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Sample records for treating atrial tachyarrhythmias

  1. Atrial tachyarrhythmia in adult congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbassi, Arsha; Nair, Krishnakumar; Harris, Louise; Wald, Rachel M; Roche, S Lucy

    2017-01-01

    The adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population continues to grow and most cardiologists, emergency room physicians and family doctors will intermittently come into contact with these patients. Oftentimes this may be in the setting of a presentation with atrial tachyarrhythmia; one of the commonest late complications of ACHD and problem with potentially serious implications. Providing appropriate initial care and ongoing management of atrial tachyarrhythmia in ACHD patients requires a degree of specialist knowledge and an awareness of certain key issues. In ACHD, atrial tachyarrhythmia is usually related to the abnormal anatomy of the underlying heart defect and often occurs as a result of surgical scar or a consequence of residual hemodynamic or electrical disturbances. Arrhythmias significantly increase mortality and morbidity in ACHD and are the most frequent reason for ACHD hospitalization. Intra-atrial reentrant tachycardia and atrial fibrillation are the most prevalent type of arrhythmia in this patient group. In hemodynamically unstable patients, urgent cardioversion is required. Acute management of the stable patient includes anticoagulation, rate control, and electrical or pharmacological cardioversion. In ACHD, rhythm control is the preferred management strategy and can often be achieved. However, in the long-term, medication side-effects can prove problematic. Electrophysiology studies and catheter ablation are important treatments modalities and in certain cases, surgical or percutaneous treatment of the underlying cardiac defect has a role. ACHD patients, especially those with complex CHD, are at increased risk of thromboembolic events and anticoagulation is usually required. Female ACHD patients of child bearing age may wish to pursue pregnancies. The risk of atrial arrhythmias is increased during pregnancy and management of atrial tachyarrhythmia during pregnancy needs specific consideration. PMID:28706585

  2. Recommendations for pacemaker implantation for the treatment of atrial tachyarrhythmias and resynchronisation therapy for heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemel, N.M.; Dijkman, B.; de Voogt, W.G.; Beukema, W.P.; Bosker, H.A.; de Cock, C.C.; Jordaens, L.J.L.M.; van Gelder, I.C.; van Gelder, L.M.; van Mechelen, R.; Ruiter, J.H.; Sedney, M.I.; Slegers, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Today, new pacing algorithms and stimulation methods for the prevention and interruption of atrial tachyarrhythmias can be applied on patients who need bradycardia pacing for conventional reasons. In addition, biventricular pacing as additive treatment for patients with severe congestive heart failure due to ventricular systolic dysfunction and prolonged intraventricular conduction has shown to improve symptoms and reduce hospital admissions. These new pacing technologies and the optimising of the pacing programmes are complex, expensive and time-consuming. Based on many clinical studies the indications for these devices are beginning to emerge. To support the cardiologist's decision-making and to prevent waste of effort and resources, the 'ad hoc committee' has provided preliminary recommendations for implantable devices to treat atrial tachyarrhythmias and to extend the treatment of congestive heart failure respectively. PMID:25696255

  3. Diagnosis and therapy of atrial tachyarrhythmias in the dual chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, B; Wellens, H J

    2000-11-01

    Devices capable of monitoring and treating atrial tachyarrhythmias provide information about the natural history of the arrhythmias and potentially can influence their natural course by electrical therapy early after onset. Types of atrial arrhythmias and efficacy of device therapies were evaluated in 30 patients implanted with the Medtronic model 7250 Jewel AF implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). All patients had structural heart disease and documented sustained ventricular and atrial arrhythmias (27 with atrial fibrillation [AF]) before implant. Twenty patients were taking amiodarone, and three were taking sotalol. During 20+/-10 months of follow-up, 600 atrial arrhythmia recurrences were documented in 50% of patients. AF was diagnosed in 19%, fast polymorphic atrial tachycardia (AT) in 20%, fast monomorphic AT in 57%, and slow AT in 4% of episodes. The two adaptive pacing therapies, burst and ramp, together with the 50-Hz burst, were successful in 57% of detected atrial arrhythmias. Burst and ramp were responsible for 49% and 50-Hz burst for 51% of successfully treated arrhythmias; 33% of the episodes terminated spontaneously. No ventricular proarrhythmia was observed due to atrial pacing therapies. In 30% of episodes, dual chamber pacing was required due to post termination bradycardia. Atrial arrhythmia recurrences in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were not amenable to pacing therapies. Several aspects of atrial arrhythmia diagnosis, therapy, and documentation that are specific for functioning of the Jewel AF are discussed. Atrial arrhythmias in ICD patients with diseased hearts who are taking Class III antiarrhythmics frequently had longer cycle lengths than AF. Half of these arrhythmias could be terminated with pacing therapies; one third terminated spontaneously.

  4. Radiofrequency ablation of atrial tachyarrhythmias in adults with tetralogy of Fallot - predictors of success and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Vivienne A; Ryan, Matthew J; O'Leary, Justin; Ariti, Cono; Deanfield, John; Pandya, Bejal; Cullen, Shay; Walker, Fiona; Khan, Fakhar; Abrams, Dominic J; Lambiase, Pier D; Lowe, Martin D

    2017-03-01

    Adults with tetralogy of Fallot experience atrial tachyarrhythmias; however, there are a few data on the outcomes of radiofrequency ablation. We examined the characteristics, outcome, and predictors of recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmias after radiofrequency ablation in tetralogy of Fallot patients. Methods/results Retrospective data were collected from 2004 to 2013. In total, 56 ablations were performed on 37 patients. We identified two matched controls per case: patients with tetralogy of Fallot but no radiofrequency ablation and not known to have atrial tachyarrhythmias. Acute success was 98%. Left atrial arrhythmias increased in frequency over time. The mean follow-up was 41 months; 78% were arrhythmia-free. Number of cardiac surgeries, age, and presence of atrial fibrillation were predictors of recurrence. Lone cavo-tricuspid isthmus-dependent flutter reduced the likelihood of atrial fibrillation. Right and left atria in patients with tetralogy of Fallot were larger in ablated cases than controls. NYHA class was worse in cases and improved after ablation; baseline status predicted death. Of matched non-ablated controls, a number of them had atrial fibrillation. These patients were excluded from the case-control study but analysed separately. Most of them had died during follow-up, whereas of the matched ablated cases all were alive and the majority in sinus rhythm. Patients with tetralogy of Fallot and atrial tachyarrhythmias have more dilated atria than those without atrial tachyarrhythmias. Radiofrequency ablation improves functional status. Left atrial ablation is more commonly required with repeat procedures. There is a high prevalence of atrial tachyarrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation, in patients with tetralogy of Fallot; early radiofrequency ablation may have a protective effect against this.

  5. Spinal cord stimulation suppresses bradycardias and atrial tachyarrhythmias induced by mediastinal nerve stimulation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, René; Pagé, Pierre; Vermeulen, Michel; Bouchard, Caroline; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Foreman, Robert D; Armour, J Andrew

    2006-11-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) applied to the dorsal aspect of the cranial thoracic cord imparts cardioprotection under conditions of neuronally dependent cardiac stress. This study investigated whether neuronally induced atrial arrhythmias can be modulated by SCS. In 16 anesthetized dogs with intact stellate ganglia and in five with bilateral stellectomy, trains of five electrical stimuli were delivered during the atrial refractory period to right- or left-sided mediastinal nerves for up to 20 s before and after SCS (20 min). Recordings were obtained from 191 biatrial epicardial sites. Before SCS (11 animals), mediastinal nerve stimulation initiated bradycardia alone (12 nerve sites), bradycardia followed by tachyarrhythmia/fibrillation (50 sites), as well as tachyarrhythmia/fibrillation without a preceding bradycardia (21 sites). After SCS, the number of responsive sites inducing bradycardia was reduced by 25% (62 to 47 sites), and the cycle length prolongation in residual bradycardias was reduced. The number of responsive sites inducing tachyarrhythmia was reduced by 60% (71 to 29 sites). Once elicited, residual tachyarrhythmias arose from similar epicardial foci, displaying similar dynamics (cycle length) as in control states. In the absence of SCS, bradycardias and tachyarrhythmias induced by repeat nerve stimulation were reproducible (five additional animals). After bilateral stellectomy, SCS no longer influenced neuronal induction of bradycardia and atrial tachyarrhythmias. These data indicate that SCS obtunds the induction of atrial arrhythmias resulting from excessive activation of intrinsic cardiac neurons and that such protective effects depend on the integrity of nerves coursing via the subclavian ansae and stellate ganglia.

  6. Origin and pharmacological response of atrial tachyarrhythmias induced by activation of mediastinal nerves in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J Andrew; Richer, Louis-Philippe; Pagé, Pierre; Vinet, Alain; Kus, Teresa; Vermeulen, Michel; Nadeau, Réginald; Cardinal, René

    2005-03-31

    We sought to determine the sites of origin of atrial tachyarrhythmias induced by activating mediastinal nerves, as well as the response of such arrhythmias to autonomic modulation. Under general anaesthesia, atrioventricular block was induced after thoracotomy in 19 canines. Brief trains of 5 electrical stimuli were delivered to right-sided mediastinal nerves during the atrial refractory period. Unipolar electrograms were recorded from 191 right and left atrial epicardial sites under several conditions, i.e. (i) with intact nervous systems and following (ii) acute decentralization of the intrathoracic nervous system or administration of (iii) atropine, (iv) timolol, (v) hexamethonium. Concomitant right atrial endocardial mapping was performed in 7 of these dogs. Mediastinal nerve stimulation consistently initiated bradycardia followed by atrial tachyarrhythmias. In the initial tachyarrhythmia beats, early epicardial breakthroughs were identified in the right atrial free wall (28/50 episodes) or Bachmann bundle region (22/50), which corresponded to endocardial sites of origin associated with the right atrial subsidiary pacemaker complex, i.e. the crista terminalis and dorsal locations including the right atrial aspect of the interatrial septum. Neuronally induced responses were eliminated by atropine, modified by timolol and unaffected by acute neuronal decentralization. After hexamethonium, responses to extra-pericardial but not intra-pericardial nerve stimulation were eliminated. It is concluded that concomitant activation of cholinergic and adrenergic efferent intrinsic cardiac neurons induced by right-sided efferent neuronal stimulation initiates atrial tachyarrhythmias that originate from foci anatomically related to the right atrial pacemaker complex and tissues underlying major atrial ganglionated plexuses.

  7. Low energy transvenous cardioversion of short duration atrial tachyarrhythmias in humans using a single lead system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, A; Jung, J; Fries, R; Stopp, M; Sen, S; Schieffer, H; Ozbek, C

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of atrial cardioversion using an endocardial single lead system presently used for ventricular defibrillation. The study population consisted of 26 recipients of an ICD in combination with a conventional endocardial single lead system with the proximal spring electrode as anode in the SVC and the distal as cathode in the apex of the RV. Atrial tachyarrhythmias were induced by right atrial burst pacing. If the arrhythmia sustained > 1 minute, biphasic shocks synchronized with the R wave were delivered using the implanted device, beginning with an energy of 4 J. If 4 J failed to terminate the arrhythmia, energy was increased stepwise, if the first shock was successful, a step-down testing was performed after reinduction of atrial tachyarrhythmias. The mean atrial defibrillation threshold was 2.3 +/- 1.2 J (range, 0.5-5 J). A total of 154 shocks were delivered and no adverse effects were observed. The mean defibrillation threshold for atrial flutter was somewhat lower than that for AF (1.8 +/- 1 J vs 2.7 +/- 1.4 J, P = 0.08). There was no correlation between the atrial defibrillation threshold and a history of previously occurring atrial tachyarrhythmias, the kind of the underlying heart disease, a prescription of antiarrhythmic drugs, the dimension of the LA, the LVEF, or the ventricular DFT. Internal atrial cardioversion of short duration atrial tachyarrhythmias using a transvenous single lead system designed for ventricular defibrillation is feasible and safe at low energies, and may have important clinical applications.

  8. Atrial antitachycardia pacing and managed ventricular pacing in bradycardia patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial tachyarrhythmias: the MINERVA randomized multicentre international trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Tukkie, Raymond; Manolis, Antonis S.; Mont, Lluis; Pürerfellner, Helmut; Santini, Massimo; Inama, Giuseppe; Serra, Paolo; de Sousa, João; Botto, Giovanni Luca; Mangoni, Lorenza; Grammatico, Andrea; Padeletti, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Aims Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common comorbidity in bradycardia patients. Advanced pacemakers feature atrial preventive pacing and atrial antitachycardia pacing (DDDRP) and managed ventricular pacing (MVP), which minimizes unnecessary right ventricular pacing. We evaluated whether DDDRP and MVP might reduce mortality, morbidity, or progression to permanent AF when compared with standard dual-chamber pacing (Control DDDR). Methods and results In a randomized, parallel, single-blind, multi-centre trial we enrolled 1300 patients with bradycardia and previous atrial tachyarrhythmias, in whom a DDDRP pacemaker had recently been implanted. History of permanent AF and third-degree atrioventricular block were exclusion criteria. After a 1-month run-in period, 1166 eligible patients, aged 74 ± 9 years, 50% females, were randomized to Control DDDR, DDDRP + MVP, or MVP. Analysis was intention-to-treat. The primary outcome, i.e. the 2-year incidence of a combined endpoint composed of death, cardiovascular hospitalizations, or permanent AF, occurred in 102/385 (26.5%) Control DDDR patients, in 76/383 (19.8%) DDDRP + MVP patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.55–0.99, P = 0.04 vs. Control DDDR] and in 85/398 (21.4%) MVP patients (HR = 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.77–1.03, P = 0.125 vs. Control DDDR). When compared with Control DDDR, DDDRP + MVP reduced the risk for AF longer than 1 day (HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.52–0.85, P MVP is superior to standard dual-chamber pacing. The primary endpoint was significantly lowered through the reduction of the progression of atrial tachyarrhythmias to permanent AF. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00262119. PMID:24771721

  9. Effectiveness of direct-current cardioversion for treatment of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, in particular atrial fibrillation, in surgical intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Andreas; Ritsch, Nicole; Knotzer, Hans; Dünser, Martin; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Ulmer, Hanno; Mutz, Norbert; Hasibeder, Walter

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate primary success rate and effectiveness of direct-current cardioversion in postoperative critically ill patients with new-onset supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Prospective intervention study. Twelve-bed surgical intensive care unit in a university teaching hospital. Thirty-seven consecutive, adult surgical intensive care unit patients with new-onset supraventricular tachyarrhythmias without previous history of tachyarrhythmias. Direct-current cardioversion using a monophasic, damped sinus-wave defibrillator. Energy levels used were 50, 100, 200, and 300 J for regular supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (n = 6) and 100, 200, and 360 J for irregular supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (n = 31). None of the patients was hypoxic, hypokalemic, or hypomagnesemic at onset of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia. Direct-current cardioversion restored sinus rhythm in 13 of 37 patients (35% primary responders). Most patients responded to the first or second direct-current cardioversion shock. Only one of 25 patients requiring more than two direct-current cardioversion shocks converted into sinus rhythm. Primary responders were significantly younger and demonstrated significant differences in arterial Po2 values at onset of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias compared with nonresponders. At 24 and 48 hrs, only six (16%) and five (13.5%) patients remained in sinus rhythm, respectively. In contrast to recent literature, direct-current cardioversion proved to be an ineffective method for treatment of new-onset supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and, in particular, atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response in surgical intensive care unit patients.

  10. TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF ATRIAL TACHYARRHYTHMIAS IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENT: THE ROLEOF MAGNESIUM SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MOJTAHEDZADEH

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective, randomized study, in the general intensive care unit at Shanatee teaching hospital, we evaluated twenty patients, mean age 52+18 years and mean acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score of 20±8, who were experiencing atrial tachyarrhythmias for more than 1 hour. After correction of their plasma potassium concentration to more than 4.0 mmof/1, patients were randomized to receive either 40 mg/kg magnesium sulfate bolus followed by 30 mg/kg/hr or 5mg/kg amiodarone bolus and 10 mg/kg/24hr infusion. Therapeutic end point was conversion to sinus rhythm over 24 hours. By logistic regression, the probability of conversion to sinus rhythm was significantly better for magnesium than for amiodarone at time 0-4 (0.6 vs.0.4, 12 (0.72 vs 0.45, and 24 (0.72vs.0.45 hours. In patients not converting to sinus rhythm, a significant decrease in ventricular response rate occurred at time zero to 0.5 hour (mean decrease 22 beats/min, P=0.0001, but there was no specific treatment effect between the magnesium and the amiodarone groups. Magnesium sulfate is superior to amiodarone in the conversion of acute atrial tachyarrhythmias, while initial slowing of ventricular response rate in non-converters appears equally efficacious with both agents.

  11. Atrial therapies reduce atrial arrhythmia burden in defibrillator patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, P A; Dijkman, B; Warman, E N; Xia, H A; Mehra, R; Stanton, M S; Hammill, S C

    2001-08-28

    Approximately 25% of patients who receive an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) to treat ventricular tachyarrhythmias have documented atrial tachyarrhythmias before implantation. This study assessed the ability of device-based prevention and termination therapies to reduce the burden of spontaneous atrial tachyarrhythmias. Patients with a standard indication for the implantation of an ICD and 2 episodes of atrial tachyarrhythmias in the preceding year received a dual-chamber ICD (Medtronic 7250 Jewel AF) that uses pacing and shock therapies for prevention and/or termination of atrial tachyarrhythmias. In a multicenter trial, patients were randomized to 3-month periods with atrial therapies "on" or "off" and subsequently crossed over. Analysis was performed on the 52 of 269 patients who had episodes of atrial tachyarrhythmia and had >/=30 days of follow-up with atrial therapies on and off. The atrial therapies resulted in a reduction of atrial tachyarrhythmia burden from a mean of 58.5 to 7.8 h/mo. A paired analysis (Wilcoxon signed-rank test) showed that the median difference in burden (1.1 h/mo) was highly significant (P=0.007). When the subgroup of 41 patients treated only with atrial pacing therapies was analyzed, the reduction in burden persisted (P=0.01). In this study, patients with a standard ICD indication and atrial tachyarrhythmias had a significant reduction in atrial tachyarrhythmia burden with use of atrial pacing and shock therapies.

  12. Unprovoked atrial tachyarrhythmias in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats: the role of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scridon, Alina; Gallet, Clément; Arisha, Moussa M; Oréa, Valérie; Chapuis, Bruno; Li, Na; Tabib, Alain; Christé, Georges; Barrès, Christian; Julien, Claude; Chevalier, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Experimental models of unprovoked atrial tachyarrhythmias (AT) in conscious, ambulatory animals are lacking. We hypothesized that the aging, spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) may provide such a model. Baseline ECG recordings were acquired with radiotelemetry in eight young (14-wk-old) and eight aging (55-wk-old) SHRs and in two groups of four age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Quantification of AT and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis were performed based on 24-h ECG recordings in unrestrained rats. All animals were submitted to an emotional stress protocol (air-jet). In SHRs, carbamylcholine injections were also performed. Spontaneous AT episodes were observed in all eight aging SHRs (median, 91.5; range, 4-444 episodes/24 h), but not in young SHRs or WKY rats. HRV analysis demonstrated significantly decreased low frequency components in aging SHRs compared with age-matched WKY rats (P aging (P = 0.01) SHRs compared with normotensive controls. In aging SHRs, emotional stress significantly reduced the number of arrhythmic events, whereas carbamylcholine triggered AT and significantly increased atrial electrical instability. This study reports the occurrence of unprovoked episodes of atrial arrhythmia in hypertensive rats, and their increased incidence with aging. Our results suggest that autonomic imbalance with relative vagal hyperactivity may be responsible for the increased atrial arrhythmogenicity observed in this model. We also provide evidence that, in this model, the sympatho-vagal imbalance preceded the occurrence of arrhythmia. These results indicate that aging SHRs may provide valuable insight into the understanding of atrial arrhythmias.

  13. Recommendations for pacemaker implantation for the treatment of atrial tachyarrhythmias and resynchronisation therapy for heart failure: A report from the task force on pacemaker indications of the Dutch Working Group on Cardiac Pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemel, N M; Dijkman, B; de Voogt, W G; Beukema, W P; Bosker, H A; de Cock, C C; Jordaens, L J L M; van Gelder, I C; van Gelder, L M; van Mechelen, R; Ruiter, J H; Sedney, M I; Slegers, L C

    2004-01-01

    Today, new pacing algorithms and stimulation methods for the prevention and interruption of atrial tachyarrhythmias can be applied on patients who need bradycardia pacing for conventional reasons. In addition, biventricular pacing as additive treatment for patients with severe congestive heart failure due to ventricular systolic dysfunction and prolonged intraventricular conduction has shown to improve symptoms and reduce hospital admissions. These new pacing technologies and the optimising of the pacing programmes are complex, expensive and time-consuming. Based on many clinical studies the indications for these devices are beginning to emerge. To support the cardiologist's decision-making and to prevent waste of effort and resources, the 'ad hoc committee' has provided preliminary recommendations for implantable devices to treat atrial tachyarrhythmias and to extend the treatment of congestive heart failure respectively.

  14. Effects of the I-kr-blocker almokalant and predictors of conversion of chronic atrial tachyarrhythmias to sinus rhythm. A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houltz, B; Darpo, B; Swedberg, K; Blomstrom, P; Brachmann, J; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Jensen, Steen M.; Svernhage, E; Vallin, H; Edvardsson, N

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of the I-kr-blocker almokalant attempting to convert chronic atrial tachyarrhythmias, and to find predictors of conversion, to sinus rhythm. Methods: The electrophysiological effects of a 6-hour infusion of almokalant, to a total dose of 25 +/- 4 mg, were assessed by

  15. Retrospective analysis of mode survival, reliability of atrial sensing and incidence of atrial tachyarrhythmias in 307 single-lead VDD pacemaker patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Igor; Lipar, Luka; Zizek, David; Boute, Wim; Vidmar, Masa; Gabrijelcic, Tone; Rakovec, Peter; Brecelj, Ales

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective analysis was to investigate VDD mode survival, development of atrial tachyarrhythmias (AT), and long-term atrial sensing performance of VDD pacing systems. We implanted single-lead VDD pacemakers in patients with isolated atrioventricular block and performed a retrospective analysis of 307 patients who had their devices implanted between May 1994 and September 2001. In 39 patients (12.7%), the pacing mode had to be reprogrammed to a single-chamber ventricular pacing mode, mostly due to permanent AT. In 16 of these patients, the atrial sensing safety margin was less than 150%. The atrial sensing safety margin was insufficient, i.e. less than 100% in only seven patients. Although only 12 (3.9%) of the patients had a history of paroxysmal AT at the time of pacemaker implantation, 200 (65%) patients presented with AT during follow-up. The mean AT burden at the last follow-up was 2.5%. These data illustrate that single-lead VDD pacemakers can be applied without serious complications in a highly selected group of patients. Our main concern is the development of AT in a large part of our population. Over a 10-year period, two thirds of our patients presented with AT.

  16. The effect of intermittent atrial tachyarrhythmia on heart failure or death in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator versus implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Pietrasik, Grzegorz; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of both history of intermittent atrial tachyarrhythmias (IAT) and in-trial IAT on the risk of heart failure (HF) or death comparing cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD......) treatment in mildly symptomatic HF patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding the benefit of CRT-D in patients with IAT. METHODS: The benefit of CRT-D in reducing the risk of HF/death was evaluated using multivariate Cox models incorporating the presence of......-D versus ICD on the risk of HF/death was not significantly different between LBBB patients with or without history of IAT (HR: 0.50, p = 0.028, and HR: 0.46, p

  17. Cerebrogenic tachyarrhythmia in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiac abnormalities following acute stroke are frequent and seen in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. The changes seen in electrocardiogram (ECG consist of repolarization abnormalities such as ST elevation, ST depression, negative T waves, and QT prolongation. Among tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation is the most common and occurrence of focal atrial tachycardia is very rare though any cardiac arrhythmias can follow acute stroke. We report a case of focal atrial tachycardia following acute ischemic stroke in 50-year-old female without structural heart disease, and their mechanisms and clinical implications.

  18. Intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and transplacental digitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, M; Asai, T; Suzuki, C; Matsushima, M; Ogawa, A

    1986-10-01

    Six newborn infants with intrauterine supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (five cases of atrial flutter and one of supraventricular tachycardia) are described. Transplacental digitalisation was attempted in three cases. Supraventricular tachycardia associated with hydrops fetalis, detected in a fetus at a gestation of 31 weeks, was successfully converted to normal sinus rhythm eight days after the mother began treatment with digoxin. The serum concentration of digoxin in cord blood almost equalled the maternal concentration in three cases. In the remaining three cases treatment with digitalis was effective in converting tachyarrhythmias to sinus rhythm after delivery. With maintenance digoxin therapy, the prognosis of fetal tachyarrhythmias seems to be good, once conversion to sinus rhythm has been accomplished.

  19. Tachyarrhythmia in patients with congenital heart disease: inevitable destiny?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuwen, C P; Taverne, Y J H J; Houck, C; Götte, M; Brundel, B J J M; Evertz, R; Witsenburg, M; Roos-Hesselink, J W; Bogers, A J J C; de Groot, N M S

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased over the last century. As a result, the number of CHD patients presenting with late, postoperative tachyarrhythmias has increased as well. The aim of this review is to discuss the present knowledge on the mechanisms underlying both atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmia in patients with CHD and the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available invasive treatment modalities.

  20. Ultrasound diagnosis and monitoring of fetal tachyarrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.А. Ivaniv

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim – to evaluate the efficiency of prenatal echocardiography in detecting, differential diagnosis and monitoring fetuses with tachyarrhythmias. Materials and methods. Investigations performed in a single center from April 1996 to July 2016 were analysed. During this study 2,073 pregnant women were examined and 213 cases of fetal arrhythmia were found (10.3 %. Prenatal echocardiography was conducted by general protocol, each examination were fixed and saved in electronic and paper form. Results. During this period 25 cases of fetal tachyarrhythmias were diagnosed, representing 11.7 % of all cases of arrhythmia and 1.2 % of all fetal heart examinations. In five fetuses tachyarrhythmia was combined with structural heart disorders, which constitutes 20 % among all tachyarrhythmias. Most fetal tachyarrhythmias (21 were diagnosed during third trimester of pregnancy. The most common fetal tachyarrhythmia was atrioventricular «re-entry» tachycardia – 14 cases (56 %. None case of this group was combined with structural cardiac pathology, however, almost half were accompanied by hemodynamic complications. Drug treatment was effective in this group. Atrial fibrillation was second prevalent in our study, 4 cases (16 % – dangerous arrhythmia, which in most fetuses caused circulatory failure, being combined with congenital heart defect or myocardial pathology. Drug treatment in this group is less effective, depending on comorbidity and age pregnancy. We diagnosed 4 cases of sinus tachycardia (16 %, largely having benign course in the prenatal period and not requiring drug treatment. Prognosis of pregnancy is determined by concomitant diseases of the fetus. One case (4 % of atrial flutter required preterm delivery through the hemodynamic complications. Ectopic atrial tachycardia was diagnosed in two fetuses (8 %. This arrhythmia is insensitive to medical treatment and may persist after birth. Conclusions. Clinical management of pregnancy, the need

  1. Clinical course of acute atrial fibrillation treated with rapid digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, P; Bassan, M M; Jarchovsky, J; Iusim, S; Plavnick, L

    1983-02-01

    Forty-seven episodes of acute atrial fibrillation (AF) in 45 patients were examined prospectively to determine the course of the disorder treated with rapid digitalization. Patients received 1.5 mg of digoxin intravenously over 12 hours. In 40 of the 47 attacks, reversion to sinus rhythm occurred with no additional therapy at 1 to 96 hours (median 4 hours) after beginning digoxin. In thirty-two patients, conversion occurred within 8 hours; only one patient showed important ventricular slowing before conversion. Thus, if digoxin facilitates conversion, it does not do so by slowing the ventricular response. Of the 11 patients still in AF at 16 hours, conversion subsequently occurred in only four who were receiving digoxin alone. We conclude that the prognosis for quick reversion to sinus rhythm in patients with acute AF treated with rapid digitalization alone is excellent. If reversion does not occur by 16 to 24 hours, additional measures to restore sinus rhythm are indicated.

  2. [The nonpharmacological treatment of tachyarrhythmias. The surgery of supraventricular arrhythmias not due to pre-excitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, M; Graffigna, A; Pagani, F; Salerno, J A

    1991-12-01

    Surgery can provide treatment for supraventricular tachyarrhythmias without operative risk and with a definite improvement of patients' quality of life. Ectopic atrial tachycardia is a rare but invalidating arrhythmia that may lead to cardiomyopathy: intraoperative mapping is necessary for the location of the location of the ectopic focus; in our experience, surgical, cryothermal or isolation ablation of the area were effective in 9 patients out of 9, with regression of the cardiomyopathy. Atrioventricular node reentry tachycardia is a reentry tachycardia which is often associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and is amenable to surgical treatment. Discrete cryolesions around the Koch triangle are effective in interrupting the atrial inputs to the atrioventricular node and therefore the reentry mechanism: in our experience, 7 patients were successfully treated without operative mortality: 3 patients underwent surgical ablation of Kent bundles as well. Atrial fibrillation is not based on a well-defined mechanism, and therefore does not permit an electrically-guided surgical treatment. However, in case of atrial septal defect it is possible to isolate the enlarged right atrium in order to allow sinus rhythm to activate the left atrium and ventricles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Atrial fibrillation in fracture patients treated with oral bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B; Eiken, P; Brixen, K

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine if patients receiving oral bisphosphonates are at excess risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), stroke and myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Register-based restricted cohort study. SETTING: National Hospital Discharge Register and National Prescriptions Database (1995-2005). SUBJ......OBJECTIVES: To determine if patients receiving oral bisphosphonates are at excess risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), stroke and myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Register-based restricted cohort study. SETTING: National Hospital Discharge Register and National Prescriptions Database (1995...... to adherence. There was no increased risk of ischaemic stroke and an increased risk of myocardial infarction was not significant after adjustment for comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: The increased occurrence of AF in fracture patients who are users of oral bisphosphonates should be attributed to targeting...

  4. Fetal tachyarrhythmia: literature data and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukianova I.S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetal tachyarrhythmia is unfeigned in most cases and occurs in about 1–3% of the total number of pregnancies. Most of it's kinds are ectopic intraatrial reductions. FA is usually diagnosed during the routine, starting from 18 weeks of gestation, ultrasound assessment of the fetal heart rate. Approximately 10% of fetuses with rhythm disorders are at high risk of sudden death. Supraventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation are the most common causes of sudden death, the same is observed for bradyarrhythmias: manifest sinus bradycardia (hypoxic genesis and expressed AV-blockade. The examination of all fetuses with arrhythmia was strongly recommended in cases of intrauterine cardiac arrest or death of the fetus in families. Arrhythmias which have been revealed during scheduled prenatal examination of the fetuses are in need of expert echocardiography assessment to determine the extent of possible pre- and postnatal risk of sudden death and the paril of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy formation. In case of identified life-threatening arrhythmia in fetus the pharmacological therapy, which greatly affects the favorable outcome is strongly recommended. It should be based on hemodynamic of pregnant and aimed to prevent the development of decompensation or arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy.

  5. Prevalence of right atrial non-pulmonary vein triggers in atrial fibrillation patients treated with thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hun; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Prasant; Trivedi, Chintan; Morris, Eli Hamilton; Santangeli, Pasquale; Bai, Rong; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Burkhardt, John David; Gallinghouse, Joseph G; Horton, Rodney; Sanchez, Javier E; Bailey, Shane; Hranitzky, Patrick M; Zagrodzky, Jason; Kim, Soo G; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is known to enhance arrhythmogenicity, and high-normal thyroid function is related with an increased recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after catheter ablation. However, the impact of thyroid hormone replacement (THR) on AF ablation is not well known. This study evaluated 1163 consecutive paroxysmal AF patients [160 (14%) on THR and 1003 (86%) without THR] undergoing their first catheter ablation. A total of 146 patients on THR and 146 controls were generated by propensity matching, based on calculated risk factor scores, using a logistic model (age, sex, body mass index, and left atrium size). The presence of non-pulmonary vein (PV) triggers was disclosed by a high-dose isoproterenol challenge (up to 30 μg/min) after PV isolation. Clinical characteristics were not different between the groups. When compared to the control, non-PV triggers were significantly greater in the THR patients [112 (77%) vs. 47 (32%), P atrial appendage (47 vs. 34%, P = 0.03), crista terminalis/superior vena cava (11 vs. 8%, P = 0.43), and mitral valve annulus (7 vs. 5%, P = 0.45) (THR vs. control), respectively. After mean follow-up of 14.7 ± 5.2 months, success rate was lower in patients on THR therapy [94 (64.4%)] compared to patients not receiving THR therapy [110 (75.3%), log-rank test value = 0.04]. Right atrial non-PV triggers were more prevalent in AF patients treated with THR. Elimination of non-PV triggers provided better arrhythmia-free survival in the non-THR group.

  6. Comparison of transplacental treatment of fetal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias with digoxin, flecainide, and sotalol: results of a nonrandomized multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeggi, Edgar T.; Carvalho, Julene S.; de Groot, Ernestine; Api, Olus; Clur, Sally-Ann B.; Rammeloo, Lukas; McCrindle, Brian W.; Ryan, Greg; Manlhiot, Cedric; Blom, Nico A.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal tachyarrhythmia may result in low cardiac output and death. Consequently, antiarrhythmic treatment is offered in most affected pregnancies. We compared 3 drugs commonly used to control supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and atrial flutter (AF). We reviewed 159 consecutive referrals with fetal

  7. Relation of milrinone after surgery for congenital heart disease to significant postoperative tachyarrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew H; Owen, Jill; Borgman, Kristie Y; Fish, Frank A; Kannankeril, Prince J

    2011-12-01

    Milrinone reduces the risk of low cardiac output syndrome for some pediatric patients after congenital heart surgery. Data from adults undergoing cardiac surgery suggest an association between milrinone and an increased risk of postoperative arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that milrinone is an independent risk factor for tachyarrhythmias after congenital heart surgery. Subjects undergoing congenital heart surgery at our institution were consecutively enrolled for 38 months, through September 2010. The data were prospectively collected, including a review of full-disclosure telemetry and the medical records. Within 38 months, 603 enrolled subjects underwent 724 operative procedures. The median age was 5.5 months (range 0.0 to 426), the median weight was 6.0 kg (range 0.7 to 108), and the cohort was 45% female. The overall arrhythmia incidence was 50%, most commonly monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (n = 85, 12%), junctional ectopic tachycardia (n = 69, 10%), accelerated junctional rhythm (n = 58, 8%), and atrial tachyarrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ectopic or chaotic atrial tachycardia, n = 58, 8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent of age 3, and the use of epinephrine or dopamine, milrinone use on admission to the cardiac intensive care unit remained independently associated with an increase in the odds of postoperative tachyarrhythmia resulting in an intervention (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 6.0, p = 0.007). In conclusion, milrinone use is an independent risk factor for clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in the early postoperative period after congenital heart surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relation of Milrinone Following Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease to Significant Postoperative Tachyarrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew H.; Owen, Jill; Borgman, Kristie Y.; Fish, Frank A.; Kannankeril, Prince J.

    2011-01-01

    Milrinone reduces the risk of low cardiac output syndrome for some pediatric patients following congenital heart surgery. Data from adults undergoing cardiac surgery suggest an association between milrinone and increased risk for postoperative arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that milrinone is an independent risk factor for tachyarrhythmias following congenital heart surgery. Subjects undergoing congenital heart surgery at our institution were consecutively enrolled for 38 months, through September 2010. Data was prospectively collected, including review of full-disclosure telemetry and the medical record. Over 38 months, 603 enrolled subjects underwent 724 operative procedures. The median age was 5.5 months (0.0–426), weight was 6.0 kg (0.7–108), and the cohort was 45% female. Overall arrhythmia incidence was 50%, most commonly monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (n=85, 12%), junctional ectopic tachycardia (n=69, 10%), accelerated junctional rhythm (n=58, 8%), and atrial tachyarrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ectopic or chaotic atrial tachycardia, n=58, 8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent of age less than 1 month, use of cardiopulmonary bypass, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, RACHS-1 score greater than 3, and the use of epinephrine or dopamine, milrinone use on admission to the cardiac intensive care unit remained independently associated with an increase in the odds of postoperative tachyarrhythmia resulting in an intervention (OR 2.8 [95%CI 1.3–6.0], p=0.007). In conclusion, milrinone use is an independent risk factor for clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in the early postoperative period following congenital heart surgery. PMID:21890079

  9. Ultrastructural alterations of atrial myocardium induced by adriamycin in chronically treated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertenghi-Deliliers, G; Zanon, P L; Pozzoli, E F; Bellini, O; Praga, C

    1978-02-28

    The clinical use of adriamycin (AM) is limited by a possible dose-dependent myocardiopathy. Severe lesions of ventricular myocardium widely described by electron microscopy have been correlated to irreversible congestive heart failure. On the other hand, the atrial contractile elements which differ from the ventricular ones because of the presence of the so-called specific granules have rarely been considered. In the work described in this paper, adriamycin was injected into rabbits and mice according to schedules of chronic toxicity. At the end of the treatment the atrial myocells presented diffuse ultrastructural lesions of mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrillar bundles. These alterations might be caused by the ribonucleoprotein synthesis inhibition, by a direct drug toxicity or by an energetic crisis due to early mitochondrial lesions. Besides, adriamycin produces a decrease of the specific atrial granules that play a hypothetic role in the metabolism of myocardial cells. However, lack of information about the contents and the exact function of atrial granules does not allow us to conclude that their decrease in treated animals has a pathogenetic significance in myocardiopathy induced by adriamycin.

  10. Rhythm vs. rate control of atrial fibrillation meta-analysed by number needed to treat

    OpenAIRE

    Kumana, Cyrus R; Cheung, Bernard M Y; Cheung, Giselle T Y; Ovedal, Tori; Pederson, Bjorn; Lauder, Ian J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whenever feasible, rhythm control of atrial fibrillation (AF) was generally preferred over rate control, in the belief that it offered better symptomatic relief and quality of life, and eliminated the need for anticoagulation. However, recent trials appear to challenge these assumptions. Aims: To explore the desirability of rhythm vs. rate control of AF by systematic review of pertinent, published, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and a meta-analysis by number needed to treat (...

  11. Renal function, time in therapeutic range and outcomes in warfarin-treated atrial fibrillation patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Anders Nissen; Lip, Gregory Y H; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Patients with severely reduced renal function have been excluded from randomized controlled trials of oral anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (AF). Warfarin treatment in this population is controversial and data on anticoagulation control and the impact on adverse outcomes are needed. By indi......Patients with severely reduced renal function have been excluded from randomized controlled trials of oral anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (AF). Warfarin treatment in this population is controversial and data on anticoagulation control and the impact on adverse outcomes are needed......) was calculated using the Rosendaal method. The risk of stroke and bleeding was estimated using multivariable Cox regression analyses with eGFR and TTR estimated time dependently throughout follow-up. We identified 10,423 warfarin-treated AF patients with available international normalized ratio and creatinine...

  12. Traumatic events involving elderly patients treated with anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation: the downside of stroke prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Riccardi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A group of oral anticoagulant-treated patients affected by permanent atrial fibrillation was evaluated after their access to the emergency room as a result of a traumatic accident. In these patients, the re-evaluation of their risk of thromboembolism and bleeding was performed together with the evaluation of their risk of falling and institutionalization. Results show that the emergency department identifies a cohort of very elderly frail patients, who should be carefully reconsidered for anticoagulant therapy after a traumatic event.

  13. Sex differences in health status and rehabilitation outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Mette Kirstine; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Risom, Signe Stelling

    2018-01-01

    (EHRA) score I-II had a positive effect of rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that sex differences exist in self-reported health after rehabilitation in patients ablated for AF. Patients with an I-II EHRA score seem more likely to gain from the rehabilitation programme compared with those......BACKGROUND: Increased physical capacity after comprehensive rehabilitation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing ablation has been found in the CopenHeartRFA trial. The purpose of this study was to investigate: (a) sex differences in health status, psychological distress and quality...... of life, (b) sex differences in rehabilitation outcomes and (c) predictors of effect of rehabilitation. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory analysis of data from the randomized CopenHeartRFA trial, where patients treated with ablation were randomized with 1:1 to comprehensive rehabilitation consisting...

  14. Positive predictive value of device-detected atrial high-rate episodes at different rates and durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, Elizabeth S; Israel, Carsten W; Nair, Girish M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pacemakers can automatically identify and catalog atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs). While most AHREs represent true atrial tachyarrhythmia/atrial fibrillation (AT/AF), a review of stored electrograms suggests that a substantial proportion do not. As AHREs may lead to the initiation o...

  15. The effect of integrated cardiac rehabilitation versus treatment as usual for atrial fibrillation patients treated with ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Signe Stelling; Zwisler, Ann-Dorth Olsen; Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt

    2013-01-01

    fibrillation treated with ablation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS DESIGN: The trial is a multicentre parallel arm design with 1:1 randomisation to the intervention and control group with blinded outcome assessment. 210 patients treated for atrial fibrillation with radiofrequency ablation will be included...... measure is exercise capacity measured by the VO(2) peak. The secondary outcome measure is self-rated mental health measured by the Short Form 36 questionnaire. Postintervention, qualitative interviews will be conducted in 10% of the intervention group. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol is approved...

  16. [Ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, K.; Christensen, A.H.; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2008-01-01

    by disease, gender, age, previous cardiac arrest and treatment with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). RESULTS: 993 patients were screened and 128 patients with cardiomyopathy were identified, corresponding to 13% of the screened patients. 58 (45%) of the patients had dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM......), 57 (45%) patients had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and 13 (10%) had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The average age was 44 years for HCM, 41 years for ARVC and 58 years for DCM. The majority of the patients were male. ICD treatment was used in 95% of the patients...... with ARVC, 70% of the patients with HCM and 59% of the patients with DCM. Only 5 patients had previous cardiac arrest without reversible cause. CONCLUSION: The study shows that cardiomyopathies are relatively frequent causes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients discharged from a specialised...

  17. The role of the accessory pathway radiofrequency catheter ablation in the secondary prevention of the malignant tachyarrhythmias in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović Nebojša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF in the presence of an accessory pathway (AP that conducts rapidly is potentially lethal because the rapid ventricular response may lead to ventricular fibrillation (VF. The aim of the study was to determine long-term efficacy of AP catheter-ablation using radiofrequency (RF current in secondary prevention of VF in WPW patients. Methods. Study included a total of 192 symptomatic WPW patients who underwent RF catheter-ablation of AP in our institution from 1994 to 2007 and were available for clinical follow-up for more than 3 months after procedure. Results. Before ablation, VF was recorded in total of 27 patients (14.1%. In 14 of patients (51.9% VF was the first clinical manifestation of WPW syndrome. A total of 35 VF episodes were identified in 27 patients. The occurrence of VF was preceded by physical activity or emotional stress in 17.1% of cases, by alcohol abuse in 2.9% and by inappropriate intravenous drug administration in 28.6%. In addition, no clear precipitating factor was identified in 40% of VF cases, while informations about activities preceding 11.4% of VF episodes were not available. The follow-up of 5.7 ± 3.3 years was obtained in all of 27 VF patients. Of the 20 patients who underwent successful AP ablation, all were alive, without syncope or ventricular tachyarrhythmias during long-term follow-up. In 4 of 7 unsuccessfully treated patients, recurrence of supraventricular tachycardia and/or preexcited atrial fibrillation were recorded; one of these patients suddenly died of VF, 6 years after procedure. Conclusion. In significant proportion of WPW patients, VF was the first clinical manifestation of WPW syndrome, often precipitated by physical activity, emotional stress or inappropriate drug administration. Successful elimination of AP by percutaneous RF catheter-ablation is highly effective in secondary prevention of life-threatening tachyarrhythmias in patients with

  18. Cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients treated with catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Signe S; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt

    2016-01-01

    ) versus 20.7mL kg(-1) min(-1), p of main effect=0.003, p of interaction between time and intervention=0.020). No significant difference between groups on Short Form-36 was found (53.8 versus 51.9 points, P=.20). Two serious adverse events (atrial fibrillation in relation to physical exercise and death...... unrelated to rehabilitation) occurred in the cardiac rehabilitation group versus one in the usual care group (death unrelated to intervention) (P=.56). In the cardiac rehabilitation group 16 patients versus 7 in the usual care group reported non-serious adverse events (P=.047). CONCLUSION: Comprehensive...

  19. Clinical Outcomes and History of Fall in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Oral Anticoagulation: Insights From the ARISTOTLE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meena P; Vinereanu, Dragos; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Alexander, John H; Atar, Dan; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Wallentin, Lars; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Granger, Christopher B

    2018-03-01

    We assessed outcomes among anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling, and whether the benefits of apixaban vs warfarin are consistent in this population. Of the 18,201 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) study, 16,491 had information about history of falling-753 with history of falling and 15,738 without history of falling. The primary efficacy outcome was stroke or systemic embolism; the primary safety outcome was major bleeding. When compared with patients without a history of falling, patients with a history of falling were older, more likely to be female and to have dementia, cerebrovascular disease, depression, diabetes, heart failure, osteoporosis, fractures, and higher CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, prior Stroke or TIA or thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category female) and HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal and liver function, Stroke, Bleeding, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly, Drugs or alcohol) scores. Patients with a history of falling had higher rates of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.84; P = .020), including intracranial bleeding (adjusted HR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.43; P = .044) and death (adjusted HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.36-2.14; P < .0001), but similar rates of stroke or systemic embolism and hemorrhagic stroke. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban compared with warfarin on any outcome, regardless of history of falling. Among those with a history of falling, subdural bleeding occurred in 5 of 367 patients treated with warfarin and 0 of 386 treated with apixaban. Patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling receiving anticoagulation have a higher risk of major bleeding, including intracranial, and death. The efficacy and safety of apixaban compared

  20. Focal Impulse And Rotor Mapping (FIRM): Conceptualizing And Treating Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A B Zaman Ma Bm BChir, Junaid; Schricker Md, Amir; G Lalani Md, Gautam; Trikha Bs, Rishi; E Krummen Md, David; M Narayan Md PhD, Sanjiv

    2014-01-01

    Current approaches for the ablation of atrial fibrillation are often effective, but only partially rooted in mechanistic understanding. Accordingly, they are unable to predict whether a given patient will or will not do well, or which lesions sets should or should not be performed - in any given patient. This goal would require clearer mechanistic definition of what sustains AF after it has been triggered (i.e. electrophysiological substrates). There are two schools of thought. The first proposes disorganized activity that self-sustains with no 'driver', and the second describes drivers that then cause disorganization. Interestingly, these mechanisms can be separated in human studies by mapping approach - proponents of the disorganized hypothesis studying small atrial areas at high resolution, and proponents of the driver model studying wide fields-of-view at varying resolutions. Focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM) mapping combines a wide field of view with physiologically based signal filtering and phase analysis, and has revealed that human AF is often sustained by rotors. In the CONFIRM Trial, targeting stable AF rotors/sources for ablation improved the single-procedure efficacy for paroxysmal and persistent AF over conventional ablation alone, as now confirmed by independent laboratories. FIRM mapping gives a mechanistic foundation to predict whether any selected lesions should intersect AF sources in any given patient and which mechanisms may cause recurrence. Rotors of varying characteristics have now been shown by many groups. These insights have reinvigorated interest in AF mapping, and rationalizing these findings will likely translate into improved therapy for our patients.

  1. Improvement of the myocardial performance index in atrial fibrilation patients treated with amiodarone after cardioversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besli, Feyzullah; Basar, Cengiz; Kecebas, Mesut; Turker, Yasin

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the response to electrical cardioversion (EC) and the effect on the myocardial performance index (MPI) in patients with persistent and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). We enrolled 103 patients (mean age 69.6 ± 8.9 years, 40.7% males) with a diagnosis of persistent and long-standing persistent AF. EC was applied to all patients after one g of amiodarone administration. Echocardiographic findings before EC were compared in patients with successful versus unsuccessful cardioversions and in patients with maintained sinus rhythm (SR) versus those with AF recurrence at the end of the first month. We also compared echocardiographic data before EC versus at the end of the first month in the same patients with maintained SR. SR was achieved in 72.8% of patients and was continued at the end of the first month in 69.3% of the patients. The MPI value of all patients was found to be 0.73 ± 0.21. The size of the left atrium was determined to be an independent predictor of the maintenance of SR at 1 month. In subgroup analyses, when we compared echocardiographic findings before EC and at the end of the first month in patients with maintained SR, the MPI (0.66 ± 0.14 vs 0.56 ± 0.09, p < 0.001) values were significantly decreased. Our study is the first to show impairment of the MPI, which is an indicator of systolic and diastolic function, in patients with persistent and long-standing persistent AF and improvement of the MPI after successful EC.

  2. Hospital Admissions, Costs, and 30-Day Readmissions Among Newly Diagnosed Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients Treated with Dabigatran Etexilate or Warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Eileen; Sander, Stephen D; Hess, Gregory P; Ghosh, Sabyasachi

    2015-11-01

    Oral anticoagulation such as warfarin and dabigatran is indicated for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients at risk of ischemic stroke. Dabigatran etexilate was developed to address the limitations of warfarin, including the need for regular blood monitoring, which has the potential to lead to higher health care resource use, particularly in hospitalized patients. To evaluate whether hospitalization cost, length of hospital stay (LOS), likelihood of readmission within 30 days, and cost of readmissions differed across inpatient encounters among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients that were newly diagnosed and newly treated with either dabigatran or warfarin. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using IMS Health's Charge Detail Master (CDM) database. Hospitalizations were identified based on a primary or secondary AF diagnosis, dabigatran or warfarin use, and a discharge date from January 2011 through March 2012. The identified patients without valvular procedures and transient AF were required to have a minimum of 12 months of pharmacy and private practitioner records prior to the inpatient encounter to ensure that they were newly treated on dabigatran or warfarin. Propensity score matching was used to balance baseline characteristics between treatment cohorts. Outcomes assessed were LOS, 30-day readmissions, and costs. Because individual patients could have more than 1 hospital observation, generalized estimating equations (GEE) with a gamma distribution (log link) were used for the analysis of continuous outcome measures (e.g., LOS and costs) and a binominal distribution for dichotomous outcomes (hospital readmissions). Two cohorts were propensity score matched (1:2) on demographic and clinical characteristics. The dabigatran cohort included 646 hospitalizations, and the warfarin cohort included 1,292 hospitalizations. Hospitalizations were on average 13% shorter (4.8 vs. 5.5 days, P  less than  0.001) and cost 12% less ($14,794 vs. $16,826, P

  3. Clinical characteristics and management of patients with atrial fibrillation treated with direct oral anticoagulants according to blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Figuera, M; Cinza, S; Egocheaga, I; Marín, N; Prieto, M A

    2018-02-14

    To determine the clinical characteristics and management of hypertensive patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) according to blood pressure (BP) control. For this purpose, data from two observational, cross-sectional and multicenter studies were combined. In both studies, patients on chronic treatment with anticoagulants and that were on current treatment with DOACs at least for 3 months were included. Adequate BP was defined as a systolic BP<140mmHg and a diastolic BP<90mmHg (<140/85mmHg if diabetes). Overall, 1036 patients were included. Of these, 881 (85%) had hypertension that were finally analyzed. The presence of other risk factors and cardiovascular disease was common. Mean BP was 132.6±14.3/75.2±9.2mmHg and 70.5% of patients achieved BP goals. Those patients with a poor BP control had more frequently diabetes, and a history of prior labile INR. Patients had a high thromboembolic risk, but without significant differences according to BP control. By contrast, more patients with a poor BP control had a higher bleeding risk (HAS-BLED ≥3: 24.0% vs 35.4%; P<0.001). HAS-BLED score was an independent predictor of poor BP control (odds ratio 1.435; 95% confidence interval 1.216-1.693; P<0.001). Satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment was independent of BP control. More than two thirds of our patients with hypertension and AF anticoagulated with DOACs achieve BP targets, what is clearly superior to that reported in the general hypertensive population. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of clinical outcomes among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients treated with rivaroxaban or warfarin, stratified by renal function
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Matthew R; Haskell, Lloyd; Berger, Jeffrey S; Ashton, Veronica; Laliberté, François; Crivera, Concetta; Brown, Kip; Lefebvre, Patrick; Schein, Jeffrey

    2018-05-01

    Renal dysfunction increases the risk of thromboembolic and bleeding events in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Adult NVAF patients with ≥ 6 months prior to first warfarin or rivaroxaban dispensing were selected from the IMS Health Real-World Data Adjudicated Claims database (05/2011 - 06/2015) with electronic medical records. Ischemic stroke events, thromboembolic events (venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke), and major bleeding events were compared between patients by renal function identified by 1) relevant ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and 2) estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl). Baseline confounders were adjusted using inverse probability of treatment weights. The diagnosis-based analysis included 39,872 rivaroxaban and 48,637 warfarin users (3,572 and 8,230 with renal dysfunction, respectively). The eCrCl-based analysis included 874 rivaroxaban and 1,069 warfarin users (66 and 208 with eCrCl < 60 mL/min, respectively). In the diagnosis-based analysis, rivaroxaban users with renal dysfunction had a significantly lower stroke rate (HR = 0.55, p = 0.0004) compared to warfarin users; rivaroxaban users with and without renal dysfunction had significantly lower thromboembolic event rates (HR = 0.62, p < 0.0001; and HR = 0.64, p < 0.0001, respectively), and similar major bleeding rates to warfarin users. In the eCrCl-based analysis, rivaroxaban users with eCrCl ≥ 60 mL/min had a significantly lower thromboembolic event rate, but other outcomes were not statistically significant. Rivaroxaban-treated NVAF patients with diagnosed renal dysfunction had a significantly lower stroke rate compared to warfarin-treated patients. Regardless of renal dysfunction diagnoses, rivaroxaban users had lower thromboembolic event rates compared to warfarin users, and a similar rate of major bleeding. eCrCl-based analysis was limited by a small sample size.
.

  5. Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial revascularization: a randomized trial of prophylactic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyras, D H; Stothert, J C; Kaiser, G C; Barner, H B; Codd, J E; Willman, V L

    1979-02-01

    The success of prophylactic digitalization in reducing the incidence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT) was studied in 140 randomly grouped, consecutive patients undergoing myocardial revascularization operations. The test group received either 1 or 1.5 mg. of digoxin the day before operation and were maintained postoperatively on 0.25 mg. of digoxin daily. There was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the incidence of SVT in the treated patients (17 of 61 or 27.8 percent) vs. the untreated patients (nine of 79 or 11.4 percent). There was no significant difference in SVT with the two digitalization dosage levels (31.6 percent with 1 mg. vs. 21.7 percent with 1.5 mg.). Prophylactic digitalization demonstrates no benefit in the prevention of SVT following myocardial revascularization and may, in fact, predispose the patient to these arrhythmias.

  6. Corrected QT dispersion as a predictor of the frequency of paroxysmal tachyarrhythmias in patients with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eid M. Daoud

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Calculation of QTcd in patients with WPW syndrome presented with paroxysmal tachyarrhythmias is a simple noninvasive clinical test for risk stratification of those patients and hence detecting patients at higher risk for frequent and recurrent tachyarrhythmias.

  7. Theoretical and experimental analysis of amplitude control ablation and bipolar ablation in creating linear lesion and discrete lesions for treating atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shengjie; Wu, Xiaomei; Wang, Weiqi

    2017-09-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) energy is often used to create a linear lesion or discrete lesions for blocking the accessory conduction pathways for treating atrial fibrillation. By using finite element analysis, we study the ablation effect of amplitude control ablation mode (AcM) and bipolar ablation mode (BiM) in creating a linear lesion and discrete lesions in a 5-mm-thick atrial wall; particularly, the characteristic of lesion shape has been investigated in amplitude control ablation. Computer models of multipolar catheter were developed to study the lesion dimensions in atrial walls created through AcM, BiM and special electrodes activated ablation methods in AcM and BiM. To validate the theoretical results in this study, an in vitro experiment with porcine cardiac tissue was performed. At 40 V/20 V root mean squared (RMS) of the RF voltage for AcM, the continuous and transmural lesion was created by AcM-15s, AcM-5s and AcM-ad-20V ablation in 5-mm-thick atrial wall. At 20 V RMS for BiM, the continuous but not transmural lesion was created. AcM ablation yielded asymmetrical and discrete lesions shape, whereas the lesion shape turned to more symmetrical and continuous as the electrodes alternative activated period decreased from 15 s to 5 s. Two discrete lesions were created when using AcM, AcM-ad-40V, BiM-ad-20V and BiM-ad-40V. The experimental and computational thermal lesion shapes created in cardiac tissue were in agreement. Amplitude control ablation technology and bipolar ablation technology are feasible methods to create continuous lesion or discrete for pulmonary veins isolation.

  8. ST-segment elevation and ventricular fibrillation shortly after transseptal puncture for left atrial catheter ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ishigaki, MD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old man with drug-resistant paroxysmal atrial fibrillation underwent left atrial (LA catheter ablation. After sheaths were inserted into the LA using the Brockenbrough method, he complained of angina and developed ST-segment elevation in the II, III, aVF, V5, and V6 leads. Ventricular fibrillation (VF occurred followed by ventricular tachycardia. The VF was successfully treated with direct current shock. Coronary angiography with isosorbide dinitrate showed neither spasm nor embolism in the coronary artery. The chest pain disappeared after 6 min with resolution of the ST-segment elevation. A summarized review of ST-segment elevation associated with transseptal puncture disclosed that ST-segment elevation is often found in inferior leads (87.5%, while concomitant bradyarrhythmia has been reported in 43.8% of patients. Our patient is the first recorded case with potentially lethal tachyarrhythmia. Although ST-segment elevation and VF is a rare complication associated with transseptal puncture, awareness of this complication is important.

  9. Organized Atrial Tachycardias after Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Castrejón, Sergio; Ortega, Marta; Pérez-Silva, Armando; Doiny, David; Estrada, Alejandro; Filgueiras, David; López-Sendón, José L.; Merino, José L.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of catheter-based ablation techniques to treat atrial fibrillation is limited not only by recurrences of this arrhythmia but also, and not less importantly, by new-onset organized atrial tachycardias. The incidence of such tachycardias depends on the type and duration of the baseline atrial fibrillation and specially on the ablation technique which was used during the index procedure. It has been repeatedly reported that the more extensive the left atrial surface ablated, the higher the incidence of organized atrial tachycardias. The exact origin of the pathologic substrate of these trachycardias is not fully understood and may result from the interaction between preexistent regions with abnormal electrical properties and the new ones resultant from radiofrequency delivery. From a clinical point of view these atrial tachycardias tend to remit after a variable time but in some cases are responsible for significant symptoms. A precise knowledge of the most frequent types of these arrhythmias, of their mechanisms and components is necessary for a thorough electrophysiologic characterization if a new ablation procedure is required. PMID:21941669

  10. Taquiarritmia fetal: Una revisión práctica Fetal tachyarrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Jaramillo D

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Las frecuencias anormalmente rápidas sobre un corazón con una estructura menos distensible, rodeado por una coraza que sólo le permite defenderse con la frecuencia cardiaca para sostener el gasto cardiaco, hacen que este sea un corazón con márgenes estrechos de tolerancia frente a las taquiarritmias. Las frecuencias persistentes y superiores a 220 latidos por minuto, generan presiones anormalmente altas sobre todo el corazón y el sistema venoso. Hidrops y edema placentario son secuelas finales antes de la muerte fetal, y aún hasta este punto se pueden controlar y revertir. Aunque en teoría cualquier tipo de arritmias común en la vida extrauterina se podría desencadenar en el feto, 90% de éstas están incluidas en la taquicardia supraventricular reciprocante y en el flutter. Ambos tipos de arritmias pueden responder a la digoxina, aunque algunas son refractarias a este medicamento. La aplicación de ultrasonido sobre el corazón, permite no sólo descartar anomalías cardiacas asociadas, sino realizar protocolos de tratamiento. La medición de la relación de los tiempos ventrículo atrial:atrio ventricular, permite considerar otro tipo de arritmias como la taquicardia ectópica de la unión y la forma permanente reciprocante de la unión, etc., e incluir otros anti-arrítmicos, como amiodarona, flecainida, sotalol, entre otros. La principal vía de uso de los anti-arrítmicos es la transplacentaria. Por lo tanto, no sólo el feto se expone a posibles efectos secundarios, sino también la madre. Un grupo multidisciplinario enfrentará esta situación con el fin de ofrecer el mejor resultado para los dos.A heart with a not much distensible structure, surrounded by a membrane, and only able to react with the heart rate for maintaining its cardiac output, has a narrow margin of tolerance in front of tachyarrhythmias. Persistent heart rates >200/min generate abnormally high pressure on the heart and the venous system. Hydrops and placental

  11. Adenosine triphosphate-guided pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation: the UNmasking Dormant Electrical Reconduction by Adenosine TriPhosphate (UNDER-ATP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, Atsushi; Shizuta, Satoshi; Inoue, Koichi; Kaitani, Kazuaki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Yuko; Ozawa, Tomoya; Kurotobi, Toshiya; Morishima, Itsuro; Miura, Fumiharu; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Masuda, Masaharu; Naito, Masaki; Fujimoto, Hajime; Nishida, Taku; Furukawa, Yoshio; Shirayama, Takeshi; Tanaka, Mariko; Okajima, Katsunori; Yao, Takenori; Egami, Yasuyuki; Satomi, Kazuhiro; Noda, Takashi; Miyamoto, Koji; Haruna, Tetsuya; Kawaji, Tetsuma; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Toyota, Toshiaki; Yahata, Mitsuhiko; Nakai, Kentaro; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Higashi, Yukei; Ito, Makoto; Horie, Minoru; Kusano, Kengo F; Shimizu, Wataru; Kamakura, Shiro; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-12-07

    Most of recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (AF) are due to reconnection of PVs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether elimination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced dormant PV conduction by additional energy applications during the first ablation procedure could reduce the incidence of recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias. We randomly assigned 2113 patients with paroxysmal, persistent, or long-lasting AF to either ATP-guided PVI (1112 patients) or conventional PVI (1001 patients). The primary endpoint was recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias lasting for >30 s or those requiring repeat ablation, hospital admission, or usage of Vaughan Williams class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs at 1 year with the blanking period of 90 days post ablation. Among patients assigned to ATP-guided PVI, 0.4 mg/kg body weight of ATP provoked dormant PV conduction in 307 patients (27.6%). Additional radiofrequency energy applications successfully eliminated dormant conduction in 302 patients (98.4%). At 1 year, 68.7% of patients in the ATP-guided PVI group and 67.1% of patients in the conventional PVI group were free from the primary endpoint, with no significant difference (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-1.09; P = 0.25). The results were consistent across all the prespecified subgroups. Also, there was no significant difference in the 1-year event-free rates from repeat ablation for any atrial tachyarrhythmia between the groups (adjusted HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.65-1.08; P = 0.16). In the catheter ablation for AF, we found no significant reduction in the 1-year incidence of recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias by ATP-guided PVI compared with conventional PVI. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Atrial fibrillation in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Roberto A.; Rosa, Ronaldo F.; Santos, Silvio CM

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses atrial fibrillation according to the guidelines of Brazilian Society of Cardiac Arrhythmias and the Brazilian Cardiogeriatrics Guidelines. We stress the thromboembolic burden of atrial fibrillation and discuss how to prevent it as well as the best way to conduct cases of atrial fibrillatios in the elderly, reverting the arrhythmia to sinus rhythm, or the option of heart rate control. The new methods to treat atrial fibrillation, such as radiofrequency ablation, new oral direct thrombin inhibitors and Xa factor inhibitors, as well as new antiarrhythmic drugs, are depicted. PMID:22916053

  13. Atrial remodeling and metabolic dysfunction in idiopathic isolated fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chang; Jiang, Xiaohong; Ju, Weizhu; Wang, Jiaxian; Wang, Daowu; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Minglong

    2018-04-26

    Idiopathic isolated fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy (IIF-ACM) is a novel subtype of cardiomyopathy characterized by atrial fibrosis that does not involve the ventricular myocardium and is associated with significant atrial tachyarrhythmia. The mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are unknown. Atrium samples were obtained from 3 patients with IIF-ACM via surgical intervention. Control samples were consisted of 3 atrium biopsies from patients with congenital heart disease and normal sinus rhythm, matched for gender, age and basic clinical characteristics. Comparative histology, immunofluorescence staining, electron microscopy and proteomics analyses were carried out to explore the unique pathogenesis of IIF-ACM. IIF-ACM atria displayed disordered myofibrils, profound fibrosis and mitochondrial damages compared to the control atria. Proteomics profiling identified metabolic pathways as the most profound changes in IIF-ACM. Our study suggested that metabolic changes in the atrial myocardium caused mitochondrial oxidative stress and potential cell damage, which further led to atrial fibrosis and myofibril disorganization, the characteristic phenotype of IIF-ACM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence of sleep related breathing disorders in Egyptian patients with tachyarrhythmia without heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Mourad

    2017-01-01

    Clinical implications: OSAHS should be considered as part of the workup of patients with tachyarrhythmia. Both clinical apnea score and STOP BANG are good screening questionnaire to choose patients who need sleep study.

  15. Prognostic impact of hs-CRP and IL-6 in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation treated with electrical cardioversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Therkelsen, Susette Krohn; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the role of inflammatory processes in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the prognostic impact of inflammatory markers in predicting long-term risk of AF recurrence after electrical cardioversion (CV). METHODS: High-sensitivity C......-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured in 56 patients with persistent AF (lasting mean 128 days (range 14-960), mean age 65 years (34-84)), 19 healthy volunteers and 19 patients with permanent AF. Patients with persistent AF underwent CV. Blood samples were taken prior to CV and after 1......, 30 and 180 days. RESULTS: The immediate success rate of CV was 88%, while the total recurrence rate after 180 days was 68%. Patients with permanent AF had significantly higher levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 than patients with persistent AF (p = 0.0011, p

  16. South Asians are Under-Represented in a Clinic Treating Atrial Fibrillation in a Multicultural City in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebjee, M H; Tyndall, K; Holding, S; Russell, C; Graham, L N; Pepper, C B

    2012-01-01

    The Leeds rapid access atrial fibrillation (AF) clinic was set up to streamline and standardise management of patients with newly diagnosed AF. Anecdotal evidence suggests that there is under-representation of south Asians in these clinics.All patient attendances between June 2007 and June 2011 were documented and combined with ethnicity data from patient administration records. Local population demographics for 2009 were obtained from the office of national statistics. This was used to estimate the expected prevalence of AF across the different ethnic groups in Leeds taking age into account. One thousand two hundred and ten patients were referred. The study sample included 992 patients, and the number of south Asians attending was 88% less than expected (Chi squared analysis; pcosmopolitan population. Potential reasons for this discrepancy including barriers to accessing treatment for this population or a lower prevalence of AF in south Asians due to an as yet unidentified genetic factor.

