goal of this study is to use ionizing radiation to destroy the pollutants allowing the use of part of effluent as reuse water, and the rest discarded within the specified requirements. Actual industrial effluent samples were irradiated at Electron beam Accelerator applying absorbed doses of 10 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy. The results, in this preliminary stage, showed a reduction of organic compounds and suspended solids. (author)

  2. Agricultural use of treated waste water and sludge. Final report on the PIA-9-5 Project (Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Autonomous Government of Andalusia); Uso agricola de agua residuales depuradas y lodos. Informe final sobre el proyecto PIA-9-5 (Consejeria de Agricultura y Pesca, Junta de Andalucia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olalla Mercade, L.; Diaz Diez, M.; Pozuelo Garcia, J. M.; Lillo Roldan, E.

    2004-07-01

    This article presents the results of the work carried out at the CIFA-Malaga on the agricultural use of treated waste water and the sludge from waste treatment processes. The latest data are reported from the systematic sampling of treated waste water (secondary effluent) and treatment sludge in certain treatment plants on the coast of Malaga. The physicochemical analytical data obtained from the regenerated waste water suggest that there may be ceratin salinity problems (mainly due to chlorides). There may also be problems with relatively high boron content and possibly with N and P content. The concentration of heavy metals did not generally present any immediate problems, but it must be monitored. When using sludge, it is recommended that it be mixed with organic matter and composted to facilitate its application to the soil, as this a more complex matter and must be subject to greater control. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heede, Philip; Ringoot, Niels; Beirnaert, Arno; Van Brecht, Andres; Van den Brande, Erwin; De Schutter, Geert; De Belie, Nele

    2015-12-25

    Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25) could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete's water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction.

  4. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Van den Heede

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25 could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete’s water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction.

  5. Using a tubular photosynthetic microbial fuel cell to treat anaerobically digested effluent from kitchen waste: Mechanisms of organics and ammonium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Haiyan; Yang, Zhigang; Nie, Changliang; Hou, Qingjie; Zhang, Lijie; Wang, Yuting; Zhang, Shasha

    2018-05-01

    Anaerobically digested effluent from kitchen waste (ADE-KW) was used herein as the substrate of a tubular photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (PMFC) for power production, and also, after being diluted, as a medium for cultivation of algae in the cathodic chamber. Adding 3 mg/L phosphorus to the catholyte could efficiently enhance the algal growth and the PMFC performance. About 0.94 g/L algal biomass and 0.57 kWh/m 3 -ADE-KW bioelectricity were obtained from the PMFC. Soluble microbial byproduct-like material and aromatic proteins were the dominant organics in the ADE-KW, which were readily degradable in the system. About 79% of the 1550 mg/L ammonium in the anolyte transferred to the catholyte through the cation exchange membrane. The ammonium was removed mainly as electron acceptors at the cathode after being oxidized by oxygen, whereas algal assimilation only account for about 14.6% of the overall nitrogen. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heede, Philip; Ringoot, Niels; Beirnaert, Arno; Van Brecht, Andres; Van den Brande, Erwin; De Schutter, Geert; De Belie, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25) could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete’s water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction. PMID:28787809

  7. Effect of hydraulic retention time and sludge recirculation on greenhouse gas emission and related microbial communities in two-stage membrane bioreactor treating solid waste leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuansawan, Nararatchporn; Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2016-06-01

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and responsible microorganisms during the treatment of municipal solid waste leachate in two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The MBR system, consisting of anaerobic and aerobic stages, were operated at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 and 2.5days in each reactor under the presence and absence of sludge recirculation. Organic and nitrogen removals were more than 80% under all operating conditions during which CH4 emission were found highest under no sludge recirculation condition at HRT of 5days. An increase in hydraulic loading resulted in a reduction in CH4 emission from anaerobic reactor but an increase from the aerobic reactor. N2O emission rates were found relatively constant from anaerobic and aerobic reactors under different operating conditions. Diversity of CH4 and N2O producing microorganisms were found decreasing when hydraulic loading rate to the reactors was increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Waste Receiving and Processing Module 2A waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClair, M.D.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Hyre, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document addresses the certification of Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) that will be treated in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A (WRAP 2A) and is destined for disposal in the MLLW trench of the Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). The MLLW that will be treated in WRAP 2A contains land disposal restricted and radioactive constituents. Certification of the treated waste is dependent on numerous waste management activities conducted throughout the WRAP 2A operation. These activities range from waste treatability testing conducted prior to WRAP 2A waste acceptance to overchecking final waste form quality prior to transferring waste to disposal. This document addresses the high level strategies and methodologies for certifying the final waste form. Integration among all design and verification activities that support final waste form quality assurance is also discussed. The information generated from this effort may directly support other ongoing activities including the WRAP 2A Waste Characterization Study, WRAP 2A Waste Analysis Plan development, Sample Plan development, and the WRAP 2A Data Management System functional requirements definition

  9. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J.; Alexander, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    A literature review on studies concerning radioactive wastes is presented. Literature on radioactive wastes available from the National Technical Information Service, Washington, DC, was not included in the review. Studies were reviewed that dealt with general programs for radioactive wastes; isolation of radioactive wastes; waste management; waste storage; environmental transport; transportation; risk assessment; and remedial action are reviewed

  10. Phase 2 report on the evaluation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for absorbers used to treat liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    1996-05-01

    The performance of PAN-based composite absorbers was evaluated in dynamic experiments at flow rates ranging from 25--100 bed volumes (BV) per hour. Composite absorbers with active components of ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) PAN and K-Co ferrocyanide (KCoFC) PAN were used for separating Cs from a 1 M HNO 3 + 1 M NaNO 3 + 2 x 10 -5 M CsCl acidic simulant solution. KCoFC-PAN and two other FC-based composite absorbers were tested for separating Cs from alkaline simulant solutions containing 0.01 M to 1 M NaOH and 1 M NaNO 3 + x x 10 -4 M CsCl. The efficiency of the Cs sorption on the AMP-PAN absorber from acidic simulant solutions was negatively influenced by the dissolution of the AMP active component. At flow rates of 50 BV/hr, the decontamination factor of about 10 3 could be maintained for treatment of 380 BV of the feed. With the KCoFC-PAN absorber, the decontamination factor of about 10 3 could be maintained for a feed volume as great as 1,800 BV. In alkaline simulant solutions, significant decomposition of the active components was observed, and the best performance was exhibited by the KCoFC-PAN absorber. Introductory experiments confirmed that Cs may be washed out of the composite absorbers. Regeneration of both absorbers for repetitive use was also found to be possible. The main result of the study is that PAN was proven to be a versatile polymer capable of forming porous composite absorbers with a large number of primary absorbers. The composite absorbers proved to be capable of withstanding the harsh acidic and alkaline conditions and significant radiation doses that may be expected in the treatment of US DOE wastes. A field demonstration is proposed as a follow-on activity

  11. STUDY ON PACKAGING WASTE PREVENTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scortar Lucia-Monica

    2013-07-01

    It is very important to mention that individuals and businesses can often save a significant amount of money through waste prevention: waste that never gets created doesn't have management costs (handling, transporting, treating and disposing of waste. The rule is simple: the best waste is that which is not produced.

  12. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  13. 1995 Baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.S.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1995-09-01

    This provides a detailed solid waste system description that documents the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) strategy for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and greater-than-Class III waste. This system description is intended for use by managers of the solid waste program, facility and system planners, as well as system modelers. The system description identifies the TSD facilities that constitute the solid waste system and defines these facilities' interfaces, schedules, and capacities. It also provides the strategy for treating each of the waste streams generated or received by the Hanford Site from generation or receipt through final destination

  14. Liquid secondary waste: Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-31

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, including Direct Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) vitrification, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. The powdered salt waste form produced by the ETF will be replaced by a stabilized solidified waste form for disposal in Hanford’s Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the IDF. Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF. In 2015, three Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste simulants were developed based on existing and projected waste streams. Using these waste simulants, fourteen mixes of Hanford Liquid Secondary Waste were prepared and tested varying the waste simulant, the water-to-dry materials ratio, and the dry materials blend composition.1 In FY16, testing was performed using a simulant of the EMF process condensate blended with the caustic scrubber—from the Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter—, processed through the ETF. The initial EMF-16 simulant will be based on modeling efforts performed to determine the mass balance of the ETF for the DFLAW.2 The compressive strength of all of the mixes exceeded the target of 3.4 MPa (500 psi) to meet the requirements identified as potential IDF Waste Acceptance Criteria in Table 1 of the Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan.3 The hydraulic properties of the waste forms tested (hydraulic conductivity

  15. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  16. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity and genetic mutation of microorganisms in the effluent treated with the electron-beam from waste-water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Nam, Ji Hyun; Shin, Ji Hye; Yun, Seo Yeon; Cho, Young Cheol; Oh, Kyoung hee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    In this study, the residual concentrations and activities of antibiotics after UV or gamma-ray treatments were estimated, and the effect of irradiation of UV, gamma-ray, or electron beam was estimated on the survivability and less mutagenic effect on bacteria. The changes of bacterial communities and radiation resistant population in the effluent treated with UV and electron-beam were analyzed. The gamma-ray irradiation was more effective than UV in degradation of antibiotics. The extent of mutagenicity of electron-beam irradiation was less than those of UV or gamma-ray irradiations. The application of election-beam to the wastewater treatment system showed the high efficiency of destroying and removal effects on bacterial cells. The selective increase in population of radiation resistant bacteria was not observed. These results indicate that the application of ionizing radiation to the processes of wastewater treatment system will be suitable than UV irradiation because of its degradability of variable antibiotics, high removal rate of harmful bacteria, less mutagenicity of bacteria, and low selective effect on radiation resistant bacteria

  17. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity and genetic mutation of microorganisms in the effluent treated with the electron-beam from waste-water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Nam, Ji Hyun; Shin, Ji Hye; Yun, Seo Yeon; Cho, Young Cheol; Oh, Kyoung hee

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the residual concentrations and activities of antibiotics after UV or gamma-ray treatments were estimated, and the effect of irradiation of UV, gamma-ray, or electron beam was estimated on the survivability and less mutagenic effect on bacteria. The changes of bacterial communities and radiation resistant population in the effluent treated with UV and electron-beam were analyzed. The gamma-ray irradiation was more effective than UV in degradation of antibiotics. The extent of mutagenicity of electron-beam irradiation was less than those of UV or gamma-ray irradiations. The application of election-beam to the wastewater treatment system showed the high efficiency of destroying and removal effects on bacterial cells. The selective increase in population of radiation resistant bacteria was not observed. These results indicate that the application of ionizing radiation to the processes of wastewater treatment system will be suitable than UV irradiation because of its degradability of variable antibiotics, high removal rate of harmful bacteria, less mutagenicity of bacteria, and low selective effect on radiation resistant bacteria

  18. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  19. Methodology development for radioactive waste treatment of CDTN/BR - liquid low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Carlos Antonio de

    1996-01-01

    The radioactive liquid wastes generated in Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) were initially treated by precipitation/filtration and then the resulting wet solid wastes were incorporated in cement. These wastes were composed of different chemicals and different radioactivities and were generated by different sectors. The objective of the waste treatment method was to obtain minimum wet solid waste volume and decontamination and minimum operational cost. The composition of the solid wastes were taken into consideration for compatible cementation process. Approximately 5,400 litres of liquid radioactive wastes were treated by this process during 1992-1995. The volume reduction was 1/24 th and contained 20% solids. (author)

  20. Medical waste management - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfeld, Elliott Steen; Brooks, Marianne Su-Ling

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines medical waste management, including the common sources, governing legislation and handling and disposal methods. Many developed nations have medical waste legislation, however there is generally little guidance as to which objects can be defined as infectious. This lack of clarity has made sorting medical waste inefficient, thereby increasing the volume of waste treated for pathogens, which is commonly done by incineration. This review highlights that the unnecessary classification of waste as infectious results in higher disposal costs and an increase in undesirable environmental impacts. The review concludes that better education of healthcare workers and standardized sorting of medical waste streams are key avenues for efficient waste management at healthcare facilities, and that further research is required given the trend in increased medical waste production with increasing global GDP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The structure of the Dutch waste sector and impediments for waste reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.; Wolsink, M.

    1997-01-01

    The way in which organizations collect, treat and dispose of waste in The Netherlands frustrates the achievement of waste reduction goals. The possibility that directed modification of the structure of the waste sector may contribute to stimulating consumers (i.e. all waste producers using services

  2. Management of radioactive waste from reprocessing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsden, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has a policy for radioactive waste management which is to minimize effluent discharges to the environment, to safely dispose of solid low level waste as it arises and to provide safe and cost effective methods for storing, treating and preparing for disposal all other wastes. BNF:'s overall waste management policy is to develop a strategy to minimize effluent discharges, to dispose of Solid Low Level Waste as it arises and to provide a safe and cost effective method of treating and preparing for disposal of all other waste arising on site

  3. Perspectives concerning radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a general overview of the principles of radioactive waste management as established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Subsequently, research and development related to radioactive waste management at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK·CEN is discussed. Different topical areas are treated including radioactive waste characterisation, decontamination and the long-term management of radioactive waste. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and the construction and the exploitation of the underground research laboratory HADES are cited as examples of the pioneering role that SCK·CEN has played in radioactive waste management.

  4. Treatment of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A method of treating radioactive waste to substantially reduce the volume and which is especially useful in the treatment of material which includes radioactive halogens such as 131 I, is described. A fluidised bed incinerator and calciner are used to reduce all the liquid and combustible solid waste to anhydrous granular solids, all of which is carried by fluidizing gases into an off-gas system designed for their collection. (U.K.)

  5. Methane from waste containing paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-24

    Waste solids containing paper are biologically treated in a system by: fermentation with lactobacilli, separation of the solids, ion exchange of the supernatant from the separation, anaerobic digestion of the ion-exchanged liquor, separation of a liquor from the fermentation, and digestion of the liquor. Thus, a municipal waste containing paper and water was inoculated with Aspergillus niger and lactobacilli for 2 days; the mixture was anaerobically treated and centrifuged; the clear liquor was ion exchanged; and the solid waste was filter pressed. The filter cake was treated with Trichoderma nigricaus and filtered. The filtrate and the ion-exchanged liquor were digested for CH/sub 4/ production.

  6. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BELGOWASTE was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: Purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste; centralization assumes the making of adequate arrangements for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of resiudal material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste; deep clay formations are at present preferred; disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol [fr

  7. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter formation of wastes and basic concepts of non-radioactive waste management are explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: People in Peril; Self-regulation of nature as a guide for minimizing and recycling waste; The current waste management situation in the Slovak Republic; Categorization and determination of the type of waste in legislative of Slovakia; Strategic directions waste management in the Slovak Republic.

  8. Improved Production of Thermostable Cellulase from Thermoascus aurantiacus RCKK by Fermentation Bioprocessing and Its Application in the Hydrolysis of Office Waste Paper, Algal Pulp, and Biologically Treated Wheat Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kavish Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Deswal, Deepa; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2017-02-01

    Thermostable cellulases have wide variety of applications and distinctive advantages, but their low titer becomes the hurdle in their commercialization. In the present work, an assessment of optimum levels of significant factors (temperature, moisture ratio, inoculum size, and ammonium sulfate) and the effect of their interactions on production of thermostable CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase by Thermoascus aurantiacus RCKK under solid-state fermentation (SSF) was carried out using central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The study revealed 33, 13, and 8 % improvement in FPase, CMCase, and β-glucosidase production, respectively. Moreover, crude cellulase from T. aurantiacus RCKK efficiently hydrolyzed office waste paper, algal pulp (Gracillaria verulosa), and biologically treated wheat straw at 60 °C with sugar release of about 830 mg/ml, 285 mg/g, and 260 mg/g of the substrate, respectively. The thermostable enzyme from T. aurantiacus RCKK holds potential to be used in biofuel industry.

