WorldWideScience

Sample records for treated wood products

  1. Chapter 14: Evaluating the Leaching of Biocides from Preservative-Treated Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Leaching of biocides is an important consideration in the long term durability and any potential for environmental impact of treated wood products. This chapter discusses factors affecting biocide leaching, as well as methods of evaluating rate and quantity of biocide released. The extent of leaching is a function of preservative formulation, treatment methods, wood...

  2. Synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence microscopy confirms copper in the corrosion products of metals in contact with treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Joseph E. Jakes; Grant T. Kirker; David Vine; Stefan Vogt

    2017-01-01

    Copper based waterborne wood preservatives are frequently used to extend the service life of wood products when subjected to frequent moisture exposure. While these copper based treatments protect the wood from fungal decay and insect attack, they increase the corrosion of metals embedded or in contact with the treated wood. Previous research has shown the most...

  3. Exposure testing of fasteners in preservative treated wood: Gravimetric corrosion rates and corrosion product analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinka, Samuel L., E-mail: szelinka@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Products Laboratory, One Gifford Pinchot Drive, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Sichel, Rebecca J. [College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Stone, Donald S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The composition of the corrosion products was similar for the nail head and shank. {yields} Reduced copper was not detected on any of the fasteners. {yields} Measured corrosion rates were between 1 and 35 {mu}m year{sup -1}. - Abstract: Research was conducted to determine the corrosion rates of metals in preservative treated wood and also understand the mechanism of metal corrosion in treated wood. Steel and hot-dip galvanized steel fasteners were embedded in wood treated with one of six preservative treatments and exposed to 27 {sup o}C at 100% relative humidity for 1 year. The corrosion rate was determined gravimetrically and the corrosion products were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Although the accepted mechanism of corrosion in treated wood involves the reduction of cupric ions from the wood preservative, no reduced copper was found on the corrosion surfaces. The galvanized corrosion products contained sulfates, whereas the steel corrosion products consisted of iron oxides and hydroxides. The possible implications and limitations of this research on fasteners used in building applications are discussed.

  4. Exposure testing of fasteners in preservative treated wood : gravimetric corrosion rates and corrosion product analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Rebecca J. Sichel; Donald S. Stone

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the corrosion rates of metals in preservative treated wood and also understand the mechanism of metal corrosion in treated wood. Steel and hot-dip galvanized steel fasteners were embedded in wood treated with one of six preservative treatments and exposed to 27oC at 100% relative humidity for 1 year. The...

  5. Mechanical and natural durability properties of wood treated with a novel organic preservative/consolidant product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lionetto, Francesca; Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2009-01-01

    An organic preservative/consolidant of new formulation was selected in order to evaluate its effect on the mechanical properties of worm-eaten walnut wood. Walnut wood is widely used for the realization of artistic handworks (e.g. statues, altars, etc.) furniture and flooring. The flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, the toughness and the hardness were determined on both treated and untreated samples. The experimental results showed that the product increased significantly the flexural strength while the other mechanical properties were not appreciably affected by the chemical treatment. The microstructure of the samples tested was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The preserving character against insects of the investigated product was assessed by both visual inspection and measurements of weight loss on the treated specimens after their exposure to living insects. The samples on which the product was applied, exposed to Oligomerus ptilinoides for one year, were more resistant to decay than the corresponding untreated samples.

  6. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  7. EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL WEATHERING ON WOOD LAMINATES COLOR TREATED WITH TWO FINISHING PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Jacob Mendes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weathering is one of the main reasons for the degradation of wood, especially its color. The application of finishes minimizes these effects. This study aimed to monitor the effect of artificial weathering on wood veneer of the species cumaru (Dipteryx odorata and pau marfim (Balfourodendron riedelianum with two finishes, the marine varnish and Cetol, with monitoring using a spectrophotometer. The samples were subjected to cycles of exposure to weathering for 20, 40, 52, 76, 124, 226, 430, 838 and 960 hours. The colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, C and h* were measured before treatment, after application of the products and during the weathering time intervals. The application of finishes darkened veneer of cumaru wood and pau marfim in nature. However, in higher weathering times, both species returned to a lighter color, and even became lighter than the natural wood. The use of Cetol was more efficient, giving greater stability in the conservation of wood color of the species studied.

  8. Metal loss from treated wood products in contact with municipal solid waste landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Brajesh [Department of Environmental Health, PO Box 70682, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Townsend, Timothy, E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Solo-Gabriele, Helena [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0630 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The research presented in this paper evaluates the potential impact of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate quality on the loss of metals from discarded treated wood during disposal. The loss of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and boron (B) from several types of pressure-treated wood (CCA: chromated copper arsenate, ACQ: alkaline copper quaternary, CBA: copper boron azole, and DOT: disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) using leachate collected from 26 MSW landfills in Florida was examined. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and California's waste extraction test (WET) were also performed. The results suggested that loss of preservative components was influenced by leachate chemistry. Copper loss from CCA-, ACQ- and CBA-treated wood was similar in magnitude when in contact with landfill leachates compared to synthetic TCLP and SPLP solutions. Ammonia was found as one of the major parameters influencing the leaching of Cu from treated wood when leached with MSW landfill leachates. The results suggest that disposal of ACQ- and CBA-treated wood in substantial quantity in MSW landfills may elevate the Cu concentration in the leachate; this could be of potential concern, especially for a bioreactor MSW landfill in which relatively higher ammonia concentrations in leachate have been reported in recent literature. For the As, Cr and B the concentrations observed with the landfill leachate as the leaching solutions were over a range from some sample showing the concentrations below and some showing above the observed value from corresponding SPLP and TCLP tests. In general the WET test showed the highest concentrations.

  9. Fast pyrolysis of creosote treated wood ties in a fluidized bed reactor and analytical characterization of product fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su-Hwa; Koo, Won-Mo; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of creosote treated wood ties was pyrolyzed in a pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and char-separation system at different temperatures. Analyses of each pyrolysis product, especially the oil, were carried out using a variety of analytical tools. The maximum oil yield was obtained at 458 °C with a value of 69.3 wt%. Oils obtained were easily separated into two phases, a creosote-derived fraction (CDF) and a wood-derived fraction (WDF). Major compounds of the WDF were acetic acid, furfural and levoglucosan, while the CDF was mainly composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, acenaphthene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. HPLC analysis showed that the concentration of PAHs of the CDF obtained at 458 °C constituted about 22.5 wt% of the oil. - Highlights: • Creosote treated wood ties was stably pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor. • Pyrolysis oil contained extremely low metal content due to the char removal system. • Bio-oil components was quantitatively analyzed by relative response factor. • Creosote-derived pyrolysis oil fraction was composed of PHAs and has a high caloric value (39 MJ/kg)

  10. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  11. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  12. Finishability of CCA pressure-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Ross; Richard Carlson; William Feist; Steven Bussjaeger

    2000-01-01

    Thus, a need arose for the development of surface finishes for CCA-treated wood that could address the special requirements of this substrate and provide protection against the ravages of water, sunlight, mildew, and other aspects of weathering and wear. Initially, this need was not addressed, most wood preserving companies had little expertise in surface finishes and...

  13. Factors affecting sodium hypochlorite extraction of CCA from treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, E D; Cooper, P A

    2009-12-01

    Significant amounts of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood products, such as utility poles and residential construction wood, remain in service. There is increasing public concern about environmental contamination from CCA-treated wood when it is removed from service for reuse or recycling, placed in landfills or burned in commercial incinerators. In this paper, we investigated the effects of time, temperature and sodium hypochlorite concentration on chromium oxidation and extraction of chromated copper arsenate from CCA-treated wood (Type C) removed from service. Of the conditions evaluated, reaction of milled wood with sodium hypochlorite for one hour at room temperature followed by heating at 75 degrees C for two hours gave the highest extraction efficiency. An average of 95% Cr, 99% Cu and 96% As could be removed from CCA-treated, milled wood by this process. Most of the extracted chromium was oxidized to the hexavalent state and could therefore be recycled in a CCA treating solution. Sodium hypochlorite extracting solutions could be reused several times to extract CCA components from additional treated wood samples.

  14. Corrosion of metals in treated wood examined by synchrotron based xanes and XFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Joseph E. Jakes; Grant T. Kirker; Leandro Passarini; Barry Lai

    2016-01-01

    Copper based waterborne wood preservatives are frequently used to extend the service life of wood products used in outdoor environments. While these copper based treatments protect the wood from fungal decay and insect attack, they increase the corrosion of metals embedded or in contact with the treated wood. Over the past ten years, several studies have looked at the...

  15. Biocide leaching from CBA treated wood — A mechanistic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupsea, Maria; Mathies, Helena; Schoknecht, Ute; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Schiopu, Nicoleta

    2013-01-01

    Treated wood is frequently used for construction. However, there is a need to ensure that biocides used for the treatment are not a threat for people or environment. The paper focused on Pinus sylvestris treated with copper–boron–azole (CBA), containing tebuconazole as organic biocide and monoethanolamine (Mea). This study investigates chemical mechanisms of fixation and mobilisation involved in the leaching process of the used inorganic and organic biocides in CBA. A pH dependent leaching test was performed, followed by a set of complementary analysis methods in order to identify and quantify the species released from wood. The main findings of this study are: -Organic compounds are released from untreated and treated wood; the quantity of released total organic carbon, carboxylic and phenolic functions increasing with the pH. -Nitrogen containing compounds, i.e. mainly Mea and its reaction products with extractives, are released in important quantities from CBA treated wood, especially at low pH. -The release of copper is the result of competitive reactions: fixation via complexation reactions and complexation with extractives in the liquid phase. The specific pH dependency of Cu leaching is explained by the competition of ligands for protonation and complexation. -Tebuconazole is released to a lesser extent relative to its initial content. Its fixation on solid wood structure seems to be influenced by pH, suggesting interactions with -OH groups on wood. Boron release appears to be pH independent and very high. This confirms its weak fixation on wood and also no or weak interaction with the extractives. - Highlights: ► A pH dependent leaching mechanism for CBA treated wood is described. ► The fixation and mobilisation of inorganic and organic biocides was investigated. ► Extractives' quantity and nature depend on pH. ► Competition of ligands for protonation and complexation explains Cu behaviour. ► Tebuconazole seems to interact with -OH groups on

  16. Harvested wood products : basis for future methodological development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog

    2003-01-01

    The IPCC Guidelines (IPCC 1997) provide an outline of how harvested wood could be treated in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. This section shows the relation of that outline to the approaches and estimation methods to be presented in this Appendix. Wood and paper products are referred to as harvested wood products (HWP). It does not include carbon in...

  17. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  18. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  19. Interrelationship between lignin-rich dichloromethane extracts of hot water-treated wood fibers and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in wood plastic composite (WPC) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel R. Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Manuel Garcia-Perez; Eini Lowell; Rui Zhu; Karl Englund

    2016-01-01

    Hot water extraction (HWE) partially removes hemicelluloses from wood while leaving the majority of the lignin and cellulose; however, the lignin partially migrates to the inner surfaces of the cell wall where it can be deposited as a layer that is sometimes visible as droplets. This lignin-rich material was isolated via Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane to...

  20. Women's work... in wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1998-01-01

    Women have opportunities galore in the 1990s in wood products research, education, extension, consulting,manufacturing, marketing, and associations in North America. In the 1980s the same statement could not have been made.

  1. Production of bio-oil with low contents of copper and chlorine by fast pyrolysis of alkaline copper quaternary-treated wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Won-Mo; Jung, Su-Hwa; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of ACQ (alkaline copper quaternary)-treated wood was carried out in a bench-scale pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and char separation system. This study focused on the production of a bio-oil with low copper and chlorine contents, especially by adopting the fractional condensation of bio-oil using water condensers, an impact separator and an electrostatic precipitator. In addition, various analytical tools were applied to investigate the physicochemical properties of the pyrolysis products and the behavior of the preservative during pyrolysis. The bio-oil yield was maximized at 63.7 wt% at a pyrolysis temperature of 411 °C. Highly water-soluble holocellulose-derived components such as acetic acid and hydroxyacetone were mainly collected by the condensers, while lignin-derived components and levoglucosan were mainly observed in the oils collected by the impact separator and electrostatic precipitator. All the bio-oils produced in the experiments were almost free of copper and chlorine. Most copper in ACQ was transferred into the char. - Highlights: • ACQ(alkaline copper quaternary)-treated wood was successfully pyrolyzed in a bench-scale fluidized bed. • Bio-oils separately collected were different in their characteristics. • Bio-oils were free of didecyldimethylammonium chloride. • Bio oils were almost free of copper and chlorine. • The concentration of levoglucosan in a bio-oil was 24–31 wt%

  2. PRESERVATIVE LEACHING FROM WEATHERED CCA-TREATED WOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal of discarded CCA-treated wood in landfills raises concerns with respect to leaching of preservative compounds. When unweathered CCA-treated wood is leached using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), arsenic concentrations exceed the toxicity characteris...

  3. Biocide leaching from CBA treated wood — A mechanistic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupsea, Maria [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, ESE/Environment, 24 rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Mathies, Helena; Schoknecht, Ute [BAM — Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.1, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, ESE/Environment, 24 rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France)

    2013-02-01

    Treated wood is frequently used for construction. However, there is a need to ensure that biocides used for the treatment are not a threat for people or environment. The paper focused on Pinus sylvestris treated with copper–boron–azole (CBA), containing tebuconazole as organic biocide and monoethanolamine (Mea). This study investigates chemical mechanisms of fixation and mobilisation involved in the leaching process of the used inorganic and organic biocides in CBA. A pH dependent leaching test was performed, followed by a set of complementary analysis methods in order to identify and quantify the species released from wood. The main findings of this study are: -Organic compounds are released from untreated and treated wood; the quantity of released total organic carbon, carboxylic and phenolic functions increasing with the pH. -Nitrogen containing compounds, i.e. mainly Mea and its reaction products with extractives, are released in important quantities from CBA treated wood, especially at low pH. -The release of copper is the result of competitive reactions: fixation via complexation reactions and complexation with extractives in the liquid phase. The specific pH dependency of Cu leaching is explained by the competition of ligands for protonation and complexation. -Tebuconazole is released to a lesser extent relative to its initial content. Its fixation on solid wood structure seems to be influenced by pH, suggesting interactions with -OH groups on wood. Boron release appears to be pH independent and very high. This confirms its weak fixation on wood and also no or weak interaction with the extractives. - Highlights: ► A pH dependent leaching mechanism for CBA treated wood is described. ► The fixation and mobilisation of inorganic and organic biocides was investigated. ► Extractives' quantity and nature depend on pH. ► Competition of ligands for protonation and complexation explains Cu behaviour. ► Tebuconazole seems to interact with -OH groups

  4. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  5. Variability in evaluating environmental impacts of treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul Cooper; Patricia K. Lebow

    2004-01-01

    Preservative-treated wood contains components that may be toxic to non-target organisms if released into the environment in sufficient quantities. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the rate of preservative release from treated wood and/or the extent of their subsequent accumulation in the environment. These studies have produced a wide range of results...

  6. REMOVAL COPPER, CHROMIUM, ARSENIC FROM OUT-OF- SERVICE CCA-TREATED WOOD MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Derya Gezer

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Remediation can be defined as removing copper, chromium and arsenic from out-of-service CCA treated wood products. There are some various remediation methods that can be applied to remove copper, chromium and arsenic from out-of service CCA treated wood products in order to re-use that wooden materials and minimize adverse impacts of those out-of service CCA treated wood to environment, human health, animals and other living organisms. In this study, those applied various remediation methods to remove copper, chromium and arsenic were summarized.

  7. Hot water extracted wood fiber for production of wood plastic composites (WPCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Thomas E. Amidon; Timothy L. Chaffee

    2013-01-01

    Undebarked ponderosa pine chips were treated by hot water extraction to modify the chemical composition. In the treated pine (TP) , the mass was reduced by approximately 20%, and the extract was composed mainly of degradation products of hemicelluloses. Wood flour produced from TP and unextracted chips (untreated pine, UP) was blended with high-density polyethylene (...

  8. Marine exposure of preservative-treated small wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. R. Johnson; D. I. Gutzmer

    1984-01-01

    Small wood panels treated with many different chemicals have been exposed to limnorian and teredine marine borers in the sea at Key West, Florida. These preservatives and treatments include creosotes with and without modification, waterborne salts, salt-creosote dual treatments, chemical modifications of wood, and modified polymers. In spite of the accelerated nature...

  9. Creosote movement from treated wood immersed in fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung-Mo Kang; Jeffrey J. Morrell; John Simonsen; Stan Lebow

    2005-01-01

    Creosote has a long history of successful use as a wood preservative, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this preservative have raised environmental concerns, particularly when creosote-treated wood is used in aquatic environments. A number of models have been developed to predict the risk of creosote use in aquatic environments, but one limitation of these models...

  10. Weathering methods for preservative treated wood and their applicability for fire retarded wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, A.

    1999-01-01

    preservative treated wood. The aim of the presentation is to inform you about current testing methods and to discuss their applicability to test fire retarded wood in outdoor use. Assuming that fire retardants will only be used in out of ground contact, only those methods are mentioned, which fit

  11. Modification of polypropylene with radiation-treated wood fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.; Tapolcai, I.

    1983-01-01

    The dispersed wood material is used not only as filler for thermosetting polymers but also as a new type of fibrous additive for thermoplastics e.g. polypropylene. Benefit of this additive (filler or reinforcement) is determined by the coupling between the wood and the synthetic resin. Fibrous, dispersed wood material was preirradiated in air, treated with vinyl monomer containing polyester resin and then mixed in polypropylene. Processability of such thermoplastic blends as well as reactivity of the mixed components were followed by measuring energy, absorbed during the kneading of the melt. The vinylmonomer vinylmonomer - polyester additive, activated at higher temperature by the radiation-formed peroxy groups on the wood fiber, results in good processability of the thermoplastic blend, and gives interesting mechanical properties. Calandering, extrusion, pressmoulding and mechanical testing demonstrated good workability and practical value of the polypropylene composite material containing radiation-treated wood fiber. (author)

  12. Wood products research in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Wegner

    2010-01-01

    Forest biomass conversion to biofuels and other value-added co-products; hyper-performance advanced composites custom tailored to end use requirements; advanced high performance wood-based structures; and nanomaterials and nano-enable high performance products from wood represent important research and development investment areas for the successful transformation of...

  13. Resistance of treated rubber wood ( Hevea brasiliensis ) to termite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spent rubber trees from a 25 year old plantation were cut, sawn and treated with Copper Chromium Arsenate (CCA) and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL). Two sets of wood samples were treated with CCA and CNSL respectively while the third set was not treated to serve as control. The three sets were exposed to termite ...

  14. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  15. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    study the utility of the method Electrodialytic Remediation was demonstrated for handling of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale. The electrodialytic remediation method, which uses a low level DC current as the cleaning agent, combines elektrokinetic movement of ions in the wood matrix with the princi......-ples of electrodialysis. It has previously been shown that it is possible to remove Cu, Cr and As from CCA treated wood using electrodialytic remediation in laboratory scale (Ribeiro et al., 2000; Kristensen et al., 2003), but until now, the method had not been studied in larger scale. The pilot scale plant used...... in this study was designed to contain up to 2 m3 wood chips. Six remediation experiments were carried out. In these experiments, the process was up-scaled stepwise by increasing the distance between the electrodes from initially 60 cm to fi-nally 150 cm. The remediation time was varied between 11 and 21 days...

  17. Surface properties of thermally treated composite wood panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Catalin; Spirchez, Cosmin; Lunguleasa, Aurel; Cristea, Daniel; Roata, Ionut Claudiu; Pop, Mihai Alin; Bedo, Tibor; Stanciu, Elena Manuela; Pascu, Alexandru

    2018-04-01

    Composite finger-jointed spruce and oak wood panels have been thermally treated under standard pressure and oxygen content conditions at two different temperatures, 180 °C and respectively 200 °C for short time periods (3 and 5 h). Due to the thermally-aided chemical restructuration of the wood components, a decrease in water uptake and volumetric swelling values with up to 45% for spruce and 35% for oak have been registered, comparing to the reference samples. In relation to water resistance, a 15% increase of the dispersive component of the surface energy has been registered for the thermal-treated spruce panels, which impedes water spreading on the surface. The thermal-treated wood presents superior resistance to accelerated UV exposure and subsequently, with up to 10% higher Brinell hardness values than reference wood. The proposed thermal treatment improves the durability of the finger-jointed wood through a more economically and environmental friendly method than traditional impregnation, with minimal degradative impact on the structural components of wood.

  18. Accelerated weathering of fire-retardant-treated wood for fire testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White

    2009-01-01

    Fire-retardant-treated products for exterior applications must be subjected to actual or accelerated weathering prior to fire testing. For fire-retardant-treated wood, the two accelerated weathering methods have been Method A and B of ASTM D 2898. The rain test is Method A of ASTM D 2898. Method B includes exposures to ultraviolet (UV) sunlamps in addition to water...

  19. Modelling inorganic biocide emission from treated wood in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: Ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR792, Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Universite Paris-Est, CSTB- Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, ESE/Environment, 24, rue Joseph Fourier, 38400 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} We developed a mechanistic model for biocide metals fixation/mobilisation in wood. {center_dot} This is the first chemical model explaining the biocide leaching from treated wood. {center_dot} The main fixation mechanism is the surface complexation with wood polymers. {center_dot} The biocide mobilization is due to metal-DOC complexation and pH effect. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to develop a chemical model for explaining the leaching behaviour of inorganic biocides from treated wood. The standard leaching test XP CEN/TS14429 was applied to a commercial construction material made of treated Pinus sylvestris (Copper Boron Azole preservative). The experimental results were used for developing a chemical model under PHREEQC (a geochemical software, with LLNL, MINTEQ data bases) by considering the released species detected in the eluates: main biocides Cu and B, other trace biocides (Cr and Zn), other elements like Ca, K, Cl, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, dissolved organic matter (DOC). The model is based on chemical phenomena at liquid/solid interfaces (complexation, ion exchange and hydrolysis) and is satisfactory for the leaching behaviour representation. The simulation results confronted with the experiments confirmed the hypotheses of: (1) biocide fixation by surface complexation reactions with wood specific sites (carboxyl and phenol for Cu, Zn, Cr(III), aliphatic hydroxyl for B, ion exchange to a lesser extent) and (2) biocide mobilisation by extractives (DOC) coming from the wood. The maximum of Cu, Cr(III) and Zn fixation occurred at neutral pH (including the natural pH of wood), while B fixation was favoured at alkaline pH.

  20. Statistical process control for residential treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Timothy M. Young; Stan Lebow

    2017-01-01

    This paper is the first stage of a study that attempts to improve the process of manufacturing treated lumber through the use of statistical process control (SPC). Analysis of industrial and auditing agency data sets revealed there are differences between the industry and agency probability density functions (pdf) for normalized retention data. Resampling of batches of...

  1. Air quality and composite wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa G. D. Baumann

    1999-01-01

    Research at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) is being conducted to identify the compounds emitted from wood products during their manufacture and subsequent use. The FPL researchers are measuring the types and quantities of VOCs that are emitted from particleboard and MDF products to provide quantitative emissions information. This information...

  2. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  3. Bond quality of phenol-based adhesives containing liquefied creosote-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Feng Fu; Hui Pan

    2009-01-01

    Liquefaction of spent creosote-treated wood was studied to determine the technological practicability of its application in converting treated wood waste into resin adhesives. A total of 144 plywood panels were fabricated with experimental variables included 2 phenol to wood (P/W) ratios in liquefaction, 6 resin formulations (3 formaldehyde/liquefied wood (F/...

  4. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  5. Formation of dioxins and furans during combustion of treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tame, Nigel W.; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Kennedy, Eric M. [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F, dioxin) are produced in combustion of wood treated with copper-based preservatives. This review summarises and analyses the pertinent literature on the role of preservatives in the formation of dioxin in the low-temperature, vitiated environment that exists in the domestic combustion of wood, and in large-scale fires. Until recently, the role of preservatives was not thoroughly examined in the literature with respect to fires, as incineration attracted most of the research focus. However, latest studies have demonstrated that some current and emerging wood preservatives significantly increase dioxin formation during combustion in domestic stoves and in fires. The following pathways are identified: (i) copper, a common biocide that is chemically bound to the wood, is an important dioxin catalyst, (ii) preservative metals promote smouldering of wood char following cessation of flaming, providing the required temperature environment for dioxin formation, and (iii) chlorinated organics added as secondary preservative components yield dioxin precursors upon thermal decomposition. These conclusions indicate that it remains hazardous to dispose of preservative impregnated timber via domestic combustion even if arsenic is not present. (author)

  6. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to preservative-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Leung So; Stan T. Lebow; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Leslie H. Groom; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is now a widely-used technique in the field of forest products, especially for physical and mechanical property determinations. This technique is also ideal for the chemical analysis of wood. There has been a growing need to find a rapid, inexpensive and reliable method to distinguish between preservative-treated and untreated waste...

  7. ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE CCA (CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE) ON TREATED PLAYSETS AND DECKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for re...

  8. Role of construction debris in release of copper, chromium, and arsenic from treated wood structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson; Jeffrey J. Morrell; John. Simonsen

    Recent research on the release of wood preservatives from treated wood used in sensitive environments has not considered the potential contribution from construction residues. This study sought to develop leaching rate data for small construction debris and compare those to the release rate from treated wood itself. Western hemlock boards were pressure treated with...

  9. Sustainable production of wood and non-wood forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue; Gary L. Benson; James L. Chamberlain

    2003-01-01

    The International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) All Divisions 5 Conference in Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11-15, 2003, focused on issues surrounding sustainable foest management and forest products research. As the conference title "Forest Products Research: Providing for Sustainable Choices" suggests, the purpose of the conference was to...

  10. PRESTO: online calculation of carbon in harvested wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeli M. Hoover; Sarah J. Beukema; Donald C.E. Robinson; Katherine M. Kellock; Diana A. Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stored in harvested wood products is recognized under international carbon accounting protocols, and some crediting systems may permit the inclusion of harvested wood products when calculating carbon sequestration. For managers and landowners, however, estimating carbon stored in harvested wood products may be difficult. PRESTO (PRoduct EStimation Tool Online)...

  11. Application of a CCA-treated wood waste decontamination process to other copper-based preservative-treated wood after disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janin, Amelie, E-mail: amelie.janin@ete.inrs.ca [University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, 33, Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3 (Canada); Coudert, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.coudert@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Riche, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.riche@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Mercier, Guy, E-mail: guy_mercier@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Cooper, Paul, E-mail: p.cooper@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, 33, Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3 (Canada); Blais, Jean-Francois, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} This paper describes a process for the metal removal from treated (CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-) wood wastes. {yields} This sulfuric acid leaching process is simple and economic. {yields} The remediated wood could be recycled in the industry. - Abstract: Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was widely used until 2004 for residential and industrial applications. Since 2004, CCA was replaced by alternative copper preservatives such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ), for residential applications due to health concerns. Treated wood waste disposal is becoming an issue. Previous studies identified a chemical process for decontaminating CCA-treated wood waste based on sulfuric acid leaching. The potential application of this process to wood treated with the copper-based preservatives (alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ)) is investigated here. Three consecutive leaching steps with 0.1 M sulfuric acid at 75 deg, C for 2 h were successful for all the types of treated wood and achieved more than 98% copper solubilisation. The different acidic leachates produced were successively treated by coagulation using ferric chloride and precipitation (pH = 7) using sodium hydroxide. Between 94 and 99% of copper in leachates could be recovered by electrodeposition after 90 min using 2 A electrical current. Thus, the process previously developed for CCA-treated wood waste decontamination could be efficiently applied for CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-treated wood.