  17. Electrocardiografía clínica: Taquiarritmias supraventriculares de origen atrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Katime Zúñiga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  Resumen Las arritmias se pueden definir como “cualquier anormalidad en la frecuencia, regularidad o sitio de origen del impulso cardiaco o trastorno de la conducción que produce una alteración de la activación auricular o ventricular”; mientras que taquicardia se define como “frecuencia cardiaca en adultos, mayor de 100 latidos por minuto (lat/ min.”. Por tanto, las taquiarritmias supraventriculares son “aquellas taquicardias que requieren tejido atrial o de conducción atrioventricular para su iniciación y mantenimiento”. En este artículo se expondrán las características electrocardiográficas de aquellas provenientes del tejido auricular. (DUAZARY 2010, 117 - 124AbstractThe arrhythmias are defined as “any abnormality in the frequency, regularity, or site of origin of the cardiac impulse or conduction disorder that produces an alteration in the atrial or ventricular activation”; whereas tachycardia is defined as a “heart rate in adults greater than 100 beats per minute”. Therefore, supraventricular tachyarrhythmias are “those tachycardias who require atrial tissue or atrioventricular conduction for its initiation and maintenance”. This article explains the electrocardiographic characteristics of those arrhythmias from atrial tissue.Keywords: Tachyarrhythmia; Tachycardia; Atrial; Auricular; Fibrilation; Flutter; Sinusal; Electrocardiography.

  18. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  19. Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staerk, Laila; Sherer, Jason A; Ko, Darae

    2017-01-01

    The past 3 decades have been characterized by an exponential growth in knowledge and advances in the clinical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). It is now known that AF genesis requires a vulnerable atrial substrate and that the formation and composition of this substrate may vary depending...... on comorbid conditions, genetics, sex, and other factors. Population-based studies have identified numerous factors that modify the atrial substrate and increase AF susceptibility. To date, genetic studies have reported 17 independent signals for AF at 14 genomic regions. Studies have established...

  20. Atrial Fibrillation: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Diagnosis Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... of your body's cells and organs. Read More "Atrial Fibrillation" Articles Atrial Fibrillation / Who Is at Risk for ...

  1. Time trends in antithrombotic management of patients with atrial fibrillation treated with coronary stents: Results from TALENT-AF (The internAtionaL stENT - Atrial Fibrillation study) multicenter registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Brian J; Andò, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Giovanni; Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Frikah, Zied; Chen, Xin Yue; Virga, Vittorio; Goncalves-Almeida, Joao; Camm, A John; Fox, Keith A A

    2018-04-01

    Antithrombotic management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is highly variable; limited evidence-based guidelines exist to influence practice. Patient characteristics and availability of novel drugs may have contributed to practice variability. We undertook an international multicenter retrospective registry of AF patients treated with PCI. The primary measures of interest were antiplatelet and OAC prescriptions at discharge. We compared temporal trends between Prior (2010-2012) and Recent (2013-2015) cohorts and investigated variables associated with OAC prescription. We identified 488 cases (140 Prior, 348 Recent). Median CHADS 2 and HAS-BLED scores were 2 (IQR, 1-3) and 2 (IQR, 2-3). Clinical characteristics were similar between cohorts, with high (85%) prevalence of ACS. More patients in the Recent cohort, compared with Prior, received OAC (56.9% vs 44.3%; P = 0.01) and NOAC (27.3% vs 3.6%; P < 0.01) at baseline. Triple therapy at discharge was not different between the cohorts. Clinical presentation with ACS and consequent use of potent P2Y 12 inhibitors were associated with reduced odds of OAC prescription at discharge (OR: 0.57, P = 0.045 and OR: 0.38, P = 0.023, respectively). Despite little change over time in clinical characteristics of AF patients undergoing PCI, significantly more patients received OAC at presentation. However, triple therapy was not more frequent in the Recent cohort, and ACS presentation was associated with lack of OAC at discharge. We underscore the need for trial evidence and use of updated guidelines to assist clinicians in balancing ischemic and bleeding risks. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. ATRIAL FLUTTER*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-01-02

    Jan 2, 1971 ... Athero- sclerotic cardiovascular disease was present in 23 patients, of whom 3 had ... primum defect, atrial flutter was precipitated by cardiac catheterization. ..... Heart J., 70, 505. UNDERSTANDING REACTIVE DEPRESSION*

  3. Atrial fibrillation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Mean blood pressures were 126.03± ... optimal. Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, thrombosis, CHADS2 Score, stroke risk, hypertensive heart disease, ... general population and the average age group ... Appendix 1) to stratify the stroke risk and we.

  4. Drug management of fetal tachyarrhythmias : Are we ready for a systematic and evidence-based approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, Freek; Bink-Boelkens, Margreet Th. E.; Sarvaas, Gideon J. Du Marchie; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    Fetal tachyarrhythmias are a life-threatening condition complicating a small proportion of normal pregnancies. Despite major advances in the (intrauterine) pharmacologic treatment of these arrhythmias over the last years major uncertainties remain. Among these are controversies in the choice of

  5. Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias and Mortality in Patients With an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; Versteeg, Henneke; Jordaens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined whether depression is independently associated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and mortality. Methods A cohort of 430 consecutive patients with a first-time ICD (79% men; mean [standard deviation] age = 57.8 [12.1] y...

  6. Long-term Outcome of Irish Wolfhound Dogs with Preclinical Cardiomyopathy, Atrial Fibrillation, or Both Treated with Pimobendan, Benazepril Hydrochloride, or Methyldigoxin Monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, A C; Fox, P R

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the Irish Wolfhound (IW). However, the benefit of medical treatment in IW dogs with preclinical DCM, atrial fibrillation (AF), or both has not been demonstrated. Compare the time to develop congestive heart failure (CHF) or sudden death in IW dogs with preclinical DCM, AF, or both receiving monotherapy with pimobendan, methyldigoxin, or benazepril hydrochloride. Seventy-five client-owned IW dogs. Irish Wolfhound dogs were prospectively randomized to receive pimobendan (Vetmedin®), benazepril HCl (Fortekor®), or methyldigoxin (Lanitop®) monotherapy in a 1:1:1 ratio in a blinded clinical trial. The prospectively defined composite primary endpoint was onset of CHF or sudden death. To assure stringent evaluation of treatment effect, data from dogs complying with the study protocol were analyzed. Sixty-six IW fulfilling the study protocol included 39 males, 27 females; median (interquartile range) age, 4.0 years (3.0-5.0 years) and weight, 70.0 kg (63.0-75.0 kg). Primary endpoint was reached in 5 of 23 (21.7%) IW receiving pimobendan, 11 of 22 (50.0%) receiving benazepril HCl, and 9 of 21 (42.9%) receiving methyldigoxin. Median time to primary endpoint was significantly longer for pimobendan (1,991 days; 65.4 months) compared to methyldigoxin (1,263 days; 41.5 months; P = .031) or benazepril HCl-(997 days; 32.8 months; P = .008) treated dogs. In IW dogs with preclinical DCM, AF or both, pimobendan monotherapy significantly prolonged time to onset of CHF or sudden death than did monotherapy with benazepril HCl or methyldigoxin. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Surgical treatment for ectopic atrial tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, A; Vigano, M; Pagani, F; Salerno, G

    1992-08-01

    Atrial tachycardia is an infrequent but potentially dangerous arrhythmia which often determines cardiac enlargement. Surgical ablation of the arrhythmia is effective and safe, provided a careful atrial mapping is performed and the surgical technique is tailored to the individual focus location. Eight patients underwent surgical ablation of ectopic atrial tachycardia between 1977 and 1990. Different techniques were adopted for each patient according to the anatomical location of the focus and possibly associated arrhythmias. Whenever possible, a closed heart procedure was chosen. In 1 patient a double focal origin was found and treated by separate procedures. In 1 patient with ostium secundum atrial septal defect and atrial flutter, surgical isolation of the right appendage and the ectopic focus was performed. In all patients ectopic atrial tachycardia was ablated with maintenance of the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodal function as well as internodal conduction. In follow-up up to December 1991, no recurrency was recorded.

  8. Atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Morten S; Nielsen, Morten W; Haunsø, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia affecting 1-2% of the general population. A number of studies have demonstrated that AF, and in particular lone AF, has a substantial genetic component. Monogenic mutations in lone and familial AF, although rare, have been recognized...

  9. [Atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinar, J; Vítovec, J

    2003-09-01

    Atrial fibrilation is the most frequent arrhythmia, the occurrence increasing with age and associated diseases. The incidence at the age below 60 years is markedly lower than one per cent, whereas in persons above 80 years of age it exceeds six per cent. The occurrence in patients with heart failure is from 10% (NYHA II) up to 50% (NYHA IV). Atrial fibrillation is classified into that observed for the first time and permanent, respectively, while transient forms include paroxyzmal and persistent atrial fibrillation. The diagnosis is based on ECG recording, while echocardiography is most significant. The therapy includes two basic questions--anticoagulant or anti-aggregation treatment and the control of rhythm or frequency. The anticoagulant therapy should be introduced in all patients, where contraindications are not present, being necessary before every cardioversion, provided atrial fibrillation lasts more than two days. In patients without any heart disease and with a physiological echocardiogram it is possible to administer only anti-aggregation treatment. Cardioversion (the control of rhythm) is recommended to all symptomatic patients, in other cases and especially in older persons the control of frequency is safer and of more advantage. Electrical cardioversion is more effective that a pharmacological treatment, the sinus rhythm is preferably controlled by dofetilid, ibutilid, propafenon and amiodaron. For the control of heart rate beta-blockers, diltiazem, verapamil and digitalis are recommended.

  10. Systemic right ventricular fibrosis detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance is associated with clinical outcome, mainly new-onset atrial arrhythmia, in patients after atrial redirection surgery for transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydman, Riikka; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Ho, Siew Yen; Ernst, Sabine; Swan, Lorna; Li, Wei; Wong, Tom; Sheppard, Mary; McCarthy, Karen P; Roughton, Michael; Kilner, Philip J; Pennell, Dudley J; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts outcomes in patients with transposition of the great arteries post atrial redirection surgery. These patients have a systemic right ventricle (RV) and are at risk of arrhythmia, premature RV failure, and sudden death. Fifty-five patients (aged 27±7 years) underwent LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance and were followed for a median 7.8 (interquartile range, 3.8-9.6) years in a prospective single-center cohort study. RV LGE was present in 31 (56%) patients. The prespecified composite clinical end point comprised new-onset sustained tachyarrhythmia (atrial/ventricular) or decompensated heart failure admission/transplantation/death. Univariate predictors of the composite end point (n=22 patients; 19 atrial/2 ventricular tachyarrhythmia, 1 death) included RV LGE presence and extent, RV volumes/mass/ejection fraction, right atrial area, peak Vo(2), and age at repair. In bivariate analysis, RV LGE presence was independently associated with the composite end point (hazard ratio, 4.95 [95% confidence interval, 1.60-15.28]; P=0.005), and only percent predicted peak Vo(2) remained significantly associated with cardiac events after controlling for RV LGE (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95]; P=0.009/5%). In 8 of 9 patients with >1 event, atrial tachyarrhythmia, itself a known risk factor for mortality, occurred first. There was agreement between location and extent of RV LGE at in vivo cardiovascular magnetic resonance and histologically documented focal RV fibrosis in an explanted heart. There was RV LGE progression in a different case restudied for clinical indications. Systemic RV LGE is strongly associated with adverse clinical outcome especially arrhythmia in transposition of the great arteries, thus LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance should be incorporated in risk stratification of these patients. © 2015 American Heart

  11. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for adults with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Signe Stelling; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Johansen, Pernille Palm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation may benefit adults with atrial fibrillation or those who had been treated for atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is caused by multiple micro re-entry circuits within the atrial tissue, which result in chaotic rapid activity in the atria....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of exercise-based rehabilitation programmes, alone or with another intervention, compared with no-exercise training controls in adults who currently have AF, or have been treated for AF. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases; CENTRAL...... the benefits and harms of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for adults with atrial fibrillation on patient-relevant outcomes....

  12. Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Treatment for atrial fibrillation depends on how often you have symptoms, how ...

  13. Sudden fetal death due to dualism of the sino-atrial node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusiol, Teresa; Roncati, Luca; Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Taddei, Fabrizio; Piscioli, Francesco; Ottaviani, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    First, we report a sudden fetal death at 33(+3)weeks due to sino-atrial node dualism. The female stillborn was delivered by induced labor. The postmortem examination of the cardiac conduction system revealed a dualism of the sino-atrial node, associated with fragmentation of the atrio-ventricular node and His bundle. These abnormalities of the cardiac conduction system represent the morphological substrate for the development of malignant arrhythmias. In particular, the dualism of the sino-atrial node can cause the dissociation of the longitudinal nodal impulse into two distinct ways of different pulse generation, resulting in supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. This observation suggests new avenues of research on the pathogenesis of the sudden unexpected fetal death. Moreover, our findings confirm the need for an accurate postmortem examination, including serial sectioning of the cardiac conduction system, in every case of unexplained fetal death, following standardized autoptic protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of clinical characteristics of real-life atrial fibrillation patients treated with vitamin K antagonists, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban: results from the CRAFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Paweł; Ozierański, Krzysztof; Tymińska, Agata; Żukowska, Katarzyna; Zaleska, Martyna; Szepietowska, Katarzyna; Maciejewski, Kacper; Peller, Michał; Grabowski, Marcin; Lodziński, Piotr; Praska-Ogińska, Anna; Zaboyska, Inna; Kołtowski, Łukasz; Kowalczuk, Anna; Bednarski, Janusz; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The first-line drugs for the treatment of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) are non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which are preferred over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). There is some evidence that there are dis-crepancies between everyday clinical practice and the guidelines. The study aimed to compare the characteristics of patients on VKAs, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban in everyday practice (i.e. baseline characteristics, drug doses, risk factors for bleeding and thromboembolic events). Additionally, we assessed the frequency of prescription of different oral anticoagulants (OACs) in recent years. This study consisted of data from the multicentre CRAFT (MultiCentre expeRience in AFib patients Treated with OAC) study (NCT02987062). This was a retrospective analysis of hospital records of AF patients (hospitalised in the years 2011-2016) treated with VKAs (acenocoumarol, warfarin) and NOACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban). A total of 3528 patients with non-valvular AF were enrolled in the CRAFT study. The total cohort consisted of 1973 patients on VKA, 504 patients on dabigatran, and 1051 patients on rivaroxaban. Patients on rivaroxaban were older (70.5 ± 13.1 years) and more often female (47.9%), compared with those on VKAs (67.0 ± 12.8 years, p < 0.001; 35.5%, p < 0.001) and on dabigatran (66.0 ± 13.9 years, p < 0.001; 38.9%, p = 0.001). Among NOACs, patients with persistent and permanent AF were more likely to receive rivaroxaban (54.7% and 73.4%, re-spectively) than dabigatran (45.3%, p < 0.001 and 26.6%, p = 0.002, respectively). Patients on rivaroxaban had higher risk of thromboembolic events (CHA2DS2VASc 3.9 ± 2.0, CHADS2 2.2 ± 1.4) than those on VKAs (3.3 ± 2.0, 1.9 ± 1.3) and on dabigatran (3.1 ± 2.0, 1.8 ± 1.3). Patients on rivaroxaban had also a higher rate of prior major bleeding (11.2%) than those on VKAs (6.7%, p < 0.001) and on dabigatran (7.3%, p = 0.02). Patients on lower doses of dabigatran and rivaroxaban had a

  15. Management of Wolff-Parkinson-White Tachyarrhythmia Presenting as Syncope with Seizure-like Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaplan

    2017-09-01

    illustrates the possibility of cardiogenic etiology underlying any convulsive or syncopal event, and thus the importance of its prompt detection and treatment. Objectives: At the end of this simulation session the learner will: 1 recognize clinical history suggestive of cardiogenic syncope; 2 recognize clinical evidence of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; 3 promptly and appropriately treat unstable WPW tachyarrhythmia; 4 effectively communicate with nurses and other team members during the resuscitation of an acutely ill patient. Method: Moderate-fidelity simulation.

  16. THE CONTROL OF INTERNATIONAL NORMALISED RATIO IN PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION TREATED WITH WARFARIN IN OUTPATIENT AND HOSPITAL SETTINGS: DATA FROM RECVASA REGISTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Loukianov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Am. To study in the RECVASA registers the availability of data about the international normalized ratio (INR indicator and achievement of its target values in outpatient and hospital practice in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF receiving anticoagulant therapy with warfarin.Material and methods. Data about the INR control and the frequency of achievement of its target values at the outpatient and hospital stages were analyzed in RECVASA (Ryazan and RECVASA FP – Yaroslavl outpatient registries, as well as in the hospital registers RECVASA FP (Moscow, Kursk, Tula in 817 patients (46.9% of men, age 68.5±9.6 years with AF and the prescribed anticoagulant therapy with warfarin.Results. INR was determined in 689 (84.3% of 817 patients. The values of INR were monitored during therapy with warfarin in RECVASA (Ryazan and RECVASA FP –Yaroslavl outpatient registries in 73.7% and 77.7% of patients, respectively, and in RECVASA FP hospital registers: 95.8% (Moscow; 81.3% (Tula and 93.5% (Kursk. The target level of INR (2.0-3.0 was achieved in a minority of patients with AF during treatment with warfarin: inRyazan – in 26.3% of cases;Yaroslavl – 38.3%;Kursk – 34.8%;Moscow – 39.5%; Tule – 26.3%. Control of INR in hospital registries during warfarin therapy in patients with AF significantly more often (p<0.05 was performed at the hospital stage, compared with prehospital (in Kursk –2.3 times more often in Moscow – 2.6 times, in Tula – in 1,8 times. The target level of INR in the hospital was achieved significantly more often (p<0.05 than before hospitalization (Moscow andKursk, but no significant differences were found in the RECVASA FP –Tula register (p=0.08. The INR was monitored by 94.9% of the patients; however, the target values of this indicator were achieved only in 33% of cases in the sample study in the RECVASA FP –Moscow registry according to a survey of 39 patients with AF who continued to receive warfarin after 2.6±0

  17. Management of Major Bleeding in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Treated With Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants Compared With Warfarin in Clinical Practice (from Phase II of the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation [ORBIT-AF II]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Benjamin A; Simon, DaJuanicia N; Thomas, Laine; Ansell, Jack; Fonarow, Gregg C; Gersh, Bernard J; Kowey, Peter R; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Peterson, Eric D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2017-05-15

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are effective at preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little is known about the management of bleeding in contemporary, clinical use of NOACs. We aimed to assess the frequency, management, and outcomes of major bleeding in the setting of community use of NOACs. Using the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation II registry, we analyzed rates of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding and subsequent outcomes in patients treated with NOACs versus warfarin. Outcomes of interest included acute and chronic bleeding management, recurrent bleeding, thromboembolic events, and death. In total, 344 patients with atrial fibrillation experienced major bleeding events over a median follow-up of 360 days follow-up: n = 273 on NOAC (3.3 per 100 patient-years) and n = 71 on warfarin (3.5 per 100 patient-years). Intracranial bleeding was uncommon but similar (0.34 per 100 patient-years for NOAC vs 0.44 for warfarin, p = 0.5), as was gastrointestinal bleeding (1.8 for NOAC vs 1.3 for warfarin, p = 0.1). Blood products and correction agents were less commonly used in NOAC patients with major bleeds compared with warfarin-treated patients (53% vs 76%, p = 0.0004 for blood products; 0% vs 1.5% for recombinant factor; p = 0.0499); no patients received pharmacologic hemostatic agents (aminocaproic acid, tranexamic acid, desmopressin, aprotinin). Within 30 days, 23 NOAC-treated patients (8.4%) died versus 5 (7.0%) on warfarin (p = 0.7). At follow-up, 126 NOAC-treated (46%) and 29 warfarin-treated patients (41%) were not receiving any anticoagulation. In conclusion, rates of major bleeding are similar in warfarin and NOAC-treated patients in clinical practice. However, NOAC-related bleeds require less blood product administration and rarely require factor replacement. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Cryoballoon Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason G. Andrade, MD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Focal point-by-point radiofrequency catheter ablation has shown considerable success in the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. However, it is not without limitations. Recent clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that cryothermal ablation using a balloon catheter (Artic Front©, Medtronic CryoCath LP provides an effective alternative strategy to treating atrial fibrillation. The objective of this article is to review efficacy and safety data surrounding cryoballoon ablation for paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation. In addition, a practical step-by-step approach to cryoballoon ablation is presented, while highlighting relevant literature regarding: 1 the rationale for adjunctive imaging, 2 selection of an appropriate cryoballoon size, 3 predictors of efficacy, 4 advanced trouble-shooting techniques, and 5 strategies to reduce procedural complications, such as phrenic nerve palsy.

  19. Radiofrequency catheter oblation in atrial flutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ji; Wang Heping; Xu Jian; Liu Fuyuan; Fan Xizhen; An Chunsheng; Han Xiaoping; Ding Xiaomei; Wang Jiasheng; Gu Tongyuan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the radiofrequency catheter ablation for type I atrial flutter through application of Holo catheter labelling with anatomic imaging localization to ablate the isthmus of IVCTA during complete double-way block. Methods: Eleven cases with type I atrial flutter undergone Holo catheter labelling technique and consecution with conduction time change of coronary venous sinus orifice with-right atrial lower lateral wall pace excitation, were performed with radiofrequency catheter ablation for the isthmus outcoming with complete double-way conduction block. Results: All together 11 cases with 4 of atrial flutter and 7 of sinus rhythm were undergone radiofrequency catheter ablation resulting with double-way conduction block of the isthmus accompanied by prolongation of right atrial conduction time 56.0 ± 2.3 ms and 53.0 ± 4.6 ms respectively. The right atrial excitation appeared to be in clockwise and counter-clockwise of single direction. No recurrence occurred during 3-34 months follow up with only one showing atrial fibrillation. Conclusions: The application of Holo catheter labelling technique with anatomic imaging localization to achieve the double-way conduction block by radiofrequency catheter ablation of TVC-TA isthmus, is a reliable method for treating atrial flutter

  20. Failure to Treat Life-Threatening Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Contemporary Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Anna Margrethe; Larsen, Jacob Moesgaard; Johansen, Jens Brock

    2017-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: Complex and unanticipated interactions between manufacturer-specific features and generic programming can prevent therapy for VF. More data are needed to assess the risks and benefits of translating evidence-based detection parameters from one manufacturer to another....

  1. Digoxin for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sethi, Naqash J; Nielsen, Emil E; Safi, Sanam

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During recent years, systematic reviews of observational studies have compared digoxin to no digoxin in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, and the results of these reviews suggested that digoxin seems to increase the risk of all-cause mortality regardless...... of concomitant heart failure. Our objective was to assess the benefits and harms of digoxin for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter based on randomized clinical trials. METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, SCI-Expanded, BIOSIS for eligible trials comparing digoxin versus placebo......, no intervention, or other medical interventions in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter in October 2016. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, and quality of life. Our secondary outcomes were heart failure, stroke, heart rate control, and conversion to sinus rhythm...

  2. Impact of the right ventricular lead position on clinical outcome and on the incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with CRT-D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Bloch Thomsen, Poul Erik; Huang, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Data on the impact of right ventricular (RV) lead location on clinical outcome and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) patients are limited.......Data on the impact of right ventricular (RV) lead location on clinical outcome and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) patients are limited....

  3. Atrial fibrillation or flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000184.htm Atrial fibrillation or flutter To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Atrial fibrillation or flutter is a common type of abnormal ...

  4. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000237.htm Atrial fibrillation - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... have been in the hospital because you have atrial fibrillation . This condition occurs when your heart beats faster ...

  5. Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Atrial Fibrillation URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Atrial fibrillation associated with chocolate intake abuse and chronic salbutamol inhalation abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; La Rosa, Felice Carmelo; Rocca, Roberto La

    2010-11-19

    The use of substances as the substrate for atrial fibrillation is not frequently recognized. Chocolate is derived from the roasted seeds of the plant theobroma cacao and its components are the methylxanthine alkaloids theobromine and caffeine. Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biological effect is the competitive antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Normal consumption of caffeine was not associated with risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter. Sympathomimetic effects, due to circulating catecholamines cause the cardiac manifestations of caffeine overdose toxicity, produce tachyarrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.The commonly used doses of inhaled or nebulized salbutamol induced no acute myocardial ischaemia, arrhythmias or changes in heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease and clinically stable asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Two-week salbutamol treatment shifts the cardiovascular autonomic regulation to a new level characterized by greater sympathetic responsiveness and slight beta2-receptor tolerance. We present a case of atrial fibrillation associated with chocolate intake abuse in a 19-year-old Italian woman with chronic salbutamol inhalation abuse. This case focuses attention on chocolate intake abuse associated with chronic salbutamol abuse as the substrate for atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A MicroRNA-Transcription Factor Blueprint for Early Atrial Arrhythmogenic Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous self-terminating atrial fibrillation (AF is one of the most common heart rhythm disorders, yet the regulatory molecular mechanisms underlying this syndrome are rather unclear. MicroRNA (miRNA transcriptome and expression of candidate transcription factors (TFs with potential roles in arrhythmogenesis, such as Pitx2, Tbx5, and myocardin (Myocd, were analyzed by microarray, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting in left atrial (LA samples from pigs with transitory AF established by right atrial tachypacing. Induced ectopic tachyarrhythmia caused rapid and substantial miRNA remodeling associated with a marked downregulation of Pitx2, Tbx5, and Myocd expression in atrial myocardium. The downregulation of Pitx2, Tbx5, and Myocd was inversely correlated with upregulation of the corresponding targeting miRNAs (miR-21, miR-10a/10b, and miR-1, resp. in the LA of paced animals. Through in vitro transient transfections of HL-1 atrial myocytes, we further showed that upregulation of miR-21 did result in downregulation of Pitx2 in cardiomyocyte background. The results suggest that immediate-early miRNA remodeling coupled with deregulation of TF expression underlies the onset of AF.

  8. A MicroRNA-Transcription Factor Blueprint for Early Atrial Arrhythmogenic Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado, Mario; Franco, Diego; Lozano-Velasco, Estefanía; Hernández-Torres, Francisco; Calviño, Ramón; Aldama, Guillermo; Centeno, Alberto; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Mikhailov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous self-terminating atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common heart rhythm disorders, yet the regulatory molecular mechanisms underlying this syndrome are rather unclear. MicroRNA (miRNA) transcriptome and expression of candidate transcription factors (TFs) with potential roles in arrhythmogenesis, such as Pitx2, Tbx5, and myocardin (Myocd), were analyzed by microarray, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting in left atrial (LA) samples from pigs with transitory AF established by right atrial tachypacing. Induced ectopic tachyarrhythmia caused rapid and substantial miRNA remodeling associated with a marked downregulation of Pitx2, Tbx5, and Myocd expression in atrial myocardium. The downregulation of Pitx2, Tbx5, and Myocd was inversely correlated with upregulation of the corresponding targeting miRNAs (miR-21, miR-10a/10b, and miR-1, resp.) in the LA of paced animals. Through in vitro transient transfections of HL-1 atrial myocytes, we further showed that upregulation of miR-21 did result in downregulation of Pitx2 in cardiomyocyte background. The results suggest that immediate-early miRNA remodeling coupled with deregulation of TF expression underlies the onset of AF. PMID:26221584

  9. Safety and feasibility of atrial fibrillation ablation using Amigo® system versus manual approach: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Scarà

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Amigo® Remote Catheter System is a relatively new robotic system for catheter navigation. This study compared feasibility and safety using Amigo (RCM versus manual catheter manipulation (MCM to treat paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF. Contact force (CF and force-time integral (FTI values obtained during pulmonary vein isolation (PVI ablation were compared. Methods: Forty patients were randomly selected for either RCM (20 or MCM (20. All were studied with the Thermocool® SmartTouch® force-sensing catheter (STc. Contact Force (CF, Force Time Integral (FTI and procedure-related data, were measured/stored in the CARTO®3. Results: All cases achieved complete PVI without major complications. Mean CF was significantly higher in the RCM group (13.3 ± 7.7 g in RCM vs. 12.04 ± 7.42 g in MCM p < 0.001, as was overall mean FTI (425.6 gs ± 199.6 gs with RCM and 407.5 gs ± 288.0 gs in MCM (p = 0.007 and was more likely to fall into the optimal FTI range (400-1000 using RCM (66.1% versus 49.1%, p < 0.001. FTI was significantly more likely to fall within the optimal range in each PV, as was CF within its optimal range in the right PVs, but trended higher in the left PVs. Freedom from atrial tachyarrhythmia was 90.0% for the RCM and 70.0% for the MCM group (p = 0,12 at 540 days follow-up. Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that use of the Amigo RCM system, with STc catheter, seems to be safe and effective for PVI ablation in paroxysmal AF patients. A not statistically significant favorable trend was observed for RCM in term of AF-free survival. Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, Catheter ablation, Remote robotic ablation

  10. Atrial Fibrillation: Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Complications Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... has two major complications—stroke and heart failure. Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke Click to enlarge image This illustration ...

  11. Atorvastatin can ameliorate left atrial stunning induced by radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ruiqin; Yang, Yingtao; Cui, Wei; Yin, Hongning; Zheng, Hongmei; Zhang, Jidong; You, Ling

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to study the functional changes of the left atrium after radiofrequency ablation treatment for atrial fibrillation and the therapeutic effect of atorvastatin. Fifty-eight patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation were randomly divided into non-atorvastatin group and atorvastatin group. Patients in the atorvastatin group were treated with atorvastatin 20 mg p.o. per night in addition to the conventional treatment of atrial fibrillation; patients in the non-atorvastatin group received conventional treatment of atrial fibrillation only. Echocardiography was performed before radiofrequency ablation operation and 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 4 weeks after operation. Two-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking imaging system was used to measure the structural indexes of the left atrium. Results indicated that there was no significant change for indexes representing the structural status of the left atrium within a month after radiofrequency ablation (P > 0.05); however, there were significant changes for indexes representing the functional status of the left atrium. There were also significant changes in indexes reflecting left atrial strain status: the S and SRs of atorvastatin group were higher than those of non-atorvastatin group (P atorvastatin could improve left atrial function and shorten the duration of atrial stunning after radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation.

  12. Atrial septostomy in patients with end-stage pulmonary hypertension. No more needles but wires, energy and close anatomical definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglini, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    To assess the usefulness of a new approach to atrial septal puncture and septostomy in patients with end-stage pulmonary hypertension. Atrial septostomy in end-stage pulmonary hypertension has high mortality and morbidity rates mainly due to trans-septal catheterization. New approaches to safety during this technical step are expected. Twelve patients with end-stage pulmonary arterial hypertension (5 males, 7 females, mean age 41, 9 ± 12, 0 years) underwent to balloon atrial septostomy. Intracardiac echography (ICE) was used to localize fossa ovalis while a radiofrequency wire was used to perforate the atrial septum. Then a septostomy was performed by progressive balloon dilatation of atrial septum. Septal perforation was successful at the first attempt in 4 patients and after 5 attempts in a single case, while Bas was successful in all. Pericardial effusion did not develop in any patient. Complications consisted in transient supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, transient cerebral ischemia and severe hypoxemia with ventricular tachycardia in 3 single patients. In-procedure death rate was 0%. Systemic cardiac output increased immediately, while systemic O2 saturation decreased significantly in all. Mean follow-up was 8, 2 ± 3, 8 months. Mortality was 16.6% (2 patients). NYHA class improved in the rest of patients. Four patients (33.2%) underwent to pulmonary transplant successfully. This novel approach for trans-septal catheterization has shown very low rate of major complication during atrial septostomy in patients with end-stage pulmonary arterial hypertension. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Isolation of canine coronary sinus musculature from the atria by radiofrequency catheter ablation prevents induction of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hiroshi; Zipes, Douglas P; Morita, Shiho T; Wu, Jiashin

    2014-12-01

    The junction between the coronary sinus (CS) musculature and both atria contributes to initiation of atrial tachyarrhythmias. The current study investigated the effects of CS isolation from the atria by radiofrequency catheter ablation on the induction and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Using an optical mapping system, we mapped action potentials at 256 surface sites in 17 isolated and arterially perfused canine atrial tissues containing the entire musculature of the CS, right atrial septum, posterior left atrium, left inferior pulmonary vein, and vein of Marshal. Rapid pacing from each site before and after addition of acetylcholine (0.5 μmol/L) was applied to induce AF. Epicardial radiofrequency catheter ablation at CS-atrial junctions isolated the CS from the atria. Rapid pacing induced sustained AF in all tissues after acetylcholine. Microreentry within the CS drove AF in 88% of preparations. Reentries associated with the vein of Marshall (29%), CS-atrial junctions (53%), right atrium (65%), and pulmonary vein (76%) (frequently with 2-4 simultaneous circuits) were additional drivers of AF. Radiofrequency catheter ablation eliminated AF in 13 tissues before acetylcholine (Patrial tissue. The results suggest that CS can be a substrate of recurrent AF in patients after pulmonary vein isolation and that CS isolation might help prevent recurrent AF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Therapeutical considerations in associated atrial fibrillation and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitu, O; Mitu, F; Constantin, S; Cojocaru, Elena; Leon, Maria-Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a supraventricular tachyarrhythmia very common in medical practice, often associated with heart failure. Pathophysiological relationship between atrial fibrillation and heart failure is in the attention of numerous case studies, being incomplete elucidated. We made a retrospective study on patients with both diseases, hospitalized in Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Hospital, Iasi, during 01.01.2013 - 31.12.2013. The obtained data allowed the classification of patients according to gender distribution, age groups, area of origin, clinical aspects, and association with other diseases, instituted treatment and appreciation of CHADS2 score. Data interpretation was performed with appropriate statistical methods. We found a higher frequency of the disease among male patients, male: female ratio being 2:1; the most of the patients lived in urban area. The pick of diseases incidence was in patients over 65 years with a total percentage of 70.84% of cases. We noted that the most common symptoms were exertional dyspnea (in all patients), palpitations, dizziness, headache, fatigue, asthenia, dyspnea at rest and pain/chest pressure. In our study, the majority of patients received the beta-blocker--digoxin combination (46 patients, 40 patients respectively). The coexistence of the two disorders could be explained by identifying common risk factors. Beta blockers should be the first therapeutic option in patients with chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation because they have the effect of controlling heart rate and improve survival in patients with these disorders. Meanwhile, digoxin is a drug, only certain conditions of high accuracy monitoring; whose major clinical indications are heart failure and atrial rhythm disturbances.

  15. Atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Casper N

    2013-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication after myocardial infarction (MI) and new-onset AF has been demonstrated to be associated with adverse outcome and a large excess risk of death in both MI and aortic stenosis (AS) patients. Prevention of new-onset AF is therefore a potential therapeutic target in AS and MI patients. Lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may prevent AF. Accordingly, statins are recommended as a class IIa recommendation for prevention of new-onset AF after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, this preventive effect has not been investigated on new-onset AF in asymptomatic patients with AS or a large scale first-time MI patient sample and data in patients not undergoing invasive cardiac interventions are limited. This PhD thesis was conducted at the Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, Denmark, with the aim to investigate the three aforementioned questions and to add to the existing evidence of AF prevention with statins. This was done using three different settings: 1) a randomized patients sample of 1,873 from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study, 2) a register patient sample of 97,499 with first-time MI, and 3) all published studies until beginning of June 2011 examining statin treatment on new-onset and recurrent AF in patients not undergoing cardiac surgery. This thesis revealed that statins did not lower the incidence or the time to new-onset AF in patients with asymptomatic AS. However, statin treatment showed an independently preventive effect on new-onset AF, including type-dependent effect and a trend to dosage-dependent effect. In addition, this thesis showed that good compliance to statin treatment was important to prevent new-onset AF. Finally, the meta-analysis in this PhD thesis showed a preventive effect in the observational studies although this effect was absent in the randomized controlled trials. Based on this PhD thesis

  16. TRial of an Educational intervention on patients' knowledge of Atrial fibrillation and anticoagulant therapy, INR control, and outcome of Treatment with warfarin (TREAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattison Helen M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AF patients with a high risk of stroke are recommended anticoagulation with warfarin. However, the benefit of warfarin is dependent upon time spent within the target therapeutic range (TTR of their international normalised ratio (INR (2.0 to 3.0. AF patients possess limited knowledge of their disease and warfarin treatment and this can impact on INR control. Education can improve patients' understanding of warfarin therapy and factors which affect INR control. Methods/Design Randomised controlled trial of an intensive educational intervention will consist of group sessions (between 2-8 patients containing standardised information about the risks and benefits associated with OAC therapy, lifestyle interactions and the importance of monitoring and control of their International Normalised Ratio (INR. Information will be presented within an 'expert-patient' focussed DVD, revised educational booklet and patient worksheets. 200 warfarin-naïve patients who are eligible for warfarin will be randomised to either the intervention or usual care groups. All patients must have ECG-documented AF and be eligible for warfarin (according to the NICE AF guidelines. Exclusion criteria include: aged Discussion More data is needed on the clinical benefit of educational intervention with AF patients receiving warfarin. Trial registration ISRCTN93952605

  17. Left Atrial Decompression by Percutaneous Left Atrial Venting Cannula Insertion during Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO frequently suffer from pulmonary edema due to left ventricular dysfunction that accompanies left heart dilatation, which is caused by left atrial hypertension. The problem can be resolved by left atrium (LA decompression. We performed a successful percutaneous LA decompression with an atrial septostomy and placement of an LA venting cannula in a 38-month-old child treated with venoarterial ECMO for acute myocarditis.

  18. Surgery for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, M; Graffigna, A; Ressia, L; Minzioni, G; Pagani, F; Aiello, M; Gazzoli, F

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of atrial fibrillation arc multiple reentry circuits spinning around the atrial surface, and these baffle any attempt to direct surgical interruption. The purpose of this article is to report the surgical experience in the treatment of isolated and concomitant atrial fibrillation at the Cardiac Surgical Institute of the University of Pavia. In cases of atrial fibrillation secondary to mitral/valve disease, surgical isolation of the left atrium at the time of mitral valve surgery can prevent atrial fibrillation from involving the right atrium, which can exert its diastolic pump function on the right ventricle. Left atrial isolation was performed on 205 patients at the time of mitral valve surgery. Atrial partitioning ("maze operation") creates straight and blind atrial alleys so that non-recentry circuits can take place. Five patients underwent this procedure. In eight-cases of atrial fibrillation secondary to atrial septal defect, the adult patients with atrial septal defect and chronic or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation underwent surgical isolation of the right atrium associated which surgical correction of the defect, in order to let sinus rhythm govern the left atrium and the ventricles. "Lone" atrial fibrillation occurs in hearts with no detectable organic disease. Bi-atrial isolation with creation of an atrial septal internodal "corridor" was performed on 14 patients. In cases of atrial fibrillation secondary to mitral valve disease, left atrial isolation was performed on 205 patients at the time of mitral valve surgery with an overall sinus rhythm recovery of 44%. In the same period, sinus rhythm was recovered and persisted in only 19% of 252 patients who underwent mitral valve replacement along (P < 0.001). Sinus rhythm was less likely to recover in patients with right atriomegaly requiring tricuspid valve annuloplasty: 59% vs 84% (P < 0.001). Restoration of the right atrial function raised the cardiac index from 2.25 +/- 0.55 1/min per m2

  19. Polymorphisms in the GNAS Gene as Predictors of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieneke, Heinrich; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Lande, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies suggest that genetic factors contribute to sudden cardiac death (SCD). METHODS AND RESULTS: In the first part of the present study (Diagnostic Data Influence on Disease Management and Relation of Genetic Polymorphisms to Ventricular Tachy-arrhythmia in ICD......). In the second part of the study, SNPs significantly associated with VT were further investigated in 1335 subjects from the Oregon SUDS, a community-based study analyzing causes of SCD. In the DISCOVERY trial, genotypes of 2 SNPs in the GNAS gene were nominally significant in the prospective screening......, of which 1 was successfully replicated in a community-based population of SCD cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a gene variant identified by ICD VT monitoring as a surrogate parameter for SCD and also confirmed in the general population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL...

  20. Hemodynamic deterioration precedes onset of ventricular tachyarrhythmia after Heartmate II implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaksh, Ameeta; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Zwiers, Korinne; van Ettinger, Maarten J B; Manintveld, Olivier C; de Wijs, Marcel C J; van der Kemp, Peter; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2016-07-08

    Early postoperative ventricular tachyarrhythmia (PoVT) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation are common and associated with higher mortality-rates. At present, there is no data on initiation of these PoVT and the role of alterations in cardiac hemodynamics. A LVAD was implanted in a patient with end-stage heart failure due to a ischemic cardiomyopathy. Alterations in cardiac rhythm and hemodynamics preceding PoVT-episodes during the first five postoperative days were examined by using continuous recordings of cardiac rhythm and various hemodynamic parameters. All PoVT (N=120) were monomorphic, most often preceded by short-long-short-sequences or regular SR and initiated by ventricular runs. Prior to PoVT, mean arterial pressure decreased; heart rate and ST-segments deviations increased. PoVT are caused by different underlying electrophysiological mechanisms. Yet, they are all monomorphic and preceded by hemodynamic deterioration due to myocardial ischemia.

  1. Major knowledge gaps and system barriers to guideline implementation among European physicians treating patients with atrial fibrillation: a European Society of Cardiology international educational needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Dagres, Nikolaos; Antz, Matthias; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lazure, Patrice; Murray, Suzanne; Carrera, Céline; Hindricks, Gerhard; Vahanian, Alec

    2018-03-12

    Guideline-adherent treatment is associated with improved prognosis in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients but is insufficiently implemented in clinical practice. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) performed a multinational educational needs assessment study among cardiologists, general practitioners/family physicians (GPs/FPs), and neurologists in order to evaluate knowledge and skills of physicians and system factors related to AF care delivery. A total of 561 physicians (294 cardiologists, 131 neurologists, and 136 GPs/FPs) from six European countries participated. This mixed-methods study included exploratory semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 30) and a quantitative survey that included two clinical cases (n = 531). We identified eight key knowledge gaps and system barriers across all domains of AF care. A majority across all specialties reported skills needing improvement to classify AF pathophysiologically, rather than based on duration of episodes, and reported lack of availability of long-term electrocardiogram recording. Skills interpreting the CHA2DS2-VASc and the HAS-BLED scores were reported as needing improvement by the majority of neurologists (52% and 60%, respectively) and GPs/FPs (65% and 74%). Cardiologists calculated the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores in 94%/70% in a presented case patient, but only 60%/49% of neurologists and 58%/42% of GPs/FPs did. There was much uncertainty on how to deal with anticoagulant therapy in complex patients. There was also a high disparity in using rate or rhythm control strategies, and indications for ablation. Information delivery to patients and communication between different specialties was often considered suboptimal, while national regulations and restrictions often hamper international guideline implementation. We identified major gaps in physicians' knowledge and skills across all domains of AF care, as well as system factors hampering guideline-compliant care implementation and

  2. Basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Terunao; Takato, Tetsuya; Matsuzaki, Gen; Seko, Yoshinori; Fujii, Jun; Kawai, Sachio

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias that have been induced by electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus. This study investigated whether similar basal cardiomyopathy would develop in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline. Adrenaline was intravenously infused for 10-360 seconds in anesthetized rabbits. Colloidal carbon was injected after adrenaline infusion. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base was assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography. Animals were killed either 1 week or 3-4 weeks later. Pathological lesions were identified by deposits of carbon particles. Animals were divided into two groups according to the infused dose of adrenaline. The small-dose group (group S, n = 15) received 1-10 μg and the large-dose group (group L, n = 23) received 15-60 μg of adrenaline. Adrenaline infusion induced premature ventricular contractions followed by monomorphic ventricular tachycardias in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 1 of 15 animals in group S. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base decreased just after adrenaline infusion, remained low after 1 week, and recovered to near-baseline levels after 3-4 weeks in group L. Unique cardiac lesions identified by deposits of carbon particles were frequently observed on the left ventricular basal portion, almost always associated with the mitral valve and papillary muscles, but were never observed in the apical area. Lesions involving all areas of the left ventricular basal portion were observed in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 2 of 15 animals in group S. Basal cardiomyopathy developed in rabbits with ventricular tachycardias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

  3. Right atrial isolation associated with atrial septal closure in patients with atrial septal defect and chronic atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzioni, G; Graffigna, A; Pagani, F; Vigano, M

    1993-12-01

    To restore sinus rhythm in the remaining heart chambers of six adult patients with atrial septal defect and chronic or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, electrical, right atrial isolation associated with surgical correction of the defect was performed. All but one patient was free from atrial fibrillation without medication 2-25 months after operation. The isolated right atrial appendages showed intrinsic rhythmical activity in five patients and no electrical activity in one. Right atrial isolation is a safe and effective procedure that abolishes atrial fibrillation in patients with arrhythmia after surgical correction of atrial septal defect.

  4. Observation of the efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation on patients with different forms of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R-C; Han, W; Han, J; Yu, J; Guo, J; Fu, J-L; Li, Z; Zhao, R-Z

    2016-10-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in patients with different forms of atrial fibrillation. By retrospective analysis, we summarize 720 cases, where patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation in our hospital were treated with RFCA from February 2010 to October 2014. Among the cases, 425 were diagnosed with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 295 with non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (including persistent atrial fibrillation and permanent atrial fibrillation). All patients were followed up until June 2015 to compare and analyze the differences in operation success rates, complications and recurrence rates. 395 cases (92.9%) of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 253 cases (85.8%) with non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were subject to surgery and followed up. The age of onset, disease course, underlying diseases, left atrial diameter and combined anti-arrhythmics of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were lower than those of patients with non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and the differences were statistically significant (p success rate of the first ablation was higher than that of non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Procedure time, procedure method, complications and recurrence rate of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were lower than those of non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation group, and the differences were statistically significant (p failure caused by atrial fibrillation in the two groups, the difference was not statistically significant (Apoplexy: p = 0.186; Heart failure: p = 0.170). The individual ablation success rate was higher for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and long-term follow-up showed that the occurrence of apoplexy and heart failure was not different from the non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation group.

  5. Atrial Fibrillation and Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprasad N

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation occurs in 10 – 15% of patients with hyperthyroidism. Low serum thyrotropin concentration is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Thyroid hormone contributes to arrythmogenic activity by altering the electrophysiological characteristics of atrial myocytes by shortening the action potential duration, enhancing automaticity and triggered activity in the pulmonary vein cardio myocytes. Hyperthyroidism results in excess mortality from increased incidence of circulatory diseases and dysrhythmias. Incidence of cerebral embolism is more in hyperthyroid patients with atrial fibrillation, especially in the elderly and anti-coagulation is indicated in them. Treatment of hyperthyroidism results in conversion to sinus rhythm in up to two-third of patients. Beta-blockers reduce left ventricular hypertrophy and atrial and ventricular arrhythmias in patients with hyperthyroidism. Treatment of sub clinical hyperthyroidism is controversial. Optimizing dose of thyroxine treatment in those with replacement therapy and beta-blockers is useful in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  6. Regional Longitudinal Deformation Improves Prediction of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Knappe, Dorit; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular dysfunction is a known predictor of ventricular arrhythmias. We hypothesized that measures of regional longitudinal deformation by speckle-tracking echocardiography predict ventricular tachyarrhythmias and provide incremental prognostic information over clinical...... in the model, only a decreasing myocardial function in the inferior myocardial wall predicted VT/VF (hazard ratio, 1.05 [1.00-1.11]; P=0.039). Only strain obtained from the inferior myocardial wall provided incremental prognostic information for VT/VF over clinical and echocardiographic parameters (C statistic...... 0.71 versus 0.69; P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of regional longitudinal myocardial deformation in the inferior region provided incremental prognostic information over clinical and echocardiographic risk factors in predicting ventricular tachyarrhythmias. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http...

  7. Integrating new approaches to atrial fibrillation management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotecha, Dipak; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, A John

    2018-01-01

    There are major challenges ahead for clinicians treating patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The population with AF is expected to expand considerably and yet, apart from anticoagulation, therapies used in AF have not been shown to consistently impact on mortality or reduce adverse...... of the Atrial Fibrillation Network (AFNET) and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), held at the European Society of Cardiology Heart House in Sophia Antipolis, France, 17-19 January 2017. Sixty-two global specialists in AF and 13 industry partners met to develop innovative solutions based on new...

  8. Common Atrial Fibrillation Risk Alleles at 4q25 Predict Recurrence after Catheter-based Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, M. Benjamin; Muhammad, Raafia; Parvez, Babar; White, Brenda W.; Streur, Megan; Song, Yanna; Stubblefield, Tanya; Kucera, Gayle; Blair, Marcia; Rytlewski, Jason; Parvathaneni, Sunthosh; Nagarakanti, Rangadham; Saavedra, Pablo; Ellis, Christopher; Whalen, S. Patrick; Roden, Dan M; Darbar, Dawood

    2012-01-01

    Background Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at chromosome 4q25 (rs2200733, rs10033464) are associated with both lone and typical AF. Risk alleles at 4q25 have recently been shown to predict recurrence of AF after ablation in a population of predominately lone AF, but lone AF represents only 5–30% of AF cases. Objective To test the hypothesis that 4q25 AF risk alleles can predict response to AF ablation in the majority of AF cases. Methods Patients enrolled in the Vanderbilt AF Registry underwent 378 catheter-based AF ablations (median age 60 years, 71% male, 89% typical AF) between 2004 and 2011. The primary endpoint was time to recurrence of any non-sinus atrial tachyarrhythmia (atrial tachycardia, atrial flutter, or AF; [AT/AF]). Results Two-hundred AT/AF recurrences (53%) were observed. In multivariable analysis, the rs2200733 risk allele predicted a 24% shorter recurrence-free time (survival time ratio 0.76 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6–0.95, P=0.016) compared with wild-type. The heterozygous haplotype demonstrated a 21% shorter recurrence-free time (survival time ratio = 0.79, 95% CI 0.62–0.99) and the homozygous risk allele carriers a 39% shorter recurrence-free time (survival time ratio = 0.61, 95% CI 0.37–1.0) (P=0.037). Conclusion Risk alleles at the 4q25 loci predict impaired clinical response to AF ablation in a population of predominately typical AF patients. Our findings suggest the rs2200733 polymorphism may hold promise as an as an objectively measured patient characteristic that can used as a clinical tool for selection of patients for AF ablation. PMID:23178686

  9. Cetirizine-Induced atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altuğ Osken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common observed arrhythmia in clinical practice. In the literature, AF events associated with drug induction are available. Cetirizine is a second-generation histamine antagonist used in the treatment of allergies, angioedema, and urticaria. We wish to present an atypical case who took cetirizine medication for relieving symptoms of upper tract respiratory system infection, experienced rapid ventricular response AF and treated successfully. To best of our knowledge, this is the first case of cetirizine-induced AF.

  10. Atrial fibrillation and vascular disease-a bad combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring Olesen, Jonas; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of (i) the risk of stroke associated with vascular disease (acute coronary syndromes and peripheral artery disease) in patients with atrial fibrillation, (ii) the frequent coexistence of vascular disease in patients with atrial fibrillation and, (iii...... fibrillation. Indeed, patients with atrial fibrillation often had coexisting vascular disease (around 18%), and the combination of the two diseases substantially increases the risk of future cardiovascular events. The increased risk associated with peripheral artery disease in atrial fibrillation is even more...... pronounced. Patients with atrial fibrillation and stable vascular disease should be treated with oral anticoagulation only, although when these patients present with acute coronary syndrome and/or undergo coronary stenting, concomitant treatment with antiplatelet drugs is indicated. To guide antithrombotic...

  11. A Therapeutic Challenge: Management of Atrial Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Burc Deser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary cause of atrial thrombi include atrial fibrillation, foreign bodies inside the atrium such as catheters and pacemaker leads, emboli of deep venous thrombus and primary or metastatic tumors of the heart. We review the clinical features, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of nine intriguing cases with atrial thrombus. Methods: This is a retrospective study of nine patients (seven female (78%, two male (33% who were diagnosed with atrial thrombi (average age of 50 ± 12 years and were treated at the Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery from February 2014 to January 2015. Among them, six patients had atrial fibrillation (one male, five female, seven patients were suffering from dispne and orthopnoea, five patients were suffering from leg swelling, seven patients had a history of hypertension and three patients had a history of mitral valve replacement surgery. Results: All patients underwent surgery except one. Four patients recovered uneventfully and discharged with oral anticoagulation (warfarin therapy (adjusted to maintain an international normalized ratio of INR between two and three times. Five of nine patients (55% died after surgery. Conclusion: The response to the thrombolytic therapy is poor, mostly ineffective and unsafe so it is often recommended as a bridge to surgery. In patients diagnosed with mechanical mitral valve thrombosis, medical therapy has the possibility of end organ emboli and also fail to resolve the organised thrombus on the stuck valve. On the other hand surgery does not always give satisfactory results. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7(4: 278-282

  12. Patient perspectives of participating in the cardiac CopenHeartRFA rehabilitation program for patients treated with ablation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Signe Stelling; Lind, Johanne; J McCabe, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    . As part of the evaluation of the CopenHeartRFA trial, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The intervention was delivered by a multidisciplinary team. Aim: This study aimed to understand the experience of patients treated for AF with ablation who participated in the CopenHeartRFA cardiac....... The interviews were analyzed individually by two researchers and themes were constructed and discussed. Results: The sample included 10 participants, mean age 54.6 years. Four categories were identified and labeled: 1) strengthening belief in one’s own physical capacity and survival; 2) still struggling...

  13. Taquiarritmias supraventriculares no feto. Experiência de uma unidade de referência em cardiologia fetal Fetal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Experience of a fetal cardiology reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Zielinsky

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a forma de apresentação, diagnóstico e tratamento das taquiarritmias supraventriculares fetais, através do relato de uma série de casos acompanhados em um centro terciário de cardiologia fetal. MÉTODOS: São descritos 25 casos de taquiarritmia supraventricular diagnosticados intra-útero, no período de janeiro/89 a outubro/97, em uma população compreendendo 3117 gestantes. RESULTADOS: Foram diagnosticados 17 casos de taquiarritmia supraventricular e 8 casos de flutter atrial fetal. As idades gestacionais variaram de 26 a 40 semanas. Doze fetos apresentavam hidropisia no momento do diagnóstico (6 com taquicardia supraventricular (TSV e 6 com flutter atrial. Quatro fetos com TSV apresentavam cardiopatias estruturais (dois casos de anomalia de Ebstein e dois com comunicação interventricular. Todos os fetos foram internados na Unidade de Cardiologia Fetal para monitorização e tratamento. Entre os 17 fetos com TSV, 12 apresentaram reversão da arritmia após administração de digoxina, mas esta medida não foi eficaz em nenhum paciente com flutter. Dois pacientes com TSV e seis com flutter necessitaram interrupção da gestação para cardioversão elétrica pós-natal. A mortalidade foi de 3/17 no grupo da TSV (incluindo dois pacientes com anomalia de Ebstein e de 0/8 no grupo com flutter. CONCLUSÃO: As taquiarritmias supraventriculares fetais são eventos raros na população geral. Entretanto, podem provocar insuficiência cardíaca e óbito intra-uterino. Como a resposta ao tratamento é satisfatória, tornam-se de extrema importância o diagnóstico precoce e o tratamento adequado.PURPOSE: To describe the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of fetal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in a series of fetuses followed in a tertiary Fetal Cardiology Center. METHODS: Twenty-five fetuses with diagnosis of supraventricular tachyarrhytmia were reported from January 1989 to October 1997, among 3117 pregnant women

  14. Early ventricular tachyarrhythmias after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: Is it a real burden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Yaksh, Ameeta; Knops, Paul; Kik, Charles; Boersma, Eric; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of ventricular dysrhythmias (VD) [ventricular premature beats (VPBs), ventricular couplets (Vcouplets), ventricular runs (Vruns)] after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has so far not been examined. The goal of this study is to examine characteristics of VD and whether they precede ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) during a postoperative follow-up period of 5 days using continuous rhythm registrations. In addition, we determined predictive factors of VD/VTA. Incidences and burdens of VD/VTA were calculated in patients (N=105, 83 male, 65±9 years) undergoing primary, on-pump CABG. Independent risk factors were examined using multivariate analysis. VPBs, Vcouplets, and Vruns occurred in respectively 100%, 82.9%, and 48.6% with corresponding burdens of 0.05%, 0%, and 0%. Sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) did not occur in our cohort. Independent risk factors for VD included male gender, mitral valve insufficiency, hyperlipidemia, and age ≥60 years. VD are common in patients with coronary artery disease after CABG. Despite high incidences of these dysrhythmias, corresponding burdens are low and sustained VT or VF did not occur. Incidences were highest on the first postoperative day and diminished over time. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antiarrhythmic properties of atrial pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliś, Magdalena; Sławuta, Agnieszka; Gajek, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Bradycardia, atrial stretch and dilatation, autonomic nervous system disorders, and the presence of triggers such as atrial premature contractions, are factors which predispose a person to paroxysmal AF. Atrial pacing not only eliminates bradycardia but also prevents atrial premature contractions and dispersion of refractoriness, which are a substrate for atrial fibrillation. As the prolonged duration of atrial activation during pacing, especially from locations changing the physiological pattern of this activation (right atrium lateral wall, right atrium appendage), negatively influences both a mechanical and an electrical function of the atria, the atrial pacing site affects an atrial arrhythmogenesis. A conventional atrial lead location in the right atrium appendage causes non-physiological activation propagation, resulting in a prolongation of the activation time of both atria. This location is optimal according to a passive fixation of the atrial lead but the available contemporary active fixation leads could potentially be located in any area of the atrium. There is growing evidence of the benefit of pacing, imitating the physiological propagation of impulses within the atria. It seems that the Bachmann's bundle pacing is the best pacing site within the atria, not only positively influencing the atrial mechanical function but also best fulfilling the so-called atrial resynchronization function, in particular in patients with interatrial conduction delay. It can be effectively achieved using only one atrial electrode, and the slight shortening of atrioventricular conduction provides an additional benefit of this atrial pacing site.

  16. What Is Atrial Fibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Cardiovascular Conditions What Is Atrial Fibrillation? Your heart has a natural pacemaker, called the “sinus node,” that makes electrical signals. These signals cause the heart to contract and pump ...

  17. Atrial Arrhythmias in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Underlying Mechanisms and Implications in the Clinical Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Filgueiras-Rama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common disorder characterized by repetitive interruption of ventilation during sleep caused by recurrent upper airway collapse, which leads to intermittent hypoxia. The disorder is commonly undiagnosed despite its relationship with substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the effects of the disorder appear to be particularly dangerous in young subjects. In the last decade, substantial clinical evidence has identified OSA as independent risk factor for both bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias. To date the mechanisms leading to such arrhythmias have not been completely understood. However, recent data from animal models and new molecular analyses have increased our knowledge of the field, which might lead to future improvement in current therapeutic strategies mainly based on continuous positive airway pressure. This paper aims at providing readers a brief and specific revision of current knowledge about the mechanisms underlying atrial arrhythmias in OSA and their clinical and therapeutic implications.

  18. Impact of renal function on ischemic stroke and major bleeding rates in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients treated with warfarin or rivaroxaban: a retrospective cohort study using real-world evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Matthew R; Berger, Jeffrey S; Ashton, Veronica; Laliberté, François; Brown, Kip; Lefebvre, Patrick; Schein, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Renal dysfunction is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and is an independent predictor of stroke and systemic embolism. Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients with renal dysfunction may face a particularly high risk of thromboembolism and bleeding. The current retrospective cohort study was designed to assess the impact of renal function on ischemic stroke and major bleeding rates in NVAF patients in the real-world setting (outside a clinical trial). Medical claims and Electronic Health Records were retrieved retrospectively from Optum's Integrated Claims-Clinical de-identified dataset from May 2011 to August 2014. Patients with NVAF treated with warfarin (2468) or rivaroxaban (1290) were selected. Each treatment cohort was stratified by baseline estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl) levels. Confounding adjustments were made using inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTWs). Incidence rates and hazard ratios of ischemic stroke and major bleeding events were calculated for both cohorts. Overall, patients treated with rivaroxaban had an ischemic stroke incidence rate of 1.9 per 100 person-years (PY) while patients treated with warfarin had a rate of 4.2 per 100 PY (HR = 0.41 [0.21-0.80], p = .009). Rivaroxaban patients with an eCrCl below 50 mL/min (N = 229) had an ischemic stroke rate of 0.8 per 100 PY, while the rate for the warfarin cohort (N = 647) was 6.0 per 100 PY (HR = 0.09 [0.01-0.72], p = .02). For the other renal function levels (i.e. eCrCl 50-80 and ≥80 mL/min) HRs indicated no statistically significant differences in ischemic stroke risks. Bleeding events did not differ significantly between cohorts stratified by renal function. Ischemic stroke rates were significantly lower in the overall NVAF population for rivaroxaban vs. warfarin users, including patients with eCrCl below 50 mL/min. For all renal function groups, major bleeding risks were not statistically different between

  19. Pulmonary edema following transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi Chigurupati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an incident of development of acute pulmonary edema after the device closure of a secundum atrial septal defect in a 52-year-old lady, which was treated with inotropes, diuretics and artificial ventilation. Possibility of acute left ventricular dysfunction should be considered after the defect closure in the middle-aged patients as the left ventricular compliance may be reduced due to increased elastic stiffness and diastolic dysfunction. Baseline left atrial pressure may be > 10 mmHg in these patients. Associated risk factors for the left ventricular dysfunction are a large Qp:Qs ratio, systemic hypertension, severe pulmonary hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

  20. Assessment of the Quality of Chronic Anticoagulation Control With Time in Therapeutic Range in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Treated With Vitamin K Antagonists by Hemostasis Specialists: The TERRA Registry: Tiempo en rango en la República Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajer, Carlos; Ceresetto, José; Bottaro, Federico Jorge; Martí, Alejandra; Casey, Marcelo

    2017-07-01

    Oral anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) such as warfarin and acenocoumarol is recommended in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and risk factors for embolism. The quality of anticoagulation control with VKA may be assessed by the time in therapeutic range (TTR). In our country, there are no data available about the quality of anticoagulation in patients with AF. The primary goal of our study was to assess the level of effective anticoagulation in a multicenter network of anticoagulation clinics in Argentina, which included patients with nonvalvular AF (NVAF) treated with VKA oral anticoagulants. The TERRA trial is a multicenter, cross-sectional study involving 14 anticoagulation clinics that were invited to participate and recruit 100 consecutive patients with NVAF treated with VKA for more than 1 year. The international normalized ratio (INR) values were retrospectively obtained from patient charts, and TTR was calculated using the Rosendaal method. A total of 1190 patients were included in the analysis. Mean age was 74.9 ± 9.9 years, and 52.5% of the patients were male. Median TTR was 67.5% (interquartile interval 54-80). During 55% of the TTR, INR was >3. Interinstitution variability was substantial, with a range of 57.7% ± 17% to 87.7% ± 17%, P < .001. The 10th percentile of TTR was 41%, the 20th percentile was 50%, the 30th was 58%, and the 35th percentile was 60%. In 40% of patients, TTR was <70%. In this multicenter study, mean TTR values in patients with AF under VKA were similar to those in international therapeutic clinical trials (55%-65%). Marked variations among institutions were observed and, although average results obtained were high, one third of the patients exhibited a TTR below 60%. This cutoff value is conservative according to current recommendations, and guidelines suggest that when management with VKA cannot be improved, patients should be switched to direct oral anticoagulants. The addition of TTR calculation to

  1. In silico prediction of sex-based differences in human susceptibility to cardiac ventricular tachyarrhythmias

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    Pei-Chi eYang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex-based differences in human susceptibility to cardiac ventricular tachyarrhythmias likely result from the emergent effects of multiple intersecting processes that fundamentally differ in male and female hearts. Included are measured differences in the genes encoding key cardiac ion channels and effects of sex steroid hormones to acutely modify electrical activity. At the genome scale, human females have recently been shown to have lower expression of genes encoding key cardiac repolarizing potassium currents and connexin43, the primary ventricular gap junction subunit. Human males and females also have distinct sex steroid hormones. Here, we developed mathematical models for male and female ventricular human heart cells by incorporating experimentally determined genomic differences and effects of sex steroid hormones into the O’Hara-Rudy model. These male and female model cells and tissues then were used to predict how various sex-based differences underlie arrhythmia risk. Genomic-based differences in ion channel expression were alone sufficient to determine longer female cardiac action potential durations (APD in both epicardial and endocardial cells compared to males. Subsequent addition of sex steroid hormones exacerbated these differences, as testosterone further shortened APDs, while estrogen and progesterone application resulted in disparate effects on APDs. Our results indicate that incorporation of experimentally determined genomic differences from human hearts in conjunction with sex steroid hormones are consistent with clinically observed differences in QT interval, T-wave shape and morphology, and critically, in the higher vulnerability of adult human females to Torsades de Pointes type arrhythmias. The model suggests that female susceptibility to alternans stems from longer female action potentials, while reentrant arrhythmia derives largely from sex-based differences in conduction play an important role in arrhythmia

  2. Risk Factors for Atrial Fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P. Krijthe (Bouwe)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAtrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by rapid disorganized atrial electrical activity resulting in absence of atrial contractions. It is diagnosed on the basis of typical findings on an electrocardiogram (ECG). The characteristic ECG findings are

  3. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

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    Henrique Horta Veloso

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  4. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Henrique Horta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  5. Recurrent atrial myxoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarie, C; Stoica, E; Chioncel, O; Carp, A; Gherghiceanu, D; Stiru, O; Zarma, L; Herlea, V

    2004-01-01

    We have chosen this case of sporadic atrial myxoma for our presentation because it had a particular evolution, with recurrence at 8 years after surgical excision (echocardiography was performed every year) and a particular diagnostic means - at echocardiographic follow-up, the patient being asymptomatic. This presentation, together with a review of literature included in the article, emphasizes the importance of a careful postoperative follow-up of the patients and the existence of some particular aspects of the evolution and symptomatology of recurrent atrial myxoma.

  6. Thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Malvinder S

    2005-01-04

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac complication of hyperthyroidism and occurs in 15% of patients with hyperthyroidism. It is associated with a higher risk of thromboembolism that often involves the central nervous system. Oral anticoagulation is important in the majority of these patients to prevent thromboembolic complications. These patients require adjustment in the dose of various rate-controlling agents because of increased clearance associated with hyperthyroidism and a decrease in warfarin dosage because of increased clearance of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. The management of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation is summarized in this clinical review.