  9. Managing a mixed waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    IT Corporation operates an analytical laboratory in St. Louis capable of analyzing environmental samples that are contaminated with both chemical and radioactive materials. Wastes generated during these analyses are hazardous in nature; some are listed wastes others exhibit characteristic hazards. When the original samples contain significant quantities of radioactive material, the waste must be treated as a mixed waste. A plan was written to document the waste management program describing the management of hazardous, radioactive and mixed wastes. This presentation summarizes the methods employed by the St. Louis facility to reduce personnel exposures to the hazardous materials, minimize the volume of mixed waste and treat the materials prior to disposal. The procedures that are used and the effectiveness of each procedure will also be discussed. Some of the lessons that have been learned while dealing with mixed wastes will be presented as well as the solutions that were applied. This program has been effective in reducing the volume of mixed waste that is generated. The management program also serves as a method to manage the costs of the waste disposal program by effectively segregating the different wastes that are generated

  10. FOUNDRY WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kosec

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in foundries is gaining a higher ecological and economical importance. Waste is becoming an increasingly traded product, where excellent profits can be made. Due to the cost reduction and successful business operation in companies, waste has to be regenerated and used again as a material to the maximum possible extent. Such research is long lasting and expensive and is a great challenge for companies. In the frame of our research, a total waste management case study for the Slovenian foundry Feniks was carried out. From the sustainable development point of view, waste management is most suitable, since it ensures the material utilization of waste, reduces the consumption of natural renewable or non-renewable resources and makes efficient production capacity utilization possible. Properly treated ecologically safe waste with a suitable physical characteristic, long-term existence, is a substitute for natural materials. Sand, dust, slag and other mineral waste from foundries are increasingly being used as materials in other industries. The foundry Feniks was awarded with certification of the environmental management system according to the standard SIST EN ISO 14001 and confirmed its environmental credentials.

  11. Calculation of projected waste loads for transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.; Koebnick, B.; Wang, Y.; Kaicher, C.

    1995-01-01

    The level of treatment and the treatment and interim storage site configurations (decentralized, regional, or centralized) impact transuranic (TRU) waste loads at and en route to sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Other elements that impact waste loads are the volume and characteristics of the waste and the unit operation parameters of the technologies used to treat it. Projected annual complexwide TRU waste loads under various TRU waste management alternatives were calculated using the WASTEunderscoreMGMT computational model. WASTEunderscoreMGMT accepts as input three types of data: (1) the waste stream inventory volume, mass, and contaminant characteristics by generating site and waste stream category; (2) unit operation parameters of treatment technologies; and (3) waste management alternative definitions. Results indicate that the designed capacity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, identified under all waste management alternatives as the permanent disposal facility for DOE-generated TRU waste, is sufficient for the projected complexwide TRU waste load under any of the alternatives

  12. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  14. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  15. Waste to wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2010-01-01

    We currently live in a world where depletion of resources is beyond control. The call for sustainable development both environmentally and economically is spelt out loud and clear. Hence, the current and future generations must ensure that all resources shall be preserved, fully utilized and well managed. Waste generation has been part and parcel of man kinds pursuit for development, be it in social or economic activities. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an example of socio-economic activities that entails with waste generation. Generation rates of MSW vary according to the economic and social standing of a country. This in return will also affect the management style of the MSW generated. Generally, the higher income countries generated more waste, recycle more and have the money to employ new technology to treat their waste. As for the lower income countries, the waste generated is more organic in nature, which calls for lesser recycling, whereas disposal is by open dumping. The effects of this naturally would mean that in the lower income countries pollution to the water and air is huge as compare to the more developed countries. However on the other hand, does waste alone generate harmful gasses that pollute the world or does manufacturing, transportation and power production, which is rampant in the more industrialized countries contributing more towards pollution? This subject is argumentative and could be discussed at length. However, the environment cannot wait for the population to debate on the above matter. Action needs to be taken in a world where economic power determines the treatment method. Hence, the idea of recovering all 'wealth' in the waste is essential to ensure that even the poorest countries could benefit from all waste management technologies. For this to work, recycling, reuse and recovery of energy is essential in an integrated approach towards waste management. This would also mean that many environmental disasters could be avoided

  16. The structure of the Dutch waste sector and impediments for waste reduction

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, P.; Wolsink, M.

    1997-01-01

    The way in which organizations collect, treat and dispose of waste in The Netherlands frustrates the achievement of waste reduction goals. The possibility that directed modification of the structure of the waste sector may contribute to stimulating consumers (i.e. all waste producers using services from collectors) to limit the generation of waste at the source by means of source reduction, re-use and recycling, is the subject of research of which the first results are presented here. This ar...

  17. Waste Not, Want Not: Managing Livestock Waste for Income and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Christoe, Jock

    2003-01-01

    The world-wide intensification of livestock industries poses major challenges for waste disposal. For example, the total solids wastes discharged from livestock farms in China exceeded 1.7 billion tons in 1997, with a further 20 billion tons of waste water being discharged to the environment — only 10% of these wastes were treated! A key element of sustainable development is Cleaner Production. Cleaner Production is an approach in which wastes are handled in such a way that environmental poll...

  18. Management on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents fΩm Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  19. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  20. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  1. Hanford Central Waste Complex: Waste Receiving and Processing Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, and/or disposal (TSD) unites that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford Facility. The Complex includes two units: the WRAP Facility and the Radioactive Mixed Wastes Storage Facility (RMW Storage Facility). This Part B permit application addresses the WRAP Facility. The Facility will be a treatment and storage unit that will provide the capability to examine, sample, characterize, treat, repackage, store, and certify radioactive and/or mixed waste. Waste treated and stored will include both radioactive and/or mixed waste received from onsite and offsite sources. Certification will be designed to ensure and demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria set forth by onsite disposal units and/or offsite facilities that subsequently are to receive waste from the WRAP Facility. This permit application discusses the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characterization; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plant; personnel training; exposure information report; waste minimization plan; closure and postclosure requirements; reporting and recordkeeping; other relevant laws; certification

  2. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    A system of combining a calciner for concentrated radioactive liquid waste and an incinerator for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste is being developed. Both the calciner and the incinerator are operated by fluidized bed method. The system features the following points: (1) Inflammable miscellaneous solids and concentrated liquid can be treated in combination to reduce the volume. (2) Used ion-exchange resin can be incinerated. (3) The system is applicable even if any final waste disposal method is adopted; calcinated and incinerated solids obtained as intermediate products are easy to handle and store. (4) The system is readily compatible with other waste treatment systems to form optimal total system. The following matters are described: the principle of fluidized-bed furnaces, the objects of treatment, system constitution, the features of the calciner and incinerator, and the current status of development. (J.P.N.)

  3. Vitrified metal finishing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, P.A. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.a.bingham@sheffield.ac.uk; Hand, R.J. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-17

    Durable phosphate glasses were formed by vitrifying waste filter cakes from two metal finishing operations. Some melts formed crystalline components during cooling. Compositional analysis of dried, heat treated and vitrified samples was made using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy and Leco induction furnace combustion analysis. Hydrolytic dissolution, measured by an adapted product consistency test, was reduced by up to 3 orders of magnitude upon heat treatment or vitrification, surpassing the performance of borosilicate glass in some cases. This was attributed to the high levels of iron and zinc in the wastes, which greatly improve the durability of phosphate glasses. One of the wastes arose from a metal phosphating process and was particularly suitable for vitrification due to its high P{sub 2}O{sub 5} content and favourable melting behaviour. The other waste, which arose from a number of processes, was less suitable as it had a low P{sub 2}O{sub 5} content and during heating it emitted harmful corrosive gases and underwent violent reactions. Substantial volume reductions were obtained by heat treatment and vitrification of both wastes. Compositions and performances of some vitrified wastes were comparable with those of glasses which are under consideration for the immobilisation of toxic and nuclear wastes.

  4. Energy from waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajidas, A.

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with the fast growing population, the demand for energy and the discharge of waste are also increasing day by day. So, there is two method of waste treatment that practiced by our company, centralised and de centralised. For de centralised treatment, there are some advantages like no collection, no transportation, small investment and for disadvantages, more treatment plants are needed. Waste of food materials and other bio degradable wastes generated in Factory canteens, Convents, Hospitals, Hostels, Hotels and other industrial organizations can be treated in an eco-friendly way for the production of cooking gas in very large scale. BIOTECH has completed the installation of 52 Nos. power generation projects using market /slaughter house waste. The power generated from these projects is being utilized for energy requirements of the concerned markets and to meet the in-house requirements of the projects. In recognition of our selfless services to the society through our system of waste management and the generation of Energy from waste. BIOTECH was honored by conferring on it the prestigious International Ashden Award GREEN OSCAR 2007. (Author)

  5. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  6. Co-Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Waste With Other Waste Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Several characteristics make anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) difficult. By co-digestion of OFMSW with several other waste types it will be possible to optimize the anaerobic process by waste management. The co-digestion concept involves the treatment...... of several waste types in a single treatment facility. By combining many types of waste it will be possible to treat a wider range of organic waste types by the anaerobic digestion process (figure 1). Furthermore, co-digestion enables the treatment of organic waste with a high biogas potential that makes...... the operation of biogas plants more economically feasible (Ahring et al., 1992a). Thus, co-digestion gives a new attitude to the evaluation of waste: since anaerobic digestion of organic waste is both a waste stabilization method and an energy gaining process with production of a fertilizer, organic waste...

  7. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  8. Secondary Waste Cementitious Waste Form Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-16

    A review of the most up-to-date and relevant data currently available was conducted to develop a set of recommended values for use in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA) to model contaminant release from a cementitious waste form for aqueous wastes treated at the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). This data package relies primarily upon recent data collected on Cast Stone formulations fabricated with simulants of low-activity waste (LAW) and liquid secondary wastes expected to be produced at Hanford. These data were supplemented, when necessary, with data developed for saltstone (a similar grout waste form used at the Savannah River Site). Work is currently underway to collect data on cementitious waste forms that are similar to Cast Stone and saltstone but are tailored to the characteristics of ETF-treated liquid secondary wastes. Recommended values for key parameters to conduct PA modeling of contaminant release from ETF-treated liquid waste are provided.

  9. Liquid waste evaporator operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchamp, A.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) operates the Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) to treat and immobilize some of the low- level radioactive waste (LLRW) streams at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). The WTC at treats low- level radioactive liquid waste by removing the contaminants from the wastewater, concentrating them, and immobilizing them. The fundamental design concept for the WTC is to process the waste streams using forced circulation type liquid waste evaporation (LWE), to solidify the concentrates using thin film evaporator and to discharge the purified effluent into the Ottawa River following verification monitoring. The solidified product drums are stored in existing storage facilities in the CRL. The LWE was installed in the WTC to treat the LLRW. After about four (4) years of design, construction and cold commissioning, the active commissioning of the evaporator process using radioactive waste streams commenced in February 2000. The LWE has overcome problems encountered with previous processing system such as fouling and enabled treatment of historical liquid wastes, which are currently stored in tanks at CRL, and waste from future CRL projects. This paper summarizes some of the operating experience obtained during the last four years of operation. (author)

  10. Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection Data Package—Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pires, Richard P.

    2011-09-12

    The Hanford Site in southeast Washington State has 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored in 177 underground tanks (ORP 2010). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), through its contractors, is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to convert the radioactive and hazardous wastes into stable glass waste forms for disposal. Within the WTP, the pretreatment facility will receive the retrieved waste from the tank farms and separate it into two treated process streams. These waste streams will be vitrified, and the resulting waste canisters will be sent to offsite (high-level waste [HLW]) and onsite (immobilized low-activity waste [ILAW]) repositories. As part of the pretreatment and ILAW processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed of in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is developing data packages to support that down-selection. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilizing and solidifying the liquid secondary wastes. At the Hanford Site, the FBSR process is being evaluated as a supplemental technology for treating and immobilizing Hanford LAW radioactive tank waste and for treating secondary wastes from the WTP pretreatment and LAW vitrification processes.

  11. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  12. Waste predisposal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    All Member States have to a large or small extent nuclear activities that generate radioactive wastes. Hospitals, research in biomedicine or in agriculture, and some industrial applications, beside other large nuclear activities such as Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Research, generate unconditioned liquid or solid radioactive wastes that have to be treated, conditioned and stored prior final disposal. Countries with small nuclear activities require of organizations and infrastructure as to be able to manage, in a safe manner, the wastes that they generate. Predisposal management of radioactive waste is any step carried out to convert raw waste into a stable form suitable for the safe disposal, such as pre-treatment, treatment, storage and relevant transport. Transport of radioactive waste do not differ, in general, from other radioactive material and so are not considered within the scope of this fact sheet (Nevertheless the Agency, within the Nuclear Safety Department, has created a special Unit that might give advise Member States in this area). Predisposal management is comprised of a set of activities whose implementation may take some time. In most of the cases, safety issues and strategic and economical considerations have to be solved prior the main decisions are taken. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance for the management of radioactive waste at national and operating level, in the definition and/or implementation of the projects. The services could include, but are not limited to guidance in the definition of national waste management strategy and its implementation, definition of the most adequate equipment and practices taking into account specific Member State conditions, as well as assisting in the procurement, technical expertise for the evaluation of current status of operating facilities and practical guidance for the implementation of corrective actions, assistance in the definition of waste acceptance criteria for

  13. Industrial Wastes as Alternative Mineral Addition in Portland Cement and as Aggregate in Coating Mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Kamilla Almeida; Nazário, Bruna Inácio; Oliveira, Antonio Pedro Novaes de; Hotza, Dachamir; Raupp-Pereira, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation study of wastes from pulp and paper as well as construction and demolition industries for application in cement-based materials. The alternative raw materials were used as a source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and as pozzolanic material (water-reactive SiO2) in partial replacement of Portland cement. In addition to the hydraulic binder, coating mortars were composed by combining the pulp and paper fluidized bed sand residue with construction and demolition wa...

  14. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  15. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Marešová, Adéla

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  16. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  17. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BelgoWaste was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste, centralization assuming that adequate arrangements are made for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of residual material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste (deep clay formations are at present preferred); and disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic Ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol. (author)

  18. Pilot plant study for treating sewage in the waste water treatment plant at Crevillente-Derramador, Alicante, Spain; Estudio con plant piloto para el tratamiento de aguas residuales en la EDAR de Crevillente-Derramador (Alicante)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Santos Asensi, J. M.; Martinez Muro, M. A.; Sanchez Ventral, A.; Martinez Cosin, J. M.

    2002-07-01

    It is much easier to carry out preliminary studies before a waste water treatment plant is built or enlarged or to identify existing problems and their possible solutions by using a portable pilot plant that is capable of operating under real conditions using the actual waste water that is causing the problem. A pilot plant was used to conduct treatability studies on the ground in the waste water treatment plant at Crevillente-Derramador, Alicante, Spain. The project was set up and directed by the Public Waste Water Treatment Agency of the Autonomous Community of Valencia. The work was aimed at finding a solution to existing problems in the plant and in pre dimensioning its future facilities. (Author) 8 refs.

  19. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  20. Waste Management Decision-Making Process During a Homeland Security Incident Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    A step-by-step guide on how to make waste management-related decisions including how waste can be minimized, collected and treated, as well as where waste can be sent for staging, storage and final disposal.

  1. Tricky Treats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Tricky Treats shows children the difference between healthy snacks and sweet treats.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  2. Study on technology for radioactive waste treatment and management from uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu Hung Trieu; Vu Thanh Quang; Nguyen Duc Thanh; Trinh Giang Huong; Tran Van Hoa; Hoang Minh Chau; Ngo Van Tuyen; Nguyen Hoang Lan; Vuong Huu Anh

    2007-01-01

    There is some solid and liquid radioactive waste created during producing Uranium that needs being treated and managed to keep our environment safe. This radioactive waste contains Uranium (U-238), Thorium (Th-232), Radium (Ra-226) and some heavy metals and mainly is low radioactive waste. Our project has researched and built up appropriate technology for treating and managing the radioactive waste. After researching and experimenting, we have built up four technology processes as follows: Technology for separating Radium from liquid waste; Technology for treating and managing solid waste containing Ra; Technology for separating Thorium from liquid waste after recovering radium; Technology for stabilizing solid waste from Uranium production. (author)

  3. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  4. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nuttall, E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    1996-04-10

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

  5. Bioremediation of treated wood with bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen

    2006-01-01

    This chapter reviews prior research in the field of bacterial bioremediation for wood treated with oilborne and inorganic preservatives. Current state of the art is summarized along with potential benefits and pitfalls of a pilot-scale bioremediation process for CCA-treated waste wood.