  12. The fungal composition of natural biofinishes on oil-treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Elke J.; Houbraken, Jos A. M. P.; Punt, Peter J; Roeselers, Guus; Adan, Olaf C G; Samson, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Biofinished wood is considered to be a decorative and protective material for outdoor constructions, showing advantages compared to traditional treated wood in terms of sustainability and self-repair. Natural dark wood staining fungi are essential to biofinish formation on wood. Although all sorts

  13. The fungal composition of natural biofinishes on oil-treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, E.J.; Houbraken, J.A.M.P.; Punt, P.J.; Roeselers, G.; Adan, O.C.G.; Samson, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Biofinished wood is considered to be a decorative and protective material for outdoor constructions, showing advantages compared to traditional treated wood in terms of sustainability and self-repair. Natural dark wood staining fungi are essential to biofinish formation on wood. Although

  14. Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Timothy; Tolaymat, Thabet; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Dubey, Brajesh; Stook, Kristin; Wadanambi, Lakmini

    2004-01-01

    Leaching of arsenic, chromium, and copper from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching procedures, including the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), extraction procedure toxicity method (EPTOX), waste extraction test (WET), multiple extraction procedure (MEP), and modifications of these procedures which utilized actual MSW landfill leachates, a construction and demolition (C and D) debris leachate, and a concrete enhanced leachate. Additional experiments were conducted to assess factors affecting leaching, such as particle size, pH, and leaching contact time. Results from the regulatory leaching tests provided similar results with the exception of the WET, which extracted greater quantities of metals. Experiments conducted using actual MSW leachate, C and D debris leachate, and concrete enhanced leachate provided results that were within the same order of magnitude as results obtained from TCLP, SPLP, and EPTOX. Eleven of 13 samples of CCA-treated dimensional lumber exceeded the US EPA's toxicity characteristic (TC) threshold for arsenic (5 mg/L). If un-weathered arsenic-treated wood were not otherwise excluded from the definition of hazardous waste, it frequently would require management as such. When extracted with simulated rainwater (SPLP), 9 of the 13 samples leached arsenic at concentrations above 5 mg/L. Metal leachability tended to increase with decreasing particle size and at pH extremes. All three metals leached above the drinking water standards thus possibly posing a potential risk to groundwater. Arsenic is a major concern from a disposal point of view with respect to ground water quality

  15. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  17. 76 FR 13616 - Picayune Wood Treating Site Picayune, Pearl River County, MS; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [Docket EPA-RO4-SFUND-2011-0201, FRL-9280-3] Picayune Wood... entered into a settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the Picayune Wood Treating... No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2011-0201 or Site name Picayune Wood Treating Superfund Site by one of the...

  18. CCA retention and its effects on the bonding performance of decommissioned treated wood: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Mark Gibson; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) continues to be widely used as a wood preservative for industrial uses in the U.S. Disposal of treated wood is a potential long-term environmental liability. Current practices for disposing of decommissioned preservative-treated wood include landfilling and incineration, which are increasingly impractical due to environmental...

  19. Chapter 23: Corrosion of Metals in Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion of metals in contact with wood has been studied for over 80 years, and in most situations wood is not corrosive [1]. Recently, however, the durability of fasteners in preservative--treated wood has become a concern. Changes in legislation and certification in the United States, the European Union, and Australasia have restricted the use of chromated...

  20. Transitioning Wood Furniture Products towards Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Lei; Zhang, WeiGuang; Zhang, WeiQing

    2008-01-01

    Wood Furniture Products (WFPs) play a significant role in both the global economy and the transition of society towards sustainability. This paper begins with a brief description of the industry and highlights the current challenges and compelling measures of WFPs from a systems perspective through the lens of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) and by applying backcasting from sustainability principles (SPs). An examination of the challenges and opportunities of WFPs i...

  1. Amount of leachant and water absorption levels of wood treated with borates and water repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Ergun; Sonmez, Abdullah; Colak, Mehmet; Toker, Hilmi

    2006-12-01

    Wood protection efficacy of borates against biological agents, flame retardancy, and suitability to the environment is well known. Since borates can be applied to timber as water based solutions, they are preferred economically as well. Even though they are highly mobile in wood, boron compounds are widely used in timber preservation. Borates migrate in liquid and increase the hygroscopicity of wood in damp conditions. This study deals with the physical restriction of water access in wood by impregnating water repellent agents into wood to limit amount of leachant and water absorption levels of wood after boron treatment. Borates were incorporated with polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) their bulking effect in wood was considered. Results indicated that the amount of leachates from wood treated with borates in PEG-400 was remarkably higher compared to those of wood treated with the aqueous solutions of borates. Water absorption (WA) levels of wood treated with aqueous solutions of borates were higher than those of their treated samples with the solutions in PEG-400. Secondary treatments of wood with the water repellent (WR) chemicals following borate impregnation reduced the leaching of chemicals from wood in water and also WA of the specimens were less than those of the wood treated with only borates from aqueous and PEG solutions. Styrene (St) was the most effective monomer among the other agents used in terms of immobility effect on borates and WA.

  2. Microdistribution of copper-carbonate and iron oxide nanoparticles in treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Hiroshi, E-mail: mhiroshi@ffpri.affrc.go.jp; Kiguchi, Makoto [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (Japan); Evans, Philip D. [University of British Columbia, Centre for Advanced Wood Processing (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    Aqueous dispersions of copper-carbonate nanoparticles and microparticles have just begun to be exploited commercially for the preservative treatment of wood. The success of the new systems will depend, in part, on the uniform distribution of the preservative in wood and the ability of copper to penetrate cell walls. We examined the distribution of copper in wood treated with a nano-Cu preservative. Copper particles are not uniformly distributed in treated wood, but they accumulate in voids that act as the flow paths for liquids in wood. Particles are deposited on, but not within cell walls. Nevertheless, elemental copper is present within cell walls, but at a lower level than that in wood treated with a conventional wood preservative. These findings suggest that nano-Cu preservatives are able to deliver bioactive components into wood cell walls even though the majority of copper particles are too large to penetrate the cell wall's nanocapillary network.

  3. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  4. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasante, A.; Laina, R.; Rojas, J. A. M.; Rojas, I. M.; Vignote, S.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strenght. Area of study: Spain. Material and methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601) and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492). 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative). Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative. Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product) presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole. The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment. The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies. Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending and parallel compression strength. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative. (Author)

  5. Implementation of new technologies in wood industry and their effect in wood products quality

    OpenAIRE

    ELVA ÇAUSHI; PANDELI MARKU

    2014-01-01

    There are about 300 companies producing furniture and about 250 small and medium enterprises (SME) producing sawn timber, which operate in the field of wood industry in Albania. This wood industry production is being challenged by the increasing demand in the domestic market, ranging from kitchen furniture to office and schools furniture, bedroom furniture, doors, windows, and saw timber in different dimensions. The production from the wood industry can fulfill about 80% of the domestic mark...

  6. Wood preservatives and pressure-treated wood: considerations for historic-preservation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Anthony; Stan T. Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wood, an abundant resource throughout most of the world, has been used as a building material for thousands of years. Many historic buildings have been built primarily of wood, and masonry and stone buildings generally have wood elements, both structural and architectural. As a biological material, wood is both remarkably complex and yet quite durable if well...

  7. EU mitigation potential of harvested wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Roberto; Fiorese, Giulia; Grassi, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The new rules for the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector under the Kyoto Protocol recognized the importance of Harvested Wood Products (HWP) in climate change mitigation. We used the Tier 2 method proposed in the 2013 IPCC KP Supplement to estimate emissions and removals from HWP from 1990 to 2030 in EU-28 countries with three future harvest scenarios (constant historical average, and +/-20% in 2030). For the historical period (2000-2012) our results are consistent with other studies, indicating a HWP sink equal on average to -44.0 Mt CO 2 yr -1 (about 10% of the sink by forest pools). Assuming a constant historical harvest scenario and future distribution of the total harvest among each commodity, the HWP sink decreases to -22.9 Mt CO 2 yr -1 in 2030. The increasing and decreasing harvest scenarios produced a HWP sink of -43.2 and -9.0 Mt CO 2 yr -1 in 2030, respectively. Other factors may play an important role on HWP sink, including: (i) the relative share of different wood products, and (ii) the combined effect of production, import and export on the domestic production of each commodity. Maintaining a constant historical harvest, the HWP sink will slowly tend to saturate, i.e. to approach zero in the long term. The current HWP sink will be maintained only by further increasing the current harvest; however, this will tend to reduce the current sink in forest biomass, at least in the short term. Overall, our results suggest that: (i) there is limited potential for additional HWP sink in the EU; (ii) the HWP mitigation potential should be analyzed in conjunction with other mitigation components (e.g. sink in forest biomass, energy and material substitution by wood).

  8. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil aggregate distribution, hydraulic conductivity and available water contente were also determined

  9. Environmental impact of preservative-treated wood in a wetland boardwalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Patricia K. Lebow; Daniel O. Foster; Kenneth M. Brooks

    Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and industry partners are cooperating in a study of the leaching and environmental effects of a wetland boardwalk. The construction project is considered bworst casec because the site has high rainfall and large volumes of treated wood were used. Separate boardwalk test sections were constructed using untreated wood or wood...

  10. An Analysis of the U.S. Wood Products Import Sector: Prospects for Tropical Wood Products Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.R.T.W. Bandara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. has dramatically altered its wood product imports and exports during the past few years,and at present, it is the second largest wood product importer in the world. Hence, an understanding ofmarket structures, factors in selecting foreign suppliers, and the emphasis placed on environmentalissues/certification are critical to understand from the perspective of wood products importers in the U.S.This study provides an analysis of the U.S. wood products import sector with special emphasis on currentand future opportunities for tropical wood products exporters to the U.S. market.In this study, 158 wood products importers in the U.S. were surveyed using a mailingquestionnaire. The adjusted response rate was 40.6 percent. Results indicated that most of the respondentswere small to medium scale firms, but major importers of wood products. According to respondents,wood products to the U.S. mainly come from Brazil, Chile, and China. From the importers’ perspective,Brazilian wood products ranked first for its quality followed by wood products from Chile and Finland.Product quality, long term customer relationships, on-time delivery of orders, fair prices, and supplierreputation were the factors deemed important in selecting overseas suppliers. Majority of respondentswere importing certified wood products. FSC, SFI, and ISO 14000 were the mostly accepted certificationprograms. However, certification was not a major factor in foreign supplier selection criteria. Whenconsidered the U.S. wood products importers’ tendency to diversify their products and species imported,attractive opportunities exist for wood products suppliers from tropical countries.

  11. Subterranean Termite Resistance of Polystyrene-Treated Wood from Three Tropical Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Sudo Hadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the resistance of three Indonesian wood species to termite attack. Samples from sengon (Falcataria moluccana, mangium (Acacia mangium, and pine (Pinus merkusii were treated with polystyrene at loading levels of 26.0%, 8.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Treated and untreated samples were exposed to environmental conditions in the field for 3 months. Untreated specimens of sengon, mangium, and pine had resistance ratings of 3.0, 4.6, and 2.4, respectively, based on a 10-point scale from 0 (no resistance to 10 (complete or near-complete resistance. Corresponding resistance values of 7.8, 7.2, and 8.2 were determined for specimens treated with polystyrene. Overall weight loss values of 50.3%, 23.3%, and 66.4% were found for untreated sengon, mangium, and pine samples, respectively; for treated samples, the values were 7.6%, 14.4%, and 5.1%, respectively. Based on the findings in this study, overall resistance to termite attack was higher for treated samples compared to untreated samples.

  12. Analysis of preservative-treated wood by multivariate analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Labbe, Nicole; Rials, Timothy G.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) techniques are coupled with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to identify preservative types (chromated copper arsenate, ammoniacal copper zinc or alkaline copper quat), and to predict elemental content in preservative-treated wood. The elemental composition of the samples was measured with a standard laboratory method of digestion followed by atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis. The elemental composition was then correlated with the LIBS spectra using projection to latent structures (PLS) models. The correlations for the different elements introduced by different treatments were very strong, with the correlation coefficients generally above 0.9. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate the samples treated with different preservative formulations. The research has focused not only on demonstrating the application of LIBS as a tool for use in the forest products industry, but also considered sampling errors, limits of detection, reproducibility, and accuracy of measurements as they relate to multivariate analysis of this complex wood substrate

  13. Analysis of preservative-treated wood by multivariate analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z. [Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 MS 6422, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6422 (United States); Labbe, Nicole [Forest Products Center, University of Tennessee, 2506 Jacob Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996-4570 (United States)]. E-mail: nlabbe@utk.edu; Rials, Timothy G. [Forest Products Center, University of Tennessee, 2506 Jacob Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996-4570 (United States); Wullschleger, Stan D. [Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 MS 6422, Oak Ridge TN 37831-6422 (United States)

    2005-08-31

    In this work, multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) techniques are coupled with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to identify preservative types (chromated copper arsenate, ammoniacal copper zinc or alkaline copper quat), and to predict elemental content in preservative-treated wood. The elemental composition of the samples was measured with a standard laboratory method of digestion followed by atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis. The elemental composition was then correlated with the LIBS spectra using projection to latent structures (PLS) models. The correlations for the different elements introduced by different treatments were very strong, with the correlation coefficients generally above 0.9. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate the samples treated with different preservative formulations. The research has focused not only on demonstrating the application of LIBS as a tool for use in the forest products industry, but also considered sampling errors, limits of detection, reproducibility, and accuracy of measurements as they relate to multivariate analysis of this complex wood substrate.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tendency in recent decades for manufacturing plants of semi-finished products such as composite panels, has been to invest in order to achieve high production capacities (>2,000 m³/day for panels and >3,000 t/day for paper with one line. The trend of concentrating the primary processing capacities and manufacturing wood-based panels will continue for the next few years not only in Europe but in North and South America as well. The ten largest panel manufacturers had a combined manufacturing capacity that exceeded a third of the worldwide production capacity. The financial crisis that started in 2008 has caused the closure of a large number of factories especially in North America and Central Europe. Small- and medium-sized producers will only survive if they will continue to specialize in the manufacture of panel types and sizes (niche products that are “unprofitable” for mega-groups. The installed production capacity worldwide of all wood-based composite panels combined (includes PY, PB, MDF, OSB rose by more than 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005 (225 mil.m³, and continues to increase despite the crises reaching approx. 300 mil.m³ in 2013. The forecast for the coming years varies greatly from continent to continent. In North America and Central Europe, both a consolidation of the available production capacities and the closure of less efficient older lines are expected. The lowest point of the effect of the financial crisis on the building industry seems to have been overcome. The furniture production companies will continue to move from one continent and region to another.

  15. Production of wood fuels from young forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpilahti, A.

    1998-01-01

    National forest invention data shows that more than 200 000 ha of thinnings should be carried out annually. The stemwood accumulation corresponding to this is about 13 million m 3 . The share of industrial wood is about 5.7 million m 3 , so the energy wood potential is about 7.0 million m 3 . Because the growing stock can use the nutrients liberated from logging residues the topwood mass should not be totally harvested, and at the barren areas it should not be harvested at all. Even the difficult terrain restricts in some extent the harvesting of logging residues. After these reductions the economically harvestible energy wood potential has been estimated to be 5.1 million m 3 corresponding to about 0.9 million toe. The amount of first thinnings has during the last few years been only about one third of the need. The accumulation in the first thinning phase could be about 40-80 m 3 /ha. The annual young stand treatment area has usually been about 200 000 ha, but during the last few years it has remained to a little over 100 000 ha. Harvesting of wood fuels from young stands, based on a lot-chipping method and the traditional production chains, was investigated in the national Bioenergy Research Programme. Equipment of suitable size and price are needed for harvesting of small-diameter trees. The profitability of mechanized harvesting can be improved significantly if the single-tree processing is replaced with multi- tree processing. Multi-tree harvesting can be carried out in all production chains, felling-bunching, in partial and pulpwood harvesting, as well as with bare felling machines and harvesters. About 60 % of the stems were processed with a prototype machine, tested in treatment of young forests. About 70 % of fellings in felling-bunching, already in commercial use, was processed as multi- tree processing, and about 80 % in the partial-tree harvesting. The felling of pulpwood as partial trees was about 25-30 % faster as multi-tree processing than with

  16. Western Canadian wood residue production and consumption trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, B.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation considered various trends in western Canadian wood residue production and consumption. Potential markets for wood residue products were also discussed. Trends were reviewed by province for the years 2000-2004. British Columbia (BC) is currently the largest producer of residue in the country, and also retains the largest surpluses of bark, sawdust and shavings. Wood residues in BC are used in pulp and plywood mill production, as well as in the creation of particleboard and MDF. Surplus mill wood residue production in the province has greatly increased due to the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) infestation, which has in turn spurred expansion of the BC interior sawmill industry. The infestation has also resulted in a glut of pulp chips. Current wood residue products in Alberta are mostly used in pulp mill combined heat and power (CHP) systems, as well as for wood pellet production and the creation of particleboard and MDF. It was noted that surplus residues are rapidly declining in the province. Saskatchewan's wood residue storage piles are estimated to contain 2,900,000 BDt, while Manitoba surpluses are relatively minor. It was suggested that high natural gas prices have increased the payback on wood energy systems to approximately 2 years. The value of wood residue is now greater than $100/BDt as a substitute for natural gas once the wood energy system has been fully depreciated. Sawmills may now wish to consider equipping themselves to sell wood residue products, as most sawmills only require 20 per cent of their residues for heating purposes. It was concluded that markets for hog fuel wood pellets should be developed in Canada and internationally. Future markets may also develop if natural gas currently used in pulp mill power boilers and lime kilns is replaced with wood residue energy systems. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Long-term soil accumulation of chromium, copper, and arsenic adjacent to preservative-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Lebow; D. Foster; J. Evans

    2004-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has been used extensively in outdoor applications. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and CCA producers recently reached an agreement to limit future use of CCA for some types of applications. One area of concern is the long-term accumulation of leached CCA in soil adjacent to treated wood structures. Interpreting...

  18. Chemical remediation of wood treated with micronised, nano or soluble copper preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saip Nami Kartal; Evren Terzi; Bessie Woodward; Carol A. Clausen; Stan T. Lebow

    2013-01-01

    The potential for extraction of copper from wood treated with micronised, nano or soluble forms of copper has been evaluated in view of chemical remediation. In focus were EDTA, oxalic acid, bioxalate, and D-gluconic acid for extraction of Cu from treated wood. Bioxalate extractions for 24 h resulted in Cu removal over 95% for all tested...

  19. Physical and mechanical properties of flakeboard produced from recycled CCA-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Li; T.F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2004-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has been most widely used in North America since the 1970s for many exterior applications such as decks, fences, playground equipment, utility poles, and others. A large volume of CCA-treated wood is currently coming out of service. Traditional disposal methods such as landfilling and incineration are not without adverse...

  20. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Villasante

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strength.Area of study: SpainMaterial and Methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601 and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492. 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative. Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative.Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole . The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment.The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies.Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending  and parallel compression strength.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative.Keywords: Light Organic Solvent Preservative; MOE; parallel compression; static bending; waterborne Copper Azole; wood technology.

  1. Trends in the highway market for wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Knutson

    1975-01-01

    Forty-eight million cubic feet of wood products, about 50 million dollars worth, were used in the Nation's highway construction program in 1972. Expenditures for highway construction increased 2½ times from 1954 to 1972. The volume of wood products used in highway construction changed little during this period because other materials were substituted for...

  2. The economic potential of wood pellet production from alternative, low-value wood sources in the southeast of the US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The global demand for wood pellets used for energy purposes is growing. Therefore, increased amounts of wood pellets are produced from primary forestry products, such as pulp wood. The present analysis demonstrates that substantial amounts of alternative, low-value wood resources are available that

  3. FIELD-SCALE LEACHING OF ARSENIC, CHROMIUM AND COPPER FROM WEATHERED TREATED WOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A. Rasem; Hu, Ligang; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Fieber, Lynne; Cai, Yong; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies documented the loss of wood preservatives from new wood. The objective of this study was to evaluate losses from weathered treated wood under field conditions by collecting rainfall leachate from 5 different wood types, all with a surface area of 0.21 m2. Wood samples included weathered chromate copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood at low (2.7 kg/m3), medium (4.8 kg/m3) and high (35.4 kg/m3) retention levels, new alkaline copper quat (ACQ) treated wood (1.1 kg/m3 as CuO) and new untreated wood. Arsenic was found to leach at a higher rate (100 mg in 1 year for low retention) than chromium and copper (leached at the highest rate from the ACQ sample (670 mg). Overall results suggest that metals’ leaching is a continuous process driven by rainfall, and that the mechanism of release from the wood matrix changes as wood weathers. PMID:20053493

  4. Quantities of arsenic-treated wood in demolition debris generated by Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Brajesh; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Townsendt, Timothy G

    2007-03-01

    The disaster debris from Hurricane Katrina is one of the largest in terms of volume and economic loss in American history. One of the major components of the demolition debris is wood waste of which a significant proportion is treated with preservatives, including preservatives containing arsenic. As a result of the large scale destruction of treated wood structures such as electrical poles, fences, decks, and homes a considerable amount of treated wood and consequently arsenic will be disposed as disaster debris. In this study an effort was made to estimate the quantity of arsenic disposed through demolition debris generated in the Louisiana and Mississippi area through Hurricane Katrina. Of the 72 million cubic meters of disaster debris generated, roughly 12 million cubic meters were in the form of construction and demolition wood resulting in an estimated 1740 metric tons of arsenic disposed. Management of disaster debris should consider the relatively large quantities of arsenic associated with pressure-treated wood.

  5. Design considerations for the commercial production of wood acrylics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, A.E.; Bosco, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The major application of wood acrylics is for flooring, more specifically in high traffic area. The most important property is its abrasion resistance. As for the decisions in facility design, the following considerations must be made: irradiation or heat-catalyst to polymerize, machine irradiation or isotope irradiation, and wet or dry irradiation. Then, processing considerations are made on wood type, monomer selection, dye selection, fire retardant, dose conditions and crosslinker usage. In ''PermaGrain'' production, for example, the facility has the yearly production capacity of over 4,000,000 kilograms of wood acrylic. The starting wood form is small slats or fingers. After pressure cycle, the impregnant wet wood is lowered into an irradiation pool and the product canister passes around a cobalt 60 source. After irradiation, the product is taken out of the pool and allowed to cool. Then, final sizing and finishing are carried out. (Mori, K.)

  6. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-07-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  7. Prospects for wood products trade under the new partnership for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluates the prospects for the development of inter-and ... the adoption of common policy to secure better deals for the wood products ... of value added products targetted towards foreign exchange conservation and substitution.

  8. CCA-treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna; Weitz, Keith; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy; Thorneloe, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential and industrial applications. Although some countries have banned the use of the product for some applications, others have not, and the product continues to enter the waste stream from construction, demolition and remodeling projects. CCA-treated wood as a solid waste is managed in various ways throughout the world. In the US, CCA-treated wood is disposed primarily within landfills; however some of the wood is combusted in waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. In other countries, the predominant disposal option for wood, sometimes including CCA-treated wood, is combustion for the production of energy. This paper presents an estimate of the quantity of CCA-treated wood entering the disposal stream in the US, as well as an examination of the trade-offs between landfilling and WTE combustion of CCA-treated wood through a life-cycle assessment and decision support tool (MSW DST). Based upon production statistics, the estimated life span and the phaseout of CCA-treated wood, recent disposal projections estimate the peak US disposal rate to occur in 2008, at 9.7 million m(3). CCA-treated wood, when disposed with construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW), has been found to increase arsenic and chromium concentrations in leachate. For this reason, and because MSW landfills are lined, MSW landfills have been recommended as a preferred disposal option over unlined C&D debris landfills. Between landfilling and WTE for the same mass of CCA-treated wood, WTE is more expensive (nearly twice the cost), but when operated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulations, it produces energy and does not emit fossil carbon emissions. If the wood is managed via WTE, less landfill area is required, which could be an influential trade-off in some countries. Although metals are concentrated

  9. Roughness study on homogeneous layer panels manufactured from treated wood waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima do Nascimento

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource exploration is growing, highlighting woods and joinery waste, wood industries and the like. This study presents homogeneous particleboard (PPH roughness characterization manufactured from treated wood waste. Normative document with values of Brazilian Technical Standard Association ABNT NBR 8404 (1984, was adopted as a reference. The results show that the manufactured PPH showed roughness class N 10, with roughness values (Ra of less than 12.5 microns.

  10. Comparative study on liquefaction of creosote and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood and untreated southern pine wood: effects of acid catalyst content, liquefaction time, temperature, and phenol to wood ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Creosote- and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste and untreated southern pine wood were liquefied with phenol and sulfuric acid. The effects of sulfuric acid content, liquefaction time, liquefaction temperature, and phenol to wood ratio on liquefaction rate (i.e., wood residue content) were investigated and analyzed by analysis of variance (...

  11. Effect of precipitation pattern on leaching of preservative from treated wood and implications for accelerated testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to develop improved accelerated test methods for evaluating the leaching of wood preservatives from treated wood exposed to precipitation. In this study the effects of rate of rainfall and length of intervals between rainfall events on leaching was evaluated by exposing specimens to varying patterns of simulated rainfall under controlled laboratory...

  12. Understanding decay resistance, dimensional stability and strength changes in heat treated and acetylated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Rebecca E. Ibach; James McSweeny; Thomas Nilsson

    2009-01-01

    Reductions in hygroscopicity, increased dimensional stability and decay resistance of heat-treated wood depend on decomposition of a large portion of the hemicelluloses in the wood cell wall. In theory, these hemicelluloses are converted to small organic molecules, water and volatile furan-type intermediates that can polymerize in the cell wall. Reductions in...

  13. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood in a 2 m3 pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Waste wood that has been treated with chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) poses a potential environmental problem due to the content of copper, chromium and arsenic. A pilot plant for electrodialytic remediation of up to 2 m3 wood has been designed and tested and the results are presented here. Sever...

  14. Guide for minimizing the effect of preservative-treated wood on sensitive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Michael Tippie

    2001-01-01

    Preservative-treated wood is often used for construction of highway and foot bridges, wetland boardwalks, and other structures in or over water or sensitive environments. In these applications it is important that release of preservative from the wood into the environment is minimized. This publication addresses this concern by describing the various types of pressure-...

  15. Effect of simulated rainfall and weathering on release of preservative elements from CCA treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; R. Sam Williams; Patricia Lebow

    2003-01-01

    The release of arsenic from wood pressure-treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) can be decreased by application of wood finishes, but little is known about the types of finishes that are best suited for this purpose. This study evaluated the effects of finish water repellent content and ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the release of arsenic, copper, and chromium...

  16. Pine Wood Treated with a Citric Acid and Glycerol Mixture: Biomaterial Performance Improved by a Bio-byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatien Geraud Essoua Essoua

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood material is a good reservoir for biogenic carbon storage. The use of wood material for outdoor products such as siding in the building construction sector presents limits. These limits are bound to the nature of wood material (hygroscopic property and anatomical structure. They are responsible for the dimensional variation associated with moisture content variations. Fungal attacks and coating layers adhesion on wood surface, are other problems. This research investigated the feasibility of impregnation with environmentally friendly chemicals, i.e., a citric acid-glycerol mixture (CA-G. The anti-swelling efficiency (ASE, hardness, biodegradation, and coating adhesion tests were performed on softwood specimens. ASE results were up to 53%. The equilibrium moisture content of the treated specimens was less than half of the untreated ones. FTIR spectroscopy showed bands at 1720 to 1750 cm-1, indicating the presence of ester bonds, and scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the polymerization and condensation of treatment solution inside the wood structure. Hardness and decay resistance were increased; however, treatment reduces coating adhesion. In conclusion, CA-G represents a promising eco-responsible solution for improving the technical performance of outdoor wood products.

  17. Competitiveness of wood pulp production in different Brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisy Silva Soares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to analyze the competitiveness of wood pulp production in different Brazilian states, in May, 2008 (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia, using the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The results obtained indicated that the private and social profitability of wood pulp production and commercialization was positive and greater in Bahia. The Brazilian companies were penalized by public policies adopted for the sector; the wood pulp production in São Paulo and Bahia were more competitive and less exposed to the negative effects of public policies that reduce the national company profits.