  7. Atrial natriuretic peptide in patients with heart failure and chronic atrial fibrillation : Role of duration of at atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, MP; Crijns, HJGM; Van Veldhuisen, DJ; Van Gelder, IC; De Kam, PJ; Lie, KI

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the determinants of atrial natriuretic peptide level in patients with congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. In particular, the duration of atrial fibrillation was analyzed because atrial fibrillation per se might have a specific effect on atrial

  8. Pharmacological Treatment for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sugi, MD PhD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment for atrial fibrillation has a variety of purposes, such as pharmacological defibrillation, maintenance of sinus rhythm, heart rate control to prevent congestive heart failure and prevention of both cerebral infarction and atrial remodeling. Sodium channel blockers are superior to potassium channel blockers for atrial defibrillation, while both sodium and potassium channel blockers are effective in the maintenance of sinus rhythm. In general, digitalis or Ca antagonists are used to control heart rate during atrial fibrillation to prevent congestive heart failure, while amiodarone or bepridil also reduce heart rates during atrial fibrillation. Anticoagulant therapy with warfarin is recommended to prevent cerebral infarction and angiotensin converting enzyme antagonists or angiotensin II receptor blockers are also used to prevent atrial remodeling. One should select appropriate drugs for treatment of atrial fibrillation according to the patient's condition.

  9. Increased amount of atrial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation secondary to mitral valve disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuzebroek, Guillaume S. C.; van Amersfoorth, Shirley C. M.; Hoogendijk, Mark G.; Kelder, Johannes C.; van Hemel, Norbert M.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.; Coronel, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrosis is related to atrial fibrillation but may differ in patients with mitral valve disease or lone atrial fibrillation. Therefore, we studied atrial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation + mitral valve disease or with lone atrial fibrillation and compared it with

  10. Modulation of atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuzebroek, G.S.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the results of various surgical procedures for atrial fibrillation which have been performed in the last 2 decades in the Sint Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands. In the 1990s the classical Maze III procedure was the main surgical technique for

  11. Screening for Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freedman, Ben; Camm, John; Calkins, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 10% of ischemic strokes are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) first diagnosed at the time of stroke. Detecting asymptomatic AF would provide an opportunity to prevent these strokes by instituting appropriate anticoagulation. The AF-SCREEN international collaboration was formed...

  12. Clinical Differences between Subtypes of Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter: Cross-Sectional Registry of 407 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Dytz Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter account for one third of hospitalizations due to arrhythmias, determining great social and economic impacts. In Brazil, data on hospital care of these patients is scarce. Objective: To investigate the arrhythmia subtype of atrial fibrillation and flutter patients in the emergency setting and compare the clinical profile, thromboembolic risk and anticoagulants use. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective study, with data collection from medical records of every patient treated for atrial fibrillation and flutter in the emergency department of Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul during the first trimester of 2012. Results: We included 407 patients (356 had atrial fibrillation and 51 had flutter. Patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were in average 5 years younger than those with persistent atrial fibrillation. Compared to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients, those with persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter had larger atrial diameter (48.6 ± 7.2 vs. 47.2 ± 6.2 vs. 42.3 ± 6.4; p < 0.01 and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (66.8 ± 11 vs. 53.9 ± 17 vs. 57.4 ± 16; p < 0.01. The prevalence of stroke and heart failure was higher in persistent atrial fibrillation and flutter patients. Those with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and flutter had higher prevalence of CHADS2 score of zero when compared to those with persistent atrial fibrillation (27.8% vs. 18% vs. 4.9%; p < 0.01. The prevalence of anticoagulation in patients with CHA2DS2-Vasc ≤ 2 was 40%. Conclusions: The population in our registry was similar in its comorbidities and demographic profile to those of North American and European registries. Despite the high thromboembolic risk, the use of anticoagulants was low, revealing difficulties for incorporating guideline recommendations. Public health strategies should be adopted in order to improve these rates.

  13. In the wake of the AFFIRM trial: what we still don't know about the management of atrial fibrillation and where we need to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, D George

    2003-06-01

    Five recent trials have been completed comparing the strategy of rhythm control to the strategy of rate control for the management of atrial fibrillation. These trials have demonstrated no clear advantage for the rhythm control strategy using current pharmacologic therapies and that anticoagulation should not be discontinued in high-risk patients, even when it appears that sinus rhythm has been restored and maintained. Although a broad-based research approach is needed to advance our understanding of therapeutic options for the management of atrial fibrillation, the results of these five trials serve to focus the research enterprise on management of this common and often vexing tachyarrhythmia. With this background, the focus of future research on atrial fibrillation is discussed under the following headings: epidemiology and patient taxonomy, pathophysiology, rhythm management and thromboembolism prophylaxis. In each area there are short-term and long-term goals. Some examples follow. The comparison of these two strategies needs to be extended to other large patient groups who have not yet been studied, such as those with heart failure, particularly diastolic dysfunction, and younger patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. A better understanding of pathophysiology is necessary upon which to base a more rational approach to the problem of rhythm management in atrial fibrillation. A better understanding is needed of how to achieve "good" heart rate control. The role of nonpharmacologic therapies for maintenance of sinus rhythm needs more rigorous testing and we need better and safer drugs for this purpose. We need to understand better the relationships between atrial fibrillation and thromboembolism and we need alternatives to warfarin therapy. These and other research efforts are needed to make an impact on management of the problems of atrial fibrillation.

  14. Ventricular tachyarrhythmia during pregnancy in women with heart disease: Data from the ROPAC, a registry from the European Society of Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Ertekin (Ebru); I.M. van Hagen (Iris); A.M. Salam (Amar M.); T.P.E. Ruys (Titia); M.R. Johnson (Mark); J. Popelová (Jana); W.A. Parsonage (William A.); Z. Ashour (Zeinab); Shotan, A. (Avraham); Oliver, J.M. (José M.); G.R. Veldtman (Gruschen R.); R. Hall (Ruth); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To describe the incidence, onset, predictors and outcome of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTA) in pregnant women with heart disease. Background VTA during pregnancy will cause maternal morbidity and even mortality and will have impact on fetal outcome. Insufficient data exist

  15. Genetics Home Reference: familial atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Familial atrial fibrillation Familial atrial fibrillation Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial atrial fibrillation is an inherited abnormality of the heart's normal ...

  16. [Echocardiographic diagnosis of atrial thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Tortolero, R; Vargas Barrón, J; Rodas, M A; Díaz de la Vega, V; Horwitz, S

    1982-01-01

    Seventy patients with rheumatic mitral disease were studied by M-Mode and 2D echocardiography in order to detect left atrial thrombosis before surgery. Thrombosis were suspected by the observation of abnormal echoes in the left atrium. During surgery 17 (24%) patients had atrial thrombosis. It had been suspected by echocardiography in 12 (sensitivity 70%). In 53 patients thrombosis were not found during surgery; in 46 the echo had been also negative (specificity 86%). There was a false positive detection of thrombosis by echo in 7 patients (14%) and false negativity in 5 (30%). Patients with atrial thrombosis had atrial fibrilation in 91% of cases; and the most frequent valvular disease was mitral stenosis. There was not a direct relationship among existence of left atrial thrombosis and the anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium as measured by echo. We conclude that echocardiography has good specificity to rule out atrial thrombosis and moderate sensitivity to detect it in rheumatic mitral disease.

  17. HYPERTHYROIDISM AND ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Marusenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Review on a problem of the development of atrial fibrillation in patients with thyrotoxicosis is presented. Thyrotoxicosis is one of the most frequent endocrine diseases, conceding only to a diabetes mellitus. The most frequent reasons of hyperthyroidism are Graves’ disease and functional thyroid autonomy. The authors give an analysis of data on the cardiac effects of thyrotoxicosis, features of heart remodeling under the influence of thyroid hyperfunction, prevalence of atrial fibrillation in thyrotoxicosis, depending on age, as well as the possibility of restoring sinus rhythm in the combination of these diseases. Particular attention is paid to the effect on the heart of subclinical thyrotoxicosis, which is defined as a dysfunction of the thyroid gland, characterized by low serum concentration of thyrotropin, normal values of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is also capable of causing heart remodeling and diastolic dysfunction.Prevalence of thyrotoxicosis in elderly people is higher in areas of iodine deficiency; it is relevant for our country due to the large territory of iodine deficiency. In elderly patients, the cardiac effects of thyrotoxicosis prevail in the clinical picture, that makes it difficult to diagnose endocrine disorders, and correction of thyrotoxicosis is critically important for the successful control of the heart rhythm. The article also discusses the problem of thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy, caused by the toxic effect of excess thyroid hormones: features of this heart disorder, factors affecting its formation, clinical significance and contribution to the development of rhythm disturbances. The greatest significance is the development of atrial fibrillation as a result of thyrotox-icosis in older patients who already have various cardiovascular diseases.Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent heart rhythm disorder in thyrotoxicosis. The main cause of arrhythmia in hyperthyroidism is the

  18. [Recurrent right atrial thrombus in a patient with atrial fibrillation and heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elikowski, Waldemar; Wróblewski, Dariusz; Małek-Elikowska, Małgorzata; Mazurek, Andrzej; Foremska-Iciek, Joanna; Łazowski, Stanisław

    2015-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation and heart failure are factors predisposing to locally formed intracardiac thrombosis, which is usually localized in left-sided chambers. A case report. The authors present a case of a 50-year-old male with permanent atrial fibrillation and dilated cardiomyopathy in whom recurrent right atrial thrombus was observed. Initially, the lesion was detected in echocardiography while he was hospitalized due to extensive right-sided pneumonia. The thrombus was successfully treated with heparin, followed by warfarin. Even though the patient continued warfarin use properly, there was recurrence of the thrombus two years later during a new episode of heart failure exacerbation. Because the thrombus was resistant to intensified anticoagulation, cardiac surgery was needed. A large (30 x 25 mm) pedunculated thrombus, as well as two smaller ones (each of 10 x 10 mm) attached closely to the atrial wall and previously not detected either by echocardiography or by magnetic resonance imaging, were excited. A partially organized pattern of the thrombi in histological examination can explain lack of anticoagulation effectiveness. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  19. Right atrial lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pêgo-Fernandes Paulo M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign cardiac tumors are rare, and lipomas are among those less frequently found. We report the case of a 48-year-old male complaining of high blood pressure and epistaxis in the last 2 months, with a diagnosis of right atrial lipoma established on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and anatomicopathological examination. The tumor was successfully removed, and up to 42 months after surgical excision, no evidence of tumor relapse was observed.

  20. TRIF promotes angiotensin II-induced cross-talk between fibroblasts and macrophages in atrial fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dao-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Jian; Guo, Meng; Zhan, Yang-Yang; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Li; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Quan-Xing; Liu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Atrial fibroblasts and macrophages have long been thought to participate in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, which specific mediator may regulate the interaction between them remains unclear. Methods and results: We provided the evidence for the involvement of Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF), an important inflammation-related molecule, in the pathophysiology of AF. Patients with AF showed higher levels of angiotensin II (AngII) and TRIF expression and larger number of macrophages infiltration in left atria appendage than individuals with sinus rhythm (SR). In the cell study, AngII induced chemokines expressions in mouse atrial fibroblasts and AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblasts induced the chemotaxis of macrophages, which were reduced by losartan and TRIF siRNA. Meanwhile, AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblasts proliferation was enhanced by macrophages. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that TRIF may be a crucial factor promoting the interaction between atrial fibroblasts and macrophages, leading to atrial fibrosis. - Highlights: • Compared with SR, AF showed higher TRIF expression in left atrial appendage. • TRIF siRNA reversed macrophage chemotaxis induced by AngII-treated fibroblast. • TRIF siRNA reversed chemokines expressions induced by AngII in fibroblast. • AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblast proliferation was enhanced by macrophage

  1. TRIF promotes angiotensin II-induced cross-talk between fibroblasts and macrophages in atrial fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dao-Liang [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Ming-Jian; Guo, Meng; Zhan, Yang-Yang; Liu, Fang [National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Li [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Liang, E-mail: zhaol_zg@163.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Quan-Xing, E-mail: wqxejd@126.com [National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Liu, Xu, E-mail: liuxu_xk@163.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-08-14

    Aims: Atrial fibroblasts and macrophages have long been thought to participate in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, which specific mediator may regulate the interaction between them remains unclear. Methods and results: We provided the evidence for the involvement of Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF), an important inflammation-related molecule, in the pathophysiology of AF. Patients with AF showed higher levels of angiotensin II (AngII) and TRIF expression and larger number of macrophages infiltration in left atria appendage than individuals with sinus rhythm (SR). In the cell study, AngII induced chemokines expressions in mouse atrial fibroblasts and AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblasts induced the chemotaxis of macrophages, which were reduced by losartan and TRIF siRNA. Meanwhile, AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblasts proliferation was enhanced by macrophages. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that TRIF may be a crucial factor promoting the interaction between atrial fibroblasts and macrophages, leading to atrial fibrosis. - Highlights: • Compared with SR, AF showed higher TRIF expression in left atrial appendage. • TRIF siRNA reversed macrophage chemotaxis induced by AngII-treated fibroblast. • TRIF siRNA reversed chemokines expressions induced by AngII in fibroblast. • AngII-stimulated atrial fibroblast proliferation was enhanced by macrophage.

  2. Occlusion of left atrial appendage in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Н. Ганеева

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews a new method of prophylaxis of thromboembolitic complications, specifically occlusion of left atrial appendage, in patients with atrial fibrillation. Indications and contraindications for the procedure, as well as a step-by-step process of the intervention itself are described. Special emphasis is placed on the up-to-date evidence and the review of clinical trials.

  3. Abnormal atrial activation in young patients with lone atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmqvist, Fredrik; Olesen, Morten S; Tveit, Arnljot

    2011-01-01

    Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation (AF) have previously been shown to have altered atrial conduction, as seen non-invasively using signal-averaged P-wave analysis. However, little is known about the P-wave morphology in patients in the early phases of AF with structurally normal hearts....

  4. Left atrial appendage occlusion with Amplatzer Cardio Plug is an acceptable therapeutic option for prevention of stroke recurrence in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and contraindication or failure of oral anticoagulation with acenocumarol

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Maximiliano A.; Pertierra, Lucía; Rodriguez-Lucci, Federico; Pujol-Lereis, Virginia A.; Ameriso, Sebastián F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) appears as a therapeutic option for some atrial fibrillation patients not suitable for oral anticoagulation because an increased hemorrhagic risk or recurrent ischemic events despite anticoagulant treatment. Methods Report of consecutive atrial fibrillation patients treated with LAAO with Amplatzer Cardio Plug because contraindication or failure of oral anticoagulation with acenocumarol. CHA2DS2VASC, HAS-BLED, NIHSS, mRS, procedural complicati...

  5. Effects of Prolonged Spaceflight on Atrial Size, Atrial Electrophysiology, and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Htet W; Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Kowal, Jamie; Daniels, James D; Page, Richard L; Goldberger, Jeffery J; Ng, Jason; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Bungo, Michael W; Levine, Benjamin D

    2018-05-01

    The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in active astronauts is ≈5%, similar to the general population but at a younger age. Risk factors for AF include left atrial enlargement, increased number of premature atrial complexes, and certain parameters on signal-averaged electrocardiography, such as P-wave duration, root mean square voltage for the terminal 20 ms of the signal-averaged P wave, and P-wave amplitude. We aimed to evaluate changes in atrial structure, supraventricular beats, and atrial electrophysiology to determine whether spaceflight could increase the risk of AF. Thirteen astronauts underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to assess atrial structure and function before and after 6 months in space and high-resolution Holter monitoring for multiple 48-hour time periods before flight, during flight, and on landing day. Left atrial volume transiently increased after 6 months in space (12±18 mL; P =0.03) without changing atrial function. Right atrial size remained unchanged. No changes in supraventricular beats were noted. One astronaut had a large increase in supraventricular ectopic beats but none developed AF. Filtered P-wave duration did not change over time, but root mean square voltage for the terminal 20 ms decreased on all fight days except landing day. No changes in P-wave amplitude were seen in leads II or V 1 except landing day for lead V 1 . Six months of spaceflight may be sufficient to cause transient changes in left atrial structure and atrial electrophysiology that increase the risk of AF. However, there was no definite evidence of increased supraventricular arrhythmias and no identified episodes of AF. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Long-term effectiveness of surgical treatment of ectopic atrial tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, N A; Cox, J L; Lindsay, B D; Ferguson, T B; Osborn, J L; Cain, M E

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term clinical outcome of patients with ectopic atrial tachycardias treated surgically. Ectopic atrial tachycardia is an uncommon arrhythmia that can be symptomatic and is associated with the development of a cardiomyopathy. Management strategies are not well defined because of the paucity of data on the long-term effectiveness of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies. The long-term clinical impact of medical and surgical therapy was determined in 15 consecutive patients with ectopic atrial tachycardia. All 15 patients were initially treated with antiarrhythmic drugs (mean 5.7 +/- 2.2 drugs/patient). An effective drug regimen was identified in only 5 (33%) of the 15 patients; the remaining 10 patients were treated surgically. In each, individualized surgical procedures were guided by computer-assisted intraoperative mapping, with atrial plaques comprising up to 156 electrodes. Focal ablation was performed in four patients and atrial isolation procedures in six. The 10 patients treated surgically were followed up a mean of 4 +/- 3.2 years. Ectopic atrial tachycardia recurred in one patient. A permanent pacemaker was implanted in two patients, one of whom also required reoperation for constrictive pericarditis. There were no operative deaths. Ectopic atrial tachycardia recurred in three (60%) of the five patients discharged on antiarrhythmic drug therapy during a mean follow-up interval of 6.4 +/- 4.3 years. There was one nonarrhythmic death. Map-guided surgery demonstrated long-term efficacy in abolishing symptoms in 9 of the 10 patients with ectopic atrial tachycardia. Results demonstrate that surgery is effective for patients with ectopic atrial tachycardias who are not easily treated with antiarrhythmic drugs.

  7. Atrial fibrillation: Therapeutic potential of atrial K+ channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravens, Ursula; Odening, Katja E

    2017-08-01

    Despite the epidemiological scale of atrial fibrillation, current treatment strategies are of limited efficacy and safety. Ideally, novel drugs should specifically correct the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for atrial fibrillation with no other cardiac or extracardiac actions. Atrial-selective drugs are directed toward cellular targets with sufficiently different characteristics in atria and ventricles to modify only atrial function. Several potassium (K + ) channels with either predominant expression in atria or distinct electrophysiological properties in atria and ventricles can serve as atrial-selective drug targets. These channels include the ultra-rapidly activating, delayed outward-rectifying Kv1.5 channel conducting I Kur , the acetylcholine-activated inward-rectifying Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel conducting I K,ACh , the Ca 2+ -activated K + channels of small conductance (SK) conducting I SK , and the two pore domain K + (K2P) channels TWIK-1, TASK-1 and TASK-3 that are responsible for voltage-independent background currents I TWIK-1 , I TASK-1 , and I TASK-3 . Here, we briefly review the characteristics of these K + channels and their roles in atrial fibrillation. The antiarrhythmic potential of drugs targeting the described channels is discussed as well as their putative value in treatment of atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Atrial fibrillation in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arquizan, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    Atrial fibrilation (AF) is frequent and a strong risk factor for ischemic stroke in elderly. Ischemic stroke in patients with AF are more severe. Vitamine K antagonist therapy is highly effective for stroke prevention but is associated with hemorrhagic risk. The new oral anticoagulants (direct thrombin inhibitor [dabigatran], and direct factor Xa inhibitors [rivaroxaban and apixaban]) have all shown non inferiority or superiority, with better safety, considering the risk of intracranial haemorrhage. On this basis, it is justified to give them in priority in the vast majority of patients with AF, the choice of the drug and the dose is individual.

  9. Hyperleptinemia Exacerbates High-Fat Diet-Mediated Atrial Fibrosis and Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Akira; Ikebe-Ebata, Yuki; Kondo, Hidekazu; Saito, Shotaro; Aoki, Kohei; Fukunaga, Naoya; Shinohara, Tetsuji; Masaki, Takayuki; Teshima, Yasushi; Takahashi, Naohiko

    2017-06-01

    Obesity including metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although hyperleptinemia is usually a characteristic of obese subjects, the relationship with atrial fibrosis and AF is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperleptinemia exacerbates atrial fibrosis and AF. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 (WT) and leptin-deficient ob/ob (Ob) mice were treated with a normal-fat diet (NFD) or 60% HFD. After 8 weeks, transesophageal burst pacing and electrophysiological study using isolated perfused hearts were performed and left atrial (LA) tissues were collected for histological analysis, hydroxyproline assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. HFD treatment increased body weight in both WT and Ob mice compared with NFD (both P atrial fibrosis and AF. Inhibition of leptin signaling may become a novel therapeutic target to prevent obesity-related AF. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Infants and Children with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome in the Absence of Tachyarrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are rarely attributable to sustained or incessant tachyarrhythmias in infants and children with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. However, several recent reports suggested that significant LV dysfunction may develop in WPW syndrome in the absence of tachyarrhythmias. It is assumed that an asynchronous ventricular activation over the accessory pathway, especially right-sided, induces septal wall motion abnormalities, ventricular remodeling and ventricular dysfunction. The prognosis of DCM associated with asymptomatic WPW is excellent. Loss of ventricular pre-excitation results in mechanical resynchronization and reverse remodeling where LV function recovers completely. The reversible nature of LV dysfunction after loss of ventricular pre-excitation supports the causal relationship between LV dysfunction and ventricular pre-excitation. This review summarizes recent clinical and electrophysiological evidence for development of LV dysfunction or DCM in asymptomatic WPW syndrome, and discusses the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. PMID:23323117

  11. Personalized management of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Breithardt, Günter; Aliot, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    The management of atrial fibrillation (AF) has seen marked changes in past years, with the introduction of new oral anticoagulants, new antiarrhythmic drugs, and the emergence of catheter ablation as a common intervention for rhythm control. Furthermore, new technologies enhance our ability......, and hospitalizations. During the fourth Atrial Fibrillation competence NETwork/European Heart Rhythm Association (AFNET/EHRA) consensus conference, we identified the following opportunities to personalize management of AF in a better manner with a view to improve outcomes by integrating atrial morphology and damage...

  12. Atrial and ventricular function after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, C.; Sonnhag, C.; Nylander, E.; Wranne, B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--Previous studies on atrial recovery after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation have not taken into account new knowledge about the pathophysiology of transmitral and transtricuspid flow velocity patterns. It is possible to shed further light on this problem if atrioventricular inflow velocity, venous filling pattern, and atrioventricular annulus motion are recorded and interpreted together. DESIGN--Prospective examinations of mitral and tricuspid transvalvar flow velocities, superior caval and pulmonary venous filling, and mitral and tricuspid annulus motion were recorded using Doppler echocardiography. Examinations were performed before and 24 hours, 1 month, and 20 months after cardioversion. SETTING--Tertiary referral centre for cardiac disease with facilities for invasive and non-invasive investigation. PATIENTS--16 patients undergoing cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in whom sinus rhythm had persisted for 24 hours or more. RESULTS--Before conversion there was no identifiable A wave in transvalvar flow recordings. The total motion of the tricuspid and mitral annulus was subnormal and there was no identifiable atrial component. Venous flow patterns in general showed a low systolic velocity. After conversion, A waves and atrial components were seen in all patients and increased significantly (P atrial components, an increased systolic component of venous inflow, an increased A wave velocity, and a decreased E/A ratio of the transvalvar velocity curves. The ventricular component of annulus motion was unchanged. Changes in general occurred earlier on the right side than the left. CONCLUSIONS--This study indicates that, in addition to the previously known electromechanical dissociation of atrial recovery that exists after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation, there may also be a transient deterioration of ventricular function modulating the transvalvar inflow velocity recordings. Function on the right side generally becomes normal earlier than on the

  13. Fenofibrate inhibits atrial metabolic remodelling in atrial fibrillation through PPAR-α/sirtuin 1/PGC-1α pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Zhong; Hou, Ting-Ting; Yuan, Yue; Hang, Peng-Zhou; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Sun, Li; Zhao, Guan-Qi; Zhao, Jing; Dong, Jing-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Shi, Hang; Liu, Yong-Wu; Zhou, Jing-Hua; Dong, Zeng-Xiang; Liu, Yang; Zhan, Cheng-Chuang; Li, Yue; Li, Wei-Min

    2016-03-01

    Atrial metabolic remodelling is critical for the process of atrial fibrillation (AF). The PPAR-α/sirtuin 1 /PPAR co-activator α (PGC-1α) pathway plays an important role in maintaining energy metabolism. However, the effect of the PPAR-α agonist fenofibrate on AF is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fenofibrate on atrial metabolic remodelling in AF and explore its possible mechanisms of action. The expression of metabolic proteins was examined in the left atria of AF patients. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into sham, AF (pacing with 600 beats·min(-1) for 1 week), fenofibrate treated (pretreated with fenofibrate before pacing) and fenofibrate alone treated (for 2 weeks) groups. HL-1 cells were subjected to rapid pacing in the presence or absence of fenofibrate, the PPAR-α antagonist GW6471 or sirtuin 1-specific inhibitor EX527. Metabolic factors, circulating biochemical metabolites, atrial electrophysiology, adenine nucleotide levels and accumulation of glycogen and lipid droplets were assessed. The PPAR-α/sirtuin 1/PGC-1α pathway was significantly inhibited in AF patients and in the rabbit/HL-1 cell models, resulting in a reduction of key downstream metabolic factors; this effect was significantly restored by fenofibrate. Fenofibrate prevented the alterations in circulating biochemical metabolites, reduced the level of adenine nucleotides and accumulation of glycogen and lipid droplets, reversed the shortened atrial effective refractory period and increased risk of AF. Fenofibrate inhibited atrial metabolic remodelling in AF by regulating the PPAR-α/sirtuin 1/PGC-1α pathway. The present study may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for AF. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Atrial fibrillation and hyperthyroidism: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vivek; Taha, Wael; Kundumadam, Shanker; Khan, Mazhar

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia worldwide with increasing frequency noted with age. Hyperthyroidism is a well-known cause of atrial fibrillation with a 16%-60% prevalence of atrial fibrillation in patients with known hyperthyroidism Ross et al. (2016). While hyperthyroidism as a causative factor of atrial fibrillation is well established, this literature review aims to answer several questions on this topic including: 1. The relationship of atrial fibrillation to hyperthyroidism 2. Atrial fibrillation as a predictor of hyperthyroidism 3. The pathophysiology of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation 4. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and the relationship with atrial fibrillation 5. Cardioversion and Catheter ablation of hyperthyroid patients with atrial fibrillation 6. Thrombotic risk of hyperthyroid patients with atrial fibrillation 7. Management of Thyrotoxic Atrial fibrillation 8. Pharmacological rhythm control in patients with hyperthyroidism and atrial fibrillation 9. Treatment of Hyperthyroidism to prevent atrial fibrillation 10. Clinical Implications of Hyperthyroidism and Atrial Fibrillation. Copyright © 2017 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of air pollution with increased incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias recorded by implantable cardioverter defibrillators: Vulnerable patients to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Soo; Sohn, Jungwoo; Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Jin-Kyu; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Kim, Changsoo; Joung, Boyoung

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of exposure to air pollution on ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTAs) in an East Asian population. The association between air pollution and VTA has not yet been studied in an East Asian country affected by the Asian dust phenomenon, which worsens air quality. The study cohort consisted of 160patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) devices in the Seoul metropolitan area who were followed for 5.5±3.8years. We used ICD records of VTAs and matched these with hourly measurements of air pollutant concentrations and meteorological data. Fine particle mass and gaseous air pollution plus temperature and relative humidity were measured hourly during the study period. During the study period, 1064 VTA events including 204 instances of ventricular fibrillation (VF) were observed. We found a statistically significant association between overall VTA events and SO 2 (lag 24h; OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.16-1.92, p=0.002), PM 10 (lag 2h; OR 2.56, 95%CI 2.03-3.23, pair pollution and VTA were observed in a metropolitan area of an East Asian country. Exposures to SO 2 , PM 10 , NO 2 , and CO were significantly associated with VTAs in ICD patients with SHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Atrial flutter with spontaneous 1:1 atrioventricular conduction in adults: an uncommon but frequently missed cause for syncope/presyncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turitto, Gioia; Akhrass, Philippe; Leonardi, Marino; Saponieri, Cesare; Sette, Antonella; El-Sherif, Nabil

    2009-01-01

    To compare patients with atrial flutter (AFl) and 1:1 atrioventricular conduction (AVC) with patients with AFl and higher AVC. The characteristics of 19 patients with AFl and 1:1 AVC (group A) were compared with those of 116 consecutive patients with AFl and 2:1 AVC or higher degree AV block (group B). Age, gender, and left ventricular function were similar in the two groups. In group A versus group B, more patients had no structural heart disease (42% vs 17%, P AVC or vice versa was associated with small but definite changes in AFl CL, which showed larger variations in response to sympathetic stimulation. In group A patients who were studied off drugs, the atrial-His interval was not different from group B, but maximal atrial pacing rate with 1:1 AVC was faster. In group A, five patients were misdiagnosed as ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and three with a defibrillator received inappropriate shocks. Four patients had ablation of AVC and six had ablation of AFl circuit. The main difference between groups A and B may be an inherent capacity of the AV node for faster conduction, especially in response to increased sympathetic tone. The latter affects not only AVC but also the AFl CL. One should be aware of the different presentations of AFl with 1:1 AVC to avoid misdiagnosis/mismanagement and to consider the diagnosis in patients with narrow or wide QRS tachycardia and rates above 220/min.

  17. Inadvertent puncture of the aortic noncoronary cusp during postoperative left atrial tachycardia ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Aras, MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transseptal catheterization has become part of the interventional electrophysiologist׳s technical armamentarium since the development of left atrial catheter ablation and percutaneous technologies for treating mitral and aortic valve disease. Although frequently performed, the procedure׳s most feared complication is aortic root penetration. Focal atrial tachycardia has been described as the most common late sequela of surgical valve replacements. We present a complicated case involving the inadvertent delivery of an 8 French sheath across the noncoronary cusp during radiofrequency catheter ablation for left atrial tachycardia originating from the mitral annulus in a patient with prior mitral valve replacement.

  18. Influence of heart rhythm, breathing and arm position during computed tomography scanning on the registration accuracy of electro anatomical map (EAM) images, left atrium three-dimensional computed tomography angiography images, and fluoroscopy time during ablation to treat atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chono, Taiki; Shimoshige, Shinya; Yoshikawa, Kenta; Mizonobe, Kazuhusa; Ogura, Keishi

    2013-01-01

    In CARTOMERGE for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) by ablation, by integrating electro anatomical map (EAM) and left atrium three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) images, identification of the ablation points is simplified and the procedure can be made carried out more rapidly. However, the influence that heart rhythm, breathing and arm position during CT scanning have on registration accuracy and fluoroscopy time is not clear. To clarify the influence on registration accuracy and fluoroscopy time of heart rhythm, breathing and arm position during CT scanning. The patients were CT-scanned during both sinus rhythm (SR) and AF in each study subject. We evaluated the registration accuracy of images reconstructed between the cardiac cycle and assessed the registration accuracy and fluoroscopy time of images obtained during inspiratory breath-hold, expiratory breath-hold and up and down position of the arm. Although the registration accuracy of the EAM image and left atrium 3D-CTA image showed a significant difference during SR, no significant difference was seen during AF. Expiratory breath-hold and down position of the arm resulted in the highest registration accuracy and the shortest fluoroscopy time. However, arm position had no significant effect on registration accuracy. Heart rhythm and breathing during CT scanning have a significant effect on the registration accuracy of EAM images, left atrium 3D-CTA images, and fluoroscopy time. (author)

  19. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias and mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: impact of depression in the MIDAS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; Versteeg, Henneke; Jordaens, Luc; Theuns, Dominic A M J; Pedersen, Susanne S

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether depression is independently associated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and mortality. A cohort of 430 consecutive patients with a first-time ICD (79% men; mean [standard deviation] age = 57.8 [12.1] years) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 1 day before implantation. During follow-up, the ICD was interrogated at 3-month intervals. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine the impact of depression on time to first appropriate ICD therapy and all-cause mortality during a median follow-up period of 3.8 years. Of all patients, 108 (25.1%) were depressed. Depression was not associated with time to first appropriate ICD therapy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73-1.56). However, depression was associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality (unadjusted HR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.36-3.49). Depression remained independently associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.06-3.54, p = .031), after adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients who remained depressed during the first 3 months after implantation were at greatest risk for dying (HR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.29-6.45, p = .010). The current study showed that depression at the time of implant is not associated with time to first appropriate ICD therapy but almost doubled the risk for all-cause mortality in patients with an ICD. Patients with persistent depression during the first 3 months after implantation face the greatest risk of dying. Current evidence indicates that multifactorial interventions are likely to be the most successful in terms of reducing distress. Whether this translates into enhanced survival has yet to be determined.

  20. Incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias during permanent pacemaker therapy in low-risk patients results from the German multicentre EVENTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Thomas S; Gradinger, Robert; Treusch, Sven; Morkel, Carsten; Brachmann, Johannes; Bode, Christoph; Zehender, Manfred

    2007-09-01

    Current studies found an incidence of 12-31% ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death during cardiac pacing months or even years after pacemaker insertion. MADIT(12) and MUSTT(13) demonstrated that patients with poor LV function after Myocardial infarction (MI) showing non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (nsVT) and inducibility during electrophysiologic testing benefit from an ICD. The present study was dedicated to assess the global incidence of non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias in a general population of pacemaker patients. Special regard was on patients with a potential ICD indication, e.g. those matching the MADIT/MUSTT criteria. Two hundred and thirty-one patients (72 +/- 11 years; 134 men) with an indication for dual chamber pacing entered the study. In all patients pacemaker systems capable of automatic storing of intracardiac electrocardiograms were implanted (Pulsar, Discovery, Guidant). Follow-up time was 15 months after inclusion. In 54 (25.7%) of 210 patients with at least one follow-up, episodes of nsVT were documented by stored electrocardiograms (up to >30 beats, >200 b.p.m.). Multiple-up to nine-episodes of ventricular tachycardia were retrieved in 31 of these patients. Three out of 14 patients with an LVEF <40% after MI presented nsVT during the follow-up. One of these patients received an ICD. A significant number of pacemaker patients present with ventricular tachycardia. Intracardiac electrocardiograms and alert functions from pacemakers may enhance physicians' awareness of the patient's intrinsic arrhythmic profile and help uncover underlying mechanisms of arrhythmias by storing the initiation of the arrhythmia.

  1. Stroke prevention in hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Seema; Anderson, David; Putnam, Wayne; Flowerdew, Gordon; Gardner, Martin; Cox, Jafna

    2003-01-01

    Oral anticoagulants reduce the incidence of stroke by 68%, yet suboptimal use has been documented in surveys of patients with atrial fibrillation. The present study examined current patterns of anticoagulant use for patients hospitalized with atrial fibrillation across an entire health care system. Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) is a prospective cohort study involving all patients hospitalized in Nova Scotia with atrial fibrillation, among other conditions. Consecutive inpatients with atrial fibrillation from October 15, 1997 to October 14, 1998 were studied. Detailed demographic and clinical data were collected and the proportion of patients using antithrombotic therapy was tabulated by risk category. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship of various demographic and clinical factors with the use of antithrombotic agents. There were 2202 patients hospitalized with atrial fibrillation; 644 admitted specifically for this condition. Only 21% of patients admitted with atrial fibrillation were on warfarin sodium at admission and this increased by time of discharge. Diabetes was negatively correlated with warfarin sodium use. Histories of prosthetic valve replacement, stroke/transient ischemic attack, and heart failure were positively associated with anticoagulant use on admission. Patients with prosthetic valve replacement, heart failure, or hyperlipidemia were most likely to receive anticoagulants at discharge. Antithrombotic agents remain underused by patients with atrial fibrillation. While higher risk patients are generally targeted, this is not invariably the case; thus, diabetics remain under treated. Further work is needed to explain such anomalous practice and promote optimal antithrombotic therapy use.

  2. Clinical application of low energy intracardiac cardioversion of atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liqun; Gu Gang; Su Kan; Su Renying; Shen Yongchu; Shen Weifeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low energy intracardiac cardioversion in persistent atria fibrillation. Methods: Low energy intracardiac cardioversion was performed by delivering R wave-synchronized biphasic shocks in 7 patients (4 men, 3 women) with persistent atrial fibrillation. Prior to the procedure, all patients underwent transesophageal echocardiographic examinations to rule out the presence of intracardiac thrombus and received subcutaneous injection of low molecular weight heparin for 3-5 days. Two custom-made 6 Fr catheters (Rhythm Technologies of Getz, USA) were used for de-fibrillation shock delivery. One catheter was positioned in the lower right atrium so that the majority of the catheter electrodes had firm contact with the right atrial free wall. The second catheter was placed randomly either in coronary sinus through right internal jugular vein or in the left pulmonary artery through femoral vein. In addition, a standard diagnostic 6-F quadrupolar catheter was placed at the right ventricular apex for ventricular synchronization and postshock ventricular pacing. Shocks were delivered by Implant Support Device (Model 4510, Teleceronics). After conversion, all patients were treated with intravenous amiodarone in the first 24 hours followed by oral administration. Results: In all 7 patients cardioversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm was successfully obtained. A mean of 2 ± 1 shocks per patient has been delivered with a total amount of 13 shocks. The average delivered energy was 7.8 ± 2.2 Joules. No complication occurred. At a mean follow-up of 18 ± 9 months, 4 of the 7 patients treated successfully showed sinus rhythm there after. Atrial fibrillation recurred in 3 patients at the second, fifth day and eighth month after cardioversion. Conclusions: Low energy intracardiac cardioversion is effective and safe, and can be easily performed in patients without general anesthesia. It offers a new option for restoring sinus

  3. Maze Procedures for Atrial Fibrillation, From History to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Charles; Bogers, Ad J J C

    2011-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation may result in significant symptoms, (systemic) thrombo-embolism, as well as tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy with cardiac failure, and consequently be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nowadays symptomatic atrial fibrillation can be treated with catheter-based ablation, surgical ablation or hybrid approaches. In this setting a fairly large number of surgical approaches and procedures are described and being practised. It should be clear that the Cox-maze procedure resulted from building up evidence and experience in different steps, while some of the present surgical approaches and techniques are being based only on technical feasibility with limited experience, rather than on a process of consequent methodology. Some of the issues still under debate are whether or not the maze procedure can be limited to the left atrium or even to isolation of the pulmonary veins or that bi-atrial procedures are indicated, whether or not cardiopulmonary bypass is to be applied and which route of exposure facilitates an optimal result. In addition, maze procedures are not procedures guide by electrophysiological mapping. At least in theory not in all patients all lesions of the maze procedures are necessary. A history and aspects of current practise in surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation is presented.

  4. Loss of proteostatic control as a substrate for Atrial Fibrillation; a novel target for upstream therapy by Heat Shock Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelien Amanda Marjolein Meijering

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atrial Fibrillation (AF is the most common, sustained clinical tachyarrhythmia associated with significant morbidity and mortality. AF is a persistent condition with progressive structural remodeling of the atrial cardiomyocytes due to the AF itself, resulting in cellular changes commonly observed in ageing and in other heart diseases. While rhythm control by electrocardioversion or drug treatment is the treatment of choice in symptomatic AF patients, its effectiveness is still limited. Current research is directed at preventing new-onset AF by limiting the development of substrates underlying AF promotion and resembles mechanism-based therapy. Upstream therapy refers to the use of non-ion channel anti-arrhythmic drugs that modify the atrial substrate- or target-specific mechanisms of AF, with the ultimate aim to prevent the occurrence (primary prevention or recurrence of the arrhythmia following (spontaneous conversion (secondary prevention.Heat shock proteins (HSPs are molecular chaperones and comprise a large family of proteins involved in the protection against various forms of cellular stress. Their classical function is the conservation of proteostasis via prevention of toxic protein aggregation by binding to (partially unfolded proteins. Our recent data reveal that HSPs prevent electrical, contractile and structural remodeling of cardiomyocytes, thus attenuating the AF substrate in cellular, Drosophila melanogaster and animal experimental models. Furthermore, studies in humans suggest a protective role for HSPs against the progression from paroxysmal AF to persistent AF and in recurrence of AF. In this review, we discuss upregulation of the heat shock response system as a novel target for upstream therapy to prevent derailment of proteostasis and consequently promotion and recurrence of AF.

  5. Relaxin suppresses atrial fibrillation in aged rats by reversing fibrosis and upregulating Na+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brian L; Gabris, Beth; Li, Qiao; Martin, Brian; Giannini, Marianna; Parikh, Ashish; Patel, Divyang; Haney, Jamie; Schwartzman, David S; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Salama, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in elderly patients and has been correlated with enhanced age-dependent atrial fibrosis. Reversal of atrial fibrosis has been proposed as therapeutic strategy to suppress AF. To test the ability of relaxin to reverse age-dependent atrial fibrosis and suppress AF. Aged F-344 rats (24 months old) were treated with subcutaneous infusion of vehicle or relaxin (0.4 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Rat hearts were excised, perfused on a Langendorff apparatus, and stained with voltage and Ca(2+) indicator dyes. Optical mapping and programmed electrical stimulation was used to test arrhythmia vulnerability and changes in electrophysiological characteristics. Changes in protein expression and Na(+) current density (INa) were measured by tissue immunofluorescence and whole-cell patch clamp technique. In aged rats, sustained AF was readily induced with a premature pulse (n = 7/8) and relaxin treatment suppressed sustained AF by a premature impulse or burst pacing (n = 1/6) (P atrial action potential conduction velocity and decreased atrial fibrosis. Relaxin treatment increased Nav1.5 expression (n = 6; 36% ± 10%) and decreased total collagen and collagen I (n = 5-6; 55%-66% ± 15%) in aged atria (P atrial INa by 46% ± 4% (n = 12-13/group, P atrial conduction velocity by decreasing atrial fibrosis and increasing INa. These data provide compelling evidence that relaxin may serve as an effective therapy to manage AF in geriatric patients by reversing fibrosis and modulating cardiac ionic currents. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Atrial fibrillation and delayed gastric emptying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora C Botwinick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and delayed gastric emptying (DGE are common after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Our aim was to investigate a potential relationship between atrial fibrillation and DGE, which we defined as failure to tolerate a regular diet by the 7(th postoperative day. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 249 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at our institution between 2000 and 2009. Data was analyzed with Fisher exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney U or unpaired T-test for continuous variables. RESULTS: Approximately 5% of the 249 patients included in the analysis experienced at least one episode of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Median age of patients with atrial fibrillation was 74 years, compared with 66 years in patients without atrial fibrillation (p = 0.0005. Patients with atrial fibrillation were more likely to have a history of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.03. 92% of the patients with atrial fibrillation suffered from DGE, compared to 46% of patients without atrial fibrillation (p = 0.0007. This association held true when controlling for age. CONCLUSION: Patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation are more likely to experience delayed gastric emptying. Interventions to manage delayed gastric function might be prudent in patients at high risk for postoperative atrial fibrillation.

  7. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanaroff, Alexander C; Steffel, Jan; Alexander, John H

    2018-01-01

    of anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Observational studies employing RWD are useful for describing how oral anticoagulants are used in clinical practice, but generally cannot be used to make claims regarding comparative treatment effects. Questions regarding treatment effect generally are best answered...

  8. Genetic basis of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Campuzano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and remains as one of main challenges in current clinical practice. The disease may be induced secondary to other diseases such as hypertension, valvular heart disease, and heart failure, conferring an increased risk of stroke and sudden death. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that genetic factors play an important role and up to 30% of clinically diagnosed patients may have a family history of atrial fibrillation. To date, several rare variants have been identified in a wide range of genes associated with ionic channels, calcium handling protein, fibrosis, conduction and inflammation. Important advances in clinical, genetic and molecular basis have been performed over the last decade, improving diagnosis and treatment. However, the genetics of atrial fibrillation is complex and pathophysiological data remains still unraveling. A better understanding of the genetic basis will induce accurate risk stratification and personalized clinical treatment. In this review, we have focused on current genetics basis of atrial fibrillation.

  9. Impaired atrial electromechanical function and atrial fibrillation promotion in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaying; Liu, Changle; Li, Jian; Zhou, Changyu; Cheng, Lijun; Liu, Tong; Li, Guangping

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atrial electromechanical function, atrial electrophysiological changes and AF inducibility in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. In 8 alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits and 8 controls, we evaluated atrial electromechanical function by tissue Doppler imaging. Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were prepared to measure atrial refractory effective period (AERP) and its dispersion (AERPD), interatrial conduction time (IACT) and vulnerability to AF. Atrial interstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius-Red staining. Compared with controls, left atrial lateral wall Pa'-start interval (Pastart) and right atrial wall Pastart were increased in diabetic rabbits. AERPD was increased and IACT was prolonged in diabetic rabbits. Inducibility of AF in diabetic group was significant higher than controls (6/8 vs. 1/8, p TEMA); left atrial lateral wall Papeak and TEMA, left atrial posterior wall TEMA, and IACT were correlated with atrial areas of fibrosis. Atrial electromechanical function is impaired in diabetic rabbits, and is associated with atrial fibrosis and interatrial electrical conduction delay.

  10. Effects of postshock atrial pacing on atrial defibrillation outcome in the isolated sheep heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skanes, A. C.; Gray, R. A.; Zuur, C. L.; Jalife, J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Failed atrial defibrillation shocks are associated with organization of postshock activity and a substantial postshock electrical quiescence. We investigated the ability of a train of pacing stimuli to capture or locally entrain atrial myocardium during the quiescent period after

  11. Management of atrial fibrillation in the setting of heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crijns, HJGM; VandenBerg, MP; VanGelder, IC; VanVeldhuisen, DJ

    Heart failure is often complicated by atrial fibrillation. Once atrial fibrillation has started it further enhances heart failure due to uncontrolled rate with shortened filling time and provocation of tachycardiomyopathy. Absent atrial kick and irregularity of the ventricular rhythm also

  12. Risk factors for stroke and thromboembolism in relation to age among patients with atrial fibrillation: the loire valley atrial fibrillation project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Fauchier, Laurent; Lane, Deirdre A

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest European guidelines on the management of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), all patients aged ≥ 65 years should be treated with oral anticoagulation (if not contraindicated). Therefore, stroke risk factors should be investigated exclusively in patients with NVAF aged...

  13. Hyperthyroidism and atrial myxoma--an intriguing cardio-endocrine association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gautam; Chow, John T; Klarich, Kyle W; Dean, Diana S

    2007-12-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with dyspnea and bilateral leg edema for 1 week, worsening fatigue for 1 month, and a 7-lb weight loss over the last summer. She was clinically and biochemically hyperthyroid. Echocardiography revealed a left atrial myxoma measuring 6.2 x 3.3 cm protruding into the mitral orifice and left ventricle during diastole. She was treated for Graves' disease with Iodine-131. Six weeks later, her left atrial myxoma measuring 10.1 x 6.2 x 2.4 cm was resected. She became euthyroid before surgery and then biochemically hypothyroid 6 weeks after radioiodine treatment, for which she subsequently required thyroxine replacement. Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac neoplasms. At least 5% to 10% can be attributed to Carney's complex. More than two-thirds of patients with Carney's complex develop one or more cardiac myxomas. Although atrial myxomas in Carney's complex are histologically indistinguishable from the sporadic form, their clinical presentation and course is distinct. This is the first case of newly diagnosed Graves' disease that has been reported in association with an atrial myxoma. The features discussed in this article help differentiate between syndromic and sporadic atrial myxomas.

  14. Risk of atrial fibrillation in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallisgaard, Jannik L; Schjerning, Anne-Marie; Lindhardt, Tommi B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Diabetes has been associated with atrial fibrillation but the current evidence is conflicting. In particular knowledge regarding young diabetes patients and the risk of developing atrial fibrillation is sparse. The aim of our study was to investigate the risk of atrial fibrillation in patients...... with diabetes compared to the background population in Denmark. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through Danish nationwide registries we included persons above 18 years of age and without prior atrial fibrillation and/or diabetes from 1996 to 2012. The study cohort was divided into a background population without diabetes...... and a diabetes group. The absolute risk of developing atrial fibrillation was calculated and Poisson regression models adjusted for sex, age and comorbidities were used to calculate incidence rate ratios of atrial fibrillation. The total study cohort included 5,081,087 persons, 4,827,713 (95%) in the background...

  15. [Relations between FANS, PPI and atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Fabrizio; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2013-05-01

    Recent evidence supports the existence of an association between the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of atrial fibrillation. Anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used for the treatment of systemic inflammatory disorders, and chronic inflammation is a well-known risk factor for the development of myocardial fibrosis. The latter accounts for atrial inhomogeneities of conduction, thus triggering and perpetuating atrial fibrillation. Atrial inflammatory remodeling may therefore be responsible for the higher incidence of atrial fibrillation among patients assuming steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs because of an underlying inflammatory disorders. Alternative theories contemplate gastroesophageal reflux, which is extremely common during the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and may trigger atrial fibrillation, as mediating the above-mentioned association.

  16. Atrial septal stenting - How I do it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothandam Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide atrial communication is important to maintain hemodynamics in certain forms of congenital and acquired heart defects. In comparison to balloon septostomy or blade septostomy, atrial septal stenting provides a controlled, predictable, and long-lasting atrial communication. It often needs a prior Brockenbrough needle septal puncture to obtain a stable stent position. A stent deployed across a previously dilated and stretched oval foramen or tunnel form of oval foramen carries higher risk of embolization. This review provides technical tips to achieve a safe atrial septal stenting. Even though this is a "How to do it article," an initial discussion about the indications for atrial septal stenting is vital as the resultant size of the atrial septal communication should be tailored for each indication.

  17. Evaluating the Atrial Myopathy Underlying Atrial Fibrillation: Identifying the Arrhythmogenic and Thrombogenic Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Jeffrey J.; Arora, Rishi; Green, David; Greenland, Philip; Lee, Daniel C.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Markl, Michael; Ng, Jason; Shah, Sanjiv J.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial disease or myopathy forms the substrate for atrial fibrillation (AF) and underlies the potential for atrial thrombus formation and subsequent stroke. Current diagnostic approaches in patients with AF focus on identifying clinical predictors with evaluation of left atrial size by echocardiography serving as the sole measure specifically evaluating the atrium. Although the atrial substrate underlying AF is likely developing for years prior to the onset of AF, there is no current evaluation to identify the pre-clinical atrial myopathy. Atrial fibrosis is one component of the atrial substrate that has garnered recent attention based on newer MRI techniques that have been applied to visualize atrial fibrosis in humans with prognostic implications regarding success of treatment. Advanced ECG signal processing, echocardiographic techniques, and MRI imaging of fibrosis and flow provide up-to-date approaches to evaluate the atrial myopathy underlying AF. While thromboembolic risk is currently defined by clinical scores, their predictive value is mediocre. Evaluation of stasis via imaging and biomarkers associated with thrombogenesis may provide enhanced approaches to assess risk for stroke in patients with AF. Better delineation of the atrial myopathy that serves as the substrate for AF and thromboembolic complications might improve treatment outcomes. Furthermore, better delineation of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the development of the atrial substrate for AF, particularly in its earlier stages, could help identify blood and imaging biomarkers that could be useful to assess risk for developing new onset AF and suggest specific pathways that could be targeted for prevention. PMID:26216085

  18. Digoxin versus placebo, no intervention, or other medical interventions for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sethi, Naqash; Safi, Sanam; Feinberg, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia of the heart with a prevalence of approximately 2% in the western world. Atrial flutter, another arrhythmia, occurs less often with an incidence of approximately 200,000 new patients per year in the USA. Patients with atrial fibrillati...

  19. Persistent atrial fibrillation vs paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: differences in management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulescu, Andrei D; Mont, Lluis

    2017-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common human arrhythmia. AF is a progressive disease, initially being nonsustained and induced by trigger activity, and progressing towards persistent AF through alteration of the atrial myocardial substrate. Treatment of AF aims to decrease the risk of stroke and improve the quality of life, by preventing recurrences (rhythm control) or controlling the heart rate during AF (rate control). In the last 20 years, catheter-based and, less frequently, surgical and hybrid ablation techniques have proven more successful compared with drug therapy in achieving rhythm control in patients with AF. However, the efficiency of ablation techniques varies greatly, being highest in paroxysmal and lowest in long-term persistent AF. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the fundamental differences between paroxysmal and persistent AF and the potential impact of those differences on patient management, emphasizing the available therapeutic strategies to achieve rhythm control. Expert commentary: Treatment to prevent AF recurrences is suboptimal, particularly in patients with persistent AF. Emerging technologies, such as documentation of atrial fibrosis using magnetic resonance imaging and documentation of electrical substrate using advanced electrocardiographic imaging techniques are likely to provide valuable insights about patient-specific tailoring of treatments.

  20. [Panic disorder and atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olazabal Eizaguirre, N; Chavez, R; González-Torres, M A; Gaviria, M

    2013-10-01

    This paper studies the relationship between atrial fibrillation and panic disorder. There are often doubts on the differential diagnosis in emergency services and general medical settings. Panic disorder prevalence rates have been found to be high in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation. Various studies have observed that patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders frequently have higher cardiovascular disease rates compared to the general population. Usually, patients suffering from panic disorder exhibit somatic complaints suggesting coronary disease, such as chest pain or palpitations. The aim is to make the correct diagnosis and treatment for these different illnesses, and to decrease the costs due to misdiagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Relevance of Electrical Remodeling in Human Atrial Fibrillation Results of the Asymptomatic Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke Evaluation in Pacemaker Patients and the Atrial Fibrillation Reduction Atrial Pacing Trial Mechanisms of Atrial Fibrillation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Healey, Jeff S.; Israel, Carsten W.; Connolly, Stuart J.; Hohnloser, Stefan H.; Nair, Girish M.; Divakaramenon, Syamkumar; Capucci, Alessandro; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Lau, Chu-Pak; Gold, Michael R.; Carlson, Mark; Themeles, Ellison; Morillo, Carlos A.

    Background-In animal models of atrial fibrillation (AF), changes in atrial electrophysiological properties are associated with the development of AF. Their relevance to human AF is unclear. Methods and Results-The Asymptomatic Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke Evaluation in Pacemaker Patients and the

  2. Atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Once considered as nothing more than a nuisance after cardiac surgery, the importance of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF has been realized in the last decade, primarily because of the morbidity associated with the condition. Numerous causative factors have been described without any single factor being singled out as the cause of this complication. POAF has been associated with stroke, renal failure and congestive heart failure, although it is difficult to state whether POAF is directly responsible for these complications. Guidelines have been formulated for prevention of POAF. However, very few cardiothoracic centers follow any form of protocol to prevent POAF. Routine use of prophylaxis would subject all patients to the side effects of anti-arrhythmic drugs, while only a minority of the patients do actually develop this problem postoperatively. Withdrawal of beta blockers in the postoperative period has been implicated as one of the major causes of POAF. Amiodarone, calcium channel blockers and a variety of other pharmacological agents have been used for the prevention of POAF. Atrial pacing is a non-pharmacological measure which has gained popularity in the prevention of POAF. There is considerable controversy regarding whether rate control is superior to rhythm control in the treatment of established atrial fibrillation (AF. Amiodarone plays a central role in both rate control and rhythm control in postoperative AF. Newer drugs like dronedarone and ranazoline are likely to come into the market in the coming years.

  3. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after ventricular tachyarrhythmias increases diagnostic precision and reduces the need for family screening for inherited cardiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marstrand, Peter; Axelsson, Anna; Thune, Jens Jakob

    2016-01-01

    -CAG) (81%), exercise stress test (47%), late potentials (54%), electrophysiological study (44%), pharmacological provocation (44%), and/or myocardial biopsy (16%). Family screening was indicated for 53 probands (67%) prior to CMR. After full workup, only 43 cases (54%) warranted evaluation of relatives (19......AIMS: Guidelines recommend evaluation of family members of sudden cardiac death victims. However, initiation of cascade screening in families with uncertain diagnoses is not cost-effective and may cause unnecessary concern. For these reasons, we set out to assess to what extent cardiac magnetic...... resonance imaging (CMR) would increase the diagnostic precision and thereby possibly change the indication for family screening in patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively collected data from 79 patients hospitalized with aborted cardiac arrest (resuscitated from...

  4. Changes in plasma atrial natriuretic factor in patients with idiopathic atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Xia Xiaojie; Qu Wei; Wang Shukui; Sun Junjiang

    2002-01-01

    To observe the changes in plasma atrial natriuretic factor (AFN) in patients with idiopathic atrial fibrillation and investigate its mechanism, plasma ANF, platelet count and hematocrit were detected in 21 cases with transient idiopathic atrial fibrillation (group A, A1 representing attack, while A2 termination), 28 with persistent idiopathic atrial fibrillation (group B), 27 suffered from rheumatic heart disease with mitral stenosis and persistent atrial fibrillation (group C), 32 with transient supraventricular tachycardia (group D) and 20 normal controls (group E). It was found that the level of ANF was significantly higher in patients with attacking transient idiopathic atrial fibrillation than that in group A2, D and E (P 0.05), while there was significant difference in hematocrit in group A1 compared with group A2, D, E (P < 0.01). It suggested that ANF and hematocrit play an important role in the attack of idiopathic atrial fibrillation

  5. Predictors of ventricular tachyarrhythmia occurring late after intracardiac repair of tetralogy of Fallot: combination of QRS duration change rate and tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Sugimoto, Ai; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Background To determine potential predictors of ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurring late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods Since 1964, 415 patients had undergone total repair for TOF at Niigata University Hospital. Of these, 89 patients who were followed for more than 10 years at our institute were retrospectively reviewed. Results The mean follow-up period was 24.3 years. During the study period, one patient died of cerebral bleeding, and two patients had SCD. The overall survival rates at 20, 30, and 40 years were 100%, 94.6%, and 94.6%, respectively. Eight (9.0%) patients required re-intervention during the late period associated with right ventricular outflow (n=4), tricuspid valve (n=3), aortic valve (n=2), and others (n=2). Ten (11.2%) patients had a history of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF), and six underwent implantation of an implantable cardiac defibrillator. Multivariate analysis selected the change rate of QRS duration [ms/year; odds ratio (OR), 2.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28–4.65; P=0.007] and the pressure gradient at tricuspid valve regurgitation on echocardiography (OR, 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02–1.22; P=0.017) as risk factors for VT/VF or SCD. Trans-annular patch (TAP) repair was not an independent risk factor for ventricular arrhythmia. Conclusions The combination of rapid change rate of QRS duration and higher-pressure gradient at tricuspid regurgitation were risk factors for ventricular tachyarrhythmia late after TOF repair. Adequate surgical or catheter intervention for pressure and volume load in the right ventricle might decrease the prevalence of VT/VF and SCD. PMID:29312717

  6. Strict sequential catheter ablation strategy targeting the pulmonary veins and superior vena cava for persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiga, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Akihiko; Ueyama, Takeshi; Ono, Makoto; Fukuda, Masakazu; Fumimoto, Tomoko; Ishiguchi, Hironori; Omuro, Takuya; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Yano, Masafumi

    2018-08-01

    An effective catheter ablation strategy, beyond pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) is necessary. Pulmonary vein (PV)-reconduction also causes recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias. The effect of the PVI and additional effect of a superior vena cava (SVC) isolation (SVCI) was strictly evaluated. Seventy consecutive patients with persistent AF who underwent a strict sequential ablation strategy targeting the PVs and SVC were included in this study. The initial ablation strategy was a circumferential PVI. A segmental SVCI was only applied as a repeat procedure when patients demonstrated no PV-reconduction. After the initial procedure, persistent AF was suppressed in 39 of 70 (55.7%) patients during a median follow-up of 32 months. After multiple procedures, persistent AF was suppressed in 46 (65.7%) and 52 (74.3%) patients after receiving the PVI alone and PVI plus SVCI strategies, respectively. In 6 of 15 (40.0%) patients with persistent AF resistant to PVI, persistent AF was suppressed. The persistent AF duration independently predicted persistent AF recurrences after multiple PVI alone procedures [HR: 1.012 (95% confidence interval: 1.006-1.018); pstrategies [HR: 1.018 (95% confidence interval: 1.011-1.025); pstrategies, respectively. The outcomes of the PVI plus SVCI strategy were favorable for patients with shorter persistent AF durations. The initial SVCI had the additional effect of maintaining sinus rhythm in some patients with persistent AF resistant to PVI. Copyright © 2018 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Left Atrial Size and Function in a Canine Model of Chronic Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Adam; Kusunose, Kenya; Qamruddin, Salima; Rodriguez, L. Leonardo; Mazgalev, Todor N.; Griffin, Brian P.; Van Wagoner, David R.; Zhang, Youhua; Popović, Zoran B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Our aim was to assess how atrial fibrillation (AF) induction, chronicity, and RR interval irregularity affect left atrial (LA) function and size in the setting of underlying heart failure (HF), and to determine whether AF effects can be mitigated by vagal nerve stimulation (VNS). Methods HF was induced by 4-weeks of rapid ventricular pacing in 24 dogs. Subsequently, AF was induced and maintained by atrial pacing at 600 bpm. Dogs were randomized into control (n = 9) and VNS (n = 15) groups. In the VNS group, atrioventricular node fat pad stimulation (310 μs, 20 Hz, 3–7 mA) was delivered continuously for 6 months. LA volume and LA strain data were calculated from bi-weekly echocardiograms. Results RR intervals decreased with HF in both groups (p = 0.001), and decreased further during AF in control group (p = 0.014), with a non-significant increase in the VNS group during AF. LA size increased with HF (p<0.0001), with no additional increase during AF. LA strain decreased with HF (p = 0.025) and further decreased after induction of AF (p = 0.0001). LA strain decreased less (p = 0.001) in the VNS than in the control group. Beat-by-beat analysis showed a curvilinear increase of LA strain with longer preceding RR interval, (r = 0.45, p <0.0001) with LA strain 1.1% higher (p = 0.02) in the VNS-treated animals, independent of preceding RR interval duration. The curvilinear relationship between ratio of preceding and pre-preceding RR intervals, and subsequent LA strain was weaker, (r = 0.28, p = 0.001). However, VNS-treated animals again had higher LA strain (by 2.2%, p = 0.002) independently of the ratio of preceding and pre-preceding RR intervals. Conclusions In the underlying presence of pacing-induced HF, AF decreased LA strain, with little impact on LA size. LA strain depends on the preceding RR interval duration. PMID:26771573

  8. [Typical atrial flutter: Diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dierk; Eckardt, Lars; Estner, Heidi L; Kuniss, Malte; Meyer, Christian; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Sommer, Philipp; Steven, Daniel; Voss, Frederik; Bonnemeier, Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    Typical, cavotricuspid-dependent atrial flutter is the most common atrial macroreentry tachycardia. The incidence of atrial flutter (typical and atypical forms) is age-dependent with 5/100,000 in patients less than 50 years and approximately 600/100,000 in subjects > 80 years of age. Concomitant heart failure or pulmonary disease further increases the risk of typical atrial flutter.Patients with atrial flutter may present with symptoms of palpitations, reduced exercise capacity, chest pain, or dyspnea. The risk of thromboembolism is probably similar to atrial fibrillation; therefore, the same antithrombotic prophylaxis is required in atrial flutter patients. Acutely symptomatic cases may be subjected to cardioversion or pharmacologic rate control to relieve symptoms. Catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus represents the primary choice in long-term therapy, associated with high procedural success (> 97 %) and low complication rates (0.5 %).This article represents the third part of a manuscript series designed to improve professional education in the field of cardiac electrophysiology. Mechanistic and clinical characteristics as well as management of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter are described in detail. Electrophysiological findings and catheter ablation of the arrhythmia are highlighted.

  9. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-granules: ultrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANP) are present in the four regions of the atrial-auricular complex (two atria and two auricles). ANP-immunoreactivity was detected in all granules from the four regions. Ultrastructurally, atrial myocytes show the presence of very electron dense ...

  10. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation in Systolic Dysfunction: Clinical and Echocardiographic Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasso Julio Lobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure and atrial fibrillation (AF often coexist in a deleterious cycle. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and echocardiographic outcomes of patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction and AF treated with radiofrequency (RF ablation. Methods: Patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction [ejection fraction (EF <50%] and AF refractory to drug therapy underwent stepwise RF ablation in the same session with pulmonary vein isolation, ablation of AF nests and of residual atrial tachycardia, named "background tachycardia". Clinical (NYHA functional class and echocardiographic (EF, left atrial diameter data were compared (McNemar test and t test before and after ablation. Results: 31 patients (6 women, 25 men, aged 37 to 77 years (mean, 59.8±10.6, underwent RF ablation. The etiology was mainly idiopathic (19 p, 61%. During a mean follow-up of 20.3±17 months, 24 patients (77% were in sinus rhythm, 11 (35% being on amiodarone. Eight patients (26% underwent more than one procedure (6 underwent 2 procedures, and 2 underwent 3 procedures. Significant NYHA functional class improvement was observed (pre-ablation: 2.23±0.56; postablation: 1.13±0.35; p<0.0001. The echocardiographic outcome also showed significant ventricular function improvement (EF pre: 44.68%±6.02%, post: 59%±13.2%, p=0.0005 and a significant left atrial diameter reduction (pre: 46.61±7.3 mm; post: 43.59±6.6 mm; p=0.026. No major complications occurred. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that AF ablation in patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction is a safe and highly effective procedure. Arrhythmia control has a great impact on ventricular function recovery and functional class improvement.

  11. Economic evaluation of apixaban for the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevanovic, J.; Pompen, M.; Le, H.H.; Rozenbaum, M.H.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Stroke prevention is the main goal in treating patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Treatment with anticoagulants, such as vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs; e.g. warfarin and cumarines), was demonstrated to be an effective strategy. However, even though VKAs are the current standard

  12. Safety and efficacy of anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation patients: The AMADEUS trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, D.A.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Minini, P.; Buller, H.R.; Lip, G.Y.H.

    2010-01-01

    ackground: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and previous ischemic stroke are at high risk of recurrent stroke, but are also perceived to be at increased bleeding risk while treated with anticoagulants. Methods: Post-hoc analyses examined the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation of 4576 AF

  13. Antiarrhythmic and electrophysiologic effects of flecainide on acutely induced atrial fibrillation in healthy horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Maria Mathilde; Pehrson, S.; Carstensen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Only few pharmacologic compounds have been validated for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in horses. Studies investigating the utility and safety of flecainide to treat AF in horses have produced conflicting results, and the antiarrhythmic mechanisms of flecainide are not fully u...

  14. Artificial atrial fibrillation in the dog. An artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strackee, J.; Hoelen, A.J.; Zimmerman, A.N.E.; Meijler, F.L.