  6. Bioremediation of cooking oil waste using lipases from wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Hamaio Okino-Delgado

    Full Text Available Cooking oil waste leads to well-known environmental impacts and its bioremediation by lipase-based enzymatic activity can minimize the high cytotoxic potential. In addition, they are among the biocatalysts most commercialized worldwide due to the versatility of reactions and substrates. However, although lipases are able to process cooking oil wastes, the products generated from this process do not necessarily become less toxic. Thus, the aim of the current study is to analyze the bioremediation of lipase-catalyzed cooking oil wastes, as well as their effect on the cytotoxicity of both the oil and its waste before and after enzymatic treatment. Thus, assessed the post-frying modification in soybean oil and in its waste, which was caused by hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by commercial and home-made lipases. The presence of lipases in the extracts obtained from orange wastes was identified by zymography. The profile of the fatty acid esters formed after these reactions was detected and quantified through gas chromatography and fatty acids profile compared through multivariate statistical analyses. Finally, the soybean oil and its waste, with and without enzymatic treatment, were assessed for toxicity in cytotoxicity assays conducted in vitro using fibroblast cell culture. The soybean oil wastes treated with core and frit lipases through transesterification reaction were less toxic than the untreated oils, thus confirming that cooking oil wastes can be bioremediated using orange lipases.

  7. Bioremediation of cooking oil waste using lipases from wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Débora Zanoni; Facanali, Roselaine; Marques, Márcia Mayo Ortiz; Nascimento, Augusto Santana; Fernandes, Célio Junior da Costa; Zambuzzi, William Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Cooking oil waste leads to well-known environmental impacts and its bioremediation by lipase-based enzymatic activity can minimize the high cytotoxic potential. In addition, they are among the biocatalysts most commercialized worldwide due to the versatility of reactions and substrates. However, although lipases are able to process cooking oil wastes, the products generated from this process do not necessarily become less toxic. Thus, the aim of the current study is to analyze the bioremediation of lipase-catalyzed cooking oil wastes, as well as their effect on the cytotoxicity of both the oil and its waste before and after enzymatic treatment. Thus, assessed the post-frying modification in soybean oil and in its waste, which was caused by hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by commercial and home-made lipases. The presence of lipases in the extracts obtained from orange wastes was identified by zymography. The profile of the fatty acid esters formed after these reactions was detected and quantified through gas chromatography and fatty acids profile compared through multivariate statistical analyses. Finally, the soybean oil and its waste, with and without enzymatic treatment, were assessed for toxicity in cytotoxicity assays conducted in vitro using fibroblast cell culture. The soybean oil wastes treated with core and frit lipases through transesterification reaction were less toxic than the untreated oils, thus confirming that cooking oil wastes can be bioremediated using orange lipases. PMID:29073166

  8. Nuclear waste in Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf (short: Seibersdorf) is the company operating the research reactor ASTRA. A controversy arose, initied by the Greens and some newspapers on the fact that the waste conditioning plant in Seibersdorf treated not only Austrian waste (from hospitals etc.) but also a large quantity of ion exchange resins from the Caorso nuclear power station, against payment. The author argues that it is untenable that an Austrian institution (peaceful use of nuclear energy in Austria being abandoned by a referendum) should support nuclear power abroad. There is also a short survey on nuclear waste conditioning and an account of an exchange of letters, between the Seibersdorf and the Ecology Institute on the claim of being an 'independent measuring institution' of food, soil, etc. samples. The author argues that the Ecology Institute is the sole independent institution in Austria because it is part of the ecology- and antinuclear movement, whereas Seibersdorf is dependent on the state. (qui)

  9. Treating waste waters from anchovy canneries for subsequent re-use by means of a combined anaerobic and anoxic-anaerobic biological process followed by physico-chemical tertiary treatment.; Tratamiento de aguas residuales de industrias conserveras de anchoas para su posterior reutilizacion, mediante un proceso biologico combinado anaerobio, anoxico-aerobio y un tratamiento terciario fisicoquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, N.; Alonso, E.; Giron, A. M.; Amieva, J. J.; Tejero, I. [Universidad de Cantabria. Torrelavaga (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    A study was made at a pilot plant of a method of treating waste waters from anchovy canneries so that they could subsequently be re-used. This waste contains high concentrations of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, oils and fats, and has a high degree of salinity. The first stage of the pilot plant consisted of a homogenization tank, a dissolved air flotation clarifier, a hybrid anaerobic digester (UASB+ plastic filling filter), an activated sludge aerobic reactor (which alternates aerobic and anoxic stages) and a secondary decanter. The effluent from the biological process was subjected to physicochemical treatment in a second pilot plant operating intermittent lt. The second pilot plant consisted of a granular active carbon filter, a 5 mn filter and a reverse osmosis membrane module. (Author) 8 refs.

  10. Transportation of separate waste fractions in an underground waste transportation system

    OpenAIRE

    Shibutani, Satomi

    2010-01-01

    Today waste management has entered a new stage. Since wastes still contain natural materials and energy that can be extracted, it should be treated in effective ways, for example, for energy recovery or material recycling. Many countries and the municipalities have therefore made waste treatment strategies in accordance with for example, EU directives or governmental regulations. In such circumstances, Envac is one of waste management companies in Sweden, which collects different kinds of was...

  11. WASTE MANAGEMENT IN A SCHOOL RESTAURANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Peruchin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the amount of waste generated and its proper final destination is one of the greatest environmental issues. The higher education institutions are an important source of waste due to its diversity of teaching, researching and extension activities undertaken by academic world. The university restaurant supplies meals to the university community and ends up generating a kind of waste similar to the domestic waste, but in a bigger amount. The aim of this study was to investigate the gravimetric composition of the waste generated in the school restaurant of a higher-education institution in southern Brazil and provide a diagnostic of the current waste management. The data were obtained through a characterization process of the solid waste generated in one week; an interview with the responsible managers and direct observation of the local structure. It was found non-existence of a Management Plan for Solid Waste, as well as a lack of practices relative to its management. The waste segregation is impaired due the lack of specific and labeled bins, besides the overworked employees. Along the experimental period it were characterized 547,068 Kg of solid waste, in which more than 80% were organic waste. The paper concludes that the organic waste could be treated by composting. It is recommended the formulation and implementation of an integrated management plan for solid waste in order to provide adequate infrastructure for waste management in the school restaurant.

  12. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part......Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...

  13. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  14. Environmental restoration waste materials co-disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; England, J.L.; Kirdendall, J.R.; Raney, E.A.; Stewart, W.E.; Dagan, E.B.; Holt, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    Co-disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste is a highly efficient and cost-saving technology. The technology used for final treatment of soil-washing size fractionization operations is being demonstrated on simulated waste. Treated material (wasterock) is used to stabilize and isolate retired underground waste disposal structures or is used to construct landfills or equivalent surface or subsurface structures. Prototype equipment is under development as well as undergoing standardized testing protocols to prequalify treated waste materials. Polymer and hydraulic cement solidification agents are currently used for geotechnical demonstration activities

  15. Chapter 7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The inspection and assessment activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on minimization of activity and the quantity of produced radioactive waste (RAW), and on increasing safety of waste management. The general scheme of rad-waste management in the Slovak Republic is presented. The radioactive wastes produced during the operation of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 and NPP Mochovce in 1999 are listed.Liquid RAW was treated and conditioned into a solid form at the nuclear facility Technology for treatment and conditioning of RAW. In 1999 combustible solid waste was treated at the nuclear facility Incinerator of VUJE Trnava. Produced liquid and solid RAW are stored at designed equipment at individual nuclear installations (in case of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce in compliance with the Regulation No. 67/1987 Coll. law).The status of free capacity of these storages as of 31.121999 is presented. Storage solidified product built the SE-VYZ was fully filled at the end of 1999. In 1999 there was a significant improvement in the process of radioactive waste management by: (A) issuing approval for commissioning the National Repository for RAW, (B) issuing approval for commissioning the Treatment and Conditioning Center for RAW, (C) having the application for approval to transport conditioned RAW to the National repository Mochovce in the final stage of evaluation. At the beginning of 2000 it is realistic to expect that RAW conditioned in the Conditioning center of RAW will start to be disposed at the National repository of RAW in Mochovce

  16. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  17. Wasting away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzman, L.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of radioactive waste disposal are discussed, with particular reference to the following: radiation hazards from uranium mill tailings; disposal and storage of high-level wastes from spent fuel elements and reprocessing; low-level wastes; decommissioning of aged reactors; underground disposal, such as in salt formations; migration of radioactive isotopes, for example into ground water supplies or into the human food chain. (U.K.)

  18. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  19. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  20. Radioactive waste treatment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Chellis, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment apparatus is disclosed in which the waste is burned in a controlled combustion process, the ash residue from the combustion process is removed and buried, the gaseous effluent is treated in a scrubbing solution the pH of which is maintained constant by adding an alkaline compound to the solution while concurrently extracting a portion of the scrubbing solution, called the blowdown stream. The blowdown stream is fed to the incinerator where it is evaporated and the combustibles in the blowdown stream burned and the gaseous residue sent to the scrubbing solution. Gases left after the scrubbing process are treated to remove iodides and are filtered and passed into the atmosphere

  1. Thermal treatment of organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrubasik, A.; Stich, W.

    1993-01-01

    The organic radioactive waste which is generated in nuclear and isotope facilities (power plants, research centers and other) must be treated in order to achieve a waste form suitable for long term storage and disposal. Therefore the resulting waste treatment products should be stable under influence of temperature, time, radioactivity, chemical and biological activity. Another reason for the treatment of organic waste is the volume reduction with respect to the storage costs. For different kinds of waste, different treatment technologies have been developed and some are now used in industrial scale. The paper gives process descriptions for the treatment of solid organic radioactive waste of low beta/gamma activity and alpha-contaminated solid organic radioactive waste, and the pyrolysis of organic radioactive waste

  2. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  3. Nondestructive and destructive measurements, a synergy for the wastes characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoravain, S.; Dogny, S.

    2001-01-01

    The waste generated by nuclear industry have to be treated and conditioned to be stored in sites managed by ANDRA. Three channels are conceivable, the storage of very low activity waste, the surface storage of short live and low and intermediate activity waste, and the deep storage for long life or high activity waste. At this day, only the surface storage for waste at short life and low and intermediate activity is operational and allows to evacuate the radioactive waster. (N.C.)

  4. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood

  5. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department.

  6. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department

  7. Tank waste technical options report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomer, K.D.; Baker, S.K.; Boldt, A.L.; Galbraith, J.D.; Garfield, J.S.; Golberg, C.E.; Higley, B.A.; Johnson, L.J.; Kupfer, M.J.; Marusich, R.M.; Parazin, R.J.; Praga, A.N.; Reddick, G.W.; Reddick, J.A.; Slaathaug, E.J.; Swanson, L.M.; Waldo, T.L.; Worcester, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    This document, Tank Waste Technical Options Report, assesses technologies that can be applied to treat and dispose of all Hanford Site tank waste including the cesium and strontium capsules. This effort continues the single-shell tank systems engineering work that began at the urging of a National Academy of Science subpanel. The study develops data on specific technologies that are combined to form alternativesfor waste treatment and disposal. These alternatives are defined and evaluated in the Tank Waste Decision Analysis Report. Both studies are an integral part of the Tank Waste Remediation System goal of defininga new technical strategy in 1993. The engineering work represented in this document will also serve as data for the environmental impact statement support document

  8. Evaluation of waste treatment technologies by LLWDDD [Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration] Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennerly, J.M.; Williams, L.C.; Dole, L.R.; Genung, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Waste treatments are divided into four categories: (1) volume reduction; (2) conditioning to improve waste form performance; (3) segregation to achieve waste reduction; and (4) separation to remove radioactive (or hazardous) constituents. Two waste treatment demonstrations are described. In the first, volume reduction by mechanical means was achieved during the supercompaction of 300 55-gal drums of solid waste at ORNL. In the second demonstration, conditioning of waste through immobilization and packaging to improve the performance of the waste form is being evaluated. The final section of this paper describes potential scenarios for the management of uranium-contaminated wastes at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge and emphasizes where demonstrations of treatment technology will be needed to implement the scenarios. Separation and thermal treatment are identified as the principal means for treating these wastes. 15 figs

  9. More value from food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid...... (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 C to 55 C, with the highest performance attained at 50 C. At 50 C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration...

  10. Sawmill "Waste"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred C. Simmons; Adna R. Bond

    1955-01-01

    Sawmills have the reputation of being very wasteful in converting logs and bolts into lumber and timbers. Almost everyone has seen the great heaps of sawdust and slabs that collect at sawmills. Frequently the question is asked, "Why doesn't somebody do something about this terrible waste of wood?"

  11. Radioactive waste management at ANSTO - Managing current and historic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.; Dimitrovski, L.; Hart, K.; Levins, D.

    2001-01-01

    ANSTO aimed at improving current processes and waste systems are being carried out. Currently, waste water from active drains at ANSTO is treated by a flocculation/centrifugation process and discharged to the sewer. Over the next few years, ANSTO plans to upgrade its effluent treatment facilities using state-of-the-art technology. Pilot plant demonstration of a membrane-based process is in progress after which a specification will be prepared for a full scale plant. Planning is also under way for a new facility to treat and package ANSTO's radioactive waste in readiness for disposal in the national repository for low level and short lived intermediate level waste. (author)

  12. WRAP Module 1 waste characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the characterization methodology for waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility. The scope of this document includes all solid low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), mixed waste (MW), and dangerous waste. This document is not meant to be all-inclusive of the waste processed or generated within WRAP Module 1, but to present a methodology for characterization. As other streams are identified, the method of characterization will be consistent with the other streams identified in this plan. The WRAP Module 1 facility is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The facility's function is two-fold. The first is to verify/characterize, treat and repackage contact handled (CH) waste currently in retrievable storage in the LLW Burial Grounds, Hanford Central Waste Complex, and the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF). The second is to verify newly generated CH TRU waste and LLW, including MW. The WRAP Module 1 facility provides NDE and NDA of the waste for both drums and boxes. The NDE is used to identify the physical contents of the waste containers to support waste characterization and processing, verification, or certification. The NDA results determine the radioactive content and distribution of the waste

  13. Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport

  14. Mixed Waste Treatment Project -- Scope and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.; Cowan, S.; Harmon, L.H.; Rhoderick, J.; Musgrave, B.C.; Ross, W.A.

    1992-03-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) facilities currently store and generate significant quantities of mixed wastes - mixtures of materials containing both radioactive and hazardous chemical contamination. These wastes must be managed in compliance with DOE requirements and EPA Land Disposal Restrictions. To help meet these requirements for low-level mixed wastes, the DOE Office of Waste Operations has established The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP). The overall goal of the MWTP is demonstration of effective treatment of low-level mixed wastes in a full-scale prototype plant. The MWTP staff, supported by a technical committee comprised of waste operations representatives from Hanford, Idaho, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats and Savannah River have reviewed the three major DOE data bases, the Integrated Data Base, the National Report on Prohibited Wastes and the Waste Management Information System data base managed by HAZWRAP. Database upgrades to meet MWTP needs are being pursued by field visits to the major mixed waste generators. A reference flowsheet was developed for treatment of low level contact handled mixed wastes. Technology gaps identified by these analyses are being used by DOE Waste Operations, and the Office of Technology Development to define technology development needs. A brief analysis of options for deployment of capabilities to treat mixed wastes at DOE facilities nationwide has been conducted

  15. Domestic Waste: Sources, Effects, and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, A.; Hegazi, N.

    1999-01-01

    Waste is any discarded material. Domestic wastes are those produced by individual activities. In common with other living organisms, humans discharge waste substances to the environment that in turn re-energize the endless cycle of nature. Human activities are closely associated with ambient environment (soil , water, or air) through accumulation of domestic waste. Such household hazardous waste deposit arise from the discharge of domestic activities in the form of municipal solid waste (household, commercial and public street wastes), night soil (human and animal body wastes, excreta, or excrement). In rural areas, night soil is one of several components of the refuse that pollute the land. The surface water may be also directly polluted by domestic wastes or agricultural wastes. But in urbanized areas, household wastes, bathroom and laundry are conveniently flushed away by water as domestic wastewater through sewerage system, and disposed onto land or into receiving water, or in some countries it is treated and re-discharged for domestic usage. Solid waste in the form of kitchen garbage and other household refuse is collected for landfill disposal or for re-industrialization. Many domestic waste influence indoor air quality in urban and rural areas as for example the fuel used for cooking, smoke from cooking and from smoking habits, modern building materials, insulation, fabrics and furniture, cleaning materials, solvents, pesticides, personal care products, organic material or vegetable origin and dander from domestic life

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  17. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  18. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission

  19. The use of electro membrane technology in treating waste waters in the surface treatment industry; Electromembrana como tecnologia de tratamiento de aguas residuales en la industria de tratamiento de superficies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Gomez, J. R. [Universidad Alfonso X el Sabio. Villanueva de la Canada. Madrid (Spain); Marquinez, R.; Belaustegui, Y.; Valle, B. [LEIA CDT. ParqueTecnologico de Alava. Minano. Alava (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper three electro membrane technologies, Electrodialysis, trohidrolysis are described. After studying their fundamentals, a series of examples of application in different industrial sectors are given. These show the utility of the above technologies to minimize the environmental impact of industrial processes. Their main advantages are the recovery of valuable chemicals contained in industrial effluents and the dramatic reduction in the sludge generated in the waste treatment conventional methods (up to 90%). (Author) 23 refs.