  18. Statistical analysis of influence of soil source on leaching of arsenic and copper from CCA-C treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Lebow; Richard Ziobro; Linda Sites; Tor Schultz; David Pettry; Darrel Nicholas; Stan Lebow; Pascal Kamdem; Roger Fox; Douglas Crawford

    2006-01-01

    Leaching of wood preservatives affects the long-term efficacy and environmental impact of treated wood. Soil properties and wood characteristicscan affectleaching of woad preservatives, but these effects are not well understood. This paper reports a statistical analysis of the effects of soil and wood properties on leaching of arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) from southern...

  19. Technological and Thermal Properties of Thermoplastic Composites Filled with Heat-treated Alder Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mürşit Tufan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of heat-treated wood content on the water absorption, mechanical, and thermal properties of wood plastic composites (WPCs. The WPCs were produced from various loadings (30, 40, and 50 wt% of heat-treated and untreated alder wood flours (Alnus glutinosa L. using high-density polyethylene (HDPE with 3 wt% maleated polyethylene (MAPE coupling agent. All WPC formulations were compression molded into a hot press for 3 min at 170 ºC. The WPCs were evaluated using mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The mechanical property values of the WPC specimens decreased with increasing amounts of the heat-treated wood flour, except for the tensile modulus values. The heat treatment of alder wood slightly increased the thermal stability of the WPCs compared with the reference WPCs. The crystallization degree (Xc and the enthalpy of crystallization of the WPCs slightly decreased with increasing content of the heat-treated wood flour. However, all WPCs containing the heat-treated alder wood flour showed a higher crystallinity degree than that of the virgin HDPE.

  20. Online Sorting of Wood Treated with Chromated Copper Arsenate Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moskal, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    .... While CCA treated wood has several benefits, with perhaps the most important being the saving of an estimated 225 million trees annually due to its longer service life, there are growing concerns...

  1. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  2. Electrochemical removal of CU, CR and AS from CCA-treated waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, I.V.; Ottosen, L.M.; Villumsen, A. [Dept. of Geology and Geotechnical Engineering, The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Ribeiro, A.B. [Dept. of Geology and Geotechnical Engineering, The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)]|[Dept. de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Univ. Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal)

    2001-07-01

    CCA-treated waste wood poses a potential environmental problem due to the content of copper, chromium and arsenic. This paper presents the results obtained by electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood. It is found that more than 90% Cu, and approximately 85% Cr and As was removed from the wood during the remediation. Thereby the concentration of copper in the wood is reduced from app. 426 ppm to app. 25 ppm, chromium is reduced from app. 837 ppm to app. 135 ppm and the arsenic content decreases from app. 589 ppm to app. 151 ppm. After remediation the removed metals are collected into liquids. The use of ion exchange membranes to separate the wood from the electrolytes result in a distribution of the metals after remediation that makes the collection of the metals easier, and reuse of the metals, for e.g. new CCA, may be possible. (orig.)

  3. Wood ash to treat sewage sludge for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    About 90% of the three million tons of wood ash generated in the United States from wood burning facilities is being landfilled. Many landfills are initiated tipping fees and/or restrictions on the disposal of special wastes such as ash. The purpose of this work was to evaluate (1) the feasibility of using wood ash to stabilize sewage sludge and (2) the fertilizer and liming value of the sludge/ash mixture on plant response and soil pH. Research showed that wood ash, when mixed with sludge, will produce a pH above 12.0, which meets US EPA criteria for pathogen reduction for land application on non-direct food chain crops. Different ratios of wood ash to sludge mixtures were tested and the 1:1 ratio (by weight) was found to be optimal. Five replications of wood ash from four sources were tested for moisture content, pH and fertilizer nutrients. The pH of the ash/sludge mixture (1:1) on day one ranged from 12.4 to 13.2. In most cases the pH remained the same over a 21 day test or only dropped 0.1 to 0.3 units. Analyses of the mixtures showed that heavy metal concentrations (As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Zn) were low. The 1:1 ash/sludge mixture had a calcium carbonate equivalency of 17%. Green house pot studies using tall fescue grass were loadings of 300 to 750 pounds per acre of TKN-N than for 500 lb/acre of 10-10-10 commercial fertilizer. Plant tissue analysis showed N, P, K, Ca, and Mg levels to be within the sufficiency range for tall fescue.

  4. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Production of wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and projects numbered 60. The main goal of the production of wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m 3 ). There were 27 projects in 1994 for research on wood fuel production. This part of the yearbook 1994 presents the main results of these projects. The wood reserves do not limit the obtainability of the target. Research and development work has, however, directed to development of equipment and research on wood fuels production chains. Many devices, designed for both separate and integrated production of wood fuels became ready or were becoming ready for prototyping, to be used for production tests. Results of the biomass harvesting and properties research were obtained for utilization in 1994. According to the results it is possible to obtain the desired targets both in integrated and separated production of wood fuels. (author)

  5. Furfural production from Eucalyptus wood using an Acidic Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with hot, compressed water to separate hemicelluloses (as soluble saccharides) from a solid phase mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. The liquid phase was dehydrated, and the resulting solids (containing pentoses as well as poly- and oligo- saccharides made up of pentoses) were dissolved and reacted in media containing an Acidic Ionic Liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) and a co-solvent (dioxane). The effects of the reaction time on the product distribution were studied at temperatures in the range 120-170°C for reaction times up to 8h, and operational conditions leading to 59.1% conversion of the potential substrates (including pentoses and pentose structural units in oligo- and poly- saccharides) into furfural were identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Articles Treated with Biocidal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Söyleriz, Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, articles treated with biocidal products have been assessed in the scope of Directive 98/8/EC Concerning the Placing of Biocidal Products on the Market and of Regulation (EU) No 528/2012 concerning the Making Available on the Market and Use of Biocidal Products.

  7. Criterion 6, indicator 28 : total and per capita consumption of wood and wood products in round wood equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    Total consumption of wood and paper products and fuelwood, in roundwood equivalents, increased between 1965 and 1988 from 13.2 to 18.9 billion cubic feet. Since 1988, it has been about 20 billion cubic feet per year. Total per capita consumption increased between 1965 and 1987, from 68 to 83 ft3 per year. Since 1987 through 2006, per capita...

  8. Ethanol from wood. Cellulase enzyme production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szengyel, Zsolt

    2000-03-01

    Conversion of biomass to liquid fuels, such as ethanol, has been investigated during the past decades. First due to the oil crisis of the 1970s and lately because of concerns about greenhouse effect, ethanol has been found to be a suitable substitute for gasoline in transportation. Although ethanol is produced in large quantities from corn starch, the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is rather problematic. However, cellulosic raw materials are important as they are available in large quantities from agriculture and forestry. One of the most extensively investigated processes is the enzymatic process, in which fungal cellulolytic enzymes are used to convert the cellulose content of the biomass to glucose, which is then fermented to ethanol. In order to make the raw material accessible to biological attack, it has to be pretreated first. The most successful method, which has been evaluated for various lignocellulosic materials, is the steam pretreatment. In this thesis the utilization of steam pretreated willow (hardwood) and spruce (softwood) was examined for enzyme production using a filamentous fungus T. reesei RUT C30. Various carbon sources originating from the steam pretreated materials have been investigated. The replacement of the solid carbon source with a liquid carbon source, as well as the effect of pH, was studied. The effect of toxic compounds generated during pretreatment was also examined. Comparative study of softwood and hardwood showed that steam pretreated hardwood is a better carbon source than softwood. The hydrolytic potential of enzyme solutions produced on wood derived carbon sources was better compared to commercial cellulases. Also enzyme solutions produced on steam pretreated spruce showed less sensitivity towards toxic compounds formed during steam pretreatment.

  9. Leachability of boron from wood treated with natural and semi-synthetic polymers and calcium precipitating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. N. Kartal; F. Green

    2003-01-01

    Several fixation systems to limit or decrease boron leachability from treated wood have been developed. Some attempts have relied on limiting of water penetration of treated wood using water repellents, monomer and polymer systems. On the other hand, non-toxic polymers such as proteins were tried to reduce amount of boron leached from wood (Thevenon et al. 1997, 1998...

  10. Understanding key issues of sustainable wood production in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Seth M. White

    2005-01-01

    Researchers involved with the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station Sustainable Wood Production Initiative have outlined some of the barriers and opportunities for sustainable wood production in the region. Sustainable wood production is defined as the capacity of forests to produce wood, products, and services on a long-term basis and in the context of human...

  11. Chemical yields from low-temperature pyrolysis of CCA-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qirong Fu; Dimitris Argyropolous; Lucian Lucia; David Tilotta; Stan Lebow

    2009-01-01

    Low-temperature pyrolysis offers a feasible option for wood-waste management and the recovery of a variety of useful chemicals. The effect of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative on the yield and composition of various pyrolysis products was investigated in the present research. A novel quantitative 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (...

  12. Water for wood products versus nature, food or feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, Joep; Booij, Martijn; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a central interlinked role in the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development. The Agenda aims at an increased share of renewable energy in the global energy mix (target 7.2) and restoration and sustainable management of forests (targets 6.6, 15.1 & 15.2). Forests also play a key role in the hydrological cycle accounting for the largest water flux from land to atmosphere. However, we do not know which part of this is used for the production of wood products such as lumber, pulp and paper, firewood or biofuel. SDG target 6.4 calls for increased water-use efficiency across all sectors and requires understanding the competing demands for water and the potential conflicts between wood production and other purposes like food (SDG 2). To reach the SDGs we need to understand the interlinkages between the SDGs and know how much water is used in the forestry sector. We provide the first estimate of global water use in the forestry sector, using the water footprint (WF) as indicator and distinguishing between consumption of green water (precipitation) and blue water (groundwater through capillary rise). We estimate forest evaporation at a high spatial resolution level and attribute total water consumption to the various forest products, including ecosystem services. Global water consumption for wood production increased by 34% over 50 years to 290x109 m3/y in 2001-2010. Wood has a higher economic water productivity (EWP, US/m3) than common food or feed crops like wheat, maize and sugar beet, and bio-ethanol from wood has a small WF per unit of energy compared to first-generation bio-ethanol from these three crops. Counterintuitively, extensive wood production has a smaller WF and hence a higher EWP than intensive wood production. The reason is that extensively exploited forests host relatively more value next to wood production in the form of other ecosystem services. Recycling of wood products could effectively reduce the WF of the forestry sector, thereby leaving

  13. Aureobasidium melanogenum: a native of dark biofinishes on oil treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Elke J; Houbraken, Jos A M P; Meijer, Martin; Adan, Olaf C G; Samson, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    The genus Aureobasidium, which is known as a wood staining mould, has been detected on oil treated woods in the specific stain formation called biofinish. This biofinish is used to develop a new protective, self-healing and decorative biotreatment for wood. In order to understand and control biofinish formation on oil treated wood, the occurrence of different Aureobasidium species on various wood surfaces was studied. Phenotypic variability within Aureobasidium strains presented limitations of morphological identification of Aureobasidium species. PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of ITS and RPB2 were used to identify the culturable Aureobasidium species composition in mould stained wood surfaces with and without a biofinish. The analysed isolates showed that several Aureobasidium species were present and that Aureobasidium melanogenum was predominantly detected, regardless of the presence of a biofinish and the type of substrate. A. melanogenum was detected on wood samples exposed in the Netherlands, Cameroon, South Africa, Australia and Norway. ITS-specific PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of DNA extracted from biofinish samples confirmed results of the culturing based method: A. melanogenum is predominant within the Aureobasidium population of biofinishes on pine sapwood treated with raw linseed oil and the outdoor placement in the Netherlands.

  14. Science supporting the economic and environmental benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Kenneth Skog; Richard Bergman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scientific findings that support the environmental and economic benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction. Despite documented advantages in many peer-reviewed scientific articles, most building professionals and members of the public do not recognize wood as a renewable resource or the role...

  15. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  16. Users guide for WoodCite, a product cost quotation tool for wood component manufacturers [computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Palmer; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2014-01-01

    WoodCite is a Microsoft® Access-based application that allows wood component manufacturers to develop product price quotations for their current and potential customers. The application was developed by the U.S. Forest Service and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in cooperation with the Wood Components Manufacturers Association.

  17. Housing trends & impacts on wood products manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; Karen. Koenig

    2012-01-01

    While there are some signs of improvement in the business conditions and sales volume faced by the secondary wood industry in relation to the housing market, they are slow in coming. This third annual housing market survey looks at the trends in the industry and analyzes what has changed in terms of market conditions, company performance and the actions being taken by...

  18. World trade in forest products and wood fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Wood fuel is a strategic resource for future energy supply and is usually utilised locally. Traditional use of wood fuel and other bioenergy has a share of 10-15% energy supply, used mainly for the household sector. The utilisation for industrial purposes is much smaller but is a strategic resource in the effort to fulfil the Kyoto agreement to replace fossil fuels and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Many industrialised countries already use a significant share of biofuels in their energy supply e.g. Nordic countries while others like some other European Union countries are planning to increase their use. Production and use of biofuels need to be carried out sustainable. Official statistics do not report trade in such detail that international trade in different biomass types can be fully identified. However, FAO and European Forestry Institute are important sources. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices, larger quantities and better quality than domestic alternatives. The first signs of an international market price for wood fuel are indicated in Europe. For the future both the use and the trade of wood fuel is expected to increase. Analyses for trade in charcoal, wood chips, fuel wood and wood residues made in this report identify 'hot' trade spots in Europe, in south East Asia and in North America

  19. Fractionation of heavy metals in liquefied chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood sludge using a modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Robert Gambrell; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was liquefied with polyethylene glycol/glycerin and sulfuric acid. After liquefaction, most CCA metals (98% As, 92% Cr, and 83% Cu) were removed from liquefied CCA-treated wood by precipitation with calcium hydroxide. The original CCA-treated wood and liquefied CCA-treated wood sludge were fractionated by a modified...

  20. PRODUCTION OF MANGIUM (Acacia mangium WOOD VINEGAR AND ITS UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjutju Nurhayati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Production  of  wood vinegar from mangium (Acacia  mangium wood bolts/pieces  with their diameter of 3  17 cm, length of 30  67 cm, moisture content of 84.4%, and specific gravity of 0.52 conducted in a dome-shaped kiln with 1.2 m'-capacity afforded a yield of 40.3%.   The mangium wood vinegar was produced  through condensation  (cooling of  smoke/gas fractions released during the charcoaling (carbonization process  of  mangium wood.    The  process  could be regarded  as an integrated production of wood vinegar and charcoal.  The yield of wood vinegar combined with the resulting charcoal was 73.9%  based on  the dry weight of  inputed  mangium wood.    Results of chromatography analysis on mangium wood vinegar as conducted in Japan revealed its organic acid content at 73.9 ppm, phenol content 8.09 ppm, methanol 3.34 ppm, acidity degree 4.91  ppm, and pH 3.89.   Similar analysis on the mangium wood vinegar was conducted in Indonesia's laboratories, and the results were comparable with  those  of  Japan.     Results of  inhibition  testings  on  particular microorganisms   (i.e.  Pseudomonas  aerogjnosa,  Stafi/ococms   attreus,  and  Candidi   albicans  fimgz indicated that the mangium wood vinegar could inflict antirnicrobe action on those microorganism with its effectiveness somewhat below that of  liquid betel soap which could be purchased  from drugstores.  The experimental use of mangium wood vinegar at 3-5% concentration on ginger (Zingiber officinale var. white ginger plants revealed significantly positive growth responses/  characteristics with respect to their height, leaf length, and sprout/ shoot development, in comparison with the untreated ginger plants (control.   Such responses/characteristics were not significantly different from those using atonik's growth hormone.  Likewise, the preliminary use of mangium wood vinegar at 2-percent concentration on teak

  1. FIRE RESISTANCE OF DOUGLAS FIR [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] WOOD TREATED WITH SOME CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kemal YALINKILIÇ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Combustible properties of treated douglas wood specimens and fire-retardancy of some preservatives were tested in this study. Crib test of ASTM E 160-150 was followed. Results indicated that, aqueous solutions of boric acid (BA, borax (Bx (Na2BO7 10H2O or BA + Bx mixture (7: 3, w: w had fire retardant efficacy (FRE over untreated wood and reduced the combustibility of vinil monomers (Styrene and methylmetacrylate which were applied as secondary treatment.

  2. Effect of coating systems on the vaporization of pentachlorophenol from treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. L. Ingram; G. D. McGinnis; P. M. Pope; W. C. Feist

    1983-01-01

    Specimens of southern pine treated with pentachlorophenol (penta) in mineral spirits (dip treatment), penta in P9 type A oil and penta in methylene chloride (pressure treatments) were used to evaluate the efficacy of different types of coatings in suppressing the vaporization of penta from treated wood. The clear film-forming coatings, such as polyurethane and alkyds,...

  3. A non-destructive approach for assessing decay in preservative treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machek, L.; Edlund, M.L.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Militz, H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the suitability of the non-destructive vibration-impulse excitation technique to assess the attack of preservative-treated wood in contact with the ground. Small stakes (10×5×100 mm3) of treated and untreated Scots pine sapwood were exposed to decay in laboratory-scale

  4. Effects of Treated Wood Flour on Physico-Mechanical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wood flour was crushed in to particle size and given two surface treatments each with alkali and 3-chloro-2 hydroxylpropyltrimethylammoniumchloride. The raw, alkali-treated and bonding agent treated fibers were used as natural rubber composites. The samples were used to produce fiber-reinforced natural rubber ...

  5. Emissions from laboratory combustor tests of manufactured wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, R.; Evans, M.; Ragland, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Baker, A. [USDA Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured wood products contain wood, wood fiber, and materials added during manufacture of the product. Manufacturing residues and the used products are burned in a furnace or boiler instead of landfilling. Emissions from combustion of these products contain additional compounds from the combustion of non-wood material which have not been adequately characterized to specify the best combustion conditions, emissions control equipment, and disposal procedures. Total hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, higher aldehydes and carbon monoxide emissions from aspen flakeboard and aspen cubes were measured in a 76 mm i.d. by 1.5 m long fixed bed combustor as a function of excess oxygen, and temperature. Emissions of hydrocarbons, aldehydes and CO from flakeboard and from clean aspen were very sensitive to average combustor temperature and excess oxygen. Hydrocarbon and aldehyde emissions below 10 ppM were achieved with 5% excess oxygen and 1,200{degrees}C average temperature for aspen flakeboard and 1,100{degrees}C for clean aspen at a 0.9 s residence time. When the average temperature decreased below these levels, the emissions increased rapidly. For example, at 950{degrees}C and 5% excess oxygen the formaldehyde emissions were over 1,000 ppM. These laboratory tests reinforce the need to carefully control the temperature and excess oxygen in full-scale wood combustors.

  6. Evaluation of leachate quality from pentachlorophenol, creosote and ACA [ammoniacal chromium arsenate] preserved wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiticar, D.M.; Letourneau, L.; Konasewich, D.

    1994-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the leachability characteristics of pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, and ammoniacal chromium arsenate (ACA) wood preservatives from freshly treated wood products. Test products included PCP-treated utility poles, creosote-treated timbers and marine pilings, and ACA-treated utility poles. Bundles of test products were placed over collection trays to collect the leachate generated by natural rainfall and by sprinkling with tap water. The sampling schedule was based on accumulated rainfall with samples taken at about every 15 mm from 15 mm to 150 mm. Analyses included pH, oil and grease, total organic carbon, ammonia, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated and nonchlorinated phenols, resin acids, and fish toxicity. The study indicated that leachates from wood products freshly treated with ACA, creosote, and PCP have potential for aquatic toxicity if released to the environment. A decreasing trend was noted in both the arsenic and copper releases as cumulative precipitation increased. PCP releases remained constant over the course of the study while PAH releases showed no significant trend. Phenanthrene was found to be the main component in the releases. 28 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Potassium methyl siliconate-treated pulp fibers and their effects on wood plastic composites: Water sorption and dimensional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Monlezun

    2013-01-01

    Potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) was investigated as a new nano modifier of wood fiber and wood flour to improve the compatibility between the fiber/flour and the plastic matrix in fiber reinforced plastic composites. Before injection molding, bleached and brown pulp fibers and mixed species wood flour were pretreated in PMS solutions. The morphology of the treated...

  8. Effect of weathering on chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood : leaching of metal salts and change in water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Stan Lebow; Patricia Lebow

    2003-01-01

    Wood pressure-treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative is commonly used for outdoor construction. Oxides of arsenic, copper, and chromium are bound in the wood by a complex series of chemical reactions, but a small percentage of these compounds are gradually released by leaching and weathering. Recent studies suggest that the release of these...

  9. Carcinogenic risk of chromium, copper and arsenic in CCA-treated wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgami, Nobutaka; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Nakano, Chihiro; Wenting, Wu; Ohnuma, Shoko

    2015-01-01

    We showed that 2.1% of 233 pieces of lumber debris after the Great East Japan Earthquake was chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. Since hexavalent chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and pentavalent arsenic (As) in the debris may be diffused in the air via incineration, we exposed human lung normal (BEAS-2B) and carcinoma (A549) cells to Cr, Cu and As at the molar ratio in a representative CCA-treated wood. Co-exposure to 0.10 μM Cr and 0.06 μM As, which solely had no effect on colony formation, synergistically promoted colony formation in BEAS-2B cells, but not A549 cells, with activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Sole exposure and co-exposure to Cu showed limited effects. Since previous reports showed Cr and As concentrations to which human lungs might be exposed, our results suggest the importance to avoid diffusion of Cr and As in the air via incineration of debris including CCA-treated wood after the disaster. - Highlights: • CCA-treated wood was found in debris after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. • Carcinogenic risk of CCA-treated woods was evaluated with human lung cell lines. • Co-exposure to Cr and As synergistically promoted colony formation. • Co-exposure to Cr and As synergistically activated the PI3/AKT pathway. • Effects of sole exposure and co-exposure to Cu on colony formation were limited. - Co-exposure to Cr and As, but not Cu, in CCA-treated wood debris from the Great East Japan Earthquake showed carcinogenicity in vitro.

  10. Integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood from young stands; Integroitujen tuotantomenetelmien vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the competitiveness of different harvesting chains and processing methods of first thinning wood. Great expectations have been laid on integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood. Results produced in other bioenergy projects were taken into account, and in this project some field experiments on mechanised felling-bunching and compressing of the load of tree sections during forwarding were carried out. The new processing methods, the MASSAHAKE-method and chain-flail delimbing combined with small-scale drum debarking, still are under development giving a rather unstable data for comparisons. Both in pine and birch dominant stands modern multiple tree logging gave the most favourable results when ranking on the bases of the price of pulp chips. Integrated methods were not very far and they have more potential than methods based on harvesting delimbed short wood. When compared on the bases of the production cost of pulp, integrated methods were in general the most favourable because they give good subsidies on the form of bioenergy. (orig.)

  11. Product costing program for wood component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This article introduces a product costing program...

  12. Current research in Spain on walnut for wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neus Alet& #224; Neus NO-VALUE

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Mediterranean Trees at the Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA) in Spain initiated a research program in 1993 to examine the variability among walnut species for wood production and to establish orchards with improved selections. The main objective of the programme is to obtain superior Persian walnut (Juglans regia...

  13. Wood products utilization : a call for reflection and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Youngquist; Thomas E. Hamilton

    1999-01-01

    It is hard to imagine a world without forests. Forests provide a wide range of benefits at the local, national, and global levels. Some of these benefits depend on leaving the forest alone or subjecting it to only minimal interference. Other benefits can only be realized by harvesting the forest for wood and other products. The shrinking land base and growing human...

  14. Solid-wood production from temperate eucalypt plantations: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1988, there has been a major focus in Tasmania on research for the management of temperate eucalypt plantations for solid wood. This coincided with the formal transfer of large areas of native forest that had previously been part of the production forest estate into reserves, a decision that triggered the establishment ...

  15. Properties of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Agostinho Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy potential of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et Cambage wood. The samples were collected in the municipality of Cerro Negro, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Samples were collected from 5 trees at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of commercial height. It was determined basic density, high calorific value, elemental composition, immediate chemical analysis, lower calorific value, energy density, carbon storage and energy production. The physical and chemical variables studied and energy potential of wood did not present differences along the stem.

  16. Estimating Preferences for Wood Products with Environmental Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaji Sakagami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation and forest degradation are serious problems for the global environment; as a result, sustainable forest management and forest certification have become important. In this study, using a choice experiment, we investigated, on the demand side, consumers’ preferences and willingness to pay (WTP for certified wood products that attempt to address public concerns regarding deforestation and forest degradation. Specifically, we investigated how estimates of consumers’ preferences and WTP were influenced by product attributes such as quality, certification, and price. To the authors’ knowledge, few studies of this kind have been conducted, particularly in Japan. The study’s main finding was that Japanese consumers were willing to pay a premium for certified wood products with attributes related to sustainable forest management; most preferred were products with attributes related to preserving biodiversity. These findings indicate that consumers are willing to pay a premium for products that contribute to solving the problems of deforestation and forest degradation.

  17. Performance of Schizolobium amazonicum Wood in Bleached Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of Schizolobium amazonicum wood, specifically its performance in bleached kraft pulp production and the characteristics of its pulp. Chips of Schizolobium amazonicum and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla (reference were used. The following parameters were evaluated in the wood: basic density, total extractives, total lignin, holocellulose, and fiber morphology. The pulping simulations were carried out in a laboratory digester, with parameters set to obtain pulp with kappa number 19 ± 0.5. Both pulps were bleached in a PFI mill and submitted to physical-mechanical tests. The results showed that S. amazonicum wood has low basic density and higher content of extractives when compared to E. grandis x E. urophylla wood. For pulping, S. amazonicum required higher alkali charge and H factor to achieve the same delignification level of E. grandis x E. urophylla, resulting in a lower yield, pulp with lower viscosity, and higher wood specific consumption. During bleaching, the brightness gain and final viscosity of S. amazonicum pulp were lower than E. grandis x E. urophylla pulp. Moreover, S. amazonicum pulp had worse physical-mechanical characteristics than E. grandis x E. urophylla.

  18. Phosphate removal by refined aspen wood fiber treated with carboxymethyl cellulose and ferrous chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Soo-Hong Min; James S. Han

    2006-01-01

    Biomass-based filtration media are of interest as an economical means to remove pollutants and nutrients found in stormwater runoff. Refined aspen wood fiber samples treated with iron salt solutions demonstrated limited capacities to remove (ortho)phosphate from test solutions. To provide additional sites for iron complex formation, and thereby impart a greater...

  19. Nondestructive methods of evaluating quality of wood in preservative-treated piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping. Wang; Robert J. Ross; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Gary D. McGinnis; Rodney C. De Groot

    2000-01-01

    Stress-wave-based nondestructive evaluation methods were used to evaluate the potential quality and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of wood in used preservative-treated Douglas-fir and southern pine piles. Stress wave measurements were conducted on each pile section. Stress wave propagation speeds in the piles were then obtained to estimate their MOE. This was followed by...

  20. New Approach to Remove Metals from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Hui Pan

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood particles was investigated using binary acid solutions consisting of acetic, oxalic, and phosphoric acids in a microwave reactor. Formation of an insoluble copper oxalate complex in the binary solution containing oxalic acid was the major factor for low copper removal. Furthermore, the...

  1. Corrosion rates of fasteners in treated wood exposed to 100% relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer

    2009-01-01

    In the past, gravimetric corrosion data for fasteners exposed to treated wood has been reported as a percent weight loss. Although percent weight loss is a valid measure of corrosion for comparing identical fasteners, it can distort the corrosion performance of fasteners with different geometries and densities. This report reevaluates a key report on the corrosiveness...

  2. Resistance of borax–copper treated wood in aboveground exposure to attack by Formosan subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Bessie Woodward; Douglas Crawford; William Abbott

    2005-01-01

    The spread of Formosan subterranean termites (FSTs) in the southern United States has increased public interest in finding a preservative treatment to protect framing lumber from termite attack. This study evaluated the use of a borax-based preservative to protect wood from FST attack. Southern Pine and Douglas-fir specimens were pressure-treated with three...