    R-R interval sequences during artificial atrial fibrillation in dogs were studied in the same way as in patients in a previous study and compared with results obtained in dogs with spontaneous atrial fibrillation. Artificial atrial fibrillation was effected by right atrial stimulation in three

  15. Left Atrial 4D Blood Flow Dynamics and Hemostasis following Electrical Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation

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    Merih Cibis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrical cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation is followed by a transiently impaired atrial mechanical function, termed atrial stunning. During atrial stunning, a retained risk of left atrial thrombus formation exists, which may be attributed to abnormal left atrial blood flow patterns. 4D Flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR enables blood flow assessment from the entire three-dimensional atrial volume throughout the cardiac cycle. We sought to investigate left atrial 4D blood flow patterns and hemostasis during left atrial stunning and after left atrial mechanical function was restored.Methods: 4D Flow and morphological CMR data as well as blood samples were collected in fourteen patients at two time-points: 2–3 h (Time-1 and 4 weeks (Time-2 following cardioversion. The volume of blood stasis and duration of blood stasis were calculated. In addition, hemostasis markers were analyzed.Results: From Time-1 to Time-2: Heart rate decreased (61 ± 7 vs. 56 ± 8 bpm, p = 0.01; Maximum change in left atrial volume increased (8 ± 4 vs. 22 ± 15%, p = 0.009; The duration of stasis (68 ± 11 vs. 57 ± 8%, p = 0.002 and the volume of stasis (14 ± 9 vs. 9 ± 7%, p = 0.04 decreased; Thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT decreased (5.2 ± 3.3 vs. 3.3 ± 2.2 μg/L, p = 0.008. A significant correlation was found between TAT and the volume of stasis (r2 = 0.69, p < 0.001 at Time-1 and between TAT and the duration of stasis (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.04 at Time-2.Conclusion: In this longitudinal study, left atrial multidimensional blood flow was altered and blood stasis was elevated during left atrial stunning compared to the restored left atrial mechanical function. The coagulability of blood was also elevated during atrial stunning. The association between blood stasis and hypercoagulability proposes that assessment of left atrial 4D flow can add to the pathophysiological understanding of thrombus formation during atrial fibrillation

  16. Left Atrial 4D Blood Flow Dynamics and Hemostasis following Electrical Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibis, Merih; Lindahl, Tomas L.; Ebbers, Tino; Karlsson, Lars O.; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Electrical cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation is followed by a transiently impaired atrial mechanical function, termed atrial stunning. During atrial stunning, a retained risk of left atrial thrombus formation exists, which may be attributed to abnormal left atrial blood flow patterns. 4D Flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) enables blood flow assessment from the entire three-dimensional atrial volume throughout the cardiac cycle. We sought to investigate left atrial 4D blood flow patterns and hemostasis during left atrial stunning and after left atrial mechanical function was restored. Methods: 4D Flow and morphological CMR data as well as blood samples were collected in fourteen patients at two time-points: 2–3 h (Time-1) and 4 weeks (Time-2) following cardioversion. The volume of blood stasis and duration of blood stasis were calculated. In addition, hemostasis markers were analyzed. Results: From Time-1 to Time-2: Heart rate decreased (61 ± 7 vs. 56 ± 8 bpm, p = 0.01); Maximum change in left atrial volume increased (8 ± 4 vs. 22 ± 15%, p = 0.009); The duration of stasis (68 ± 11 vs. 57 ± 8%, p = 0.002) and the volume of stasis (14 ± 9 vs. 9 ± 7%, p = 0.04) decreased; Thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) decreased (5.2 ± 3.3 vs. 3.3 ± 2.2 μg/L, p = 0.008). A significant correlation was found between TAT and the volume of stasis (r2 = 0.69, p < 0.001) at Time-1 and between TAT and the duration of stasis (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.04) at Time-2. Conclusion: In this longitudinal study, left atrial multidimensional blood flow was altered and blood stasis was elevated during left atrial stunning compared to the restored left atrial mechanical function. The coagulability of blood was also elevated during atrial stunning. The association between blood stasis and hypercoagulability proposes that assessment of left atrial 4D flow can add to the pathophysiological understanding of thrombus formation during atrial fibrillation related

  17. Isthmus Dependent Atrial Flutter Cycle Length Correlates with Right Atrial Cross-Sectional Area

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    Kousik Krishnan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Right atrial flutter cycle length can prolong in the presence of antiarrhythmic drug therapy. We hypothesized that the cycle length of right atrial isthmus dependent flutter would correlate with right atrial cross-sectional area measurements. Methods: 60 patients who underwent ablation for electrophysiologically proven isthmus dependent right atrial flutter, who were not on Class I or Class III antiarrhythmic drugs and had recent 2-dimensional echocardiographic data comprised the study group. Right atrial length and width were measured in the apical four chamber view. Cross-sectional area was estimated by multiplying the length and width. 35 patients had an atrial flutter rate ≥250 bpm (Normal Flutter Group and 25 patients had an atrial flutter rate < 250 bpm (Slow Flutter Group. Results: Mean atrial flutter rate was 283 bpm in the normal flutter group and 227 bpm in the slow flutter group. Mean atrial flutter cycle length was 213 ms in the Normal Flutter Group and 265 ms in the Slow Flutter Group (p<0.0001. Mean right atrial cross sectional area was 1845 mm2 in the Normal Flutter group and 2378 mm2 in the Slow Flutter Group, (p< 0.0001. Using linear regression, CSA was a significant predictor of cycle length (β =0.014 p = 0.0045. For every 1 mm2 increase in cross-sectional area, cycle length is 0.014 ms longer.Conclusion: In the absence of antiarrhythmic medications, right atrial cross sectional area enlargement correlates with atrial flutter cycle length. These findings provide further evidence that historical rate-related definitions of typical isthmus dependent right atrial are not mechanistically valid.

  18. [Left versus bi-atrial radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Gang; Meng, Xu; Li, Hui

    2008-11-25

    To evaluate the effectiveness of radiofrequency modified maze operation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) and compare the results of the left versus bi-atrial procedures. 305 patients of organic heart disease combined with AF, 117 males and 188 females, aged (53 +/- 10), that underwent cardiac valve operation (n = 293) and/or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n = 14), received concomitant atrial fibrillation, bi-atrial (n = 160) or left atrial (n = 145) with a mean duration of (36 +/- 43) months. Follow-up was conducted for (28 +/- 5) (3 - 42) months. Thirteen patients (4.3%) died postoperatively: 7 died of multisystem and organ failure, 3 of low cardiac output, 1 of rupture of left ventricle, 1 of arrhythmia, and 1 of sudden death. During the follow-up, 1 patient died of heart failure, 1 of encephalorrhagia and 1 of unknown reason in the bi-atrial group. At the end of the procedure 223 patients (73.1%) had sinus rhythm, with a sinus rhythm rate of 66.9% (107/160) in the bi-atrial group, significant lower than that in the left atrial group (80.0%, 116/145, P bi-atrial group was 80.0%, not significantly different from that of the left atrial group (81.9%, P > 0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed there was no significant difference in the AF rhythm rate between these 2 groups (P = 0.33). Logistic regression analysis showed that the left atrial diameter of >/= 80 mm was an independent predictor of AF recurrence. Both the left and bi-atrial procedures are successful in terms of restoring sinus rhythm. Left atrial ablation in severe cases and where the incision of right atrium is not needed is a reasonable choice.

  19. Acute renal infarction Secondary to Atrial Fibrillation Mimicking Renal Stone Picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Salih Bin; Al-Durihim, H.; Al-Jizeeri, A.; Al-Maziad, G.

    2006-01-01

    Acute renal infarction presents in a similar clinical picture to that of a renal stone. We report a 55-year-old Saudi female, known to have atrial fibrillation secondary to mitral stenosis due to rheumatic heart disease. She presented with a two day history of right flank pain that was treated initially as renal stone. Further investigations confirmed her as a case of renal infarction. Renal infarction is under-diagnosed because the similarity of its presentation to renal stone. Renal infarction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of loin pain, particularly in a patient with atrial fibrillation. (author)

  20. Transforming growth factor-β-mediated CD44/STAT3 signaling contributes to the development of atrial fibrosis and fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Hung; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Lee, Jia-Lin; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Chen, Wei-Jan

    2017-09-04

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with atrial fibrosis. Inhibition of atrial fibrosis might be a plausible approach for AF prevention and therapy. This study is designed to evaluate the potential role of CD44, a membrane receptor known to regulate fibrosis, and its related signaling in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrosis and AF. Treatment of cultured rat atrial fibroblasts with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, a key mediator of atrial fibrosis) led to a higher expression of hyaluronan (HA), CD44, STAT3, and collagen (a principal marker of fibrosis) than that of ventricular fibroblasts. In vivo, TGF-β transgenic mice and AF patients exhibited a greater expression of HA, CD44, STAT3, and collagen in their atria than wild-type mice and sinus rhythm subjects, respectively. Treating TGF-β transgenic mice with an anti-CD44 blocking antibody resulted in a lower expression of STAT3 and collagen in their atria than those with control IgG antibody. Programmed stimulation triggered less AF episodes in TGF-β transgenic mice treated with anti-CD44 blocking antibody than in those with control IgG. Blocking CD44 signaling with anti-CD44 antibody and mutated CD44 plasmids attenuated TGF-β-induced STAT3 activation and collagen expression in cultured atrial fibroblasts. Deletion and mutational analysis of the collagen promoter along with chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that STAT3 served as a vital transcription factor in collagen expression. TGF-β-mediated HA/CD44/STAT3 pathway plays a crucial role in the development of atrial fibrosis and AF. Blocking CD44-dependent signaling may be a feasible way for AF management.

  1. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING WARFARIN DOSE TITRATION IN PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION DEPENDING ON CLINICAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Artanova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the relations of clinical characteristics and individual warfarin dose titration in patients with atrial fibrillation. Material and methods. Period of warfarin dose titration was analyzed in 68 patients with atrial fibrillation due to ischemic heart disease. Adjusted warfarin dose in milligram, duration of dose titration in days and maximal international normalized ratio (INR were taken into account. Sex, age, history of myocardial infarction and stroke, concomitant diseases, amiodarone therapy were considered among clinical characteristics. Results. Adjusted warfarin dose was significantly higher in obesity , and it was lower in case of experienced myocardial infarction. The INR highest levels and maximal amplitudes of its fluctuations were observed in patients with thyroid gland nodes and smokers. Period of warfarin dose titration was longer in patients treated with amiodarone. Conclusion. Warfarin dose titration in patients with atrial fibrillation depends on the presence of myocardial infarction, obesity , thyroid nodular changes, smoking and amiodarone treatment.

  2. Management of Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation in an Outpatient Clinic Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysoee, Lars; Strömberg, Anna; Brandes, Axel

    2018-01-01

    fibrillation is not a fatal disease in itself was very important for patients. At the same time, visiting the clinic was overwhelming, information was difficult to understand, and patients found it difficult to be involved in decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that patients were uncertain......AIMS: To gain in-depth knowledge of patients' experiences of the consultation processes at a multidisciplinary atrial fibrillation outpatient clinic in a university hospital in Denmark. BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia associated with morbidity and mortality...... if not diagnosed and treated as recommended. Patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation preferably should be managed in an outpatient setting which includes medical examination, patient education and decision making on medical therapy. DESIGN: This is a qualitative study of 14 patients newly diagnosed...

  3. Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

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    Justin Timothy A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Results A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test. However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis.

  4. Imaging in percutaneous ablation for atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovic, Ruzica [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, GD Rotterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of the University Medical Center, Belgrade (Czechoslovakia); Dill, Thorsten [Kerckhoff-Heart Center, Department of Cardiology, Bad Nauheim (Germany); Ristic, Arsen D.; Seferovic, Petar M. [Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of the University Medical Center, Belgrade (Czechoslovakia)

    2006-11-15

    Percutaneous ablation for electrical disconnection of the arrhythmogenic foci using various forms of energy has become a well-established technique for treating atrial fibrillation (AF). Success rate in preventing recurrence of AF episodes is high although associated with a significant incidence of pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis and other rare complications. Clinical workup of AF patients includes imaging before and after ablative treatment using different noninvasive and invasive techniques such as conventional angiography, transoesophageal and intracardiac echocardiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which offer different information with variable diagnostic accuracy. Evaluation before percutaneous ablation involves assessment of PVs (PV pattern, branching pattern, orientation and ostial size) to facilitate position and size of catheters and reduce procedure time as well as examining the left atrium (presence of thrombi, dimensions and volumes). Imaging after the percutaneous ablation is important for assessment of overall success of the procedure and revealing potential complications. Therefore, imaging methods enable depiction of PVs and the anatomy of surrounding structures essential for preprocedural management and early detection of PV stenosis and other ablation-related procedures, as well as long-term follow-up of these patients. (orig.)

  5. Imaging in percutaneous ablation for atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimovic, Ruzica; Dill, Thorsten; Ristic, Arsen D.; Seferovic, Petar M.

    2006-01-01

    Percutaneous ablation for electrical disconnection of the arrhythmogenic foci using various forms of energy has become a well-established technique for treating atrial fibrillation (AF). Success rate in preventing recurrence of AF episodes is high although associated with a significant incidence of pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis and other rare complications. Clinical workup of AF patients includes imaging before and after ablative treatment using different noninvasive and invasive techniques such as conventional angiography, transoesophageal and intracardiac echocardiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which offer different information with variable diagnostic accuracy. Evaluation before percutaneous ablation involves assessment of PVs (PV pattern, branching pattern, orientation and ostial size) to facilitate position and size of catheters and reduce procedure time as well as examining the left atrium (presence of thrombi, dimensions and volumes). Imaging after the percutaneous ablation is important for assessment of overall success of the procedure and revealing potential complications. Therefore, imaging methods enable depiction of PVs and the anatomy of surrounding structures essential for preprocedural management and early detection of PV stenosis and other ablation-related procedures, as well as long-term follow-up of these patients. (orig.)

  6. The circadian variation of premature atrial contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjørn Strøier; Kumarathurai, Preman; Nielsen, Olav W

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess a possible circadian variation of premature atrial contractions (PACs) in a community-based population and to determine if the daily variation could be used to assess a more vulnerable period of PACs in predicting later incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF...... variation in heart rate. After adjusting for relevant risk factors, the risk of AF was equal in all time intervals throughout the day. CONCLUSION: Premature atrial contractions showed a circadian variation in subjects with frequent PACs. No specific time interval of the day was more predictive of AF than...

  7. Increasing Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation and Permanent Atrial Arrhythmias in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labombarda, Fabien; Hamilton, Robert; Shohoudi, Azadeh; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Broberg, Craig S; Chaix, Marie A; Cohen, Scott; Cook, Stephen; Dore, Annie; Fernandes, Susan M; Fournier, Anne; Kay, Joseph; Macle, Laurent; Mondésert, Blandine; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Proietti, Anna; Rivard, Lena; Ting, Jennifer; Thibault, Bernard; Zaidi, Ali; Khairy, Paul

    2017-08-15

    Atrial arrhythmias are the most common complication encountered in the growing and aging population with congenital heart disease. This study sought to assess the types and patterns of atrial arrhythmias, associated factors, and age-related trends. A multicenter cohort study enrolled 482 patients with congenital heart disease and atrial arrhythmias, age 32.0 ± 18.0 years, 45.2% female, from 12 North American centers. Qualifying arrhythmias were classified by a blinded adjudicating committee. The most common presenting arrhythmia was intra-atrial re-entrant tachycardia (IART) (61.6%), followed by atrial fibrillation (28.8%), and focal atrial tachycardia (9.5%). The proportion of arrhythmias due to IART increased with congenital heart disease complexity from 47.2% to 62.1% to 67.0% in patients with simple, moderate, and complex defects, respectively (p = 0.0013). Atrial fibrillation increased with age to surpass IART as the most common arrhythmia in those ≥50 years of age (51.2% vs. 44.2%; p congenital heart disease, with a predominantly paroxysmal pattern. However, atrial fibrillation increases in prevalence and atrial arrhythmias progressively become permanent as the population ages. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards Low Energy Atrial Defibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Walsh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A wireless powered implantable atrial defibrillator consisting of a battery driven hand-held radio frequency (RF power transmitter (ex vivo and a passive (battery free implantable power receiver (in vivo that enables measurement of the intracardiac impedance (ICI during internal atrial defibrillation is reported. The architecture is designed to operate in two modes: Cardiac sense mode (power-up, measure the impedance of the cardiac substrate and communicate data to the ex vivo power transmitter and cardiac shock mode (delivery of a synchronised very low tilt rectilinear electrical shock waveform. An initial prototype was implemented and tested. In low-power (sense mode, >5 W was delivered across a 2.5 cm air-skin gap to facilitate measurement of the impedance of the cardiac substrate. In high-power (shock mode, >180 W (delivered as a 12 ms monophasic very-low-tilt-rectilinear (M-VLTR or as a 12 ms biphasic very-low-tilt-rectilinear (B-VLTR chronosymmetric (6ms/6ms amplitude asymmetric (negative phase at 50% magnitude shock was reliably and repeatedly delivered across the same interface; with >47% DC-to-DC (direct current to direct current power transfer efficiency at a switching frequency of 185 kHz achieved. In an initial trial of the RF architecture developed, 30 patients with AF were randomised to therapy with an RF generated M-VLTR or B-VLTR shock using a step-up voltage protocol (50–300 V. Mean energy for successful cardioversion was 8.51 J ± 3.16 J. Subsequent analysis revealed that all patients who cardioverted exhibited a significant decrease in ICI between the first and third shocks (5.00 Ω (SD(σ = 1.62 Ω, p < 0.01 while spectral analysis across frequency also revealed a significant variation in the impedance-amplitude-spectrum-area (IAMSA within the same patient group (|∆(IAMSAS1-IAMSAS3[1 Hz − 20 kHz] = 20.82 Ω-Hz (SD(σ = 10.77 Ω-Hz, p < 0.01; both trends being absent in all patients that failed to cardiovert

  9. Atrial Fibrillation During an Exploration Class Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsett, Mark; Hamilton, Douglas; Lemery, Jay; Polk, James

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a possible scenario of an astronaut having Atrial Fibrillation during a Mars Mission. In the case review the presentation asks several questions about the alternatives for treatment, medications and the ramifications of the decisions.

  10. Assessment of right atrial function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohgase, Takashi; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Kanamori, Katsushi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yasuda, Hisakazu

    1988-01-01

    To assess the potential utility of right atrial function analysis in cardiac disease, reservoir function, pump function, and right atrial peak emptying rate (RAPER) were compared in 10 normal subjects, 32 patients with coronary artery disease, and 4 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Right atrial volume curves were obtained using cardiac radionuclide method with Kr-81m. In normal subjects, reservoir function index was 0.41+-0.05; pump function index was 0.25+-0.05. Both types of patients has decreased reservoir funcion and increased pump function. Pump function tended to decrease with an increase of right ventricular end-diastolic pressure. RAPER correlated well with right ventricular peak filling rate, probably reflecting right ventricular diastolic function. Analysis of right atrial function seemed to be of value in evaluating factors regulating right ventricular contraction and diastolic function, and cardiac output. (Namekawa, K)

  11. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-granules: ultrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-29

    Dec 29, 2006 ... morphometry and function. Eliane Florencio ... granules is greatest in the right atrium followed by the left atrium and left auricle and right auricle, in this order. ... family: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), Urodilatin, Brain natriuretic ...

  12. Psychosomatic correlations in atrial fibrillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ernstovich Medvedev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with atrial fibrillations (AF and comorbid mental disorders were examined. Two patient groups differing in the structure of psychosomatic ratios were identified. Group 1 comprised patients with AF and signs of reactivity lability that manifested itself as psychopathological reactions to the primary manifestations of AF; Group 2 included those who had developed mental disorders mainly in end-stage cardiovascular disease (predominantly a permanent form of AF in the presence of such events as chronic heart failure (CHF. The results of the study suggest that the patients with AF have frequently anxiety and hypochondriacal disorders, which agrees with the data available in the literature. In addition, end-stage AF is marked by depressive syndromes caused by the severe course of cardiovascular diseases resulting in CHF.

  13. RR-Interval variance of electrocardiogram for atrial fibrillation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryani, N.; Solikhah, M.; Nugoho, A. S.; Afdala, A.; Anzihory, E.

    2016-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a serious heart problem originated from the upper chamber of the heart. The common indication of atrial fibrillation is irregularity of R peak-to-R-peak time interval, which is shortly called RR interval. The irregularity could be represented using variance or spread of RR interval. This article presents a system to detect atrial fibrillation using variances. Using clinical data of patients with atrial fibrillation attack, it is shown that the variance of electrocardiographic RR interval are higher during atrial fibrillation, compared to the normal one. Utilizing a simple detection technique and variances of RR intervals, we find a good performance of atrial fibrillation detection.

  14. Ventricular tachyarrhythmia-related basal cardiomyopathy in rabbits with vagal stimulation--a novel experimental model for inverted Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takato, Tetsuya; Ashida, Terunao; Seko, Yoshinori; Fujii, Jun; Kawai, Sachio

    2010-07-01

    Electrical stimulation of the intact (unsectioned) cervical vagus in rabbits frequently provokes ventricular tachyarrhythmias that are often accompanied by mitral regurgitation. Unique pathological lesions often arise on the mitral valve, papillary muscles, and mitral annulus (mitral complex), the latter two of which become swollen and stiffened. These lesions are reversible in nature. Previous studies have essentially ignored the basal portion except for the mitral annulus. Therefore, the present study examined pathological lesions on the left ventricular basal portion in rabbits. The intact right vagal nerves of 20 anesthetized rabbits were repeatedly electrically stimulated under electrocardiographic monitoring. Colloidal carbon (lml) was injected intravenously immediately after the end of the stimulation and all animals were killed 1 week later. Pathological lesions were identified as carbon deposits visible at gross examination. Ventricular bigeminy was induced after vagal stimulation in 15 (75%) of the 20 rabbits. Pathological lesions were evident on the basal portion in 16 (80%) and on the mitral valve and papillary muscles of 15 (75%) of the 20 rabbits. Ventricular bigeminy was closely associated with the development of the pathological lesions, which were rarely observed on the ventricular apex. Cardiomyopathic lesions involving the basal portion and mitral complex were frequently induced in rabbits by vagal stimulation. These lesions bear a close similarity in distribution and reversibility to inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Copyright 2010 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Importance of beta-blocker dose in prevention of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, heart failure hospitalizations, and death in primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, A C; Gislason, G H; Vinther, M

    2018-01-01

    Aims: There is a paucity of studies investigating a dose-dependent association between beta-blocker therapy and risk of outcome. In a nationwide cohort of primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients, we aimed to investigate the dose-dependent association between beta-blocker...... therapy and risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF), heart failure (HF) hospitalizations, and death. Methods and results: Information on ICD implantation, endpoints, comorbidities, beta-blocker usage, type, and dose were obtained through Danish nationwide registers. The two major beta-blockers...... carvedilol and metoprolol were examined in three dose levels; low (metoprolol ≤ 25 mg; carvedilol ≤ 12.5 mg), intermediate (metoprolol 26-199 mg; carvedilol 12.6-49.9 mg), and high (metoprolol ≥ 200 mg; carvedilol ≥ 50 mg). Time to events was investigated utilizing multivariate Cox models with beta-blocker...

  16. Prednisone prevents atrial fibrillation promotion by atrial tachycardia remodeling in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiroshita-Takeshita, A; Brundel, BJJM; Lavoie, J; Nattel, S

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is evidence suggesting involvement of oxidative stress, inflammation, and calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell pathways in atrial fibrillation. This study evaluated the efficacy of anti-inflammatory and calcineurin-inhibitory drugs on promotion of atrial fibrillation by

  17. Incisional left atrial isolation for ablation of atrial fibrillation in mitral valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Angelo; Branzoli, Stefano; Sinelli, Stefano; Vigano, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The renewed interest in surgical techniques for atrial fibrillation (AF) limited to the left atrium has risen the importance of the original technique of left atrial isolation by means of surgical incision. Transmurality of lesions and cost containment are strong elements to be appreciated in this technique.

  18. Effect of age on stroke prevention therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation: the atrial fibrillation investigators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Walraven, Carl; Hart, Robert G; Connolly, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    contains patient level-data from randomized trials of stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. We used Cox regression models with age as a continuous variable that controlled for sex, year of randomization, and history of cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and congestive heart failure......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke risk increases with age in patients who have nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. It is uncertain whether the efficacy of stroke prevention therapies in atrial fibrillation changes as patients age. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age...... on the relative efficacy of oral anticoagulants (OAC) and antiplatelet (AP) therapy (including acetylsalicylic acid and triflusal) on ischemic stroke, serious bleeding, and vascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: This is an analysis of the Atrial Fibrillation Investigators database, which...

  19. Atrial Na,K-ATPase increase and potassium dysregulation accentuate the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Cao Thach; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Christensen, John Brochorst

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation is a common complication to cardiac surgery. Na,K-ATPase is of major importance for the resting membrane potential and action potential. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the importance of Na,K-ATPase concentrations in human atrial...... biopsies and plasma potassium concentrations for the development of atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Atrial myocardial biopsies were obtained from 67 patients undergoing open chest cardiac surgery. Na,K-ATPase was quantified using vanadate-facilitated 3H-ouabain binding. Plasma potassium concentration....../g wet weight (n = 33), p = 0.03]. Also with multivariable analysis, 3H-ouabain-binding site concentration was significantly associated with the development of atrial fibrillation. High increase in plasma potassium concentration during the perioperative period and surgery was associated...

  20. Atrial Fibrillation in a Diarrheic Holstein Dairy Calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac auscultation of a 10-day-old diarrheic female Holstein dairy calf revealed irregularities in rhythm and absence of 4th heart sound. Electrocardiogram (ECG and blood sample were obtained before and after the treatment. Based on ECG and cardiac auscultation findings, atrial fibrillation (AF was diagnosed. Serum sodium, calcium and magnesium before treatment were significantly lower than their reference ranges and potassium was significantly higher. One day after treating this patient, serum electrolytes were reached to reference ranges and AF was changed to normal sinus rhythm. Based on resolving the AF after treating the patient and correcting the electrolyte imbalances, it can be suggested that electrolyte imbalances were the main cause of the occurrence of AF in the present case.

  1. Oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Keitaro; Lane, Deirdre A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-09-01

    The availability of 4 non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs), that is, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, has changed the landscape of stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. This review article provides an overview of the 4 phase III studies that have compared these NOACs, examining major outcomes of efficacy and safety. A range of practical questions relating to the NOACs have emerged, including topics such as patient selection, treating patients with renal impairment, treating elderly patients, and combining anticoagulant therapy with antiplatelet drugs. We also address the interaction of various patient characteristics with the treatments and suggest the features can assist the physician in the choice of a particular NOAC for a particular patient(s). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Percutenous Catheter Ablation of the Accessory Pathway in a Patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Associated with Familial Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Serkan; Topaloglu, Serkan; Aras, Dursun

    2008-01-01

    Percutenous catheter ablation of the accessory pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a highly successful mode of therapy. Sudden cardiac arrest survivors associated with WPW syndrome should undergo radiofrequency catheter ablation. WPW syndrome associated with familial atrial fibrillation is a very rare condition. Herein, we describe a case who presented with sudden cardiac arrest secondary to WPW syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation and treated via radiofrequency catheter ablation. PMID:18379660

  3. Percutenous Catheter Ablation of the Accessory Pathway in a Patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Associated with Familial Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Cay

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Percutenous catheter ablation of the accessory pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a highly successful mode of therapy. Sudden cardiac arrest survivors associated with WPW syndrome should undergo radiofrequency catheter ablation. WPW syndrome associated with familial atrial fibrillation is a very rare condition. Herein, we describe a case who presented with sudden cardiac arrest secondary to WPW syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation and treated via radiofrequency catheter ablation.

  4. Applying non-linear dynamics to atrial appendage flow data to understand and characterize atrial arrhythmia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.; Grimm, R.A.; Katz, R.; Thomas, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand and characterize left atrial appendage flow in atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation and flutter are the most common cardiac arrhythmias affecting 15% of the older population. The pulsed Doppler velocity profile data was recorded from the left atrial appendage of patients using transesophageal echocardiography. The data was analyzed using Fourier analysis and nonlinear dynamical tools. Fourier analysis showed that appendage mechanical frequency (f f ) for patients in sinus rhythm was always lower (around1 Hz) than that in atrial fibrillation (5-8 Hz). Among patients with atrial fibrillation spectral power below f f was significantly different suggesting variability within this group of patients. Results that suggested the presence of nonlinear dynamics were: a) the existence of two arbitrary peak frequencies f 1 , f 2 , and other peak frequencies as linear combinations thereof (mf 1 ±nf 2 ), and b) the similarity between the spectrum of patient data and that obtained using the Lorenz equation. Nonlinear analysis tools, including Phase plots and differential radial plots, were also generated from the velocity data using a delay of 10. In the phase plots, some patients displayed a torus-like structure, while others had a more random-like pattern. In the differential radial plots, the first set of patients (with torus-like phase plots) showed fewer values crossing an arbitrary threshold of 10 than did the second set (8 vs. 27 in one typical example). The outcome of cardioversion was different for these two set of patients. Fourier analysis helped to: differentiate between sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation, understand the characteristics of the wide range of atrial fibrillation patients, and provide hints that atrial fibrillation could be a nonlinear process. Nonlinear dynamical tools helped to further characterize and sub-classify atrial fibrillation

  5. Worse stroke outcome in atrial fibrillation is explained by more severe hypoperfusion, infarct growth, and hemorrhagic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hans T H; Campbell, Bruce C V; Christensen, Soren; Desmond, Patricia M; De Silva, Deidre A; Parsons, Mark W; Churilov, Leonid; Lansberg, Maarten G; Mlynash, Michael; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Straka, Matus; Bammer, Roland; Albers, Gregory W; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Davis, Stephen M

    2015-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation is associated with greater baseline neurological impairment and worse outcomes following ischemic stroke. Previous studies suggest that greater volumes of more severe baseline hypoperfusion in patients with history of atrial fibrillation may explain this association. We further investigated this association by comparing patients with and without atrial fibrillation on initial examination following stroke using pooled multimodal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data from the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial and the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution studies. Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial was a trial of 101 ischemic stroke patients randomized to intravenous tissue plasminogen activator or placebo, and Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution was a prospective cohort of 74 ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator at three to six hours following symptom onset. Patients underwent multimodal magnetic resonance imaging before treatment, at three to five days and three-months after stroke in Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial; before treatment, three to six hours after treatment and one-month after stroke in Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution. Patients were assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the modified Rankin scale before treatment and at three-months after stroke. Patients were categorized into definite atrial fibrillation (present on initial examination), probable atrial fibrillation (history but no atrial fibrillation on initial examination), and no atrial fibrillation. Perfusion data were reprocessed with automated magnetic resonance imaging analysis software (RAPID, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA). Hypoperfusion volumes were defined using time to maximum delays in two-second increments from >4 to

  6. Spectral of electrocardiographic RR intervals to indicate atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryani, Nuryani; Satrio Nugroho, Anto

    2017-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a serious heart diseases, which is associated on the risk of death, and thus an early detection of atrial fibrillation is necessary. We have investigated spectral pattern of electrocardiogram in relation to atrial fibrillation. The utilized feature of electrocardiogram is RR interval. RR interval is the time interval between a two-consecutive R peaks. A series of RR intervals in a time segment is converted to a signal with a frequency domain. The frequency components are investigated to find the components which significantly associate to atrial fibrillation. A segment is defined as atrial fibrillation or normal segments by considering a defined number of atrial fibrillation RR in the segment. Using clinical data of 23 patients with atrial fibrillation, we find that the frequency components could be used to indicate atrial fibrillation.

  7. Risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2012-01-01

    To determine if patients with rheumatoid arthritis have increased risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke.......To determine if patients with rheumatoid arthritis have increased risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke....

  8. Treatment Guidelines of Atrial Fibrillation (AFib or AF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Treatment Guidelines of Atrial Fibrillation (AFib or AF) Updated:Jun 28,2017 What are the treatment guidelines for atrial fibrillation? Medical guidelines are written by ...

  9. Rising rates of hospital admissions for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Jens; Buch, Nina Pernille Gardshodn; Scharling, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia associated with excess morbidity and mortality. We studied temporal changes in hospital admission rates for atrial fibrillation using data from a prospective population-based cohort study spanning 2 decades (the Copenhagen City Heart Study).......Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia associated with excess morbidity and mortality. We studied temporal changes in hospital admission rates for atrial fibrillation using data from a prospective population-based cohort study spanning 2 decades (the Copenhagen City Heart Study)....

  10. Giant right atrial myxoma: characterization with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2012-02-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of dyspnoea and chest pain. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography was performed to exclude acute pulmonary embolism (PE). This demonstrated a large right atrial mass and no evidence of PE. Transthoracic echocardiography followed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a mobile right atrial mass. Surgical resection was then performed confirming a giant right atrial myxoma. We describe the typical clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of right atrial myxoma.

  11. IS RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE STILL THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN INDIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokanath S

    2017-12-01

    , observational study performed at Gayatri Medical College Hospital, Visakhapatnam, a multispecialty hospital catering to health needs of patient population belonging mostly to the middle and upper socioeconomic strata. RESULTS Of the total number 531 patients, 187 patients were admitted as inpatients and remaining were treated on an outpatient basis. Three hundred and three patients were females averaging to about 57% of patient population. Of the one hundred and eighty seven patients admitted as inpatients, ninety two were females. Of the total three hundred and three females, seventy three patients expired. Sixty two patients lost follow-up among total patients. One third of our patients were older than sixty years of age. Rheumatic heart disease was the most common cause of arrhythmia in females, while ischaemic heart disease was more common in males. More than half of the patients developed heart failure at some stage during their followup. CONCLUSION In this prospective cohort study of young to older ethnic Indians, we clearly demonstrated age was an important determinant for atrial fibrillation, but rheumatic heart disease has increased the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the non-elderly population. The most common cardiovascular pathologies associated with presence of atrial fibrillation in the general population are hypertension, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure and valvular heart disease. At a global level, the spectrum of structural heart disease in patients with atrial fibrillation has changed over the last century.

  12. An open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter study exploring two treatment strategies of rivaroxaban and a dose-adjusted oral vitamin K antagonist treatment strategy in subjects with atrial fibrillation who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PIONEER AF-PCI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, C.M.; Mehran, R.; Bode, C.; Halperin, J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wildgoose, P.; Eickels, M. van; Lip, G.Y.; Cohen, M.; Husted, S.; Peterson, E.; Fox, K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommendations regarding anticoagulant therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) rely on retrospective, nonrandomized observational data. Currently, patients are treated with triple-therapy (dual antiplatelet therapy

  13. Electrical remodeling and atrial dilation during atrial tachycardia are influenced by ventricular rate : Role of developing tachycardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonderwoerd, BA; Van Gelder, IC; Van Veldhuisen, DJ; Tieleman, RG; Grandjean, JG; Bel, KJ; Allessie, MA; Crijns, HJGM

    2001-01-01

    Atrial Remodeling in Tachycardiomyopathy. Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and congestive heart failure (CHF) are two clinical entities that often coincide. Our aim was to establish the influence of concomitant high ventricular rate and consequent development of CHF on electrical remodeling

  14. Ventricular myocarditis coincides with atrial myocarditis in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begieneman, Mark P. V.; Emmens, Reindert W.; Rijvers, Liza; Kubat, Bela; Paulus, Walter J.; Vonk, Alexander B. A.; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Biesbroek, P. Stefan; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha; van Ham, Marieke; Heymans, Stephane; van Rossum, Albert C.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Krijnen, Paul A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication in myocarditis. Atrial inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of AF. However, little is known about the occurrence of atrial inflammation in myocarditis patients. Here, we analyzed inflammatory cell numbers

  15. Atrial electromechanical delay in patients undergoing heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bulut, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Inter-AEMD and intra-AEMD were prolonged in patients who underwent heart transplantation as compared to a control population. This may explain the increased atrial fibrillation and other atrial arrhythmia incidences associated with the biatrial anastomosis heart transplantation technique and may contribute to the treatment of atrial fibrillation in this special patient group.

  16. Atrial antitachycardia pacing and atrial remodeling: A substudy of the international, randomized MINERVA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Tukkie, Raymond; Biffi, Mauro; Mont, Lluis; Ricci, Renato; Pürerfellner, Helmut; Botto, Giovanni Luca; Manolis, Antonis S; Landolina, Maurizio; Gulizia, Michele; Hudnall, J Harrison; Mangoni, Lorenza; Grammatico, Andrea; Padeletti, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    Atrial tachycardia (AT) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are common in pacemaker patients and are associated with bad prognoses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate atrial antitachycardia pacing impact on AT/AF-induced atrial remodeling, measured by early recurrence of AT/AF (ERAF) and by change in left atrial diameter (LAD), and to evaluate the impact of AT/AF duration on ERAF incidence. Pacemaker patients were randomized to dual-chamber pacing (Control DDDR: 385 patients), managed ventricular pacing (MVP: 398 patients), or atrial antitachycardia pacing plus MVP (DDDRP+MVP: 383 patients). LAD change, estimated by echocardiography, was considered significant if the relative difference between baseline and 24-month measurements was >10%. At median follow-up of 34 months, ERAF incidence was significantly lower in the DDDRP+MVP arm for all AT/AF durations, in particular, ERAF followed AT/AF longer than 3 hours in 53% cases in Control DDDR, in 51% cases in MVP, and in 39% cases in DDDRP+MVP (P MVP, and 70% in DDDRP+MVP (P MVP, DDDRP+MVP reduces ERAF and favors LAD reduction, suggesting that atrial antitachycardia pacing may reverse electrical and mechanical remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Features of intrinsic ganglionated plexi in both atria after extensive pulmonary isolation and their clinical significance after catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotobi, Toshiya; Shimada, Yoshihisa; Kino, Naoto; Ito, Kazato; Tonomura, Daisuke; Yano, Kentaro; Tanaka, Chiharu; Yoshida, Masataka; Tsuchida, Takao; Fukumoto, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    The features of intrinsic ganglionated plexi (GP) in both atria after extensive pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and their clinical implications have not been clarified in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study was to assess the features of GP response after extensive PVI and to evaluate the relationship between GP responses and subsequent AF episodes. The study population consisted of 216 consecutive AF patients (104 persistent AF) who underwent an initial ablation. We searched for the GP sites in both atria after an extensive PVI. GP responses were determined in 186 of 216 patients (85.6%). In the left atrium, GP responses were observed around the right inferior GP in 116 of 216 patients (53.7%) and around the left inferior GP in 57 of 216 (26.4%). In the right atrium, GP responses were observed around the posteroseptal area: inside the CS in 64 of 216 patients (29.6%), at the CS ostium in 150 of 216 (69.4%), and in the lower right atrium in 45 of 216 (20.8%). The presence of a positive GP response was an independent risk factor for AF recurrence (hazard ratio 4.04, confidence interval 1.48-11.0) in patients with paroxysmal, but not persistent, AF. The incidence of recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias in patients with paroxysmal AF with a positive GP response was 51% vs 8% in those without a GP response (P = .002). The presence of GP responses after extensive PVI was significantly associated with increased AF recurrence after ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Extremely low-frame-rate digital fluoroscopy in catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: A comparison of 2 versus 4 frame rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Jun; Kim, Minsu; Hwang, Jongmin; Hwang, You Mi; Kang, Joon-Won; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho

    2017-06-01

    Despite the technological advance in 3-dimensional (3D) mapping, radiation exposure during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) continues to be a major concern in both patients and physicians. Previous studies reported substantial radiation exposure (7369-8690 cGy cm) during AF catheter ablation with fluoroscopic settings of 7.5 frames per second (FPS) under 3D mapping system guidance. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a low-frame-rate fluoroscopy protocol for catheter ablation for AF.Retrospective analysis of data on 133 patients who underwent AF catheter ablation with 3-D electro-anatomic mapping at our institute from January 2014 to May 2015 was performed. Since January 2014, fluoroscopy frame rate of 4-FPS was implemented at our institute, which was further decreased to 2-FPS in September 2014. We compared the radiation exposure quantified as dose area product (DAP) and effective dose (ED) between the 4-FPS (n = 57) and 2-FPS (n = 76) groups.The 4-FPS group showed higher median DAP (599.9 cGy cm; interquartile range [IR], 371.4-1337.5 cGy cm vs. 392.0 cGy cm; IR, 289.7-591.4 cGy cm; P FPS group. No major procedure-related complications such as cardiac tamponade were observed in either group. Over follow-up durations of 331 ± 197 days, atrial tachyarrhythmia recurred in 20 patients (35.1%) in the 4-FPS group and in 27 patients (35.5%) in the 2-FPS group (P = .96). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed no significant different between the 2 groups (log rank, P = .25).In conclusion, both the 4-FPS and 2-FPS settings were feasible and emitted a relatively low level of radiation compared with that historically reported for DAP in a conventional fluoroscopy setting.

  19. Biophysical aspects and novel treatments of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, Lorenzo; Rosa, Gian M; Tagliasacchi, Maria I; Bonaventura, Aldo; Liberale, Luca; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Carbone, Federico; Bertero, Giovanni; Brunelli, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cardiac arrhythmia caused by various mechanisms, such as multiple re-entering wavelets, high frequency activity, and rotor sources. This narrative review was based on papers found on PubMed and MEDLINE up to May 2016. The search terms were "atrial fibrillation" in combination with "catheter ablation, pathophysiology, antiarrhythmic drugs". Antiarrhythmic drugs are the cornerstone of therapy in AF, but their efficacy and safety might have to be improved. In case of failure of pharmacologic therapies, other treatments can be considered. A better understanding of the important role of the pulmonary veins has led to new approaches, such as ablation procedures, which were initially only surgical, while percutaneous options were later added. However, these strategies may present various technical complications also when performed by skilled operators. A promising field of investigation is the genetics of AF, as highlighted by studies on the role of micro-RNA. Relevant improvement on the knowledge of the electrophysiological basis of genesis and maintenance of AF has been done in order to treat a very common arrhythmia, but further studies, as those in the genetics field, can open new challenging therapeutic horizons.

  20. Left atrial size and function as predictors of new-onset of atrial fibrillation in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper Niels Furbo; Dalsgaard, Morten; Greve, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Left atrial (LA) size and function change with chronically increased left ventricular (LV) filling pressures. It remains unclear whether these variations in LA parameters can predict new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS).......Left atrial (LA) size and function change with chronically increased left ventricular (LV) filling pressures. It remains unclear whether these variations in LA parameters can predict new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS)....

  1. Pulmonary Vein, Dorsal Atrial Wall and Atrial Septum Abnormalities in Podoplanin Knockout Mice With Disturbed Posterior Heart Field Contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, Yvonne L.; Mahtab, Edris A. F.; Jongbloed, Monique R. M.; Uhrin, Pavel; Zaujec, Jan; Binder, Bernd R.; Schalij, Martin J.; Poelmann, Robert E.; Deruiter, Marco C.; Gittenberger-De Groot, Adriana C.

    The developing sinus venosus myocardium, derived from the posterior heart field, contributes to the atrial septum, the posterior atrial wall, the sino-atrial node, and myocardium lining the pulmonary and cardinal veins, all expressing podoplanin, a coelomic and myocardial marker. . We compared

  2. Fibrosis and electrophysiological characteristics of the atrial appendage in patients with atrial fibrillation and structural heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakel, T.J. van; Krieken, T. van der; Westra, S.W.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Smeets, J.L.R.M.; Swieten, H.A. van

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the degree of fibrosis in atrial appendages of patients with and without atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing cardiac surgery. In addition, we hypothesized that areas of atrial fibrosis can be identified by electrogram fractionation and low voltage for

  3. Role of atrial endothelial cells in the development of atrial fibrosis and fibrillation in response to pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Osamu; Teshima, Yasushi; Abe, Ichitaro; Ikebe, Yuki; Oniki, Takahiro; Kondo, Hidekazu; Saito, Shotaro; Fukui, Akira; Yufu, Kunio; Miura, Masahiro; Shimada, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Naohiko

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)-mediated inflammatory mechanisms have been shown to play a crucial role in atrial fibrosis induced by pressure overload. In the present study, we investigated whether left atrial endothelial cells would quickly respond structurally and functionally to pressure overload to trigger atrial fibrosis and fibrillation. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent suprarenal abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) or a sham operation. By day 3 after surgery, macrophages were observed to infiltrate into the endocardium. The expression of MCP-1 and E-selectin in atrial endothelium and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and ED1 in left atrial tissue were enhanced. Atrial endothelial cells were irregularly hypertrophied with the disarrangement of lines of cells by scanning electron microscopy. Various-sized gap formations appeared along the border in atrial endothelial cells, and several macrophages were located just in the endothelial gap. Along with the development of heterogeneous interstitial fibrosis, interatrial conduction time was prolonged and the inducibility of atrial fibrillation by programmed extrastimuli was increased in the AAC rats compared to the sham-operated rats. Atrial endothelium responds rapidly to pressure overload by expressing adhesion molecules and MCP-1, which induce macrophage infiltration into the atrial tissues. These processes could be an initial step in the development of atrial remodeling for atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased susceptibility to atrial fibrillation secondary to atrial fibrosis in transgenic goats expressing transforming growth factor - B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in people with significant morbidity and mortality. There is a strong association between atrial fibrosis and AF. Transforming growth factor B1 (TGF-B1) is an essential mediator of atrial fibrosis in animal models and human pat...

  5. Left Atrial Linear Ablation of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Guided by Three-dimensional Electroanatomical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dai-Fu; Li, Ying; Qi, Wei-Gang

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety and efficacy of Left atrial linear ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation guided by three-dimensional electroanatomical system. Methods 29 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in this study. A nonfluoroscopic mapping system was used to generate a 3D...... electroanatomic LA mapping, and all pulmonary vein ostia were marked under the help of pulmonary veins angiography on the 3D map. Radiofrequency (RF) energy was delivered to create continuous linear lesions encircling the pulmonary veins, it was delivered with a target temperature of 43¿, a maximal power limit...

  6. European Primary Care Cardiovascular Society (EPCCS) consensus guidance on stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (SPAF) in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbs, Fd Richard; Taylor, Clare J; Jan Geersing, Geert; Rutten, FH; Brouwer, Judith R

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation affects 1-2% of the general population and 10% of those over 75, and is responsible for around a quarter of all strokes. These strokes are largely preventable by the use of anticoagulation therapy, although many eligible patients are not treated. Recent large clinical

  7. Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation : Successful and Failed Strict Rate Control Against a Background of Lenient Rate Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, Hessel F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate differences in outcome between patients treated with successful strict, failed strict, and lenient rate control. Background The RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation) study showed no difference in outcome between lenient and

  8. Atrial flutter with 1:1 conduction in undiagnosed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jessie G; Zhu, Dennis W

    2014-05-01

    Atrial flutter with 1:1 atrioventricular conduction via an accessory pathway is an uncommon presentation of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome not previously reported in the emergency medicine literature. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, a form of ventricular preexcitation sometimes initially seen and diagnosed in the emergency department (ED), can present with varied tachydysrhythmias for which certain treatments are contraindicated. For instance, atrial fibrillation with preexcited conduction needs specific consideration of medication choice to avoid potential degeneration into ventricular fibrillation. We describe an adult female presenting with a very rapid, regular wide complex tachycardia successfully cardioverted in the ED followed by a normal electrocardiogram (ECG). Electrophysiology study confirmed atrial flutter with 1:1 conduction and revealed an accessory pathway consistent with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, despite lack of ECG findings of preexcitation during sinus rhythm. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? Ventricular tachycardia must be the first consideration in patients with regular wide complex tachycardia. However, clinicians should consider atrial flutter with 1:1 conduction related to an accessory pathway when treating patients with the triad of very rapid rate (>250 beats/min), wide QRS complex, and regular rhythm, especially when considering pharmacologic treatment. Emergency physicians also should be aware of electrocardiographically concealed accessory pathways, and that lack of delta waves does not rule out preexcitation syndromes such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Symptomatic ventricular tachyarrhythmia is associated with delayed gadolinium enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and with elevated plasma brain natriuretic peptide level in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Katsumi; Tsujino, Takeshi; Nakao, Shinji; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Ezumi, Akira; Masai, Miho; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Masuyama, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    Delayed gadolinium enhancement (DGE) in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging indicates the areas with myocardial fibrosis, which are suggested to be arrhythmogenic substrate in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is associated with cardiovascular events in HCM. We investigated the grade of DGE in CMR and plasma BNP levels in HCM patients with or without symptomatic ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF). We recruited 26 consecutive untreated HCM patients without any symptoms of heart failure. They were divided into 2 groups: patients with symptomatic VT/VF [VT/VF (+) group, n=6]; patients without symptomatic VT/VF [VT/VF (-) group, n=20]. CMR was performed to evaluate left ventricular geometry and the grade of DGE. Plasma BNP levels, left ventricular mass index, and the number of segments with positive DGE were greater in the VT/VF (+) group than in the VT/VF (-) group (698.1±387.6 vs. 226.9±256.8 pg/ml, p=0.006; 152.3±49.5 vs. 89.5±24.1 g/m 2 , p=0.003; 9.7±5.7 vs. 3.5±3.3, p=0.013). On logistic regression, adjusted odds ratio for symptomatic VT/VF was 214 for log BNP (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-37,043, p=0.04) and 1.54 for DGE score (95% CI 1.01-2.34, p=0.04). High plasma BNP levels and the enlarged area of DGE in CMR were associated with symptomatic ventricular tachyarrhythmia. These factors may be useful markers for detecting high-risk patients of sudden cardiac death in HCM. (author)

  10. Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that alcohol consumption, both observational (self-reported) and estimated by genetic instruments, is associated with a risk of atrial fibrillation and to determine whether people with high cardiovascular risk are more sensitive towards...... alcohol than people with low risk. METHODS: We used data for a total of 88,782 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 and 2001-2003 and the Copenhagen General Population Study 2003-2010. Information on incident cases of atrial fibrillation was obtained from a validated nationwide...... register. As a measure of alcohol exposure, both self-reported consumption and genetic variations in alcohol metabolizing genes (ADH1B/ADH1C) were used as instrumental variables. The endpoint was admission to hospital for atrial fibrillation as recorded in a validated hospital register. RESULTS: A total...

  11. The atrial fibrillation ablation pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbelo, Elena; Brugada, Josep; Hindricks, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Pilot Study is a prospective registry designed to describe the clinical epidemiology of patients undergoing an atrial fibrillation (AFib) ablation, and the diagnostic/therapeutic processes applied across Europe. The aims of the 1-year follow-up were to analyse...... was achieved in 40.7% of patients (43.7% in paroxysmal AF; 30.2% in persistent AF; 36.7% in long-lasting persistent AF). A second ablation was required in 18% of the cases and 43.4% were under antiarrhythmic treatment. Thirty-three patients (2.5%) suffered an adverse event, 272 (21%) experienced a left atrial...... tachycardia, and 4 patients died (1 haemorrhagic stroke, 1 ventricular fibrillation in a patient with ischaemic heart disease, 1 cancer, and 1 of unknown cause). CONCLUSION: The AFib Ablation Pilot Study provided crucial information on the epidemiology, management, and outcomes of catheter ablation of AFib...

  12. Antihypertensive treatment and risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marott, Sarah C W; Nielsen, Sune F; Benn, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the associations between antihypertensive treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), β-blockers, diuretics, or calcium-antagonists, and risk of atrial fibrillation. We examined these associations using the entire Danish...... population from 1995 through 2010. METHODS AND RESULTS: Excluding medication used in atrial fibrillation, we matched individuals on ACEi monotherapy 1:1 with individuals on β-blocker (n = 48 658), diuretic (n = 69 630), calcium-antagonist (n = 57 646), and ARB monotherapy (n = 20 158). Likewise, individuals...... on ARB monotherapy were matched 1:1 with individuals on β-blocker (n = 20 566), diuretic (n = 20 832), calcium-antagonist (n = 20 232), and ACEi monotherapy (n = 20 158). All were free of atrial fibrillation and of predisposing diseases like heart failure, ischaemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus...

  13. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Nascimento dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF, and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. Objective: To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. Methods: A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind, and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e' were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. Results: One hundred seventeen patients (82.9% were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months. LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m2 ± 10.6 mL/m2 to 22.6 mL/m2 ± 1.1 mL/m2, p < 0.001 compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m2 ± 14.3 mL/m2 to 37.5 mL/m2 ± 14.5 mL/m2, p = ns. Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001 but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns. The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001. Conclusion: Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure.

  14. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Simone Nascimento dos, E-mail: simonens@cardiol.br [Instituto Brasília de Arritmia- Universidade de Brasília, DF (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil); Henz, Benhur Davi; Zanatta, André Rodrigues; Barreto, José Roberto; Loureiro, Kelly Bianca; Novakoski, Clarissa; Santos, Marcus Vinícius Nascimento dos; Giuseppin, Fabio F.; Oliveira, Edna Maria; Leite, Luiz Roberto [Instituto Brasília de Arritmia- Universidade de Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF) ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind), and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e') were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. One hundred seventeen patients (82.9%) were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months). LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m{sup 2} ± 10.6 mL/m{sup 2} to 22.6 mL/m{sup 2} ± 1.1 mL/m{sup 2}, p < 0.001) compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m{sup 2} ± 14.3 mL/m{sup 2} to 37.5 mL/m{sup 2} ± 14.5 mL/m{sup 2}, p = ns). Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001) but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns). The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001). Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure.

  15. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation on Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Left Atrial Remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Simone Nascimento dos; Henz, Benhur Davi; Zanatta, André Rodrigues; Barreto, José Roberto; Loureiro, Kelly Bianca; Novakoski, Clarissa; Santos, Marcus Vinícius Nascimento dos; Giuseppin, Fabio F.; Oliveira, Edna Maria; Leite, Luiz Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), and the estimation of elevated LV filling pressures by E/e' ratio is related to worse outcomes in patients with AF. However, it is unknown if restoring sinus rhythm reverses this process. To evaluate the impact of AF ablation on estimated LV filling pressure. A total of 141 patients underwent radiofrequency (RF) ablation to treat drug-refractory AF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed 30 days before and 12 months after ablation. LV functional parameters, left atrial volume index (LAVind), and transmitral pulsed and mitral annulus tissue Doppler (e' and E/e') were assessed. Paroxysmal AF was present in 18 patients, persistent AF was present in 102 patients, and long-standing persistent AF in 21 patients. Follow-up included electrocardiographic examination and 24-h Holter monitoring at 3, 6, and 12 months after ablation. One hundred seventeen patients (82.9%) were free of AF during the follow-up (average, 18 ± 5 months). LAVind reduced in the successful group (30.2 mL/m 2 ± 10.6 mL/m 2 to 22.6 mL/m 2 ± 1.1 mL/m 2 , p < 0.001) compared to the non-successful group (37.7 mL/m 2 ± 14.3 mL/m 2 to 37.5 mL/m 2 ± 14.5 mL/m 2 , p = ns). Improvement of LV filling pressure assessed by a reduction in the E/e' ratio was observed only after successful ablation (11.5 ± 4.5 vs. 7.1 ± 3.7, p < 0.001) but not in patients with recurrent AF (12.7 ± 4.4 vs. 12 ± 3.3, p = ns). The success rate was lower in the long-standing persistent AF patient group (57% vs. 87%, p = 0.001). Successful AF ablation is associated with LA reverse remodeling and an improvement in LV filling pressure

  16. Torsades de Pointes associated with QT prolongation after catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yae Min Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman who underwent catheter ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation presented with Torsades de Pointes (TdP. Aggravation of prolonged QT interval which is most likely due to neural modulation by catheter ablation, played major role in the initiation of TdP. The patient was successfully treated with isoproterenol during acute stage and discharged after stabilization without implantation of permanent pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

  17. Patients with atrial fibrillation and permanent pacemaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Frederik; Ruwald, Martin H; Lindhardt, Tommi Bo

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) with rate-lowering or anti-arrhythmic drugs has markedly changed over the last decade, but it is unknown how these changes have affected patients with NVAF with a permanent pacemaker (PPM). METHODS: Through Danish......,261. Thus, the proportional amount of NVAF patients with a PPM decreased from 1.3% to 1.1% (p = 0.015). Overall 45.9% had atrial fibrillation (AF) duration less than one year and the proportion declined from 55.5% to 42.4% (p

  18. Atrial fibrillation and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christine Benn; Gerds, Thomas A.; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Although the relation between stroke risk factors and stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has been extensively examined, only few studies have explored the association of AF and the risk of ischaemic stroke/systemic thromboembolism/transient ischaemic attack (stroke.......5-10.6), and 15.4% (14.5-16.4), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke/TE/TIA risk was particularly increased when prior stroke/TE/TIA was present. Atrial fibrillation is associated with an increase in risk of stroke/TE/TIA in the absence of other risk factors but only a moderate increase in risk when other risk...

  19. Initiation of anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, A.; Staerk, L.; Fosbøl, E. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasing rapidly. We compared characteristics of AF patients initiated on NOACs versus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Methods: Using Danish nationwide registry data, we...... compared with a VKA [odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28–1.43]. By contrast, patients with a history of myocardial infarction were less likely to be initiated on a NOAC compared with a VKA (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.67–0.77). Conclusions: Atrial fibrillation patients who were initiated...

  20. Cryoballoon Catheter Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevher Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary vein isolation with catheter ablation is an effective treatment in patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation refractory or intolerant to antiarrhythmic medications. The cryoballoon catheter was recently approved for this procedure. In this paper, the basics of cryothermal energy ablation are reviewed including its ability of creating homogenous lesion formation, minimal destruction to surrounding vasculature, preserved tissue integrity, and lower risk of thrombus formation. Also summarized here are the publications describing the clinical experience with the cryoballoon catheter ablation in both paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation, its safety and efficacy, and discussions on the technical aspect of the cryoballoon ablation procedure.

  1. Atrial fibrillation and the 4P medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, Federica; Cianfrocca, Cinzia; Purificato, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Although the paradigm of the 4P medicine - Predictive, Personalized, Preemptive, and Participatory - has been suggested several years ago, its application to atrial fibrillation is still far away. Given the increasing prevalence and incidence of this pathology it is the time to promote preventive strategies, by identifying the risk factors associated to life style and by incentivizing innovative diagnostic technologies. The promotion of the correct life style and of the use of diagnostic devices based on innovative and reliable technologies, represent a first step towards the full realization of the revolution of 4P medicine in atrial fibrillation.

  2. Atrial fibrillation and the 4P medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Censi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the paradigm of the 4P medicine - Predictive, Personalized, Preemptive, and Participatory - has been suggested several years ago, its application to atrial fibrillation is still far away. Given the increasing prevalence and incidence of this pathology it is the time to promote preventive strategies, by identifying the risk factors associated to life style and by incentivizing innovative diagnostic technologies. The promotion of the correct life style and of the use of diagnostic devices based on innovative and reliable technologies, represent a first step towards the full realization of the revolution of 4P medicine in atrial fibrillation.

  3. Posibilities of cardiac pacemaker use in paroxsysmal atrial fibrilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kamenik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of atrial fibrillation is a big therapeutic challenge because of all known negative consequences of this the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. Numerous of clinical studies showed bad control or ineffectiveness of antiarhythmic drugs. Nonfarmakological therapies like surgical treatment, radiofrequency ablation and atrial pacing are being tested. Effectiveness of atrial pacing in prevention of paroxysmal artial fibrillation has been documented in numerous prospective studies and is effective for a long time interval, but only for patients with bradicardic underlying cardiac rhythm. In Normocardic rhythm or normal AV conduction the effective Atrial fibrillation prevention was not proven. The mechanism of action is based on premature atrial complex suppression, reduction of dispersion of refractoriness after short-long cycles and reduction of interatrial conduction delay. The atrial stimulation site or multi-site atrial pacing could be effective in AF prevention when interatrial conduction delay is present; otherwise the difference is not significant.Conclusions: In bradicardic patient who has frequent paroxysms of atrial fibrillation, regardless if bradycardia is due to ineffective antiarrhythmic drug treathement, implantation of DDDR pacemaker with atrial prevention algorhythm is indicated. If the P-wave duration is >120 milliseconds multi-site atrial pacing or septal atrial pacing should be considered. Pacemaker diagnostic tools could be used for adequate start of anticoagulant therapy and control of effectiveness of anthyarhythmic drug therapy.

  4. Embolic Risk in Atrial Fibrillation that Arises from Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Elie; Coplan, Neil L.

    2011-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac complication of hyperthyroidism, occurs in an estimated 10% to 25% of overtly hyperthyroid patients. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation increases with age in the general population and in thyrotoxic patients. Other risk factors for atrial fibrillation in thyrotoxic patients include male sex, ischemic or valvular heart disease, and congestive heart failure. The incidence of arterial embolism or stroke in thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation is less clear. There are many reports of arterial thromboembolism associated with hyperthyroidism, including cases of young adults without coexisting risk factors other than thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation. The use of anticoagulative agents to prevent thromboembolic sequelae of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation is controversial: national organizations provide conflicting recommendations in their practice guidelines. Herein, we review the medical literature and examine the evidence behind the recommendations in order to determine the best approach to thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients who have atrial fibrillation that is associated with hyperthyroidism. PMID:21720457

  5. New risk factors for atrial fibrillation : causes of 'not-so-lone atrial fibrillation'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonderwoerd, Bas A.; Smit, Marcelle D.; Pen, Lucas; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a prevalent arrhythmia in patients with cardiovascular disease. The classical risk factors for developing AF include hypertension, valvular disease, (ischaemic) cardiomyopathy, diabetes mellitus, and thyroid disease. In some patients with AF, no underlying

  6. Left atrial size in patients with cryptogenic stroke as a predictor of occurrence of atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cruz Culebras

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether the left atrial size can predict the development of atrial fibrillation (AF in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke were included prospectively (January 2015-July 2015 when ESUS was suspected. Clinical and cardiac imaging data were recorded. Patients with cardiac failure were excluded. Results: a total of 55 patients were included. Medium age was 71 years. The proportion of patients who developed AF during the follow-up (1 year was 23, 63%. 10 % of patients did not have any vascular risk factor. Basal ECG was normal in 98% of cases. The left atrial size volume was 36, 08 ml in patients who developed AF and 27, 14 ml in patients who did not. Conclusions: In patients with ESUS, left atrial size dimensions do not predict the occurrence of AF.

  7. Left atrial low-voltage areas predict atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Masaharu; Fujita, Masashi; Iida, Osamu; Okamoto, Shin; Ishihara, Takayuki; Nanto, Kiyonori; Kanda, Takashi; Tsujimura, Takuya; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Okuno, Shota; Ohashi, Takuya; Tsuji, Aki; Mano, Toshiaki

    2018-04-15

    Association between the presence of left atrial low-voltage areas and atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has been shown mainly in persistent AF patients. We sought to compare the AF recurrence rate in paroxysmal AF patients with and without left atrial low-voltage areas. This prospective observational study included 147 consecutive patients undergoing initial ablation for paroxysmal AF. Voltage mapping was performed after PVI during sinus rhythm, and low-voltage areas were defined as regions where bipolar peak-to-peak voltage was low-voltage areas after PVI were observed in 22 (15%) patients. Patients with low-voltage areas were significantly older (72±6 vs. 66±10, plow-voltage areas than without (36% vs. 6%, pLow-voltage areas were independently associated with AF recurrence even after adjustment for the other related factors (Hazard ratio, 5.89; 95% confidence interval, 2.16 to 16.0, p=0.001). The presence of left atrial low-voltage areas after PVI predicts AF recurrence in patients with paroxysmal AF as well as in patients with persistent AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Valsartan Reduced Atrial Fibrillation Susceptibility by Inhibiting Atrial Parasympathetic Remodeling through MAPKs/Neurturin Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs have been proved to be effective in preventing atrial structural and electrical remodelinq in atrial fibrillation (AF. Previous studies have shown that parasympathetic remodeling plays an important role in AF. However, the effects of ARBs on atrial parasympathetic remodeling in AF and the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Methods: Canines were divided into sham-operated, pacing and valsartan + pacing groups. Rats and HL-1 cardiomyocytes were divided into control, angiotensin II (Ang II and Ang II + valsartan groups, respectively. Atrial parasympathetic remodeling was quantified by immunocytochemical staining with anti-choline acetyltransferase (ChAT antibody. Western blot was used to analysis the protein expression of neurturin. Results: Both inducibility and duration were increased in chronic atrial rapid-pacing canine model, which was significantly inhibited by the treatment with valsartan. The density of ChAT-positive nerves and the protein level of neurturin in the atria of pacing canines were both increased than those in sham-operated canines. Ang II treatment not only induced atrial parasympathetic remodeling in rats, but also up-regulated the protein expression of neurturin. Valsartan significantly prevented atrial parasympathetic remodeling, and suppressed the protein expression of neurturin. Meanwhile, valsartan inhibited Ang II -induced up-regulation of neurturin and MAPKs in cultured cardiac myocytes. Inhibition of MAPKs dramatically attenuated neurturin up-regulation induced by Ang II. Conclusion: Parasympathetic remodeling was present in animals subjected to rapid pacing or Ang II infusion, which was mediated by MAPKs/neurturin pathway. Valsartan is able to prevent atrial parasympathetic remodeling and the occurrence of AF via inhibiting MAPKs/neurturin pathway.

  9. Valsartan Reduced Atrial Fibrillation Susceptibility by Inhibiting Atrial Parasympathetic Remodeling through MAPKs/Neurturin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Geng, Jianqiang; Zhao, Hongwei; Yun, Fengxiang; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yan, Sen; Ding, Xue; Li, Wenpeng; Wang, Dingyu; Li, Jianqiang; Pan, Zhenwei; Gong, Yongtai; Tan, Xiangyang; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been proved to be effective in preventing atrial structural and electrical remodelinq in atrial fibrillation (AF). Previous studies have shown that parasympathetic remodeling plays an important role in AF. However, the effects of ARBs on atrial parasympathetic remodeling in AF and the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Canines were divided into sham-operated, pacing and valsartan + pacing groups. Rats and HL-1 cardiomyocytes were divided into control, angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang II + valsartan groups, respectively. Atrial parasympathetic remodeling was quantified by immunocytochemical staining with anti-choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) antibody. Western blot was used to analysis the protein expression of neurturin. Both inducibility and duration were increased in chronic atrial rapid-pacing canine model, which was significantly inhibited by the treatment with valsartan. The density of ChAT-positive nerves and the protein level of neurturin in the atria of pacing canines were both increased than those in sham-operated canines. Ang II treatment not only induced atrial parasympathetic remodeling in rats, but also up-regulated the protein expression of neurturin. Valsartan significantly prevented atrial parasympathetic remodeling, and suppressed the protein expression of neurturin. Meanwhile, valsartan inhibited Ang II -induced up-regulation of neurturin and MAPKs in cultured cardiac myocytes. Inhibition of MAPKs dramatically attenuated neurturin up-regulation induced by Ang II. Parasympathetic remodeling was present in animals subjected to rapid pacing or Ang II infusion, which was mediated by MAPKs/neurturin pathway. Valsartan is able to prevent atrial parasympathetic remodeling and the occurrence of AF via inhibiting MAPKs/neurturin pathway. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Dagres, Nikolaos; Proclemer, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this EP wire survey was to assess clinical practice in relation to the use of left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) devices for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) among members of the European Heart Rhythm Association research network. The average number of performed LA...... are most often performed by interventional cardiologists. Experience varied widely, and this was reflected in the wide range of thromboembolic and procedural (tamponade, bleeding) complications reported by the respondents to this EP wire survey....