  20. A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal

  1. The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996

  2. Robotics for mixed waste operations, demonstration description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is developing technology to aid in the cleanup of DOE sites. Included in the OTD program are the Robotics Technology Development Program and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. These two programs are working together to provide technology for the cleanup of mixed waste, which is waste that has both radioactive and hazardous constituents. There are over 240,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste accumulated at DOE sites and the cleanup is expected to generate about 900,000 cubic meters of mixed low level waste over the next five years. This waste must be monitored during storage and then treated and disposed of in a cost effective manner acceptable to regulators and the states involved. The Robotics Technology Development Program is developing robotics technology to make these tasks safer, better, faster and cheaper through the Mixed Waste Operations team. This technology will also apply to treatment of transuranic waste. The demonstration at the Savannah River Site on November 2-4, 1993, showed the progress of this technology by DOE, universities and industry over the previous year. Robotics technology for the handling, characterization and treatment of mixed waste as well robotics technology for monitoring of stored waste was demonstrated. It was shown that robotics technology can make future waste storage and waste treatment facilities better, faster, safer and cheaper

  3. Waste Analysis Plan for 241-Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIRZEL, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The 241-2 waste tanks are used to store, treat, and transfer waste to Tank Farms. The sampling requirements are established to identify the composition of the tank waste. The primary goal is to meet the Tank Farms acceptance criteria. Tank Farms will not accept waste without extensive characterization sample data. Process and lab wastes are sampled for suitability prior to routing to Tk-D8. The samples are helpful in tracking the amount of chemical constituents to determine treatment and are required to maintain Pu inventory and criticality prevention limitations. Likewise, the waste is sampled prior to inter-tank transfers. The revised Waste Analysis Plan for 241-2 (WAP) contains current facility, process and waste descriptions. The WAP lists the Double Shell Tank (DST) system acceptance criteria, sampling parameters and required analyses. The characterization data on historical process wastes was deleted. A section on the Tank Farms waste approval procedural process was added to describe the steps necessary and documentation required to transfer waste to the DST system. Failure to collect proper samples will result in Tank Farms' refusal to accept PFP waste until proper sampling conditions are met. This will use up unnecessary time and resources but not place the plant in a hazardous position

  4. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  5. The OTD Robotics Waste Minimization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, S.A.

    1992-04-01

    The danger to human health and safety posed by exposure to transuranic (TRU) and Pu contaminated materials necessitates remote processing in confined environments. Currently these operations are carried out in gloveboxes and hot-cells by human operators using lead- lined gloves or teleoperated manipulators. Protective clothing worn by operators during gloved operations has contributed significantly to the waste problems currently facing site remediators. The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Program is in the process of developing and demonstrating technologies to assist in the remediation of sites that have accumulated wastes generated using these processes over the past five decades. Recognizing that continued use of existing production, recovery and waste treatment systems will compound the remediation problem, DOE has made a commitment to waste minimization. To reduce waste generation during weapons production and waste processing operations, automated processes are being developed and demonstrated for use in future DOE processing facilities as part of OTD's Robotics Technology Development Program. These technologies are currently being applied to pyrochemical processing systems to demonstrate conversion of plutonium oxide to metal. However, these technologies are expected to have applications in a variety of waste processing systems including those used to treat high-level tank wastes, buried wastes requiring remote processing, mixed wastes, and unknown hazardous materials. In addition to reducing the future waste burden of DOE, automated processes are an effective way to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to personal health and safety and the health of the environment

  6. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  7. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  8. Waste processing practices at waste management department from INR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR), subsidiary of the Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities has its own Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR). The object of activity of STDR within the INR Pitesti is to treat and condition radioactive waste resulted from the nuclear facility. Also, it will must prepare and manage the decommissioning projects of its own facilities and to upgrade the facilities for the management of the radioactive waste resulting from other decommissioning activities. In according with the National Nuclear Program and the Governmental order no. 11/2003, the Institute for Nuclear Research is the main support for implementation of the methods and technologies for conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste generated by the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The classes and criteria of classification for radioactive waste generated in operation and decommissioning in Romania are established in compliance with the classification recommended by IAEA and generally valid in EU countries. The general classification takes into consideration the disposal requirements to isolate the radioactive waste from environment. In Romania, waste minimization is considered by Order No. 56/2004 of CNCAN President for approval of Fundamental regulations on the safe management of radioactive waste. According to this regulation, the generation of radioactive waste is to be kept to the minimum practicable level in terms of both its activity and volume through appropriate design measures, facility operation and decommissioning practices. In order to meet this requirement, the operator must ensure: - selection and control of materials; - recycling and reuse of materials, including clearance of materials; - implementing adequate operating procedures, including those referring to the physical, chemical and radiological characterization of the waste and sorting of different type of materials. (orig.)

  9. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent of the sew......In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent...

  10. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  11. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization

  12. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radioactive wastes database at Brazilian Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, L.C.A.; Silva, F.

    1994-01-01

    Development and implementation of a radioactive waste management data base are being carried out at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN. The objectives are to treat and retrieve information about wastes generated and received at the Centre in order to facilitate the waste management. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 261.2 - Definition of solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are solid wastes if they are recycled—or accumulated, stored, or treated before recycling—as specified... this paragraph. (2) The following materials are solid wastes, even if the recycling involves use, reuse... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 261.2...

  15. Effect of thermal and physicochemical treatment on abattoir waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evacuation of abattoir waste waters into water bodies results in excessive proliferation of decomposers, thus causing oxygen depletion and eutrophication. This study is designed to find means of effectively treating the abattoir waste water before they are reused or discharged into water bodies. The waste water was taken ...

  16. Method of processing liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, Katsumi; Oohashi, Takeshi; Kawakatsu, Ryu; Kuribayashi, Kotaro.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To process radioactive liquid wastes with safety by distillating radioactive liquid wastes while passing gases, properly treating the distillation fractions, adding combustible and liquid synthetic resin material to the distillation residues, polymerizing to solidify and then burning them. Method: Radioactive substance - containing liquid wastes are distillated while passing gases and the distillation fractions containing no substantial radioactive substances are treated in an adequate method. Synthetic resin material, which may be a mixture of polymer and monomer, is added together with a catalyst to the distillation residues containing almost of the radioactive substances to polymerize and solidify. Water or solvent in such an extent as not hindering the solidification may be allowed if remained. The solidification products are burnt for facilitating the treatment of the radioactive substances. The resin material can be selected suitably, methacrylate syrup (mainly solution of polymethylmethacrylate and methylmethacrylate) being preferred. (Seki, T.)

  17. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  18. Determination of kinetic coefficients for some selected wastes (research note)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaisi, M. K.; Samaneh, T; Zoubi, O.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the kinetic constants of different wastes experimentally using laboratory scale reactors. three wastes were close n; domestic, brewery, and whey. The resulting data for the three wastes fit well both sludge growth and oxygen utilization kinetic models with high correlation coefficients, and were found to be within the reported values by others. The study shows that oxygen utilization rate was higher for domestic than those for the two other wastes. Also it shows that suspended growth treating brewery and whey wastes are more sensitive to any increase in BOD 5 than that treating domestic wastewater. (authors). 7 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D.

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ''Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?'' That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation's mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation's mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ''Which mixed waste has no treatment option?'' Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology

  20. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  1. Radioactive waste management at the Paul Scherrer Institute, the largest Swiss national research centre

    OpenAIRE

    Beer Hans-Frieder

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the current radioactive waste management practices at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The PSI contributes to waste related problems in two aspects, namely to the scientific basis of waste management and disposal, and to the practical treatment and storage of radioactive waste. In addition to the tasks of treating on-site generated waste, PSI manages the wastes from medicine, industry, and research throughout Switzerland on behalf of the government. Therefore the Dismant...

  2. Plasma processing of compacted drums of simulated radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.; Batdorf, J.; Larsen, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The charter of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to identify and develop technologies that have potential application in the treatment of DOE wastes. One particular waste of concern within the DOE is transuranic (TRU) waste, which is generated and stored at several DOE sites. High temperature DC arc generated plasma technology is an emerging treatment method for TRU waste, and its use has the potential to provide many benefits in the management of TRU. This paper begins by discussing the need for development of a treatment process for TRU waste, and the potential benefits that a plasma waste treatment system can provide in treating TRU waste. This is followed by a discussion of the results of a project conducted for the DOE to demonstrate the effectiveness of a plasma process for treating supercompacted TRU waste. 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Treatment of radioactive organics liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Galarce, Tania

    1999-01-01

    Because of the danger that radioactive wastes can pose to society and to the environment a viable treatment alternative must be developed to prepare these wastes for final disposal. The waste studied in this work is a liquid organic waste contaminated with the radioisotope tritium. This must be treated and then changed into solid form in a 200 liter container. This study defined an optimum formulation that immobilizes the liquid waste. The organic waste is first submitted to an absorption treatment, with Celite absorbent, which had the best physical characteristics from the point of view of radioactive waste management. Then this was solidified by forming a cement mortar, using a highly resistant local cement, Polpaico 400. Various mixes were tested, with different water/cement, waste/absorbent and absorbed waste/cement ratios, until a mixture that met the quality control requirements was achieved. The optimum mixture obtained has a water/cement ratio of 0.35 (p/p) that is the amount of water needed to make the mixture workable, and minimum water for hydrating the cement; a waste/absorbent ration of 0.5 (v/v), where the organic liquid is totally absorbed, and is incorporated in the solid's crystalline network; and an absorbed waste/cement ratio of 0.8 (p/p), which represents the minimum amount of cement needed to obtain a solid product with the required mechanical resistance. The mixture's components join together with no problem, to produce a good workable mixture. It takes about 10 hours for the mixture to harden. After 14 days, the resulting solid product has a resistance to compression of 52 Kgf/cm2. The formulation contains 22.9% immobilized organic waste, 46.5% cement, 14.3% Celite and 16.3% water. Organic liquid waste can be treated and a solid product obtained, that meets the qualitative and quantitative parameters required for its disposal. (CW)

  4. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.

    1997-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) to treat low-level mixed wastes, particularly those containing volatiles and pyrophorics that cannot be treated by conventional thermal processes. This work was begun under ANL''s Laboratory Directed Research and Development funds, followed by further development with support from EM-50''s Mixed Waste Focus Area

  5. 1995 solid waste 30-year characteristics volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Rice, G.I.; Valero, O.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site has been designated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to store, treat, and dispose of solid waste received from both onsite and offsite generators. This waste is currently or planned to be generated from ongoing operations, maintenance and deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the waste to be shipped to Hanford's SWOC. The physical waste forms and hazardous constituents are described for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic - transuranic mixed waste (TWunderscoreTRUM)

  6. Waste processing air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases

  7. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  8. Conversion of Waste into Wealth: A Study in Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Janakiram, T.; Sridevi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Disposal of solid waste has been the talk of the day. An attempt has been made to dispose of the solid waste Jatropha (Kattamanakku). Aerobic composting method was employed. Properly treated solid wastes of different composition were mixed with slurries of cowdung and physicochemical parameters were measured after 30 and 60 days of composting. It was observed that percentages of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium increased as time elapsed. Water holding capacity, ...

  9. The micro-electrolysis technique in waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiti Zhou; Weihen Yang; Fenglin Yang; Xuemin Xiang; Yulu Wang

    1997-01-01

    The micro-electrolysis is one of the efficient methods to treat some kinds of waste water. The experiments have shown its high efficiency in sewage treatment and some kinds of industrial waste water. It is suitable for pre-treatment of high concentrated waste water and deep treatment of waste water for reuse purpose. The disadvantage of micro-electrolysis is its high energy consumption in case of high electrolyte concentration. (author) 2 figs., 11 tabs., 2 refs

  10. The micro-electrolysis technique in waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiti Zhou; Weihen Yang; Fenglin Yang; Xuemin Xiang; Yulu Wang [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China)

    1997-12-31

    The micro-electrolysis is one of the efficient methods to treat some kinds of waste water. The experiments have shown its high efficiency in sewage treatment and some kinds of industrial waste water. It is suitable for pre-treatment of high concentrated waste water and deep treatment of waste water for reuse purpose. The disadvantage of micro-electrolysis is its high energy consumption in case of high electrolyte concentration. (author) 2 figs., 11 tabs., 2 refs.

  11. Low and medium activity solid wastes processing and encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillard, D.; Claes, J.; Hennart, D.

    1983-01-01

    This work, carried out under contract with the European Atomic Energy Community, describes the techniques in use for waste management. The activity of low and medium activity solid wastes is from few curies to few tens of curies per cubic meter, they are produced by nuclear facilities and are often complex mixtures. Radioactive wastes are characterized and processing and conditioning are described. Leaching, stability, mechanical resistance and radiolysis of encapsulated wastes are examined. Handling, storage and disposal are treated

  12. The International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The IAEA has been concerned with radioactive waste management since its inception. Its programme in this area was expanded in the mid 1970s as questions related to the management and disposal of radioactive wastes came into focus in conjunction with the further industrial development of nuclear power. The objectives of the Agency's wastes management programme are to assist its Member States in the safe and effective management of wastes by organizing the exchange and dissemination of information, providing guidance and technical assistance and supporting research. The current programme addresses all aspects of the industrial use of nuclear power under the aspects (a) technology of handling and treatment of wastes, (b) underground disposal of wastes, (c) environmental aspects of nuclear energy, including sea disposal of radioactive wastes. Systematic reviews have been made and publications issued concerning the technology of handling, treating, conditioning, and storing various categories of wastes, including liquid and gaseous wastes, wastes from nuclear power plants, spent fuel reprocessing and mining and milling of uranium ores, as well as wastes from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. As waste disposal is the current issue of highest interest, an Agency programme was set up in 1977 to develop a set of guidelines on the safe underground disposal of low-, intermediate- and high-level wastes in shallow ground, rock cavities or deep geological repositories. This programme will continue until 1990. Eleven Safety Series and Technical documents and reports have been published under this programme so far, which also addresses safety and other criteria for waste disposal. The environmental part of the waste management programme is concerned with the assessment of radiological and non-radiological consequences of discharges from nuclear facilities, including de minimis concepts in waste disposal and environmental models and data for radionuclide releases. The Agency

  13. Development of new treatment process for low level radioactive waste at Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Kenichi; Sugaya, Atsushi; Saito, Yasuo; Tanaka, Kenji; Akutsu, Shigeru; Hirata, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    The Low-level radioactive Waste Treatment Facility (LWTF) was constructed at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) and cold testing has been carried out since 2006. The waste which will be treated in the LWTF is combustible/incombustible solid waste and liquid waste. In the LWTF, the combustible/incombustible solid waste will be incinerated. The liquid waste will be treated by a radio-nuclides removal process and subsequently solidified in cement. This report describes the essential technologies of the LWTF and results of R and D work for the nitrate-ion decomposition technology for the liquid waste. (author)

  14. Waste to Energy : The Waste Incineration Directive and its Implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duman, Murat; Boels, Luciaan

    2007-01-01

    Essent operates a coal-fired power plant, called AC-9, in Geertruidenberg. A gasifier connected to AC-9 thermally treats waste wood through gasification. The waste wood Essent used is demolition and construction wood, the so-called B-wood. The gas produced through gasification is fed into the