  3. Wood chip production technology and costs for fuel in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.

    2007-12-15

    This work has been done in the project where the main target is to evaluate the technology and economy to use bush biomass for power production in Namibia. The project has been financed by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland and the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry of the Republic of Namibia. The target of this study is to calculate the production costs of bush chips at the power plant using the current production technology and to look possibilities to develop production technology in order to mechanize production technology and to decrease the production costs. The wood production costs are used in feasibility studies, in which the technology and economy of utilization of wood chips for power generation in 5, 10 and 20 MW electric power plants and for power generation in Van Eck coal fired power plant in Windhoek are evaluated. Field tests were made at Cheetah Conservation Farm (CCF) in Otjiwarongo region. CCF is producing wood chips for briquette factory in Otjiwarongo. In the field tests it has been gathered information about this CCF semi-mechanized wood chip production technology. Also new machines for bush biomass chip production have been tested. A new mechanized production chain has been designed on the basis of this information. The production costs for the CCF semi-mechanized and the new production chain have been calculated. The target in the moisture content to produce wood chips for energy is 20 w-%. In the semi-mechanized wood chip production chain the work is done partly manually, and the supply chain is organized into crews of 4.8 men. The production chain consists of manual felling and compiling, drying, chipping with mobile chipper and manual feeding and road transport by a tractor with two trailers. The CCF production chain works well. The chipping and road transport productivity in the semimechanized production chain is low. New production machines, such as chainsaw, brush cutter, lawn mover type cutter, rotator saw in skid

  4. Cellulose Nanocomposites by Melt Compounding of TEMPO-Treated Wood Fibers in Thermoplastic Starch Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cobut

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate melt compounding of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF based composites, wood pulp fibers were subjected to a chemical treatment whereby the fibers were oxidized using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO. This treatment introduced negatively charged carboxylate groups to the fibers. TEMPO-treated fibers (TempoF were added to a mixture of amylopectin starch, glycerol, and water. Granules were prepared from this mixture and processed into CNF composites by extrusion. TempoF were easier to process into composites as compared with non-treated pulp fibers (PF. SEM revealed partial disintegration of TempoF during melt processing. Consequently, TempoF gave composites with much better mechanical properties than those of conventional composites prepared from pulp fibers and TPS. Particularly, at 20 wt% TempoF content in the composite, the modulus and strength were much improved. Such a continuous melt processing route, as an alternative to laboratory solvent casting techniques, may promote large-scale production of CNF-based composites as an environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic plastics/composites.

  5. Rapid microwave-assisted acid extraction of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Yu; Chung Y. Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    The effects of acid concentration, reaction time, and temperature in a microwave reactor on recovery of CCA-treated wood were evaluated. Extraction of copper, chromium, and arsenic metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood samples with three different acids (i.e., acetic acid, oxalic acid, and phosphoric acid) was investigated using in...

  6. Formation of metal agglomerates during carbonisation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste: Comparison between a lab scale and an industrial plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helsen, Lieve [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Applied Mechanics and Energy Conversion, Celestijnenlaan 300A, B-3001 Leuven (Heverlee) (Belgium)]. E-mail: lieve.helsen@mech.kuleuven.be; Hacala, Amelie [Company Thermya, 1 rue Nicolas Appert, 33140 Villenave d' Ornon (France)]. E-mail: hacala@thermya.com

    2006-10-11

    This paper compares the results obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled to X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA) of the solid product after carbonisation of treated wood waste in a lab scale and in an industrial installation. These setups (lab scale and industrial) are characterized by different operating conditions of the carbonisation process. Moreover, the wood waste input to the processes differs significantly. From this study, it is clear that some similarities but also some differences exist between the lab scale study and the study with the industrial Chartherm plant. In both reactors, a metal (and mineral) agglomeration process takes place, even in the case of untreated wood. The agglomerates initially present in the wood input may serve as a seed for the metal agglomeration process during 'chartherisation'. The industrial setup leads to a broader range of agglomerates' size (0.1-50 {mu}m) and composition (all possible combinations of Cu, Cr, As and wood minerals). Some agglomerates contain the three metals but the major part is a combination of wood minerals and one or two of the three preservative metals, while all agglomerates analysed in the lab scale product contain the three metals. The separate influence of wood input characteristics and process conditions cannot be derived from these experiments, but the observations suggest that the higher the CCA retention in the wood input is, the easier is the metal agglomeration process during chartherisation of CCA treated wood waste. From the analyses performed in this study it seems that copper behaves differently in the sense that it agglomerates easily, but the resulting particles are small (<1 {mu}m)

  7. Formation of metal agglomerates during carbonisation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste: Comparison between a lab scale and an industrial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsen, Lieve; Hacala, Amelie

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the results obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled to X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA) of the solid product after carbonisation of treated wood waste in a lab scale and in an industrial installation. These setups (lab scale and industrial) are characterized by different operating conditions of the carbonisation process. Moreover, the wood waste input to the processes differs significantly. From this study, it is clear that some similarities but also some differences exist between the lab scale study and the study with the industrial Chartherm plant. In both reactors, a metal (and mineral) agglomeration process takes place, even in the case of untreated wood. The agglomerates initially present in the wood input may serve as a seed for the metal agglomeration process during 'chartherisation'. The industrial setup leads to a broader range of agglomerates' size (0.1-50 μm) and composition (all possible combinations of Cu, Cr, As and wood minerals). Some agglomerates contain the three metals but the major part is a combination of wood minerals and one or two of the three preservative metals, while all agglomerates analysed in the lab scale product contain the three metals. The separate influence of wood input characteristics and process conditions cannot be derived from these experiments, but the observations suggest that the higher the CCA retention in the wood input is, the easier is the metal agglomeration process during chartherisation of CCA treated wood waste. From the analyses performed in this study it seems that copper behaves differently in the sense that it agglomerates easily, but the resulting particles are small (<1 μm)

  8. Species selection in secondary wood products: implications for product design and promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Scott A. Bowe; Scott A. Bowe

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions that people have of several commercially important wood species and determined if word-based and specimen-based evaluations differed. Such knowledge can help secondary wood manufacturers better understand their products and develop more effective design concepts and promotional messages. A sample of more than 250 undergraduate...

  9. Simulated long-term effects of varying tree retention on wood production, dead wood and carbon stock changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Francesca; Djupström, Line B; Ranius, Thomas; Weslien, Jan; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sonesson, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Boreal forests are an important source of timber and pulp wood, but provide also other products and services. Utilizing a simulation program and field data from a tree retention experiment in a Scots pine forest in central Sweden, we simulated the consequences during the following 100 years of various levels of retention on production of merchantable wood, dead wood input (as a proxy for biodiversity), and carbon stock changes. At the stand level, wood production decreased with increased retention levels, while dead wood input and carbon stock increased. We also compared 12 scenarios representing a land sharing/land sparing gradient. In each scenario, a constant volume of wood was harvested with a specific level of retention in a 100-ha landscape. The area not needed to reach the defined volume was set-aside during a 100-year rotation period, leading to decreasing area of set-asides with increasing level of retention across the 12 scenarios. Dead wood input was positively affected by the level of tree retention whereas the average carbon stock decreased slightly with increasing level of tree retention. The scenarios will probably vary in how they favor species preferring different substrates. Therefore, we conclude that a larger variation of landscape-level conservation strategies, also including active creation of dead wood, may be an attractive complement to the existing management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilot-scale investigation of the robustness and efficiency of a copper-based treated wood wastes recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudert, Lucie [INRS-ETE (Canada); Blais, Jean-François, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-ETE (Canada); Mercier, Guy [INRS-ETE (Canada); Cooper, Paul [University of Toronto (Canada); Gastonguay, Louis [IREQ (Canada); Morris, Paul [FPInnovations (Canada); Janin, Amélie; Reynier, Nicolas [INRS-ETE (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A leaching process was studied for metals removal from CCA-treated wood wastes. • This decontamination process was studied at pilot scale (130-L reactor). • Removals up to 98% of As, 88% of Cr, and 96% of Cu were obtained from wood wastes. • The produced leachates can be treated by chemical precipitation. -- Abstract: The disposal of metal-bearing treated wood wastes is becoming an environmental challenge. An efficient recycling process based on sulfuric acid leaching has been developed to remove metals from copper-based treated wood chips (0 < x < 12 mm). The present study explored the performance and the robustness of this technology in removing metals from copper-based treated wood wastes at a pilot plant scale (130-L reactor tank). After 3× 2 h leaching steps followed by 3× 7 min rinsing steps, up to 97.5% of As, 87.9% of Cr, and 96.1% of Cu were removed from CCA-treated wood wastes with different initial metal loading (>7.3 kg m{sup −3}) and more than 94.5% of Cu was removed from ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood. The treatment of effluents by precipitation–coagulation was highly efficient; allowing removals more than 93% for the As, Cr, and Cu contained in the effluent. The economic analysis included operating costs, indirect costs and revenues related to remediated wood sales. The economic analysis concluded that CCA-treated wood wastes remediation can lead to a benefit of 53.7 US$ t{sup −1} or a cost of 35.5 US$ t{sup −1} and that ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood wastes recycling led to benefits ranging from 9.3 to 21.2 US$ t{sup −1}.

  11. Wood bioenergy and soil productivity research

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2016-01-01

    Timber harvesting can cause both short- and long-term changes in forest ecosystem functions, and scientists from USDA Forest Service (USDA FS) have been studying these processes for many years. Biomass and bioenergy markets alter the amount, type, and frequency at which material is harvested, which in turn has similar yet specific impacts on sustainable productivity....

  12. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

  13. Quality Measurement in the Wood Products Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Omar Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to learn about quality measurement practices in a wood products supply chain. According to the Supply Chain Management paradigm, companies no longer compete as individual entities, but as part of complex networks of suppliers and customers, linked together by flows of materials and information. Evidence suggests that a high degree of integration between supply chain members is essential to achieve superior market and financial performance. This study investigat...

  14. Copper Leaching from Copper-ethanolamine Treated Wood: Comparison of Field Test Studies and Laboratory Standard Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Nejc Thaler; Miha Humar

    2014-01-01

    Copper-based compounds are some of the most important biocides for the protection of wood in heavy duty applications. In the past, copper was combined with chromium compounds to reduce copper leaching, but a recent generation of copper-based preservatives uses ethanolamine as a fixative. To elucidate the leaching of copper biocides from wood, Norway spruce (Picea abies) wood was treated with a commercial copper-ethanolamine solution with two different copper concentrations (cCu = 0.125% and 0...

  15. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  16. Improving the two-step remediation process for CCA-treated wood. Part I, Evaluating oxalic acid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Clausen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, three possible improvements to a remediation process for chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) treated wood were evaluated. The process involves two steps: oxalic acid extraction of wood fiber followed by bacterial culture with Bacillus licheniformis CC01. The three potential improvements to the oxalic acid extraction step were (1) reusing oxalic acid for...

  17. Utilization potential of wood clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in the production of wood-cement panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in the production of wood-cement panels. The study used six clones of Eucalyptus urophylla with 8 years of age, from the Companhia Mineira de Metais, located in Paracatu - MG. For the formation of the panels it was used Portland cement CP V - ARI / Plus, possessing high initial resistance to mineral binder and calcium chloride (CaCl2 as accelerator for the cement curing. The panels were produced with the following parameters: dimensions of 49.5 x 49.5 x 1.5 cm, nominal density of 1.2 g/cm ³, relation wood: cement (1:2.5 and relation water: cement (1:1.5. The results can showed that: (1 for thickness swelling in two and twenty-four hours, only clones 19.28 and 58 attended the specifications, (2 for water absorption, clone 62 showed the best results, (3 to internal bond, only clone 58 didn`t attend specifications, (4 for the compression, clones 19.36 and 58 showed the best results, (5 for MOE and MOR, none of the clones presented values compatible to the bison process. It is suggested the continuation of this line of research, including the manipulation of variables of production, so that all properties be compatible to the minimum required standards.

  18. Harvested wood products and REDD+: looking beyond the forest border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunggul Butarbutar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The focus of REDD+ is sensu stricto on maintaining forest carbon stocks. We extend the scope of sustainable management of forest from forests to timber utilization, and study carbon offsets resulting from the utilization of harvested timber for bio energy or harvested wood products (HWPs. The emission budget of harvesting operations depends on the loss of standing biomass by timber extracted from the forest site and logging losses on the one side, and on the other on the wood end use and the utilization of processing residues. We develop two scenarios to quantify the magnitude of CO2 emissions by (1 energetic utilization, and (2 energetic and material utilization of harvested timber and compare the substitution effects for different fossil energy sources. Results The direct energetic use of harvested timber does not compensate for the losses of forest carbon stock. Logging residuals and displacement factors reflecting different wood use constitute by far the most important factor in potential emission reductions. Substitution effects resulting from energetic use of mill residuals and from HWPs have only a subordinated contribution to the total emissions as well as the type of fossil fuel utilized to quantify substitution effects. Material substitution effects associated with harvested wood products show a high potential to increase the climate change benefits. Conclusions The observation and perception of REDD+ should not be restricted to sustainable management and reduced impact logging practices in the forest domain but should be extended to the utilization of extracted timber. Substitution effects from material and energetic utilization of harvested timber result in considerable emission reductions, which can compensate for the loss of forest carbon, and eventually contribute to the overall climate change mitigation benefits from forestry sector.

  19. Forests and wood consumption on the carbon balance. Carbon emission reduction by use of wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkema, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Until now studies on the greenhouse effect paid much attention to carbon fixation by forests, while the entire CO2 cycle of forests and forest products remained underexposed. Utilization of wood products instead of energy-intensive materials (plastics/steel) and fossil fuels (coal) proves to play an important role as well. The effect of utilization is even greater than that of fixation. In all, additional forests together with the multiple use of trees can contribute substantially to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The contribution can run from 5.3 ton CO2/ha/yr for a mixed forest of oak/beech to 18.9 ton CO2/ha/yr for energy plantations (poplar). 2 figs., 3 tabs

  20. A synthesis of research on wood products and greenhouse gas impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, R.; O'Connor, J.

    2008-11-01

    Existing scientific literature on the wood products industry was reviewed in an effort to summarize consensus findings, or range of findings, addressing the net life cycle greenhouse gas footprint of wood construction products. The report sought to clarify whether actively managing forests for wood production was better, worse or neutral for climate change than leaving the forest in its natural state. In addition, it sought to quantify the greenhouse gas emissions avoided per unit of wood substituted for non-wood materials. Forty-eight international studies were examined in terms of fossil energy used in wood manufacturing and compared alternatives, such as the avoidance of industrial process carbon emissions as with cement manufacturing; the storage of carbon in forests and forest products; the use of wood by-products as a biofuel replacement for fossil fuels; and carbon storage and emission due to forest products in landfills. The report presented a list of studies reviewed and individual summaries of study findings. A meta-analysis of displacement factors of wood product use was also presented. It was concluded from all of the studies reviewed, that the production of wood-based materials and products results in less greenhouse gas emission than the production of functionally comparable non-wood materials and products. 48 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Wood product industry - present state and studies of the development alternatives; Puuteollisuuden nykytilan ja haasteiden arviointia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmijoki, O.; Paajanen, T.; Kairi, M.

    2007-07-01

    In this research project the development of the wood products industry and its operating environment in Finland was studied using statistical data mainly from years 1995 - 2003. In this context, the wood products industry includes the sawmilling industry, the plywood and other wood panel industry, prefabricated wooden housing and the building joinery industry, wood packing manufacture and the manufacture of other wooden products. The development of the wood products industry and its operating environment has been estimated by combining statistical data about the business economy, production economy and the national economy from the Central Statistical Office of Finland together with data from the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Based on statistical data, the wood product markets, profitability and cost structure of branches, input market, use of labour force and investments have been studied. The economic importance of the wood products industry has been estimated at a national and a local level. Challenges facing wood products industry branches have been analysed using example calculations based on input-output theory. In the evaluation method, the business environment of the wood products industry branches and related branches, have been described with a use table at basic prices commonly using in the national economy. This method has enabled the direct and indirect effects of simultaneous quantity and price changes occurring in the wood product markets and markets related to the wood product industry, to be analysed. In the example calculations, variation of sawn timber production and log import, as well as the increments of sawn timber upgrading, wood product usage in building, wood panel production and purchase energy price, were reviewed

  2. Use of handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry units for identification of arsenic in treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Colleen N. [University of Miami, Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, P.O. Box 248294, McArthur Building, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0630 (United States); Shibata, Tomoyuki [University of Miami, Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, P.O. Box 248294, McArthur Building, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0630 (United States); Solo-Gabriele, Helena M. [University of Miami, Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, P.O. Box 248294, McArthur Building, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0630 (United States)]. E-mail: hmsolo@miami.edu; Townsend, Timothy G. [University of Florida, Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of handheld XRF analyzers on wood that has been treated with a preservative containing arsenic. Experiments were designed to evaluate precision, detection limit, effective depth of analysis, and accuracy of the XRF arsenic readings. Results showed that the precision of the XRF improved with increased sample concentration and longer analysis times. Reported detection limits decreased with longer analysis times to values of less than 1 mg/kg or 18 mg/kg, depending on the model used. The effective depth of analysis was within the top 1.2 cm and 2.0 cm of sample for wood containing natural gradients of chemical preservative and concentration extremes, respectively. XRF results were found to be 1.5-2.3 times higher than measurements from traditional laboratory analysis. Equations can be developed to convert XRF values to results which are consistent with traditional laboratory testing. - Handheld XRF analyzers provided quantitative results for the amount of arsenic within preservative-treated wood.

  3. Application of industrial wood residues for combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majchrzycka, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses combined production of heat and power (CHP) from industrial wood residues. The system will be powered by wood residues generated during manufacturing process of wooden floor panels. Based on power and heat demands of the plant and wood residues potential, the CHP system was selected. Preliminary analysis of biomass conversion in CHP system and environmental impact was performed.

  4. Wood Degradation by Thermotolerant and Thermophilic Fungi for Sustainable Heat Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caizan Juanarena, Leire; ter Heijne, Annemiek; Buisman, Cees; Van der Wal, A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of renewable biomass for production of heat and electricity plays an important role in the circular economy. Degradation of wood biomass to produce heat is a clean and novel process proposed as an alternative to wood burning, and could be used for various heating applications. So far, wood

  5. Wood products trade and foreign markets. Annual production, consumption, and trade issue. Principal countries impacting US trade in wood products. Foreign agriculture circular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Forest Products Division has compiled production, consumption, and trade data on selected wood products for twenty eight significant countries. The data, collected from various sources, is not necessarily compatible with US export and import data normally published in this circular, which comes from the US Census Bureau. To supplement this data, the following perspectives offer a comparative snapshot of conditions in these countries, both in the general economy and the wood products sector. Economic information was extracted from the 1992 World Factbook; Central Intelligence Agency

  6. An emissions audit of a biomass combustor burning treated wood waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.M.; Jones, H.H.; King, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the Emissions Audit carried out on a Biomass Combustor burning treated wood waste at the premises of a furniture manufacturer. The Biomass Combustor was tested in two firing modes; continuous fire and modulating fire. Combustion chamber temperatures and gas residence times were not measured. Boiler efficiencies were very good at greater than 75% in both tests. However, analysis of the flue gases indicated that improved efficiencies are possible. The average concentrations of CO (512mgm -3 ) and THC (34mgm -3 ) for Test 1 were high, indicating that combustion was poor. The combustor clearly does not meet the requirements of the Guidance Note for the Combustion of Wood Waste. CO 2 and O 2 concentrations were quite variable showing that combustion conditions were fairly unstable. Improved control of combustion should lead to acceptable emission concentrations. (Author)

  7. Robust and Low-Cost Flame-Treated Wood for High-Performance Solar Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Guobin; Liu, Kang; Chen, Qian; Yang, Peihua; Li, Jia; Ding, Tianpeng; Duan, Jiangjiang; Qi, Bei; Zhou, Jun

    2017-05-03

    Solar-enabled steam generation has attracted increasing interest in recent years because of its potential applications in power generation, desalination, and wastewater treatment, among others. Recent studies have reported many strategies for promoting the efficiency of steam generation by employing absorbers based on carbon materials or plasmonic metal nanoparticles with well-defined pores. In this work, we report that natural wood can be utilized as an ideal solar absorber after a simple flame treatment. With ultrahigh solar absorbance (∼99%), low thermal conductivity (0.33 W m -1 K -1 ), and good hydrophilicity, the flame-treated wood can localize the solar heating at the evaporation surface and enable a solar-thermal efficiency of ∼72% under a solar intensity of 1 kW m -2 , and it thus represents a renewable, scalable, low-cost, and robust material for solar steam applications.

  8. Hexadecyl ammonium chloride amylose inclusion complex to emulsify cedarwood oil and treat wood against termites and wood-decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J. Eller; W.T. Hay; G.T. Kirker; M.E. Mankowski; G.W. Sellling

    2018-01-01

    Cedarwood oil (CWO) has a wide range of bioactivities, including insect repellency and toxicity, as well as conferring resistance against termites and wood-decay fungi. In previous work examining pressure treatment of wood, ethanol was used as the diluent/carrier for CWO. However, it is preferable to use a water-based carrier for environmental, safety and cost...

  9. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  10. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  11. Counter-current acid leaching process for copper azole treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Amélie; Riche, Pauline; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Cooper, Paul; Morris, Paul

    2012-09-01

    This study explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for copper extraction from copper azole treated wood waste for recycling of wood and copper. The leaching process uses three acid leaching steps with 0.1 M H2SO4 at 75degrees C and 15% slurry density followed by three rinses with water. Copper is recovered from the leachate using electrodeposition at 5 amperes (A) for 75 min. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed achieving > or = 94% copper extraction from the wood during the 10 cycles; 80-90% of the copper was recovered from the extract solution by electrodeposition. The counter-current leaching process reduced acid consumption by 86% and effluent discharge volume was 12 times lower compared with the same process without use of counter-current leaching. However, the reuse of leachates from one leaching step to another released dissolved organic carbon and caused its build-up in the early cycles.

  12. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m 3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m 3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  13. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, Lars [Section of Short Rotation Forestry, VPE, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m{sup 3} or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m{sup 3} or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  14. MARKET OF NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS FROM BRAZILIAN SAVANNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Afonso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the main non-wood forest products from Brazilian savanna. We studied the behavior and the growth rates of production and prices of almond of babaçu, oil of copaiba, fiber of buriti, leaf of jaborandi, bark of barbatimão, bark of angico, fruit of mangaba, almonds of pequi, from 1982 to 2005. All the products exhibited decreasing production, with exception of the oil of copaiba and almonds of pequi, which showed positive growth rates: 12.9% and 8.5%, respectively. The analysis of prices for most products was not significant, except for barks of barbatimão and angico, and almonds of pequi, which showed positive trends: 10.9%, 6.7%, and 4.6%, respectively. We believe that results were not significant due to the severe variations of the Brazilian currency in the period. We conclude that pequi is the main product from savanna and that oil of copaiba has the biggest increase in the production because most of the production comes from the whole Brazilian Amazon region.

  15. Meta-analysis of greenhouse gas displacement factors of wood product substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, Roger; O'Connor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    A displacement factor can express the efficiency of using biomass to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, by quantifying the amount of emission reduction achieved per unit of wood use. Here we integrate data from 21 different international studies in a meta-analysis of the displacement factors of wood products substituted in place of non-wood materials. We calculate the displacement factors in consistent units of tons of carbon (tC) of emission reduction per tC in wood product. The displacement factors range from a low of -2.3 to a high of 15, with most lying in the range of 1.0 to 3.0. The average displacement factor value is 2.1, meaning that for each tC in wood products substituted in place of non-wood products, there occurs an average GHG emission reduction of approximately 2.1 tC. Expressed in other units, this value corresponds to roughly 3.9 t CO 2 eq emission reduction per ton of dry wood used. The few cases of negative displacement factors are the result of worst-case scenarios that are unrealistic in current practice. This meta-analysis quantifies the range of GHG benefits of wood substitution, and provides a clear climate rationale for increasing wood substitution in place of other products, provided that forests are sustainably managed and that wood residues are used responsibly.

  16. Meta-analysis of greenhouse gas displacement factors of wood product substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Ostersund (Sweden); O' Connor, Jennifer [FPInnovations-Forintek, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1W5 (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    A displacement factor can express the efficiency of using biomass to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, by quantifying the amount of emission reduction achieved per unit of wood use. Here we integrate data from 21 different international studies in a meta-analysis of the displacement factors of wood products substituted in place of non-wood materials. We calculate the displacement factors in consistent units of tons of carbon (tC) of emission reduction per tC in wood product. The displacement factors range from a low of -2.3 to a high of 15, with most lying in the range of 1.0 to 3.0. The average displacement factor value is 2.1, meaning that for each tC in wood products substituted in place of non-wood products, there occurs an average GHG emission reduction of approximately 2.1 tC. Expressed in other units, this value corresponds to roughly 3.9 t CO{sub 2} eq emission reduction per ton of dry wood used. The few cases of negative displacement factors are the result of worst-case scenarios that are unrealistic in current practice. This meta-analysis quantifies the range of GHG benefits of wood substitution, and provides a clear climate rationale for increasing wood substitution in place of other products, provided that forests are sustainably managed and that wood residues are used responsibly.

  17. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Weathering properties of treated southern yellow pine wood examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and physical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaita, Ghaleb N.; Ma, Frank M.S.; Parker, Trudy C. [Dow Chemical Company, Technical Center, 3200 Kanawha Turnpike, South Charleston, WV 25303 (United States); Hoflund, Gar B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, P.O. Box 116005, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)], E-mail: garho@hotmail.com

    2008-04-30

    In this study the weathering behavior of southern yellow pine (SYP) wood samples pretreated in different solutions has been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and various types of physical characterization regarding material loss and discoloration. The treatment solutions include water as a control, a commercially available water repellent (WR) wood treating additive and polyethylene glycol (PEG) products including PEG PLUS{sup TM}, PEG 8000 solutions and Compound 20M in varying concentrations. All contained the wood preservative chromated copper arsenate (CCA). One sample was treated with a CCA solution only. The treatments were carried out at 20 deg. C and 150 psig for 1/2 h after exposure to vacuum (28 mmHg) for 15 min. Simulated weathering was achieved in an Atlas 65-W Weather-Ometer for 2000 h with both light and dark periods and rain. The temperature ranged from 23 deg. C during the dark cycle to 35 deg. C during the light cycle. With weathering the XPS O/C ratios increase due to oxidation of the surface. Exposure to UV light results in bond breakage and reaction with oxygen in the presence of air to form organic functional groups such as , , C=O and/or O-C-O. These oxidized products can protect the underlying wood from deterioration if they are insoluble in water and remain on the surface as a protective coating. If soluble, rain washes the compounds away and assists in the degradation. Correlated changes are observed in the XPS O/C ratios, the high-resolution XPS C 1s spectra, the SEM micrographs and physical measurements including thickness alteration, weight loss, and discoloration by yellowing or whitening of the weathered wood. The PEG treatments are effective in protecting wood with the 2% PEG PLUS treatment providing the best weathering behavior similar to that of the CCA treatment. The WR and water treatments yield the poorest weathering properties.

  19. Weathering properties of treated southern yellow pine wood examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and physical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaita, Ghaleb N.; Ma, Frank M.S.; Parker, Trudy C.; Hoflund, Gar B.