  11. Atrial electrogram quality in single-pass defibrillator leads with floating atrial bipole in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation and cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticherling, Christian; Müller, Dirk; Schaer, Beat A; Krüger, Silke; Kolb, Christof

    2018-03-27

    Many patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) suffer from permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). Knowledge of the atrial rhythm is important to direct pharmacological or interventional treatment as well as maintaining AV-synchronous biventricular pacing if sinus rhythm can be restored. A single pass single-coil defibrillator lead with a floating atrial bipole has been shown to obtain reliable information about the atrial rhythm but has never been employed in a CRT-system. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of implanting a single coil right ventricular ICD lead with a floating atrial bipole and the signal quality of atrial electrograms (AEGM) in CRT-defibrillator recipients with permanent AF. Seventeen patients (16 males, mean age 73 ± 6 years, mean EF 25 ± 5%) with permanent AF and an indication for CRT-defibrillator placement were implanted with a designated CRT-D system comprising a single pass defibrillator lead with a atrial floating bipole. They were followed-up for 103 ± 22 days using remote monitoring for AEGM transmission. All patients had at last one AEGM suitable for atrial rhythm diagnosis and of 100 AEGM 99% were suitable for visual atrial rhythm assessment. Four patients were discharged in sinus rhythm and one reverted to AF during follow-up. Atrial electrograms retrieved from a single-pass defibrillator lead with a floating atrial bipole can be reliably used for atrial rhythm diagnosis in CRT recipients with permanent AF. Hence, a single pass ventricular defibrillator lead with a floating bipole can be considered in this population. Copyright © 2018 Indian Heart Rhythm Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anticoagulant treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner-Frandsen, Nicole; Dammann Andersen, Andreas; Ashournia, Hamoun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac dysrhythmia, with a lifetime risk of 25%, and it is a well-known independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Over the last 15 years, efforts have been made to initiate relevant treatment in patients with AF. A retrospective study...... was set up to clarify whether this effort has resulted in a decreased proportion of patients with known AF experiencing an ischemic stroke. METHODS: Patients admitted to the Department of Neurology, Vejle Hospital, Denmark, with ischemic stroke from January 1997 to December 2012 were included in the study....... RESULTS: A total of 4134 patients were included in the study. Overall, the yearly proportion of patients with known AF varied between 9% and 18%. No significant change was observed (P = .511). The proportion of patients with known AF treated with anticoagulants at the time of the stroke and the proportion...

  13. ANTIARRHYTMIC EFFICACY OF SOTALOL IN PATIENTS WITH TACHY-BRADY SYNDROME HAVING ATRIAL PACEMAKER WITH DIFFERENT ATRIAL ELECTRODE POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Novikova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate efficacy of the combined therapy (sotalol and constant electric cardiostimulation in AAI regimen at two atrial electrode position: in low back part of interatrial septum (IAS and in right atrial auricle (RAA.Material and methods. 20 patients with tachy-brady syndrome were examined. They were randomized in 2 groups depending on atrial electrode position. Sotalol (160 mg daily was prescribed to all patients in a month after implantation of constant atrial pacemaker (CAP. A number of atrial fibrillation paroxysms (AFP was evaluated initially, in a month after CAP implantation and in a month after start of sotalol therapy.Results. Significant AFP reduction was observed in IAS stimulation, unlike RAA stimulation. Sotalol addition had essential significance in the termination or reduction of AFP. Sotalol effect did not depend on atrial electrode position.Conclusion. Sotalol usage together with constant electric cardiostimulation significantly reduces AFP irrespectively of atrial electrode position. 

  14. Atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention practices in patients with candidacy for anticoagulation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, I.; Ahmad, S.; Hayat, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke secondary to Atrial Fibrillation is usually due to thrombi formed in the left atrium and left atrial appendage embolizing to cause ischemic stroke. Therefore, in patients with Atrial Fibrillation, antithrombotic therapy is recommended to prevent stroke. Vitamin K antagonist therapy is most widely used antithrombotic therapy for patients with valvular and non valvular AF. Aspirin is recommended only in low risk patients. This study was conducted to determine the stroke prevention practices in local patients with atrial fibrillation who were candidates for anticoagulation therapy. Method: This was descriptive cross sectional study conducted at Cardiovascular Department Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar and Cardiology Department Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar. Sampling technique was non probability consecutive. Patients visiting OPD of respective hospitals with EKG evidence of AF and having CHADES VASC score 2 or more or having mitral stenosis and AF were included in the study. Patients with additional indications for anticoagulation were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 205 patients with atrial fibrillation were studied. Mean age was 60.7±14.7 years. Male were 55.6 percentage (n=114) while 44.4 percentage (n=91) were female. Of these 149 (72.7 percentage) were candidates for anticoagulation based on CHA2DS2 VASc score of 2 and more or mitral stenosis with AF. Only 27.5 percentage (n=41) patients were adequately treated with anticoagulant therapy using VKA or novel oral anticoagulant drugs. Majority of them were getting dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Conclusion: Most patients with AF and high risk characteristics for thromboembolism are not receiving proper stroke prevention therapies. (author)

  15. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  16. Genetic aspects of lone atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Laura; Nielsen, Jonas B; Olesen, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. A subgroup of patients presents with AF without traditional risk factors and is diagnosed before the age of 60 years. Such patients are commonly referred as having "lone AF" and comprise 10-20% of all cases. A number of studies have...

  17. Atrial fibrillation in the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shamkhani, Warkaa; Ayetey, Harold; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the commonest persistent cardiac arrhythmia with an estimated incidence rate of between 1.5-2% and an important cause of strokes. Few epidemiological studies and clinical trials on the management of AF have been conducted outside Europe and North America...

  18. An "account" of digitalis and atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.

    This review deals with the mechanisms by which digitalis exerts its "opium-Iike" action on the ventricular rate in patients with atrial fibrillation. To understand the effect of digitalis on ventricular rate and rhythm, it is essential to learn more about the basic electrophysiologic

  19. Assessment of the dynamics of atrial signals and local atrial period series during atrial fibrillation: effects of isoproterenol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantica Massimo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The autonomic nervous system (ANS plays an important role in the genesis and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF, but quantification of its electrophysiologic effects is extremely complex and difficult. Aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of linear and non-linear indexes to capture the fine changing dynamics of atrial signals and local atrial period (LAP series during adrenergic activation induced by isoproterenol (a sympathomimetic drug infusion. Methods Nine patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF (aged 60 ± 6 underwent electrophysiological study in which isoproterenol was administered to patients. Atrial electrograms were acquired during i sinus rhythm (SR; ii sinus rhythm during isoproterenol (SRISO administration; iii atrial fibrillation (AF and iv atrial fibrillation during isoproterenol (AFISO administration. The level of organization between two electrograms was assessed by the synchronization index (S, whereas the degree of recurrence of a pattern in a signal was defined by the regularity index (R. In addition, the level of predictability (LP and regularity of LAP series were computed. Results LAP series analysis shows a reduction of both LP and R index during isoproterenol infusion in SR and AF (RSR = 0.75 ± 0.07 RSRISO = 0.69 ± 0.10, p AF = 0.31 ± 0.08 RAFISO = 0.26 ± 0.09, p SR = 99.99 ± 0.001 LPSRISO = 99.97 ± 0.03, p AF = 69.46 ± 21.55 LPAFISO = 55 ± 24.75; p SR = 0.49 ± 0.08 RSRISO = 0.46 ± 0.09 p AF = 0.29 ± 0.09 RAFISO = 0.28 ± 0.08 n.s.. Conclusions The proposed parameters succeeded in discriminating the subtle changes due to isoproterenol infusion during both the rhythms especially when considering LAP series analysis. The reduced value of analyzed parameters after isoproterenol administration could reflect an important pro-arrhythmic influence of adrenergic activation on favoring maintenance of AF.

  20. Systematic review and cost-effectiveness evaluation of 'pill-in-the-pocket' strategy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation compared to episodic in-hospital treatment or continuous antiarrhythmic drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborido, C Martin; Hockenhull, J; Bagust, A; Boland, A; Dickson, R; Todd, D

    2010-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a tachyarrhythmia characterised by uncoordinated atrial activation with consequent deterioration of impairment of atrial function and a rapid, irregular heartbeat. The annual incidence rate of paroxysmal AF (PAF) has been estimated at 1.0 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.1), and reported prevalence rates show wide variations depending on age and country. Conventional treatment strategies for PAF focus on the suppression of paroxysms of AF and return to normal sinus rhythm. To summarise the results of the rapid reviews of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness literature describing the pill-in-the-pocket (PiP) approach for the treatment of patients with PAF; and to develop an economic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of PiP compared with in-hospital treatment (IHT) or continuous antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) for the treatment of patients with PAF. Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid OLDMEDLINE 1950 to present with Daily Update were searched. The following electronic databases were searched for ongoing trials: Health Services Research Projects in Progress, ClinicalTrials.gov, metaRegister of Current Controlled Trials, BioMed Central, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalStudyResults.org and the National Library of Medicine Gateway. Inclusion criteria, which included patients suffering from PAF, were independently applied to all identified references by two reviewers (JH and CMS). Electronic searches were conducted to identify clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness evidence describing the use of a PiP strategy for the treatment of PAF, published since the release of the Royal College of Physicians' national guidelines on AF in June 2006. A Markov model was constructed to examine differences between three PAF strategies (PiP, AAD and IHT) in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). A Markov model structure was chosen because it is assumed that PAF is a

  1. [Effect of benazepril on atrial cytoskeleton remodeling in the canine atrial fibrillation models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Qu, Xiu-Fen; Yu, Yang; Bai, Bing; Huang, Yong-Lin

    2009-10-20

    To investigate the effect of benazepril on atrial cytoskeleton remodeling in atrial fibrillation (AF) canines induced by chronic rapid atrial pacing (RAP). Twenty canines were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) Sham-operated group without RAP; (2) AF group: AF established by RAP at 600 beats per minute for 6 weeks; (3) Benazepril group: benazepril was dosed from 1 week pre-pacing to 6 weeks post-pacing. The diameter of atrial cardiomyocyte was measured, collagen volume fraction (CVF) analyzed by Masson staining and the expression and distribution of desmin were assayed by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR method was used to semi-quantify the mRNA expression of beta-tubulin and desmin. The diameter of atrial cardiomyocyte increased in AF group [LA:(27.9 +/- 3.8) microm; RA: (26.8 +/- 3.2) microm] and benazepril group[LA: (25.1 +/- 3.4) microm; RA: (25.2 +/- 3.5) microm] than sham-operated group [LA: (19.6 +/- 2.9) microm; RA: (18.7 +/- 2.6) microm] (P benazepril group than AF group [LA: (11.3 +/- 0.8)% vs (16.9 +/- 1.1)%, RA: (10.9 +/- 0.8)% vs (15.7 +/- 2.3)%, P benazepril group than AF group (P benazepril group than AF group (LA:0.8 +/- 0.4 vs 1.0 +/- 0.3, 0.7 +/- 0.3 vs 0.9 +/- 0.4; RA:0.7 +/- 0.3 vs 1.0 +/- 0.6, 0.7 +/- 0.3 vs 1.1 +/- 0.3, P Benazepril can favorably improve atrial cytoskeleton remodeling in the canine atrial fibrillation model.

  2. Vernakalant hydrochloride for the rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowey, Peter R; Dorian, Paul; Mitchell, L Brent

    2009-01-01

    Postoperative atrial arrhythmias are common and are associated with considerable morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vernakalant for the conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) after cardiac surgery....

  3. Relaxin reduces susceptibility to post-infarct atrial fibrillation in mice due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiert, Thomas; Tiyerili, Vedat; Knappe, Vincent; Effelsberg, Verena; Linhart, Markus; Stöckigt, Florian; Klein, Sabine; Schierwagen, Robert; Trebicka, Jonel; Nickenig, Georg; Schrickel, Jan W; Andrié, René P

    2017-08-26

    Relaxin-2 (RLX) is a peptide hormone that exerts beneficial anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects in diverse models of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of RLX treatment on the susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF) after myocardial infarction (MI). Mice with cryoinfarction of the left anterior ventricular wall were treated for two weeks with either RLX (75 μg/kg/d) or vehicle (sodium acetate) delivered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. RLX treatment significantly attenuated the increase in AF-inducibility following cryoinfarction and reduced the mean duration of AF episodes. Furthermore, epicardial mapping of both atria revealed an increase in conduction velocity. In addition to an attenuation of atrial hypertrophy, chronic application of RLX reduced atrial fibrosis, which was linked to a significant reduction in atrial mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor. Transcript levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β were reduced in RLX treated mice, but macrophage infiltration into atrial myocardium was similar in the vehicle and RLX treated groups. Treatment with RLX in mice after MI reduces susceptibility to AF due to anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Because to these favorable actions, RLX may become a new therapeutic option in the treatment of AF, even when complicating MI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Infective Endocarditis of the Left Main to Right Atrial Coronary Cameral Fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh Chandra; Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, Amar Narayana

    2016-01-01

    A 7-year-old female child presented with pyrexia of unknown origin. She had received an empirical regimen of antibiotic for possible endocarditis. Evaluation included multiple imaging supports and blood culture. She had left main coronary artery to right atrium coronary cameral fistula, restricted patent ductus arteriosus, vegetation at the right atrial exit of fistula and negative blood culture. Ongoing fever more than 2 weeks, oscillating vegetation in the echo and histopathological evidence of healing vegetation suggested definite diagnosis of infective endocarditis. She was treated successfully by surgical closure of fistula from the right atrial approach. Device closure in this case would have resulted in a large residual cul-de-sac with or without tiny residual high-velocity jets, either being a threat for future enlargement, rupture of the residual aneurysmal sac, thromboembolism, prolonged anticoagulation, and infective endocarditis. PMID:28465978

  5. Acute Gastric Volvulus and Atrial Fibrillation with RVR: A Coincidence or Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Nadhem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is a rare and life-threatening condition that involves the abnormal rotation of the stomach around its axis by more than 180°. The association between acute gastric volvulus and atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response is rare with only few cases that have been reported. Our patient was an 86-year-old female who presented with upper abdominal pain, distension, nausea, and shortness of breath. Clinical and laboratory workup revealed acute gastric volvulus with diaphragmatic hernia. On presentation, she was also in atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. She was successfully treated by laparotomy with reduction of the gastric volvulus and repair of the diaphragmatic hernia, with significant improvement.

  6. [Atrial fibrillation as consequence and cause of structural changes of atria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparina, O P; Chikhireva, L N; Stukalova, O V; Mironova, N A; Kashtanova, S Iu; Ternovoĭ, S K; Golitsyn, S P

    2014-01-01

    Changes of atrial structure and function are the contributors of atrial fibrillation clinical course, complications and treatment effectiveness. Effects of inflammation and mechanical stretch on atrial structural remodeling leading to atrial fibrillation are reviewed in the article. Contemporary invasive and non-invasive methods of evaluation (including late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging) of patients with atrial structural remodeling in atrial fibrillation are also described.

  7. Atrial infarction is a unique and often unrecognized clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana G. G. Mendes

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A patient with heart failure and acute atrial fibrillation received the final diagnosis of atrial infarction associated with ventricular infarction based on clinical findings of ischemia in association with atrial fibrillation and heart failure (mechanisms probably involved: contractile dysfunction and loss of atrial contribution. Although a transesophageal echocardiography, which could refine the diagnosis of anatomic abnormalities, was not performed, all evidence led to the diagnosis of atrial involvement. Electrocardiographic findings were consistent with Liu's major criterion 3. Therapy with digitalis, quinidine and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was chosen, as the patient had acute pulmonary edema. The use of beta-blockers and verapamil was restricted. No other complications, such as thrombo-embolism or atrial rupture, were noted.

  8. Cardiorespiratory interactions in patients with atrial flutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masè, Michela; Disertori, Marcello; Ravelli, Flavia

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is generally known as the autonomically mediated modulation of the sinus node pacemaker frequency in synchrony with respiration. Cardiorespiratory interactions have been largely investigated during sinus rhythm, whereas little is known about interactions during reentrant arrhythmias. In this study, cardiorespiratory interactions at the atrial and ventricular level were investigated during atrial flutter (AFL), a supraventricular arrhythmia based on a reentry, by using cross-spectral analysis and computer modeling. The coherence and phase between respiration and atrial (gamma(AA)(2), phi(AA)) and ventricular (gamma(RR)(2), phi(RR)) interval series were estimated in 20 patients with typical AFL (68.0 +/- 8.8 yr) and some degree of atrioventricular (AV) conduction block. In all patients, atrial intervals displayed oscillations strongly coupled and in phase with respiration (gamma(AA)(2)= 0.97 +/- 0.05, phi(AA) = 0.71 +/- 0.31 rad), corresponding to a paradoxical lengthening of intervals during inspiration. The modulation pattern was frequency independent, with in-phase oscillations and short time delays (0.40 +/- 0.15 s) for respiratory frequencies in the range 0.1-0.4 Hz. Ventricular patterns were affected by AV conduction type. In patients with fixed AV conduction, ventricular intervals displayed oscillations strongly coupled (gamma(RR)(2)= 0.97 +/- 0.03) and in phase with respiration (phi(RR) = 1.08 +/- 0.80 rad). Differently, in patients with variable AV conduction, respiratory oscillations were secondary to Wencheback rhythmicity, resulting in a decreased level of coupling (gamma(RR)(2)= 0.50 +/- 0.21). Simulations with a simplified model of AV conduction showed ventricular patterns to originate from the combination of a respiratory modulated atrial input with the functional properties of the AV node. The paradoxical frequency-independent modulation pattern of atrial interval, the short time delays, and the complexity of

  9. Inter-subject variability in human atrial action potential in sinus rhythm versus chronic atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sánchez

    Full Text Available Human atrial electrophysiology exhibits high inter-subject variability in both sinus rhythm (SR and chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF patients. Variability is however rarely investigated in experimental and theoretical electrophysiological studies, thus hampering the understanding of its underlying causes but also its implications in explaining differences in the response to disease and treatment. In our study, we aim at investigating the ability of populations of human atrial cell models to capture the inter-subject variability in action potential (AP recorded in 363 patients both under SR and cAF conditions.Human AP recordings in atrial trabeculae (n = 469 from SR and cAF patients were used to calibrate populations of computational SR and cAF atrial AP models. Three populations of over 2000 sampled models were generated, based on three different human atrial AP models. Experimental calibration selected populations of AP models yielding AP with morphology and duration in range with experimental recordings. Populations using the three original models can mimic variability in experimental AP in both SR and cAF, with median conductance values in SR for most ionic currents deviating less than 30% from their original peak values. All cAF populations show similar variations in G(K1, G(Kur and G(to, consistent with AF-related remodeling as reported in experiments. In all SR and cAF model populations, inter-subject variability in I(K1 and I(NaK underlies variability in APD90, variability in I(Kur, I(CaL and I(NaK modulates variability in APD50 and combined variability in Ito and I(Kur determines variability in APD20. The large variability in human atrial AP triangulation is mostly determined by I(K1 and either I(NaK or I(NaCa depending on the model.Experimentally-calibrated human atrial AP models populations mimic AP variability in SR and cAF patient recordings, and identify potential ionic determinants of inter-subject variability in human atrial AP

  10. Association of Atrial Fibrillation with Morphological and Electrophysiological Changes of the Atrial Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matějková, Adéla; Šteiner, Ivo

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. For long time it was considered as pure functional disorder, but in recent years, there were identified atrial locations, which are involved in the initiation and maintenance of this arrhythmia. These structural changes, so called remodelation, start at electric level and later they affect contractility and morphology. In this study we attempted to find a possible relation between morphological (scarring, amyloidosis, left atrial (LA) enlargement) and electrophysiological (ECG features) changes in patients with AF. We examined grossly and histologically 100 hearts of necropsy patients - 54 with a history of AF and 46 without AF. Premortem ECGs were evaluated. The patients with AF had significantly heavier heart, larger LA, more severely scarred myocardium of the LA and atrial septum, and more severe amyloidosis in both atria. Severity of amyloidosis was higher in LAs vs. right atria (RAs). Distribution of both fibrosis and amyloidosis was irregular. The most affected area was in the LA anterior wall. Patients with a history of AF and with most severe amyloidosis have more often abnormally long P waves. Finding of long P wave may contribute to diagnosis of a hitherto undisclosed atrial fibrillation.

  11. Cardiac ion channels and mechanisms for protection against atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Sørensen, Ulrik S

    2011-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is recognised as the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice. Ongoing drug development is aiming at obtaining atrial specific effects in order to prevent pro-arrhythmic, devastating ventricular effects. In principle, this is possible due to a differe...... to the recent discovery that Ca(2+)-activated small conductance K(+) channels (SK channels) are important for the repolarisation of atrial action potentials. Finally, an overview of current pharmacological treatment of AF is included....

  12. Extreme variation in the atrial septation of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Desiderius M; Wilkinson, Mark; Jensen, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    Caecilians (order Gymnophiona) are elongate, limbless, snake-like amphibians that are the sister-group (closest relatives) of all other recent amphibians (frogs and salamanders). Little is known of their cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, but one nearly century old study suggests that Hypogeophis (family Indotyphlidae), commonly relied upon as a representative caecilian species, has atrial septation in the frontal plane and more than one septum. In contrast, in other vertebrates there generally is one atrial septum in the sagittal plane. We studied the adult heart of Idiocranium (also Indotyphlidae) using immunohistochemistry and confirm that the interatrial septum is close to the frontal plane. Additionally, a parallel right atrial septum divides three-fourths of the right atrial cavity of this species. Idiocranium embryos in the Hill collection reveal that atrial septation initiates in the sagittal plane as in other tetrapods. Late developmental stages, however, see a left-ward shift of visceral organs and a concordant rotation of the atria that reorients the atrial septa towards the frontal plane. The gross anatomies of species from six other caecilian families reveal that (i) the right atrial septum developed early in caecilian evolution (only absent in Rhinatrematidae) and that (ii) rotation of the atria evolved later and its degree varies between families. In most vertebrates a prominent atrial trabeculation associates with the sinuatrial valve, the so-called septum spurium, and the right atrial septum seems homologous to this trabeculation but much more developed. The right atrial septum does not appear to be a consequence of body elongation because it is absent in some caecilians and in snakes. The interatrial septum of caecilians shares multiple characters with the atrial septum of lungfishes, salamanders and the embryonic septum primum of amniotes. In conclusion, atrial septation in caecilians is based on evolutionarily conserved structures but

  13. Effect of sodium channel blocker, pilsicainide hydrochloride, on net inward current of atrial myocytes in thyroid hormone toxicosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Munesada; Sunagawa, Masanori; Shimabukuro, Michio; Higa, Namio; Takasu, Nobuyuki; Kosugi, Tadayoshi

    2005-07-01

    To investigate effect of pilsicainide hydrochloride (pilsicainide) on electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and action potentials (APs) of atrial myocytes, levo-thyroxine (T4, 500 microg/kg body weight) was daily injected into peritoneal cavity of Sprague-Dawley rats for 14 days. T4-treatment significantly shortened RR interval, P wave, and QRS complex durations on ECG. Although pilsicainide did not affect the heart rate, P wave and corrected QT interval (QTc) was increased in T4-treated rats. AP recordings revealed that AP durations at 20%, 50%, and 90% repolarization were significantly shortened and maximal rate of rise (Max dV/dt) was significantly increased in T4-treated rat atrial cells. Pilsicainide significantly decreased AP amplitude (APA) and Max dV/dt in both control and T4-treated rat atrial cells. Concentration-inhibition study demonstrated that pilsicainide significantly inhibited net inward current of T4-treated rats at lower concentration (IC50 of 29.2 microg/mL) than that of control rats (133 microg/mL). In conclusion, pilsicainide could decrease the conduction velocity in T4-treated rat atrium by decreasing the Max dV/dt and net inward current, which could be a possible treatment of thyrotoxicosis-induced arrhythmia.

  14. Hemodynamic forces regulate developmental patterning of atrial conduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Bressan

    Full Text Available Anomalous action potential conduction through the atrial chambers of the heart can lead to severe cardiac arrhythmia. To date, however, little is known regarding the mechanisms that pattern proper atrial conduction during development. Here we demonstrate that atrial muscle functionally diversifies into at least two heterogeneous subtypes, thin-walled myocardium and rapidly conducting muscle bundles, during a developmental window just following cardiac looping. During this process, atrial muscle bundles become enriched for the fast conduction markers Cx40 and Nav1.5, similar to the precursors of the fast conduction Purkinje fiber network located within the trabeculae of the ventricles. In contrast to the ventricular trabeculae, however, atrial muscle bundles display an increased proliferation rate when compared to the surrounding myocardium. Interestingly, mechanical loading of the embryonic atrial muscle resulted in an induction of Cx40, Nav1.5 and the cell cycle marker Cyclin D1, while decreasing atrial pressure via in vivo ligation of the vitelline blood vessels results in decreased atrial conduction velocity. Taken together, these data establish a novel model for atrial conduction patterning, whereby hemodynamic stretch coordinately induces proliferation and fast conduction marker expression, which in turn promotes the formation of large diameter muscle bundles to serve as preferential routes of conduction.

  15. Entropy measurements in paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervigón, R; Moreno, J; Pérez-Villacastín, J; Reilly, R B; Millet, J; Castells, F

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on atrial fibrillation (AF) have identified different activation patterns in paroxysmal and persistent AF. In this study, bipolar intra-atrial registers from 28 patients (14 paroxysmal AF and 14 persistent AF) were analyzed in order to find out regional differences in the organization in both types of arrhythmias. The organization of atrial electrical activity was assessed in terms of nonlinear parameters, such as entropy measurements. Results showed differences between the atrial chambers with a higher disorganization in the left atrium in paroxysmal AF patients and a more homogenous behavior along the atria in persistent AF patients

  16. The complexity of atrial fibrillation newly diagnosed after ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack: advances and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasuolo, Joshua O.; Cipriano, Lauren E.; Sposato, Luciano A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Atrial fibrillation is being increasingly diagnosed after ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Patient characteristics, frequency and duration of paroxysms, and the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke associated with atrial fibrillation detected after stroke and TIA (AFDAS) may differ from atrial fibrillation already known before stroke occurrence. We aim to summarize major recent advances in the field, in the context of prior evidence, and to identify areas of uncertainty to be addressed in future research. Recent findings Half of all atrial fibrillations in ischemic stroke and TIA patients are AFDAS, and most of them are asymptomatic. Over 50% of AFDAS paroxysms last less than 30 s. The rapid initiation of cardiac monitoring and its duration are crucial for its timely and effective detection. AFDAS comprises a heterogeneous mix of atrial fibrillation, possibly including cardiogenic and neurogenic types, and a mix of both. Over 25 single markers and at least 10 scores have been proposed as predictors of AFDAS. However, there are considerable inconsistencies across studies. The role of AFDAS burden and its associated risk of stroke recurrence have not yet been investigated. Summary AFDAS may differ from atrial fibrillation known before stroke in several clinical dimensions, which are important for optimal patient care strategies. Many questions remain unanswered. Neurogenic and cardiogenic AFDAS need to be characterized, as it may be possible to avoid some neurogenic cases by initiating timely preventive treatments. AFDAS burden may differ in ischemic stroke and TIA patients, with distinctive diagnostic and treatment implications. The prognosis of AFDAS and its risk of recurrent stroke are still unknown; therefore, it is uncertain whether AFDAS patients should be treated with oral anticoagulants. PMID:27984303

  17. Pathogenic Mechanisms of Atrial Fibrillation in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is one of the most common arrhythmias. It reduces quality of life and its duration due to thromboembolic complications. Obesity contributes to the structural and electrical remodeling of atrial myocardium. This leads to occurrence of ectopic foci in the mouths of the pulmonary veins and the disruption of normal electrical conduction in the atria. Systemic inflammation, myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte overload by Na+ and Ca2+ ions, accumulation in the cells of unoxidized metabolic products, imbalance of the autonomic regulation are considered as the main mechanisms of arrhythmogenic substrate formation. Hypertension, insulin resistance, and obstructive sleep apnea, associated with obesity, increase the risk of development and progression of the arrhythmia. Study of pathogenetic mechanisms of AF in obesity is necessary to develop new strategies for its prevention and the creation of more effective methods of treatment of these patients.

  18. [Atrial fibrillation concomitant with valvular heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Patients with valvular heart disease frequently have atrial fibrillation(AF) due to elevated pressure and dilatation of the left and right atria and pulmonary veins. Guidelines for valvular heart disease and AF recommend that surgical treatment for the valvular heart disease should be performed concomitantly with AF surgery. The Full-Maze procedure has evolved into the gold standard of treatment for medically refractory AF. In addition to the pulmonary vein isolation, the right and left atrial incisions of the Full-Maze procedure are designed to block potential macroreentrant pathways. According to the mechanisms of AF with valvular heart disease, the Full-Maze procedure is more effective for the patients than the pulmonary vein isolation alone.

  19. Transcatheter treatment of heart failure with preserved or mildly reduced ejection fraction using a novel interatrial implant to lower left atrial pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lars; Reddy, Vivek; Kaye, David

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved or mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF) is common and, to date, therapeutic options are limited. Increased left atrial pressure is a key contributor to the symptoms associated with HFpEF, particularly during physical activity. We report the 30-day...... outcome of patients treated with a novel device intended to lower left atrial pressure by creating an 8 mm permanent shunt in the atrial septum. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven patients were enrolled in the pilot trial. Key inclusion criteria were: EF >45%; baseline PCWP ≥15 mmHg (rest), or ≥ 25 mm...... patients, one class in five patients, and worsened by one class in one patient. No patient developed pulmonary hypertension. Two serious adverse events occurred; heart failure re-hospitalization, and implant malposition successfully treated with a new device. CONCLUSION: Contemporary management of HFp...

  20. Atrial fibrillation with wide QRS tachycardia and undiagnosed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Farqani, Abdullah; Al-Rawahi, Najib

    2012-11-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented to the emergency department of a regional hospital with 1 episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Postictal monitoring followed by a 12-lead electrocardiogram showed fast atrial fibrillation with intermittent wide QRS regular tachycardia. Immediately following this, her rhythm changed to wide QRS irregular tachycardia without hemodynamic compromise. She was suspected to have ventricular tachycardia and was treated with intravenous amiodarone with cardioversion to sinus rhythm. Subsequent electrocardiogram in sinus rhythm showed typical features of manifest Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) accessory pathway. This case illustrates the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in patients with atrial fibrillation, wide QRS tachycardia, and undiagnosed WPW syndrome with antidromic conduction of atrial arrhythmias through the accessory pathway. Furthermore, this case demonstrates that undiagnosed wide QRS tachycardias need to be treated with drugs acting on the accessory pathway, thus keeping in mind underlying WPW syndrome as a possibility to avoid potentially catastrophic events.

  1. Endurance Sport Practice and Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Naiara; Mont, Lluis

    2010-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac rhythm disorder in clinical practice, with an estimated prevalence of 0.4% to 1% in the general population, increasing with age to 8% in those older than 80 years. The recognized risk factors for developing AF include age, hypertension, structural heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and hyperthyroidism. However, the etiology remains unclear in a significant number of patients younger than age 60 in whom no cardiovascular disease or any other k...

  2. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as a...

  3. Association Between Left Atrial Compression And Atrial Fibrillation: A Case Presentation And A Short Review Of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Niloy; Carlos, Morales-Mangual; Moshe, Gunsburg; Yitzhak, Rosen

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who developed palpitations and chest pain and was found to be in atrial fibrillation, which was likely due to the presence of an extra-cardiac mass. This was compressing the left atrium. The mass was related to small cell carcinoma, which decreased significantly in size after chemotherapy. Resolution of the atrial fibrillation correlated temporally with reduction in the size of the mass and alleviation of the left atrial compression.

  4. Atrial Fibrillation in Eight New World Camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmanesh, R; Magdesian, K G; Estell, K E; Stern, J A; Swain, E A; Griffiths, L G

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information on the incidence of clinical signs, concurrent illness and treatment options for atrial fibrillation (AF) in New World Camelids (NWC). Describe clinical signs and outcome of AF in NWC. Eight New World Camelids admitted with AF. A retrospective observational study of camelids diagnosed with AF based on characteristic findings on electrocardiogram (ECG). All animals had an irregularly irregular heart rhythm detected on physical examination and 4 cases had obtunded mentation on admission. Three camelids were diagnosed with AF secondary to oleander intoxication, 3 animals had underlying cardiovascular disease, 1 was diagnosed with lone AF and 1 had AF diagnosed on examination for a urethral obstruction. Five of eight animals survived to discharge and nonsurvivors consisted of animals which died or were euthanized as a result of cardiovascular disease (2/8) or extra-cardiac disease unrelated to the AF (1/8). Atrial fibrillation occurs in NWC in association with cardiovascular disease, extra-cardiac disease or as lone AF. Amiodarone and transthoracic cardioversion were attempted in one llama with lone AF, but were unsuccessful. Atrial fibrillation was recorded in 0.1% of admissions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Atrial fibrillation: effects beyond the atrium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesurendra, Rohan S; Casadei, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained clinical arrhythmia and is associated with significant morbidity, mostly secondary to heart failure and stroke, and an estimated two-fold increase in premature death. Efforts to increase our understanding of AF and its complications have focused on unravelling the mechanisms of electrical and structural remodelling of the atrial myocardium. Yet, it is increasingly recognized that AF is more than an atrial disease, being associated with systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and adverse effects on the structure and function of the left ventricular myocardium that may be prognostically important. Here, we review the molecular and in vivo evidence that underpins current knowledge regarding the effects of human or experimental AF on the ventricular myocardium. Potential mechanisms are explored including diffuse ventricular fibrosis, focal myocardial scarring, and impaired myocardial perfusion and perfusion reserve. The complex relationship between AF, systemic inflammation, as well as endothelial/microvascular dysfunction and the effects of AF on ventricular calcium handling and oxidative stress are also addressed. Finally, consideration is given to the clinical implications of these observations and concepts, with particular reference to rate vs. rhythm control. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  6. Atrial fibrillation pearls and perils of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudenchuk, P J

    1996-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation, a common arrhythmia, is responsible for considerable cardiovascular morbidity. Its management demands more than antiarrhythmic therapy alone, but must address the causes and consequences of the arrhythmia. Although remediable causes are infrequently found, a thorough search for associated heart disease or its risk factors results in better-informed patient management. Controlling the ventricular response and protecting from thromboembolic complications are important initial goals of therapy and may include the administration of aspirin in younger, low-risk patients. Older patients and those with risk factors for systemic embolism are not adequately protected from stroke complications by aspirin therapy alone. It remains controversial whether all high-risk patients should receive warfarin and at what intensity. Whether and how sinus rhythm should be restored and maintained poses the greatest therapeutic controversy for atrial fibrillation. The mortal risk of antiarrhythmic therapy is substantially greater in patients with evidence of heart failure. In such persons, the risks and benefits of maintaining normal sinus rhythm with antiarrhythmic medications should be weighted carefully. A definitive cure for atrial fibrillation remains elusive, but promising surgical and catheter ablation therapies are being developed. PMID:8686300

  7. The mechanisms of atrial fibrillation in hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielecka-Dabrowa Agata

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF is a complex condition with several possible contributing factors. The rapid and irregular heartbeat produced by AF increases the risk of blood clot formation inside the heart. These clots may eventually become dislodged, causing embolism, stroke and other disorders. AF occurs in up to 15% of patients with hyperthyroidism compared to 4% of people in the general population and is more common in men and in patients with triiodothyronine (T3 toxicosis. The incidence of AF increases with advancing age. Also, subclinical hyperthyroidism is a risk factor associated with a 3-fold increase in development of AF. Thyrotoxicosis exerts marked influences on electrical impulse generation (chronotropic effect and conduction (dromotropic effect. Several potential mechanisms could be invoked for the effect of thyroid hormones on AF risk, including elevation of left atrial pressure secondary to increased left ventricular mass and impaired ventricular relaxation, ischemia resulting from increased resting heart rate, and increased atrial eopic activity. Reentry has been postulated as one of the main mechanisms leading to AF. AF is more likely if effective refractory periods are short and conduction is slow. Hyperthyroidism is associated with shortening of action potential duration which may also contribute to AF.

  8. Analysis of immune cell populations in atrial myocardium of patients with atrial fibrillation or sinus rhythm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Smorodinova

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia and despite obvious clinical importance remains its pathogenesis only partially explained. A relation between inflammation and AF has been suggested by findings of increased inflammatory markers in AF patients.The goal of this study was to characterize morphologically and functionally CD45-positive inflammatory cell populations in atrial myocardium of patients with AF as compared to sinus rhythm (SR.We examined 46 subjects (19 with AF, and 27 in SR undergoing coronary bypass or valve surgery. Peroperative bioptic samples of the left and the right atrial tissue were examined using immunohistochemistry.The number of CD3+ T-lymphocytes and CD68-KP1+ cells were elevated in the left atrial myocardium of patients with AF compared to those in SR. Immune cell infiltration of LA was related to the rhythm, but not to age, body size, LA size, mitral regurgitation grade, type of surgery, systemic markers of inflammation or presence of diabetes or hypertension. Most of CD68-KP1+ cells corresponded to dendritic cell population based on their morphology and immunoreactivity for DC-SIGN. The numbers of mast cells and CD20+ B-lymphocytes did not differ between AF and SR patients. No foci of inflammation were detected in any sample.An immunohistochemical analysis of samples from patients undergoing open heart surgery showed moderate and site-specific increase of inflammatory cells in the atrial myocardium of patients with AF compared to those in SR, with prevailing population of monocyte-macrophage lineage. These cells and their cytokine products may play a role in atrial remodeling and AF persistence.

  9. [Comparison of ablation of left-sided accessory pathway by atrial septal and retrograde arterial approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J G; Bao, Z Y; Gu, X

    2017-03-07

    Objective: To compare the advantages and disadvantages of radiofrequency ablation of left-sided accessory pathways by via atrial septal approach with retrograde through aortic approach. Methods: A total of 184 patients of left-side accessory pathways were treated in Taizhou People's Hospital and the Subei People's Hospital from March 2012 to August 2015.A total of 103 cases were treated by aortic retrograde approach as through arterial group, 81 cases were treated by punctured atrial septal to left atrial for mapping and ablation as through atrial septal group.Comparison of ablation procedure time, total and pathways of different parts(subgroup) at instant success and relapse rates, safety (serious complications), and statistics other complications in operation and postoperative. Results: Through arterial group and through atrial septal group were no significant difference ( P >0.05) in the ablation procedure time((25±18 ) vs (22±15)min ), instant success(98.1% vs 97.5%) and relapse rates(1.0% vs 1.2%), security(1 vs 0 case). There was no statistical difference in septal part subgroups (all P >0.05) in the ablation procedure time((22±18)vs (25±19)min), instant success(91.7% vs 89.9 %) and relapse rates(0 vs 11.1%); posterior wall subgroup had no statistical difference in the ablation procedure time((18±15)vs (16±12)min), instant success(100% vs 100 %) and relapse rates(0 vs 0)(all P >0.05); side wall subgroup had no statistical difference in the ablation procedure time((29±20)vs (21±18) min), instant success (98.3% vs 98.1%)and relapse rates(1.7% vs 0%)(all P >0.05). Conclusion: Ablation of left-sided accessory pathways by transseptal approach and transaortic approach has no statistical difference in the procedure time, instant success and relapse rates, security.In a particular case, there is a certain complementarity between the two methods.

  10. Recurrence of pulmonary vein conduction and atrial fibrillation after pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Brian; Chen, Xu; Pehrson, Steen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both segmental ostial and circumferential extraostial pulmonary vein (PV) isolation have been proven effective in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the recurrence of AF and PV conduction after the 2 ablation strategies has never been compared in a randomized study...... isolation. Extraostial PV isolation was performed by encircling the paired left and right PVs, respectively, guided by an electroanatomic mapping system. RESULTS: A total of 84% of the patients had recurrent AF after the first PV isolation procedure, showing 72% with AF and 12% with organized left atrial...

  11. Atrial remodelling in atrial fibrillation: CaMKII as a nodal proarrhythmic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesubi, Olurotimi O.; Anderson, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    CaMKII is a serine–threonine protein kinase that is abundant in myocardium. Emergent evidence suggests that CaMKII may play an important role in promoting atrial fibrillation (AF) by targeting a diverse array of proteins involved in membrane excitability, cell survival, calcium homeostasis, matrix remodelling, inflammation, and metabolism. Furthermore, CaMKII inhibition appears to protect against AF in animal models and correct proarrhythmic, defective intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in fibrillating human atrial cells. This review considers current concepts and evidence from animal and human studies on the role of CaMKII in AF. PMID:26762270

  12. 5-Year Outcomes After Left Atrial Appendage Closure: From the PREVAIL and PROTECT AF Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vivek Y; Doshi, Shephal K; Kar, Saibal; Gibson, Douglas N; Price, Matthew J; Huber, Kenneth; Horton, Rodney P; Buchbinder, Maurice; Neuzil, Petr; Gordon, Nicole T; Holmes, David R

    2017-12-19

    The PROTECT AF (WATCHMAN Left Atrial Appendage System for Embolic Protection in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation) trial demonstrated that left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) with the Watchman device (Boston Scientific, St. Paul, Minnesota) was equivalent to warfarin for preventing stroke in atrial fibrillation, but had a high rate of complications. In a second randomized trial, PREVAIL (Evaluation of the WATCHMAN LAA Closure Device in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Versus Long Term Warfarin Therapy), the complication rate was low. The warfarin cohort experienced an unexpectedly low ischemic stroke rate, rendering the efficacy endpoints inconclusive. However, these outcomes were based on relatively few patients followed for a relatively short time. The final results of the PREVAIL trial, both alone and as part of a patient-level meta-analysis with the PROTECT AF trial, are reported with patients in both trials followed for 5 years. PREVAIL and PROTECT AF are prospective randomized clinical trials with patients randomized 2:1 to LAAC or warfarin; together, they enrolled 1,114 patients for 4,343 patient-years. Analyses are by intention-to-treat, and rates are events per 100 patient-years. For the PREVAIL trial, the first composite coprimary endpoint of stroke, systemic embolism (SE), or cardiovascular/unexplained death did not achieve noninferiority (posterior probability for noninferiority = 88.4%), whereas the second coprimary endpoint of post-procedure ischemic stroke/SE did achieve noninferiority (posterior probability for noninferiority = 97.5%); the warfarin arm maintained an unusually low ischemic stroke rate (0.73%). In the meta-analysis, the composite endpoint was similar between groups (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.820; p = 0.27), as were all-stroke/SE (HR: 0.961; p = 0.87). The ischemic stroke/SE rate was numerically higher with LAAC, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (HR: 1.71; p = 0.080). However, differences in

  13. Histopathologic analysis of atrial tissue in patients with atrial fibrillation: comparison between patients with atrial septal defect and patients with mitral valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae Gun; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Oh, Sam Se; Lee, Sang Yun; Ham, Eui Keun; Kim, Woong-Han; Kim, Soo-Jin; Bae, Eun Jung; Lim, Cheoung; Lee, Chang-Ha; Lee, Cheul

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) in adult patients with atrial septal defect (ASD) accompanies an enlarged right atrium (RA) with a less enlarged left atrium (LA), which is the opposite situation in patients with AF and mitral valvular disease. This study was to compare the histopathological change in the atrium of patients with AF of two different etiologies: ASD and mitral disease. Twenty-four patients were enrolled. Group 1 included patients with ASD (8), Group 2 included patients with ASD with AF (6), and Group 3 included patients with mitral disease with AF (10). Preoperative atrial volumes were measured. Atrial tissues were obtained during surgical procedures and stained with periodic acid-Schiff, smooth muscle actin, Sirius red, and Masson's trichrome to detect histopathologic changes compatible with AF. The severity of histopathological changes was represented with "positivity" and "strong positivity" after analyzing digitalized images of the staining. We investigated the relationship between the degree of atrial dilatation and severity of histopathological changes according to the groups and tissues. Group 2 and Group 3 patients showed a tendency toward an enlarged RA volume and enlarged LA volume, respectively, compared with each others. However, in the histopathologic analysis, "positivity" and "strong positivity" showed no significant positive correlations with the degree of atrial volume in special staining. A similar degree of histopathologic changes was observed in both atria in patients with AF (Group 2 and 3) regardless of the degree of dilatation of atrial volume and disease entities. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between ventricular pacing and persistent atrial fibrillation in patients indicated to elective pacemaker replacement: Results of the Prefer for Elective Replacement MVP (PreFER MVP) randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Renato P; Botto, Giovanni Luca; Bénézet, Juan M; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; De Roy, Luc; Piot, Olivier; Quesada, Aurelio; Quaglione, Raffaele; Vaccari, Diego; Mangoni, Lorenza; Grammatico, Andrea; Kozák, Milan

    2015-11-01

    Pacing in the right ventricle can cause a variety of detrimental effects, including atrial tachyarrhythmias (atrial tachycardia [AT]/atrial fibrillation [AF]). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and predictors of persistent AT/AF in patients with long-term exposure to ventricular pacing. In a multicenter international trial, 605 patients (age 75 ± 11 years, 240 women) referred for replacement of an implanted pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), with a history of high-percentage (>40%) ventricular pacing, were randomly allocated to standard dual-chamber pacing or managed ventricular pacing (MVP), a pacing modality that minimizes ventricular pacing. The main end-point of this secondary analysis of the PreFER MVP randomized study was persistent AT/AF, defined as ≥7 consecutive days with AT/AF or AT/AF interrupted by atrial cardioversion or AT/AF present during 2 consecutive follow-up visits. Persistent AT/AF was observed in 71 patients (11.7%) after 2 years of follow-up. At multivariable Cox regression analysis, prior AT/AF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-6.22, P = .017) and ventricular pacing percentage, estimated in the first 3 months, ≥10% (HR 3.24, 95% 95% CI 1.13-9.31, P = .029) were independent predictors for persistent AT/AF. MVP was associated with persistent AT/AF risk (HR 3.41, 95% 95% CI 1.10-10.6, P = .024) in the subgroup of patients with baseline long PR interval (PR >230 ms) but not in the whole population. In pacemaker and ICD replacement patients, a high percentage of ventricular pacing is associated with higher risk of persistent AT/AF. Use of algorithms that minimize right ventricular pacing may benefit patients with normal spontaneous AV conduction but should be evaluated with caution in patients with long PR interval. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Amiodaron in atrial fibrillation: post coronary artery bypass graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibollahi, Paria; Jam, Shahrzad Hashemi; Vahdati, Samad Shams; Baghi, Hamidreza Morteza; Amiri, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrilation (AF) is the most common complication following heart surgeries; it often occurs in patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The purpose of this review is to categorize prophylaxes or treatment by administration of Amiodaron in patients with CABG. We searched google scholar, pubmed, and Cochrane Library databases (the period 1970-2010) for articles on Amiodaron in CABG and cardiac surgery. A total of 1 561 articles were identified, and 30 articles met the criteria and were enrolled in this review. Most studies supported Amiodarone for prophylaxi purpose in patients who were performed with CABG; few papers supported Amiodaron as a drug for treating CABG. The prophylaxis can decrease the incidence rate of AF in CABG, but if it uses as a treatment, the side effect of Amiodaron will decrease because all of the patients will not get Amiodarone. In the other hand use of Amiodarone as a treatment does not influence the length of hospital stay significantly but these kinds of study are so few. No appropriate therapeutic method has been defined for AF. At present, the common way of treating AF following cardiac surgery is mainly based on prophylaxis in medical books and references.

  16. Atrial Heterogeneity Generates Re-entrant Substrate during Atrial Fibrillation and Anti-arrhythmic Drug Action: Mechanistic Insights from Canine Atrial Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Marta; Hancox, Jules C.; Aslanidi, Oleg V.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-arrhythmic drug therapy is a frontline treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF), but its success rates are highly variable. This is due to incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action of specific drugs on the atrial substrate at different stages of AF progression. We aimed to elucidate the role of cellular, tissue and organ level atrial heterogeneities in the generation of a re-entrant substrate during AF progression, and their modulation by the acute action of selected anti-arrhythmic drugs. To explore the complex cell-to-organ mechanisms, a detailed biophysical models of the entire 3D canine atria was developed. The model incorporated atrial geometry and fibre orientation from high-resolution micro-computed tomography, region-specific atrial cell electrophysiology and the effects of progressive AF-induced remodelling. The actions of multi-channel class III anti-arrhythmic agents vernakalant and amiodarone were introduced in the model by inhibiting appropriate ionic channel currents according to experimentally reported concentration-response relationships. AF was initiated by applied ectopic pacing in the pulmonary veins, which led to the generation of localized sustained re-entrant waves (rotors), followed by progressive wave breakdown and rotor multiplication in both atria. The simulated AF scenarios were in agreement with observations in canine models and patients. The 3D atrial simulations revealed that a re-entrant substrate was typically provided by tissue regions of high heterogeneity of action potential duration (APD). Amiodarone increased atrial APD and reduced APD heterogeneity and was more effective in terminating AF than vernakalant, which increased both APD and APD dispersion. In summary, the initiation and sustenance of rotors in AF is linked to atrial APD heterogeneity and APD reduction due to progressive remodelling. Our results suggest that anti-arrhythmic strategies that increase atrial APD without increasing its dispersion are

  17. Reversion of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation in hypothyroid state after radioiodine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Makiko; Saito, Shintaro; Sakurada, Toshiro; Yoshida, Katsumi; Kaise, Kazuro; Kaise, Nobuko; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Yoichi; Yoshinaga, Kaoru [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    1992-06-01

    Twenty patients with thyrotoxic Basedow's disease complicated by atrial fibrillation lasting more than one month despite treatment with antithyroidal drugs were treated with radioiodine supplemented with an antithyroidal drug or inorganic iodine. We classified the 20 patients on the basis of strial fibrillation reversion into two groups, one with reversion (group I) and the other without reversion (group II). In all 12 patients in group I, T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} decreased to hypothyroid levels in 3.2{+-}1.3 months, and one month later all patients had their sinus rhythm restored while T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} also remained below normal (2.6{+-}1.1 {mu}g/dl and 77.9{+-}34.4 ng/dl, respectively). Although T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} also decreased within 3.5{+-}1.8 months in all 8 patients in group II, one month later, atrial fibrillation persisted while T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} (10.4{+-}5.3 {mu}g/dl and 157.7{+-}67.5 ng/dl, respectively) rose significantly compared to those in group I (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). For reversion of atrial fibrillation it is important that the onset of hypothyroidism is rapidly induced by radioiodine and that hypothyroidism continues for at least one month. (author).

  18. Reversion of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation in hypothyroid state after radioiodine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Makiko; Saito, Shintaro; Sakurada, Toshiro; Yoshida, Katsumi; Kaise, Kazuro; Kaise, Nobuko; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Yoichi; Yoshinaga, Kaoru

    1992-01-01

    Twenty patients with thyrotoxic Basedow's disease complicated by atrial fibrillation lasting more than one month despite treatment with antithyroidal drugs were treated with radioiodine supplemented with an antithyroidal drug or inorganic iodine. We classified the 20 patients on the basis of strial fibrillation reversion into two groups, one with reversion (group I) and the other without reversion (group II). In all 12 patients in group I, T 4 and T 3 decreased to hypothyroid levels in 3.2±1.3 months, and one month later all patients had their sinus rhythm restored while T 4 and T 3 also remained below normal (2.6±1.1 μg/dl and 77.9±34.4 ng/dl, respectively). Although T 4 and T 3 also decreased within 3.5±1.8 months in all 8 patients in group II, one month later, atrial fibrillation persisted while T 4 and T 3 (10.4±5.3 μg/dl and 157.7±67.5 ng/dl, respectively) rose significantly compared to those in group I (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). For reversion of atrial fibrillation it is important that the onset of hypothyroidism is rapidly induced by radioiodine and that hypothyroidism continues for at least one month. (author)

  19. Reversion of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation in hypothyroid state after radioiodine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Makiko; Saito, Shintaro; Sakurada, Toshiro; Yoshida, Katsumi; Kaise, Kazuro; Kaise, Nobuko; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Yoichi; Yoshinaga, Kaoru (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Twenty patients with thyrotoxic Basedow's disease complicated by atrial fibrillation lasting more than one month despite treatment with antithyroidal drugs were treated with radioiodine supplemented with an antithyroidal drug or inorganic iodine. We classified the 20 patients on the basis of strial fibrillation reversion into two groups, one with reversion (group I) and the other without reversion (group II). In all 12 patients in group I, T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} decreased to hypothyroid levels in 3.2{+-}1.3 months, and one month later all patients had their sinus rhythm restored while T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} also remained below normal (2.6{+-}1.1 {mu}g/dl and 77.9{+-}34.4 ng/dl, respectively). Although T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} also decreased within 3.5{+-}1.8 months in all 8 patients in group II, one month later, atrial fibrillation persisted while T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} (10.4{+-}5.3 {mu}g/dl and 157.7{+-}67.5 ng/dl, respectively) rose significantly compared to those in group I (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). For reversion of atrial fibrillation it is important that the onset of hypothyroidism is rapidly induced by radioiodine and that hypothyroidism continues for at least one month. (author).

  20. Atrial Fibrillation in Embolic Stroke: Anticoagulant Therapy at UNTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The decision to commence anticoagulation in a patient with embolic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF) is often a difficult one for many clinicians. The result can have significant impact on the patient. This study was therefore undertaken to review the use of anticoagulation in embolic stroke in the setting of atrial ...

  1. Dronedarone in high-risk permanent atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Stuart J; Camm, A John; Halperin, Jonathan L

    2011-01-01

    Dronedarone restores sinus rhythm and reduces hospitalization or death in intermittent atrial fibrillation. It also lowers heart rate and blood pressure and has antiadrenergic and potential ventricular antiarrhythmic effects. We hypothesized that dronedarone would reduce major vascular events...... in high-risk permanent atrial fibrillation....

  2. The safety of flecainide treatment of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almroth, H; Andersson, Torben Bech; Fengsrud, E

    2011-01-01

    To assess the safety of long-term treatment with flecainide in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), particularly with regard to sudden cardiac death (SCD) and proarrhythmic events.......To assess the safety of long-term treatment with flecainide in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), particularly with regard to sudden cardiac death (SCD) and proarrhythmic events....

  3. Visualization of atrial myocardium with thallium-201: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, M.J.; Coghlan, H.C.; Logic, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    An adult patient evaluated for cyanotic congenital heart disease was found to have pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, hypoplastic right ventricle, and right atrial enlargement. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging before surgical correction showed thallium activity in the right atrium. Following the establishment of a conduit from the right atrium to pulmonary artery, the right-atrial thallium uptake was even more prominent