  15. Characterization of waste from nanoenabled products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov

    of nanoproducts available, the potential release of ENMs from these products would have to be understood to perform a risk assessment of these products. Since ENMs are considered possible contaminants of the solid waste, it is important to include nano-specific characterisation tests in waste characterisation...... environmental exposure or risks associated with ENMs in waste from nanoproducts, it is necessary to investigate what ENMs are being used and to which extent, how they are treated at the end-of-life of the nanoproduct and, finally, what is the likelihood of them being released during waste treatment. This Ph......D project addressed these knowledge gaps by mapping and analysing available nano-enabled products, developing a method for categorising waste material fractions of nanoproducts and estimating their likely waste treatment. Furthermore, new experimental data regarding ENM release from nano-enabled products...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1219 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste incinerators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organic hazardous constituent (POHC). (i) You must treat each POHC in the waste feed that you specify... concentration or mass in the hazardous waste feed, considering the results of hazardous waste analyses or other... hazardous waste incinerators? 63.1219 Section 63.1219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  17. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  18. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  19. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  20. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  1. Management of transuranic wastes throughout the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, L.T.; Christensen, H.; De Jonghe, P.; Frejaville, G.; Lavie, J.M.; Thackrah, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    Transuranic (TRU) wastes are those radioactive wastes, except spent fuel and high-level wastes, that are contaminated with sufficient long-lived, alpha-emitting nuclides that the decay to innocuous levels in engineered storage structures or shallow-land burial sites cannot be used as a disposal method. This class of waste is produced principally during spent fuel reprocessing, recycle fuel fabrication, and weapons material production. At least ten countries are involved in operations producing this class of waste, which represents a small fraction of the alpha-emitting nuclides in the world's inventory and of the total volume of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear activities. No consensus has been reached on a numerical definition; definitions in use vary from >0.03 to >1000 nCi transuranium radionuclides per gram of waste (TRU/g). The definitions are presently used to separate wastes going to sea dumping or shallow-land burial from those requiring greater isolation. All countries emphasize plutonium recovery and volume reduction in their plans for treating TRU wastes. Incineration is the most prevalent treatment in use. When fixation is used, cement and bitumen are the preferred fixation media. All high-concentration TRU wastes are now being placed in interim storage. No TRU wastes are presently being disposed except the low-concentration wastes being dumped at sea by Belgium and the United Kingdom and those being injected into geologic strata by the United States (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and the USSR. All countries prefer and are planning to use deep geologic repositories for final disposal of TRU wastes. According to present schedules, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility in the United States, with a scheduled startup date of 1989, will be the first operating repository since the closure of the Federal Republic of Germany's Asse Salt Mine in 1977

  2. The use of Fenton's reagent in treating waste waters from the table olive producing industry; Aplicacion del reactivo de Fenton para la depuracion de las aguas residuales de la industria productora de aceituna de mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran de Heredia, J.; Dominguez, J. R.

    2001-07-01

    A study was made of the chemical oxidation by means of Fenton's reagent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe''24) on the lye used in pickling black olives. The aim of this process is to eliminate the organic materials from the waste water. It was monitored by tracking several overall reaction parameters such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), total polyphenols, the aromaticity of the sample and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the reactor. The elimination rate obtained for the chemical oxygen demand after 90 minutes of reaction varied between 28 and 73% (depending on the conditions of the operation). Polyphenols were reduced by between 26 and 90%, while aromaticity was reduced by between 36 and 94%. In addition, the stechiometric coefficient of the reaction was determined for different operating conditions and was found to range from 0.11 to 1.82 g COD/gH{sub 2}O{sub 2}. An analysis of the results shows that the higher the dose of hydrogen peroxide, the greater the reduction of COD, but also the lower the stechiometric coefficient and, therefore, the less efficient the use made of the hydrogen peroxide. (Author) 19 refs.

  3. DOE regulatory reform initiative vitrified mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.J.; Holtzscheiter, E.W.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with responsibly managing the largest volume of mixed waste in the United States. This responsibility includes managing waste in compliance with all applicable Federal and State laws and regulations, and in a cost-effective, environmentally responsible manner. Managing certain treated mixed wastes in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage and disposal units (specifically those mixed wastes that pose low risks from the hazardous component) is unlikely to provide additional protection to human health and the environment beyond that afforded by managing these wastes in storage and disposal units subject to requirements for radiological control. In October, 1995, the DOE submitted a regulatory reform proposal to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relating to vitrified mixed waste forms. The technical proposal supports a regulatory strategy that would allow vitrified mixed waste forms treated through a permit or other environmental compliance mechanism to be granted an exemption from RCRA hazardous waste regulation, after treatment, based upon the inherent destruction and immobilization capabilities of vitrification technology. The vitrified waste form will meet, or exceed the performance criteria of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass that has been accepted as an international standard for immobilizing radioactive waste components and the LDR treatment standards for inorganics and metals for controlling hazardous constituents. The proposal further provides that vitrified mixed waste would be responsibly managed under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) while reducing overall costs. Full regulatory authority by the EPA or a State would be maintained until an acceptable vitrified mixed waste form, protective of human health and the environment, is produced

  4. Cementation unit for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto; Lima, Jose Rodrigues de

    2001-01-01

    This communication describes the waste cementation process and facility developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN. The process is based on 200 litres batch operation, in drum mixing, with continuous cement feeding. The equipment is a single recoverable helicoidal mixer and a turning table that allows the drum to rotate during the mixing operation, simulating a planetary mixer. The facility was designed to treat contact handled liquids and wet solid wastes, but can be adapted for shielded equipment and remote operation. (author)

  5. French regulation and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The organization and the role played by French safety authorities for waste management are described. The French policy for storage and conditioning: basic objectives and waste management optimization are specified. Safety requirements are based on the barrier principle, they are mentioned for packaging and storage. The ''Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire'' deals not only with safety analysis but also help the ''autorites ministerielles'' for the development of fundamental safety rules. Examples for spent fuel storage and radioactive materials transport are treated in appendixes [fr

  6. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.A.; Cruz, P.F.; Rivera, J.D.; Jorquera, O.H.

    1994-01-01

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  7. Technology for commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Conceptual processes and facilities for treating gaseous and various transuranium (TRU) wastes produced during the past fission portion of the light water reactor fuel cycle are described in volume 2. The goal of the treatment process for TRU wastes and for long-lived radionuclides removed from the gaseous waste streams is to convert these wastes to stable products suitable for placement in geologic isolation repositories. The treatment concepts are based on available technology. They do not necessarily represent an optimum design but are representative of what could be achieved with current technology. In actual applications it is reasonable to expect that there could be some improvement over these concepts that might be reflected in either lower costs or lower environmental impacts or both. These conceptual descriptions do provide a reasonable basis for cost analysis and for development of estimates of environmental impacts. The waste treatment technologies considered here include: high-level waste solidification, packaging of fuel residue, failed equipment and noncombustible waste treatment, general trash and combustible waste treatment, degraded solvent treatment, dilute aqueous waste pretreatment, immobilization of wet and solid wastes, off-gas particle removal systems, fuel reprocessing plant dissolver off-gas treatment, process off-gas treatment, and fuel reprocessing plant atmospheric protection system

  8. Waste form development for a DC arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; Bloomer, P.E.; Chantaraprachoom, N.; Gong, M.; Lamar, D.A.

    1996-09-01

    A laboratory crucible study was conducted to develop waste forms to treat nonradioactive simulated {sup 238}Pu heterogeneous debris waste from Savannah River, metal waste from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and nominal waste also from INEL using DC arc melting. The preliminary results showed that the different waste form compositions had vastly different responses for each processing effect. The reducing condition of DC arc melting had no significant effects on the durability of some waste forms while it decreased the waste form durability from 300 to 700% for other waste forms, which resulted in the failure of some TCLP tests. The right formulations of waste can benefit from devitrification and showed an increase in durability by 40%. Some formulations showed no devitrification effects while others decreased durability by 200%. Increased waste loading also affected waste form behavior, decreasing durability for one waste, increasing durability by 240% for another, and showing no effect for the third waste. All of these responses to the processing and composition variations were dictated by the fundamental glass chemistry and can be adjusted to achieve maximal waste loading, acceptable durability, and desired processing characteristics if each waste formulation is designed for the result according to the glass chemistry.

  9. Leaching tests of cemented organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabria, Jaqueline A. Almeida; Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O.

    2011-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes in research, medical and industrial activities generates organic liquid radioactive wastes. At Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) are produced organic liquid wastes from different sources, one of these are the solvent extraction activities, whose the waste volume is the largest one. Therefore a research was carried out to treat them. Several techniques to treat organic liquid radioactive wastes have been evaluated, among them incineration, oxidation processes, alkaline hydrolysis, distillation, absorption and cementation. Laboratory experiments were accomplished to establish the most adequate process in order to obtain qualified products for storage and disposal. Absorption followed by cementation was the procedure used in this study, i.e. absorbent substances were added to the organic liquid wastes before mixing with the cement. Initially were defined the absorbers, and evaluated the formulation in relation to the compressive strength of its products. Bentonite from different suppliers (B and G) and vermiculite in two granulometries (M - medium and F - small) were tested. In order to assess the product quality the specimens were submitted to the leaching test according the Standard ISO 6961 and its results were evaluated. Then they were compared with the values established by Standard CNEN NN 6.09 A cceptance criteria for waste products to be disposed , to verify if they meet the requirements for safely storage and disposal. Through this study the best formulations to treat the organic wastes were established. (author)

  10. Hazardous waste, impact on health and environment for development of better waste management strategies in future in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Virendra; Pandey, S D

    2005-04-01

    Industry has become an essential part of modern society, and waste production is an inevitable outcome of the developmental activities. A material becomes waste when it is discarded without expecting to be compensated for its inherent value. These wastes may pose a potential hazard to the human health or the environment (soil, air, water) when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed off or managed. Currently in India even though hazardous wastes, emanations and effluents are regulated, solid wastes often are disposed off indiscriminately posing health and environmental risk. In view of this, management of hazardous wastes including their disposal in environment friendly and economically viable way is very important and therefore suggestions are made for developing better strategies. Out of the various categories of the wastes, solid waste contributes a major share towards environmental degradation. The present paper outlines the nature of the wastes, waste generating industries, waste characterization, health and environmental implications of wastes management practices, steps towards planning, design and development of models for effective hazardous waste management, treatment, approaches and regulations for disposal of hazardous waste. Appraisal of the whole situation with reference to Indian scenario is attempted so that a better cost-effective strategies for waste management be evolved in future.

  11. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  12. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the information gained from retrieval projects, the decision was made to perform an analysis of all the available incinerators to determine which was best suited for processing the INEL waste. A number of processes were evaluated for incinerators currently funded by DOE and for municipal incinerators. Slagging pyrolysis included the processes of three different manufacturers: Andco-Torrax, FLK and Purox

  13. Treated LAW Feed Evaporation: Physical and Solubility Determination (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephs, JE.

    2003-01-01

    Evaporation is employed in several places in the Waste Treatment Plant pretreatment process to minimize the volume of waste that must be treated in down-stream vitrification processes. Evaporation is the first unit process in pretreatment (Waste Feed Evaporators), applied before LAW vitrification (Treated Feed Evaporator), and concentrates ion exchange eluate (Cs Eluate Evaporator) prior to HLW vitrification. The goal of the Treated Feed Evaporation process is removal of the maximum water content without producing additional insoluble solids. Prior testing of evaporation systems for process feed was completed to support compliance with regulatory permits and to prepare a model of the evaporation system. These tests also indicated a marked tendency for foaming in the WTP evaporators. To date, evaporation testing and modeling have focused on the Treated feed and Cs eluate evaporation systems. This has been the first work performed that investigates evaporation of secondary-waste recycle streams in the Treated LAW Feed Evaporator. Secondary-waste recycles from the LAW off- gas scrubbing system have been the major contributors to the overall Treated Feed Evaporator recycle volume. Experience from Savannah River Site operations suggests that the introduction of silica- laden recycles to an evaporator along with high-sodium treated LAW can significantly increase the likelihood of forming sodium-alumina-silicate precipitates upon concentration. Furthermore, there is considerable interest on the part of the WTP project to evaluate the potential of projected evaporator feed and concentrate blends to produce sodium aluminosilicate precipitates

  14. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    As part of its overall program, the MWFA uses a national mixed waste data set to develop approaches for treating mixed waste that cannot be treated using existing capabilities at DOE or commercial facilities. The current data set was originally compiled under the auspices of the 1995 Mixed Waste Inventory Report. The data set has been updated over the past two years based on Site Treatment Plan revisions and clarifications provided by individual sites. The current data set is maintained by the MWFA staff and is known as MWFA97. In 1996, the MWFA developed waste groupings, process flow diagrams, and treatment train diagrams to systematically model the treatment of all mixed waste in the DOE complex. The purpose of the modeling process was to identify treatment gaps and corresponding technology development needs for the DOE complex. Each diagram provides the general steps needed to treat a specific type of waste. The NWFA categorized each MWFA97 waste stream by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. Appendices B through F provide the complete listing of waste streams by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. The MWFA97 waste strewn information provided in the appendices is defined in Table A-1

  15. Westinghouse waste simulation and optimization software tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennicken, Kim; Aign, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Applications for dynamic simulation can be found in virtually all areas of process engineering. The tangible benefits of using dynamic simulation can be seen in tighter design, smoother start-ups and optimized operation. Thus, proper implementation of dynamic simulation can deliver substantial benefits. These benefits are typically derived from improved process understanding. Simulation gives confidence in evidence based decisions and enables users to try out lots of 'what if' scenarios until one is sure that a decision is the right one. In radioactive waste treatment tasks different kinds of waste with different volumes and properties have to be treated, e.g. from NPP operation or D and D activities. Finding a commercially and technically optimized waste treatment concept is a time consuming and difficult task. The Westinghouse Waste Simulation and Optimization Software Tool will enable the user to quickly generate reliable simulation models of various process applications based on equipment modules. These modules can be built with ease and be integrated into the simulation model. This capability ensures that this tool is applicable to typical waste treatment tasks. The identified waste streams and the selected treatment methods are the basis of the simulation and optimization software. After implementing suitable equipment data into the model, process requirements and waste treatment data are fed into the simulation to finally generate primary simulation results. A sensitivity analysis of automated optimization features of the software generates the lowest possible lifecycle cost for the simulated waste stream. In combination with proven waste management equipments and integrated waste management solutions, this tool provides reliable qualitative results that lead to an effective planning and minimizes the total project planning risk of any waste management activity. It is thus the ideal tool for designing a waste treatment facility in an optimum manner

  16. Waste caretakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlpart, A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major critical forces shaping our future is the quality and educational level of our workforce. As society became more technologically oriented, we must become scientifically and technically literate. That is, we must be able to function at highly technical levels on the job as well as being able to make political decisions on increasingly complex technical issues. This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has as its goal the storage of high level radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plant operations. The achievement of this goal requires the availability of a sufficient number and of appropriately educated scientists, engineers, and technicians. A preliminary workforce assessment was initiated in 1991 to identify current and projected employment needs. The Radioactive Waste Management Fellowship program supports graduate study and research at designated academic institutions in specified science and engineering disciplines or in interdisciplinary programs. The Historically Black Colleges and Universities Research program is designed to increase the participation of these institutions in relevant mission-oriented research

  17. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  18. Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report is DOE's first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992

  19. Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

  20. National perspective on waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sources of nuclear wastes are listed and the quantities of these wastes per year are given. Methods of processing and disposing of mining and milling wastes, low-level wastes, decommissioning wastes, high-level wastes, reprocessing wastes, spent fuels, and transuranic wastes are discussed. The costs and safeguards involved in the management of this radioactive wastes are briefly covered in this presentation

  1. A process for treatment of mixed waste containing chemical plating wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anast, K.R.; Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Treatment and Minimization Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and will be constructing a transportable treatment system to treat low-level radioactive mixed waste generated during plating operations. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is composed of two modules with six submodules, which can be trucked to user sites to treat a wide variety of aqueous waste solutions. The process is designed to remove the hazardous components from the waste stream, generating chemically benign, disposable liquids and solids with low level radioactivity. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is designed as a multifunctional process capable of treating several different types of wastes. At this time, the unit has been the designated treatment process for these wastes: Destruction of free cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes from spent plating solutions; destruction of ammonia in solution from spent plating solutions; reduction of Cr VI to Cr III from spent plating solutions, precipitation, solids separation, and immobilization; heavy metal precipitation from spent plating solutions, solids separation, and immobilization, and acid or base neutralization from unspecified solutions

  2. Solid Waste Program Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan WBS 1.2.1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan for the Solid Waste Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Solid Waste Program treats, stores, and disposes of a wide variety of solid wastes consisting of radioactive, nonradioactive and hazardous material types. Solid waste types are typically classified as transuranic waste, low-level radioactive waste, low-level mixed waste, and non-radioactive hazardous waste. This report describes the mission, goals and program strategies for the Solid Waste Program for fiscal year 1996 and beyond.