    2008-01-01

    In this study the weathering behavior of southern yellow pine (SYP) wood samples pretreated in different solutions has been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and various types of physical characterization regarding material loss and discoloration. The treatment solutions include water as a control, a commercially available water repellent (WR) wood treating additive and polyethylene glycol (PEG) products including PEG PLUS TM , PEG 8000 solutions and Compound 20M in varying concentrations. All contained the wood preservative chromated copper arsenate (CCA). One sample was treated with a CCA solution only. The treatments were carried out at 20 deg. C and 150 psig for 1/2 h after exposure to vacuum (28 mmHg) for 15 min. Simulated weathering was achieved in an Atlas 65-W Weather-Ometer for 2000 h with both light and dark periods and rain. The temperature ranged from 23 deg. C during the dark cycle to 35 deg. C during the light cycle. With weathering the XPS O/C ratios increase due to oxidation of the surface. Exposure to UV light results in bond breakage and reaction with oxygen in the presence of air to form organic functional groups such as , , C=O and/or O-C-O. These oxidized products can protect the underlying wood from deterioration if they are insoluble in water and remain on the surface as a protective coating. If soluble, rain washes the compounds away and assists in the degradation. Correlated changes are observed in the XPS O/C ratios, the high-resolution XPS C 1s spectra, the SEM micrographs and physical measurements including thickness alteration, weight loss, and discoloration by yellowing or whitening of the weathered wood. The PEG treatments are effective in protecting wood with the 2% PEG PLUS treatment providing the best weathering behavior similar to that of the CCA treatment. The WR and water treatments yield the poorest weathering properties

  20. Gasification of Wood and Non-wood Waste of Timber Production as Perspectives for Development of Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislukhina, Irina A.; Rybakova, Olga G.

    2018-03-01

    The article deals with biomass gasification technology using the gasification plant running on wood chips and pellets, produced from essential oils waste (waste of coniferous boughs). During the study, the authors solved the process task of improving the quality of the product gas derived from non-wood waste of timber production (coniferous boughs) due to the extraction of essential oils and the subsequent thermal processing of spent coniferous boughs at a temperature of 250-300°C degrees without oxygen immediately before pelleting. The paper provides the improved biomass gasification process scheme including the grinding of coniferous boughs, essential oil distillation and thermal treatment of coniferous boughs waste and pelletizing.

  1. The use of wood waste for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlopoulos, E.; Pavloudakis, F.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents some technical aspects and management issues of wood waste reuse end disposal. It refers to the Greek and European legislation which determines the framework for rational and environmental friendly practices for woos waste management. It refers also to the wood waste classification systems and the currently applied methods of wood waste disposal and reuse. Emphasis is given to the wood waste-to-energy conversion system, particularly to the pretreatment requirements, the combustion techniques, and the environmental constrains. Finally, the decision making process for the investments in the wood waste firing thermal units is discussed

  2. Assessment of the radiation field from radioactive elements in a wood-ash-treated coniferous forest in southwest Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of natural and antrophogenic radioactive elements in soil and wood was investigated in a 30-year-old forest stand of Norway spruce. Forest plots treated with a single dose of granulated wood ash in 1989 were compared with untreated control plots. It was observed that the retention of radiocesium and radiostrontium by the forest soil is rather strong in spite of the high annual precipitation (1100 mm a -1 ) and the relatively acidic conditions of the soil. Most of the deposited nuclear weapon fall-out of radiocesium and radiostrontium is still residing in the forest soil. Radiostrontium, but not radiocesium, was found in the intrasoil water collected with lysimeters at soil depths of 20 and 50 cm. Wood xylem radial distributions of radiostrontium indicated a decreased bioavailability with time after deposition of nuclear weapons fall-out, and no major differences could be observed on comparison of wood from ash-treated plots with wood from untreated plots. The activity concentration of radiocesium in tree rings formed prior to 1986 and grown at the ash-treated plot was about two to three times that found in wood from the untreated control plot. (author)

  3. Testing painted wood : past practices at the Forest Products Laboratory and recommendations for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    2009-01-01

    A brief history of paint research at the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in Madison, Wisconsin, sets the stage for a discussion of testing paint on wood and wood products. Tests include laboratory and outdoor tests, and I discuss them in terms of several degradation mechanisms (loss of gloss and fading, mildew growth, extractives bleed, and cracking, flaking, and...

  4. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  5. Wood Products Other Building Materials Used in New Residential Construction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2015-01-01

    On average, new residential construction accounts for about one-third of all wood products consumed in the United States annually. During periods of robust housing activity, 45% or more of all wood products consumed are for new single-family and multifamily housing. This can fall to as low as 20% or less during times of economic recession. Unfortunately, 2012 was not...

  6. Future carbon storage in harvested wood products from Ontario's Crown forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxin Chen; Stephen J. Colombo; Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian; Linda S. Heath

    2008-01-01

    This analysis quantifies projected carbon (C) storage in harvested wood products (HWP) from Ontario's Crown forests. The large-scale forest C budget model, FORCARB-ON, was applied to estimate HWP C stock changes using the production approach defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Harvested wood volume was converted to C mass and allocated to...

  7. Recent activities in flame retardancy of wood-plastic composites at the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Nicole M. Stark; Nadir Ayrilmis

    2011-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, wood-plastic composite (WPC) products are widely available for some building applications. In applications such as outdoor decking, WPCs have gained a significant share of the market. As an option to improve the efficient use of wood fiber, the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), has an extensive research program on WPCs....

  8. The suitability of selected wood species in the production of turned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the suitability of selected wood species in the production of turned glue-laminated products. Five different wood species of high quality grades which were sourced from Bodija market Ibadan, south western Nigeria were thoroughly examined where the moisture content, density and shrinkage ...

  9. Updating of U.S. Wood Product Life-Cycle Assessment Data for Environmental Product Declarations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Elaine Oneil; Maureen Puettmann; Ivan Eastin; Indroneil Ganguly

    2014-01-01

    The marketplace has an increasing desire for credible and transparent product eco-labels based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) data, especially involving international trade. Over the past several years, stakeholders in the U.S. wood products industry have developed many such “eco-labels” under the ISO standard of LCA-based environmental product declarations (EPDs). The...

  10. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xinde; Ma, Lena Q.

    2004-01-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg -1 ) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg -1 ), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg -1 in carrot and 32 mg kg -1 in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils

  11. Developing and commercializing sustainable new wood products : a process for identifying viable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon A. Enk; Stuart L. Hart

    2003-01-01

    A process was designed to evaluate the sustainability and potential marketability of USDA Forest Service patented technologies. The process was designed and tested jointly by the University of North Carolina, the University of Michigan, Partners for Strategic Change, and the USDA Forest Service. Two technologies were evaluated: a fiber-based product and a wood fiber/...

  12. Leaching of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood in a simulated monofill and its potential impacts to landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambeck, Jenna R. [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Townsend, Timothy [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States)]. E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu; Solo-Gabriele, Helena [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146-0630 (United States)

    2006-07-31

    The proper end-of-life management of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, which contains arsenic, copper, and chromium, is a concern to the solid waste management community. Landfills are often the final repository of this waste stream, and the impacts of CCA preservative metals on leachate quality are not well understood. Monofills are a type of landfill designed and operated to dispose a single waste type, such as ash, tires, mining waste, or wood. The feasibility of managing CCA-treated wood in monofills was examined using a simulated landfill (a leaching lysimeter) that contained a mix of new and weathered CCA-treated wood. The liquid to solid ratio (LS) reached in the experiment was 0.63:1. Arsenic, chromium, and copper leached from the lysimeter at average concentrations of 42 mg/L for arsenic, 9.4 mg/L for chromium, and 2.4 mg/L for copper. Complementary batch leaching studies using deionized water were performed on similar CCA-treated wood samples at LS of 5:1 and 10:1. When results from the lysimeter were compared to the batch test results, copper and chromium leachability appeared to be reduced in the lysimeter disposal environment. Of the three metals, arsenic leached to the greatest extent and was found to have the best correlation between the batch and the lysimeter experiments.

  13. Factors driving and restraining adoption of Automation technologies in Swedish wood product industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mapulanga, Mwanza; Saladi, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Swedish wood product industry contributes significantly to the economy of the country. This industry adds more value to the sawn timber produced in order to manufacture different wooden products. Companies in Swedish wood product industry are presently seen as underdeveloped in terms of investments and developments in automation technologies. Automation technologies are seen by companies as a solution for improving productivity, product quality, manufacturing cost reduction and ultimately imp...

  14. Transformation and Release of Micronized Cu Used as a Wood Preservative in Treated Wood in Wetland Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronized Cu (µ-Cu) is used as a wood preservative, replacing toxic Chromated Copper Arsenates. Micronized Cu is Malachite [Cu2CO3(OH)2] that has been milled to micron/submicron particles, many with diameters less than 100 nm, and then mixed with quat or azol biocides. I...

  15. The Swedish market for wood briquettes - Production and market development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlhager, Johan

    2008-02-15

    Wood briquettes have constituted an important input to the Swedish energy system during the last two decades. However, the development of the production and markets for briquettes during the years 2000-2007 has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the state of the briquette industry. More specifically, the aims were to map the production of briquettes, describe the development of its markets, describe the production process, describe the producers and to examine the competitive situation for the producers. To collect data regarding the production and the producers, the markets, raw materials and company structures, a questionnaire was sent out to the producers during the fall in the year 2007. The results were then compiled and compared to previous studies. The description of the production process was mainly based on literature studies. The results were analyzed and related to M.E. Porter's Five force model to be able to describe the competitive environment for the briquette producers. The study was limited to production in Sweden and did not intend to cover a possible import of briquettes. Regarding the production process, the most common types of briquetting equipment were described. The results showed that the trend in the briquette industry was neutral, possibly negative. The turnover derived from briquette sales during the year 2006 was roughly a quarter of a billion SEK. The industry was very concentrated, with one producer accounting for 43 % of the aggregate production in the year 2006. Since the year 2000, the production of briquettes among the participating producers increased from some 210 000 tons (980 GWh) (2002) to some 280 000 tons (1 300 GWh) in the year 2006. The planned expansion of the production capacity was 3,8 % within the two years to come. A typical small scale briquette producer was a small saw mill, planing mill or a joinery using their by-products as raw material. 78 % of the briquettes are produced

  16. Using wood products to mitigate climate change: External costs and structural change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    In this study we examine the use of wood products as a means to mitigate climate change. We describe the life cycle of wood products including forest growth, wood harvest and processing, and product use and disposal, focusing on the multiple roles of wood as both material and fuel. We present a comparative case study of a building constructed with either a wood or a reinforced concrete frame. We find that the production of wood building material uses less energy and emits less carbon than the production of reinforced concrete material. We compare the relative cost of the two building methods without environmental taxation, under the current Swedish industrial energy taxation regime, and in scenarios that incorporate estimates of the full social cost of carbon emission. We find that the inclusion of climate-related external costs improves the economic standing of wood construction vis-a-vis concrete construction. We conclude that policy instruments that internalise the external costs of carbon emission should encourage a structural change toward the increased use of sustainably produced wood products. (author)

  17. Heat resistant soy adhesives for structural wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; Charles Frihart; Jane O' Dell

    2009-01-01

    Because load-bearing bonded wood assemblies must support the structure during a fire, the limited softening and depolymerization of biobased polymers at elevated temperatures should be an advantage of biobased adhesives compared to fossil fuel-based adhesives. Because load-bearing bonded wood assemblies must support the structure during a fire, the limited softening...

  18. Fire extinguishing strength of the combustion product of wood saw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty saw dust samples from four mature hard wood plants grown in southwestern part of Nigeria were analyzed for their ash contents, moisture contents, metallic contents and hence the fire extinguishing strength of the saw dust ash by classical and instrumental methods of analyses. Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) wood saw ...

  19. Advances in corrosion testing of metals in contact with treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Zelinka; D.S. Stone

    2010-01-01

    A January 2004 change in the regulation of wood preservatives used in the U.S.has increased the use of newer wood preservatives, such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) and copper azole (CuAz). These preservatives contain high amounts of cupric ions, which may be reduced to copper metal at the expense of less noble steel and galvanized fasteners in the wood....

  20. Effects of Heat-Treated Wood Particles on the Physico-Mechanical Properties and Extended Creep Behavior of Wood/Recycled-HDPE Composites Using the Time–Temperature Superposition Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Chun Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of heat-treated wood particles for improving the physico-mechanical properties and creep performance of wood/recycled-HDPE composites. The results reveal that the composites with heat-treated wood particles had significantly decreased moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, while no improvements of the flexural properties or the wood screw holding strength were observed, except for the internal bond strength. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at a series of elevated temperatures using the time–temperature superposition principle (TTSP, and the TTSP-predicted creep compliance curves fit well with the experimental data. The creep resistance values of composites with heat-treated wood particles were greater than those having untreated wood particles due to the hydrophobic character of the treated wood particles and improved interfacial compatibility between the wood particles and polymer matrix. At a reference temperature of 20 °C, the improvement of creep resistance (ICR of composites with heat-treated wood particles reached approximately 30% over a 30-year period, and it increased significantly with increasing reference temperature.

  1. Effects of Heat-Treated Wood Particles on the Physico-Mechanical Properties and Extended Creep Behavior of Wood/Recycled-HDPE Composites Using the Time–Temperature Superposition Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng-Chun; Chien, Yi-Chi; Wu, Tung-Lin; Hung, Ke-Chang; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of heat-treated wood particles for improving the physico-mechanical properties and creep performance of wood/recycled-HDPE composites. The results reveal that the composites with heat-treated wood particles had significantly decreased moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, while no improvements of the flexural properties or the wood screw holding strength were observed, except for the internal bond strength. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at a series of elevated temperatures using the time–temperature superposition principle (TTSP), and the TTSP-predicted creep compliance curves fit well with the experimental data. The creep resistance values of composites with heat-treated wood particles were greater than those having untreated wood particles due to the hydrophobic character of the treated wood particles and improved interfacial compatibility between the wood particles and polymer matrix. At a reference temperature of 20 °C, the improvement of creep resistance (ICR) of composites with heat-treated wood particles reached approximately 30% over a 30-year period, and it increased significantly with increasing reference temperature. PMID:28772726

  2. Comparison of methods for estimating carbon in harvested wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudia Dias, Ana; Louro, Margarida; Arroja, Luis; Capela, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    There is a great diversity of methods for estimating carbon storage in harvested wood products (HWP) and, therefore, it is extremely important to agree internationally on the methods to be used in national greenhouse gas inventories. This study compares three methods for estimating carbon accumulation in HWP: the method suggested by Winjum et al. (Winjum method), the tier 2 method proposed by the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG LULUCF) (GPG tier 2 method) and a method consistent with GPG LULUCF tier 3 methods (GPG tier 3 method). Carbon accumulation in HWP was estimated for Portugal under three accounting approaches: stock-change, production and atmospheric-flow. The uncertainty in the estimates was also evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. The estimates of carbon accumulation in HWP obtained with the Winjum method differed substantially from the estimates obtained with the other methods, because this method tends to overestimate carbon accumulation with the stock-change and the production approaches and tends to underestimate carbon accumulation with the atmospheric-flow approach. The estimates of carbon accumulation provided by the GPG methods were similar, but the GPG tier 3 method reported the lowest uncertainties. For the GPG methods, the atmospheric-flow approach produced the largest estimates of carbon accumulation, followed by the production approach and the stock-change approach, by this order. A sensitivity analysis showed that using the ''best'' available data on production and trade of HWP produces larger estimates of carbon accumulation than using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization. (author)

  3. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  4. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E [ed.

    1997-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  5. Corrosão de parafusos fixados à madeira tratada com soluções de creosoto vegetal Corrosion of screws fixed into wood treated with wood tar creosote solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a corrosão de parafusos auto-rosqueáveis fixados à madeira tratada com soluções preservativas preparadas com creosoto vegetal, em condições de campo. Obteve-se o creosoto vegetal bruto por meio da destilação à temperatura de 110 - 255ºC do alcatrão vegetal. Uma fração dos destilados foi lavada com solução a 9% de bicarbonato de sódio, obtendo-se o creosoto vegetal purificado. Ambas as frações foram enriquecidas com 3% de naftenato de cobre; 3% de naftenato de zinco; 3% naftenato de cobalto; 2% de TBTO; 2% de tribromofenato de tubutil-estanho; 2% de pentaclorofenol; ou 0,4% de trióxido de arsênico. Foram preparadas 16 soluções, sendo 14 enriquecidas, além do creosoto vegetal bruto e do creosoto vegetal purificado. Estacas confeccionadas com madeira de alburno de Eucalyptus grandis foram tratadas pelo processo de célula- cheia (processo Bethell. Após o tratamento, parafusos auto-rosquéaveis de ferro zincado foram fixados às estacas. O ensaio foi instalado em três localidades da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais (Viçosa, Ponte Nova e Leopoldina. A corrosividade das soluções de creosoto vegetal foi comparada à causada pelo creosoto mineral. As soluções preparadas com creosoto vegetal purificado foram menos corrosivas que suas similares preparadas com creosoto vegetal bruto, assemelhando-se ao creosoto mineral.The objective of this research was to evaluate the corrosion of screws fixed into wood treated with preservative solutions of wood tar creosote. The crude wood tar creosote was obtained through distillation of wood tar at 110 - 255ºC. A fraction of this product was washed with a solution of sodium bicarbonate at 9%, resulting in purified wood tar creosote. Both fractions were enriched with 3% of copper naphtenate, 3% of zinc naphtenate, 3% of cobalt naphtenate, 2% of TBTO, 2% of tributhyl-tin tribromophenate, 2% of pentachlorophenol, or with 0.4% of arsenic trioxide. A total

  6. NATURAL PRODUCTS AS PRESERVATIVES FOR FAST GROWTH WOODS - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Barreiros

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wood is a universal material, economic, historic and sustainable. The paucity of species resistant to biological degradation forced man to use other less durable, especially fast growing, from reforestation, as some species of Eucalyptus and Pinus. These species have moderate or no resistance to wood decay organisms need special treatment and preservatives. The products currently used preservatives are highly toxic and are potential environmental hazards and human health. Thus, there is a growing need to develop effective chemicals, non-toxic to humans and the environment. The direction of research has aimed to develop environmentally friendly products and economic viability, and an alternative is the use of Crude Tall Oil (CTO, which is a waste processing coniferous softwood pulp for the production of kraft paper. The tall oil as a protective agent, has been considered a promising method for significantly reducing the capillary water absorption of sapwood, thereby removing one of the factors that favor the wood being attacked by fungi and insects: water, oxygen and nutrients. Research shows that the tall oil can be used neat, either fresh or distilled, or in combination with biocides.A madeira é um material universal, econ

  7. Elemental analysis of ash residue from combustion of CCA treated wood waste before and after electrodialytic extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Element distribution in a combined fly ash and bottom ash from combustion of copper chromate arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) before and after electrodialytic extraction. The untreated ash contained various particles, including pieces...... of incompletely combusted wood rich in Cr and Ca, and irregular particles rich in Si, Al and K. Cr was also found incorporated in silica-based matrix particles. As was associated with Ca in porous (char) particles, indicating that Ca-arsenates had been formed during combustion. Cu was associated with Cr...... in the incompletely combusted wood pieces and was also found in almost pure form in a surface layer of some matrix particles – indicating surface condensation of volatile Cu species. In treated ash, Ca and As were no longer found together, indicating that Ca-arsenates had been dissolved due to the electrodialytic...

  8. Production facility site selection factors for Texas value-added wood producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd H. Michael; Joanna Teitel; James E. Granskog

    1998-01-01

    Value-added wood products manufacturers serve an important role in the economies of many U.S. regions and are therefore sought after by entities such as economic development agencies. The reasons why certain locations for a prospective prodution facility would be more attractive to secondary wood industry producers are not clearly understood. Therefore, this research...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood...

  10. Assessing wood use efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of wood product cascading in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bais-Moleman, A.L.; Sikkema, Richard; Vis, Martijn; Reumerman, Patrick; Theurl, Michaela; Erb, Karl Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Cascading use of biomass is a recognized strategy contributing to an efficient development of the bioeconomy and for mitigating climate change. This study aims at assessing the potential of cascading use of woody biomass for reducing GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and increasing the overall wood

  11. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupolttoaineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K [Enso Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilisation targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilisation was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenise the quality of chips. (orig.)

  12. Knock on wood: Is wood production sustainable in the Pacific Northwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Thompson

    2006-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest is one of the world’s major timber-producing regions, and its capacity to produce wood on a sustained-yield basis is widely recognized. Nonetheless, there has been increasing public interest in assuring that forests are being sustainably managed, as well as a desire by landowners to demonstrate their commitment to responsible stewardship.

  13. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a tool for measuring corrosion of polymer-coated fasteners used in treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Lorraine Ortiz-Candelaria; Donald S. Stone; Douglas R. Rammer

    2009-01-01

    Currently, many of the polymer-coated fasteners on the market are designed for improved corrosion performance in treated wood; yet, there is no way to evaluate their corrosion performance. In this study, a common technique for measuring the corrosion performance of polymer-coated metals, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), was used to evaluate commercial...

  14. Effective technology of wood and gaseous fuel co-firing for clean energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zake, M.; Barmina, I.; Gedrovics, M.; Desnickis, A.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to develop and optimise a small-scale experimental co-firing technique for the effective and clean heat energy production by replacing a proportion of fossil fuel (propane) with renewable one (wood biomass). Technical solutions of propane co-fire presenting two different ways of additional heat supply to the wood biomass are proposed and analysed. The experiments have shown that a better result can be obtained for the direct propane co-fire of the wood biomass, when the rate of wood gasification and the ignition of volatiles are controlled by additional heat energy supply to the upper portion of wood biomass. A less effective though cleaner way of heat energy production is the direct propane co-fire of volatiles when low-temperature self-sustaining burnout of the wood biomass controls the rate of the volatile formation, while additional heat energy supply to the flow of volatiles controls their burnout. The effect of propane co-fire on the heat production rate and the composition of polluting emissions is studied and analysed for different rates of the additional heat supply to the wood biomass and of the swirling air supply as well as for different charge of wood biomass above the inlet of the propane flame flow. (Authors)

  15. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Xinde [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)]. E-mail: xcao@stevens.edu; Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg{sup -1}), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg{sup -1} in carrot and 32 mg kg{sup -1} in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA

  16. CREEP BEHAVIOR OF BORATE-TREATED STRANDBOARD: EFFECT OF ZINC BORATE RETENTION, WOOD SPECIES, AND LOAD LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Wu,Qinglin; Lee,Ong N; Cai,Zhiyong; Zhou,Dingguo

    2009-01-01

    Creep performance of zinc borate-treated strandboard from southern pine (Pinus taeda L.) and red oak (Quercus falcata) was investigated at 25(0)C temperature and 65% relative humidity. It was shown that the borate treatment had some significant effect on creep deflection of the test panels, and the effect varied with wood species. There was no significant effect of creep loading on residual bending properties of treated strandboard under the stress levels used. The four element spring-dashpot...

  17. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Integroitu energiapuun tuotanto-menetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Ranta, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Hooli Oy, operating mainly in the Northern Finland has developed the production method suitable for bunch-processing of small wood. The mobile machine, consisting of delimber-debarker, and fuel fraction crusher units, produces debarked stemwood for pulping industry and branchwood-bark chips for thermal power stations. The basic method has been ready for demonstration and practical applications since in the beginning of year 1996. The objective of the project is to develop a method suitable for bundle processing of small wood, in which the trees are delimbed and debarked, and the formed waste wood is crushed using a machine unit, developed especially for this purpose. The method is based on utilisation of a separate delimbing-debarking unit, which operates separately from the pulpwood transportation chain, so the pulpwood transportations can be done at the proper time either as debarked roundwood or chips. Based on field experiments in 1995 - 1996, to attain the targets of the project looks promising. In 1997 there will happen technical modifications to the machine to improve the debarking results (target < 1 % bark content) of the bolts and to improve the logistic productivity of the whole production chain

  18. Material use and production changes in the U.S. wood pallet and container industry: 1992 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Bush; P. A. Araman

    2009-01-01

    A series of five studies conducted by the Virginia Tech Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, in collaboration with the USDA - Forest Service (Blacksburg, Virginia), have tracked activity in the U.S. wood pallet and container industry between 1992 and 2006. The studies documented trends in wood use and pallet production with in the industry, both new...

  19. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  20. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  1. Recycling of wood products. Final report of the preliminary study project partly financed by the Finnish Wood Research Oy; Puutuotteiden kierraetys. Finnish Wood Research Oy:n osarahoittaman esiselvityshankkeen loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirhonen, I.; Heraejaervi, H.; Saukkola, P.; Raety, T.; Verkasalo, E., Email: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to clarify the present state of recycling of wood in Finland and Europe. In the work the control measures of recycling were examined. In Finland there will be a total amount of 850 000 tons of waste wood per year. Of this amount 670 000 tons is from construction and demolishing of buildings. Burning the wood to energy is technically and economically the most reasonable use of waste wood in Finland and in several other European countries where there is a long heating season. A lot of work has been done to find new ways of utilization. The objective of the European Union to increase the use of renewable natural resources in the energy production creates an additional demand to all kinds of wood, including waste wood. The waste legislation of Finland and EU is directing to recycling, not restricting it. Furthermore, the systems to try to create markets for products containing recycled materials are under development. In the future it is expected that the legislation is tightening and the burning of waste wood is no longer calculated as acceptable recycling. Other ways to utilize wood waste should then already be developed. Furthermore, the development and introduction of new recycling methods are of important significance also when marketing wood and wood products. The recycling should be taken into consideration already at the planning stage of the building

  2. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Congcong; Dong, Jie; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of treated sewage from a wetland system for irrigation of plants for the productive sector that uses wood in the Northeast semiarid; O uso do esgoto tratado de um sistema Wetland para irrigacao de plantas destinadas ao setor produtivo que utiliza lenha no semiarido nordestino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ednaldo de Paiva; Sena, Jose Antonio Nascimento; Freitas, Marcos Aurelio Vasconcelos de; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica], emails: ednaldopp@gmail.com, jsena@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br, mfreitas@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br, lpr@adc.coppe.ufrj.br; Silva, Neilton Fidelis da; Rola, Sylvia Meimaridou [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais], emails: neilton@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br, sylvia@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of the production sector that uses wood for burning shows that for ovens in bakeries, potteries, and other activities in the Serido region of Rio Grande do Norte, even with the possibility of using gas in the energy matrix, the wood is highly used. This is mainly due to the cost of investments and purchase. Thus, as the use of firewood should be a practice maintained for a long period, and thus contribute to accelerated desertification process, the experimental work of sewage treatment developed in the city of Parelhas in Rio Grande do Norte can contribute to mitigating the negative impact, given the possibility of reuse of sewage water for growing plants that are suitable for burning in the economic activities of industries that use energy as input. (author)

  4. Health evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from exotic wood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, L; Witterseh, T; Funch, L W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate the impact of the emissions of selected products of exotic wood on health. Ten products were screened for chemical compounds, and five of the most used products which emitted more than 800 microg/kg were selected for further quantitative...... analyses by climate chamber measurement (iroko, ramin, sheesham, merbau, and rubber tree). Samples of exotic wood (rubber tree and belalu) were further analyzed for emission of chemical compounds by migration into artificial saliva and for content of pesticides and allergenic natural rubber latex (NR latex......) (rubber tree). The toxicological effects of all substances identified were evaluated and the lowest concentrations of interest (LCI) assessed. An R-value was calculated for each wood product (R-value below 1 is considered to be unproblematic as regards health). Emission from the evaluated exotic wood only...

  5. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for surface coating of wood building products by reading the rule summary and history, with links to the federal register notices, additional documents, related rules and compliance information

  6. Important Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood resources obtained from forest and non-wood forest products (NWFP have gained great importance recently as their economic values keeps increasing by the day. In this study, forecasting of Turkish Non-Wood Forest Products such as thyme, bay leaves, salvia and pine nut export amounts was carried out using a linear regression analysis method for the next fifteen years based on the data for the years between 1990 and 2009. Moreover, estimated import values and actual import values from the last years were compered and analyzed. Finally, predictions on future trends were made.

  7. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  8. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humar, Miha; Amartey, Sam A.; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes

  9. Marketing of non-wood forest products: Case study of the enterprise for forest mushroom processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of climate changes it is increasingly obvious that forestry should rely more strongly on the multi­functional character of the managed resources. In addition to wood, there is a series of non­wood products and services offered by forests. Non­wood forest products and services consist of various fruits of forest trees and shrubs, mushrooms, various objects made of non­wood material, and especially forest social services, such as recreation, tourism, hunting, photo­safari, etc. This paper presents a marketing analysis on the example of the enterprise dealing with the purchase, processing and sale of wild mushrooms and products made of mushrooms. The study applies a modern methodological approach implemented in similar researches.