  4. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Stuart J.; Ezekowitz, Michael D.; Yusuf, Salim; Eikelboom, John; Oldgren, Jonas; Parekh, Amit; Pogue, Janice; Reilly, Paul A.; Themeles, Ellison; Varrone, Jeanne; Wang, Susan; Alings, Marco; Xavier, Denis; Zhu, Jun; Diaz, Rafael; Lewis, Basil S.; Darius, Harald; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Joyner, Campbell D.; Wallentin, Lars; Connolly, S. J.; Ezekowitz, M. D.; Yusuf, S.; Eikelboom, J.; Oldgren, J.; Parekh, A.; Reilly, P. A.; Themeles, E.; Varrone, J.; Wang, S.; Palmcrantz-Graf, E.; Haehl, M.; Wallentin, L.; Alings, A. M. W.; Amerena, J. V.; Avezum, A.; Baumgartner, I.; Brugada, J.; Budaj, A.; Caicedo, V.; Ceremuzynski, L.; Chen, J. H.; Commerford, P. J.; Dans, A. L.; Darius, H.; Di Pasquale, G.; Diaz, R.; Erol, C.; Ferreira, J.; Flaker, G. C.; Flather, M. D.; Franzosi, M. G.; Gamboa, R.; Golitsyn, S. P.; Gonzalez Hermosillo, J. A.; Halon, D.; Heidbuchel, H.; Hohnloser, S. H.; Hori, M.; Huber, K.; Jansky, P.; Kamensky, G.; Keltai, M.; Kim, S.; Lau, C. P.; Le Heuzey, J. Y. F.; Lewis, B. S.; Liu, L. S.; Nanas, J.; Razali, O.; Pais, P. S.; Parkhomenko, A. N.; Pedersen, K. E.; Piegas, L. S.; Raev, D.; Simmers, T. A.; Smith, P. J.; Talajic, M.; Tan, R. S.; Tanomsup, S.; Toivonen, L.; Vinereanu, D.; Xavier, D.; Zhu, J.; Diener, H. C.; Joyner, C. D.; Diehl, A.; Ford, G.; Robinson, M.; Silva, J.; Sleight, P.; Wyse, D. G.; Collier, J.; de Mets, D.; Hirsh, J.; Lesaffre, E.; Ryden, L.; Sandercock, P.; Anastasiou-Nana, M. I.; Andersen, G.; Annex, B. H.; Atra, M.; Bornstein, N. M.; Boysen, G.; Brouwers, P. J. A. M.; Buerke, M.; Burrell, L. M.; Chan, Y. K.; Chen, W. H.; Cheung, R. T. F.; Divakaramenon, S.; Donnan, G. A.; Duray, G. Z.; Dvorakova, H.; Fiedler, J.; Gardinale, E.; Gates, P. C.; Goshev, E. G.; Goto, S.; Gross, B.; Guimaraes, H. P.; Gulkevych, O.; Haberl, R. L.; Hankey, G.; Hartikainen, J.; Healey, J.; Iliesiu, A. M.; Irkin, O.; Jaxa-Chamiec, T.; Jolly, S.; Kaste, K. A. M.; Kies, B.; Kostov, K. D.; Kristensen, K. S.; Labovitz, A. J.; Lassila, R. P. T.; Lee, K. L. F.; Lutay, Y. M.; Magloire, P.; Mak, K. H.; Meijer, A.; Mihov, L.; Morillo, C. A.; Morillo, L. E.; Nair, G. M.; Norrving, B.; Ntalianis, A.; Ntsekhe, M.; Olah, L.; Pasco, P. M. D.; Peeters, A.; Perovic, V.; Petrov, I.; Pizzolato, G.; Rafti, F.; Rey, N. R.; Ribas, S.; Rokoss, M.; Sarembock, I. J.; Sheth, T.; Shuaib, A.; Sitkei, E.; Sorokin, E.; Srámek, M.; Strozynska, E.; Tanne, D.; Thijs, V. N. S.; Tomek, A.; Turazza, F.; Vanhooren, G.; Vizel, S. A.; Vos, J.; Wahlgren, N.; Weachter, R.; Zaborska, B.; Zaborski, J.; Zimlichman, R.; Cong, J.; Fendt, K.; Muldoon, S.; Bajkor, S.; Grinvalds, A.; Malvaso, M.; Pogue, J.; Simek, K.; Yang, S.; Alzogaray, M. F.; Bono, J. O.; Caccavo, A.; Cartasegna, L.; Casali, W. P.; Cuello, J. L.; Cuneo, C. A.; Elizari, M. V.; Fernandez, A. A.; Ferrari, A. E.; Gabito, A. J.; Goicoechea, R. F.; Gorosito, V. M.; Hirschson, A.; Hominal, M. A.; Hrabar, A. D.; Liberman, A.; Mackinnon, I. J.; Manzano, R. D.; Muratore, C. A.; Nemi, S. A.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Sanchez, A. S.; Secchi, J.; Vogel, D. R.; Colquhoun, D. M.; Crimmins, D. S.; Dart, A. M.; Davis, S. M.; Hand, P. J.; Kubler, P. A.; Lehman, R. G.; McBain, G.; Morrison, H. C.; New, G.; Singh, B. B.; Spence, C. Z.; Waites, J. H.; Auer, J.; Doweik, L.; Freihoff, F.; Gaul, G.; Gazo, F.; Geiger, H.; Giacomini, G.; Huber, G. W.; Jukic, I.; Lamm, G.; Niessner, H.; Podczeck, A.; Schuh, J.; Siostrzonek, P.; Steger, C.; Vogel, B.; Watzak, R.; Weber, H. S.; Weihs, W.; Blankoff, I.; Boland, J. L.; Brike, C.; Carlier, M.; Cools, F.; de Meester, A.; de Raedt, H. J.; de Wolf, L.; Dhooghe, G. M.; Dilling-Boer, D.; Elshot, S. R.; Fasseaux, S.; Goethals, M.; Goethals, P.; Gurne, O.; Hellemans, S.; Ivan, B.; Jottrand, M.; Kersschot, I.; Lecoq, E.; Marcovitch, O.; Melon, D.; Miljoen, H.; Missault, L.; Pierard, L. A.; Provenier, F.; Rousseau, M. F.; Stockman, D.; Tran-Ngoc, E.; van Mieghem, W.; Vandekerckhove, Y.; Vandervoort, P.; Verrostte, J.; Vijgen, J.; Armaganijan, D.; Braga, C.; Braga, J. C. F.; Cipullo, R.; Cunha, C. L. P.; de Paola, A.; Delmonaco, M. I.; Guimaraes, F. V.; Herek, L.; Kerr Saraiva, J. F.; Maia, L. N.; Lorga, A. M.; Lorga-Filho, A. M.; Marino, R. L.; Melo, C. S.; Mouco, O. M.; Pereira, V. C.; Precoma, D. B.; Rabelo, W.; Rassi, S.; Rossi, P. R.; Rossi Neto, J. M.; Silva, F. M.; Vidotti, M. H.; Zimmermann, S. L.; Anev, E. D.; Balabanov, T. A.; Baldjiev, E. S.; Bogusheva, E. S.; Chaneva, M. A.; Filibev, I. G.; Gotcheva, N. N.; Goudev, A. R.; Gruev, I. T.; Guenova, D. T.; Kamenova, Z. A.; Manov, E. I.; Panov, I. A.; Parvanova, Z. I.; Pehlivanova, M. B.; Penchev, P. T.; Penkov, N. Y.; Radoslavov, A. L.; Ramshev, K. N.; Runev, N. M.; Sindzhielieva, M. N.; Spirova, D. A.; Tsanova, V. M.; Tzekova, M. L.; Yaramov, G. K.; Aggarwal, R.; Bakbak, A. I.; Bayly, K.; Berlingieri, J. C.; Blackburn, K.; Bobbie, C.; Booth, A. W.; Borts, D.; Bose, S.; Boucher, P.; Brown, K.; Burstein, J. M.; Butt, J. C.; Carlson, B. D.; Chetty, R.; Chiasson, J. D.; Constance, C.; Costi, P.; Coutu, B.; Deneufbourg, I.; Dion, D.; Dorian, P.; Douketis, J. D.; Farukh, S.; Filipchuk, N. G.; Fox, B. A.; Fox, H. I.; Gailey, C. B.; Gauthier, M.; Glanz, A.; Green, M. S.; Habot, J.; Hink, H.; Kearon, C.; Kouz, S.; Lai, C.; Lai, K.; Lalani, A. V.; Lam, A. S.; Lapointe, L. A.; Leather, R. A.; Ma, P. T. S.; MacKay, E.; Mangat, I.; Mansour, S.; Melton, E.; Mitchell, L. B.; Morris, A. L.; Nisker, W. A.; O'Donnell, M. J.; O'Hara, G.; Omichinski, L. M.; Pandey, A. S.; Parkash, R.; Pesant, Y.; Pilon, C.; Pistawka, K. J.; Powell, C. N.; Price, J. B.; Prieur, S.; Rebane, T. M.; Ricci, A. J.; Roberge, J.; Roy, M.; Sapp, J. L.; Savard, D.; Schulman, S.; Sehl, M. J.; Sestier, F.; Shandera, R.; Shu, D.; Sterns, L. D.; St-Hilaire, R.; Syan, G. S.; Talbot, P.; Teitelbaum, I.; Tytus, R. H.; Winkler, L.; Zadra, R.; Zidel, B. S.; Bai, X. J.; Gao, W.; Gao, X.; Guan, D. M.; He, Z. S.; Hua, Q.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, W. M.; Lu, G. P.; Lv, S.; Meng, K.; Niu, H. Y.; Qi, D. G.; Qi, S. Y.; Qian, F.; Sun, N. L.; Wang, H. Y.; Wang, N. F.; Yang, Y. M.; Zeng, H.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, F. R.; Zhang, L.; Bohorquez, R.; Rosas, J. F.; Saent, L.; Vacca, M.; Velasco, V. M.; Belohlavek, J.; Cernohous, M.; Choura, M.; Dedek, V.; Filipensky, B.; Hemzsky, L.; Karel, I.; Kopeckova, I.; Kovarova, K.; Labrova, R.; Madr, T.; Poklopova, Z.; Rucka, D.; Simon, J.; Skalicka, H.; Smidova, M.; Spinar, J.; Dodt, K. K.; Egstrup, K.; Friberg, J.; Haar, D.; Husted, S.; Jensen, G. V.; Joensen, A. M.; Klarlund, K. K.; Lind Rasmussen, S.; Melchior, T. M.; Olsen, M. E.; Poulsen, M. K.; Ralfkiaer, N.; Rasmussen, L. H.; Skagen, K.; Airaksinen, K. E.; Huikuri, H. V.; Hussi, E. J.; Kettunen, P.; Mänttäri, M.; Melin, J. H.; Mikkelsson, J.; Peuhkurinen, K.; Virtanen, V. K.; Ylitalo, A.; Agraou, B.; Boucher, L.; Bouvier, J. M.; Boye, A.; Boye, B.; Decoulx, E. M.; Defaye, P.; Delay, M.; Desrues, H.; Gacem, K.; Igigabel, P.; Jacon, P.; Leparree, S.; Magnani, C.; Martelet, M.; Movallem, J.; Olive, T.; Poulard, J. E.; Tiam, B.; Appel, K. F.; Appel, S.; Bansemir, L.; Borggrefe, M.; Brachmann, J.; Bulut-Streich, N.; Busch, K.; Dempfle, C. E. H.; Desaga, M.; Desaga, V.; Dormann, A.; Fechner, I.; Genth-Zotz, S.; Haberbosch, W. G.; Harenberg, J.; Haverkamp, W. L.; Henzgen, R.; Heuer, H.; Horacek, T.; Huttner, H. B.; Janssens, U.; Jantke, H. J.; Klauss, V.; Koudonas, D.; Kreuzer, J.; Kuckuck, H.; Maselli, A.; Müegge, A.; Munzel, T. F.; Nitsche, K.; Nledegjen, A.; Parwani, A.; Pluemer-Schmidt, M.; Pollock, B. W.; Salbach, B. I.; Salbach, P. B.; Schaufele, T.; Schoels, W.; Schwab, S.; Siegmund, U.; Veltkamp, R.; Von Hodenberg, E.; Weber, R.; Zechmeister, M.; Anastasopoulous, A. A.; Foulidis, V. O.; Kaldara, E.; Karamitsos, K.; Karantzis, J.; Kirpizidis, H.; Kokkinakis, C.; Krommydas, A.; Lappas, C.; Lappas, G. I.; Manolis, A.; Manolis, A. S.; Orfanidis, Z.; Papamichalis, M.; Peltekis, L.; Savvas, S.; Skoumpourdis, E. A.; Stakos, D. A.; Styliadis, I.; Triposkiadis, F.; Tsounis, D.; Tziakas, D. N.; Zafiridis, T.; Zarifis, J. H.; Chan, G. C. P.; Chan, W. K.; Chan, W. S.; Lau, C. L.; Tse, H. F.; Tsui, P. T.; Yu, C. M.; Yue, C. S.; Fugedi, K.; Garai, B.; Jánosi, A.; Kadar, A.; Karpati, P.; Keltai, K.; Kosa, I.; Kovacs, I.; Laszlo, Z.; Mezei, L.; Rapi, J.; Regos, L. I.; Szakal, I.; Szigyarto, I.; Toth, K.; Zsa'ry, A.; Agarwal, D. K.; Aggarwal, R. K.; Arulvenkatesh, R.; Bharani, A.; Bhuvaneswaran, J. S.; Byrapaneni, R. B.; Chandwani, P.; Chopra, S.; Desai, N.; Deshpande, V.; Golla, N. P.; Gupta, J. B.; Haridas, K. K.; Hiremath, J.; Jain, A. S.; Jain, M.; Jhala, D. A.; Joseph, J.; Kaila, M.; Kannaiyan, A.; Kumar, S.; Kuruvila, P.; Mahorkar, V. K.; Metha, A.; Naik, A. M.; Narayanan, S.; Panwar, R. B.; Reddy, C.; Sawhney, J. P. S.; Shah, S. M.; Sharma, S.; Shetty, G. S.; Sinha, N.; Sontakke, N. N.; Srinivas, A.; Trivedi, M. R.; Vadagenalli, P. S.; Vijayakumar, M.; Ben-Aharon, Y.; Benhorin, J.; Bogomolny, N.; Botwin-Shimko, S.; Bova, I.; Brenner, B.; Burstein, M.; Butnaru, A.; Caspi, A.; Danenberg, H. D.; Dayan, M.; Eldar, M.; Elian, D.; Elias, M.; Elis, A.; Esanu, G.; Genin, I.; Goldstein, L. H.; Grossman, E.; Hamoud, S.; Hayek, T.; Ilani, N.; Ilia, R.; Klainman, E. I.; Leibowitz, A.; Leibowitz, D.; Levin, I.; Lishner, M.; Lotan, C.; Mahagney, A.; Marmor, A.; Motro, M.; Peres, D.; Plaev, T.; Reisen, L. H.; Rogowski, O.; Schwammenthal, E.; Schwammenthal, Y.; Shechter, M.; Shochat, M.; Shotan, A.; Strasberg, B.; Sucher, E.; Telman, G.; Turgeman, Y.; Tzoran, I.; Weiss, A. T.; Weitsman, T.; Weller, B.; Wexler, D. H.; Wolff, R.; Yarnitsky, D.; Zeltser, D.; Argiolas, G.; Arteni, F.; Barbiero, M.; Bazzucco, R.; Bernardi, D.; Bianconi, L.; Bicego, D.; Brandini, R.; Bresciani, B.; Busoni, F.; Carbonieri, E.; Carini, M.; Catalano, A.; Cavallini, C.; D'Angelo, G.; de Caterina, R.; Di Niro, M.; Filigheddu, F.; Fraticelli, A.; Marconi, R.; Mennuni, M.; Moretti, L.; Mos, L.; Pancaldi, L. G.; Pirelli, S.; Renda, G.; Santini, M.; Tavarozzi, I.; Terrosu, P.; Uneddu, F.; Viccione, M.; Zanini, R.; Zingarini, G.; Aoyagi, T.; Eguma, H.; Fujii, K.; Fukuchi, M.; Fukunami, M.; Furukawa, Y.; Furuya, J.; Haneda, K.; Hara, S.; Hiroe, M.; Iesaka, Y.; Iijima, T.; Ishibashi, Y.; Iwade, K.; Kajiya, T.; Kakinoki, S.; Kamakura, S.; Katayama, Y.; Kihara, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Kono, K.; Koretsune, Y.; Marui, N.; Matsuyama, T.; Meno, H.; Miyamoto, N.; Morikawa, S.; Myojin, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nishi, Y.; Ogawa, T.; Onaka, H.; Sakakibara, T.; Sakurai, S.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, H.; Sugii, M.; Sumii, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takagi, M.; Takenaka, T.; Takeuchi, K.; Tanaka, S.; Tanouchi, J.; Ueda, K.; Ueyama, Y.; Ujihira, T.; Usui, M.; Yagi, M.; Yamada, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Yokochi, M.; Zen, E.; Abd Ghaphar, A. K.; Ang, C. K.; Chee, K. H.; Fong, A. F. Y.; Ismail, O.; Jeyaindran, S.; Kaur, S.; Lee, T. C.; Sandhu, R. S.; Shah, R. P.; Suganthi, S.; Zainal Abidin, S.; Alvarado-Ruiz, R.; Carrillo, J.; Delgado, E.; Fernandez Bonetti, P. A.; Leiva, J. L.; Meaney, A.; Olvera, R.; Peralta-Heredia, R.; Rodriguez, I.; Ruiz Rabasa, C. M.; Solache, G.; Villeda Espinosa, E.; Ahmed, S.; Badings, E.; Bartels, G. L.; Beganovic, M.; Bruning, T. A.; Ciampricotti, R.; Cozijnsen, L.; Crijns, H. J.; Daniels, M. C. G.; de Waard, D. E. P.; den Hartog, F. R.; Dirkali, A.; Groenemeijer, B. E.; Heesen, W. F.; Heijmeriks, J. A.; Hoogslag, P. A.; Huizenga, A.; Idzerda, H. H.; Kragten, J. A.; Krasznai, K.; Lenderink, T.; Liem, A. H.; Linssen, G. C.; Lok, D. J.; Meeder, J. G.; Michels, H. R.; Plomp, J.; Pos, L.; Posma, J. L.; Postema, P. G.; Salomonsz, R.; Stoel, I.; Tans, J. G.; Thijssen, H. J.; Timmermans, A. J. M.; Tteleman, R. G.; van Bergen, P. F. M. M.; van de Klippe, H. A.; van der Zwaan, C.; van Eck, J. W. M.; van Es, A. J. J.; van Gelder, I. C.; van Kempen, L. H.; van Kesteren, H. A.; van Rossum, P.; Veldmeyer, S.; Wilde, A. A. M.; Arnesen, H.; Atar, D.; Breder, O.; Istad, H.; Radunovic, Z.; Rykke, D. E.; Sirnes, P. A.; Tveit, A.; Ulimoen, S. R.; Cabrera, W.; Duenas, R.; Heredia, J. M.; Horna, M. E.; Hurtado, Y.; Salazar, P. M.; Abola, M. T. B.; Anonuevo, J. C.; Arellano, R. S.; Dioquino, C.; Morales, D. D.; Reyes, E. B.; Rogelio, G. G.; Roxas, A. A.; Sulit, D. J. V.; Bacior, B.; Dulak, E.; Gniot, J.; Goncikowski, J.; Grodecki, J.; Kalarus, Z. F.; Kawecka-Jaszcz, K.; Miekus, P.; Monies, F.; Piepiorka, M.; Pilichowska, E.; Plizio, E.; Rekosz, J.; Rybicka-Musialik, A.; Streb, W. A.; Styczkiewicz, M.; Szpajer, M.; Trusz-Gluza, M.; Wasilewska-Piepiorka, A.; Adragao, P.; Branco, V.; Canhão, P.; Cunha, L.; Falcão, F.; Lopes, G.; Machado, C.; Martinez-Marcos, J.; Monteiro, P. F.; Parreira, L.; Pinto, A. N.; Providencia, L. A.; Salgado, A. V.; Santos, J. F.; Timoteo, A. T.; Capalneanu, R.; Cinteza, M. A.; Margulesai, A. D.; Turdeanu, D. S.; Vintila, V. D.; Baranov, V. L.; Berngardt, E. R.; Dzhordzhikiya, T. R.; Gordeev, I. G.; Grigoryev, Y. V.; Isaeva, M. U.; Ivleva, A. Y.; Kokorin, V. A.; Komarov, A. L.; Maximenko, O. K.; Maykov, E. B.; Novikova, N.; Novikova, T. N.; Panchenko, E. P.; Poltavskaya, M. G.; Popova, Y. N.; Pronina, S. A.; Revishvili, A. Sh; Shlyakhto, E. V.; Shustov, S. B.; Sidorenko, B. A.; Sinopalnikov, A. I.; Sulimov, V.; Syrkin, A. L.; Titkov, A. Y.; Titkov, Y. S.; Zateyshchikov, D. A.; Zavaritskaya, O. P.; Chia, P. L.; Foo, D.; Sim, K. L.; Bugan, V.; Buganova, I.; Dúbrava, J.; Kaliska, G.; Masarovicova, M.; Mikes, P.; Mikes, Z.; Murin, J.; Pella, D.; Rybar, R.; Sedlák, J.; Skamla, M.; Spurný, P.; Strbova, J.; Uhliar, R.; Disler, L. J.; Engelbrecht, J. M.; Jankelow, D.; King, J.; Klug, E. Q.; Munnick, M.; Okreglicki, A. M.; Routier, R. J.; Snyders, F. A.; Theron, H. D.; Wittmer, H.; Cha, T. J.; Cho, J. G.; Choi, I. S.; Choi, J. I.; Choi, K. J.; Han, K. R.; Heo, J. H.; Jang, S. W.; Kang, T. S.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, S. S.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, Y. N.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, M. Y.; Nam, G. B.; Oh, D. J.; Park, H. W.; Park, J. S.; Rho, T. H.; Shin, D. G.; Shin, E. K.; Alonso, J. J.; Cano, L.; Castellano, N. P.; Criado-Millan, A. J.; Curcio, A.; Egea, P.; Escudier, J. M.; Grande, A.; Grande, J. M.; Gusi-Tragant, G.; Lozano, I. F.; Martin, A. M.; Martinez-Rubio, A.; Mont, L.; Perez-Villacastin, J.; Sosa, L.; Ali, M.; Andersson, T.; Bandh, S.; Blomstrom Lundqvist, C. M.; Cherfan, P.; Fengsrud, E.; Fluur, C.; Herlitz, J.; Hijazi, Z.; Hoglund, N.; Hojeberg, B.; Jabro, J.; Juhlin, T.; Kjellman, B.; Lonnberg, I.; Maru, F.; Morlid, L.; Nilsson, O. R.; Ronn, F.; Rosenqvist, M.; Walfridsson, H.; Engelter, S. T.; Gallino, A.; Lyrer, P. A.; Moccetti, T.; Petrova, I.; Chang, Y. J.; Chen, C. H.; Chen, M. Y. C.; Cheng, J. J.; Chiang, T. R.; Chung, W. T.; Hsia, C. H.; Hsu, C. Y.; Hu, H. H.; Jeng, J. S.; Lai, W. T.; Lien, L. M.; Lin, K. H.; Liu, C. H.; Lo, H. S.; Peng, G. S.; Po, H. L.; Ryu, S. J.; Tsai, C. D.; Tsai, L. M.; Tseng, C. D.; Wang, J. H.; Wang, S. F.; Yang, S. P.; Kiatchoosakun, S.; Krittayaphong, R.; Kuanprasert, S.; Ngarmukos, T.; Simtharakaew, T.; Sukanandachai, B.; Sukonthasam, A.; Suwanagool, A.; Tatsanavivat, P.; Atmaca, Y.; Baris, N.; Boyaci, B.; Demir, M.; Guneri, S.; Usal, A.; Yalcin, R.; Amosova, K. M.; Beregova, O. P.; Besaga, Y. E. M.; Ikorkin, M. R.; Karapetyan, K.; Karpenko, O. I.; Kononenko, L.; Kuryata, O.; Martynova, L.; Motylevska, T.; Okhryamkina, O.; Pavlyk, S. S.; Perepelytsya, M. V.; Rudenko, L. V.; Skarzhevsky, O. A.; Tkachenko, L. A.; Tseluyko, V.; Usan, N.; Voronkov, L. G.; Yshchenko, K. V.; Zharinov, O. J.; Bryson, V. G.; Butler, R.; Cargill, R. I.; Chahal, N. S.; Cleland, J. G.; Cohen, A. T.; Cruddas, E. M.; Davey, P.; Davies, J.; Ford, S. L.; Griffith, K.; Haynes, R.; Hill, S.; Javed, M.; Kadr, H. H.; Lip, G. H.; Machin, J.; McEneaney, D. J.; McInnes, G. T.; McNeill, A. J.; Moriarty, A. J.; Muir, S.; O'Callaghan, J.; Purvis, J. A.; Pye, M.; Senior, R.; Sutton, D. A.; Thomas, S. H. L.; Wilkinson, P. R.; Wilmott, R.; Wrigley, M. J.; Abadier, R.; Abbud, Z. A.; Adams, K. V.; Adler, S. W.; Agarwal, S.; Ahmed, A. M.; Ahmed, I. S.; Aiuto, M. A.; Albrittun, T. D.; Aliyar, P.; Allan, J. J.; Allen, D. P.; Allen, S. L.; Altschuller, A.; Amin, M.; Anand, I. S.; Antolick, A. B.; Arora, R.; Arouni, A. J.; Arslanian, C. L.; Asinger, R. W.; Aycock, G. R.; Bariciano, R. J.; Baron, S. B.; Barr, M. A.; Bartkowiak, A. J.; Baruch, L.; Basignani, C.; Bass, M. L.; Bean, B.; Bedwell, N. W.; Belber, A. D.; Belew, K.; Bell, Y. C.; Bellinger, R. L.; Bennett, W. T.; Bensimhon, D. R.; Benton, R.; Benton, R. E.; Ben-Yehuda, O.; Bertolet, B. D.; Betkowski, A. S.; Bilazarian, S. D.; Bissette, J. K.; Bobade, M. B.; Bolster, D. E.; Bomba, J.; Book, D. M.; Boscia, J. A.; Bouchard, A.; Bowman, L. M.; Bradley, A. J.; Brandt, H. D.; Bricker, C. R.; Brobyn, T. L.; Brock, R. I.; Broderick, T. M.; Broedlin, K.; Brown, A. M.; Browne, K. F.; Burke, S. W.; Burton, M. E.; Buser, G. A.; Capasso, M. K.; Caplan, W. E.; Cappelli, J.; Cardona, C.; Cardona, F.; Carlson, T.; Carr, K. W.; Casey, T.; Cashion, W. R.; Cass, D. T.; Chandrashekar, Y. S.; Changlani, M.; Chapla, P. G.; Chappell, J. H.; Chen, C.; Chen, Y.; Cho, N. R.; Cieszkowski, J. H.; Clark, D. M.; Clayton, R.; Clogston, C. W.; Cockrell, D. J.; Cohen, A. I.; Cohen, T. J.; Cole, J. F.; Conway, G.; Cook, V. R.; Cornish, A. L.; Cossu, S. F.; Costello, D. L.; Courtade, D. J.; Covelli, H. C.; Crenshaw, B. S.; Crews, L. A.; Crossley, G. H.; Culp, S. C.; Curtis, B. M.; Darrow, K.; de Raad, R. E.; DeGregorio, M.; DelNegro, A. A.; Denny, D. M.; Desai, V. S.; Deumite, N. J.; Dewey, L.; Dharawat, R. N.; Dobbs, B.; Donahue, S. M.; Downey, B.; Downing, J.; Drehobl, M. A.; Drewes, W. A.; Drucker, M. N.; Duff, R.; Duggal, M.; Dunlap, S. H.; Dunning, D. W.; DuThinh, V.; Dykstra, G. T.; East, C.; Eblaghie, M. C.; Edelstein, J.; Edmiston, W. A.; Eisen, H. J.; Eisenberg, S. J.; Ellis, J. R.; Ellison, H. S.; Ellsworth, S.; Elshahawy, M.; Emlein, G.; Entcheva, M.; Essandoh, L. K.; Estrada, A. Q.; Ewing, B.; Faillace, R. T.; Fanelli, A.; Farrell, P. W.; Farris, S. W.; Fattal, P. G.; Feigenblum, D. Y.; Feldman, G. J.; Fialkow, J. A.; Fiddler, K. M.; Fields, R. H.; Finkel, M. S.; Finn, C.; Fischell, T. A.; Fishbach, M.; Fishbein, G. J.; Fisher, M. M.; Fleischhauer, F. J.; Folk, T. G.; Folkerth, S. D.; Fortman, R. R.; Frais, M. A.; Friedman, D. C.; Fuchs, G.; Fuller, F.; Garibian, G.; Gee, F. H.; Gelernt, M. D.; Genovely, H. C.; Gerber, J. R.; Germano, J. J.; Giardina, J. J.; Gilbert, J. M.; Gillespie, E. L.; Gilman, E. M.; Gitler, B.; Givens, D. H.; Glover, R.; Gogia, H. S.; Gohn, D. C.; Goldberg, R. K.; Goldberger, J. J.; Goldscher, D. A.; Goldstein, M.; Goraya, T.; Gordon, D. F.; Gottlieb, D.; Grafner, H. L.; Graham, M.; Graves, M. W.; Graziano, M.; Greco, S. N.; Greenberg, M. L.; Greenspon, A. J.; Greer, G. S.; Griffin, D. D.; Grogan, E. W.; Groo, V. L.; Guarnieri, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, J.; Hack, T. C.; Hall, B.; Hallak, O.; Halpern, S. W.; Hamburg, C.; Hamroff, G. S.; Han, J.; Handel, F.; Hankins, S. R.; Hanovich, G. D.; Hanrahan, J. A.; Haque, I. U.; Hargrove, J. L.; Harnick, P. E.; Harris, J. L.; Hartley, P. A.; Haskel, E. J.; Hatch, D.; Haught, W. H.; Hearne, S.; Hearne, S. E.; Hemphill, J. A.; Henderson, D. A.; Henes, C. H.; Hengerer-Yates, T.; Hermany, P. R.; Herzog, W. R.; Hickey, K.; Hilton, T. C.; Hockstad, E. S.; Hodnett, P.; Hoffmeister, R.; Holland, J.; Hollenweger, L.; Honan, M. B.; Hoopes, D. A.; Hordes, A. R.; Hotchkiss, D. A.; Howard, M. A.; Howard, V. N.; Hulyalkar, A. R.; Hurst, P.; Hutchison, L. C.; Ingram, J.; Isakov, T.; Ison, R. K.; Israel, C. N.; Jackson, B. K.; Jackson, K. N.; Jacobson, A. K.; Jain, S.; Jarmukli, N. F.; Joffe, I.; Johnson, L. E.; Johnson, S. A.; Johnson, S. L.; Jones, A. A.; Joyce, D. B.; Judson, P. L.; Juk, S. S.; Kaatz, S.; Kaddaha, R. M.; Kaplan, K. J.; Karunaratne, H. B.; Kennett, J. D.; Kenton, D. M.; Kettunen, J. A.; Khan, M. A.; Khant, R. N.; Kirkwood, M. D.; Knight, B. P.; Knight, P. O.; Knutson, T. J.; Kobayashi, J. F.; Kogan, A.; Kogan, A. D.; Koren, M. J.; Kosinski, E. J.; Kosolcharoen, P.; Kostis, J. B.; Kramer, J. H.; Kramer, S. D.; Kron, J.; Kuchenrither, C. R.; Kulback, S. J.; Kumar, A.; Kushner, D.; Kutscher, A.; Lai, C. K.; Lam, J. B.; Landau, C.; Landzberg, J. S.; Lang, D. T.; Lang, J. M.; Lanzarotti, C. J.; Lascewski, D. L.; Lau, T. K.; Lee, J. K.; Lee, S.; Leimbach, W. N.; LePine, A. M.; Lesser, M. F.; Leuchak, S. H.; Levy, R. M.; Lewis, W. R.; Lincoln, T. L.; Lingerfelt, W. M.; Liston, M.; Liu, Z. G.; Lloret, R. L.; Lohrbauer, L.; Longoria, D. C.; Lott, B. M.; Louder, D. R.; Loukinen, K. L.; Lovell, J.; Lue, S.; Mackall, J. A.; Maletz, L.; Marlow, L.; Martin, R. C.; Matsumura, M.; McCartney, M. J.; McDuffie, D.; McGough, M. F.; McGrew, F. A.; McGuinn, Wm P.; McMillen, M. D.; McNeff, J.; McPherson, C. A.; Meengs, M. E.; Meengs, W. L.; Meholick, A. W.; Meisner, J. S.; Melucci, M. B.; Mercando, A.; Merlino, J. D.; Meymandi, S. K.; Miele, M. B.; Miller, R. H.; Miller, S. H.; Minor, S. T.; Mitchell, M. R.; Modi, M.; Mody, F. V.; Moeller, C. L.; Moloney, J. F.; Moran, J. E.; Morcos, N. C.; Morgan, A.; Mukherjee, S. K.; Mullinax, K.; Murphy, A. L.; Mustin, A. J.; Myers, G. I.; Naccarelli, G. V.; Nadar, V. K.; Nallasivan, M.; Navas, J. P.; Niazi, I. K.; Nsah, E. N.; Nunamaker, J. L.; Ochalek, T. B.; O'dea, D. J.; Ogilvie, P. D.; Olliff, B.; Omalley, A. K.; O'Neill, P. G.; Onufer, J. R.; Orchard, R. C.; Orihuela, L. A.; Ortiz, E. C.; O'Sullivan, M. T.; Padanilam, B. J.; Pandey, P.; Patel, D. V.; Patel, R. J.; Patel, V. B.; Patlola, R. R.; Pennock, G. D.; Perlman, R.; Peters, P. H.; Petrillo, A. V.; Pezzella, S.; Phillips, D.; Pierre-Louis, J. R.; Pilcher, G.; Pillai, C.; Pollock, S. G.; Pond, M. S.; Porterfield, J. K.; Presant, L.; Pressler, J.; Pribble, A. H.; Promisloff, S. D.; Pudi, K. K.; Putnam, D. L.; Quartner, J.; Quinn, J. C.; Quinnell, C. M.; Raad, G. L.; Rasmussen, L. A.; Ray, C.; Reiffel, J. A.; Reynertson, S.; Richardson, J. W.; Riley, C. P.; Rippy, J. S.; Rittelmeyer, J. T.; Roberts, D. M.; Robertson, R.; Robinson, V. J. B.; Rocco, T. A.; Rosenbaum, D.; Roth, E. M.; Rottman, J. N.; Rough, R. R.; Rubenstein, J. J.; Sakkal, A. M.; Saleem, T.; Salerno, D. M.; Samendinger, M. L.; Sandeno, S.; Santilli, T. M.; Santucci, P.; Sattar, P.; Saxman, K. A.; Schaefer, S.; Schmidt, J.; Schneider, R. M.; Schocken, D. D.; Schrader, M. K.; Schramm, B. A.; Schultz, R. W.; Schussheim, A. E.; Schwarz, E. F.; Seamon, M. C.; Sestero, J. D.; Shah, M. P.; Shah, R.; Shalaby, A.; Shanes, J. G.; Sheftel, G. L.; Sheikh, K. H.; Shein, A. B.; Shemonsky, N. K.; Shepler, A.; Sheridan, E.; Shipwash, T. M.; Shopnick, R. I.; Short, W. G.; Shoukfeh, M. F.; Sibia, R. S.; Siler, T. M.; Silva, J. A.; Simons, G. R.; Simpson, A. G.; Simpson, H. R.; Simpson, V. J.; Singh, B. N.; Singh, N.; Singh, V. N.; Sitz, C. J.; Skatrud, L.; Sklar, J.; Slotwiner, D. J.; Smith, P. F.; Smith, P. N.; Smith, R. H.; Smith, J. E.; Sodowick, B. C.; Solomon, A. J.; Soltero, E. A.; Sonel, A. F.; Sperling, R.; Spiller, C.; Spink, B. Z.; Sprinkle, L. W.; Spyropoulos, A. C.; Stamos, T. D.; Steljes, A. D.; Stillabower, M. E.; Stover, T.; Strain, J. E.; Strickland, T. L.; Suresh, D. P.; Takata, T. S.; Taylor, J. S.; Taylor, M.; Teague, S. M.; Teixeia, J. M.; Telfer, E. A.; Terry, P. S.; Terry, R. W.; Thai, H. M.; Thalin, M.; Thomas, V. N.; Thompson, C. A.; Thompson, M. A.; Thornton, J. W.; Tidman, R. E.; Toler, B. S.; Traina, M. I.; Trippi, J. A.; Ujiiye, D. L.; Usedom, J. E.; van de Graaff, E.; van de Wall, L. R.; Vaughn, J. W.; Ver Steeg, D.; Vicari, R. M.; Vijay, N.; Vitale, C. B.; Vlastaris, A. G.; Voda, J.; Vora, K. N.; Voyles, W. F.; Vranian, R. B.; Vrooman, P. S.; Waack, P.; Waldo, A. L.; Walker, J. L.; Wallace, M. A.; Walsh, E. A.; Walsh, R. L.; Walton, A.; Washam, M.; Wehner, P. S.; Wei, J. Y.; Weiner, S.; Weiss, R. J.; Wells, D. M.; Wera-Archakul, W.; Wertheimer, J. H.; West, S. A.; Whitaker, J. H.; White, M. L.; White, R. H.; Whitehill, J. N.; Wiegman, P. J.; Wiesel, J.; Williams, J.; Williams, L. E.; Williams, M. L.; Williamson, V. K.; Wilson, V. E.; Wilson, W. W.; Woodfield, S. L.; Wulff, C. W.; Yates, S. W.; Yousuf, K. A.; Zakhary, B. G.; Zambrano, R.; Zimetbaum, P.; Zoble, R.; Zopo, A. R.; Zwerner, P. L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Warfarin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but increases the risk of hemorrhage and is difficult to use. Dabigatran is a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor. METHODS: In this noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 18,113 patients who had atrial

  5. EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON CYCLE LENGTH IN ATRIAL-FLUTTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, MP; CRIJNS, HJGM; SZABO, BM; BROUWER, J; LIE, KI

    Objective-To examine the effect of exercise on cycle length in atrial flutter. Patients-15 patients with chronic atrial flutter. Seven patients were taking digoxin and six verapamil; two were not taking medication. Methods-All patients underwent bicycle ergometry. Flutter cycle length was measured

  6. Atrial fibrillation and bleeding complication - risk factors and risk marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breithardt, G.; Ravens, U.; Kirchhof, P.; van Gelder, I. C.

    2012-01-01

    The development of atrial fibrillation (AF) is closely linked to risk factors like hypertension and heart failure, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and valvular heart disease. These factors partly overlap with those which determine the progression of atrial fibrillation and the incidence of

  7. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure for stroke prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Loupis, Anastasia M; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with an increased stroke risk, oral anticoagulation (OAC) is the standard treatment for stroke prevention. However, this therapy carries a high risk of major bleeding. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) is suggested as an alt...

  8. Right atrial myxoma at Muhimbili National Hospital: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower cava hypertension and was in NYHA class IV. The 2-D echocardiography revealed a right atrial tumor encroaching the tricuspid valve, chest radiography showed gross cardiomegally and right lower lung collapse. A clinical diagnosis of right atrial tumour was reached. The patient was scheduled to undergo open heart ...

  9. Importance of the atrial channel for ventricular arrhythmia therapy in the dual chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, B; Wellens, H J

    2000-12-01

    Performance of dual chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) systems has been judged based on functioning of the ventricular tachycardia:supraventricular tachycardia (VT:SVT) discrimination criteria and DDD pacing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of dual chamber diagnostics to improve the electrical and antiarrhythmic therapy of ventricular arrhythmias. Information about atrial and ventricular rhythm in relation to ventricular arrhythmia occurrence and therapy was evaluated in 724 spontaneous arrhythmia episodes detected and treated by three types of dual chamber ICDs in 41 patients with structural heart disease. Device programming was based on clinically documented and induced ventricular arrhythmias. In ambulatory patients, sinus tachycardia preceded ventricular arrhythmias more often than in the hospital during exercise testing. The incidence of these VTs could be reduced by increasing the dose of a beta-blocking agent in only two patients. In five patients in whom sinus tachycardia developed after onset of hemodynamic stable VT, propranolol was more effective than Class III antiarrhythmics combined with another beta-blocking agent with regard to the incidence of VT and pace termination. In all but three cases, atrial arrhythmias were present for a longer time before the onset of ventricular arrhythmias. During atrial arrhythmias, fast ventricular rates before the onset of ventricular rate were observed more often than RR irregularities and short-long RR sequences. Dual chamber diagnostics allowed proper interpretation of detection and therapy outcome in patients with different types of ventricular arrhythmia. The advantages of the dual chamber ICD system go further than avoiding the shortcomings of the single chamber system. Information from the atrial chamber allows better device programming and individualization of drug therapy for ventricular arrhythmia.

  10. Left Atrial Sphericity Index Predicts Early Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation After Direct-Current Cardioversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmanagic, Armin; Möller, Sören; Osmanagic, Azra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attempts to achieve rhythm control using direct-current cardioversion (DCC) are common in those with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). Although often successful, AF recurs within 1 month in as many as 57% of patients. The aim of this study was to assess whether a baseline left atri...

  11. Does Myocardial Infarction Beget Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Fibrillation Beget Myocardial Infarction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermond, Rob A.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Crijns, Harry J.; Rienstra, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects millions of people worldwide.(1) It is already known several decades that AF is not a benign condition, and it's associated with a 5-fold increased risk of stroke, 3-fold increased risk of heart failure, and doubling of risk of dementia and death.(2-4) Myocardial

  12. Family history of atrial fibrillation is associated with earlier-onset and more symptomatic atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, Anna; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Kim, Sunghee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We addressed whether patients with a family history of atrial fibrillation (AF) were diagnosed as having AF earlier in life, were more symptomatic, and had worse outcomes compared with those without a family history of AF. METHODS: Using the ORBIT-AF, we compared symptoms and disease...

  13. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, O; Arnous, S; Ihlemann, N

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. One of its most devastating complications is the development of thromboembolism leading to fatal or disabling stroke. Oral anticoagulation (OAC, warfarin) is the standard treatment for strok...

  14. Ventricular rhythm in atrial fibrillation under anaesthetic infusion with propofol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervigón, R; Moreno, J; Pérez-Villacastín, J; Reilly, R B; Castells, F

    2009-01-01

    Changes in patients' autonomic tone and specific pharmacologic interventions may modify the ventricular response (actual heart rate) during atrial fibrillation (AF). Hypnotic agents such as propofol may modify autonomic balance as they promote a sedative state. It has been shown that propofol slightly slows atrial fibrillatory activity, but the net global effect on the ventricular response remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate in patients in AF the effect of a propofol bolus on the ventricular rate and regularity at ECG. We analysed the possible relation with local atrial fibrillatory activities, as ratios between atrial and ventricular rates (AVRs), analysing atrial activity from intracardiac electrograms at the free wall of the right and left atria and at the interatrial septum. We compared data at the baseline and after complete hypnosis. Propofol was associated with a more homogeneous ventricular response and lower AVR values at the interatrial septum

  15. Atrial Arrhythmias in Astronauts. Summary of a NASA Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael; Watkins, Sharmila; Polk, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the findings of a panel of heart experts brought together to study if atrial arrhythmias more prevalent in astronauts, and potential risk factors that may predispose astronauts to atrial arrhythmias. The objective of the panel was to solicit expert opinion on screening, diagnosis, and treatment options, identify gaps in knowledge, and propose relevant research initiatives. While Atrial Arrhythmias occur in approximately the same percents in astronauts as in the general population, they seem to occur at younger ages in astronauts. Several reasons for this predisposition were given: gender, hypertension, endurance training, and triggering events. Potential Space Flight-Related Risk factors that may play a role in precipitating lone atrial fibrillation were reviewed. There appears to be no evidence that any variable of the space flight environment increases the likelihood of developing atrial arrhythmias during space flight.

  16. Genetics of Atrial Fibrillation and Possible Implications for Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Lemmens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia mainly caused by valvular, ischemic, hypertensive, and myopathic heart disease. Atrial fibrillation can occur in families suggesting a genetic background especially in younger subjects. Additionally recent studies have identified common genetic variants to be associated with atrial fibrillation in the general population. This cardiac arrhythmia has important public health implications because of its main complications: congestive heart failure and ischemic stroke. Since atrial fibrillation can result in ischemic stroke, one might assume that genetic determinants of this cardiac arrhythmia are also implicated in cerebrovascular disease. Ischemic stroke is a multifactorial, complex disease where multiple environmental and genetic factors interact. Whether genetic variants associated with a risk factor for ischemic stroke also increase the risk of a particular vascular endpoint still needs to be confirmed in many cases. Here we review the current knowledge on the genetic background of atrial fibrillation and the consequences for cerebrovascular disease.

  17. Effect of renal sympathetic denervation on atrial substrate remodeling in ambulatory canines with prolonged atrial pacing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xule Wang

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RSD could suppress atrial fibrillation (AF in canines with short-time rapid right atrial pacing (RAP. However, the role of renal denervation on atrial remodeling is unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the long-term effect of RSD on the atrial remodeling during prolonged RAP. Twenty mongrel dogs were implanted with a high-frequency cardiac pacemaker with a transvenous lead inserted into the right atrial appendage. The dogs were divided into three groups: a sham-operated group (n = 6, the chronic RAP (CRAP group (n = 7, and the CRAP+RSD group (n = 7. In the CRAP+RSD group, a pacemaker was implanted 6 weeks after RSD was performed bilaterally for recovery. RAP was maintained for 5 weeks in CRAP group and CRAP+RSD group. The plasma levels of Angiotensin II and aldosterone were significantly increased in CRAP group compared with sham-operated group, but the increasing trend was inhibited in CRAP+RSD group compared with CRAP group (P<0.05. Similarly, RSD suppressed the increasing trend that prolonged RAP produced in the left atrial levels of ANP, TNF-α and IL-6. Compared with the sham-operated group, the CRAP group had significantly increased levels of caspase-3, bax and Cx40 whereas the level of Bcl-2 decreased (P<0.05. RSD markedly reduced the upregulation of caspase-3, bax and Cx40 and the downregulation of Bcl-2 expression compared with the CRAP group (P<0.05. Picric acid-sirius red staining study suggested that RSD could markedly alleviate the lesion degree of cardic fibrosis induced by CRAP (P<0.05. Immunohistochemistry results showed that the densities of TH- and GAP43- positive nerves were significantly elevated in the CRAP group compared with the sham-operated group, while RSD operation signicantly inhibited the these changes produced by CRAP. These findings suggest that renal denervation could suppress the atrial remodeling after

  18. Expression of TGFbeta1 in pulmonary vein stenosis after radiofrequency ablation in chronic atrial fibrillation of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shufeng; Li, Hongli; Mingyan, E; Yu, Bo

    2009-02-01

    The development of pulmonary vein stenosis has recently been described after radiofrequency ablation (RF) to treat atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study was to examine expression of TGFbeta1 in pulmonary vein stenosis after radiofrequency ablation in chronic atrial fibrillation of dogs. About 28 mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to the sham-operated group (n = 7), the AF group (n = 7), AF + RF group (n = 7), and RF group (n = 7). In AF or AF + RF groups, dogs underwent chronic pulmonary vein (PV) pacing to induce sustained AF. RF application was applied around the PVs until electrical activity was eliminated. Histological assessment of pulmonary veins was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining; TGFbeta1 gene expression in pulmonary veins was examined by RT-PCR analysis; expression of TGFbeta1 protein in pulmonary veins was assessed by Western blot analysis. Rapid pacing from the left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV) induced sustained AF in AF group and AF + RF group. Pulmonary vein ablation terminated the chronic atrial fibrillation in dogs. Histological examination revealed necrotic tissues in various stages of collagen replacement, intimal thickening, and cartilaginous metaplasia with chondroblasts and chondroclasts. Compared with sham-operated and AF group, TGFbeta1 gene and protein expressions was increased in AF + RF or RF groups. It was concluded that TGFbeta1 might be associated with pulmonary vein stenosis after radiofrequency ablation in chronic atrial fibrillation of dogs.

  19. Atrial Fibrillation: When the heart is not in rhythm | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: When the heart is not in rhythm Past ... show, Deal With It . Photo: TBS/Deal Understanding Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common type ...

  20. Anomalous muscle bundle in the right atrium; Implication to trans atrial device closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saji Philip

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracavitary muscle bands or aberrant bands have been well described in all four chambers of the heart but rarely seen thick muscular band crossing right atrium. We report a case of devisable secundum atrial septal defect with an intra-atrial anomalous muscular band, crossing right atrial wall to the rim of the secundum atrial septal defect warranting surgical closure.

  1. Pulmonary artery-to-left atrial fistula discovered after the closure of atrial septal defect: A rare clinical scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Chauhan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of the right pulmonary artery-to- left atrial fistula with atrial septal defect (ASD is presented. The fistula was detected after the patient developed desaturation following surgical closure of the ASD. It was managed with a transcatheter (trans-RPA route closure of the fistula using a 12-mm Amplatzer ventricular septal defect closure device.

  2. Does Left Atrial Volume and Pulmonary Venous Anatomy Predict the Outcome of Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Irene; Chilukuri, Karuna; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Scherr, Daniel; Dalal, Darshan; Nazarian, Saman; Henrikson, Charles; Spragg, David; Berger, Ronald; Marine, Joseph; Calkins, Hugh

    Introduction: Preprocedural factors may be helpful in selecting patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) for treatment with catheter ablation and in making an assumption regarding their prognosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether left atrial (LA) volume and pulmonary venous (PV)

  3. Direct Proof of Endo-Epicardial Asynchrony of the Atrial Wall During Atrial Fibrillation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Natasja; van der Does, Lisette; Yaksh, Ameeta; Lanters, Eva; Teuwen, Christophe; Knops, Paul; van de Woestijne, Pieter; Bekkers, Jos; Kik, Charles; Bogers, Ad; Allessie, Maurits

    2016-05-01

    The presence of focal fibrillation waves during atrial fibrillation (AF) can, besides ectopic activity, also be explained by asynchronous activation of the atrial endo- and epicardial layer and transmurally propagating fibrillation waves. To provide direct proof of endo-epicardial asynchrony, we performed simultaneous high-resolution mapping of the right atrial endo- and epicardial wall during AF in humans. Intraoperative mapping of the endo- and epicardial right atrial wall was performed during (induced) AF in 10 patients with AF (paroxysmal: n=3; persistent: n=4; and longstanding persistent: n=3) and 4 patients without a history of AF. A clamp made of 2 rectangular 8×16 electrode arrays (interelectrode distance 2 mm) was inserted into the incision in the right atrial appendage. Recordings of 10 seconds of AF were analyzed to determine the incidence of asynchronous endo-epicardial activation times (≥15 ms) of opposite electrodes. Asynchronous endo-epicardial activation ranged between 0.9 and 55.9% without preference for either side. Focal waves appeared equally frequent at endocardium and epicardium (11% versus 13%; ITALIC! P=0.18). Using strict criteria for breakthrough (presence of an opposite wave within 4 mm and ≤14 ms before the origin of the focal wave), the majority (65%) of all focal fibrillation waves could be attributed to endo-epicardial excitation. We provided the first evidence for asynchronous activation of the endo-epicardial wall during AF in humans. Endo-epicardial asynchrony may play a major role in the pathophysiology of AF and may offer an explanation why in some patients therapy fails. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Assessment of non-invasive time and frequency atrial fibrillation organization markers with unipolar atrial electrograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, Raúl; Hornero, Fernando; Rieta, José J

    2011-01-01

    The standard electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most common non-invasive way to study atrial fibrillation (AF). In this respect, previous works have shown that the surface lead V 1 reflects mainly the dominant atrial frequency (DAF) of the right atrium (RA), which has been widely used to study AF. In a similar way, AF organization and fibrillatory (f) wave amplitude are two recently proposed non-invasive AF markers. These markers need to be validated with invasive recordings in order to assess their capability to reliably reflect the internal fibrillatory activity dynamics. In this work, these two non-invasive metrics have been compared with similar measures recorded from two unipolar atrial electrograms (AEGs). For both ECG and AEG signals, AF organization has been computed by applying a nonlinear regularity index, such as sample entropy (SampEn), to the atrial activity (AA) and to its fundamental waveform, defined as the main atrial wave (MAW). The surface and epicardial f wave amplitude has been estimated through their mean power. Results obtained for 38 patients showed statistically significant correlations between the values measured from surface and invasive recordings, thus corroborating the usefulness of the aforesaid markers in the non-invasive study of AF. Precisely, for AF organization computed from the MAW, the correlation coefficients between surface and both AEGs were R = 0.926 (p < 0.001) and R = 0.932 (p < 0.001). For f wave amplitude, slightly lower significant relationships were noticed, the correlation coefficients being R = 0.765 (p < 0.001) and R = 0.842 (p < 0.001). These outcomes together with interesting linear relationships found among the parameters suggest that AF regularity estimated via SampEn and f wave amplitude can non-invasively characterize the epicardial activity related to AF

  5. Interatrial septum pacing decreases atrial dyssynchrony on strain rate imaging compared with right atrial appendage pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, Yoshinori; Abe, Haruhiko; Umekawa, Seiko; Katsuki, Keiko; Tanaka, Norio; Araki, Ryo; Imanaka, Takahiro; Matsutera, Ryo; Morisawa, Daisuke; Kitada, Hirokazu; Hattori, Susumu; Noda, Yoshiki; Adachi, Hidenori; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Miyatake, Kunio

    2011-03-01

    Interatrial septum pacing (IAS-P) decreases atrial conduction delay compared with right atrial appendage pacing (RAA-P). We evaluate the atrial contraction with strain rate of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) during sinus activation or with IAS-P or RAA-P. Fifty-two patients with permanent pacemaker for sinus node disease were enrolled in the study. Twenty-three subjects were with IAS-P and 29 with RAA-P. The time from end-diastole to peak end-diastolic strain rate was measured and corrected with RR interval on electrocardiogram. It was defined as the time from end-diastole to peak end-diastolic strain rate (TSRc), and the balance between maximum and minimum TSRc at three sites (ΔTSRc) was compared during sinus activation and with pacing rhythm in each group. There were no significant differences observed in general characteristics and standard echocardiographic parameters except the duration of pacing P wave between the two groups. The duration was significantly shorter in the IAS-P group compared with the RAA-P group (95 ± 34 vs 138 ± 41; P = 0.001). TSRc was significantly different between sinus activation and pacing rhythm (36.3 ± 35.7 vs 61.6 ± 36.3; P = 0.003) in the RAA-P group, whereas no significant differences were observed in the IAS-P group (25.4 ± 12.1 vs 27.7 ± 14.7; NS). During the follow-up (mean 2.4 ± 0.7 years), the incidence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) conversion to permanent AF was not significantly different between the two groups. IAS-P decreased the contraction delay on atrial TDI compared to RAA-P; however, it did not contribute to the reduction of AF incidence in the present study. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Atrial-selective K+ channel blockers: potential antiarrhythmic drugs in atrial fibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravens, Ursula

    2017-11-01

    In the wake of demographic change in Western countries, atrial fibrillation has reached an epidemiological scale, yet current strategies for drug treatment of the arrhythmia lack sufficient efficacy and safety. In search of novel medications, atrial-selective drugs that specifically target atrial over other cardiac functions have been developed. Here, I will address drugs acting on potassium (K + ) channels that are either predominantly expressed in atria or possess electrophysiological properties distinct in atria from ventricles. These channels include the ultra-rapidly activating, delayed outward-rectifying Kv1.5 channel conducting I Kur , the acetylcholine-activated inward-rectifying Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel conducting I K,ACh , the Ca 2+ -activated K + channels of small conductance (SK) conducting I SK , and the two-pore domain K + (K2P) channels (tandem of P domains, weak inward-rectifying K + channels (TWIK-1), TWIK-related acid-sensitive K + channels (TASK-1 and TASK-3)) that are responsible for voltage-independent background currents I TWIK-1 , I TASK-1 , and I TASK-3 . Direct drug effects on these channels are described and their putative value in treatment of atrial fibrillation is discussed. Although many potential drug targets have emerged in the process of unravelling details of the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for atrial fibrillation, we do not know whether novel antiarrhythmic drugs will be more successful when modulating many targets or a single specific one. The answer to this riddle can only be solved in a clinical context.

  7. [Left atrial electric isolation in the treatment of atrial fibrillation secondary to rheumatic valvular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, A; Pagani, F; Minzioni, G; Salerno, J; Viganò, M

    1992-08-01

    Surgical isolation of the left atrium was performed for the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation secondary to valvular disease in 100 patients who underwent valve surgery. From May 1989 to September 1991, 62 patients underwent mitral valve surgery (Group I), 19 underwent mitral valve surgery and DeVega tricuspid annuloplasty (Group II), 15 underwent mitral and aortic surgery (Group III), and 4 patients underwent mitral and aortic surgery and DeVega tricuspid annuloplasty (Group IV). Left atrial isolation was performed prolonging the usual left paraseptal atriotomy towards the left fibrous trigone anteriorly, and the postero-medial commissure posteriorly. The incision was conducted a few millimeters apart from the mitral valve annulus, and cryolesion were placed at the edges to ensure complete electrophysiological isolation of the left atrium. Operative mortality accounted for 3 cases (3%). In 79 patients (81.4%) sinus rhythm recovered and persisted until discharge from the hospital. No differences were found between the groups (Group I: 80.7%; Group II: 68.5%; Group III 86.7%, Group IV 75% - p = N.S.). Three cases of late mortality (3.1%) were registered. long-term results showed persistence of SR in 71% of Group I, 61.2% of Group II, 85.8% of Group III, and 100% of Group IV. The unique risk factor for late recurrency of atrial fibrillation was found to be a duration of preoperative AF longer than 6 months. Due to the high success rate in recovering the sinus rhythm, we suggest left atrial isolation in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation undergoing valvular surgery.

  8. Extraskeletal multiple myeloma presenting with an atrial mass: a case report and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Vigo, Federica; Ciammella, Patrizia; Valli, Riccardo; Cagni, Elisabetta; Iotti, Cinzia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Extraskeletal presentation at diagnosis or during the course of multiple myeloma is a rare event. The prognosis is usually very poor. At the moment there is no agreed gold standard for the treatment of this presentation. Case presentation A 79-year-old Caucasian woman was treated at our hospital for right atrial myeloma localization. Our patient showed the following signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure: dyspnea, hypotension, cyanosis and facial edema. Surgery w...

  9. Combined percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty and left atrial appendage occlusion device implantation for rheumatic mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, Dale; McAulay, Laura; Walters, Darren L.

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatic heart disease is a common cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly in developing countries. Mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation often coexist, related to both structural and inflammatory changes of the mitral valve and left atrium. Both predispose to left atrial thrombus formation, commonly involving the left atrial appendage. Thromboembolism can occur, with devastating consequences. We report the case of a 62 year old woman with rheumatic heart disease resulting in mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation. Previous treatment with warfarin resulted in life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding and she refused further anticoagulant therapy. A combined procedure was performed, including percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty and left atrial appendage occlusion device implantation with the Atritech® Watchman® device. No thromboembolic or bleeding complications were encountered at one year follow-up. Long-term follow-up in a cohort of patients will be required to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this strategy

  10. Combined percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty and left atrial appendage occlusion device implantation for rheumatic mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, Dale, E-mail: dale_murdoch@health.qld.gov.au [The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); The University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); McAulay, Laura [The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Walters, Darren L. [The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); The University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Rheumatic heart disease is a common cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly in developing countries. Mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation often coexist, related to both structural and inflammatory changes of the mitral valve and left atrium. Both predispose to left atrial thrombus formation, commonly involving the left atrial appendage. Thromboembolism can occur, with devastating consequences. We report the case of a 62 year old woman with rheumatic heart disease resulting in mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation. Previous treatment with warfarin resulted in life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding and she refused further anticoagulant therapy. A combined procedure was performed, including percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty and left atrial appendage occlusion device implantation with the Atritech® Watchman® device. No thromboembolic or bleeding complications were encountered at one year follow-up. Long-term follow-up in a cohort of patients will be required to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this strategy.

  11. Hybrid options for treating cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Zhao, David X; Gallion, Anna H; Mishra, Prabodh C; Byrne, John G

    2011-01-01

    The options for treating heart disease have greatly expanded during the course of the last 2 1/2 decades with the advent of hybrid technology. The hybrid option for treating cardiac disease implies using the technology of both interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery to treat cardiac disease. This rapidly developing technology has given rise to new and creative techniques to treat cardiac disease involving coronary artery disease, coronary artery disease and cardiac valve disease, and atrial fibrillation. It has also led to the establishment of new procedural suites called hybrid operating rooms that facilitate the integration of technologies of interventional cardiology catheterization laboratories with those of cardiac surgery operating rooms. The development of hybrid options for treating cardiac disease has also greatly augmented teamwork and collaboration between interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. NASA's First Atrial Fibrillation Case - Deke Slayton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about heart dysrhythmia have been present since the earliest days of the US manned space program. While information about an astronaut's health is general kept private, one of the original seven American astronaut's health status was played out in a very public forum. Donald "Deke" Slayton was removed from the second manned space flight when it was discovered he had idiopathic atrial fibrillation. Referencing the original medical documents, details of how this was discovered and managed from the medical perspective will be reviewed. This is NASA's first heart dysrhythmia case in an astronaut and it proves quite interesting when placed in historic perspective.

  13. Current approaches in atrial fibrillation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Sarı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. Its incidence increases with age. AF is classified into subtypes according to the duration and/or able to provide sinus rhytym. İnitially, patients should be evaluated for rhythm or rate control for appropriate treatment. Second stage of strategy aimed to investigate the feasibility of anticoagulation therapy. Recently, due to the progress made in treatment with rhythm control and anticoagulation therapy, either American or European guidelines have been renovated. These developments have taken place in the newly published guide. In this article, the current change in the management of AF is discussed.

  14. The polyuria of paroxysmal atrial tachycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, M. J.; Stein, R. M.; Discala, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Two patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and an associated polyuria were studied to delineate the mechanism of the increase in urine flow. A striking saluresis was noted in both patients. The increased sodium excretion was probably due to decreased sodium reabsorption, perhaps at proximal tubular nephron sites. This inhibition of sodium reabsorption could explain both the saluresis and some part or all of the polyuria. Re-evaluation of earlier case reports reveals patterns of concomitant salt and water excretion consistent with this mechanism. The saluresis cannot be explained by the previously favored hypothesis of antidiuretic hormone inhibition.

  15. Echocardiographic study of left atrial myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal J

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of left atrial myxoma were diagnosed pre-operatively by echocardiography. All cases showed characteristic echocardio-graphic features of variegated shadows behind the mitral valve in diastole and within the left atrium in systole. In two cases the my-xomas were surgically removed and confirmed on histology. In one case the post-operative echocardiogram showed complete dis-appearance of the abnormal shadows. Echocardiography is the most reliable method today for the diagnosis of a myxoma.

  16. Atrial overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 improves the canine rapid atrial pacing-induced structural and electrical remodeling. Fan, ACE2 improves atrial substrate remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinqi; Zou, Lili; Cui, Kun; Woo, Kamsang; Du, Huaan; Chen, Shaojie; Ling, Zhiyu; Zhang, Quanjun; Zhang, Bo; Lan, Xianbin; Su, Li; Zrenner, Bernhard; Yin, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether atrial overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) by homogeneous transmural atrial gene transfer can reverse atrial remodeling and its mechanisms in a canine atrial-pacing model. Twenty-eight mongrel dogs were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated, AF-control, gene therapy with adenovirus-enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ad-EGFP) and gene therapy with Ad-ACE2 (Ad-ACE2) (n = 7 per subgroup). AF was induced in all dogs except the Sham-operated group by rapid atrial pacing at 450 beats/min for 2 weeks. Ad-EGFP and Ad-ACE2 group then received epicardial gene painting. Three weeks after gene transfer, all animals except the Sham group underwent rapid atrial pacing for another 3 weeks and then invasive electrophysiological, histological and molecular studies. The Ad-ACE2 group showed an increased ACE2 and Angiotensin-(1-7) expression, and decreased Angiotensin II expression in comparison with Ad-EGFP and AF-control group. ACE2 overexpression attenuated rapid atrial pacing-induced increase in activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) levels, and decrease in MAPK phosphatase 1(MKP-1) level, resulting in attenuation of atrial fibrosis collagen protein markers and transforming growth factor-β1. Additionally, ACE2 overexpression also modulated the tachypacing-induced up-regulation of connexin 40, down-regulation of connexin 43 and Kv4.2, and significantly decreased the inducibility and duration of AF. ACE2 overexpression could shift the renin-angiotensin system balance towards the protective axis, attenuate cardiac fibrosis remodeling associated with up-regulation of MKP-1 and reduction of MAPKs activities, modulate tachypacing-induced ion channels and connexin remodeling, and subsequently reduce the inducibility and duration of AF.

  17. Atrial conduction times and left atrial mechanical functions and their relation with diastolic function in prediabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudul, Naile Eris; Karabag, Turgut; Sayin, Muhammet Rasit; Bayraktaroglu, Taner; Aydin, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate atrial conduction times and left atrial mechanical functions, the noninvasive predictors of atrial fibrillation, in prediabetic patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Study included 59 patients (23 males, 36 females; mean age 52.5 ± 10.6 years) diagnosed with IFG or IGT by the American Diabetes Association criteria, and 43 healthy adults (22 males, 21 females; mean age 48.5 ± 12.1 years). Conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography were performed. The electromechanical delay parameters were measured from the onset of the P wave on the surface electrocardiogram to the onset of the atrial systolic wave on tissue Doppler imaging from septum, lateral, and right ventricular annuli. The left atrial volumes were calculated by the disk method. Left atrial mechanical functions were calculated. The mitral E/A and E'/A' ratios measured from the lateral and septal annuli were significantly lower in the prediabetics compared to the controls. The interatrial and left atrial electromechanical delay were significantly longer in prediabetic group compared to the controls. Left atrial active emptying volume (LAAEV) and fraction (LAAEF) were significantly higher in the prediabetics than the controls. LAAEV and LAAEF were significantly correlated with E/A, lateral and septal E'/A'. In the prediabetic patients, the atrial conduction times and P wave dispersion on surface electrocardiographic were longer before the development of overt diabetes. In addition, the left atrial mechanical functions were impaired secondary to a deterioration in the diastolic functions in the prediabetic patients.

  18. Magnetic electroanatomical mapping for ablation of focal atrial tachycardias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchlinski, F; Callans, D; Gottlieb, C; Rodriguez, E; Coyne, R; Kleinman, D

    1998-08-01

    Uniform success for ablation of focal atrial tachycardias has been difficult to achieve using standard catheter mapping and ablation techniques. In addition, our understanding of the complex relationship between atrial anatomy, electrophysiology, and surface ECG P wave morphology remains primitive. The magnetic electroanatomical mapping and display system (CARTO) offers an on-line display of electrical activation and/or signal amplitude related to the anatomical location of the recorded sites in the mapped chamber. A window of electrical interest is established based on signals timed from an electrical reference that usually represents a fixed electrogram recording from the coronary sinus or the atrial appendage. This window of electrical interest is established to include atrial activation prior to the onset of the P wave activity associated with the site of origin of a focal atrial tachycardia. Anatomical and electrical landmarks are defined with limited fluoroscopic imaging support and more detailed global chamber and more focal atrial mapping can be performed with minimal fluoroscopic guidance. A three-dimensional color map representing atrial activation or voltage amplitude at the magnetically defined anatomical sites is displayed with on-line data acquisition. This display can be manipulated to facilitate viewing from any angle. Altering the zoom control, triangle fill threshold, clipping plane, or color range can all enhance the display of a more focal area of interest. We documented the feasibility of using this single mapping catheter technique for localizing and ablating focal atrial tachycardias. In a consecutive series of 8 patients with 9 focal atrial tachycardias, the use of the single catheter CARTO mapping system was associated with ablation success in all but one patient who had a left atrial tachycardia localized to the medial aspect of the orifice of the left atrial appendage. Only low power energy delivery was used in this patient because of the

  19. Validating the HeartQoL questionnaire in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Marie S; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Berg, Selina K

    2016-01-01

    questionnaire, the HeartQoL, offers a single measurement instrument which may allow outcome comparisons across cardiac diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of HeartQoL in an AF population treated with ablation by assessing its factor structure, construct validity, internal...... consistency, and test-retest reliability. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were collected in two phases: (a) a cross-sectional study including 462 patients with AF/atrial flutter who completed the HeartQoL and the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), allowing for the evaluation of internal consistency, factor structure...

  20. Stroke in a Young Man Secondary to Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation and Thyrotoxicosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bazan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a male patient with stroke caused by atrial fibrillation (AF due to thyrotoxicosis. At hospital admission, he presented hypertension and AF. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a right-side ischemic area. The thyrotoxicosis was confirmed by thyroid function and thyroid scintigraphy that showed goiter with diffuse hypercaptation. The patient was treated with tapazole and total thyroidectomy, and pathological findings suggested Graves’ disease. Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased supraventricular ectopic activity in patients with a normal heart, and may be an important causal link between hyperthyroidism and AF. The patient experienced significant clinical improvement, but presented long-term neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. Electron microscopic analysis of the specific granule content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge about the stimulus for the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) from human atria is incomplete. Atrial stretch is known to be a stimulus and atrial tachyarrhythmias are thought to be another. The effects of atrial size (by twodimensional echocardiography) and atrial fibrillation on the atrial specific granule ...

  2. [Quantitative Measurements on the Blood Flow Fields of Left Atrial Appendage using Vector Flow Mapping in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu-Yan; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Gu-Yue; Li, Xi; Tang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    To quantify the hemodynamic characteristics of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Twenty patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 15 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation enrolled in this study,while 12 patients with sinus rhythms served as controls. The hemodynamic characteristics of the patients in left atrial appendage were measured by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and vector flow mapping (VFM) using indicators such as vectors,vortex and energy loss (EL). ① Significant differences appeared between the patients with atrial fibrillation and the controls in heart rate,size of left atrium,size of left atrial appendage (LAA),and velocities of LAA filling and emptying. ② Regular vectors in LAA in early systole and late diastole were found in the patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and the controls; whereas,irregular vectors with direction alternating were visualized in the whole cardiac cycle in the patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. ③ Small vortexes were observed at the opening of the left atrial appendage in late diastole in the patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and the controls. ④ Peak EL values occurred in early systole and late diastole in the patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and the controls. But the patients with persistent atrial fibrillation had increased EL values over the whole cardiac cycle. VFM can visualize and quantify the hemodynamics of LAA in patients with different heart rhythms. It may provide a new method for assessing atrial fibrillation. CopyrightCopyright© by Editorial Board of Journal of Sichuan University (Medical Science Edition).

  3. Relaxin reduces susceptibility to post-infarct atrial fibrillation in mice due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beiert, Thomas; Tiyerili, Vedat; Knappe, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Background Relaxin-2 (RLX) is a peptide hormone that exerts beneficial anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects in diverse models of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of RLX treatment on the susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF) after myocardial...... infarction (MI). Methods Mice with cryoinfarction of the left anterior ventricular wall were treated for two weeks with either RLX (75 μg/kg/d) or vehicle (sodium acetate) delivered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. Results RLX treatment significantly attenuated the increase in AF......-inducibility following cryoinfarction and reduced the mean duration of AF episodes. Furthermore, epicardial mapping of both atria revealed an increase in conduction velocity. In addition to an attenuation of atrial hypertrophy, chronic application of RLX reduced atrial fibrosis, which was linked to a significant...

  4. Radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: the long-term mortality and risk of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borregaard, Rune; Lukac, Peter; Gerdes, Christian; Møller, Dorthe; Mortensen, Peter Thomas; Pedersen, Lars; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Jensen, Henrik Kjærulf

    2015-01-01

    To assess the long-term mortality and occurrence of post-ablation atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing a radiofrequency ablation for the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. A retrospective cohort study of patients (N = 362) subjected to radiofrequency ablation of the WPW syndrome at Aarhus University Hospital from 1990 to 2011. A comparison cohort (N = 3619) was generated from the Danish National Board of Health Central Population Registry. We found no significant difference in all-cause mortality when comparing the WPW group with the control group [hazard ratio (HR): 0.77 and confidence interval (CI): 0.47-1.25]. After radiofrequency ablation, the WPW group had a significantly higher risk of atrial fibrillation than the control group (HR: 4.77 and CI: 3.05-7.43). Atrial fibrillation prior to ablation (HR: 4.66 and CI: 2.09-10.41) and age over 50 years (HR: 9.79 and CI: 4.29-22.36) at the time of ablation were independent risk factors for post-ablation atrial fibrillation in the WPW group. Patients with radiofrequency ablation-treated WPW syndrome have a post-ablation mortality that is similar to the background population. The risk of atrial fibrillation remains high after radiofrequency ablation of the WPW syndrome. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Clinical characteristics, management, and control of permanent vs. nonpermanent atrial fibrillation: insights from the RealiseAF survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation can be categorized into nonpermanent and permanent atrial fibrillation. There is less information on permanent than on nonpermanent atrial fibrillation patients. This analysis aimed to describe the characteristics and current management, including the proportion of patients with successful atrial fibrillation control, of these atrial fibrillation subsets in a large, geographically diverse contemporary sample.

  6. Noninvasive evaluation of reverse atrial remodeling after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation by P wave dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yuhi; Yodogawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Kenta; Tsuboi, Ippei; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Uetake, Shunsuke; Iwasaki, Yu-Ki; Hayashi, Meiso; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Shimizu, Wataru

    2017-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) itself creates structural and electrophysiological changes such as atrial enlargement, shortening of refractory period and decrease in conduction velocity, called "atrial remodeling", promoting its persistence. Although the remodeling process is considered to be reversible, it has not been elucidated in detail. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of P wave dispersion in the assessment of reverse atrial remodeling following catheter ablation of AF. Consecutive 126 patients (88 males, age 63.0 ± 10.4 years) who underwent catheter ablation for paroxysmal AF were investigated. P wave dispersion was calculated from the 12 lead ECG before, 1 day, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after the procedure. Left atrial diameter (LAD), left atrial volume index (LAVI), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), transmitral flow velocity waveform (E/A), and tissue Doppler (E/e') on echocardiography, plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations, serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were also measured. Of all patients, 103 subjects remained free of AF for 1 year follow-up. In these patients, P wave dispersion was not changed 1 day and 1 month after the procedure. However, it was significantly decreased at 3 and 6 months (50.1 ± 14.8 to 45.4 ± 14.4 ms, p < 0.05, 45.2 ± 9.9 ms, p < 0.05, respectively). Plasma BNP concentrations, LAD and LAVI were decreased (81.1 ± 103.8 to 44.8 ± 38.3 pg/mL, p < 0.05, 38.2 ± 5.7 to 35.9 ± 5.6 mm, p < 0.05, 33.3 ± 14.2 to 29.3 ± 12.3 mL/m 2 , p < 0.05) at 6 months after the procedure. There were no significant changes in LVEF, E/A, E/e', serum creatinine, and eGFR during the follow up period. P wave dispersion was decreased at 3 and 6 months after catheter ablation in patients without recurrence of AF. P wave dispersion is useful for assessment of reverse remodeling after catheter ablation of AF.

  7. Atrial Fibrillation Predictors: Importance of the Electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, David M; Kabir, Muammar M; Dewland, Thomas A; Henrikson, Charles A; Tereshchenko, Larisa G

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in adults and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Substantial interest has developed in the primary prevention of AF, and thus the identification of individuals at risk for developing AF. The electrocardiogram (ECG) provides a wealth of information, which is of value in predicting incident AF. The PR interval and P wave indices (including P wave duration, P wave terminal force, P wave axis, and other measures of P wave morphology) are discussed with regard to their ability to predict and characterize AF risk in the general population. The predictive value of the QT interval, ECG criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy, and findings of atrial and ventricular ectopy are also discussed. Efforts are underway to develop models that predict AF incidence in the general population; however, at present, little information from the ECG is included in these models. The ECG provides a great deal of information on AF risk and has the potential to contribute substantially to AF risk estimation, but more research is needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Right atrial bypass model in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, P H; Isserles, S A

    1995-02-01

    In gas exchange studies addressing the storage and transport of CO2 in dogs, a model in which cardiac output (QT) can be precisely controlled and measured would be beneficial. We identified problems with described extracorporeal circuits and implemented right atrial bypass (RAB) in dogs. In 6 anesthetized (chloralose and urethane), heparinized dogs (mean +/- SD, 24 +/- 4 kg) with open thorax, cannulas were inserted in both vena cavas to drain venous blood return to a reservoir (anaerobic bag or bubble oxygenator). A roller pump then drove blood through a heat exchanger back to the right atrial appendage. After 1.8 +/- 1.4 hour of RAB, physiologic variables remained within reference limits for dogs (QT, 1.5 +/- 0.3 L/min; blood pressure, 92 +/- 25 mm of Hg; arterial PCO2, 35 +/- 4 mm of Hg; PO2, 513 +/- 39 mm of Hg; pH, 7.39 +/- 0.08; and tissue CO2 production, 126 +/- 56 ml/min). To permit study of gas exchange, venous return (and thus, QT) and venous PCO2 and PO2 could be accurately regulated and measured over a wide range. Maintenance of native pulsatile lung perfusion and cardiogenic oscillations minimizes mismatching of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion and facilitates studies addressing pulmonary gas exchange. This RAB model is designed so that investigators can establish the preparation in a few hours.