  3. Treatment of Radioactive Gaseous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive waste, with widely varying characteristics, is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research laboratories and medical facilities. The waste needs to be treated and conditioned as necessary to provide waste forms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Although radioactive gaseous radioactive waste does not constitute the main waste flow stream at nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste processing facilities, it represents a major source for potential direct environmental impact. Effective control and management of gaseous waste in both normal and accidental conditions is therefore one of the main issues of nuclear fuel cycle and waste processing facility design and operation. One of the duties of an operator is to take measures to avoid or to optimize the generation and management of radioactive waste to minimize the overall environmental impact. This includes ensuring that gaseous and liquid radioactive releases to the environment are within authorized limits, and that doses to the public and the effects on the environment are reduced to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Responsibilities of the regulatory body include the removal of radioactive materials within authorized practices from any further regulatory control — known as clearance — and the control of discharges — releases of gaseous radioactive material that originate from regulated nuclear facilities during normal operation to the environment within authorized limits. These issues, and others, are addressed in IAEA Safety Standards Series Nos RS-G-1.7, WS-G-2.3 and NS-G-3.2. Special systems should be designed and constructed to ensure proper isolation of areas within nuclear facilities that contain gaseous radioactive substances. Such systems consist of two basic subsystems. The first subsystem is for the supply of clean air to the facility, and the second subsystem is for the collection, cleanup and

  4. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  5. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  6. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  7. Leaching behavior of phosphate-bonded ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Dorf, M.

    1996-04-01

    Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. This technology is crucial for stabilizing waste streams that contain volatile species and off-gas secondary waste streams generated by high-temperature treatment of such wastes. We have developed a magnesium phosphate ceramic to treat mixed wastes such as ash, salts, and cement sludges. Waste forms of surrogate waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between the mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and the wastes, and phosphoric acid or acid phosphate solutions. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms are produced in this process. The principal advantage of this technology is that the contaminants are immobilized by both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. This paper reports the results of durability studies conducted on waste forms made with ash waste streams spiked with hazardous and radioactive surrogates. Standard leaching tests such as ANS 16.1 and TCLP were conducted on the final waste forms. Fates of the contaminants in the final waste forms were established by electron microscopy. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated with long-term water-immersion tests

  8. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  9. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  10. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  11. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed, with special reference to the UK, under the headings: radiation; origins of the waste (mainly from nuclear power programme; gas, liquid, solid; various levels of activity); dealing with waste (methods of processing, storage, disposal); high-active waste (storage, vitrification, study of means of eventual disposal); waste management (UK organisation to manage low and intermediate level waste). (U.K.)

  12. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  13. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  14. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    EM's Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form

  15. Radiolytic decomposition of dioxins in liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Changli; Taguchi, M.; Hirota, K.; Takigami, M.; Kojima, T.

    2006-01-01

    The dioxins including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are some of the most toxic persistent organic pollutants. These chemicals have widely contaminated the air, water, and soil. They would accumulate in the living body through the food chains, leading to a serious public health hazard. In the present study, radiolytic decomposition of dioxins has been investigated in liquid wastes, including organic waste and waste-water. Dioxin-containing organic wastes are commonly generated in nonane or toluene. However, it was found that high radiation doses are required to completely decompose dioxins in the two solvents. The decomposition was more efficient in ethanol than in nonane or toluene. The addition of ethanol to toluene or nonane could achieve >90% decomposition of dioxins at the dose of 100 kGy. Thus, dioxin-containing organic wastes can be treated as regular organic wastes after addition of ethanol and subsequent γ-ray irradiation. On the other hand, radiolytic decomposition of dioxins easily occurred in pure-water than in waste-water, because the reaction species is largely scavenged by the dominant organic materials in waste-water. Dechlorination was not a major reaction pathway for the radiolysis of dioxin in water. In addition, radiolytic mechanism and dechlorinated pathways in liquid wastes were also discussed. (authors)

  16. Breaking the Code on Challenging Waste - 13267

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzeman, John; Estes, Charles [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (United States); White, Aaron [U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) with no available path to treatment or disposal have been longstanding challenges for DOE facilities. Today, mixed wastes with no path to treatment or disposal frequently present themselves in the form of combinations of problematic matrixes, problematic EPA Hazardous Waste Codes, and security classification requirements. In order to successfully treat and disposition these challenging wastes, waste management personnel must be more inquisitive and challenge the status quo more than ever before. All aspects of the waste from how it was generated to how the waste is currently being managed must be revisited. Each fact, the basis of each decision, and each regulatory determination must be investigated and validated. Since many of the difficult waste streams were generated several years ago, it can be quite challenging to locate knowledgeable generators from the time of generation. Significant investigation is often required to obtain the needed information to evaluate legacy waste streams. Special attention must be paid to the little things that may not seem central to the issues being investigated. Solutions are sometimes found in these details. (authors)

  17. Transuranic waste management program waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Crisler, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    To ensure that all technology necessary for long term management of transuranic (TRU) wastes is available, the Department of Energy has established the Transuranic Waste Management Program. A principal focus of the program is development of waste forms that can accommodate the very diverse TRU waste inventory and meet geologic isolation criteria. The TRU Program is following two approaches. First, decontamination processes are being developed to allow removal of sufficient surface contamination to permit management of some of the waste as low level waste. The other approach is to develop processes which will allow immobilization by encapsulation of the solids or incorporate head end processes which will make the solids compatible with more typical waste form processes. The assessment of available data indicates that dewatered concretes, synthetic basalts, and borosilicate glass waste forms appear to be viable candidates for immobilization of large fractions of the TRU waste inventory in a geologic repository

  18. Vitrified waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, D.A.; Kimmitt, R.R.

    1998-02-01

    A {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of all ICPP calcine, including the existing and future HLW calcine resulting from calcining liquid Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW). Currently, the SBW is stored in the tank farm at the ICPP. Vitrification of these wastes is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the calcined waste and casting the vitrified mass into stainless steel canisters that will be ready to be moved out of the Idaho for disposal by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a HLW national repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from 2013 through 2032; all HLW will be treated and in storage by the end of 2032.

  19. Vitrified waste option study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, D.A.; Kimmitt, R.R.

    1998-02-01

    A open-quotes Settlement Agreementclose quotes between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of all ICPP calcine, including the existing and future HLW calcine resulting from calcining liquid Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW). Currently, the SBW is stored in the tank farm at the ICPP. Vitrification of these wastes is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the calcined waste and casting the vitrified mass into stainless steel canisters that will be ready to be moved out of the Idaho for disposal by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a HLW national repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from 2013 through 2032; all HLW will be treated and in storage by the end of 2032

  20. Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Waste waters have been generated as result of operations conducted at the Hanford Facility for over 40 years. These waste waters were previously discharged to cribs, ponds, or ditches. Examples of such waste waters include steam condensates and cooling waters that have not been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste and process condensates that may have been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste. Many measures have been taken to reduce the amount of contamination being discharged in these effluents. However, some of these waste waters still require additional treatment before release to the environment. Systems are being designed and built to treat these waste waters along with any future waste waters resulting from remediation activities on the Hanford Facility

  1. Optimisation of industrial wastes reuse as construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collivignarelli, C; Sorlini, S

    2001-12-01

    This study concerns the reuse of two inorganic wastes, foundry residues and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration, as "recycled aggregate" in concrete production. This kind of reuse was optimised by waste treatment with the following steps: waste washing with water; waste stabilisation-solidification treatment with inorganic reagents; final grinding of the stabilised waste after curing for about 10-20 days. Both the treated wastes were reused in concrete production with different mix-designs. Concrete specimens were characterised by means of conventional physical-mechanical tests (compression, elasticity modulus, shrinkage) and different leaching tests. Experimental results showed that a good structural and environmental quality of "recycled concrete" is due both to a correct waste treatment and to a correct mix-design for concrete mixture.

  2. Phosphate bonded ceramics as candidate final-waste-form materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.; Sutaria, M.; Kurokawa, S.; Mayberry, J.

    1994-04-01

    Room-temperature setting phosphate-bonded ceramics were studied as candidate materials for stabilization of DOE low-level problem mixed wastes which cannot be treated by other established stabilization techniques. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na, Al and Zr were studied to stabilize ash surrogate waste containing RCRA metals as nitrates and RCRA organics. We show that for a typical loading of 35 wt.% of the ash waste, the phosphate ceramics pass the TCLP test. The waste forms have high compression strength exceeding ASTM recommendations for final waste forms. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies and differential thermal analyses of the waste forms show evidence of chemical reaction of the waste with phosphoric acid and the host matrix. The SEM studies show evidence of physical bonding. The excellent performance in the leaching tests is attributed to a chemical solidification and physical as well as chemical bonding of ash wastes in these phosphate ceramics

  3. Characterization of radioactive mixed wastes: The industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leasure, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Physical and chemical characterization of Radioactive Mixed Wastes (RMW) is necessary for determination of appropriate treatment options and to satisfy environmental regulations. Radioactive mixed waste can be classified as two main categories; contact-handled (low level) RMW and remote-handled RMW. Ibis discussion will focus mainly on characterization of contact handled RMW. The characterization of wastes usually follows one of two pathways: (1) characterization to determine necessary parameters for treatment or (2) characterization to determine if the material is a hazardous waste. Sometimes, however, wastes can be declared as hazardous waste without testing and then treated as hazardous waste. Characterization of radioactive mixed wastes pose some unique issues, however, that will require special solutions. Below, five issues affecting sampling and analysis of RMW will be discussed

  4. Biogenic carbon in combustible waste: Waste composition, variability and measurement uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels H.

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining accurate data for the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon in thermally-treated waste is essential for determination of the environmental profile of waste technologies. Relations between the variability of waste chemistry and the biogenic and fossil carbon emissions are not well...... described in the literature. This study addressed the variability of biogenic and fossil carbon in combustible waste received at a municipal solid waste incinerator. Two approaches were compared: (1) radiocarbon dating (14C analysis) of carbon dioxide sampled from the flue gas, and (2) mass and energy...... balance calculations using the balance method. The ability of the two approaches to accurately describe short-term day-to-day variations in carbon emissions, and to which extent these short-term variations could be explained by controlled changes in waste input composition, was evaluated. Finally...

  5. Thermal treatment technology study and data base for Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; Steverson, E.M.; Balo, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a wide variety of waste streams that must be treated to meet various regulations before final disposal. One category of technologies for treating many of these waste streams is thermal treatment. A study of known thermal treatment technologies was conducted to aid DOE in the development of strategies to meet its waste management needs. The study was specifically addressed to mixed waste, but it is also applicable to hazardous and radioactive wastes. The data collected in the study, along with other waste management data, are being included in a comprehensive data base that DOE is developing. 3 refs., 1 fig

  6. FRIDA: A model for the generation and handling of solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Helge V.; Møller Andersen, Frits

    2012-01-01

    Since 1994, Danish waste treatment plants have been obliged to report to the Danish EPA the annual amounts of waste treated. Applying these data, we analyse the development, link amounts of waste to economic and demographic variables, and present a model for the generation and treatment of waste...... in Denmark. Using the model and official projections of the economic development, a baseline projection for the generation and treatment of waste is presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. The Problem of Urban Solid Waste in the City of Prishtina (Kosovo) and its Management

    OpenAIRE

    , Ramadani I.; , Bulliqi S.; , Gashi G.; , Isufi F.; , Ejupi A.; , Bytyqi V.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper is treated the problem of solid wastes in Prishtina, their origin, treatment and solutions for better management. The problem of wastes is one of the most serious issues facing people in Prishtina and Kosova, especially in last decade. There is a bad management of solid waste in Prishtina city because of the lack of investments in waste treatment, insufficient capacities of existing landfills and poor legal framework. The problem of waste in Prishtina should be approached in man...

  8. Prospects for vitrification of mixed wastes at ANL-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazer, J.; No, Hyo.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes a study evaluating the prospects for vitrification of some of the mixed wastes at ANL-E. This project can be justified on the following basis: Some of ANL-E's mixed waste streams will be stabilized such that they can be treated as a low-level radioactive waste. The expected volume reduction that results during vitrification will significantly reduce the overall waste volume requiring disposal. Mixed-waste disposal options currently used by ANL-E may not be permissible in the near future without treatment technologies such as vitrification

  9. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  10. Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.R.; Bates, J.K.; Feng, Xiangdong.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories

  11. Trends in U.S.A. on environmental assessment of the common industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    1994-01-01

    In Japan, the waste materials are divided to two parts of radioactive wastes and common wastes according to the law on treatment and cleaning of the wastes, and the latter is divided further to two parts of life type wastes and business type wastes. Among them, a part of wastes called the industrial wastes in the business wastes causes some troubles. In Japan, maintenance of approval level of the wastes treatment was conducted by selection of treating method due to feature of the wastes, selection of treating matters due to the treating site and method, and environmental assessment of each treatment project program. However, in U.S.A., regulation on environmental impact due to various human actions has been executed since 1960, and environmental assessment is controlled by a law. And, regulations on the wastes, the treating facilities and the formed pollution were also determined by laws. Furthermore, technical field of the environmental assessment is already executed in U.S.A. but some parts are not in Japan. On the evaluation method, there are some differences between in U.S.A. and in Japan, but are some common points in technical informations, estimating methods and so on, where future technical cooperations and movements between them in environmental assessment on both common industrial wastes and high level radioactive wastes. (G.K.)

  12. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance

  13. Environmental evaluation of plastic waste management scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigamonti, L.; Grosso, M.; Møller, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The management of the plastic fraction is one of the most debated issues in the discussion on integrated municipal solid waste systems. Both material and energy recovery can be performed on such a waste stream, and different separate collection schemes can be implemented. The aim of the paper....... The study confirmed the difficulty to clearly identify an optimal strategy for plastic waste management. In fact none of the examined scenarios emerged univocally as the best option for all impact categories. When moving from the P0 treatment strategy to the other scenarios, substantial improvements can...... is to contribute to the debate, based on the analysis of different plastic waste recovery routes. Five scenarios were defined and modelled with a life cycle assessment approach using the EASEWASTE model. In the baseline scenario (P0) the plastic is treated as residual waste and routed partly to incineration...

  14. Waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-01-17

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  15. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.; Hooper, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of wastes, such as liquid radioactive effluents, it is known to remove radionuclides by successive in situ precipitation of cobalt sulphide, an hydroxide, barium sulphate and a transition element ferrocyanide, followed by separation of the thereby decontaminated effluent. In this invention, use is made of precipitates such as obtained above in the treatment of further fresh liquid radioactive effluent, when it is found that the precipitates have additional capacity for extracting radionuclides. The resulting supernatant liquor may then be subjected to a further precipitation treatment such as above. Decontamination factors for radionuclides of Ce, Ru, Sr and Cs have been considerably enhanced. (author)

  16. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  17. The temporality of waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna; Læssøe, Jeppe

    Waste is, indisputably, one of the key issues of environmental concerns of our times. In an environment and sustainability education perspective, waste offers concrete entry points to issues of consumption, sustainability and citizenship. Still, waste education has received relatively little...

  18. Hazardous Waste Generators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The HazWaste database contains generator (companies and/or individuals) site and mailing address information, waste generation, the amount of waste generated etc. of...

  19. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  20. Informative document packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten JM; Nagelhout D; Duvoort GL; Weerd M de

    1989-01-01

    This "informative document packaging waste" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Direcotrate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  1. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.......) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow...