  10. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning wood fuels production was 36. The main goals of the research are to develop new production methods for wood fuels in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels (100 km distance). The second goal is to decrease the small scale production costs by 20 % as compared with the 1992 technology level. Also, new harvesting technology and new work methods will be developed for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs in the course of the programme. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 in this programme are presented in this publication. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research areas because they seem to be most promising. Most of the projects are focused in the wood fuel production from first thinnings and from final fellings. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. The follow up project of Evaluation-drum chipper was completed with good fuel quality and productivity results. Also the large Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was completed. The project was a significant technology transfer and information dissemination project. (orig.)

  11. Arsenic levels in wipe samples collected from play structures constructed with CCA-treated wood: Impact on exposure estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraj, Leila M. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)], E-mail: lbarraj@exponent.com; Scrafford, Carolyn G. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Eaton, W. Cary [RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Rogers, Robert E.; Jeng, Chwen-Jyh [Toxcon Health Sciences Research Centre Inc., 9607 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6E 5X7 (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    Lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been used in residential outdoor wood structures and playgrounds. The U.S. EPA has conducted a probabilistic assessment of children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated structures using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for the wood preservative scenario (SHEDS-Wood). The EPA assessment relied on data from an experimental study using adult volunteers and designed to measure arsenic in maximum hand and wipe loadings. Analyses using arsenic handloading data from a study of children playing on CCA-treated play structures in Edmonton, Canada, indicate that the maximum handloading values significantly overestimate the exposure that occurs during actual play. The objective of our paper is to assess whether the dislodgeable arsenic residues from structures in the Edmonton study are comparable to those observed in other studies and whether they support the conclusion that the values derived by EPA using modeled maximum loading values overestimate hand exposures. We compared dislodgeable arsenic residue data from structures in the playgrounds in the Edmonton study to levels observed in studies used in EPA's assessment. Our analysis showed that the dislodgeable arsenic levels in the Edmonton playground structures are similar to those in the studies used by EPA. Hence, the exposure estimates derived using the handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures are more representative of children's actual exposures than the overestimates derived by EPA using modeled maximum values. Handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures should be used to reduce the uncertainty of modeled estimates derived using the SHEDS-Wood model.

  12. Species selection in secondary wood products: perspectives from different consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Bowe; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adult consumer perceptions of several wood species to determine if word-based and appearance-based evaluations differed. The research replicated a 2001 study by the authors, which used undergraduate college students as a proxy for older and more experienced adult furniture consumers. The literature is somewhat inconclusive concerning the extent...

  13. Production of Solid Fuel Briquettes from Agricultural and Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibrous agricultural and wood waste materials have been compressed with suitable adhesive into solid fuel briquettes in a compressing machine, which was designed and constructed for this purpose. Nine samples of fibrous waste materials were prepared into different categories:- Category A (100% saw-dust, 100% ...

  14. Interest in energy wood and energy crop production among Finnish non-industrial private forest owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Jaervinen, E.; Latvala, T.; Toivonen, R.; Silvennoinen, H.

    2009-01-01

    EU targets and regulations regarding energy production and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been tightening in the 2000s. In Finland the targets are planned to be achieved mainly by increasing the use of biomass. Wood already accounts for a marked proportion of Finnish energy production, but additional reserves are still available. Energy crop production also has considerable potential. Practically all Finnish farmers are also forest owners. Therefore, private forest owners are in a decisive position regarding the supply of energy wood and crops in Finland. In this paper the future supply of biomass is examined according to their past behaviour, intentions and attitudes. Finnish forest owners have a positive attitude towards the use of wood and crops in energy production. Price is becoming more critical as a motive for the supply of energy wood. Recreation and nature conservation play a smaller role than factors related to wood production and forest management as for motives for harvesting energy wood. However, almost a half of forest owners in this study were uncertain of their willingness to supply biomass. This is partly due to limited knowledge of the issues involved in energy wood and agricultural energy crop production and the underdeveloped markets for energy biomass. In order to achieve the targets, supply should be activated by further developing market practices, information, guidance and possibly other incentives for landowners. In general, there is interest among landowners in increasing the supply of energy biomass. However, the growth of supply presumes that production is an economically attractive and competitive alternative, that the markets are better organized than at present, and that more comprehensive information is available about bioenergy and biomass markets and production techniques.

  15. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Southern Maryland Wood Treating Site, Hollywood, MD, September 8, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Southern Maryland Wood Treating Site (`the Site`), in Hollywood, Maryland. This is the second and final phase of remedial action for the Site. This phase addresses soil and sediment contamination and non-aqueous phase liquids (`NAPLs`) which are the principal threats remaining at the Site and are a source of contamination to the ground water and surface water.

  16. Impregnation and Polymerization Methods and Systems Used in the Production of Wood-Polymer Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, W. E.; Rotariu, G. J. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC 20545 (United States)

    1968-10-15

    Studies on the radiation production of wood-polymer materials began in the United States in 1961 at West Virginia University and have continued until today. In this paper the impregnation and polymerization methods and systems that have evolved from these studies are reviewed. Included is a description of the procedures developed at the College of Forestry, Syracuse University, for producing wood-polymers via a thermal-catalytic process. (author)

  17. A Planning Guide for Small and Medium Size Wood Products Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Howe; Stephen Bratkovich

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, North American wood products companies are facing competitive pressure from numerous sources. Traditional products are being manufactured in new regions (e.g., China and the developing nations), and substitute products are being developed by competing industries (e.g., plastics and composites). The bottom line is strained by...

  18. Linear equations on thermal degradation products of wood chips in alkaline glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2004-01-01

    Wood chips of 0.3 and 2 mm depth from poplar and spruce wood samples, respectively, were degraded by using glycerol as a solvent and alkaline glycerol with and without Na 2 CO 3 and NaOH catalysts at different degradation temperatures: 440, 450, 460, 470, 480, 490 and 500 K. By products from the degradation processes of the ligno celluloses include lignin degradation products. Lignin and its degradation products have fuel values. The total degradation degree and cellulose degradation of the wood chips were determined to find the relationship, if any, between the yields of total degradation degree (YTD) and degradation temperature (T). There is a good linear relationship between YTD or the yields of cellulose degradation (YCD) and T (K). For the wood samples, the regression equations from NaOH (10%) catalytic runs for 0.3 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm chip size are: For poplar wood: (YTD=0.7250T-267.507) (YCD=0.1736T-71.707) For spruce wood: (YTD=0.2650T-105.979) (YCD=0.0707T-27.507) For Eqs., the square of the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) were 0.9841, 0.9496, 0.9839 and 0.9447, respectively

  19. Justification of the Production Process of Pressed Wood and Study of its Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polilov, A. N.; Dornyak, O. R.; Shamaev, V. A.; Rumachik, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Results of a numerical analysis of the stress-strain state of wood during its pressing in different symmetry directions of the anisotropic material are presented. It is shown that the anisotropy of mechanical properties of wood is an important factor determining both the structural characteristics of the porous system and its strength. A mathematical modeling of the process of pressing wood as a three-phase anisotropic rheologically complex capillary-porous system allows one to predict parameters of the resulting wood composite. The compressed wood obtained by the production modes developed has a tensile strength eight times greater than that of the natural one, which is comparable to the strength of the St3 steel, but its specific strength is higher than that of the St45 steel. Compression and impregnation of softwood species with an aqueous solution of carbamide allows one to harden them. This kind of treatment endows the wood with enhanced strength characteristics comparable to the characteristics of the St3 steel. The special features of tensile tests used to estimate the elastic modulus and strength characteristics of such materials are considered. Data obtained by different testing methods are correlated, and characteristics of the strengthened wood and some brends of steel are compared.

  20. Wood products in the waste stream: Characterization and combustion emissions. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    Waste wood is wood separated from the solid-waste stream and processed into a uniform-sized product that is reused for other purposes such as fuel. As an alternative to the combustion of fossil fuels, it has raised concerns that if it is 'contaminated' with paints, resins, preservatives, etc., unacceptable environmental impacts may be generated during combustion. Given the difficulty of separating contaminated materials from waste wood and the large energy potential existing in the resource, it is important to identify possible problems associated with contaminated waste wood combustion. The study describes research about technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. The project's purpose was to provide environmental regulators, project developers, and others with data to make informed decisions on the use of waste wood materials as a combustion resource. Potential environmental problems and solutions were identified. A specific project result was the identification of combustion system operation parameters and air pollution control technologies that can minimize emissions of identified air and solid waste contaminants from combustion of wood waste

  1. Chemical changes and increased degradability of wheat straw and oak wood chips treated with the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van Sandra J.A.; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J.P.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Río, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Ruijter, de Norbert C.A.; Cone, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat straw and oak wood chips were incubated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes for 8 weeks. Samples from the fungal treated substrates were collected every week for chemical characterization. L. edodes continuously grew during the 8 weeks on both wheat straw and oak wood chips,

  2. Combustion Characteristics of Impregnated and Surface-treated Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Wood Left Outdoors for One Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Said Fidan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treating wood with impregnating materials in order to improve resistance to burning is a commonly employed safety measure. In this study, chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. wood samples were impregnated using either Tanalith-E or Wolmanit-CB according to ASTM-D 1413-76 and surface-treated using water-based or synthetic varnish according to ASTM-D 3023. These samples were used to investigate the combustion characteristics of samples left outdoors for one year as detailed in ASTM-E 160-50. The combustion temperatures of the samples left outdoors were similar upon impregnation with either Tanalith-E or Wolmanit-CB. However, the combustion temperature of the samples treated with synthetic varnish was lower than those that were treated with water-based varnish. The time to collapse and the total duration of combustion of the samples left outdoors were shorter for those impregnated with Wolmanit-CB. Weight loss of the samples left outdoors was higher for those that were impregnated with Tanalith-E and treated with water-based varnish. Gas analysis of the samples that were left outdoors indicated that the O2 content of flue gas from samples that were impregnated with Wolmanit-CB and treated with synthetic varnish was high and the CO content of flue gas from the same samples was low.

  3. Utilization of Merbau Wood Extract to Bind Laminated Bamboo Products

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, Adi; Sulastiningsih, Ignasia Maria; Pari, Gustan; Jasni, Jasni

    2016-01-01

    The report describes the use of adhesive made from merbau wood extract (Intsia Spp.) which is allowed to copolymerize with resorcinol, formaldehyde under alkaline conditions, and tapioca as an extender. The adhesive was used to manufacture three-ply composite board consisting of a back and core layers made from sengon (Falcataria mollucana), and jabon (Anthocephalus chinensis), while the face layer was made either one of three bamboo species, namely, andong (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea)...

  4. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON WOOD MARKETS (CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION AND TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria‐Loredana POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economic crisis represents one of the causes why wood consumption is increasing especially in countries less developed. In countries where governments couldn’t improve the quality of life and unemployment rate is higher, local communities devastate a lot of forestry. In last thirty years we saw a deforestation process at the global level related to land being converted to other uses: agriculture and urbanization, which represent a positive trend of a negative use. The statistics reveal, on one hand, an increasing demand for paper, paper products, wood products and wood energy. So this point is important to analyze: where wood came from and where it is going as either raw material or processed goods? For undeveloped countries, like Romania, it is easy to export primary wood product without evaluating the consequences. On the other hand, developed countries like Sweden export value added products which brig them higher value and profits and require greater manufacturing and marketing skills (case IKEA. For this, government policy could introduce trade barriers to decrease log consumption (like export taxes and simultaneously support furniture production and trade (e.g. export.

  5. Arsenic, chromium, and copper leaching from CCA-treated wood and their potential impacts on landfill leachate in a tropical country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamchanawong, S; Veerakajohnsak, C

    2010-04-01

    This study looks into the potential risks of arsenic, chromium, and copper leaching from disposed hardwoods treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in a tropical climate. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and the Waste Extraction Test (WET) were employed to examine new CCA-treated Burseraceae and Keruing woods, weathered CCA-treated teak wood, and ash from new CCA-treated Burseraceae wood. In addition, a total of six lysimeters, measuring 2 m high and 203 mm in diameter were prepared to compare the leachate generated from the wood monofills, construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, containing CCA-treated Burseraceae wood. The TCLP and WET results showed that the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood leached higher metal concentrations (i.e. 9.19-17.70 mg/L, 1.14-5.89 mg/L and 4.83-23.89 mg/L for arsenic, chromium, and copper, respectively) than the CCA-treated Keruing wood (i.e. 1.74-11.34 mg/L, 0.26-3.57 mg/L and 0.82-13.64 mg/L for arsenic, chromium and copper, respectively). Ash from the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood leached significantly higher metal concentrations (i.e. 108.5-116.9 mg/L, 1522-3862 mg/L and 84.03-114.4 mg/L for arsenic, chromium and copper, respectively), making this type of ash of high concern. The lysimeter study results showed that the MSW lysimeter exhibited higher reducing conditions, more biological activities and more dissolved ions in their leachates than the wood monofill and C&D debris lysimeters. All leachates generated from the lysimeters containing the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood contained significantly higher concentrations of arsenic in comparison to those of the untreated wood: in the range of 0.53-15.7 mg/L. It can be concluded that the disposal of CCA-treated Burseraceae wood in an unlined C&D landfill or a MSW landfill has the potential to contaminate groundwater.

  6. Production of wood derived fuels. Review of research projects; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The research and development work was very active on the area of wood derived fuels during the past year 1996. Totally some 40 projects were going on, and till the end of the year about 15 projects were completed. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. When new production methods and machinery was introduced earlier by demonstration projects, now they were investigated by follow up projects. The economical and quality results of logging residue harvesting and comminution seem quite satisfactory, but integrated methods and production chains still need research and development. (orig.)

  7. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  8. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  9. Wood residue production and utilization research at Virgina Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, L.A.; Stuart, W.B.; Sharp, J.C. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (US)); Yu Jian-guo (Northeastern Forestry Univ., Harbin (CN))

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the activities in crushing, drying and segregating wood residues currently underway at Virginia Tech. Experiments with high speed roll crushing as a means of reducing logging residues and small diameter stems to a form suitable for transportation and further processing appear promising. Deflecting whole tree chip streams across a double set of screens coupled with stripping transport air has been shown to reduce bark content and remove fines, bark and grit. Testing and refinement of two prototype sawdust driers is currently under way. Both driers offer increased opportunity for suspension burning and transport. (4 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.) (au).

  10. Developing estimates of potential demand for renewable wood energy products in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen M. Brackley; Valerie A. Barber; Cassie Pinkel

    2010-01-01

    Goal three of the current U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service strategy for improving the use of woody biomass is to help develop and expand markets for woody biomass products. This report is concerned with the existing volumes of renewable wood energy products (RWEP) that are currently used in Alaska and the potential demand for RWEP for residential and...

  11. Factors influencing the role of Non-Wood Forest Products and Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, G.; Ottitsch, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the light of social and economic developments, forest functions other than timber production have gained international importance and recognition. Resulting from this development, Non-Wood Forest Products and Services (NWFPS) are becoming more important, both for the general public as for forest

  12. Wood products used for residential repair and remodeling in the United States, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. B. McKeever; R. G. Anderson

    Large amounts of lumber and wood panel products are used annually for the repair and remodeling of residential structures and properties in the United States. In response to the need by government and industry for detailed information on this important market for timber products, a study was conducted by the Timber Demand and Technology...

  13. 2009 Wood and Fiber Product Seminar : VTT and USDA joint activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Harlin; Minna Vikman

    2010-01-01

    Foward -- The development of high-value wood and fiber products is one of the most important challenges currently facing the forest industry. Traditional pulp and paper products are on a critical path in developed countries with prices and markets decreasing. Finland and the USA have faced the same problem, which is a fundamental reason for Industrial Biomaterials...

  14. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  15. Incorporation of treated straw and wood fly ash into clay building brick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    High Cd content in straw and wood fly ash, generated from biomass-fired power plants, prohibits its recycling as fertilizer spreading on the landfilled. To improve and alter the current mainstream of fly ash treatment by landfilling, different approaches were tried for treatment of straw and wood...... fly ash, such as washing with water to quickly recover the highly soluble salts (mainly K and Cl), and treatment of the washed fly ash with elevated heavy metal content resulted from washing by electrodialytic remediation (EDR). The finding that SiO2 (quartz) accounted for a significant portion...

  16. UTILIZATION OF CANDEIA (Eremanthus erythropappus WOOD RESIDUES IN THE PRODUCTION OF PARTICLEBOAD WITH ADDITION OF PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate, through the physical and mechanical properties, the panels production viability with inclusion of candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus wood residues and the influence of different percentages of PET (polyethylene terephthalate, as well as the presence and absence of paraffin on the properties of particleboard. There were used candeia wood residues, after oil extraction, in association with eucalypt wood in the proportion of 25:75 and urea-formaldehyde adhesive (12% for panels production; besides the PET incorporation in particle form, which were originated from soft drink bottles and included in three percentages (0%, 25% e 50% in treatments in the presence (1% and absence of paraffin emulsion. The panels pressing cycle occurred under electric heating at 160°C, 0.4 MPa of pressure, during 8 minutes. The experimental design was entirely randomized with three repetitions. The properties evaluated, according to DIN (1971, ASTM D 1037-93 (1995 and CS 236-66 (1968 standards, were: internal bonding; static bending (modulus of elasticity – MOE and rupture – MOR; compression parallel to the panel surface; water absorption and thickness swelling, after 2 and 24 hours water immersion. The panel mechanical properties decreased with increasing in PET level; in general, paraffin addition did not improve the wood/plastic panels resistance and higroscopicity; the utilization of candeia wood residues is viable, in association with eucalypt wood, for the wood/plastic panel production, since the properties attended the minimum demands of the standards, except static bending.

  17. Production of dry wood chips in connection with a district heating plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjölä Jukka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture and its variation in wood chips make the control of burning in small scale heating appliances difficult resulting in emissions and loss of efficiency. If the quality of wood chips would be better, i. e. dried and sieved fuel with more uniform size distribution would be avail able, the burning could be much cleaner and efficiency higher. In addition higher power out put could be obtained and the investment costs of the burning appliances would be lower. The production of sieved and dried wood chip with good quality could be accomplished in connection with a district heating plant. Then the plant would make profit, in addition to the district heat, from the dried wood chips sold to the neighboring buildings and enterprises sep a rated from the district heating net using wood chips in energy production. The peak power of a district heating plant is required only a short time during the coldest days of the winter. Then the excess capacity during the milder days can be used as heat source for drying of wood chips to be marketed. Then wood chips are sieved and the fuel with best quality is sold and the reject is used as fuel in the plant it self. In a larger district heating plant, quality of the fuel does not need to be so high In this paper the effect of moisture on the fuel chain and on the boiler is discussed. Energy and mass balance calculations as a tool of system design is described and the characteristics of proposed dry chips production method is discussed.

  18. Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Dobrick, Jan; Möder, Monika; Kehrer, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the single substances, the mixtures, and the products were estimated from concentration-response curves and corrected for concentrations measured in the test medium. The comparison of the experimentally observed mixture toxicity with the toxicity predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA) showed less than twofold deviation for all binary mixtures of the active substances and for three of the biocidal products. A more than 60-fold underestimation of the toxicity of the fourth product by the CA prediction was detected and could be explained fully by the toxicity of one formulation additive, which had been labeled as a hazardous substance. The reason for the 4.6-fold underestimation of toxicity of the fifth product could not be explained unambiguously. Overall, the FET was found to be a suitable screening tool to verify whether the toxicity of formulated wood preservatives can reliably be predicted by CA. Applied as a quick and simple nonanimal screening test, the FET may support approaches of applying component-based mixture toxicity predictions within the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products, which is required according to European regulations. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  19. Effect of wood type and thickness on acetification kinetics in traditional vinegar production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Jesús Torija

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria-Jesús Torija1, Estibaliz Mateo1, Carlos-Alfredo Vegas1, Carla Jara1, Angel González1, Montse Poblet1, Cristina Reguant1, Jóse-Manuel Guillamon2, Albert Mas11Biotecnología enológica. Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d’enologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 2Departamento de Biotecnología de los Alimentos, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC, Burjassot, València, SpainAbstract: Traditional vinegar production is a lengthy process which implies high operational risks and jeopardizes the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. In an effort to solve these problems without changing the traditional model, we modified the wood type and thickness of vinegar barrels. We acetified in triplicate in barrels made of acacia, cherry, chestnut, and oak and in three wood thicknesses (15, 20, and 25 mm in two different vinegar plants. The operating volume was set at 60 L. Reducing wood thickness improved neither maximum acetification velocity or the total length of the process, and in some cases even worsened them. The process took longer in oak barrels than in other types of wood barrel in one of the vinegar plants. Therefore, the choice of wood is a parameter to be considered in the wine vinegar production. Keywords: acacia, cherry, chestnut, oak, acetic acid bacteria

  20. Influence of humic substances and wood decay products on the valency state of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of dissolved natural substances on the oxidation state of iron and uranium. The ongoing remediation of uranium mining areas in Saxony and Thuringia involves flooding of extended pits, submerging and subjecting to microbial decay considerable amounts of pit timber in the process. This gives rise to the problem whether the reductive environment which develops as a result of wood decay in the pit water is capable of reducing the uranium (VI) and iron (III) contained in the flood water. Measurements of the valency state of uranium and iron following their interaction with natural decay products were performed by means of electrochemical, photometric and laser spectroscopic methods. This was followed by sorption experiments with a view to collecting phenomenological data on the binding behaviour of uranium species with respect to the rock bed of the Western Erz Hills and the sediments of the Elbe valley under different redox potential conditions. The study was concluded with redox potential calculations aimed at describing the state of pit waters as well as characterising analogous natural waters. The study was performed using humic acids for alkaline brown coal extract, high moor humic substances originating from natural microbial wood decay for wood decay products, and products from hydrothermal wood decomposition as well as lignin for a methanolic wood extract [de

  1. Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Model for the Material Flow of Resonant Wood Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Aláč

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision-making model, for the selection and evaluation of the most valuable wooden input—resonant wood. Application of a given model can improve the process of input valuation as well as impact and improve particular economic indicators for the resonant wood manufacturer. We have tried to describe and evaluate the supply chain of resonant wood manufacturing and production of musical instruments. Particular value-added and non-value-added activities have been chosen according to the logical sequence of technology. Then, concrete criteria were specified and their significance weightings. Another important part of our paper is the description of resonant wood, specifications, and demands on log and wood species. There are some important physical and mechanical properties which should be taken into account and evaluated during the production of musical instruments. By the application of this model, a particular enterprise can reach an enhanced tool for the continuous evaluation of the product flowing through the supply chain. Visibility of particular operations and their logical sequence, presented by Petri nets, can lead to easier detection of possible defects in these operations and their origin. So, the main purpose of the paper lies in the suggestion of an objective and quantified managerial tool for the decision making.

  2. Removal of nano- and micronized-copper from treated wood by chelating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Nami Kartal; Evren Terzi; Bessie Woodward; Carol A. Clausen; Stan T. Lebow

    2013-01-01

    Micronized and nano-copper (Cu)-based and arsenic and chromium-free systems have received much attention for wood protection in recent years. Because they have different fixation, and micro-distribution properties, such copper systems may be more or less subject to release using known remediation methods than soluble forms of Cu. This study evaluated Cu recovery from...

  3. Starch inclusion complex to emulsify cedarwood oil and pressure treat wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we have demonstrated that CO2-derived cedarwood oil has a range of bioactivities, including insect repellency and toxicity as well as conferring resistance to both termites and wood-rot fungi. In the earlier pressure treatment work, ethanol was used as the diluent/carrier. However, it is...

  4. Elastic and Strength Properties of Heat-Treated Beech and Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Borůvka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of heat treatment on the elastic and strength properties of two diffuse porous hardwoods, namely Fagus sylvatica and Betula pendula. Two degrees of the heat treatment were used at temperatures of 165 °C and 210 °C. The dynamic and static elasticity modulus, bending strength, impact toughness, hardness, and density were tested. It is already known that an increase in treatment temperature decreases the mechanical properties and, on the other hand, leads to a better shape and dimensional stability. Higher temperatures of the heat treatment correlated with lower elastic and strength properties. In the case of higher temperature treatments, the decline of tested properties was noticeable as a result of serious changes in the chemical composition of wood. It was confirmed that at higher temperature stages of treatment, there was a more pronounced decrease in beech properties compared to those of the birch, which was the most evident in their bending strength and hardness. Our research confirmed that there is no reason to consider birch wood to be of a lesser quality, although it is regarded by foresters as an inferior tree species. After the heat treatment, the wood properties are almost the same as in the case of beech wood.

  5. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronized copper azole (MCA) and micronized copper quaternary are the latest wood preservatives to replace the liquid lkaline copper and chromated copper arsenate preservatives due to concerns over the toxicity or lack of effectiveness of the earlier formulations. Today, the use...

  6. Health Effects of Operators in the Production of Wood Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, K.; Arvidsson, H.; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, C. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Eriksson, K. [Univ. Hospital of Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Andersson, E. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

    2006-07-15

    The environmental and energy policy in Sweden is aiming to replace fossil energy with renewable sources such as biofuels, e.g., wood Pellets produced from shavings and sawdust of pine and spruce. Reported health effects in the wood processing industries are airway, eye and skin irritation, reduced lung function as well as eczema. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of airway and skin symptoms and measure lung function in a population of pellet operators in the Swedish wood industry. Additional reported acute effects from the airways, eyes, nose and skin were recorded. From May 2004 until April 2005 50 blue-collar workers from four Swedish pellet-producing industries were investigated. The study included a questionnaire about skin and airway symptoms (n=50), acute effect questionnaire (n=67; 44 individuals) as well as a test of the lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift (n=118; 39 individuals). Acute effects questionnaire and spirometry were done one to three times per participants and for the acute effects the worker had to assess their symptoms in the airways, eyes, nose and skin between 6 and 8 times during a day. The results from the symptom questionnaires were compared with reference data from other Swedish studies and the lung function data with a European reference material. Statistical tests used were chi-2-test for the questionnaire, t-test for lung function before shift compared expected values, and for difference in lung function between before and after work shift mixed models with subjects as a random factor. No statistical significant difference was seen for the skin and airway symptoms in the questionnaire. Reported acute effects were seen especially for eye and nose symptoms (table 1). Spirometry showed significantly higher forced vital capacity (FVC; p=0.0003) and no difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; p=0.08) before work shift compared to expected values. FVC was 108,1 % and FEV1 was 104

  7. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Estimating consumer willingness to pay a price premium for Alaska secondary wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David L. Nicholls

    2003-01-01

    Dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey techniques were used to estimate mean willingness to pay (WTP) a price premium for made-in-Alaska secondary wood products. Respondents were asked to compare two superficially identical end tables, one made in China and one made in Alaska. The surveys were administered at home shows in Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Sitka in...