  9. Revealing kinetics and state-dependent binding properties of IKur-targeting drugs that maximize atrial fibrillation selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinwood, Nicholas; Dobrev, Dobromir; Morotti, Stefano; Grandi, Eleonora

    2017-09-01

    The KV1.5 potassium channel, which underlies the ultra-rapid delayed-rectifier current (IKur) and is predominantly expressed in atria vs. ventricles, has emerged as a promising target to treat atrial fibrillation (AF). However, while numerous KV1.5-selective compounds have been screened, characterized, and tested in various animal models of AF, evidence of antiarrhythmic efficacy in humans is still lacking. Moreover, current guidelines for pre-clinical assessment of candidate drugs heavily rely on steady-state concentration-response curves or IC50 values, which can overlook adverse cardiotoxic effects. We sought to investigate the effects of kinetics and state-dependent binding of IKur-targeting drugs on atrial electrophysiology in silico and reveal the ideal properties of IKur blockers that maximize anti-AF efficacy and minimize pro-arrhythmic risk. To this aim, we developed a new Markov model of IKur that describes KV1.5 gating based on experimental voltage-clamp data in atrial myocytes from patient right-atrial samples in normal sinus rhythm. We extended the IKur formulation to account for state-specificity and kinetics of KV1.5-drug interactions and incorporated it into our human atrial cell model. We simulated 1- and 3-Hz pacing protocols in drug-free conditions and with a [drug] equal to the IC50 value. The effects of binding and unbinding kinetics were determined by examining permutations of the forward (kon) and reverse (koff) binding rates to the closed, open, and inactivated states of the KV1.5 channel. We identified a subset of ideal drugs exhibiting anti-AF electrophysiological parameter changes at fast pacing rates (effective refractory period prolongation), while having little effect on normal sinus rhythm (limited action potential prolongation). Our results highlight that accurately accounting for channel interactions with drugs, including kinetics and state-dependent binding, is critical for developing safer and more effective pharmacological anti

  10. Prevalence of stroke and the need for thromboprophylaxis in young patients with atrial fibrillation: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Andrew H; Oakley, Luke S; Phan, Hoanganh L; Shutt, Brennan J; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika; Francisco, Gregory M

    2014-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and age is a well-established independent risk factor for stroke in these patients. Whereas high-risk patients clearly benefit from anticoagulation to prevent stroke, less is known about how to treat low-risk patients. Despite the recent guidelines and studies demonstrating no benefit and excess bleeding risk with aspirin, many low-risk patients still receive this medication. Our objective was to determine the stroke rate in young patients with atrial fibrillation, a group of previously unstudied and predominantly low-risk patients. We hypothesized that the event rate would be so low as to preclude benefit from antithrombotic medications. A retrospective chart review identified patients with atrial fibrillation between the age of 18 and 35. Exclusion criteria included no ECG documentation of atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation, except around the time of cardioversion, and surgical valve disease. The primary outcome was stroke during the period of observation. The final cohort included 99 patients, mean age 27.6 years, followed for a mean of 4.3 years. Mean CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were 0.26 and 0.4, respectively. A total of 42.4% were taking aspirin for over 50% of the time. There was one event identified, a transient ischemic attack in a man not on aspirin with CHADS2 and CHADS2-VASc scores of 1, resulting in event rates of 0.234 per 100 patient-years overall or 0.392 among those not on aspirin. Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation under age 35 have an exceedingly low stroke risk. We assert that aspirin may be unnecessary for most patients in this population, especially those with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0.

  11. Variable use of amiodarone is associated with a greater risk of recurrence of atrial fibrillation in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrić, Goran; Udy, Andrew; Bandeshe, Hiran; Clement, Pierre; Boots, Rob

    2016-04-02

    Atrial fibrillation is a common rhythm disturbance in the general medical-surgical intensive care unit. Amiodarone is a popular drug in this setting but evidence to inform clinical practice remains scarce. We aimed to identify whether variation in the clinical use of amiodarone was associated with recurrent atrial fibrillation. This was a retrospective audit of 177 critically ill patients who developed new-onset atrial fibrillation after admission to a tertiary level medical-surgical trauma intensive care unit. Patterns of amiodarone prescription (including dosage schedule and duration) were assessed in relation to recurrence of atrial fibrillation during the intensive care unit stay. Known recurrence risk factors, such as inotrope administration, cardiac disease indices, Charlson Comorbidity Index, magnesium concentrations, fluid balance, and potassium concentrations, were also included in adjusted analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression modelling. The cohort had a median (interquartile range) age of 69 years (60-75), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evalution II score of 22 (17-28) and Charlson Comorbidity Index of 2 (1-4). A bolus dose of amiodarone followed by infusion (P = 0.02), in addition to continuing amiodarone infusion through to discharge from the intensive care unit (P < 0.001), were associated with less recurrent dysrhythmia. Recurrence after successful treatment was associated with ceasing amiodarone while an inotrope infusion continued (P < 0.001), and was more common in patients with a prior history of congestive cardiac failure (P = 0.04), and a diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (P = 0.02). Amiodarone should be administered as a bolus dose followed immediately with an infusion when treating atrial fibrillation in the medical-surgical intensive care unit. Consideration should be given to continuing amiodarone infusions in patients on inotropes until they are ceased.

  12. Statin and Atrial Fibrilation: When does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchier, Laurent; Clementy, Nicolas; Pierre, Bertrand; Babuty, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, some clinical and experimental studies have suggested that the use of statins may protect against atrial fibrillation (AF). A relation between inflammation and the development of AF has been described, and the potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of statins may make them effective in preventing the development of AF. A global analysis of the literature suggests that the use of statins is associated with a decreased risk of incidence or recurrence of AF in some cases. However, this beneficial effect is not seen for all types of AF in all the patients. The use of statins seems associated 1) with a lack of benefit in primary prevention of AF, 2) with a significant but heterogeneous decreased risk of recurrence of AF in secondary prevention, and 3) with a very significant and homogeneous reduction for the risk of post operative AF. An intensive lipid lowering statin regimen does not provide greater protection against AF. Patients with coronary heart disease are curr ently treated with statins in most cases, and this may not have an impact on their treatment. In contrast, it remains to determine more accurately if statins may bring a significant benefit for some AF patients without any type of established atherosclerotic disease or with a low risk of atherogenesis. Since it remains uncertain whether the suppression of AF in these patients is beyond doubt beneficial, prescribing statins for this purpose alone should not be recommended at the present time.

  13. The immediate future for the medical treatment of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Dyg; Brendorp, Bente; Køber, Lars

    2002-01-01

    ) the rhythm causes loss of atrioventricular synchrony, which reduces diastolic filling and may lead to heart failure; and iii) atrial contraction is lost leading to stagnant blood that again may lead to atrial thrombi and peripheral embolism. Thus, the treatment of atrial fibrillation is focused...... on the maintenance of sinus rhythm, rate control and prevention of embolism. For the maintenance of sinus rhythm, all drugs under current development are potassium channel blockers; the so-called class III anti-arrhythmic drugs. Those which have been further investigated appear to be valuable for maintenance...

  14. Acute Pulmonary Edema Caused by a Giant Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fisicaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor. Its clinical presentation spreads from asymptomatic incidental mass to serious life-threatening cardiovascular complications. We report the case of a 44-year-old man with evening fever and worsening dyspnea in the last weeks, admitted to our hospital for acute pulmonary edema. The cardiac auscultation was very suspicious for mitral valve stenosis, but the echocardiography revealed a huge atrial mass with a diastolic prolapse into mitral valve orifice causing an extremely high transmitral gradient pressure. Awareness of this uncommon acute presentation of atrial myxoma is necessary for timely diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention.

  15. Atrial Septal Aneurysm Presenting as Clubbing without Clinically Apparent Cyanosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Laxmi Kant; Banerjee, S; Yadav, R N; Singh, Gajraj; Ganguli, Sujata; Isran, Rohit

    2015-09-01

    Atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) is a localised "saccular" deformity which protrudes to the right or the left atrium or on both sides. It is a rare, but well recognised cardiac abnormality. It is usually an incidental finding or may presents as atrial arrhythmias or arterial embolism. Though it is an acyanotic congenital heart disease but it may result in significant right to left shunt and cyanosis. We describe a patient of ASA with atrial septal defect who presented with clubbing and right to left shunt without clinically apparent cyanosis. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  16. Atrial natriuretic peptide and feeding activity patterns in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.H.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents historical data about atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP from its discovery as an atrial natriuretic factor (ANF to its role as an atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH. As a hormone, ANP can interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-A and is related to feeding activity patterns in the rat. Food restriction proved to be an interesting model to investigate this relationship. The role of ANP must be understood within a context of peripheral and central interactions involving different peptides and pathways

  17. Microelectrode array measurement of potassium ion channel remodeling on the field action potential duration in rapid atrial pacing rabbits model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Yan, Huang; Wugeti, Najina; Guo, Yujun; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Mei; Guo, Xingui; Jiao, Changan; Xu, Wenli; Li, Tianqi

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) arises from abnormalities in atrial structure and electrical activity. Microelectrode arrays (MEA) is a real-time, nondestructive measurement of the resting and action potential signal, from myocardial cells, to the peripheral circuit of electrophysiological activity. This study examined the field action potential duration (fAPD) of the right atrial appendage (RAA) by MEA in rapid atrial pacing (RAP) in the right atrium of rabbits. In addition, this study also investigated the effect of potassium ion channel blockers on fAPD. 40 New Zealand white rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1) the control, 2) potassium ion channel blocker (TEA, 4-Ap and BaCl2), and 3) amiodarone groups. The hearts were quickly removed and right atrial appendage sectioned (slice thickness 500 μm). Each slice was perfused with Tyrode's solution and continuously stimulated for 30 minutes. Sections from the control group were superfused with Tyrode's solution for 10 minutes, while the blocker groups and amiodarone were both treated with their respective compounds for 10 minutes each. The fAPD of RAA and action field action potential morphology were measured using MEA. In non-pace (control) groups, fAPD was 188.33 ± 18.29 ms after Tyrode's solution superfusion, and 173.91 ± 6.83 ms after RAP. In pace/potassium ion channel groups, TEA and BaCl2 superfusion prolonged atrial field action potential (fAPD) (control vs blocker: 176.67 ± 8.66 ms vs 196.11 ± 10.76 ms, 182.22 ± 12.87 ms vs 191.11 ± 13.09 ms with TEA and BaCl2 superfusion, respectively, P action potential in animal heart slices. After superfusing potassium ion channel blockers, fAPD was prolonged. These results suggest that Ito, IKur and IK1 remodel and mediate RAP-induced atrial electrical remodeling. Amiodarone alter potassium ion channel activity (Ito, IKur, IK1 and IKs), shortening fAPD.

  18. The effects of rhythm control strategies versus rate control strategies for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sethi, Naqash; Safi, Sanam; Nielsen, Emil E

    2017-01-01

    by Jakobsen and colleagues. We plan to include all relevant randomised clinical trials assessing the effects of any rhythm control strategy versus any rate control strategy. We plan to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Science Citation Index Expanded...... on Web of Science, and BIOSIS to identify relevant trials. Any eligible trial will be assessed and classified as either high risk of bias or low risk of bias, and our conclusions will be based on trials with low risk of bias. The analyses of the extracted data will be performed using Review Manager 5....... This protocol for a systematic review aims at identifying the best overall treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. METHODS: This protocol for a systematic review was performed following the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration and the eight-step assessment procedure suggested...

  19. Left Atrial Appendage Closure in Atrial Fibrillation: A World without Anticoagulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmeed Contractor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial Fibrillation (AF is a common arrhythmia with an incidence that is as high as 10% in the elderly population. Given the large proportion of strokes caused by AF as well as the associated morbidity and mortality, reducing stroke burden is the most important part of AF management. While warfarin significantly reduces the risk of AF-related stroke, perceived bleeding risks and compliance limit its widespread use in the high-risk AF population. The left atrial appendage is believed to be the “culprit” for thrombogenesis in nonvalvular AF and is a new therapeutic target for stroke prevention. The purpose of this review is to explore the evolving field of percutaneous LAA occlusion. After briefly highlighting the risk of stroke with AF, problems with warfarin, and the role of the LAA in clot formation, this article discusses the feasibility and efficacy of various devices which have been developed for percutaneous LAA occlusion.

  20. Surface atrial frequency analysis in patients with atrial fibrillation: a tool for evaluating the effects of intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Dan; Langley, Philip; Murray, Alan; Dunuwille, Asunga; Bourke, John P

    2004-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate (1) principal component analysis as a technique for extracting the atrial signal waveform from the standard 12-lead ECG and (2) its ability to distinguish changes in atrial fibrillation (AF) frequency parameters over time and in response to pharmacologic manipulation using drugs with different effects on atrial electrophysiology. Twenty patients with persistent AF were studied. Continuous 12-lead Holter ECGs were recorded for 60 minutes, first, in the drug-free state. Mean and variability of atrial waveform frequency were measured using an automated computer technique. This extracted the atrial signal by principal component analysis and identified the main frequency component using Fourier analysis. Patients were then allotted sequentially to receive 1 of 4 drugs intravenously (amiodarone, flecainide, sotalol, or metoprolol), and changes induced in mean and variability of atrial waveform frequency measured. Mean and variability of atrial waveform frequency did not differ within patients between the two 30-minute sections of the drug-free state. As hypothesized, significant changes in mean and variability of atrial waveform frequency were detected after manipulation with amiodarone (mean: 5.77 vs 4.86 Hz; variability: 0.55 vs 0.31 Hz), flecainide (mean: 5.33 vs 4.72 Hz; variability: 0.71 vs 0.31 Hz), and sotalol (mean: 5.94 vs 4.90 Hz; variability: 0.73 vs 0.40 Hz) but not with metoprolol (mean: 5.41 vs 5.17 Hz; variability: 0.81 vs 0.82 Hz). A technique for continuously analyzing atrial frequency characteristics of AF from the surface ECG has been developed and validated.

  1. Effect of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage function and thrombotic potential in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirçelik, Muhammed Bora; Çetin, Mustafa; Çiçekcioğlu, Hülya; Uçar, Özgül; Duran, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate effects of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage functions, spontaneous echo contrast and thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In 58 patients with chronic nonvalvular atrial fibrilation and preserved left ventricular systolic function, left atrial appendage functions, left atrial spontaneous echo contrast grading and left ventricular diastolic functions were evaluated using transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiogram. Patients divided in two groups: Group D (n=30): Patients with diastolic dysfunction, Group N (n=28): Patients without diastolic dysfunction. Categorical variables in two groups were evaluated with Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The significance of the lineer correlation between the degree of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) and clinical measurements was evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Peak pulmonary vein D velocity of the Group D was significantly higher than the Group N (p=0.006). However, left atrial appendage emptying velocity, left atrial appendage lateral wall velocity, peak pulmonary vein S, pulmonary vein S/D ratio were found to be significantly lower in Group D (p=0.028, patrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities respectively (r=-0.438, r=-0.328, r=-0.233, r=-0.447). Left atrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities were significantly lower in SEC 2-3-4 than SEC 1 (p=0.003, p=0.029, patrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial appendage functions are decreased in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction may constitute a potential risk for formation of thrombus and stroke.

  2. Assessment of left atrial volume and function in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, Bue F Ross; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Linde, Jesper James

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. AF is associated with enlargement of the left atrium (LA), and the LA volume has important prognostic implications for the disease. The objective of the study was to determine how...... measurements of LA volume and function obtained by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and 320-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) correlate in patients with permanent AF....

  3. Three-dimensional atrial wall thickness maps to inform catheter ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Martin; Rajani, Ronak; Plank, Gernot; Gaddum, Nicholas; Carr-White, Gerry; Wright, Matt; O'Neill, Mark; Niederer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Transmural lesion formation is critical to success in atrial fibrillation ablation and is dependent on left atrial wall thickness (LAWT). Pre- and peri-procedural planning may benefit from LAWT measurements. To calculate the LAWT, the Laplace equation was solved over a finite element mesh of the left atrium derived from the segmented computed tomographic angiography (CTA) dataset. Local LAWT was then calculated from the length of field lines derived from the Laplace solution that spanned the wall from the endocardium or epicardium. The method was validated on an atrium phantom and retrospectively applied to 10 patients who underwent routine coronary CTA for standard clinical indications at our institute. The Laplace wall thickness algorithm was validated on the left atrium phantom. Wall thickness measurements had errors of atrial wall thickness measurements were performed on 10 patients. Successful comprehensive LAWT maps were generated in all patients from the coronary CTA images. Mean LAWT measurements ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 mm and showed significant inter and intra patient variability. Left atrial wall thickness can be measured robustly and efficiently across the whole left atrium using a solution of the Laplace equation over a finite element mesh of the left atrium. Further studies are indicated to determine whether the integration of LAWT maps into pre-existing 3D anatomical mapping systems may provide important anatomical information for guiding radiofrequency ablation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Galectin-3 as a marker of interstitial atrial remodelling involved in atrial fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Hernández-Romero; Juan Antonio Vílchez; Álvaro Lahoz; Ana I. Romero-Aniorte; Eva Jover; Arcadio García-Alberola; Rubén Jara-Rubio; Carlos M. Martínez; Mariano Valdés; Francisco Marín

    2017-01-01

    Remodelling in the atria could appear as a result of hypertension, diabetes or ischaemic heart disease. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a mediator of profibrotic pathways and a potential biomarker of cardiac remodelling. We prospectively recruited consecutive patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Preoperative Gal-3 levels were determined from serum samples, and the presence of fibrosis was assessed from atrial appendage tissue samples obtained during cardiac surgery. We included 100 patients wi...

  5. Development of a transgenic goat model wih cardiac-specific overexpression of transforming growth factor - {beta} 1 to study the relationship between atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies on patients, large animal models and transgenic mouse models have shown a strong association of atrial fibrosis with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unclear whether there is a causal relationship between atrial fibrosis and AF or whether these events appear as a result of independen...

  6. Left atrial appendage thrombosis during therapy with rivaroxaban in elective cardioversion for permanent atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Serra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric external cardioversion (EEC for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF carries a risk of thromboembolic events (TE. The use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE to guide the management of atrial fibrillation may be considered a clinically effective alternative strategy to conventional therapy for patients in whom elective cardioversion is planned. Therapeutic anticoagulation with novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC is recommended for 3 to 4 weeks before and an anticoagulation life-long therapy is recommended after EEC to reduce TE, in patients with high CHA2DS2-VASc score; however, only few data are currently available about safety of shortterm anticoagulation with NOAC in the setting of EEC. Patients with increased risk of thromboembolism have not been adequately studied and the monitoring of anticoagulant effects can also have important benefits in case of drug interactions. We report a case of a 68-year old man with AF from September 2014. Moderate depression of global left ventricular systolic function was detected by echocardiographic exam. On the basis of a high thromboembolic risk, an anticoagulant therapy with rivaroxaban, at the dose of 20 mg/day, was started. TEE showed a thrombus in the left atrial appendage. This case demonstrates the utility of performing TEE prior than EEC in patients with hypokinetic cardiomyopathy other than AF in therapy with NOAC. We underline the presence of significant pharmacodynamic interference of rivaroxaban with other drugs such as oxcarbazepine.

  7. Limitations of Dower's inverse transform for the study of atrial loops during atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillem, María S; Climent, Andreu M; Bollmann, Andreas; Husser, Daniela; Millet, José; Castells, Francisco

    2009-08-01

    Spatial characteristics of atrial fibrillatory waves have been extracted by using a vectorcardiogram (VCG) during atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the VCG is usually not recorded in clinical practice and atrial loops are derived from the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). We evaluated the suitability of the reconstruction of orthogonal leads from the 12-lead ECG for fibrillatory waves in AF. We used the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt diagnostic ECG database, which contains 15 simultaneously recorded signals (12-lead ECG and three Frank orthogonal leads) of 13 patients during AF. Frank leads were derived from the 12-lead ECG by using Dower's inverse transform. Derived leads were then compared to true Frank leads in terms of the relative error achieved. We calculated the orientation of AF loops of both recorded orthogonal leads and derived leads and measured the difference in estimated orientation. Also, we investigated the relationship of errors in derivation with fibrillatory wave amplitude, frequency, wave residuum, and fit to a plane of the AF loops. Errors in derivation of AF loops were 68 +/- 31% and errors in the estimation of orientation were 35.85 +/- 20.43 degrees . We did not find any correlation among these errors and amplitude, frequency, or other parameters. In conclusion, Dower's inverse transform should not be used for the derivation of orthogonal leads from the 12-lead ECG for the analysis of fibrillatory wave loops in AF. Spatial parameters obtained after this derivation may differ from those obtained from recorded orthogonal leads.

  8. Correlation of right atrial appendage velocity with left atrial appendage velocity and brain natriuretic Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Kyung; Heo, Jung-Ho; Lee, Jae-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Byung-Joo; Cha, Tae-Joon

    2012-03-01

    Left atrial appendage (LAA) anatomy and function have been well characterized both in healthy and diseased people, whereas relatively little attention has been focused on the right atrial appendage (RAA). We sought to evaluate RAA flow velocity and to compare these parameters with LAA indices and with a study of biomarkers, such as brain natriuretic peptide, among patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF). In a series of 79 consecutive patients referred for transesophageal echocardiography, 43 patients (23 with AF and 20 controls) were evaluated. AF was associated with a decrease in flow velocity for both LAA and RAA [LAA velocity-SR vs. AF: 61 ± 22 vs. 29 ± 18 m/sec (p vs. AF: 46 ± 20 vs. 19 ± 8 m/sec (p brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). AF was associated with decreased RAA and LAA flow velocities. RAA velocity was found to be positively correlated with LAA velocity and negatively correlated with BNP. The plasma BNP concentration may serve as a determinant of LAA and RAA functions.

  9. Uso da radiofrequência bipolar para o tratamento da fibrilação atrial durante cirurgia cardíaca Uso de la radiofrecuencia bipolar para el tratamiento de la fibrilación atrial durante cirugía cardíaca Use of bipolar radiofrequency for the treatment of atrial fibrillation during cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Secchin Canale

    2011-06-01

    arritmia. OBJETIVO: Describir la experiencia inicial del Instituto Nacional de Cardiología en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la fibrilación atrial con uso de dispositivo de radiofrecuencia bipolar en pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca, relatando el resultado de seguimiento postoperatorio de un año. MÉTODOS: Entre enero de 2008 y marzo de 2009, 47 pacientes (36 mujeres consecutivos, con edad promedio de 53,7 ± 10,6 años, presentando fibrilación atrial por un período promedio de 34,6 meses (3 a 192 meses fueron sometidos a ablación quirúrgica de esta arritmia, por radiofrecuencia bipolar, durante el procedimiento que motivó la indicación de la cirugía. Ocho presentaban fibrilación atrial intermitente y 39, continua. El 81% fue sometido a cirugía valvular como procedimiento principal. Éste es un análisis retrospectivo, observacional, con evaluación de un año de postoperatorio de las variables clínicas y de Holter 24 h. RESULTADOS: De los 47 pacientes, 40 sobrevivieron un año. De ellos, 33 fueron sometidos a Holter 24 h, en un intervalo promedio de 401 días después de la cirugía. Se encontró la siguiente distribución de ritmos: 24 (73% sinusal, 5 (15% fibrilación atrial, tres (9% flutter atrial y un (3% ritmo de la unión. Se observaron dos accidentes vasculares encefálicos, siendo uno asociado a la arritmia supraventricular. CONCLUSIÓN: La ablación quirúrgica de fibrilación atrial con dispositivo de radiofrecuencia bipolar concomitante a la cirugía cardíaca es método eficaz para el tratamiento de esta arritmia.BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation with tissue ablation device through bipolar radiofrequency in conjunction with cardiac surgery has proven to be an effective method to treat this arrhythmia. OBJECTIVE: Describe the initial experience of the Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia in the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation using bipolar radiofrequency device in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, reporting the results of

  10. Dabigatran use in Danish atrial fibrillation patients in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Gislason, Gunnar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Dabigatran was recently approved for anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF); data regarding real-world use, comparative effectiveness and safety are sparse. Design: Pharmacoepidemiological cohort study. Methods/settings: From nationwide registers, we identified...

  11. Women Sex Importance in Stroke Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemile Handan Mısırlı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It was shown the differences in age, risk factors and treatment between women and men in stroke patients with atrial fibrillation METHODS: The stroke patients with atrial fibrillation who were hospitalized in our department at the last 2 years were seperated into 2 groups of aged above 75 and below 75, investigated with CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores and looked at the sex differences of women and men. RESULTS: Stroke ratio according to sex was statistically meaningful especially in women above the age of 75. Risc factors also were founded in elderly women and CHA2DS2VASc scores were higher in women than men so more anticoagulan treatment were begun. No differences were shown between sexes at lone atrial fibrillation and no treatment were begun. CONCLUSION: Women with atrial fibrillation had more risk factors, higher stroke rate and higher anticoagulation treatment.

  12. Atrial fibrillation in the dog: a review of eight cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R. E. [Vet. Hospital, 34 New Dover Rd, Canterbury, Kent (United Kingdom)

    1984-07-01

    Eight cases of canine atrial fibrillation encountered in small animal practice are reported. Details are included of age, sex and breed, history and clinical signs, thoracic radiography, electrocardiography, clinical pathology, treatment and survival periods.

  13. Atrial fibrillation in the dog: a review of eight cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Eight cases of canine atrial fibrillation encountered in small animal practice are reported. Details are included of age, sex and breed, history and clinical signs, thoracic radiography, electrocardiography, clinical pathology, treatment and survival periods

  14. Inflammation in the genesis and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Mads D M; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence and persistence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the relative inefficacy of the currently available pharmacotherapy requires development of new treatment strategies. Recent findings have suggested a mechanistic link between inflammatory processes and the development of AF...

  15. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Batty, G. David

    2017-01-01

    long hours (≤55 per week) and those working standard 35-40 h/week. Methods and results In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years...... of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI= 1.13-1.80, P= 0......Aims Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working...

  16. Atrial electrogram interpretation improves after an innovative education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Julie L; Currey, Judy; Considine, Julie

    2015-01-01

    To avoid adverse patient outcomes from inappropriate treatment, it is recommended that an atrial electrogram (AEG) be recorded whenever atrial arrhythmias develop in patients after cardiac surgery. However, AEGs are not commonly performed because nurses lack knowledge about differentiating atrial rhythms on AEGs. To investigate whether completing a novel online evidence-based education program on interpreting AEGs would improve critical care nurses' AEG interpretation. Specialized critical care nurses were taught about obtaining and interpreting atrial rhythms on AEGs using a 42-minute online mini-movie. AEG interpretation was assessed pre and two and eight weeks post-intervention. AEG interpretation increased two weeks post intervention and was retained at eight weeks. Some participants used this newly acquired knowledge to interpret arrhythmias that were not taught during the education program. Accurate interpretation of AEGs is an easy skill for specialized critical care nurses to learn via an online education program.

  17. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs often in cryptogenic ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L M; Krieger, D W; Højberg, S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrilla......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial...... lasting predominantly between 1 and 4 h. Four recurrent strokes were observed, three in patients with PAF; all three patients were on oral anticoagulation (OAC). CONCLUSIONS: One in five patients with CS had PAF, which occurred at low burden and long after stroke. Future studies should determine the role...

  18. Dronedarone in high-risk permanent atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Stuart J; Camm, A John; Halperin, Jonathan L

    2011-01-01

    Dronedarone restores sinus rhythm and reduces hospitalization or death in intermittent atrial fibrillation. It also lowers heart rate and blood pressure and has antiadrenergic and potential ventricular antiarrhythmic effects. We hypothesized that dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in ...

  19. Atrial angioleiomyoma with myopericytoma-like features: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassereddine, Hussein; Cazes, Aurélie; Verdonk, Constance; Assous, Benjamin; Dautry, Raphael; Nataf, Patrick; Wassef, Michel; Deschamps, Lydia

    A 66-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital for resection of a right atrial mass. Four months earlier, she had suffered an acute cerebrovascular accident due to occlusion of the sylvian segment of the right middle cerebral artery from atheromatous tight stenosis in the right internal carotid artery. Later, investigations with transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography revealed a 3.4-cm right atrial mass that was resected surgically. Microscopic evaluation revealed a well-circumscribed nodular tumor, located within the interatrial septum, and corresponding to an angioleiomyoma (ALM). This tumor differs histologically from atrial myxoma. ALM is a ubiquitous benign tumor but has never been reported to occur in the atrium. ALM can mimic cardiac myxoma and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atrial tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention amongst atrial fibrillation patients with valvular heart disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Andrew C T; Verma, Atul; Verma, Subodh

    2017-03-01

    The majority of evidence on the safety and efficacy of oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention amongst patients with atrial fibrillation is derived from those without significant valvular heart disease. This article will review current knowledge, areas of uncertainty and controversy, and ongoing research on oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention amongst patients with valvular heart disease. The rates of stroke, systemic embolism, and major bleeding were similar for patients with and without significant native valvular disease when treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) or vitamin K antagonists. There are very limited prospective data on the safety and efficacy of DOAC use for patients with bioprosthetic valves or rheumatic mitral stenosis. Atrial fibrillation patients with concomitant valvulopathies constitute a group with high thromboembolic risk and should be treated with oral anticoagulation. There is good supportive evidence that DOAC is well tolerated and effective in preventing thromboembolism amongst patients with native valvular disease. Further research is underway to better define the risks and benefits of DOAC use among patients with bioprosthetic valves or rheumatic mitral stenosis in preventing thromboembolic events. Until then, vitamin K antagonists remain the oral anticoagulant of choice for these patient subsets.

  1. [Left atrial function and left atrial appendage flow velocity in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: comparison of patients with and without paroxysmal atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, K; Kawashima, E; Shiokoshi, T; Ishii, Y; Hasebe, N; Kikuchi, K

    1998-07-01

    The involvement of left atrial (LA) appendage flow velocity in reduced left atrial function was investigated in 24 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, who retained sinus rhythm at the examination. Patients were divided into 11 with a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation [PAf(+)] and 13 without such history [PAf(-)]. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to evaluate LA fractional shortening (LA%FS) and mean velocity of circumferential LA fiber shortening (LAmVcf), as contractile functions of the left atrium at the phase of active atrial contraction. Transesophageal echocardiographic Doppler examination was performed in all patients to measure the LA appendage velocity. In all patients, significant positive correlations were observed between the LA appendage velocity and LA%FS (r = 0.50, p fibrillation were significantly lower than in those without (0.84 +/- 0.15 vs 1.28 +/- 0.37 circ/sec, 44 +/- 12 vs 65 +/- 20 cm/sec, both p fibrillation. These results indicate that there is a close relationship between LA appendage velocity and LA contractile function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with paroxysmal atrial fibrilation, and these patients have potential risk of cerebral infarction.

  2. Stroke and bleeding in atrial fibrillation with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    Both atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease increase the risk of stroke and systemic thromboembolism. However, these risks, and the effects of antithrombotic treatment, have not been thoroughly investigated in patients with both conditions.......Both atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease increase the risk of stroke and systemic thromboembolism. However, these risks, and the effects of antithrombotic treatment, have not been thoroughly investigated in patients with both conditions....

  3. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography of the atrial septal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Cárdenas Ángel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transesophageal echocardiography has advantages over transthoracic technique in defining morphology of atrial structures. Even though real time three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging is a reality, the off-line reconstruction technique usually allows to obtain higher spatial resolution images. The purpose of this study was to explore the accuracy of off-line three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in a spectrum of atrial septal defects by comparing them with representative anatomic specimens.

  4. Aorto-right atrial fistula after Bentall repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Charles E; Velasco, Carlos E; Roullard, Christina P; Rafael, Aldo

    2017-07-01

    We describe a man with the Marfan syndrome and a prior ascending aortic aneurysm resection who presented with knee pain and concern of endocarditis. Transesophageal echocardiogram showed no vegetations, and computed tomography angiogram of the heart showed a possible pseudoaneurysm. Cardiac catheterization and aortogram revealed the diagnosis of an aorto-right atrial fistula, which was then operatively repaired. This case highlights the role that cardiac catheterization with aortogram can play in the detection of aorto-atrial fistula.

  5. Vernakalant hydrochloride for the treatment of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Dariusz; Budrejko, Szymon; Lip, Gregory Y H; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Rysz, Jacek; Raczak, Grzegorz; Banach, Maciej

    2009-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. Rhythm control strategy for AF is limited by drug toxicity and side effects, and recent trials have shown that this strategy is not superior to a rate control one. New antiarrhythmic drugs, free of undesired effects, would enhance rhythm control, with the possibility of sinus rhythm restoration and maintenance. A promising find in the search for new antiarrhythmic therapies is atrial-tissue specific ion channels. The findings that the ultrarapid delayed rectifier (I(Kur)) and the inwardly rectifying, acetylcholine-regulated current (I(K-Ach)) exist in atrial but not ventricular tissue increase the probability that atrioselective drugs without ventricular proarrhythmic toxicity can be developed for treatment of patients with AF. There are also other potential targets for atrial-selective therapy: transient outward current (I(to)), rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier currents (I(Kr) and I(Ks)), atrial sodium current (I(Na)) and atrially expressed connexins. New drugs under development with promising atrial-selectivity include: tertiapin, NIP-142, NIP-141, JTV-519, AVE0118, AVE1231, DPO-1, AZD7009 and many others. Among such new agents, vernakalant hydrochloride is currently in an advanced phase of development and has already been evaluated in clinical trials. In this overview, we describe the history and current state of developmental process of the drug, as well as its mechanism of action and influence on electrophysiological parameters. Vernakalant seems to be effective in terminating recent-onset AF, but is not efficacious in long-lasting AF and atrial flutter. The drug may be relatively free of proarrhythmic effects, and exerts a protective effect on ventricular tissue and ventricular repolarization. It is expected that the intravenous formulation will soon be approved for the pharmacological termination of recent-onset AF.

  6. Nephroblastoma with right atrial extension: preoperative diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, E D; Crosby, I K; Tegtmeyer, C J

    1977-04-01

    A 14-year-old black boy, with a large nephroblastoma of the right kidney, had preoperative identification of inferior vena cava and right atrial involvement. Renal arteriography revealed linear arterial channels in the anatomic distribution of the inferior vena cava and venography revealed total caval occlusion and a right atrial mass. Radical excision, using a cardiopulmonary bypass, resulted in a 6-month postoperative survival.

  7. A new therapeutic strategy for electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, I; Sorino, M; Del Salvatore, B; de Luca, L

    2001-11-01

    The conventional approach to cardioversion of atrial fibrillation includes a period of anticoagulation with oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) extending from 3 weeks precardioversion to 4 weeks postcardioversion. The protocol of rapid anticoagulation (such as that of the ACUTE study) consists of a precardioversion transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) followed by OAT for 4 weeks. In the last few years low-molecular-weight heparins have established themselves as a safe and efficacious alternative to traditional antithrombotic therapies. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the exclusion of thrombi by precardioversion TEE together with the exclusion of atrial stunning by a second TEE performed after 1 week, to date not suggested in the literature, could reduce to 7 days the period of pericardioversion anticoagulation. This therapy would be carried out using low-molecular-weight heparins with no need for biological monitoring and with the possibility of self-administration. We have studied 57 consecutive patients who had atrial fibrillation or flutter with a history of atrial fibrillation lasting > 48 hours. All patients received enoxaparin at a dosage of 100 IU antiXa/kg twice daily before undergoing multiplane TEE. Previous informed consent and ethical committee authorization had been obtained. Twenty-four hours following TEE, in the absence of thrombi and/or spontaneous moderate/severe echocontrast in the atrial chambers, the patients underwent electrical cardioversion and were discharged within 24 hours of sinus rhythm restoration. These patients were prescribed enoxaparin at the indicated dosage twice daily until TEE, performed in an outpatients setting 7 days following cardioversion. In the absence of thrombi and/or atrial and/or left atrial appendage stunning, OAT was terminated. Enoxaparin was associated with OAT for the following 3 weeks if any of the following signs of stunning were present: A wave inferior to the normal value for age at transmitral

  8. Late bacterial endocarditis of an Amplatzer atrial septal device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavith Aruni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old male with an secundum atrial septal defect status post repair with an Amplatzer occluder in 2001 was admitted with sepsis and MRSA bacteremia. Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE showed presence of an overlying mobile echogenic structure on the left atrial surface of the device suggestive of a vegetation/infected thrombus. This is only the 3rd case description of late endocarditis involving the Amplatzer ASD closure device in an adult.

  9. The cost-effectiveness of radiofrequency catheter ablation as first-line treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Mattias; Walfridsson, Håkan; Janzon, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this prospective substudy was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of treating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) with radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) compared with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) as first-line treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: A decision-analytic Markov model......, based on MANTRA-PAF (Medical Antiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation) study data, was developed to study long-term effects and costs of RFA compared with AADs as first-line treatment. Positive clinical effects were found in the overall population, a gain...... of an average 0.06 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to an incremental cost of €3033, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €50 570/QALY. However, the result of the subgroup analyses showed that RFA was less costly and more effective in younger patients. This implied an incremental cost-effectiveness...

  10. Attitudes Towards Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmann, Henrik; Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important but expensive procedure that is the subject of some debate. Physicians´ attitudes towards catheter ablation may influence promotion and patient acceptance. This is the first study to examine the attitudes of Danish...... cardiologists towards catheter ablation for AF, using a nationwide survey. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a purpose-designed questionnaire to evaluate attitudes towards catheter ablation for AF that was sent to all Danish cardiologists (n = 401; response n = 272 (67.8%)). There was no association between...... attitudes towards ablation and the experience or age of the cardiologist with respect to patients with recurrent AF episodes with a duration of 7 days and/or need for cardioversion. The majority (69%) expected a recurrence of AF after catheter ablation in more than 30% of the cases...

  11. Advances in Imaging for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Silva, A.; Wright, M.; Wright, M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years, our understanding of the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) has paved the way for ablation to be utilized as an effective treatment option. With the aim of gaining more detailed anatomical representation, advances have been made using various imaging modalities, both before and during the ablation procedure, in planning and execution. Options have flourished from procedural fluoroscopy, electro anatomic mapping systems, pre procedural computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and combinations of these technologies. Exciting work is underway in an effort to allow the electro physiologist to assess scar formation in real time. One advantage would be to lessen the learning curve for what are very complex procedures. The hope of these developments is to improve the likelihood of a successful ablation procedure and to allow more patients access to this treatment

  12. Alcohol and Atrial Fibrillation: A Sobering Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboinik, Aleksandr; Prabhu, Sandeep; Ling, Liang-Han; Kalman, Jonathan M; Kistler, Peter M

    2016-12-13

    Alcohol is popular in Western culture, supported by a perception that modest intake is cardioprotective. However, excessive drinking has detrimental implications for cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) following an alcohol binge or the "holiday heart syndrome" is well characterized. However, more modest levels of alcohol intake on a regular basis may also increase the risk of AF. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the relationship between alcohol and AF may include direct toxicity and alcohol's contribution to obesity, sleep-disordered breathing, and hypertension. We aim to provide a comprehensive review of the epidemiology and pathophysiology by which alcohol may be responsible for AF and determine whether alcohol abstinence is required for patients with AF. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Late infectious endocarditis of surgical patch closure of atrial septal defects diagnosed by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose gated cardiac computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnorat, Estelle; Seng, Piseth; Riberi, Alberto; Habib, Gilbert; Stein, Andreas

    2016-08-24

    In contrast to percutaneous atrial septal occluder device, surgical patch closure of atrial defects was known to be no infective endocarditis risk. We herein report the first case of late endocarditis of surgical patch closure of atrial septal defects occurred at 47-year after surgery. On September 2014, a 56-year-old immunocompetent French Caucasian man was admitted into the Emergency Department for 3-week history of headache, acute decrease of psychomotor performance and fever at 40 °C. The diagnosis has been evoked during his admission for the management of a brain abscess and confirmed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose gated cardiac computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT). Bacterial cultures of surgical deep samples of brain abscess were positive for Streptococcus intermedius and Aggregatibacter aphrophilus as identified by the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and confirmed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient was treated by antibiotics for 8 weeks and surgical patch closure removal. In summary, late endocarditis on surgical patch and on percutaneous atrial septal occluder device of atrial septal defects is rare. Cardiac imaging by the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose gated cardiac computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) could improve the diagnosis and care endocarditis on surgical patch closure of atrial septal defects while transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography remained difficult to interpret.

  14. Disease management: atrial fibrillation and home monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Renato Pietro

    2013-06-01

    Device-detected atrial fibrillation (AF) episodes predict poor clinical outcome regardless of symptoms. Potential benefits of remote monitoring are early arrhythmia detection and patient continuous monitoring. Several studies of device remote monitoring consistently demonstrated that AF represents the most common clinical alert and that detailed information on arrhythmia onset, duration, and burden as well as on the ventricular rate may be early available for clinical evaluation. Reaction time to AF alerts was very short in all series involving either pacemakers or defibrillators and action ability of AF alerts was very high. In the Home Guide Registry, in which 1650 patients were enrolled, AF was detected in 16.3% of patients and represented 36% of all cardiovascular events during the follow-up. Timely anticoagulation introduction in asymptomatic patients may impact on the stroke rate. According to the results of repeated Monte Carlo simulations based on a real population of 166 patients, daily monitoring may reduce the 2-year stroke risk by 9-18% with an absolute reduction of 0.2-0.6%, compared with conventional inter-visit intervals of 6-12 months. In the COMPAS trial, the incidence of hospitalizations for atrial arrhythmias and related stroke was significantly higher in the control group than in the remote monitoring group. Major questions will be addressed by the ongoing IMPACT trial in which a remote monitoring guided anticoagulation strategy based on AF detection will be compared with a physician-directed standard strategy. In patients with heart failure, AF early detection combined with other indexes may help prevent hospitalizations.

  15. Calcium signalling silencing in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiser, Maura

    2017-06-15

    Subcellular calcium signalling silencing is a novel and distinct cellular and molecular adaptive response to rapid cardiac activation. Calcium signalling silencing develops during short-term sustained rapid atrial activation as seen clinically during paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). It is the first 'anti-arrhythmic' adaptive response in the setting of AF and appears to counteract the maladaptive changes that lead to intracellular Ca 2+ signalling instability and Ca 2+ -based arrhythmogenicity. Calcium signalling silencing results in a failed propagation of the [Ca 2+ ] i signal to the myocyte centre both in patients with AF and in a rabbit model. This adaptive mechanism leads to a substantial reduction in the expression levels of calcium release channels (ryanodine receptors, RyR2) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the frequency of Ca 2+ sparks and arrhythmogenic Ca 2+ waves remains low. Less Ca 2+ release per [Ca 2+ ] i transient, increased fast Ca 2+ buffering strength, shortened action potentials and reduced L-type Ca 2+ current contribute to a substantial reduction of intracellular [Na + ]. These features of Ca 2+ signalling silencing are distinct and in contrast to the changes attributed to Ca 2+ -based arrhythmogenicity. Some features of Ca 2+ signalling silencing prevail in human AF suggesting that the Ca 2+ signalling 'phenotype' in AF is a sum of Ca 2+ stabilizing (Ca 2+ signalling silencing) and Ca 2+ destabilizing (arrhythmogenic unstable Ca 2+ signalling) factors. Calcium signalling silencing is a part of the mechanisms that contribute to the natural progression of AF and may limit the role of Ca 2+ -based arrhythmogenicity after the onset of AF. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  16. Tricky Treats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Tricky Treats shows children the difference between healthy snacks and sweet treats.

  17. Automatic detection and classification of human epicardial atrial unipolar electrograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubé, B; Vinet, A; Xiong, F; Yin, Y; LeBlanc, A-R; Pagé, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an unsupervised signal processing method applied to three-channel unipolar electrograms recorded from human atria. These were obtained by epicardial wires sutured on the right and left atria after coronary artery bypass surgery. Atrial (A) and ventricular (V) activations had to be detected and identified on each channel, and gathered across the channels when belonging to the same global event. The algorithm was developed and optimized on a training set of 19 recordings of 5 min. It was assessed on twenty-seven 2 h recordings taken just before the onset of a prolonged atrial fibrillation for a total of 1593697 activations that were validated and classified as normal atrial or ventricular activations (A, V) and premature atrial or ventricular activations (PAA, PVA). 99.93% of the activations were detected, and amongst these, 99.89% of the A and 99.75% of the V activations were correctly labelled. In the subset of the 39705 PAA, 99.83% were detected and 99.3% were correctly classified as A. The false positive rate was 0.37%. In conclusion, a reliable fully automatic detection and classification algorithm was developed that can detect and discriminate A and V activations from atrial recordings. It can provide the time series needed to develop a monitoring system aiming to identify dynamic predictors of forthcoming cardiac events such as postoperative atrial fibrillation

  18. Molecular Mechanisms and New Treatment Paradigm for Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirish, Padmini; Li, Ning; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Lianguo; Yang, Jun; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Ma, Sin Mei; Lee, Jeong Han; Su, Demetria; Lau, Victor C; Myers, Richard E; Lieu, Deborah K; López, Javier E; Young, J Nilas; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Haj, Fawaz; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Hammock, Bruce D; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2016-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation represents the most common arrhythmia leading to increased morbidity and mortality, yet, current treatment strategies have proven inadequate. Conventional treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs carries a high risk for proarrhythmias. The soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of anti-inflammatory epoxy fatty acids, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids from arachidonic acid to the corresponding proinflammatory diols. Therefore, the goal of the study is to directly test the hypotheses that inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme can result in an increase in the levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, leading to the attenuation of atrial structural and electric remodeling and the prevention of atrial fibrillation. For the first time, we report findings that inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase reduces inflammation, oxidative stress, atrial structural, and electric remodeling. Treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor significantly reduces the activation of key inflammatory signaling molecules, including the transcription factor nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and transforming growth factor-β. This study provides insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to atrial fibrillation by inflammation and represents a paradigm shift from conventional antiarrhythmic drugs, which block downstream events to a novel upstream therapeutic target by counteracting the inflammatory processes in atrial fibrillation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Bleeding-related admissions in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving antithrombotic therapy: results from the Tasmanian Atrial Fibrillation (TAF) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admassie, Endalkachew; Chalmers, Leanne; Bereznicki, Luke R

    2017-12-01

    Limited data are available from the Australian setting regarding bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving antithrombotic therapy. We aimed to investigate the incidence of hospital admissions due to bleeding and factors associated with bleeding in patients with AF who received antithrombotic therapy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving all patients with AF admitted to the Royal Hobart Hospital, Tasmania, Australia, between January 2011 and July 2015. Bleeding rates were calculated per 100 patient-years (PY) of follow-up, and multivariable modelling was used to identify predictors of bleeding. Of 2202 patients receiving antithrombotic therapy, 113 presented to the hospital with a major or minor bleeding event. These patients were older, had higher stroke and bleeding risk scores and were more often treated with warfarin and multiple antithrombotic therapies than patients who did not experience bleeding. The combined incidence of major and minor bleeding was significantly higher in warfarin- versus direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOAC)- and antiplatelet-treated patients (4.1 vs 3.0 vs 1.2 per 100 PY, respectively; p = 0.002). Similarly, the rate of major bleeding was higher in patients who received warfarin than in the DOAC and antiplatelet cohorts (2.4 vs 0.4 vs 0.6 per 100 PY, respectively; p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, increasing age, prior bleeding, warfarin and multiple antithrombotic therapies were independently associated with bleeding. The overall rate of bleeding in this cohort was low relative to similar observational studies. The rate of major bleeding was higher in patients prescribed warfarin compared to DOACs, with a similar rate of major bleeding for DOACs and antiplatelet agents. Our findings suggest potential to strategies to reduce bleeding include using DOACs in preference to warfarin, and avoiding multiple antithrombotic therapies in patients with AF.

  20. Investigation of atrial vulnerability by analysis of the sinus node EG from atrial fibrillation models using a phase synchronization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Wu, Zhong; Yang, Cuiwei; Shao, Jun; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Abbott, Derek

    2012-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) can result in life-threatening arrhythmia, and a clinically convenient means for detecting vulnerability remains elusive. We investigated atrial vulnerability by analyzing the sinus electrogram (EG) from AF animal models using a phase synchronization method. Using acetylcholine (ACh)-induced acute canine AF models (n= 4), a total of 128 electrical leads were attached to the surface of the anterior and posterior atria, and the pulmonary veins to form an electrocardiological mapping system. ACh was injected at varying concentrations with ladder-type adjustments. Sinus EGs and induced AF EGs that pertain to specific ACh concentrations were recorded.We hypothesize that the atrial vulnerability may be correlated with the Shannon entropy (SE) of the phase difference matrix that is extracted from the sinus EG. Our research suggests that the combination of SE with the synchronization method enables the sinus node EG to be analyzed and used to estimate atrial vulnerability.

  1. Biomarkers of Atrial Cardiopathy and Atrial Fibrillation Detection on Mobile Outpatient Continuous Telemetry After Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebasigari, Denise; Merkler, Alexander; Guo, Yang; Gialdini, Gino; Kummer, Benjamin; Hemendinger, Morgan; Song, Christopher; Chu, Antony; Cutting, Shawna; Silver, Brian; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Kamel, Hooman; Furie, Karen L; Yaghi, Shadi

    2017-06-01

    Biomarkers of atrial dysfunction or "cardiopathy" are associated with embolic stroke risk. However, it is unclear if this risk is mediated by undiagnosed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF). We aim to determine whether atrial cardiopathy biomarkers predict AF on continuous heart-rhythm monitoring after embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). This was a single-center retrospective study including all patients with ESUS undergoing 30 days of ambulatory heart-rhythm monitoring to look for AF between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015. We reviewed medical records for clinical, radiographic, and cardiac variables. The primary outcome was a new diagnosis of AF detected during heart-rhythm monitoring. The primary predictors were atrial biomarkers: left atrial diameter on echocardiography, P-wave terminal force in electrocardiogram (ECG) lead V1, and P wave - R wave (PR) interval on ECG. A multiple logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between atrial biomarkers and AF detection. Among 196 eligible patients, 23 (11.7%) were diagnosed with AF. In unadjusted analyses, patients with AF were older (72.4 years versus 61.4 years, P atrial diameter (39.2 mm versus 35.7 mm, P = .03). In a multivariable model, the only predictor of AF was age ≥ 60 years (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.06-8.5; P = .04). Atrial biomarkers were weakly associated with AF after ESUS. This suggests that previously reported associations between these markers and stroke may reflect independent cardiac pathways leading to stroke. Prospective studies are needed to investigate these mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of atrial fibrillation and flutter by a dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. For the Worldwide Jewel AF Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, C D; Schsls, W; Dijkman, B; Jung, W; Sheth, N V; Olson, W H; Gunderson, B D

    2000-02-29

    To distinguish prolonged episodes of atrial fibrillation (AF) that require cardioversion from self-terminating episodes that do not, an atrial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) must be able to detect AF continuously for extended periods. The ICD should discriminate between atrial tachycardia/flutter (AT), which may be terminated by antitachycardia pacing, and AF, which requires cardioversion. We studied 80 patients with AT/AF and ventricular arrhythmias who were treated with a new atrial/dual-chamber ICD. During a follow-up period lasting 6+/-2 months, we validated spontaneous, device-defined AT/AF episodes by stored electrograms in all patients. In 58 patients, we performed 80 Holter recordings with telemetered atrial electrograms, both to validate the continuous detection of AT/AF and to determine the sensitivity of the detection of AT/AF. Detection was appropriate in 98% of 132 AF episodes and 88% of 190 AT episodes (98% of 128 AT episodes with an atrial cycle length 1 hour, for a total of 2697 hours of continuous detection of AT/AF. During Holter monitoring, the sensitivity of the detection of AT/AF (116 hours) was 100%; the specificity of the detection of non-AT/AF rhythms (1290 hours) was 99.99%. Of 166 appropriate episodes detected as AT, 45% were terminated by antitachycardia pacing. A new ICD detects AT/AF accurately and continuously. Therapy may be programmed for long-duration AT/AF, with a low risk of underdetection. Discrimination of AT from AF permits successful pacing therapy for a significant fraction of AT.

  3. Fluvastatin combined with benazepril may contribute to the favorable prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Jiang, Li; Lin, Xi; Liang, Zhao-Guang

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the clinical efficacy of fluvastatin combined with benazepril in the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). A total of 92 patients with AF were randomly assigned to the case group (n=46), in which the patients were treated with fluvastatin (80mg) plus benazepril (10mg), or to the control group (n=46), in which the patients were treated with fluvastatin (80mg). The conversion rate of sinus rhythm was higher in the case group than in the control group (Pbenazepril further increased the conversion rate of sinus rhythm and significantly improved the quality of life and prognosis of AF patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct oral anticoagulant use in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation with valvular heart disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ryan E; Kabra, Rajesh; Oliphant, Carrie S

    2017-06-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are indicated for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), which, according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Rhythm Society atrial fibrillation (AF) guidelines, excludes patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis, a mechanical or bioprosthetic heart valve, or mitral valve repair. However, the data regarding use of DOACs in AF patients with other types of valvular heart disease (VHD) are unclear. We aimed to summarize and evaluate the literature regarding the safety and efficacy of DOAC use in NVAF patients with other types of VHD. After an extensive literature search, a total of 1 prospective controlled trial, 4 subanalyses, and 1 abstract were identified. Efficacy of the DOAC agents in NVAF patients with VHD mirrored the overall trial results. Bleeding risk was significantly increased in VHD patients treated with rivaroxaban, but not for dabigatran or apixaban. Of the bioprosthetic valve patients enrolled in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial, no safety or efficacy concerns were identified. In conclusion, subanalyses of DOAC landmark AF trials revealed that dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban may be safely used in AF patients with certain types of VHD: aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, and mitral regurgitation. More evidence is needed before routinely recommending these agents for patients with bioprosthetic valves or mild mitral stenosis. Patients with moderate to severe mitral stenosis or mechanical valves should continue to receive warfarin, as these patients were excluded from all landmark AF trials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Spatial Relation Between Left Atrial Anatomical Contact Areas and Circular Activation in Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shiro; Yamaguchi, Takanori; Hori, Yuichi; Anjo, Naofumi; Hayashi, Akiko; Kobayashi, Sayuki; Komatsu, Takaaki; Sakai, Yoshihiko; Fukui, Akira; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Taguchi, Isao

    2016-05-01

    Atrial low-voltage zones (LVZs) may be related to maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). The influence of left atrial (LA) contact areas (CoAs) on reentrant or rotor-like sources maintaining AF has not been investigated. Forty patients with persistent AF (PsAF) were analyzed. Three representative CoA regions in the LA (ascending aorta: anterior wall; descending aorta: left inferior pulmonary vein; and vertebrae: posterior wall) were visualized by enhanced CT. Using circular catheters, the LVZs (80% of the mean AF cycle length. A pivot was defined as the core of the localized circular activation. Anterior (39/40 patients, 98%), left pulmonary vein antrum (27/40, 68%), and posterior (19/40, 48%) CoAs were identified, and 80% (68/85) of those sites were overlapped by or close (<3 mm) to LVZs. Thirty-six (90%) patients demonstrated circular activation (3.1±1.7 sites/patients) along with significantly higher organized dominant frequencies (6.3 ± 0.5 Hz, regularity-index: 0.26 [0.23-0.41]) within the LA, and the average electrogram amplitude of those pivots was 0.30 mV (0.18-0.52). Of those sites, 55% (66/120) were located at or close to CoA regions. Catheter ablation including of LVZs neighboring CoAs terminated AF in 9 (23%) patients. External anatomical structures contacting the LA may be related to unique conduction properties in diseased myocardium necessary for PsAF maintenance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Left atrial appendage obliteration in atrial fibrillation patients undergoing bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, X P; Zhu, T Y; Han, J; Li, Y; Meng, X

    2016-02-01

    Left atrial appendage (LAA) obliteration is a proven stroke-preventive measure for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the efficacy of LAA obliteration for patients with AF after bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement (MVR) remains unclear. This study aimed to estimate the efficacy of LAA obliteration in preventing embolism and to investigate the predictors of thromboembolism after bioprosthetic MVR. We retrospectively studied 173 AF subjects with bioprosthetic MVR; among them, 81 subjects underwent LAA obliteration using an endocardial running suture method. The main outcome measure was the occurrence of thrombosis events (TEs). The mean follow-up time was 40 ± 17 months. AF rhythm was observed in 136 patients postoperatively. The incidence rate of TEs was 13.97 % for postoperative AF subjects; a dilated left atrium (LA; > 49.5 mm) was identified as an independent risk factor of TEs (OR = 10.619, 95 % CI = 2.754-40.94, p = 0.001). For postoperative AF patients with or without LAA, the incidence rate of TEs was 15.8 % (9/57) and 12.7 % (10/79; p = 0.603), respectively. The incidence rate of TEs was 2.7 % (1/36) and 4.2 % (2/48) for the subgroup patients with a left atrial diameter of  49.5 mm (p = 0.346). Surgical LAA obliteration in patients with valvular AF undergoing bioprosthetic MVR did not reduce TEs, even when the CHA2DS2-VASc score (a score for estimating the risk of stroke in AF) was ≥ 2 points.

  7. Risk of atrial fibrillation as a function of the electrocardiographic PR interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Pietersen, Adrian; Graff, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Prolongation of the PR interval has been associated with an increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF).......Prolongation of the PR interval has been associated with an increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF)....

  8. A randomized study of the effects of exercise training on patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Kjaer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training is beneficial in ischemic and congestive heart disease. However, the effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown.......Exercise training is beneficial in ischemic and congestive heart disease. However, the effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown....

  9. Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Maria; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The few studies conducted on short-term effects of air pollution on episodes of atrial fibrillation indicates a positive association, though not consistently...

  10. Effect of atrial preference pacing on reducing long-term burden of atrial fibrillation:a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianfeng; Chen Yueguang; Su Yangang; Zhang Dadong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of atrial preference pacing (APP) on the prevention of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Methods: Based on the type of implanted pacemaker, 46 patients with sick sinus syndrome and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were divided into two groups. Dual-chamber pacemaker equipped with APP function was implanted in patients of group APP (n=21), while conventional dual-chamber pacemaker was implanted in patients of control group (n=25). The patients were followed up for six months, the maximum P wave duration (Pmax), the P wave dispersion (Pd), the structure of heart chambers, the data of automatic mode switch (AMS) and the total burden of atrial fibrillation were estimated,and the results were statistically analyzed and compared between two groups. Results: The basic clinical characteristics of two groups were comparable. After six months pacing, the difference in Pmax between two groups was of no significance (115.0 ± 10.1 ms vs 122.0 ± 11.0 ms, P > 0.05), while the increase of Pd in control group was more obvious than that in group APP (32.7 ± 4.2 ms vs 20.1 ± 5.3 ms, P 0.05), and also no remarkable difference in the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) could be found (P > 0.05). Moreover, no significant difference existed between two groups (P > 0.05). After six months pacing,in group APP the frequencies of AMS decreased more sharply (145 ± 37 times vs 327 ± 13 times, P < 0.05), the duration of AMS shortened more apparently (73 ± 15 hours vs 139 ± 28 hours, P < 0.05) and the total burden of atrial fibrillation was alleviated more obviously (13 ± 5% vs 28 ± 6%, P < 0.05) when compared to those in control group. Conclusion: Atrial preference pacing can coordinate the anisotropy of double atrial depolarization, reduce the frequencies of long-term paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, shorten the duration of atrial fibrillation

  11. Management of Stroke Prevention in Canadian Patients with Atrial Fibrillation at Moderate to High Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchuk, William M; Levac, Brandon; Lara, Muria; Shakespeare, Annabelle; Evers, Thomas; Bolt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Many patients with atrial fibrillation who are at moderate to high risk of stroke do not receive anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in accordance with recommendations. Objective: To determine (1) why Canadian patients with atrial fibrillation who are potentially eligible for VKA do not receive this therapy, (2) why Canadian primary care physicians discontinue VKA therapy, and (3) why VKA therapy is perceived as difficult to manage. Methods: The study involved a chart review of 3 cohorts of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at moderate to high risk of stroke: patients who had never received VKA treatment (VKA-naive), those whose treatment had been discontinued, and those whose VKA treatment was considered difficult to manage. Results: Charts for 187 patients (mean age 78.4 years, standard deviation 8.9 years) treated at 39 primary care sites were reviewed (62 treatment-naive, 42 with therapy discontinued, and 83 whose therapy was considered difficult to manage). Atrial fibrillation was paroxysmal in 82 (44%) of the patients, persistent in 47 patients (25%), and permanent in 58 (31%). One patient in each of the 3 cohorts had experienced a stroke during the 6 months before study participation. Bleeding events were more frequent among patients who had discontinued VKA therapy than in the other 2 groups. Among those whose therapy was discontinued and those whose therapy was difficult to manage, the mean time in the therapeutic range was 46.3% and 56.4%, respectively. The most common reason for not initiating VKA therapy in treatment-naive patients was the transient nature of atrial fibrillation (25/62 [40%]). The most common reason for discontinuation of VKA therapy was a bleeding event (10/42 [24%]). The presence of a concomitant chronic disease was the most common reason that a patient’s therapy was considered difficult to manage (46/83 [55%]). Conclusions: VKA therapy was not initiated or was discontinued for various reasons

  12. Management of stroke prevention in canadian patients with atrial fibrillation at moderate to high risk of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchuk, William M; Levac, Brandon; Lara, Muria; Shakespeare, Annabelle; Evers, Thomas; Bolt, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    Many patients with atrial fibrillation who are at moderate to high risk of stroke do not receive anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in accordance with recommendations. To determine (1) why Canadian patients with atrial fibrillation who are potentially eligible for VKA do not receive this therapy, (2) why Canadian primary care physicians discontinue VKA therapy, and (3) why VKA therapy is perceived as difficult to manage. The study involved a chart review of 3 cohorts of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at moderate to high risk of stroke: patients who had never received VKA treatment (VKA-naive), those whose treatment had been discontinued, and those whose VKA treatment was considered difficult to manage. Charts for 187 patients (mean age 78.4 years, standard deviation 8.9 years) treated at 39 primary care sites were reviewed (62 treatment-naive, 42 with therapy discontinued, and 83 whose therapy was considered difficult to manage). Atrial fibrillation was paroxysmal in 82 (44%) of the patients, persistent in 47 patients (25%), and permanent in 58 (31%). One patient in each of the 3 cohorts had experienced a stroke during the 6 months before study participation. Bleeding events were more frequent among patients who had discontinued VKA therapy than in the other 2 groups. Among those whose therapy was discontinued and those whose therapy was difficult to manage, the mean time in the therapeutic range was 46.3% and 56.4%, respectively. The most common reason for not initiating VKA therapy in treatment-naive patients was the transient nature of atrial fibrillation (25/62 [40%]). The most common reason for discontinuation of VKA therapy was a bleeding event (10/42 [24%]). The presence of a concomitant chronic disease was the most common reason that a patient's therapy was considered difficult to manage (46/83 [55%]). VKA therapy was not initiated or was discontinued for various reasons. Multiple comorbid conditions made management of VKA

  13. Atrial fibrillation ablation using a closed irrigation radiofrequency ablation catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Keith; Mounsey, John Paul; Chung, Eugene; Roomiani, Pahresah; Morse, Michael Andew; Patel, Ankit; Gehi, Anil

    2012-05-01

    Catheter ablation is an effective therapy for symptomatic, medically refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). Open-irrigated radiofrequency (RF) ablation catheters produce transmural lesions at the cost of increased fluid delivery. In vivo models suggest closed-irrigated RF catheters create equivalent lesions, but clinical outcomes are limited. A cohort of 195 sequential patients with symptomatic AF underwent stepwise AF ablation (AFA) using a closed-irrigation ablation catheter. Recurrence of AF was monitored and outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models. Mean age was 59.0 years, 74.9% were male, 56.4% of patients were paroxysmal and mean duration of AF was 5.4 years. Patients had multiple comorbidities including hypertension (76.4%), tobacco abuse (42.1%), diabetes (17.4%), and obesity (mean body mass index 30.8). The median follow-up was 55.8 weeks. Overall event-free survival was 73.6% with one ablation and 77.4% after reablation (reablation rate was 8.7%). Median time to recurrence was 26.9 weeks. AF was more likely to recur in patients being treated with antiarrhythmic therapy at the time of last follow-up (recurrence rate 30.3% with antiarrhythmic drugs, 13.2% without antiarrhythmic drugs; hazard ratio [HR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.4, P = 0.024) and in those with a history of AF greater than 2 years duration (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.9, P = 0.038). Our study represents the largest cohort of patients receiving AFA with closed-irrigation ablation catheters. We demonstrate comparable outcomes to those previously reported in studies of open-irrigation ablation catheters. Given the theoretical benefits of a closed-irrigation system, a large head-to-head comparison using this catheter is warranted. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Atrial arrhythmia in ageing spontaneously hypertensive rats: unraveling the substrate in hypertension and ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis H Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both ageing and hypertension are known risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF although the pathophysiological contribution or interaction of the individual factors remains poorly understood. Here we aim to delineate the arrhythmogenic atrial substrate in mature spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. METHODS: SHR were studied at 12 and 15 months of age (n = 8 per group together with equal numbers of age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto control rats (WKY. Electrophysiologic study was performed on superfused isolated right and left atrial preparations using a custom built high-density multiple-electrode array to determine effective refractory periods (ERP, atrial conduction and atrial arrhythmia inducibility. Tissue specimens were harvested for structural analysis. RESULTS: COMPARED TO WKY CONTROLS, THE SHR DEMONSTRATED: Higher systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001, bi-atrial enlargement (p<0.05, bi-ventricular hypertrophy (p<0.05, lower atrial ERP (p = 0.008, increased atrial conduction heterogeneity (p = 0.001 and increased atrial interstitial fibrosis (p = 0.006 & CD68-positive macrophages infiltration (p<0.0001. These changes resulted in higher atrial arrhythmia inducibility (p = 0.01 and longer induced AF episodes (p = 0.02 in 15-month old SHR. Ageing contributed to incremental bi-atrial hypertrophy (p<0.01 and atrial conduction heterogeneity (p<0.01 without affecting atrial ERP, fibrosis and arrhythmia inducibility. The limited effect of ageing on the atrial substrate may be secondary to the reduction in CD68-positive macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Significant atrial electrical and structural remodeling is evident in the ageing spontaneously hypertensive rat atria. Concomitant hypertension appears to play a greater pathophysiological role than ageing despite their compounding effect on the atrial substrate. Inflammation is pathophysiologically linked to the pro-fibrotic changes in the hypertensive atria.

  15. Speckle tracking analysis: a new tool for left atrial function analysis in systemic hypertension: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Matteo; Ciccone, Marco M; Maiello, Maria; Modesti, Pietro A; Muiesan, Maria L; Scicchitano, Pietro; Novo, Salvatore; Palmiero, Pasquale; Saba, Pier S; Pedrinelli, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is an imaging technique applied to the analysis of left atrial function. STE provides a non-Doppler, angle-independent and objective quantification of left atrial myocardial deformation. Data regarding feasibility, accuracy and clinical applications of left atrial strain are rapidly gathering. This review describes the fundamental concepts of left atrial STE, illustrates its pathophysiological background and discusses its emerging role in systemic arterial hypertension.