  2. Radioactive waste in perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements...

  3. Roadmap for disposal of Electrorefiner Salt as Transuranic Waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trone, Janis R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, Lawrence C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The experimental breeder reactor (EBR-II) used fuel with a layer of sodium surrounding the uranium-zirconium fuel to improve heat transfer. Disposing of EBR-II fuel in a geologic repository without treatment is not prudent because of the potentially energetic reaction of the sodium with water. In 2000, the US Department of Energy (DOE) decided to treat the sodium-bonded fuel with an electrorefiner (ER), which produces metallic uranium product, a metallic waste, mostly from the cladding, and the salt waste in the ER, which contains most of the actinides and fission products. Two waste forms were proposed for disposal in a mined repository; the metallic waste, which was to be cast into ingots, and the ER salt waste, which was to be further treated to produce a ceramic waste form. However, alternative disposal pathways for metallic and salt waste streams may reduce the complexity. For example, performance assessments show that geologic repositories can easily accommodate the ER salt waste without treating it to form a ceramic waste form. Because EBR-II was used for atomic energy defense activities, the treated waste likely meets the definition of transuranic waste. Hence, disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southern New Mexico, may be feasible. This report reviews the direct disposal pathway for ER salt waste and describes eleven tasks necessary for implementing disposal at WIPP, provided space is available, DOE decides to use this alternative disposal pathway in an updated environmental impact statement, and the State of New Mexico grants permission.

  4. Radiological assessment of the radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech Nieves, Haydee; Hernandez Saiz, Alejandro

    1996-01-01

    In the work are obtained the dose values resulting from the evaluation of the conditioning operations of wastes in the scenarios of exposure that are mentioned and are compared with the dose restriction suggested for the moment for such tasks. The radioactive wastes that are evaluated in the work are: liquids -both those from the generating institutions and the ones stored in the Managua- located deposit, Radon-226 not-in-use solids and sources 226: the results demonstrate that it is possible to treat in a year the total volume of the liquid and solid radioactive wastes as well as a large number of sources of Radon-226

  5. Method of processing combustible nuclear waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Greenhalgh, W.O.; Cowan, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    In treating combustible radio-waste which may contain volatile radio nuclides, e.g. Ru, the waste is heated and agitated with concentrated sulphuric acid, and the resulting residue which comprises elemental carbon which retains the volatile radio-nuclides is separated from the acid. Compounds which form borosilicate glass may be added to the waste, and after removal of sulphate, the resulting residual mixture may be fused into a glass. If the sulphate is not removed from the borosilicate mix, the residual mixture produces a ceramic product on heating. (author)

  6. The BNFL solution to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.H.C.; Carter, P.B.

    1992-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel to separate uranium and plutonium has been undertaken in the United Kingdom for 40 years and has entered a new and significant phase with the completion of them British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in northwest England. In addition to useful uranium and plutonium, reprocessing produces a number of different forms of waste that need to be managed and treated in a safe and efficient manner. This paper discusses how BNFL has designed and constructed waste management plants to condition and store the waste streams from THORP

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Ajaykumar; Patil, Deepak; Argade, Kuldeep

    2016-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  8. Waste Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  9. Supermarket food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Food waste occurs along the entire food supply chain and gives rise to great financial losses and waste of natural resources. The retail stage of the supply chain contributes significant masses of waste. Causes of this waste need to be identified before potential waste reduction measures can be designed, tested and evaluated. Therefore this thesis quantified retail food waste and evaluated selected prevention and valorisation measures, in order to determine how the carbon footprint of food ca...

  10. Waste volume reduction by acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Divine, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    Acid digestion is a process being developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington, to reduce the volume of alpha-contaminated combustible waste by converting it into a non-combustible residue. Typical waste materials such as polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene, paper and other cellulosic materials, ion exchange resin, all types of rubber, etc., are digested in hot (230 0 C--270 0 C) concentrated sulfuric acid containing nitric acid oxidant to form inert residues generally having less than four percent of their original volume and less than twenty-five percent of their original mass. The process is currently being tested using non-radioactive waste in an Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU) with all glass equipment. Engineering tests to date have shown acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible waste materials. Based on results of the engineering tests, an acid digestion pilot unit capable of treating radioactive wastes is being designed and constructed. Design capacity of the pilot unit for radioactive waste will be 100 kg of waste per day. (U.S.)

  11. Waste minimization - Hanford's strategy for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merry, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single-shell storage tanks, treating waste stored in 28 double-shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored onsite, removing thousands of structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, groundwater, and land restoration issues. The Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program supports the Hanford Site mission to safely clean up and manage legacy waste and to develop and deploy science and technology in many ways. Once such way is through implementing and documenting over 231 waste reduction projects during the past five years, resulting in over $93 million in cost savings/avoidances. These savings/avoidances allowed other high priority cleanup work to be performed. Another way is by exceeding the Secretary of Energy's waste reduction goals over two years ahead of schedule, thus reducing the amount of waste to be stored, treated and disposed. Six key elements are the foundation for these sustained P2/WMin results

  12. STUDY ON ULTRASONIC DEGREASING OF SHEEPSKIN WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leather industry is a relatively large source of waste from raw material, so skin waste recovery is a goal of clean technologies. Capitalization of skin waste aims to obtain: chemical auxiliaries, technical articles, hydrolyzed protein, artificial leather, composite building materials, heat sources and collagen biomaterials with applications in medicine, cosmetics, etc. A first step in the recovery of skin waste is the degreasing operation. Ultrasound is an effective tool to improve the efficiency of the conventional degreasing affecting the chemical substances as well as the treated skin. In addition, the processing time is reduced. Ultrasound is known to enhance the emulsification and dispersion of oils/fat. The usual degreasing methods requires more emulsifier/solvent ratio and process time for emulsification and additional solvent for washing out the emulsified fat. This paper investigates the possibility of recovery through ecological processes of leather waste from finishing operations for further capitalization. The present study aims emulsification and subsequent removal of the fat present in the chamois powder waste from polishing operation with the aid of ultrasound by an aqueous ecofriendly method. The study also took into account the ultrasonic treatment of the leather waste using trichlorethylene as a medium of propagation-degreasing, and realized a comparative analysis of efficiency of fat extraction by Soxhlet method and via ultrasonication. IR-ATR and optical microscopy highlight both morphological and chemical-structural changes of treated materials by different degreasing methods

  13. Development of rationalized system treating floor drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Serizawa, Kenichi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Shimizu, Takayuki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes generated at BWR plants are collected and treated as required. These days, however, generation of floor drain has deceased and HFF (Hollow Fiber Filter) has experienced a wide applicability to several kinds of liquid wastes. We should consider that the floor drain can be mixed and diluted with equipment drain and be purified by HFF. That enables some of the sumps and long priming pipes to be combined. From this point of view, we have developed a highly rationalized waste liquid system. We have evaluated the applicability of this system after an investigation into the generation and properties of floor drain and equipment drain at the latest BWR'S and an on-site test at a typical BWR. (author)

  14. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Home Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Management Generation Identification Definition of Solid Waste Exclusions Characterization Delistings Transportation Land ...

  15. Food waste minimization from a life-cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad Saraiva Schott, A; Andersson, T

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates potentials and environmental impacts related to household food waste minimization, based on a case study in Southern Sweden. In the study, the amount of avoidable and unavoidable food waste currently being disposed of by households was assessed through waste composition analyses and the different types of avoidable food waste were classified. Currently, both avoidable and unavoidable food waste is either incinerated or treated through anaerobic digestion. A hypothetical scenario with no generation of avoidable food waste and either anaerobic digestion or incineration of unavoidable food waste was compared to the current situation using the life-cycle assessment method, limited to analysis of global warming potential (GWP). The results from the waste composition analyses indicate that an average of 35% of household food waste is avoidable. Minimization of this waste could result in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of 800-1400 kg/tonne of avoidable food waste. Thus, a minimization strategy would result in increased avoidance of GWP compared to the current situation. The study clearly shows that although modern alternatives for food waste treatment can result in avoidance of GWP through nutrient and energy recovery, food waste prevention yields far greater benefits for GWP compared to both incineration and anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities March 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D T

    2010-03-05

    This Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements,' and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

  17. Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D

    2008-06-16

    This documented safety analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements', and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

  18. China's status and strategy of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Decai

    2001-01-01

    China has a forty-year history of nuclear industry and nuclear technology application. Safety management of radioactive wastes has been the great concern of related regulatory authorities. After the national policy on regional disposal for low and intermediate level radioactive waste was enacted in 1992, the management of radioactive wastes gradually focused on disposal. Currently, the strategies for radioactive waste management in China are: (a) storing high level radioactive wastes temporarily and launching the study of vitrification and deep geological disposal of high level liquid waste, treating spent fuels from PWR by reprocessing; (b) implementing regional disposal policy for low and intermediate level wastes, implementing cement solidification for low and intermediate level liquid waste before disposal, carrying out bulk casting shallow land disposal technology and hydraulic-fractured cement solidification for deep geological disposal in some special regions under specific conditions, treating low and intermediate level solid radioactive wastes by cement solidification after incineration or by compressing before final disposal; (c) stabilizing the tailing repository by reinforcing embankment, constructing flood dam and overlaying plantation; and (d) developing and formulating laws, regulations, and standards to ensure safe management of radioactive wastes. When establishing standards, other than to follow the generic principles and requirements, emphasis should be placed on the following principles: safety the first, economy, disposal of radioactive wastes as focus, and introduction of international advanced standards as possible. (author)

  19. 40 CFR 63.1217 - What are the standards for liquid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). (i) You must treat the POHCs in the waste feed that you specify under paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this... waste feed, considering the results of hazardous waste analyses or other data and information. (d... boilers that burn hazardous waste? 63.1217 Section 63.1217 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  20. Efficiency Research on Meat Industry Waste Water Treatment Applying the Method of Dissolved Air Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentinas Gerasimovas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect environment from industrial pollution, strict requirements for waste water treatment are imposed. The purpose of research is to establish an optimal ratio of saturated liquid and meat industry waste water. Research included JCC “Traidenis” waste water treatment system installed in JSC “BHJ Baltic”. Investigations into treated waste water indicated that an optimal ratio of waste water and saturated liquid was 2/1 under duration time of 8 minutes. Efficient waste water treatment made 86% and the ratio of waste water and saturated liquid was 2/1.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  2. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Privacy Act of 1974 restricts both the type of information on private individuals that federal agencies may maintain in their records and the conditions under which such information may be disclosed. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which must approve DOE plans to build a nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, requires a quality assurance program to guarantee that studies of the site are done by qualified employees. Under such a program, the training and qualifications of DOE and contractor employees would be verified. This report reviews DOE's efforts to identify and resolve the implications of the Privacy Act for DOE's quality assurance program and how the delay in resolving Privacy Act issues may have affected preliminary work on the Yucca Mountain project

  3. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  4. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Finney, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, open-quotes hotclose quotes LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management

  5. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Finney, R. [Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  6. Waste diminution in Construction projects: Environmental Predicaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehbaghi, Koorosh; Scott-Young, Christina

    2018-03-01

    Waste diminution in construction projects is not only a behavioural issue, but also an energy consumption and reduction concern. With construction waste equating to the significant amount of exhausted energy together with increased pollution, this contributes to a series of environmental predicaments. The overall goal of construction solid Waste Management is to collect, treat and dispose of solid wastes generated by project activities in an environmentally and socially satisfactory manner, using the most economical means available. As cities expand, their construction activities and consumption patterns further drive up the solid waste quantities. Governments are usually authorized to have responsibility for providing solid Waste Management services, and various administrative laws give them exclusive ownership over the waste produced. In addition, construction waste processing can be further controlled and minimized according to specialized authorities such as Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) and their relevant acts and regulations. Moreover, a Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP) can further control the treatment of waste and therefore, reduce the amount produced. Key elements of a CEMP not only include complying with relevant legislation, standards and guidance from the EPA; however, also to ensuring that there are systems in place to resolve any potential problems associated with site activities. Accordingly, as a part of energy consumption and lessening strategies, this paper will discuss various effective waste reduction methods for construction projects. Finally, this paper will also examine tactics to further improve energy efficiency through innovative construction Waste Management strategies (including desirability rating of most favourable options) to promote the lessening of overall CO2production.

  7. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

  8. Mixed waste treatment model: Basis and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, B.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) required treatment system capacities for risk and cost calculation. Los Alamos was tasked with providing these capacities to the PEIS team. This involved understanding the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste, making the necessary changes to correct for problems, categorizing the waste for treatment, and determining the treatment system requirements. The treatment system requirements depended on the incoming waste, which varied for each PEIS case. The treatment system requirements also depended on the type of treatment that was desired. Because different groups contributing to the PEIS needed specific types of results, we provided the treatment system requirements in a variety of forms. In total, some 40 data files were created for the TRU cases, and for the MLLW case, there were 105 separate data files. Each data file represents one treatment case consisting of the selected waste from various sites, a selected treatment system, and the reporting requirements for such a case. The treatment system requirements in their most basic form are the treatment process rates for unit operations in the desired treatment system, based on a 10-year working life and 20-year accumulation of the waste. These results were reported in cubic meters and for the MLLW case, in kilograms as well. The treatment system model consisted of unit operations that are linked together. Each unit operation's function depended on the input waste streams, waste matrix, and contaminants. Each unit operation outputs one or more waste streams whose matrix, contaminants, and volume/mass may have changed as a result of the treatment. These output streams are then routed to the appropriate unit operation for additional treatment until the output waste stream meets the treatment requirements for disposal. The total waste for each unit operation was calculated as well as the waste for each matrix treated by the unit

  9. Innovative technologies for managing oil field waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste that is generated. Many companies follow a three-tiered waste management approach. First, companies try to minimize waste generation when possible. Next, they try to find ways to reuse or recycle the wastes that are generated. Finally, the wastes that cannot be reused or recycled must be disposed of. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has evaluated the feasibility of various oil field waste management technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper describes four of the technologies Argonne has reviewed. In the area of waste minimization, the industry has developed synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) that have the desired drilling properties of oil-based muds without the accompanying adverse environmental impacts. Use of SBMs avoids significant air pollution from work boats hauling offshore cuttings to shore for disposal and provides more efficient drilling than can be achieved with water-based muds. Downhole oil/water separators have been developed to separate produced water from oil at the bottom of wells. The produced water is directly injected to an underground formation without ever being lifted to the surface, thereby avoiding potential for groundwater or soil contamination. In the area of reuse/recycle, Argonne has worked with Southeastern Louisiana University and industry to develop a process to use treated drill cuttings to restore wetlands in coastal Louisiana. Finally, in an example of treatment and disposal, Argonne has conducted a series of four baseline studies to characterize the use of salt caverns for safe and economic disposal of oil field wastes.

  10. Solid waste treatment by microwave irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid Nasir Ani; Arshad Adam Salema

    2010-01-01

    Strict legislative laws both nationally and internationally have enforced the waste management expertise to develop new technologies with regard to waste treatment facilities. This is because the waste is directly linked to human development, technologically, socially and environmentally. In present research work, solid (oil palm biomass and scrap tire) wastes were subjected to microwave irradiation system. Since these wastes are found abundantly locally as well as in surrounding areas of Malaysia. The aim of the present work was to investigate the pyrolysis behavior of oil palm biomass and scrap tires under microwave radiation. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis process was used to produce pyrolysis-oil by mixing waste materials with suitable microwave absorber at different ratio. A modified domestic microwave system with maximum power of 1000 W and 2450 MHz frequency was used. The results showed that the ratio of biomass to microwave absorber plays a significant role on the yield of bio-oil. Temperature profiles revealed the heating characteristics of the waste materials. Generation of heat within the material under microwave is so instantaneous that it takes few seconds to reach high temperature which otherwise is difficult to achieve in conventional systems. Hence, the time and energy consumption of process is significantly reduced by using microwaves irradiation technique. This leads to a lower process cost. Pyrolysis oil from scrap tires showed high heating values. Bio-oil from oil palm biomass showed lower viscosity due to presence of water content and compounds such as phenol, aldehyde and others were detected through FT-IR analysis. Biomass char image analysis showed porous nature when treated with microwave technique however it showed large cracks when treated with conventional electrical furnace. Overall, the results revealed that the waste can be treated efficiently, effectively and environmentally by using new microwave irradiation technique. (author)

  11. Low-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyette, M.L.; Dolak, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides technical support information for use in analyzing environmental impacts associated with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management alternatives in the Waste-Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Waste loads treated and disposed of for each of the LLW alternatives considered in the DOE WM PEIS are presented. Waste loads are presented for DOE Waste Management (WM) wastes, which are generated from routine operations. Radioactivity concentrations and waste quantities for treatment and disposal under the different LLW alternatives are described for WM waste. 76 refs., 14 figs., 42 tabs.