  9. Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabien H. Wagner; Bruno Herault; Damien Bonal; Clement Stahl; Liana O. Anderson; Timothy R. Baker; Gabriel Sebastian Becker; Hans Beeckman; Danilo Boanerges Souza; Paulo Cesar Botosso; David M. J. S. Bowman; Achim Brauning; Benjamin Brede; Foster Irving Brown; Jesus Julio Camarero; Plinio Barbosa Camargo; Fernanda C. G. Cardoso; Fabricio Alvim Carvalho; Wendeson Castro; Rubens Koloski Chagas; Jerome Chave; Emmanuel N. Chidumayo; Deborah A. Clark; Flavia Regina Capellotto Costa; Camille Couralet; Paulo Henrique da Silva Mauricio; Helmut Dalitz; Vinicius Resende de Castro; Jacanan Eloisa de Freitas Milani; Edilson Consuelo de Oliveira; Luciano de Souza Arruda; Jean-Louis Devineau; David M. Drew; Oliver Dunisch; Giselda Durigan; Elisha Elifuraha; Marcio Fedele; Ligia Ferreira Fedele; Afonso Figueiredo Filho; Cesar Augusto Guimaraes Finger; Augusto Cesar Franco; Joao Lima Freitas Junior; Franklin Galvao; Aster Gebrekirstos; Robert Gliniars; Paulo Mauricio Lima de Alencastro Graca; Anthony D. Griffiths; James Grogan; Kaiyu Guan; Jurgen Homeier; Maria Raquel Kanieski; Lip Khoon Kho; Jennifer Koenig; Sintia Valerio Kohler; Julia Krepkowski; Jose Pires Lemos-Filho; Diana Lieberman; Milton Eugene Lieberman; Claudio Sergio Lisi; Tomaz Longhi Santos; Jose Luis Lopez Ayala; Eduardo Eijji Maeda; Yadvinder Malhi; Vivian R. B. Maria; Marcia C. M. Marques; Renato Marques; Hector Maza Chamba; Lawrence Mbwambo; Karina Liana Lisboa Melgaco; Hooz Angela Mendivelso; Brett P. Murphy; Joseph O' Brien; Steven F. Oberbauer; Naoki Okada; Raphael Pelissier; Lynda D. Prior; Fidel Alejandro Roig; Michael Ross; Davi Rodrigo Rossatto; Vivien Rossi; Lucy Rowland; Ervan Rutishauser; Hellen Santana; Mark Schulze; Diogo Selhorst; Williamar Rodrigues Silva; Marcos Silveira; Susanne Spannl; Michael D. Swaine; Jose Julio Toledo; Marcos Miranda Toledo; Marisol Toledo; Takeshi Toma; Mario Tomazello Filho; Juan Ignacio Valdez Hernandez; Jan Verbesselt; Simone Aparecida Vieira; Gregoire Vincent; Carolina Volkmer de Castilho; Franziska Volland; Martin Worbes; Magda Lea Bolzan Zanon; Luiz E. O. C. Aragao

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal climate drivers of the carbon cycle in tropical forests remain poorly known, although these forests account for more carbon assimilation and storage than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Based on a unique combination of seasonal pan-tropical data sets from 89 experimental sites (68 include aboveground wood productivity measurements and 35 litter...

  10. Forest production dynamics along a wood density spectrum in eastern US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; M.B. Russell; B.F. Walters; A.W. D' Amato; K. Zhu; S.S. Saatchi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging plant economics spectrum theories were confirmed across temperate forest systems of the eastern US where the use of a forest stand's mean wood density elucidated forest volume and biomass production dynamics integrating aspects of climate, tree mortality/growth, and rates of site occupancy.

  11. Wood as Energy--Production and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Iowa Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Instructional materials are provided for a unit dealing with production and marketing of wood as an energy source. Unit objectives and a list of visual masters appear first. Content is arranged by six topics: introduction, pre-cutting activities (planning a fuelwood cutting, marketing, chain saw safety), cutting activities, post-cutting…

  12. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  13. Managing for water-use efficient wood production in Eucalyptus globulus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. White; John F. McGrath; Michael G. Ryan; Michael Battaglia; Daniel S. Mendham; Joe Kinal; Geoffrey M. Downes; D. Stuart Crombie; Mark E. Hunt

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that thinning and nitrogen fertiliser can increase the mass of wood produced per volume of water used (evapotranspiration) by plantations of Eucalyptus globulus. We have called this plantation water productivity (PWPWOOD) and argue that, for a given genotype, this term integrates the effects of management, site and climate on both...

  14. Wood pellet production costs under Austrian and in comparison to Swedish framework conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obernberger, I.; Thek, G.

    2004-01-01

    Owing to the rapidly increasing importance of pellets as high-quality biomass fuel in Austria and Europe within the last years, many companies, mainly from the wood industry, are thinking of entering this market. The calculation of the production costs before starting a pellet plant is essential for

  15. Forest Products Laboratory : supporting the nation's armed forces with valuable wood research for 90 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Risbrudt; Robert J. Ross; Julie J. Blankenburg; Charles A. Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Founded in 1910 by the U.S. Forest Service to serve as a centralized, national wood research laboratory, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) has a long history of providing technical services to other government agencies, including those within the Defense (DoD). A recent search of FPL’s library and correspondence files revealed that approximately 10,000...

  16. Forest Management for Non-Wood Forest Products and Services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFPs) and services in livelihood support has been reviewed. Quite a number of NWFPs are also important articles of commerce and contribute significantly to the economies various African countries. The non-consumptive role of forests has been examined in terms of ...

  17. The wood-electricity: development perspectives for the wood-based production of energy in France by 2015. Soil pollution. Soil contamination by hydrocarbon effluents: rehabilitation market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, C.

    1996-09-01

    A report proposes an economical analysis of the wood-based production of electricity in France, describes the different stages of this process, from supply (crop, tearing, transport, storage) through conversion (technologies, combustion or gasification) and to the output kWh (cost sensitivity analysis with respect to the evolution of other parameters). It describes the environmental impacts of wood-based electricity production and compares the quantities of pollutants emitted by this process with those emitted by other processes based on fossil energies. It identifies the main obstacles to the development of wood-based electricity production and proposes political and institutional measures inspired by the Danish experience. A second article is aimed at presenting an economic analysis of the cost of decontamination of hydrocarbon polluted sites in France (a majority of which are gas stations and storage sites)

  18. Wood Volume Production and Use of 10 Woody Species in Semiarid Zones of Northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Foroughbakhch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A research strategy was established to analyze the structure of timber trees in terms of forest productivity (volume and wood density of 10 species. The native species Acacia farnesiana, Acacia schaffneri, Bumelia celastrina, Cercidium macrun, Condalia hookeri, Ebenopsis ebano, Helietta parvifolia, and Prosopis laevigata and the exotic species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Leucaena leucocephala were chosen due to their ecological and economic importance to the rural villages of northeastern Mexico. Measurements of different growth parameters and volume of trees were evaluated. The introduced species E. camaldulensis and L. leucocephala showed the best performance in wood volume production per tree and per hectare when compared to the native species. Likewise, among the native species, E. ebano, P. laevigata, C. hookeri, and A. farnesiana tended to show better characteristics in terms of wood volume production in comparison to H. parvifolia, A. schaffneri, C. macrum, and B. celastrina. Results showed a high diversity on the properties studied. The high biomass produced by most of the species considered in this study revealed their great energetic potential when used as wood and firewood or vegetal charcoal.

  19. Effects of acidity on primary productivity in lakes: phytoplankton. [Lakes Panther, Sagamore, and Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G R

    1979-01-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton communities and lake acidity are being studied at Woods Lake (pH ca. 4.9), Sagamore Lake (pH ca. 5.5), and Panther Lake (pH ca. 7.0). Numbers of phytoplankton species observed as of July 31, 1979 are Woods 27, Sagamore 38, and Panther 64, conforming to other observations that species numbers decrease with increasing acidity. Patterns of increasing biomass and productivity found in Woods Lake may be atypical of similar oligotrophic lakes in that they develop rather slowly instead of occuring very close to ice-out. Contributions of netplankton (net > 48 ..mu..m), nannoplankton (48 > nanno > 20 ..mu..m) and ultraplankton (20 > ultra >0.45 ..mu..m) to productivity per m/sup -2/ show that the smaller plankton are relatively more important in the more acid lakes. This pattern could be determined by nutrient availability (lake acidification leading to decreased availability of phosphorus). The amount of /sup 14/C-labelled dissolved photosynthate (/sup 14/C-DOM), as a percent of total productivity, is ordered Woods > Sagamore > Panther. This is consistent with a hypothesis that microbial heterotrophic activity is reduced with increasing acidity, but the smaller phytoplankton may be more leaky at low pH. (ERB)

  20. Bio-energy in the wood processing industry. Manual for energy production from residual matter for the wood processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Halen, C.J.G.; Arninkhof, M.J.C.; Rommens, P.J.M.; Karsch, P.

    2000-04-01

    This manual is published within the framework of a project, financed by Novem (EWAB programme) and the European Commission (Altener programme). Similar manuals were drafted in Germany, England and Sweden. The basis of the project was the manual 'Quality manual for small-scale wood incineration and wood gasification', published by Novem in 1998. That quality manual was drafted on the basis of an evaluation of a number of wood combustion and wood gasification projects. The original manual has been improved as a result of comments made by experts in the field of bio-energy. Updated information was added with respect to legislation, financing options and new technology. Also the manual is focused more on the wood processing industry

  1. BROMINATION OF 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXANE AND APPLYING THE RESULTING PRODUCT TO IMPROVE THE FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTIES OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nikulina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the demand for timber is increasing. Wood and products on its basis are considered to be the most popular in the construction industry, furniture industry, as building materials and other However, along with the positive features of this material there are also negative factors, which include low resistance to biological degradation, high temperature, resistance. Wood and materials based on it are the most flammable, and fire safety is characterized by the velocity of propagation of fire on the wooden structure. He is able to destroy it in a matter of minutes. So the wooden house elements must be protected from fire. It was therefore necessary for the fire protection of wood. It is in the handling of wood with flame retardants. Basic fire fighting methods is the impregnation of wood antipyrene composition, painting fire paint and constructive ways - insulation of timber, non-combustible compositions which can resist the fire. In the work of brominated 4-vinylcyclohexane formed as a by-product in the petrochemical industry, in chloroform synthesized compound with bromine 62-64 % and the possibility of using this product to get antiferromag composition. It is established that the application for the protective treatment of wood synthesized flame retardant has shown that this product can be used for the protective treatment of natural wood to make it flame retardant properties. Use as antiperiodic compositions bromodomain based products 4-vinylcyclohexane allows to obtain images of wood first group of flame retardant efficiency.

  2. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  3. PRODUCTION OF ANTIBACTERIAL FILTER PAPER FROM WOOD CELLULOSE

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Imani; Mohammad Talaiepour; Joydeep Dutta; Mohammad R. Ghobadinezhad; Amir H. Hemmasi; Mousa M. Nazhad

    2011-01-01

    Paper has a visible market-share in hygiene products either in the form of personal hygiene or as food packaging. The designation “hygiene”, though it suggests cleanliness, does not imply antibacterial properties; rather it can be stated that hygiene products do not initiate microorganism growth. Antibacterial products could restrict propagation of pathogenic bacteria either by holding bacteria or by trapping and neutralizing them. Most research in this field has been conducted using textile ...

  4. Effects of permethrin treated wood on the subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and comparison of solvent extraction for HPLC analysis of permethrin in wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Mankowski; Blossie Boyd; Geoffrey Webb

    2016-01-01

    Permethrin is a common insecticide used in wood preservation. It is an effective synthetic pyrethroid that is considered to be less toxic to higher organisms than organochlorine insecticides. In wood preservation, it can be used in combination with fungicides such as 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC). Permethrin has a dual mode of action as it is a repellent and...

  5. Development of a Tool to Measure the Effectiveness of Kaizen Events within the Wood Products Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogan, Sevtap

    2015-01-01

    Kaizen implementation and other continuous improvement practices can be used by companies to lower manufacturing costs and increase product value. Kaizen activities are one way that wood products companies can increase their competitiveness. Being able to measure the effectiveness of Kaizen events is important to factors that contribute to Kaizen effectiveness as well as identifying the success of Kaizen implementation. However, little research has focused on the implementation of Kaizen and ...

  6. Demonstration of the efficiency and robustness of an acid leaching process to remove metals from various CCA-treated wood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, Lucie; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Cooper, Paul; Janin, Amélie; Gastonguay, Louis

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, an efficient and economically attractive leaching process has been developed to remove metals from copper-based treated wood wastes. This study explored the applicability of this leaching process using chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood samples with different initial metal loading and elapsed time between wood preservation treatment and remediation. The sulfuric acid leaching process resulted in the solubilization of more than 87% of the As, 70% of the Cr, and 76% of the Cu from CCA-chips and in the solubilization of more than 96% of the As, 78% of the Cr and 91% of the Cu from CCA-sawdust. The results showed that the performance of this leaching process might be influenced by the initial metal loading of the treated wood wastes and the elapsed time between preservation treatment and remediation. The effluents generated during the leaching steps were treated by precipitation-coagulation to satisfy the regulations for effluent discharge in municipal sewers. Precipitation using ferric chloride and sodium hydroxide was highly efficient, removing more than 99% of the As, Cr, and Cu. It appears that this leaching process can be successfully applied to remove metals from different CCA-treated wood samples and then from the effluents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of polyurethane foams using fractionated products in liquefied wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    Liquefaction of sawdust was studied using glycerol and methanol as mix solvents. A new bio-polyol product consisting of high purity multi-hydroxy compounds was obtained by precipitation of the hydrophobic organics from the liquefied product in an aqueous solution. As identified by GC-MS, the dominate components in bio-polyol were glycerol, glycerol derivatives, and...

  8. Successional changes in live and dead wood carbon stores: implications for net ecosystem productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, J E; Harmon, M E

    2002-02-01

    If forests are to be used in CO2 mitigation projects, it is essential to understand and quantify the impacts of disturbance on net ecosystem productivity (NEP; i.e., the change in ecosystem carbon (C) storage with time). We examined the influence of live tree and coarse woody debris (CWD) on NEP during secondary succession based on data collected along a 500-year chronosequence on the Wind River Ranger District, Washington. We developed a simple statistical model of live and dead wood accumulation and decomposition to predict changes in the woody component of NEP, which we call NEP(w). The transition from negative to positive NEP(w), for a series of scenarios in which none to all wood was left after disturbance, occurred between 0 and 57 years after disturbance. The timing of this transition decreased as live-tree growth rates increased, and increased as CWD left after disturbance increased. Maximum and minimum NEP(w) for all scenarios were 3.9 and -14.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, respectively. Maximum live and total wood C stores of 319 and 393 Mg C ha(-1), respectively, were reached approximately 200 years after disturbance. Decomposition rates (k) of CWD ranged between 0.013 and 0.043 year-1 for individual stands. Regenerating stands took 41 years to attain a mean live wood mass equivalent to the mean mass of CWD left behind after logging, 40 years to equal the mean CWD mass in 500-year-old forest, and more than 150 years to equal the mean total live and dead wood in an old-growth stand. At a rotation age of 80 years, regenerating stands stored approximately half the wood C of the remaining nearby old-growth forests (predominant age 500 years), indicating that conversion of old-growth forests to younger managed forests results in a significant net release of C to the atmosphere.

  9. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Keith

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Conservation of native forests results in an immediate and substantial reduction in net emissions relative to a reference case of commercial harvesting. We calibrated models to simulate scenarios of native forest management for two Australian case studies: mixed-eucalypt in New South Wales and Mountain Ash in Victoria. Carbon stocks in the harvested forest included forest biomass, wood and paper products, waste in landfill, and bioenergy that substituted for fossil fuel energy. The conservation forest included forest biomass, and subtracted stocks for the foregone products that were substituted by non-wood products or plantation products. Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution sufficiently to exceed the increase in carbon stock due to changing management of native forest to conservation. The key parameters determining carbon stock change under different forest management scenarios are those affecting accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, rather than parameters affecting transfers among wood products. This analysis helps prioritise mitigation activities to focus on maximising forest biomass. International forest-related policies, including negotiations under the UNFCCC, have failed to recognize

  10. Lumber attributes, characteristics, and species preferences as indicated by secondary wood products firms in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate selected lumber attributes, species preferences, and lumber use properties among secondary wood manufacturers in the United States. Our sample included producers of kitchen cabinets, furniture, doors, windows, and molded products who attended regional and national wood manufacturing events. More than 51% of respondents had...

  11. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Northern Region, 1906-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  12. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region, 1906-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  13. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Southern Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  14. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Intermountain Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  15. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Butler; Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  16. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  17. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Eastern Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  18. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Alaska Region, 1910-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  19. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Southwestern Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Butler; Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  20. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Polttojakeen hankinta puun yhdistelmaekorjuussa ja integroitu energiapuun tuotantomenetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A. [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Kuitto, P.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Ranta, T. [Finntech Ltd. Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Chip production company Hooli Ltd. has built an innovative mobile chain-flail delimbing-debarking-unit which includes also a hammer crusher for wood fuel. This integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood based on that unit has been planned especially for the circumstances where the power or heating plants are near and the pulp mills more remote from the wood processing sites. The trees are felt into bunches and transported as whole trees or tree-sections to the roadside. The Hooli-unit delimbs and debarks the trees using multi-tree processing. The optimal bark content of Scot pine bolts after processing is under 1 %. All green branches, stops and bark are directly crushed into wood fuel in the same unit. Fuel chips are carried to the nearest power plant. The debarked bolts are transported to the pulpmills in the form of roundwood or pulpchips, thus giving better economy for the whole method. Based on first field experiments in 1995 this method has operated well. However, there are still development work ahead: e.g. good debarking quality of birch and spruce in the winter conditions. To attain the targets of the project looks promising. The project is carried out as joint project between Hooli Ltd, Finntech Ltd. Oy, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Veitsiluoto Ltd and VTT Energy. The chain-flail delimbing-debarking-crushing unit was built at Tervolan Konepaja Ky

  1. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Polttojakeen hankinta puun yhdistelmaekorjuussa ja integroitu energiapuun tuotantomenetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Kuitto, P J [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Ranta, T [Finntech Ltd. Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Chip production company Hooli Ltd. has built an innovative mobile chain-flail delimbing-debarking-unit which includes also a hammer crusher for wood fuel. This integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood based on that unit has been planned especially for the circumstances where the power or heating plants are near and the pulp mills more remote from the wood processing sites. The trees are felt into bunches and transported as whole trees or tree-sections to the roadside. The Hooli-unit delimbs and debarks the trees using multi-tree processing. The optimal bark content of Scot pine bolts after processing is under 1 %. All green branches, stops and bark are directly crushed into wood fuel in the same unit. Fuel chips are carried to the nearest power plant. The debarked bolts are transported to the pulpmills in the form of roundwood or pulpchips, thus giving better economy for the whole method. Based on first field experiments in 1995 this method has operated well. However, there are still development work ahead: e.g. good debarking quality of birch and spruce in the winter conditions. To attain the targets of the project looks promising. The project is carried out as joint project between Hooli Ltd, Finntech Ltd. Oy, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Veitsiluoto Ltd and VTT Energy. The chain-flail delimbing-debarking-crushing unit was built at Tervolan Konepaja Ky

  2. Cone calorimeter tests of wood-based decking materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Nicole M. Stark

    2007-01-01

    New technologies in building materials have resulted in the use of a wide variety of materials in decks. As part of our effort to address fire concerns in the wildland-urban interface, the Forest Products Laboratory has been examining the fire performance of decking products. In addition to preservative-treated wood, decking products include wood-plastic composites and...

  3. An exploratory assessment of the attitudes of Chinese wood products manufacturers towards forest certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L; Kozak, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Interviews with Chinese forest products manufacturers were conducted to explore their attitudes towards forest certification and related issues. Participants comprised owners, CEOs, and managers in 20 Chinese wood products companies, including producers of furniture, doors, flooring, and various engineered wood products. The interviews were used to analyze the extent to which participants were considering adopting forest certification and what might motivate such a decision. This was done by assessing their awareness and knowledge of certification. The results indicated that participants' understanding of forest certification was extremely low, despite major efforts in China to raise awareness of the issue. Potential economic benefits were the most frequently cited reason to adopt certification, including gaining or maintaining competitive advantage over their industry counterparts, improved access to both domestic and export markets, better customer recognition, and enhanced corporate responsibility practices. Some interviewees (3 out of 20) considered that certification would become a mandatory requirement or industry standard, and that this would be the only viable motivation for certification given that the financial benefits were potentially limited. According to the participants, the main differences between certified and uncertified wood products operations related to improved market access and public image. Interviewees felt that cooperation between and support from governments and the forest industry would enable the enhanced awareness of certification amongst manufacturers and the general public. This, in turn, could serve to stimulate demand for certified products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon sequestration in wood products: a method for attribution to multiple parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Marland, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    When forest is harvested some of the forest carbon ends up in wood products. If the forest is managed so that the standing stock of the forest remains constant over time, and the stock of wood products is increasing, then carbon dioxide is being removed from the atmosphere in net and this should be reflected in accounting for greenhouse gas emissions. We suggest that carbon sequestration in wood products requires cooperation of multiple parties; from the forest owner to the product manufacturer to the product user, and perhaps others. Credit for sequestering carbon away from the atmosphere could acknowledge the contributions of these multiple parties. Accounting under a cap-and-trade or tax system is not necessarily an inventory system, it is a system designed to motivate and/or reward an environmental objective. We describe a system of attribution whereby credits for carbon sequestration would be shared among multiple, contributing parties. It is hoped that the methodology outlined herein proves attractive enough to parties concerned to spur them to address the details of such a system. The system of incentives one would choose for limiting or controlling greenhouse gas emissions could be quite different, depending on how the attribution for emissions and sequestration is chosen

  5. Wood mouse and box turtle populations in an area treated annually with DDT for five years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1951-01-01

    A 117-acre area of dense woodland on the Patuxent Research Refuge received an aerial application of DDT in oil at the rate of 2 pounds per acre gnnually for five years. DDT reached ground level in a much smaller amount (thousandths to hundredths of a pound per acre). Treatment was made during the first week of June of each year from 1945 through 1949. Field studies of the wood mouse population in DDT and check areas showed no significant differences in the two areas before and after the 1949 DDT treatment. There was no significant difference between trapping samples taken in DDT and check areas in 1945 and those taken in 1949. Field studies of the box turtles in DDT and check areas in 1945 and 1949 showed no significant difference in population size. Growth of the four young turtles taken in the DDT area in both 1945 and 1949 appeared to be normal in comparison with growth of check area turtles.

  6. Determination of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in treated wood of Eucalyptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parreira, Paulo S.; Vendrametto, Guilherme R.; Cunha, Magda E.T.

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with the possible application of a portable energy dispersive handmade system (PXRF-LFNA-02) for the determination of Chromium, Copper and Arsenic in the preservative solution used to protect commercial wood of Eucalyptus, which are employed as wood fence, posts, contention fences, railroad sleepers, etc. It was prepared five body-of-proof made of eucalyptus alburnum with different concentrations for each element varying from 0.0061 to 0.0180 (g/g) for CrO 3 , 0.0024 to 0.0070 (g/g) for CuO and 0.0044 to 0.0129 (g/g) for As 2 O 5 . Four of them were used for calibration curves and one used as reference sample. It was used a commercial CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate ) solution to prepare the samples. The results show a good linear regression between concentrations and X-rays intensities, after applied the multiple linear regression methodology for interelemental corrections. The values obtained with this methodology were 3.01(kg/m 3 ), 1.18 (kg/m 3 ) e 2.21 (kg/m 3 ) for CrO 3 , CuO and As 2 O 5 , respectively, while the nominal values are 2.90 (kg/m 3 ) for CrO 3 , 1.13 (kg/m 3 ) for CuO and 2.07 (kg/m 3 ) for As 2 O 5 . The ED-XRF (Energy Dispersive X-Rays Fluorescence) is a well established technique with high-speed of analytical procedure and its portable configuration allowing a multielemental, simultaneous and non destructive analyses besides in situ application. (author)

  7. Determination of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in treated wood of Eucalyptus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parreira, Paulo S., E-mail: parreira@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab.de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Vendrametto, Guilherme R.; Cunha, Magda E.T., E-mail: grvendrametto@gmail.co [Universidade Norte do Parana, Arapongas, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Humanas, da Saude, Exatas e Tecnologicas-A

    2009-07-01

    This work deals with the possible application of a portable energy dispersive handmade system (PXRF-LFNA-02) for the determination of Chromium, Copper and Arsenic in the preservative solution used to protect commercial wood of Eucalyptus, which are employed as wood fence, posts, contention fences, railroad sleepers, etc. It was prepared five body-of-proof made of eucalyptus alburnum with different concentrations for each element varying from 0.0061 to 0.0180 (g/g) for CrO{sub 3}, 0.0024 to 0.0070 (g/g) for CuO and 0.0044 to 0.0129 (g/g) for As{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Four of them were used for calibration curves and one used as reference sample. It was used a commercial CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate ) solution to prepare the samples. The results show a good linear regression between concentrations and X-rays intensities, after applied the multiple linear regression methodology for interelemental corrections. The values obtained with this methodology were 3.01(kg/m{sup 3}), 1.18 (kg/m{sup 3}) e 2.21 (kg/m{sup 3}) for CrO{sub 3}, CuO and As{sub 2}O{sub 5}, respectively, while the nominal values are 2.90 (kg/m{sup 3}) for CrO{sub 3}, 1.13 (kg/m{sup 3}) for CuO and 2.07 (kg/m{sup 3}) for As{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The ED-XRF (Energy Dispersive X-Rays Fluorescence) is a well established technique with high-speed of analytical procedure and its portable configuration allowing a multielemental, simultaneous and non destructive analyses besides in situ application. (author)

  8. A simple technique to increase profits in wood products marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to solve quickly some simple day-to-day marketing problems. This note explains how a sawmill production manager, who has an essentially fixed-capacity mill, can solve several optimization problems by using pencil and paper, a forecast of market prices, and a simple algorithm. One such problem is to maximize profits in an operating period...

  9. Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

  10. Increased wood-fiber production: technology, economics, and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Bentley

    1973-01-01

    Forest tree improvement is a form of technological change, and it should be viewed as such. The economic objective of technological change is to increase productivity per dollar invested. This is accomplished through selection and breeding for increased growth rates or reduced losses to insects and disease. Programs which yield improved planting stock make forest...

  11. Production, Cost and Chip Characteristics of In-Woods Microchipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Thompson; W. Sprinkle

    2013-01-01

    Emerging markets for biomass have increased the interest in producing microchips in the field. As a component of a large United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded project, microchipping has been trialed on a limited scale. The goal of the research was to evaluate the production, cost and chip characteristics of a mobile disc chipper configured to produce...

  12. Product costing guide for wood dimension and component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2014-01-01

    The North American hardwood dimension and components industry plays a critical role in the hardwood forest products industry as the industry is a user of high-value hardwood lumber. Customer expectations, global markets, and international competition, however, require hardwood dimension and components manufacturers to continuously improve their ability to manage their...

  13. Effects of Treated Wood Flour on Physico-Mechanical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-06-28

    Jun 28, 2013 ... The raw, alkali-treated and bonding agent treated fibers were used as natural .... group of the fiber, cause removal of lignin, and increase bonding sites in the fiber interface thereby making the surface of the fibre more reactive.

  14. Small-scale production and utilization of wood fuels; Puupolttoaineen pientuotanto ja -kaeyttoe - katsaus tutkimus- projekteihin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the research on small-scale production of wood fuels was to promote the forest owners` own utilization and procurement of firewood. The profitability of firewood was improved by developing new farm-tractor mountable equipment and methods for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs for harvesting of first-thinning wood and other small-dimeter wood. Totally new solution for machine felling of small trees and chopwood production were developed to serial production level. Recyclable processing and delivery units were developed for delivery of chopwood. A calculation model for analysing the costs of small-scale production of firewood became ready. A guide on the development of heating-entrepreneur activities, serving the entrepreneurs, was published. The objective of the firewood utilization research was to reduce the technical barriers of the utilization of firewood in small-house and real-estate scales. The main aim was to reduce the flue-gas emissions. The emissions of the fireplaces were reduced by developing the construction of fireplaces, catalytic combustion and heating methods. An automatic stoker-burner was developed for real-estate scale and a boiler series was designed for biofuels

  15. Small-scale production and utilization of wood fuels; Puupolttoaineen pientuotanto ja -kaeyttoe - katsaus tutkimus- projekteihin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, S [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the research on small-scale production of wood fuels was to promote the forest owners` own utilization and procurement of firewood. The profitability of firewood was improved by developing new farm-tractor mountable equipment and methods for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs for harvesting of first-thinning wood and other small-dimeter wood. Totally new solution for machine felling of small trees and chopwood production were developed to serial production level. Recyclable processing and delivery units were developed for delivery of chopwood. A calculation model for analysing the costs of small-scale production of firewood became ready. A guide on the development of heating-entrepreneur activities, serving the entrepreneurs, was published. The objective of the firewood utilization research was to reduce the technical barriers of the utilization of firewood in small-house and real-estate scales. The main aim was to reduce the flue-gas emissions. The emissions of the fireplaces were reduced by developing the construction of fireplaces, catalytic combustion and heating methods. An automatic stoker-burner was developed for real-estate scale and a boiler series was designed for biofuels

  16. Production of cattle feed by the growth of bacteria on mesquite wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, D W

    1975-01-01

    The potential for the conversion of mesquite into either a complete animal feed or a protein supplement was evaluated. Species of bacteria which can use the extremely hard mesquite wood as their sole C source were isolated by enrichment culture techniques. Each species was evaluated for its rate of growth, protein production, cellulase activity, amino acid profile of the single-cell protein, and acute toxicity or pathogenicity for weanling mice. The growth products were analyzed for protein, lignin, ash, carbohydrates, and caloric value. The single-cell protein produced from mesquite exceeded or equaled the FAO reference protein in 8 essential amino acids including methionine. No pathogenicity or acute toxicity of the bacteria for weanling mice was found. The results indicate that a high-energy, high-protein, complete cattle feed or an excellent protein supplement can be produced from mesquite wood.