  16. New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation After PCI or CABG for Left Main Disease: The EXCEL Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidou, Ioanna; Chen, Shmuel; Kappetein, A Pieter; Serruys, Patrick W; Gersh, Bernard J; Puskas, John D; Kandzari, David E; Taggart, David P; Morice, Marie-Claude; Buszman, Paweł E; Bochenek, Andrzej; Schampaert, Erick; Pagé, Pierre; Sabik, Joseph F; McAndrew, Thomas; Redfors, Björn; Ben-Yehuda, Ori; Stone, Gregg W

    2018-02-20

    There is limited information on the incidence and prognostic impact of new-onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). This study sought to determine the incidence of NOAF following PCI and CABG for LMCAD and its effect on 3-year cardiovascular outcomes. In the EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial, 1,905 patients with LMCAD and low or intermediate SYNTAX scores were randomized to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG. Outcomes were analyzed according to the development of NOAF during the initial hospitalization following revascularization. Among 1,812 patients without atrial fibrillation on presentation, NOAF developed at a mean of 2.7 ± 2.5 days after revascularization in 162 patients (8.9%), including 161 of 893 (18.0%) CABG-treated patients and 1 of 919 (0.1%) PCI-treated patients (p EXCEL trial, NOAF was common after CABG but extremely rare after PCI. The development of NOAF was strongly associated with subsequent death and stroke in CABG-treated patients. Further studies are warranted to determine whether prophylactic strategies to prevent or treat atrial fibrillation may improve prognosis in patients with LMCAD who are undergoing CABG. (Evaluation of XIENCE Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization [EXCEL]; NCT01205776). Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of atrial systole on canine and porcine coronary blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, R F

    1981-09-01

    A feature of phasic coronary flow patterns recorded in conscious chronically instrumented dogs is the atrial cove--a transient depression of arterial flow that occurs during atrial systole. The association between the hemodynamic effects of atrial systole and the atrial cove was studied in anesthetized dogs and pigs with complete heart block. Many atrial coves are available for study in these preparations because atrial activity continues unabated during the diastolic ventricular arrest that follows cessation of electrical pacing. The effect of atrial systole is to translate the pressure-flow relation found during diastole to a higher intercept pressure without change in slope. The increase in the intercept pressure equals the increase in intramyocardial pressure measured with microtransducers embedded in the left ventricular wall. The decrement in flow during the atrial cove is a direct function of the change in intramyocardial pressure and an inverse function of coronary vascular resistance. Each atrial systole is associated with a forward flow transient in the coronary veins, the peak of which occurs at the same instant as does the nadir of atrial flow. These data suggest that the coronary vessels are acting as collapsible tubes and that the waterfall model of the coronary circulation is applicable. The following sequence is proposed to account for the atrial cove. Atrial systole ejects a bolus of blood into the left ventricle increasing both ventricular cavity and intramyocardial pressures. The increase in intramyocardial pressure raises the back pressure opposing coronary flow, reducing the arterial perfusion pressure gradient and causing flow to fall.

  18. Rapid pacing results in changes in atrial but not in ventricular refractoriness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonderwoerd, BA; Van Gelder, IC; Tieleman, RG; Bel, KJ; Crijns, HJGM

    It is well known that atrial tachycardia causes atrial electrical remodeling, characterized by shortening of atrial effective refractory periods (AERPs) and loss of physiological adaptation of AERP to rate. However, the nature and time course of changes in ventricular effective refractory periods

  19. 77 FR 11121 - Scientific Information Request on Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Information Request on Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality... Review of the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence-based... the treatment of atrial fibrillation. The EHC Program is dedicated to identifying as many studies as...

  20. 78 FR 11207 - Clinical Study Designs for Surgical Ablation Devices for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...] Clinical Study Designs for Surgical Ablation Devices for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation; Guidance for... devices intended for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. DATES: Submit either electronic or written... Study Designs for Surgical Ablation Devices for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation'' to the Division of...

  1. Meta-analysis identifies six new susceptibility loci for atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellinor, Patrick T; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Albert, Christine M; Glazer, Nicole L; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Smith, Albert V; Arking, Dan E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Krijthe, Bouwe P; Lubitz, Steven A; Bis, Joshua C; Chung, Mina K; Dörr, Marcus; Ozaki, Kouichi; Roberts, Jason D; Smith, J Gustav; Pfeufer, Arne; Sinner, Moritz F; Lohman, Kurt; Ding, Jingzhong; Smith, Nicholas L; Smith, Jonathan D; Rienstra, Michiel; Rice, Kenneth M; Van Wagoner, David R; Magnani, Jared W; Wakili, Reza; Clauss, Sebastian; Rotter, Jerome I; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Launer, Lenore J; Davies, Robert W; Borkovich, Matthew; Harris, Tamara B; Lin, Honghuang; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Milan, David J; Hofman, Albert; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chen, Lin Y; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Voight, Benjamin F; Li, Guo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Kubo, Michiaki; Tedrow, Usha B; Rose, Lynda M; Ridker, Paul M; Conen, David; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Furukawa, Tetsushi; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Xu, Siyan; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Levy, Daniel; Nakamura, Yusuke; Parvez, Babar; Mahida, Saagar; Furie, Karen L; Rosand, Jonathan; Muhammad, Raafia; Psaty, Bruce M; Meitinger, Thomas; Perz, Siegfried; Wichmann, H-Erich; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Kao, W H Linda; Kathiresan, Sekar; Roden, Dan M; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; McKnight, Barbara; Sjögren, Marketa; Newman, Anne B; Liu, Yongmei; Gollob, Michael H; Melander, Olle; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Felix, Stephan B; Alonso, Alvaro; Darbar, Dawood; Barnard, John; Chasman, Daniel I; Heckbert, Susan R; Benjamin, Emelia J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kääb, Stefan

    Atrial fibrillation is a highly prevalent arrhythmia and a major risk factor for stroke, heart failure and death. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry, including 6,707 with and 52,426 without atrial fibrillation. Six new atrial fibrillation

  2. Time to implement fitness and reduction of fatness in atrial fibrillation therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Hobbelt, Anne H.; Brugemann, Johan; Rienstra, Michiel

    This editorial refers to ‘Self-reported physical activity and major adverse events in patients with atrial fibrillation: a report from the EURObservational Research Programme Pilot Survey on Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) General Registry’ by M. Proietti et al. , doi:10.1093/europace/euw150. Atrial

  3. Left atrial function in heart failure with impaired and preserved ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Lee, Alex Pui-Wai; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2014-09-01

    Left atrial structural and functional changes in heart failure are relatively ignored parts of cardiac assessment. This review illustrates the pathophysiological and functional changes in left atrium in heart failure as well as their prognostic value. Heart failure can be divided into those with systolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). Left atrial enlargement and dysfunction commonly occur in systolic heart failure, in particular, in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Atrial enlargement and dysfunction also carry important prognostic value in systolic heart failure, independently of known parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction. In HFPEF, there is evidence of left atrial enlargement, impaired atrial compliance, and reduction of atrial pump function. This occurs not only at rest but also during exercise, indicating significant impairment of atrial contractile reserve. Furthermore, atrial dyssynchrony is common in HFPEF. These factors further contribute to the development of new onset or progression of atrial arrhythmias, in particular, atrial fibrillation. Left atrial function is an integral part of cardiac function and its structural and functional changes in heart failure are common. As changes of left atrial structure and function have different clinical implications in systolic heart failure and HFPEF, routine assessment is warranted.

  4. ABO blood groups: A risk factor for left atrial and left atrial appendage thrombogenic milieu in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan; Li, Kuibao; Yang, Xinchun

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have identified ABO blood groups as predictors of thromboembolic diseases. In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), however, potential association between ABO blood groups and the risk of left atrial (LA) and/or left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombogenic milieu (TM) has not been established. This is a retrospective case-control study that included 125 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) plus TM, as evidenced by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during a period from1 January 2010 to 31 December 2016. The controls were selected randomly from 1072 NVAF without TM at a 1:2 ratio. Potential association between ABO blood groups and TM was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The risk of TM was higher in patients with blood group A (33.6% vs. 20.2% in non-A blood groups, P=0.005). After adjusting for age, sex, oral anticoagulant use, AF type and duration, and relevant functional measures (e.g., NT-pro BNP level, left atrium diameter, and left ventricular ejection fraction), blood group A remained associated with an increased risk of TM (OR=2.99, 95% CI 1.4-6.388, P=0.005). Blood group A is an independent risk factor for TM in NVAF patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Newer Anticoagulants for Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Harburger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-valvular atrial fibrillation is a recognized risk factor for stroke and systemic embolism. It has been clearly established that warfarin reduces the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in persons with atrial fibrillation and additional risk factors for stroke. The use of warfarin, however, requires frequent monitoring, and there is great variability in patient response to warfarin. Warfarin interacts with several medications and foods. In addition, warfarin use portends a significant risk of bleeding. For these reasons, warfarin is frequently not prescribed to persons for whom the drug would provide a clear benefit. Over the past decade, attempts have been made to develop drugs that are at least as safe and effective as warfarin for the treatment of atrial fibrillation that do not require monitoring nor have as many interactions. Initial studies of compounds in this regard ultimately failed due to safety concerns, but over the past two years two novel agents have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Association for anticoagulation in non-valvular atrial fibrillation, another drug is under review, and additional compounds are being studied. This article will review the use of warfarin and these new agents in the treatment of non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

  6. Heart failure and atrial fibrillation: current concepts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berg, M. P.; Tuinenburg, A. E.; Crijns, H. J.; Van Gelder, I. C.; Gosselink, A. T.; Lie, K. I.

    1997-01-01

    Heart failure and atrial fibrillation are very common, particularly in the elderly. Owing to common risk factors both disorders are often present in the same patient. In addition, there is increasing evidence of a complex, reciprocal relation between heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Thus heart failure may cause atrial fibrillation, with electromechanical feedback and neurohumoral activation playing an important mediating role. In addition, atrial fibrillation may promote heart failure; in particular, when there is an uncontrolled ventricular rate, tachycardiomyopathy may develop and thereby heart failure. Eventually, a vicious circle between heart failure and atrial fibrillation may form, in which neurohumoral activation and subtle derangement of rate control are involved. Treatment should aim at unloading of the heart, adequate control of ventricular rate, and correction of neurohumoral activation. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors may help to achieve these goals. Treatment should also include an attempt to restore sinus rhythm through electrical cardioversion, though appropriate timing of cardioversion is difficult. His bundle ablation may be used to achieve adequate rate control in drug refractory cases. PMID:9155607

  7. Ebstein's anomaly as a cause of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanović Miodrag R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ebstein's anomaly is characterized by a displacement of the tricuspid valve toward apex, because of anomalous attachment of the tricuspid leaflets. There are type B of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome and paroxysmal arrhythmias in more than a half of all patients. Case report. We presented a female, 32-year old, with frequent paroxysms of atrial fibrillation. After conversion of rhythm an ECG showed WPW syndrome. Echocardiographic examination discovered normal size of the left cardiac chambers with paradoxical ventricular septal motion. The right ventricle was very small because of its atrialization. The origin of the tricuspid valve was 20 mm closer to apex of the right ventricle than the origin of the mitral valve. Electrophysiological examination showed a posterolateral right accesorial pathway. Atrial fibrillation was induced very easily in electrophysiological laboratory and a successful ablation of accessorial pathway was made. There were no WPW syndrome and paroxysms of atrial fibrillation after that. Conclusion. Ebstein's anomaly is one of the reasons of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, especially in young persons with WPW syndrome.

  8. Atrial flutter: from ECG to electroanatomical 3D mapping

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    Livio Dei Cas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Atrial flutter is a common arrhythmia that may cause significant symptoms, including palpitations, dyspnea, chest pain and even syncope. Frequently it’s possible to diagnose atrial flutter with a 12-lead surface ECG, looking for distinctive waves in leads II, III, aVF, aVL, V1,V2. Puech and Waldo developed the first classification of atrial flutter in the 1970s. These authors divided the arrhythmia into type I and type II. Therefore, in 2001 the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology developed a new classification of atrial flutter, based not only on the ECG, but also on the electrophysiological mechanism. New developments in endocardial mapping, including the electroanatomical 3D mapping system, have greatly expanded our understanding of the mechanism of arrhythmias. More recently, Scheinman et al, provided an updated classification and nomenclature. The terms like common, uncommon, typical, reverse typical or atypical flutter are abandoned because they may generate confusion. The authors worked out a new terminology, which differentiates atrial flutter only on the basis of electrophysiological mechanism. (Heart International 2006; 3-4: 161-70

  9. Managing atrial fibrillation in the elderly: critical appraisal of dronedarone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trigo P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paula Trigo, Gregory W FischerDepartment of Anesthesiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Atrial fibrillation is the most commonly seen arrhythmia in the geriatric population and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment of the elderly with atrial fibrillation remains challenging for physicians, because this unique subpopulation is characterized by multiple comorbidities requiring chronic use of numerous medications, which can potentially lead to severe drug interactions. Furthermore, age-related changes in the cardiovascular system as well as other physiological changes result in altered drug pharmacokinetics. Dronedarone is a new drug recently approved for the treatment of arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation and/or atrial flutter. Dronedarone is a benzofuran amiodarone analog which lacks the iodine moiety and contains a methane sulfonyl group that decreases its lipophilicity. These differences in chemical structure are responsible for making dronedarone less toxic than amiodarone which, in turn, results in fewer side effects. Adverse events for dronedarone include gastrointestinal side effects and rash. No dosage adjustments are required for patients with renal impairment. However, the use of dronedarone is contraindicated in the presence of severe hepatic dysfunction.Keywords: atrial fibrillation, elderly, antiarrhythmic agents, amiodarone, dronedarone

  10. Tricky Treats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Tricky Treats shows children the difference between healthy snacks and sweet treats.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  11. Ablation of atrial fibrillation with the Epicor system: a prospective observational trial to evaluate safety and efficacy and predictors of success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diez Claudius

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU energy has evolved as a new surgical tool to treat atrial fibrillation (AF. We evaluated safety and efficacy of AF ablation with HIFU and analyzed predictors of success in a prospective clinical study. Methods From January 2007 to June 2008, 110 patients with AF and concomitant open heart surgery were enrolled into the study. Main underlying heart diseases were aortic valve disease (50%, ischemic heart disease (48%, and mitral valve disease (18%. AF was paroxysmal in 29%, persistent in 31%, and long standing persistent in 40% of patients, lasting for 1 to 240 months (mean 24 months. Mean left atrial diameter was 50 ± 7 mm. Each patient underwent left atrial ablation with the Epicor system prior to open heart surgery. After surgery, the patients were treated with amiodarone and coumadin for 6 months. Follow-up studies including resting ECG, 24 h Holter ECG, and echocardiography were obtained at 6 and 12 months. Results All patients had successful application of the system on the beating heart prior to initiation of extracorporeal circulation. On average, 11 ± 1 ultrasound transducer elements were used to create the box lesion. The hand-held probe for additional linear lesions was employed in 83 cases. No device-related deaths occurred. Postoperative pacemaker insertion was necessary in 4 patients. At 6 months, 62% of patients presented with sinus rhythm. No significant changes were noted at 12 months. Type of AF and a left atrial diameter > 50 mm were predictors for failure of AF ablation. Conclusion AF ablation with the Epicor system as a concomitant procedure during open heart surgery is safe and acceptably effective. Our overall conversion rate was lower than in previously published reports, which may be related to the lower proportion of isolated mitral valve disease in our study population. Left atrial size may be useful to determine patients who are most likely to benefit from

  12. Delayed Onset of Atrial Fibrillation and Ventricular Tachycardia after an Automobile Lightning Strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drigalla, Dorian; Essler, Shannon E; Stone, C Keith

    2017-11-01

    Lightning strike is a rare medical emergency. The primary cause of death in lightning strike victims is immediate cardiac arrest. The mortality rate from lightning exposure can be as high as 30%, with up to 70% of patients left with significant morbidity. An 86-year-old male was struck by lightning while driving his vehicle and crashed. On initial emergency medical services evaluation, he was asymptomatic with normal vital signs. During his transport, he lost consciousness several times and was found to be in atrial fibrillation with intermittent runs of ventricular tachycardia during the unconscious periods. In the emergency department, atrial fibrillation persisted and he experienced additional episodes of ventricular tachycardia. He was treated with i.v. amiodarone and admitted to cardiovascular intensive care unit, where he converted to a normal sinus rhythm on the amiodarone drip. He was discharged home without rhythm-control medications and did not have further episodes of dysrhythmias on follow-up visits. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Lightning strikes are one of the most common injuries suffered from natural phenomenon, and short-term mortality ordinarily depends on the cardiac effects. This case demonstrates that the cardiac effects can be multiple, delayed, and recurrent, which compels the emergency physician to be vigilant in the initial evaluation and ongoing observation of patients with lightning injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A report of acute atrial fibrillation induced by misapplication of epinephrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urticaria is a systemic allergic reaction leading to wheal formation with skin itching. Occasionally we come across some intractable cases, in which we may administrate epinephrine infusion besides steroid and anti-histamine. A 19 year-old man suffered from intractable urticaria for 2 days, although anti-histamine and steroids were used. Titration of adrenaline was considered in the treatment of intractable urticaria. He was administrated 1 mg epinephrine intravenous bolus due to mis-dilution by the nurse. Transient atrial fibrillation with cardiac ischemia occurred. After 12.5 mg labetalol i.v., and 11-hour observation in the emergency room, he gradually recovered to normal sinus rhythm without ST-T change. In the past, ventricular tachycardia, hypertension, chest pain, pulmonary edema, the need to intubate, renal failure requiring renal transplant, coronary artery spasm, myocardial ischemia/infarction and hypokalemia have been reported after mis-diluted or excessive doses of epinephrine in treating anaphylaxis. To our knowledge, our case is the first worldwide to describe transient atrial fibrillation after epinephrine overdose, and the patient was successfully resuscitated by 12.5 mg labetalol. It is important to know how to rescue accidental epinephrine intravenous injection patients.

  14. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF. PMID:29084143

  15. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Siga Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  16. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-10-30

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  17. Atrial natriuretic factor increases vascular permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockette, W.; Brennaman, B.

    1990-01-01

    An increase in central blood volume in microgravity may result in increased plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Since elevations in plasma ANF are found in clinical syndromes associated with edema, and since space motion sickness induced by microgravity is associated with an increase in central blood volume and facial edema, we determined whether ANF increases capillary permeability to plasma protein. Conscious, bilaterally nephrectomized male rats were infused with either saline, ANF + saline, or hexamethonium + saline over 2 h following bolus injections of 125I-albumin and 14C-dextran of similar molecular size. Blood pressure was monitored and serial determinations of hematocrits were made. Animals infused with 1.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 ANF had significantly higher hematocrits than animals infused with saline vehicle. Infusion of ANF increased the extravasation of 125I-albumin, but not 14C-dextran from the intravascular compartment. ANF also induced a depressor response in rats, but the change in blood pressure did not account for changes in capillary permeability to albumin; similar depressor responses induced by hexamethonium were not accompanied by increased extravasation of albumin from the intravascular compartment. ANF may decrease plasma volume by increasing permeability to albumin, and this effect of ANF may account for some of the signs and symptoms of space motion sickness

  18. Assessment of left atrial volume and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Lønborg, Jacob; Fuchs, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    dynamic LA volume changes. Conversely, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) appears more appropriate for such measures. We sought to determine the relationship between LA size assessed with TTE and LA size and function assessed with CMR and MSCT. Fifty......-four patients were examined 3 months post myocardial infarction with echocardiography, CMR and MSCT. Left atrial volumes and LA reservoir function were assessed by TTE. LA time-volume curves were determined and LA reservoir function (cyclic change and fractional change), passive emptying function (reservoir...... between CMR and MSCT, with a small to moderate bias in LA(max) (4.9 ± 10.4 ml), CC (3.1 ± 9.1 ml) and reservoir volume (3.4 ± 9.1 ml). TTE underestimates LA(max) with up to 32% compared with CMR and MSCT (P ...

  19. Right atrial angiographic evaluation of the posterior isthmus: relevance for ablation of typical atrial flutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbüchel, H; Willems, R; van Rensburg, H; Adams, J; Ector, H; Van de Werf, F

    2000-05-09

    Gaining anatomic information about the posterior isthmus is not generally part of flutter ablation procedures. We postulated that right atrial (RA) angiography could rationalize the ablation approach by revealing the conformation of the isthmus. In 100 consecutive patients, biplane RA angiography was performed before ablation to guide catheter contact with the isthmus along its length. Angiography showed a wide variation in the width of the isthmus (17 to 54 mm; 31.3+/-7.9), its angle with the inferior vena cava in the right anterior oblique projection (68 degrees to 114 degrees; 90.3+/-9.0 degrees ), and its lateral position relative to the inferior vena cava in the left anterior oblique projection. A deep sub-Eustachian recess was revealed in 47%, with a mean depth of 4.3+/-2.1 mm (1.5 to 9.4). A Eustachian valve was visualized in 24%. Ablation resulted in bidirectional conduction block (which could be transient) in all, with a median of 2 dragging radiofrequency (RF) applications (2.3+/-2.5 RF applications; 57 degrees C, deep pouches. The number of RF applications decreased statistically throughout the study, indicating a learning curve. No patient had a recurrence after a follow-up of 13+/-11 months. Right atrial angiography reveals a highly variable isthmus anatomy, often showing particular configurations that can make ablation more laborious. Rational adaptation of the ablation approach to these anatomic findings may contribute to successful ablation.

  20. Thickening of the left atrial wall shortly after radiofrequency ablation predicts early recurrence of atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokawa, Miki; Koyama, Keiko; Ino, Toshihiko; Naito, Shigeto; Oshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi; Tada, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory responses following atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation may aggravate arrhythmogenic activity and cause an early recurrence of AF (ERAF). In 56 patients who underwent circumferential pulmonary vein ablation (CPVA) for paroxysmal AF, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) was evaluated in 5 subdivided left atrial (LA) regions before the CPVA and at 1 day and 1 month after. At a mean of 7±10 days after the CPVA, 23 patients (41%) developed 1 or more episodes of AF (ERAF group), while 33 patients (59%) remained free from AF during the first month of follow up (no-ERAF group). LA wall thickness increased 1 day after the CPVA in both groups, as demonstrated by high T2-weighted signal. The LA roof thickness and its increase, however, were greater in the ERAF group than in the no-ERAF group (P<0.05). Regions of delayed enhancement (DE) were also frequently detected in both groups, but the total number of DE regions did not differ between the 2 groups. The thickening of the LA wall associated with a high T2-weighted signal resolved within 1 month. No significant difference between the 2 groups was found in any of the CMRI parameters before or 1 month after CPVA. Thickening of the LA roof shortly after CPVA may predict an ERAF. (author)

  1. Effect of mitral regurgitation on cerebrovascular accidents in patients with atrial fibrillation and left atrial thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Chandra K; Aronow, Wilbert S; Shen, Xuedong; Anand, Kishlay; Holmberg, Mark J; Esterbrooks, Dennis J

    2009-11-01

    The effect of mitral regurgitation (MR) on the incidence of new cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and left atrial thrombus (LAT) is unknown. To investigate the effect of MR in patients with AF and LAT on new CVA and mortality. Eighty nine consecutive patients, mean age 71 years, with AF and LAT documented by transesophageal echocardiography were investigated to determine the prevalence and severity of MR and the association of the severity of MR with new cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) and mortality at 34-mo follow-up. Of 89 patients, 1 + MR was present in 23 patients (26%), 2 + MR in 44 patients (50%), 3 + MR in 17 patients (19%), and 4 + MR in 3 patients (4%). Mean follow-up was 34 +/- 28 mo. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that the severity of increased MR did not significantly increase new CVA or mortality at 34-mo follow-up. The only variable predictive of mortality was left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and with every unit increase in LVEF, the risk decreased by 3%. MR occurred in 87 of 89 patients (98%) with AF and LAT. There was no association between the severity of MR and the incidence of CVA or mortality.

  2. Multimodality Cardiac Imaging for the Assessment of Left Atrial Function and the Association With Atrial Arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Bertelsen, Litten; de Knegt, Martina Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Several cardiac imaging modalities are able to visualize the left atrium (LA) and, therefore, allow for quantification of both structural and functional properties of this cardiac chamber. In echocardiography, only the maximal LA volume is included in the assessment of diastolic function at the c......Several cardiac imaging modalities are able to visualize the left atrium (LA) and, therefore, allow for quantification of both structural and functional properties of this cardiac chamber. In echocardiography, only the maximal LA volume is included in the assessment of diastolic function...... atrial fibrillation, which will be a point of focus in this review. Pivotal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed high correlation between LA fibrosis and risk of atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation, and subsequent multimodality imaging studies have uncovered...... an inverse relationship between LA reservoir function and degree of LA fibrosis. This has sparked an increased interest into the application of advanced imaging modalities, including both speckle tracking echocardiography and tissue tracking by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Even though increasing...

  3. Anticoagulation Control in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Attended at Primary Care Centers in Spain: The PAULA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Prieto, Luis; Osorio, Genoveva; Polo, José; Lobos, José María; Vargas, Diego; García, Nicolás

    2015-09-01

    To determine the current status of anticoagulation control in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation treated with vitamin K antagonists in the primary care setting in Spain. The PAULA study was a multicenter cross-sectional/retrospective observational study conducted throughout Spain. The study included patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who had been receiving vitamin K antagonist therapy during the past year and were attended at primary care centers. International normalized ratio (INR) values over the past 12 months were recorded. The degree of anticoagulation control was defined as the time the patient had remained within the therapeutic range and was determined by both the direct method (poor control < 60%) and by the Rosendaal method (poor control < 65%). The study assessed 1524 patients (mean age, 77.4 ± 8.7 years; 48.6% women; 64.2% in permanent atrial fibrillation; CHADS2 mean, 2.3 ± 1.2; CHA2DS2-VASc, 3.9 ± 1.5, and HAS-BLED, 1.6 ± 0.9). The mean number of INR readings recorded per patient was 14.4 ± 3.8. A total of 56.9% of patients had adequate INR control according to the direct method and 60.6% according to the Rosendaal method. The multivariate analysis identified the following predictors for poor INR control: female sex, dietary habits potentially affecting anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists, multidrug therapy, and a history of labile INR. Approximately 40% of patients (43.1% by the direct method and 39.4% by the Rosendaal method) with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were receiving anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K antagonists in primary care in Spain had poor anticoagulation control during the previous 12 months. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy and safety of oral amiodarone in controlling heart rate in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation who have undergone digitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochiadakis, George E; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel M; Igoumenidis, Nikolaos E; Mavrakis, Hercules E; Kafarakis, Panagiotis K; Vardas, Panos E

    2005-01-01

    Oral amiodarone has been suggested by some authors for rate control in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. In this study we evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral amiodarone versus placebo for rate control during exercise and daily activities in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who had undergone digitalisation. The study group consisted of 53 patients (35 men, mean age 65 +/- 9 years) with persistent atrial fibrillation (mean duration 17 +/- 7 months). All patients had therapeutic levels of digitalis and were under anticoagulation treatment with acenocoumarol. Twenty-eight of them were treated with amiodarone (200 mg per day orally) and 25 received placebo. All patients were assessed with 24-hour ECG monitoring, a maximal symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test and evaluation of adverse events. The mean exercise duration was similar in both groups. Amiodarone produced a lower heart rate than placebo at all exercise levels (p<0.0001 for all). VO2 was similar in both groups whereas O2 pulse was higher in the amiodarone group at all exercise levels. During daily life, heart rate showed a significant circadian pattern in both groups, with higher values during the day than at night (time effect for both p<0.001). The mean value of heart rate under amiodarone was lower than for placebo (75 +/- 10 vs. 86 +/- 12/min, p<0.001) but this difference was due to a significant difference during the day (p<0.001) that was not present during the night (p =0.48). Oral amiodarone is very effective when combined with digoxin for control of heart rate in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation and it should be considered as an alternative treatment when more traditional drugs, such as Ca(+2) inhibitors or b-blockers have proven ineffective or are contraindicated.

  5. Release of atrial natriuretic peptide from rat myocardium in vitro: effect of minoxidil-induced hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, P.; Taskinen, T.; Leppäluoto, J.; Ruskoaho, H.

    1990-01-01

    1. Ventricular hypertrophy is characterized by stimulation of ventricular synthesis of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). To examine the role of ventricular ANP levels in the secretion of ANP into the circulation, atrial and ventricular levels of immunoreactive-ANP (IR-ANP) as well as ANP messenger RNA (mRNA), and the release of IR-ANP from isolated perfused hearts, both before and after atrialectomy, were measured simultaneously in control and minoxidil-treated Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. 2. IR-ANP levels in the ventricles of untreated, 12 month-old SHR with severe ventricular hypertrophy were increased when compared to age-matched WKY rats. Minoxidil treatment for 8 weeks in both strains resulted in a decrease in mean arterial pressure and increases in ventricular weight to body weight ratios, plasma IR-ANP concentrations (in WKY from 133 +/- 20 to 281 +/- 34 pg ml-1, P less than 0.01; in SHR from 184 +/- 38 to 339 +/- 61 pg ml-1, P less than 0.05), and in ventricular IR-ANP contents (in WKY: 53%; in SHR: 41%). A highly significant correlation was found between ventricular IR-ANP content and ventricular weight to body weight ratio (r = 0.59, P less than 0.001, n = 26). 3. When studied in vitro, in isolated perfused heart preparations, the hypertrophied ventricular tissue after atrialectomy secreted more ANP into the perfusate than ventricles of the control hearts; ventricles contributed 28%, 22%, 18% and 15% of the total ANP release to perfusate in the minoxidil-treated SHR, control SHR, minoxidil-treated WKY and control WKY, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2141796

  6. Impact of ischemic and valvular heart disease on atrial excitation : A high-resolution epicardial mapping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.J.P. Mouws (Elisabeth); E. Lanters (Eva); C. Teuwen (Christophe); L. van der Does (Lisette); C. Kik (Charles); S.P. Knops (Simon); A. Yaksh (Ameeta); J.A. Bekkers (Jos); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); N.M.S. de Groot (Natasja)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground--The influence of underlying heart disease or presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) on atrial excitation during sinus rhythm (SR) is unknown. We investigated atrial activation patterns and total activation times of the entire atrial epicardial surface during SR in patients

  7. Closure of secundum atrial septal defect in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, M.M.; Pollock, J.C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the outcome of ASD closure in adults and the effect of patients age on drug therapy, symptoms and incidence of atrial fibrillation. Results: There were no deaths. Five patients from early in the series were lost to follow-up. Large defect size was associated with patch rather than direct closure but there was extensive crossover. Analysis by age showed that patients over 49 had more postoperative atrial fibrillation (P 0.001), more chest pain (P>0.0001), more postoperative dyspnea (p = 0.021), greater use of diuretics (p = 0.20) and longer hospital stay (10.1 plus minis 2.6 vs. 8.5 plus minis 1.6 days; p = 0.007) than patients under 49. Conclusion: Operation for atrial septal defects in adults can be performed with no mortality and low morbidity. The age at which complications appear more frequent suggests that closer analysis of these patients is required. (author)

  8. Atrial septal defect in a Korean wild raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Soomi; Choi, Sooyoung; Kim, Jongtaek; Chung, Jin-Young; Park, Inchul

    2017-10-07

    An approximately two-year-old, male 6.1 kg body weight, Korean wild raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) was captured by the wildlife medical rescue center of Kangwon National University. Upon physical examination, the heart rate was 87 beats per min and there were no clinical signs. The hematological, and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings; however, thoracic radiographs showed cardiac enlargement, especially in the right atrium. On electrocardiogram, sinus node dysfunction and bradyarrhythmia were revealed. Echocardiography showed a left-to-right shunting atrial septal defect. Based on these findings, this Korean wild raccoon dog was diagnosed with atrial septal defect. This is the rare case report of atrial septal defect in wildlife.

  9. Left atrial thrombus following bilobectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Ugur

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Left atrial free floating ball thrombus is a relatively rare event, especially without mitral valve disease. Case presentation A 61-year-old Turkish man was admitted to our hospital with a thrombus mass in his left atrium. Five months earlier, he had undergone right bilobectomy and superior bronchoplasty due to squamous cell carcinoma in the lung. The patient had no evidence of cardiac disease except atrial fibrillation and there were no defined embolizations. The thrombus mass was surgically removed. The patient was discharged from hospital on the sixth postoperative day. Conclusion Surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is a safe method for treatment. The patient should be medicated with warfarin, especially in the presence of atrial fibrillation.

  10. The imaging features of neurologic complications of left atrial myxomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Wei-Hua; Ramkalawan, Divya; Liu, Jian-Ling; Shi, Wei; Zee, Chi-Shing; Yang, Xiao-Su; Li, Guo-Liang; Li, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neurologic complications may be the first symptoms of atrial myxomas. Understanding the imaging features of neurologic complications of atrial myxomas can be helpful for the prompt diagnosis. Objective: To identify neuroimaging features for patients with neurologic complications attributed to atrial myxoma. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 103 patients with pathologically confirmed atrial myxoma at Xiangya Hospital from January 2009 to January 2014. The neuroimaging data for patients with neurologic complications were analyzed. Results: Eight patients with atrial myxomas (7.77%) presented with neurologic manifestations, which constituted the initial symptoms for seven patients (87.5%). Neuroimaging showed five cases of cerebral infarctions and three cases of aneurysms. The main patterns of the infarctions were multiplicity (100.0%) and involvement of the middle cerebral artery territory (80.0%). The aneurysms were fusiform in shape, multiple in number (100.0%) and located in the distal middle cerebral artery (100.0%). More specifically, high-density in the vicinity of the aneurysms was observed on CT for two patients (66.7%), and homogenous enhancement surrounding the aneurysms was detected in the enhanced imaging for two patients (66.7%). Conclusion: Neurologic complications secondary to atrial myxoma consist of cerebral infarctions and aneurysms, which show certain characteristic features in neuroimaging. Echocardiography should be performed in patients with multiple cerebral infarctions, and multiple aneurysms, especially when aneurysms are distal in location. More importantly, greater attention should be paid to the imaging changes surrounding the aneurysms when myxomatous aneurysms are suspected and these are going to be the relevant features in our article

  11. Detection of Rapid Atrial Arrhythmias in SQUID Magnetocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Woong; Kwon, Hyuk Chan; Kim, Ki Dam; Lee, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Mok; Kim, In Seon; Lim, Hyun Kyoon; Park, Yong Ki [Biomagnetism Research, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Doo Sang [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seung Pyung [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    We propose a method to measure atrial arrhythmias (AA) such as atrial fibrillation (Afb) and atrial flutter (Afl) with a SQUID magnetocardiograph (MCG) system. To detect AA is one of challenging topics in MCG. As the AA generally have irregular rhythm and atrio-ventricular conduction, the MCG signal cannot be improved by QRS averaging; therefore a SQUID MCG system having a high SNR is required to measure informative atrial excitation with a single scan. In the case of Afb, diminished f waves are much smaller than normal P waves because the sources are usually located on the posterior wall of the heart. In this study, we utilize an MCG system measuring tangential field components, which is known to be more sensitive to a deeper current source. The average noise spectral density of the whole system in a magnetic shielded room was 10 fT/Hz(a) 1 Hz and 5 fT/Hz(a) 100 Hz. We measured the MCG signals of patients with chronic Afb and Afl. Before the AA measurement, the comparison between the measurements in supine and prone positions for P waves has been conducted and the experiment gave a result that the supine position is more suitable to measure the atrial excitation. Therefore, the AA was measured in subject's supine position. Clinical potential of AA measurement in MCG is to find an aspect of a reentry circuit and to localize the abnormal stimulation noninvasively. To give useful information about the abnormal excitation, we have developed a method, separative synthetic aperture magnetometry (sSAM). The basic idea of sSAM is to visualize current source distribution corresponding to the atrial excitation, which are separated from the ventricular excitation and the Gaussian sensor noises. By using sSAM, we localized the source of an Afl successfully.

  12. The imaging features of neurologic complications of left atrial myxomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Wei-Hua; Ramkalawan, Divya; Liu, Jian-Ling; Shi, Wei [Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan (China); Zee, Chi-Shing [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Yang, Xiao-Su; Li, Guo-Liang; Li, Jing [Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan (China); Wang, Xiao-Yi, E-mail: cjr.wangxiaoyi@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan (China)

    2015-05-15

    Background: Neurologic complications may be the first symptoms of atrial myxomas. Understanding the imaging features of neurologic complications of atrial myxomas can be helpful for the prompt diagnosis. Objective: To identify neuroimaging features for patients with neurologic complications attributed to atrial myxoma. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 103 patients with pathologically confirmed atrial myxoma at Xiangya Hospital from January 2009 to January 2014. The neuroimaging data for patients with neurologic complications were analyzed. Results: Eight patients with atrial myxomas (7.77%) presented with neurologic manifestations, which constituted the initial symptoms for seven patients (87.5%). Neuroimaging showed five cases of cerebral infarctions and three cases of aneurysms. The main patterns of the infarctions were multiplicity (100.0%) and involvement of the middle cerebral artery territory (80.0%). The aneurysms were fusiform in shape, multiple in number (100.0%) and located in the distal middle cerebral artery (100.0%). More specifically, high-density in the vicinity of the aneurysms was observed on CT for two patients (66.7%), and homogenous enhancement surrounding the aneurysms was detected in the enhanced imaging for two patients (66.7%). Conclusion: Neurologic complications secondary to atrial myxoma consist of cerebral infarctions and aneurysms, which show certain characteristic features in neuroimaging. Echocardiography should be performed in patients with multiple cerebral infarctions, and multiple aneurysms, especially when aneurysms are distal in location. More importantly, greater attention should be paid to the imaging changes surrounding the aneurysms when myxomatous aneurysms are suspected and these are going to be the relevant features in our article.

  13. LEFT ATRIAL FUNCTION: MODERN ASSESSMENT METHODS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the left atrial (LA function is important aspect of comprehensive cardiovascular system estimation. Many cardiac diseases make an impact to LA work either by direct affect on myocardium or hemodynamic condition changing. It is considered, LA and left ventricle diastolic pressure is interrelated, thus without mitral valve disease LA expanding is a sign of LV filling pressure augmentation. Examination of LA size and function by analysis of atrial reservoir, conduit, and booster pump can predict cardiovascular outcomes in patients with cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease and valvular heart disease. The last two decades gave new technologies to accurate and comprehensive LA mechanics estimation, in the first place related to tissue Doppler imaging. Atrial strain and strain rate obtained using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography have proved to be feasible and reproducible techniques to evaluate LA mechanics.In physiological settings, LA is a highly expandable chamber with relatively low pressures. However in the presence of acute and chronic injury, LA wall stretches. LA stretching is a hallmark of structure changing with myocardial fibrosis and has influence on LA strain and strain rate. LA strain estimation could be useful in the prediction of sinus rhythm restoration and maintenance after cardioversion and catheter ablation. Low values of global longitudinal LA strain indicate irreversible LA remodeling and are related to the atrial fibrillation progression from paroxysmal to permanent forms. The most interesting in these circumstances is the potential contribution of echocardiography to thromboembolic risk stratification in atrial fibrillation and invasive procedures such as atrial ablation. Therefore, at present, the main task is to understand the ways of clinical application of data  obtained during the LA study.

  14. Case of right atrial myxoma with right to left shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Kenji; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Ohzeki, Tetsuro (Iwate Medical Coll., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-12-01

    A case of 49-year-old woman with right atrial myxoma resulting to right to left shunt, diagnosed by cardiac pool isotope image, was reported. She was admitted to our clinic because of progressive shortness of breath. At admission lip cyanosis was noted. Laboratory data included polycythemia, low O/sub 2/ saturation (89%) and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (65 mm/1 h). Chest x-p showed slight right atrial enlargement, but no pulmonary congestion. The electrocardiogram showed sinus regular rhythm with biphasic p wave in leads II, III, aVf. Although 1st heart sound at the apex was splited, no heart murmur was heard. In usual echocardiographic approach, no abnormal echogram was obtained in the right ventricular region. Lung perfusion scintiscan with Tc-99 m-MAA showed visualization of thyroid gland and kidney, which suggested intracardiac right-to-left shunt. Cardiac pool image with Tc-99m-HSA revealed large photo-deficient area in the right atrium and early visualization of aortic arch. Computor tomography showed large round low density region 8 x 7 cm in size. Based on their findings, this patient was diagnosed as right atrial tumor. At operation a large tumor (diameter 8 x 7 x 7 cm, weight 160g) filled the lower part of the right atrium and was adherent to the anterolateral wall in the right atrium. As a cause of R-L shunt, streched foramen ovale (5 x 10 mm) was found. Tumor histology was typical of atrial myxoma. Post-operative gated cardiac isotope image showed no evidence of residual atrial tumor. Cardiac blood pool isotope imaging was a method for the noninvasive detection and assessment of right atrial myxoma.

  15. Left atrial isolation associated with mitral valve operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, A; Pagani, F; Minzioni, G; Salerno, J; Viganò, M

    1992-12-01

    Surgical isolation of the left atrium was performed for the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation secondary to valvular disease in 100 patients who underwent mitral valve operations. From May 1989 to September 1991, 62 patients underwent mitral valve operations (group I); 19, mitral valve operations and DeVega tricuspid annuloplasty (group II); 15, mitral and aortic operations (group III); and 4, mitral and aortic operations and DeVega tricuspid annuloplasty (group IV). Left atrial isolation was performed, prolonging the usual left paraseptal atriotomy toward the left fibrous trigone anteriorly and the posteromedial commissure posteriorly. The incision was conducted a few millimeters apart from the mitral valve annulus, and cryolesions were placed at the edges to ensure complete electrophysiological isolation of the left atrium. Operative mortality accounted for 3 patients (3%). In 79 patients (81.4%) sinus rhythm recovered and persisted until discharge from the hospital. No differences were found between the groups (group I, 80.7%; group II, 68.5%; group III, 86.7%; group IV, 75%; p = not significant). Three late deaths (3.1%) were registered. Long-term results show persistence of sinus rhythm in 71% of group I, 61.2% of group II, 85.8% of group III, and 100% of group IV. The unique risk factor for late recurrence of atrial fibrillation was found to be preoperative atrial fibrillation longer than 6 months. Due to the satisfactory success rate in recovering sinus rhythm, we suggest performing left atrial isolation in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation undergoing valvular operations.

  16. Dynamic cycling in atrial size and flow during obstructive apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Gregg S; Cepeda-Valery, Beatriz; Codolosa, Nicolas; Orban, Marek; Samuel, Solomon P; Somers, Virend K

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. However, acute cardiovascular effects of repetitive airway obstruction are poorly understood. While past research used a sustained Mueller manoeuver to simulate OSA we employed a series of gasping efforts to better simulate true obstructive apnoeas. This report describes acute changes in cardiac anatomy and flow related to sudden changes in intrathoracic pressure. 26 healthy, normal weight participants performed 5-6 gasping efforts (target intrathoracic pressure -40 mm Hg) while undergoing Doppler echocardiography. 14 participants had sufficient echocardiographic images to allow comparison of atrial areas during the manoeuver with baseline measurements. Mitral and tricuspid E-wave and A-wave velocities postmanoeuver were compared with baseline in all participants. Average atrial areas changed little during the manoeuver, but variance in both atrial areas was significantly greater than baseline. Further, an inverse relationship was noted with left atrial collapse and right atrial enlargement at onset of inspiratory effort. Significant inverse changes were noted in Doppler flow when comparing the first beat postmanoeuver (pMM1) with baseline. Mitral E-wave velocity increased 9.1 cm/s while tricuspid E-wave velocity decreased 7.0 cm/s; by the eighth beat postmanoeuver (pMM8) values were not different from baseline. Mitral and tricuspid A-wave velocities were not different from baseline at pMM1, but both were significantly higher by pMM8. Repetitive obstructive apnoeas produce dynamic, inverse changes in atrial size and Doppler flow across the atrioventricular valves. These observations have important implications for understanding the pathophysiology of OSA.

  17. Creation of a restrictive atrial communication in heart failure with preserved and mid-range ejection fraction: effective palliation of left atrial hypertension and pulmonary congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anna; Khalil, Markus; Lüdemann, Monika; Bauer, Jürgen; Esmaeili, Anoosh; De-Rosa, Roberta; Voelkel, Norbert F; Akintuerk, Hakan; Schranz, Dietmar

    2018-04-16

    Left atrial decompression is considered in patients with symptomatic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of transcatheter generation of a restrictive atrial septum communication to manage HFpEF from infancy to adulthood with cardiomyopathy and congenital heart defect. From June 2009 to December 2016, 24 patients (50% with an age less than 16 years) with HFpEF were palliated; NYHA-/Ross class IV (n = 10); median systemic ventricular ejection fraction 64 (range 35-78) %. Cardiomyopathy was classified as a restrictive (n = 4) or hypertrophic (n = 2). (75% related to congenital heart defects) Three patients had a systemic right ventricle; in the majority of patients, HFpEF was associated to complex congenital heart defects (n = 18). Mean pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP systolic/diastolic) were 56/28 (± 24/13), left atrial pressures (LAP, v-, a-wave, mean) 26/25/20 (± 7/10/6). Trans-septal puncture was used in 22 patients; foramen ovale dilatation in 2 patients. Median balloon size was 12 (range 6-18) mm; procedure time including diagnostic measures 125 (83-221) min. No procedural death or complications were observed. Mean LA-pressures decreased significantly to 19/19/15 ± 6/8/5 mmHg (p = 0.05); median brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) decreased from 392 (range 93-4401) pg/ml median BNP to 314 (range 61-1544) pg/ml (p = 0.05). Three patients died; one patient received orthotopic heart and one patient a heart-lung transplantation. No patient required so far an assist device. Clinical improvement occurred in all patients, in some after additional surgical or interventional approach. Transcatheter LA decompression is an age-independent, effective palliation treating patients with HFpEF.

  18. Atrial and ventricular septal defect with pulmonary and tricuspid valvular anomalies in a dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Y. [Azabu Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Wakao, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Minami, T.; Muto, M.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, M.; Une, Y.; Nomura, Y.; Ichioka, N.

    1989-12-15

    A 15-month-old male boxer dog weighing 22 kg was referred to Azabu University Animal Hospital for evaluation of the syncopal attack. There was no cardiac murmur, but electrocardiograms revealed an atrial fibrillation. Thoracic radiograph revealed enlargement of the right and left atrial regions. The medical treatment with digitalis and captopril was made for conversion from the atrial fibrillation to the sinus rhythm. By cardiac catheterization, atrial and ventricular septal defect with pulmonary stenosis was demonstrated. The patient died at 20 months from the first medical examination. At autopsy, there were severe enlargement of both atria, atrial defect, and pulmonary and tricuspid valvular anomalies. (author)

  19. Analysis of brain natriuretic peptide in 30 patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Qiang; Lu Jianghui; Li Weipeng; Yuan Yuan; Sun Weili

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between atrial fibrillation and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), plasma levels of BNP in 30 patients with atrial fibrillation and 30 health controls were assayed and compared. The results showed that plasma levels of BNP in patients with atrial fibrillation were significantly higher than those of health controls (P<0.05). When the patients with atrial fibrillation were restored sinus rhythm, the concentration of BNP decreased significantly (P<0.05). BNP was a sensitive marker of cardiac dysfunction, and BNP was positively correlated with atrial fibrillation. (authors)

  20. Atrial and ventricular septal defect with pulmonary and tricuspid valvular anomalies in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Y.; Wakao, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Minami, T.; Muto, M.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, M.; Une, Y.; Nomura, Y.; Ichioka, N.

    1989-01-01

    A 15-month-old male boxer dog weighing 22 kg was referred to Azabu University Animal Hospital for evaluation of the syncopal attack. There was no cardiac murmur, but electrocardiograms revealed an atrial fibrillation. Thoracic radiograph revealed enlargement of the right and left atrial regions. The medical treatment with digitalis and captopril was made for conversion from the atrial fibrillation to the sinus rhythm. By cardiac catheterization, atrial and ventricular septal defect with pulmonary stenosis was demonstrated. The patient died at 20 months from the first medical examination. At autopsy, there were severe enlargement of both atria, atrial defect, and pulmonary and tricuspid valvular anomalies. (author)

  1. Exposure-Based Therapy for Symptom Preoccupation in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Särnholm, Josefin; Skúladóttir, Helga; Rück, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Patients often experience a range of symptoms resulting in a markedly reduced quality of life, and commonly show symptom preoccupation in terms of avoidance and control behaviors. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown...... with symptomatic paroxysmal (intermittent) atrial fibrillation who were assessed pre- and posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. The CBT lasted 10 weeks and included exposure to physical sensations similar to AF symptoms, exposure to avoided situations or activities, and behavioral activation. We observed large...

  2. Prominent crista terminalis mimicking a right atrial mass: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The crista terminalis is a normal anatomical structure within the right atrium that is not normally visualised in the standard views obtained while performing a transthoracic echocardiogram. In this case report, transthoracic echocardiography suggested the presence of a right atrial mass in a patient with end stage renal disease. However, subsequent transesophageal echocardiography revealed that the right atrial mass was actually a thick muscular bridge in the right atrium consistent with a prominent crista terminalis. An understanding of the anatomy and the echocardiographic appearance of a prominent crista terminalis will minimize the misdiagnosis of this structure avoiding unnecessary expensive additional tests.

  3. Gender Differences in Antithrombotic Treatment for Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Michał; Huisman, Menno V; Rothman, Kenneth J

    2018-01-01

    was -0.5% (95% CI, -1.8%, 0.8%). VKAs were prescribed to 32.8% and 31.9% (NOACs 46.8% and 48.3%) of women and men, respectively. No confounder for the association between gender and anticoagulant prescription was identified. Between-gender differences in anticoagulant use (lower use in women compared......AIMS: Data on gender differences in oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation are conflicting, largely limited to regional reports and Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) use. We aimed to analyze gender-specific anticoagulant prescription patterns early following...... atrial fibrillation (difference in prevalence of anticoagulant use...

  4. The role of Multidetector CT in the evaluation of the left atrium and pulmonary veins anatomy before and after radio-frequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. Preliminary results and work in progress.Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centoze, Maurizio; Della Sala, Sabino Walter; Dalla Palma, Francesco; Del Greco, Maurizio; Marini, Massimiliano; Nollo, Giandomenico; Ravelli, Flavia

    2005-01-01

    Radio-frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of the distal pulmonary veins is increasingly being used to treat recurrent or refractory atrial fibrillation that doesn't respond to pharmacologic therapy or cardioversion. Successful RFCA of atrial al fibrillation depends on the pre-procedural understanding of the complex anatomy of the distal pulmonary veins and the left atrium. Aim of this parer is to describe the technical main features that characterise the multidetector helical computed tomography in the evaluation of this anatomic region before and after RFCA procedure. The 3D post-processing techniques useful for pre-RFCA planning are straightforward [it

  5. Effects of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation-Induced Electrical Remodeling on Atrial Electro-Mechanics – Insights from a 3D Model of the Human Atria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, David H.; Garratt, Clifford J.; Ye, Jianqiao; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Aims Atrial stunning, a loss of atrial mechanical contraction, can occur following a successful cardioversion. It is hypothesized that persistent atrial fibrillation-induced electrical remodeling (AFER) on atrial electrophysiology may be responsible for such impaired atrial mechanics. This simulation study aimed to investigate the effects of AFER on atrial electro-mechanics. Methods and Results A 3D electromechanical model of the human atria was developed to investigate the effects of AFER on atrial electro-mechanics. Simulations were carried out in 3 conditions for 4 states: (i) the control condition, representing the normal tissue (state 1) and the tissue 2–3 months after cardioversion (state 2) when the atrial tissue recovers its electrophysiological properties after completion of reverse electrophysiological remodelling; (ii) AFER-SR condition for AF-remodeled tissue with normal sinus rhythm (SR) (state 3); and (iii) AFER-AF condition for AF-remodeled tissue with re-entrant excitation waves (state 4). Our results indicate that at the cellular level, AFER (states 3 & 4) abbreviated action potentials and reduced the Ca2+ content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, resulting in a reduced amplitude of the intracellular Ca2+ transient leading to decreased cell active force and cell shortening as compared to the control condition (states 1 & 2). Consequently at the whole organ level, atrial contraction in AFER-SR condition (state 3) was dramatically reduced. In the AFER-AF condition (state 4) atrial contraction was almost abolished. Conclusions This study provides novel insights into understanding atrial electro-mechanics illustrating that AFER impairs atrial contraction due to reduced intracellular Ca2+ transients. PMID:26606047

  6. Effects of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation-Induced Electrical Remodeling on Atrial Electro-Mechanics - Insights from a 3D Model of the Human Atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, David H; Garratt, Clifford J; Ye, Jianqiao; Hancox, Jules C; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Atrial stunning, a loss of atrial mechanical contraction, can occur following a successful cardioversion. It is hypothesized that persistent atrial fibrillation-induced electrical remodeling (AFER) on atrial electrophysiology may be responsible for such impaired atrial mechanics. This simulation study aimed to investigate the effects of AFER on atrial electro-mechanics. A 3D electromechanical model of the human atria was developed to investigate the effects of AFER on atrial electro-mechanics. Simulations were carried out in 3 conditions for 4 states: (i) the control condition, representing the normal tissue (state 1) and the tissue 2-3 months after cardioversion (state 2) when the atrial tissue recovers its electrophysiological properties after completion of reverse electrophysiological remodelling; (ii) AFER-SR condition for AF-remodeled tissue with normal sinus rhythm (SR) (state 3); and (iii) AFER-AF condition for AF-remodeled tissue with re-entrant excitation waves (state 4). Our results indicate that at the cellular level, AFER (states 3 & 4) abbreviated action potentials and reduced the Ca2+ content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, resulting in a reduced amplitude of the intracellular Ca2+ transient leading to decreased cell active force and cell shortening as compared to the control condition (states 1 & 2). Consequently at the whole organ level, atrial contraction in AFER-SR condition (state 3) was dramatically reduced. In the AFER-AF condition (state 4) atrial contraction was almost abolished. This study provides novel insights into understanding atrial electro-mechanics illustrating that AFER impairs atrial contraction due to reduced intracellular Ca2+ transients.

  7. Assessment of blood stasis in left-atrial appendage with electron-beam CT: filling delay in atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Tadashi [Dept. of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Hamada, Seiki [Dept. of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Takamiya, Makoto [Dept. of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kuribayashi, Sachio [Dept. of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Naito, Hiroaki [Biomedical Research Center, Osaka Univ. School of Medicine, Suita (Japan)

    1994-10-01

    The left-atrial appendage (LAA) is the most frequent site of thrombus formation. The most probable reason is its anatomical structure and blood stasis. We hypothesized that peak time delay should occur in the LAA with stagnant blood flow. We measured peak time delay in LAA against left atrium with the flow-mode study of electron-beam CT for 49 patients (including 23 patients with atrial fibrillation [AF]). Volume-mode scannings were also performed to detect intracardiac thrombi. Patients with atrial fibrillation showed a larger value than those with sinus rhythm. Some AF patients with no filling of contrast media into the LAA and/or thrombus showed a larger value than the others. The value obtained by the flow-mode study might have the potential by the flow-mode study might have the potential to assess blood stasis and to predict the jeopardized state in the LAA. (orig.)

  8. Rapid slowing of the atrial fibrillatory rate after administration of AZD7009 predicts conversion of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunes, Maria; Egstrup, Kenneth; Frison, Lars

    2014-01-01

    to sinus rhythm (SR) and were matched to 35 non-converters. The mean AFR before conversion was 231 fibrillations per minute (fpm), having decreased by 41%; in non-converters, it was 296 fpm at the end of infusion, having decreased by 26%. The rate of decrease was greater in converters at 5 min, -88 vs. -66......BACKGROUND: Effects on the atrial fibrillatory rate (AFR) were studied during infusion with the combined potassium and sodium channel blocker AZD7009. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) were randomized to AZD7009 or placebo. Thirty-five patients converted...... fpm (p=0.02), and at 10 min, -133 vs. -111 fpm (p=0.048). The AFR-SD and the exponential decay decreased. A small left atrial area was the only baseline predictor of conversion to SR. CONCLUSIONS: AZD7009 produced a significantly more rapid decrease of the AFR in converters than in non...

  9. Assessment of blood stasis in left-atrial appendage with electron-beam CT: filling delay in atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tadashi; Hamada, Seiki; Takamiya, Makoto; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Naito, Hiroaki

    1994-01-01

    The left-atrial appendage (LAA) is the most frequent site of thrombus formation. The most probable reason is its anatomical structure and blood stasis. We hypothesized that peak time delay should occur in the LAA with stagnant blood flow. We measured peak time delay in LAA against left atrium with the flow-mode study of electron-beam CT for 49 patients (including 23 patients with atrial fibrillation [AF]). Volume-mode scannings were also performed to detect intracardiac thrombi. Patients with atrial fibrillation showed a larger value than those with sinus rhythm. Some AF patients with no filling of contrast media into the LAA and/or thrombus showed a larger value than the others. The value obtained by the flow-mode study might have the potential by the flow-mode study might have the potential to assess blood stasis and to predict the jeopardized state in the LAA. (orig.)

  10. Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskoaho, H.; Toth, M.; Lang, R.E.; Unger, Th.; Garten, D.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the role of calcium, protein kinase C and adenylate cyclase in the ANP secretion, the secretory responses from isolated perfused rat hearts to a calcium channel activator, Bay k8644 (methyl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3-nitro-4-(2-trifluomethylphenyl)-2-pyridine-5-carboxylate), the calcium ionophore (A23187), the phorbol ester (12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, TPA), and to forskolin were studied. ANP in perfusate was measured by radioimmunoassay 10 min before and during the infusion (30 min) of various agents at 2 min intervals. A23187 (5.7 x 10 -7 ) induced a sharp increase, whereas TPA (0.15 - 1.6 x 10 -7 ) caused a slowly progressive increase in ANP secretion. 4a-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, a non-active phorbol ester, had no effect on ANP secretion. Bay k8644 (4 x 10 -7 ) and forskolin (1 x 10 -6 ) alone caused small but sustained increase in ANP secretion. The combination of TPA with Bay k8644, forskolin or A23187 stimulated ANP secretion higher than the calculated additive value for each agent. Dibuturyl-cAMP (1.6 x 10 -4 ) pretreatment also enhanced TPA-induced ANP release. 8-Bromo-cGMP (1.3 x 10 -4 ) and sodium nitroprusside (9 x 10 -5 ) alone had no effect, but both attenuated the TPA-induced ANP secretion. The results suggest that atrial cardiocytes possess at least two different secretory pathways for ANP secretion, which are probably dependent on protein kinase C and cyclic AMP

  11. Plain chest PA evaluation of left atrial thrombosis in mitral valvular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Myung; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Conventional posteroanterior chest radiographs of 73 patients with mitral valve disease who had had surgery were analyzed, and particular attention was directed to the absence of the convexity of the left lower mid cardiac border (left atrial segment) and to the relation with duration of illness, atrial fibrillation, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) as well as surgical findings. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The flatness or concavity of this segment, despite other evidence of left atrial enlargement, was observed in eleven (64.7%) of 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis and in six (10.7%) of 56 patients who did not have thrombosis (false positive diagnosis). Six (35.5%) of the 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis did not this findings on radiographs (false positive diagnosis). Six (35.3%) of the 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis did not show this finding on radiographs (false positive diagnosis). Therefore, the accuracy in the diagnosis of thrombosis of left atrium wa 64.7% (eleven of seventeen) for patients who had thrombosis of left atrium. 2. The atrial fibrillation was observed in sixteen (94.1%)of 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis. So, correlation between the presence of left atrial thrombosis and atrial fibrillation wa evident. But there was no correlation between the duration of illness of the PCWP of patients and the presence of left atrial thrombosis.

  12. Plain chest PA evaluation of left atrial thrombosis in mitral valvular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Myung; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1984-01-01

    Conventional posteroanterior chest radiographs of 73 patients with mitral valve disease who had had surgery were analyzed, and particular attention was directed to the absence of the convexity of the left lower mid cardiac border (left atrial segment) and to the relation with duration of illness, atrial fibrillation, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) as well as surgical findings. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The flatness or concavity of this segment, despite other evidence of left atrial enlargement, was observed in eleven (64.7%) of 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis and in six (10.7%) of 56 patients who did not have thrombosis (false positive diagnosis). Six (35.5%) of the 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis did not this findings on radiographs (false positive diagnosis). Six (35.3%) of the 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis did not show this finding on radiographs (false positive diagnosis). Therefore, the accuracy in the diagnosis of thrombosis of left atrium wa 64.7% (eleven of seventeen) for patients who had thrombosis of left atrium. 2. The atrial fibrillation was observed in sixteen (94.1%)of 17 patients who had left atrial thrombosis. So, correlation between the presence of left atrial thrombosis and atrial fibrillation wa evident. But there was no correlation between the duration of illness of the PCWP of patients and the presence of left atrial thrombosis.

  13. Use of sildenafil citrate in a cat with Eisenmenger’s syndrome and an atrial septal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Shuan Chow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old male neutered Siamese cat presenting with weakness and dyspnoea was diagnosed with an atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension, which resulted in right-to-left shunting (Eisenmenger’s syndrome. The cat was treated with sildenafil (0.25–0.6 mg/kg for 10 months. There were no apparent treatment-related adverse effects. Improvement in clinical signs was noted, although increasing doses of sildenafil were required. After 10 months the cat significantly deteriorated and was euthanased.

  14. Prognostic impact of hs-CRP and IL-6 in patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Nilsson, Brian; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2008-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of inflammatory markers in patients with paroxysmal/ persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. Methods. Forty-six consecutive patients, mean age 55 years (range 31 - 81 yrs), with paroxysmal...... >10 minutes was considered failure and patients were offered a second ablation session. Interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured prior to ablation and at follow-up visits. Results. After a maximum of two ablations, 19 patients (41%) had SR without recurrence of AF after 12...

  15. The Use Of Oral Ranolazine To Convert New Or Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: A Review Of Experience With Implications For Possible "Pill In The Pocket" Approach To Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Murdock

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia requiring treatment. High dose oral anti-arrhythmics may cardiovert some paroxysmal AF. This "pill in pocket" approach has allowed patients to treat themselves on an as needed basis. Pro-arrhythmic concerns have limited the usefulness of this approach to patients without structural heart disease. Ranolazine is an anti-anginal agent, which inhibits abnormal late Na+ channel currents in cardiomyocytes and decreases sodium-calcium overload. Ranolazine is a potent inhibitor of after-depolarizations, which have been implicated in the initiation and propagation of AF. Because ranolazine has no known pro-arrhythmic effects, it could be useful as a safe "pill in the pocket" agent if it were effective in converting AF. We describe our experience using oral ranolazine to convert new or paroxysmal AF. Method: 2000 mg of ranolazine were administered to 18 patients with new (11 patients or paroxysmal (7 patients AF of at least 3, but not greater than 48 hours duration. Most patients (14 were in the hospital at the time ranolazine was administered. Age, sex, echocardiographic data, associated health conditions and structural heart disease were recorded. Successful conversion was defined as restoring sinus rhythm within 6 hours of ranolazine administration. Results: All but 1 patient had some form of structural heart disease and all but 2 patients had left atrial enlargement. Thirteen of 18 patients converted to sinus rhythm. No pro-arrhythmic effects, hemodynamic instability, adverse rate effects, or perceived intolerance (other than constipation were noted. The 72% conversion rate was comparable to other reported "pill in the pocket" protocols. Conclusion: High dose oral ranolazine shows utility as a possible safe agent to convert new or paroxysmal AF. Lack of blinded controls and small numbers limits the power of this observation.

  16. Embolic risk in atrial fibrillation that arises from hyperthyroidism: review of the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Elie; Coplan, Neil L

    2011-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac complication of hyperthyroidism, occurs in an estimated 10% to 25% of overtly hyperthyroid patients. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation increases with age in the general population and in thyrotoxic patients. Other risk factors for atrial fibrillation in thyrotoxic patients include male sex, ischemic or valvular heart disease, and congestive heart failure. The incidence of arterial embolism or stroke in thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation is less clear. There are many reports of arterial thromboembolism associated with hyperthyroidism, including cases of young adults without coexisting risk factors other than thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation. The use of anticoagulative agents to prevent thromboembolic sequelae of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation is controversial: National organizations provide conflicting recommendations in their practice guidelines. Herein, we review the medical literature and examine the evidence behind the recommendations in order to determine the best approach to thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients who have atrial fibrillation that is associated with hyperthyroidism.

  17. Circadian variation in dominant atrial fibrillation frequency in persistent atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, Frida; Stridh, Martin; Sörnmo, Leif; Bollmann, Andreas; Husser, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Circadian variation in atrial fibrillation (AF) frequency is explored in this paper by employing recent advances in signal processing. Once the AF frequency has been estimated and tracked by a hidden Markov model approach, the resulting trend is analyzed for the purpose of detecting and characterizing the presence of circadian variation. With cosinor analysis, the results show that the short-term variations in the AF frequency exceed the variation that may be attributed to circadian. Using the autocorrelation method, circadian variation was found in 13 of 18 ambulatory ECG recordings (Holter) acquired from patients with long-standing persistent AF. Using the ensemble correlation method, the highest AF frequency usually occurred during the afternoon, whereas the lowest usually occurred during late night. It is concluded that circadian variation is present in most patients with long-standing persistent AF though the short-term variation in the AF frequency is considerable and should be taken into account

  18. Catheter Ablation of Ectopic Atrial Tachycardia Originating from the Left Atrial Appendage using CARTOMERGE® System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Goya, MD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old woman was referred because of drug resistant and daily incessant palpitation attack. She had undergone two previous unsuccessful radiofrequency catheter ablations at another hospital. The physical examination, chest X-ray, and echocardiogram were all normal. The 12-lead ECG during tachycardia showed narrow QRS, short PR tachycardia and negative polarity of the P wave in leads I and aVL (Fig. 1A. The ECG monitor showed incessant tachycardia with warming-up phenomenon. Three dimensional electroanatomical map integrated with CT imaging (CARTOMERGE®, Biosense Webster Inc. clearly revealed the radial activation pattern originating from the basalo-postero-inferior aspect of the left atrial appendage. Radiofrequency energy application at this site eliminated tachycardia permanently.

  19. Effect of liraglutide on atrial natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, and copeptin in PCOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøssing, Signe; Nylander, Malin; Kistorp, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    CONTEXT: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and biomarkers can be used to detect early subclinical CVD. Midregional-pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), midregional-pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and copeptin are all associated......-proANP. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if treatment with liraglutide in women with PCOS reduces levels of the cardiovascular biomarkers MR-proADM, MR-proANP and copeptin. METHODS: Seventy-two overweight women with PCOS were treated with 1.8 mg/day liraglutide or placebo for 26 weeks in a placebo-controlled RCT...... in the liraglutide group. Multiple regression analyses with adjustment for BMI, free testosterone, insulin resistance, visceral fat, heart rate and eGFR showed reductions in MR-proANP to be independently correlated with an increase in the heart rate. CONCLUSION: In an RCT, liraglutide treatment in women with PCOS...

  20. Personalized Remote Monitoring of the Atrial Fibrillation Patients with Electronic Implant Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce B. Laleci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIED are gaining popularity in treating patients with heart disease. Remote monitoring through care management systems enables continuous surveillance of such patients by checking device functions and clinical events. These care management systems include decision support capabilities based on clinical guidelines. Data input to such systems are from different information sources including medical devices and Electronic Health Records (EHRs. Although evidence-based clinical guidelines provides numerous benefits such as standardized care, reduced costs, efficient and effective care management, they are currently underutilized in clinical practice due to interoperability problems among different healthcare data sources. In this paper, we introduce the iCARDEA care management system for atrial fibrillation patients with implant devices and describe how the iCARDEA care plan engine executes the clinical guidelines by seamlessly accessing the EHR systems and the CIED data through standard interfaces.