  12. Hydrodynamic cavitation applied to food waste anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, David

    2016-01-01

    Innovative pre-treatment methods applied to anaerobic digestion (AD) have developed to enhance the methane yields of food waste. This study investigates hydrodynamic cavitation, which induce disintegration of biomass through microbubble formations, impact on food waste solubilisation and methane production during following AD. Two different sub-streams of food waste (before and after the digestion) pre-treated by hydrodynamic cavitation were evaluated in lab scale for its potential for implem...

  13. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 2, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1944-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  14. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  15. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  16. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  17. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste

  18. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation

  19. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste

  20. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...

  1. Vitamin D-fortified chitosan films from mushroom waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan fr...

  2. Treatment of organic waste solutions containing tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobnik, S.

    The two processes developed in the laboratory for treating waste solutions containing TBP, namely TBP separation with phosphoric acid and saponification were tested on a semi-industrial scale. A waste solution from the first phase of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant was used

  3. Regulatory Support of Treatment of Savannah River Site Purex Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, L.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the support given by federal and state regulatory agencies to Savannah River Site (SRS) during the treatment of an organic liquid mixed waste from the Plutonium Extraction (Purex) process. The support from these agencies allowed (SRS) to overcome several technical and regulatory barriers and treat the Purex waste such that it met LDR treatment standards. (authors)

  4. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To meet the rising demand for energy and to address environmental concerns, a conversion from conventional energy systems to renewable resources is essential. For the sustainability of human civilization, an environmentally techno – economically feasible waste treatment method is very important to treat waste. Several ...

  5. Plasma arc systems for waste treatment and metal recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbach, Richard C.

    1996-06-01

    Plasma torches are being used for treating very difficult wastes,for recovering metal values from metallurgical wastes, and for making high-quality ingots and powder in the special metals industry. This article discusses the process requirements and the state of the art for plasma arc systems in each of these fields.

  6. Towards net-zero construction and demolition waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ) Which the generator has no further use of for the purposes of production; c) That must be treated or disposed of; or d) That is identified as a waste by the Minister by notice in the Gazette, and includes waste generated by the mining, medical or other...

  7. Estimating the magnitude of food waste generated in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the developed world, food is treated as a disposable commodity. Between one third and half of all food produced for human consumption globally is estimated to be wasted. However, attempts to quantify the actual magnitude of food wasted...

  8. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  9. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  10. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  11. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  12. The Mixed Waste Focus Area: Status and accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area began operations in February of 1995. Its mission is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate, and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation, and disposal. The MWFA's mission arises from the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. Each DOE site facility that generates or stores mixed waste prepared a plan, the Site Treatment Plan, for developing treatment capacities and treating that waste. Agreements for each site were concluded with state regulators, resulting in Consent Orders providing enforceable milestones for achieving treatment of the waste. The paper discusses the implementation of the program, its status, accomplishments and goals for FY1996, and plans for 1997

  13. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz Monika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  14. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    One of the essential aims in the waste management is to reduce as much as possible the waste volumes to be stored or disposed of, and to concentrate and immobilize as much as possible the radioactivity contained in the waste. This document describes the treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid waste prior to its conditioning for storage and disposal. This report aims primarily at compiling the experience gained in treating low- and intermediate-active solid wastes, one of the major waste sources in nuclear technology. Apart from the description of existing facilities and demonstrated handling schemes, this report provides the reader with the basis for a judgement that facilitates the selection of appropriate solutions for a given solid-waste management problem. It thus aims at providing guidelines in the particular field and indicates new promising approaches that are actually under investigation and development

  15. Acceptance criteria for disposal of radioactive waste in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, D.

    2001-01-01

    In Romania the institutional radioactive waste are managed by National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering. The institutional radioactive waste are collected, treated and conditioned at the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant then transferred and disposed to the National Repository of Radioactive Waste at Baita Bihor. National Repository for Radioactive Waste is a long term storage facility. The repository is placed in a former worked out uranium ore mine, being excavated in the Bihor peak. The repository has been sited taking into account the known geological, hydrogeoloical, seismic and meteorological and mining properties of a uranium mining site. In the absence of an updated Safety Analysis Report, the maximum radioactive content permitted by the regulatory authority in the operation license is below the values reported for other engineered repositories in mine galleries. The paper presents the acceptance criteria for disposal of radioactive waste in National Repository for Radioactive Waste at Baita Bihor. (author)

  16. The Hanford Site solid waste treatment project; Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will provide treatment and temporary storage (consisting of in-process storage) for radioactive and radioactive/hazardous mixed waste. This facility must be constructed and operated in compliance with all appropriate US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The WRAP Facility will examine and certify, segregate/sort, and treat for disposal suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes in drums and boxes placed in 20-yr retrievable storage since 1970; low-level radioactive mixed waste (RMW) generated and placed into storage at the Hanford Site since 1987; designated remote-handled wastes; and newly generated TRU and RMW wastes from high-level waste (HLW) recovery and processing operations. In order to accelerated the WRAP Project, a partitioning of the facility functions was done in two phases as a means to expedite those parts of the WRAP duties that were well understood and used established technology, while allowing more time to better define the processing functions needed for the remainder of WRAP. The WRAP Module 1 phase one, is to provide the necessary nondestructive examination and nondestructive assay services, as well as all transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT-2) shipping for both WRAP Project phases, with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; change rooms; and administrative services. Phase two of the project, WRAP Module 2, will provide all necessary waste treatment facilities for disposal of solid wastes. 1 tab

  17. The solid waste dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, E.B.; Russell, J.A.; Hurdelbrink, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1976, the U.S. Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to further address the problem of increasing industrial and municipal waste. The main objectives of RCRA were to responsibly manage hazardous and solid waste and to procure materials made from recovered wastes. To fulfill these objectives, four main programs of waste management were developed. These programs were defined under Subtitle C, the Hazardous Waste Program; Subtitle D, the Solid Waste Program; Subtitle I, the Underground Storage Tank Program; and Subtitle J, the Medical Waste Program. Subtitle D illustrates the solid waste dilemma occurring in the United States. Under this program, states are encouraged to develop and implement their own waste management plans. These plans include the promotion of recycling solid wastes and the closing and upgrading of all environmentally unsound dumps. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  18. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  19. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  20. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  1. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Radioactive Burnable and Metal Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.; Choi, Y. K.; Cho, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    A large quantity of radioactive waste was generated during the decommissioning projects. For the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning wastes from decommissioning projects, the incineration and high melting technology has been selected for the decommissioning wastes treatment. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Incinerator burns waste at high temperature. Incineration of a mixture of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials, known as 'mixed waste,' has two principal goals: to reduce the volume and total chemical toxicity of the waste. Incineration itself does not destroy the metals or reduce the radioactivity of the waste. A proven melting technology is currently used for low-level waste (LLW) at several facilities worldwide. These facilities use melting as a means of processing LLW for unrestricted release of the metal or for recycling within the nuclear sector. About 16.4 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas

  2. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  3. Nuclear waste solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, William J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition.

  4. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  5. Biomedical Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sikovska, Biljana; Dimova, Cena; Sumanov, Gorgi; Vankovski, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Medical waste is all waste material generated at health care facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, dental practices, blood banks, and veterinary hospitals/clinics, as well as medical research facilities and laboratories. Poor management of health care waste potentially exposes health care workers, waste handlers, patients and the community at large to infection, toxic effects and injuries, and risks polluting the environment. It is essential that all medical waste ma...

  6. Power Production Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Junpei; Zhu, Cheng; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Qian; Nabi, Mohammad; Wang, Xuan

    2017-10-01

    This review focuses on the research literature published in 2016 relating to power production waste that results from fossil fuel and nuclear power plants. It elaborates the characterization, reuse and disposal of power production wastes. The wastes from fossil fuel power plants have been divided into fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum and waste catalyst. The environmental issues, associated with nuclear power plants and waste production are also reviewed.

  7. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  8. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  9. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  10. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report

  11. Development of combined liquid radioactive waste treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Cho, Hang Rae; Yang, Ho Yeon

    2009-01-01

    Liquid radioactive wastes generated from nuclear power plants in Korea include floor and equipment drainage, chemical wastes, and laundry wastes, etc. Evaporation of radioactive liquid wastes has been employed in several PWR nuclear power plants. Although evaporators provide satisfactory decontamination and volume reduction factors, the chemicals and impurities present in these wastes cause problems such as corrosion and scaling of the evaporators as well as foaming during evaporation. These problems remarkably decrease the performance of decontamination and also reduce the evaporator life. Studies have been carried out on the use of processes such as ion exchange, ultrafiltration(UF), and reverse osmosis(RO) in order to replace the evaporators in nuclear power plants. However, no single unit process can treat liquid waste of various physico chemical characteristics. Thus a combined technology consisting of several unit processes may be more effective in treating these radioactive wastes. Feasibility studies on processing units such as fibre filters (FF), UF membranes, RO membranes, and selective ion exchange systems (SIES) have been carried out for the treatment of these wastes. This paper summarizes the results of a lab scale experiment using these combined processes for the removal of radionuclides such as cobalt and cesium, and the organics in simulated waste and application of these combined processes to Yonggwang 5, 6 and Ulchin 5, 6 nuclear power plants also showed improved liquid radioactive waste system(LRS) performance

  12. Permitting a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, changes in the laws and regulations have produced an increased emphasis on proper solid waste disposal. Experience with various types of industrial wastes has shown that a large segment of these materials should not go to a landfill. If these wastes are prohibited from landfills, an effective alternative is incineration. The Department of Energy (DOE) has seen the need to build an incinerator at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant to treat wastes that are generated at the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations facilities, many of which are contaminated with low levels of radioactivity. An extensive effort has been put forth to bring this project to reality. Several permits from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment are required before the facility can operate. These permits include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Permit, (2) Toxic Substances Control Act Permit, (3) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit, (4) Tennessee State Air Permit, and (5) National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants Approval Letter. The permitting process has been very long and involved and has taken nearly three years to complete. Currently, plans are to have the facility fully operational by January 1988

  13. Evaluation of Secondary Streams in Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, Fred F.; Goldsmith, William A.; Allen, Douglas F.; Mezga, Lance J.

    1995-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have generated waste containing radioactive and hazardous chemical components (mixed wastes) for over 50 years. Facilities and processes generating these wastes as well as the regulations governing their management have changed. Now, DOE has 49 sites where mixed waste streams exist. The Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992 (1) required DOE to prepare and obtain regulatory approval of plans for treating these mixed waste streams. Each of the involved DOE sites submitted its respective plan to regulators in April 1995 (2). Most of the individual plans were approved by the respective regulatory agencies in October 1995. The implementation of these plans has begun accordance with compliance instruments (orders) issued by the cognizant regulatory authority. Most of these orders include milestones that are fixed, firm and enforceable as defined in each compliance order. In many cases, mixed waste treatment that was already being carried out and survived the alternative selection process is being used now to treat selected mixed waste streams. For other waste streams at sites throughout the DOE complex treatment methods and schedules are subject to negotiation as the realties of ever decreasing budgets begin to drive the available options. Secondary wastes generated by individual waste treatment systems are also mixed wastes that require treatment in the appropriate treatment system. These secondary wastes may be solid or liquid waste (or both). For example debris washing will generate wastewater requiring treatment; wastewater treatment, in turn, will generate sludge or other residuals requiring treatment; liquid effluents must meet applicable limits of discharge permits. At large DOE sites, secondary waste streams will be a major influence in optimizing design for primary treatment. Understanding these impacts is important not only foe system design, but also for assurances that radiation releases and

  14. Chemical health risk assessment for hazardous and mixed waste management units at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The waste characterization for each treatment unit or process is based on treatment records from LLNL's computerized Hazardous Waste Management Inventory System (HWMIS). In 1990, these data were compiled into a single database comprising both hazardous waste and mixed waste data. Even though these data originate from the same source used in the previous HRA, the database was modified to set quantities and concentrations to a consistent set of units. This allowed an analysis of waste types by Hazardous Waste Management unit that was more accurate and did not rely upon many of the conservative assumptions used in the Phase II HRA waste characterization. Finally, the current waste characterizations are considered more representative of potential long-term wastes because they were developed by combining all wastes that could be treated in each unit, as opposed to the wastes treated only during 1988 to 1989. This final step more appropriately accounts for the variability in waste types likely to be seen by the Hazardous Waste Management Division. The quantities of each waste listed in the characterization tables represent the sum of all chemical quantities belonging to hazardous and mixed waste types potentially handled by each area

  15. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  16. Repellent-Treated Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the pesticide permethrin to pre-treat clothing. We evaluate the safety and effectiveness of such insecticide uses, by exposure scenarios and risk assessment. Read and follow the label directions for use of permethrin-treated clothing.

  17. The IAEA's activities in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    The IAEA has been concerned with radioactive waste management since its inception. Its programme in this area was expanded in the mid 1970s as questions related to the management and disposal of radioactive wastes came into focus in conjunction with the further industrial development of nuclear power. The objectives of the Agency's waste management programme are to assist its Member States in the safe and effective management of wastes by organizing the exchange and dissemination of information, providing guidance and technical assistance and supporting research. The current programme addresses all aspects of the industrial use of nuclear power under the aspects (a) technology of handling and treatment of wastes, (b) underground disposal of wastes, (c) environmental aspects of nuclear energy, including sea disposal of radioactive wastes. Systematic reviews have been made and publications issued concerning the technology of handling, treating, conditioning, and storing various categories of wastes, including liquid and gaseous wastes, wastes from nuclear power plants, spent fuel reprocessing and mining and milling of uranium ores, as well as wastes from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. As waste disposal is the current issue of highest interest, an Agency programme was set up in 1977 to develop a set of guidelines on the safe underground disposal of low-, intermediate- and high-level wastes in shallow ground, rock cavities or deep geological repositories. This programme will continue until 1990. Eleven Safety Series and Technical Documents and Reports have been published under this programme so far, which also addresses safety and other criteria for waste disposal. The environmental part of the waste management programme is concerned with the assessment of radiological and non-radiological consequences of discharges from nuclear facilities, including de minimis concepts in waste disposal and environmental models and data for radionuclide releases

  18. Remote aspects of treating and handling radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, K.

    1982-01-01

    Carrying out detailed handling analysis on process components is the only way to get a fundamental basis for the choice of handling concepts. It is necessary to set up methods for the procedure of handling anlaysis in a systematic, uniform and checkable way. Large hot cell concepts promise a lot of advantages, but these concepts live and die with the availability of suitable handling equipment. High emphasis has to be put into the development of this special equipment

  19. Method of treating radioactive waste waters from uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priban, V.; Novak, L.; Zubcek, L.; Hinterholzinger, O.

    1987-01-01

    radioactive mine waters with suspended solid particles and acid salinated solutions from the process of underground leaching of radioactive ores with sulfuric acid, are discharged in a specified ratio to a common sump. The acid salinated solutions are used as a coagulation agent for the treatment of radioactive mine waters. Both solutions are mixed at simultaneous addition of lime milk suspension. In a sedimentation tank, the precipitate thus produced is sedimented and the clarified water is carried from the tank to a public water flow. The advantages of the method include the treatment of an over-balance 3 m 3 /min of acid salinated solutions from the process of underground leaching of radioactive ores with sulfuric acid, and reduction in the cost of radioactive mine water treatment. (E.S.)

  20. Physical properties of heat-treated rattan waste binderless particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Maisarah; Ahmad, Zuraida; Halim, Zahurin; Maleque, Md Abd; Ismail, Hanafi; Sarifuddin, Norshahida

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of heat treatment on the properties of binderless particleboard (BPB) fabricated via hot-pressing process with pressing temperature, pressing time and pressing pressure of 180°C, 5 minutes and 1 MPa, respectively. The fabricated BPB with density in the range of 0.8-0.95g cm-3 was heated in a temperature-controlled laboratory chamber at 80°C, 120°C and 160°C for period of 2 and 8 hours before underwent physical observation, mass loss measurement and thickness swelling test. The samples had remarkable color changes, mainly with samples of treatment temperature of 160˚C, where the color differences were 9.5 and 20.3. This changed the fabricated BPB samples from yellowish brown to dark brown color when treatment conditions increased. Darker color indicates greater mass loss due to severity of chemical component in the powder. Dimensional stability of fabricated BPB was improved with higher treatment temperature as more cellulose cross-linked and hemicellulose degraded that removed the hygroscopicity behavior of powder. These results revealed that heat treatment helped in improving the BPB physical properties, particularly in dimensional stability of boards.