  17. Silicification of wood adopted for barrel production using pure silicon alkoxides in gas phase to avoid microbial colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Widmann, Giacomo; Bertoldi, Daniela; Nardin, Tiziana; Callone, Emanuela; Nicolini, Giorgio; Larcher, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a new approach, covering wood with silica-based material in order to protect it from spoilage due to microbial colonisation and avoiding the loss of the natural features of the wood. Wood specimens derived from wine barrels were treated with methyltriethoxysilane in gas phase, leading to the deposition of a silica nanofilm on the surface. (29)Si and (13)C solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis observations showed the formation of a silica polymeric film on the wood samples, directly bonding with the wood constituents. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy quantification of Si showed a direct correlation between the treatment time and silica deposition on the surface of the wood. The silica-coated wood counteracted colonisation by the main wine spoilage microorganisms, without altering the migration from wood to wine of 21 simple phenols measured using a HPLC-Electrochemical Coulometric Detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural wood products in onshore buildings at Naval Station Norfolk, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever

    2003-01-01

    As of December 31, 2000, there were 603 buildings at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Norfolk with a combined floor area of nearly 17.3 million ft2. In one-third of these buildings, structural wood products were used in one or more major structural building applications, utilizing an estimated 11.6 million board feet of lumber, 0.4 million ft2 (3/8-in. basis) of structural...

  19. Development of a tornado safe room door from wood Products: door design and impact testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a tornado safe room door built from wood products and steel sheeting was developed and impact-tested according to tornado safe room standards. Results indicate that an door constructed from as few as two sheets of 23/32-in. (18.26-mm) construction-grade plywood and overlaid with 18-gauge (0.05-in.- (1.27- mm-) thick) steel can pass the required impact...

  20. Carbon budget of Ontario's managed forests and harvested wood products, 2001–2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxin Chen; Stephen J. Colombo; Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian; Linda S. Heath

    2010-01-01

    Forest and harvested wood products (HWP) carbon (C) stocks between 2001 and 2100 for Ontario's managed forests were projected using FORCARB-ON, an adaptation of the U.S. national forest C budget model known as FORCARB2. A fire disturbance module was introduced to FORCARB-ON to simulate the effects of wildfire on C, and some of the model's C pools were re-...

  1. California's hardwood resource: managing for wildlife, water, pleasing scenery, and wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Dean W. Huber

    1995-01-01

    A new management perspective that emphasizes a variety of amenities and commodities is needed for California’s forest-zone hardwoods. For the near future and perhaps more on public than on private land, these "yields" are wildlife, water, esthetics, and wood products. Each is presented first as an individual yield and then as part of a combined yield. As an...

  2. Eucalyptus wood and coffee parchment for particleboard production: Physical and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Vanoli Scatolino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The wood panel industry is constantly growing, being necessary the innovation in technologies and raw materials to improve the quality of the final product. Considering the shortage and pressure to decrease the dependence of wood, there is an interest in other renewable materials such as agricultural wastes. Among these wastes, coffee parchment is one which deserves notoriety. An alternative use for coffee parchment could be for production of particleboard in association with wood particles. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee parchment for production of particleboard. The following percentages of wastes were used: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% in association to eucalyptus wood. The panels were produced with 8% of urea formaldehyde (based on dry weight of particles. The pressing cycle consisted by: pre-pressing of 0.5 MPa for 10 minutes followed by pressing of 4.0 MPa, and temperature of 160° C for 15 minutes. The compaction ratio of particleboards produced using higher quantities of parchment improved the physical properties. The properties of Water Absorption (2 and 24 h and Thickness Swelling (2 h decreased with increasing percentage of coffee parchment. The Thickness Swelling (24 h showed not significant effect with an increase of coffee waste. The Modulus of Elasticity for coffee parchment particleboards was in the range 646.49 ± 112.65 to 402.03 ± 66.24 MPa, while the Modulus of Rupture ranged from 8.18 ± 1.39 to 4.45 ± 0.75 MPa. The results showed that 10% of coffee parchment could be added for production of particleboards.

  3. Solid wood timber products consumption in major end uses in the United States, 1950-2009 : a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; James L. Howard

    2011-01-01

    Solid wood timber products provide important raw materials to the construction, manufacturing, and shipping sectors of the U.S. economy. Nearly all new single-family houses and low-rise multifamily residential structures are wood framed and sheathed. Large amounts of solid wood timber products are also used in the construction of new nonresidential buildings, and in...

  4. Decadal Variations in Eastern Canada's Taiga Wood Biomass Production Forced by Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Etienne; Nicault, Antoine; Arseneault, Dominique; Bégin, Yves; Karami, Mehdi Pasha

    2017-05-26

    Across Eastern Canada (EC), taiga forests represent an important carbon reservoir, but the extent to which climate variability affects this ecosystem over decades remains uncertain. Here, we analyze an extensive network of black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.) ring width and wood density measurements and provide new evidence that wood biomass production is influenced by large-scale, internal ocean-atmosphere processes. We show that while black spruce wood biomass production is primarily governed by growing season temperatures, the Atlantic ocean conveys heat from the subtropics and influences the decadal persistence in taiga forests productivity. Indeed, we argue that 20-30 years periodicities in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) as part of the the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) directly influence heat transfers to adjacent lands. Winter atmospheric conditions associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) might also impact EC's taiga forests, albeit indirectly, through its effect on SSTs and sea ice conditions in surrounding seas. Our work emphasizes that taiga forests would benefit from the combined effects of a warmer atmosphere and stronger ocean-to-land heat transfers, whereas a weakening of these transfers could cancel out, for decades or longer, the positive effects of climate change on Eastern Canada's largest ecosystem.

  5. Catalase-Aminotriazole Assay, an Invalid Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Wood Decay Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1981-01-01

    The catalase-aminotriazole assay for determination of hydrogen peroxide apparently cannot be used for measuring hydrogen peroxide production in crude preparations from wood decay fungi because of materials in the crude preparations that interfere with the test.

  6. Small-scale production and use of wood fuels. Report of the year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    2005-01-01

    The target areas of the research programme are: Small-scale production and handling of wood fuels, Pellet production, distribution and use, Heating technology and Business and service concepts. Production and processing technology focuses on cost-effectiveness, fuel quality, logistics of production chains and storage, transport and feeding solutions. The quality of pellets in the view of the whole chain: production, storage, distribution and feeding, is under scrutiny. In addition, storage and distribution systems are being developed. The aim is to create functional and comprehensive heat production systems based on the use of wood pellets. Emissions from small-scale use are reduced and efficiency of combustion improved to meet the Central European standard. Modern control, automation and data management systems are applied cost-effectively. The aim is to create comprehensive systems and modular solutions. Business and service concepts relate to all target areas such as heat entrepreneurship and energy service companies (ESCO). The aim is to promote the networking of companies and develop new solutions for fuel and heat production services

  7. Modelling inorganic and organic biocide leaching from CBA-amine (Copper–Boron–Azole) treated wood based on characterisation leaching tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupsea, Maria [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F–31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, DEE/Environment and Life Cycle Engineering Team, 24 Rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F–31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, DEE/Environment and Life Cycle Engineering Team, 24 Rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Schoknecht, Ute [BAM — Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.1, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Numerical simulation of the leaching behaviour of treated wood is the most pertinent and less expensive method for the prediction of biocides' release in water. Few studies based on mechanistic leaching models have been carried out so far. In this work, a coupled chemistry-mass transport model is developed for simulating the leaching behaviour of inorganic (Cu, B) and organic (Tebuconazole) biocides from CBA-amine treated wood. The model is based on experimental investigations (lab-scale leaching tests coupled with chemical and structural analysis). It considers biocides' interactions with wood solid components and with extractives (literature confirmed reactions), as well as transport mechanisms (diffusion, convection) in different compartments. Simulation results helped at identifying the main fixation mechanisms, like (i) direct complexation of Cu by wood-phenolic and -carboxylic sites (and not via monoethanolamine; complex) on lignin and hemicellulose and strong dependence on extractives' nature, (ii) pH dependent binding of tebuconazole on polarized -OH moieties on wood. The role of monoethanolamine is to provide a pore-solution pH of about 7.5, when copper solubility is found to be weakest. The capability of the developed model to simulate the chemical and transport behaviour is the main result of this study. Moreover, it proved that characterization leaching tests (pH dependency and dynamic tests), combined with appropriate analytical methods are useful experimental tools. Due to its flexibility for representing and simulating various leaching conditions, chemical-transport model developed could be used to further simulate the leaching behaviour of CBA treated wood at larger scales. - Highlights: • Biocide and extractives leaching from ammonia-CBA treated wood were modelled. • The chemical-transport model identifies the main fixation/solubilisation mechanisms. • The model describes well the results of equilibrium and dynamic leaching

  8. Greek timber industries and wood product markets over the last century: development constraints and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis P. Koulelis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Greek forestry sector after 1930. According to the past literature, the sector was entirely degraded and reliable data are not available. The study analyses critical historical data about timber sector and timber companies; the main objective is the specification of the factors that kept the Greek forest sector underdevelopment. The factors and the development constraints, including the indigenous characteristics of the Greek forests, the inhibitory policy for timber production investments, especially in the state industries, lack of market research, unorthodox procedures for sale of the wood, bad quality and high cost of production and periods of general economic recession are analyzed farther. Conclusively, the need for producing official forest maps, forest data recording, rapid adaptation to EU specifications, investments, deep changes in to the managership of the state industries, permanent and specialized personnel and promotion of national programs for the development of the small-scale wood elaboration and wood selling industrial units are some of the solutions for the above problems that could be suggested.

  9. Greek timber industries and wood product markets over the last century: development constraints and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis P. Koulelis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Greek forestry sector after 1930. According to the past literature, the sector was entirely degraded and reliable data are not available. The study analyses critical historical data about timber sector and timber companies; the main objective is the specification of the factors that kept the Greek forest sector underdevelopment. The factors and the development constraints, including the indigenous characteristics of the Greek forests, the inhibitory policy for timber production investments, especially in the state industries, lack of market research, unorthodox procedures for sale of the wood, bad quality and high cost of production and periods of general economic recession are analyzed farther. Conclusively, the need for producing official forest maps, forest data recording, rapid adaptation to EU specifications, investments, deep changes in to the managership of the state industries, permanent and specialized personnel and promotion of national programs for the development of the small-scale wood elaboration and wood selling industrial units are some of the solutions for the above problems that could be suggested.

  10. Environmental issues: New techniques for managing and using wood fuel ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrs, J.E.; Donovan, C.T. [C.T. Donovan Associates, Inc., Burlington, VT (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Continued research and development of environmentally-acceptable and cost-effective end uses for wood ash is having a significant affect on the ability to use wood and wood waste for fuel. This is particularly true for ash resulting from treated wood combustion. Concerns about the contents of ash from wood containing paint, stain, preservatives, or other chemicals is one of the largest regulatory barriers to its use as fuel. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) Identify the physical and chemical characteristics of ashes produced from the combustion of untreated and treated wood; (2) Explain the types of {open_quotes}clean, untreated{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}treated{close_quotes} wood that are likely to produce ash that can beneficially used; (3) Describe existing and potential products and end uses for untreated and treated wood ash.

  11. Effects of wood saw dust ash admixed with treated sisal fibre on the geotechnical properties of lateritic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Engbonye SANI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary investigation conducted on the lateritic soil collected at Shika, Zaria shows that it falls under A-7-6 (10 classification for AASHTO (1986 and CL according to unified soil classification system USCS (ASTM 1992. The soil was treated with both wood saw dust ash (WSDA and treated sisal fiber, in stepped concentration of 0,2,4,6, and 8% for WSDA and 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% treated sisal fibre by dry weight of soil using Standard proctor. The Sisal Fibre was treated with Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4 (1% wt/vol for 60 minutes at room temperature to remove the cellulose content present in the Fibre. Statistical analysis was carried out on the obtained results using XLSTART 2017 software and analysis of variance with the Microsoft Excel Analysis Tool Pak Software Package. The liquid limit (LL of the soil was found to be 48% while the plastic limit(PL is 21.27%. The maximum dry density(MDDhowever, decreases generally from a value of 1.85 Mg/m3 to 1.68Mg/m3 at 0.25% sisal fiber content/0% WSDA. It has its least value of 1.57Mg/m3 at 1% sisal fiber and 8% WSDA. The OMC increased from 18 % of the natural soil to 23.7% at 0.75% sisal fiber / 6% WSDA content. There was a general increase in the value of UCS of the soil-sisal fibre mixture with WSDA content from 100 kN/m2 of the natural soil to 696 kN/m2 at 0.75 % sisal fibre content / 6% WSDA. The UCS value met the standard of 687-1373 kN/m2 requirements of sub base for adequate lime and cement stabilization, respectively (Ingas and Metcalf 1972.

  12. Life?cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life?cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. Results The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main p...

  13. QUALITY OF REACTION WOOD IN EucalyptusTREES TILTED BY WIND FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Torezani Neto Boschetti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the quality of normal, tension and opposite wood of eucalyptus trees lengthwise, in straight and inclined stems, affected by wind action. It also aims to explain the pulping parameters resultant from the quality of the wood. The trees were grouped into four tilt ranges, ranging from 0 to 50º, and the basic density, chemical composition of the wood, and performance in kraft pulping were assessed. Normal and tension wood had similar basic densities; while for opposite wood, the density was lower, being responsible for a decrease in reaction wood density. The chemical composition of the wood was influenced by the presence of reaction wood in the stem.Tension and opposite wood showed lower levels of extractives and lignin and higher holocellulose content when compared to normal wood, with favorable wood quality for pulping. The increase in holocellulose content and the reduction of lignin and extractives content contributed positively to a more delignified pulp and reduction of the Kappa number. However, after cooking the reaction wood under the same conditions as those of normal wood, reaction wood pulping tends to have a lower screen yields. Due to differences in basic density and chemical constituents between opposite and normal wood, it is recommended not to designate the opposite wood as normal wood.

  14. Assessing radiation doses to the public from radionuclides in timber and wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident involving the release of radionuclides to the biosphere the radioactive contamination of forests can become a significant potential source of public radiation exposure. Two of these accidents - the Kyshtim accident, Urals, USSR (now Russian Federation) in 1957 and the Chernobyl accident, USSR (now Ukraine), in 1986 - resulted in significant contamination of thousands of square kilometres of forested areas with mixtures of radionuclides including long lived fission products such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Measurements and modelling of forest ecosystems after both accidents have shown that, following initial contamination, the activity concentration of long lived radionuclides in wood gradually increases over one to two decades and then slowly decreases in the subsequent period. The longevity of the contamination is due to the slow migration and persistent bioavailability of radionuclides in the forest soil profile, which results in long term transfer into wood through the root system of the trees. Another source of contamination is from global radioactive fallout after nuclear weapons tests, but the level of contamination is much lower than that from, for example, the Chernobyl accident. For instance, the level of 137 Cs in wood in Sweden is about 2-5 Bq kg -1 from global fallout. Global values are very similar to the Swedish levels. In contrast, the level of 137 Cs in Swedish wood due to Chernobyl is around 50 Bq kg -1 . Levels in wood from some contaminated areas located in countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are about one to two orders of magnitude higher than this. The data on 137 Cs soil contamination within European territories, originating mainly from the Chernobyl accident, illustrate the scale of the problem. For comparison, residual 137 Cs soil deposition in Europe from global radioactive fallout was in the range 1-4 kBq m -2 . There is concern in several countries about the potential radiation exposure of people from

  15. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  16. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720 was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium. T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%. Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens

  17. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  18. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupoltto-aineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K. [Enso-Gutzeit Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilization targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilization was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-dry drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenize the quality of chips

  19. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupoltto-aineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K [Enso-Gutzeit Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilization targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilization was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-dry drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenize the quality of chips

  20. Steam-treated wood pellets: Environmental and financial implications relative to fossil fuels and conventional pellets for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, Jon; Saville, Brad; MacLean, Heather L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam-treated pellets can greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions relative to coal. • Cost advantage is seen relative to conventional pellets. • Higher pellet cost is more than balanced by reduced retrofit capital requirements. • Low capacity factors further favour steam-treated pellets over conventional pellets. - Abstract: Steam-treated pellets can help to address technical barriers that limit the uptake of pellets as a fuel for electricity generation, but there is limited understanding of the cost and environmental impacts of their production and use. This study investigates life cycle environmental (greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions) and financial implications of electricity generation from steam-treated pellets, including fuel cycle activities (biomass supply, pellet production, and combustion) and retrofit infrastructure to enable 100% pellet firing at a generating station that previously used coal. Models are informed by operating experience of pellet manufacturers and generating stations utilising coal, steam-treated and conventional pellets. Results are compared with conventional pellets and fossil fuels in a case study of electricity generation in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Steam-treated pellet production has similar GHG impacts to conventional pellets as their higher biomass feedstock requirement is balanced by reduced process electricity consumption. GHG reductions of more than 90% relative to coal and ∼85% relative to natural gas (excluding retrofit infrastructure) could be obtained with both pellet options. Pellets can also reduce fuel cycle air pollutant emissions relative to coal by 30% (NOx), 97% (SOx), and 75% (PM 10 ). Lesser retrofit requirements for steam-treated pellets more than compensate for marginally higher pellet production costs, resulting in lower electricity production cost compared to conventional pellets ($0.14/kW h vs. $0.16/kW h). Impacts of retrofit infrastructure become increasingly

  1. Diversity in the socio-economic role of the main non-wood forest products for the inhabitants of small villages and large towns in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Barszcz, Anna; Suder, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    The NWFPs (non-wood forest products) sector is of the crucial importance to the Polish households but its social and economic role is varied and depends on place of residence. For the inhabitants of villages and small towns forests are the place of working and NWFPs sale provides an additional financial resource. City-dwellers do not treat NWFPs as a source of income but rather as an element of recreation and they use these products mainly for their own needs. Some remarks for the developing ...

  2. The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan; Sebastiao Fonseca; Rodolfo A. Loos; Ernesto N. Takahashi; Claudio R. Silva; Sergio R. Silva; Rodrigo E. Hakamada; Jose Mario de A. Ferreira; Augusto M. N. Lima; Jose Luiz Gava; Fernado P. Leite; Helder B. Andrade; Jacyr M. Alves; Gualter G. C. Silva; Moises R. Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    We examined the potential growth of clonal Eucalyptus plantations at eight locations across a 1000+ km gradient in Brazil by manipulating the supplies of nutrients and water, and altering the uniformity of tree sizes within plots. With no fertilization or irrigation, mean annual increments of stem wood were about 28% lower (16.2 Mg...

  3. Material and energy balances in the production of ethanol from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, M; Lora, J H; Gulbinas, E

    1978-01-01

    Experimental production of ethanol from aspen wood gave yeilds of 70.7% or 83.4% or theory when acid hydrolysis or enzymatic hydrolysis weere used after autohydrolysis and extraction of lignin. These were, respectively, 58.4 and 68.9 gallons of 95% ethanol per ton of aspen wood (dry basis). In addition 426 lb of lignin with heat of combustion 11,100 Btu/lb were obtained per ton of wood. Gross energy recovery (ethanol + lignin) was 52.4 and 58.0% by thee two processes, or allowing for processing energy, net energy recovery was 36.1 and 42.3% respectively. Multi stage hydrolysis was beneficial for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, 80% and over 99% of theoretical yeilds of sugar being obtained by the two processes. Economic estimates show a significant advantage in investment and operating costs for the enzymatic process. Thee price of 95% ethanol, including a reasonable return on investment by this process is estimated at $1.34/gallon. This would be a good price for industrial ethanol, but would be quite high for gasoline use under prevailing circumstance.

  4. Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    of virgin wood does not change the results radically (—665 to —125 kg CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes...

  5. Evaluation of the environmental impacts of wood products for bio-energy through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

    OpenAIRE

    Pierobon, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The use of wood for energy has grown in the last years as an alternative to fossil fuels. National and international laws promote the use of wood in the policies for the mitigation of climate change, based on the assumption that wood has a neutral carbon balance because the combustion emissions are offset by the absorption in forest (assumption of carbon neutrality). However, this assumption does not take into account the emissions associated with the life cycle of the product, e.g. related t...

  6. Some Exploitation Properties of Wood Plastic Hybrid Composites Based on Polypropylene and Plywood Production Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

    2015-12-01

    During the last 20-30 years many researchers have paid attention to the studies of properties of thewood polymer composites (WPC). A lot of works are closely related to investigations of exploitation properties of wood fibres or wood flour containing polyolefine composites [1, 2]. The most useful from wide selection of polyolefines are polypropylenes, but timber industry waste materials comprising lignocellulose fibres are often used as reinforcement of WPC [3-12]. Plywood industry is not an exception - part of waste materials (by-products) are used for heat energy, i.e. burned. In this work we have approbated reinforcing of polypropylene (PP) with one of the plywood industry by-products, such as birch plywood sawdust (PSWD),which containswood fibre fractions with different length [13]. The main fraction (50%) includes fibres with length l = 0.5 - 1 mm. Our previous study [13] has confirmed that PSWD is a promising filler for PP reinforcing. Addition of PSWD up to 40-50 wt.% has increased WPC tensile and flexural modulus, but decreased deformation ability of PP matrix, impact strength, water resistance and fluidity of composite melts. It was shown [13] that modification of the composites with interfacial modifier - coupling agent maleated polypropylene (MAPP content up to 5-7 wt.%) considerably improved all the abovementioned properties. SEM investigations also confirmed positive action of coupling agent on strengthening of adhesion interaction between components wood and PP matrix. Another way how to make better properties of the WPC is to form hybridcomposites [1, 14-24]. Very popular WPC modifiers are nanoparticle additions like organonanoclays, which increase WPC physical-mechanical properties - microhardness, water resistance and diminish barrier properties and combustibility [1, 2, 14-17, 19, 20]. The goal of this study was to investigate organonanoclays influence on plywood production industry by-product birch plywood sawdust (PSWD) containing

  7. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of ∼ 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  8. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Silva, Richard Maximiliano da Cunha [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: maxcunha@cena.usp.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Barroso, Regina Cely [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of {approx} 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  9. The economic efficiency of forest energy wood chip production in regional use – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Šafařík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This regional project case study deals with the limiting factors of economic efficiency in the production of forest energy wood chips. The evaluation of production efficiency made use of data obtained from the Lesy města Brna, a.s. (Forest of the City of Brno, Corp., which were subjected to two static methods of investment evaluation: an analysis of the tipping point and determination of the limit of variable costs and a dynamic modified tipping point analysis using cash flow (i.e. cash break even analysis. The results have confirmed an established hypothesis, namely that the decisive factor in the profitability of the production of forest energy wood chips hinges on the costs incurred in the gathering of raw material and the distribution of the produced chips. The results include a further limiting factor: transportation costs to the final consumption location. The output of the study is a recommendation that the concentration of residual forest materials not exceed a distance of 250 m from the place of production to the point of disintegration and that the transport distance of energy chips not exceed 50 km from the place of disintegration to the final consumption point. These limiting values help quantify the full internal costs per cost unit, full internal cost profitability, total revenue profitability and annual profitability expressed in terms of fixed assets depreciation without factoring in financial aid.

  10. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  11. Carbon storage in harvested wood products for Ireland 1961–2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donlan, Jennifer; Skog, Kenneth; Byrne, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Forests are significant stores of carbon (C). This has been recognised by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and forests are one of the sectors which are included in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. Some of this C pool remains in wood after harvest and can remain in use for long periods of time. Accounting for the C stored in harvested wood products (HWP) can potentially contribute to GHG mitigation. A model was developed for this research to estimate C stocks and flows in HWP in Ireland for the years 1961–2009. The change in carbon stocks in HWP were estimated on an annual basis and shown to increase between 1961 and 2009. This increase in annual net additions to C stocks is the result of an increase in domestic harvest (and the resulting inflow into HWP pool) and an increase in HWP going to end uses with longer half-lives. This model (using a Tier II method) is an improvement to previous national estimates (using the Tier I method). Uncertainty was reduced by utilizing national data. This work shows that HWP has considerable potential to support GHG mitigation in Ireland. Inclusion of HWP in Ireland's National Inventory Report (NIR) would give a more comprehensive picture of how the Irish forest sector is mitigating GHG emissions. This model will be incorporated into CARBWARE (Black 2008), the model used to estimate C stored in each of the 5 forest pools, of current and future Irish forests. -- Highlights: ► A model was developed for C stocks in Harvested Wood Products (HWP) in Ireland. ► Uncertainty was reduced from previous estimates by using national and end use data. ► HWP C stocks estimated on an annual basis increased in years 1961–2009. ► This was caused by increased in harvest and products with longer half-lives. ► HWP has considerable potential to support GHG mitigation in Ireland.

  12. Fifteen years of international trade in wood and forest-related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desclos, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Little is generally known about international trade in forest-related products in spite of the fact that a significant portion of world production is exported. Two irreversible trends underlie international trade in forest-related products. One is globalization while the other is adding as much value as possible locally by processing the materials to the greatest extent possible in the country of origin. Some of the more surprising recent developments are the growth in trade in wood as a source of energy and the dependency of Europe on its massive imports in this area. International trade in forest-related products is a continually changing sector that follows developments in the technical, economic, social and political spheres. Its growth has been spectacular and will remain strong in coming years. The greatest potential for development will come from environmental management, improved logistics and innovation. (authors)

  13. Assessing radiation doses to the public from radionuclides in timber and wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident involving the release of radionuclides to the biosphere the radioactive contamination of forests can become a significant potential source of public radiation exposure. Two of these accidents - the Kyshtim accident, Urals, USSR (now Russian Federation) in 1957 and the Chernobyl accident, USSR (now Ukraine), in 1986 - resulted in significant contamination of thousands of square kilometres of forested areas with mixtures of radionuclides including long lived fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Measurements and modelling of forest ecosystems after both accidents have shown that, following initial contamination, the activity concentration of long lived radionuclides in wood gradually increases over one to two decades and then slowly decreases in the subsequent period. The longevity of the contamination is due to the slow migration and persistent bioavailability of radionuclides in the forest soil profile, which results in long term transfer into wood through the root system of the trees. Another source of contamination is from global radioactive fallout after nuclear weapons tests, but the level of contamination is much lower than that from, for example, the Chernobyl accident. For instance, the level of {sup 137}Cs in wood in Sweden is about 2-5 Bq kg{sup -1} from global fallout. Global values are very similar to the Swedish levels. In contrast, the level of {sup 137}Cs in Swedish wood due to Chernobyl is around 50 Bq kg{sup -1}. Levels in wood from some contaminated areas located in countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are about one to two orders of magnitude higher than this. The data on {sup 137}Cs soil contamination within European territories, originating mainly from the Chernobyl accident, illustrate the scale of the problem. For comparison, residual {sup 137}Cs soil deposition in Europe from global radioactive fallout was in the range 1-4 kBq m{sup -2}. There is concern in several countries about the

  14. Visible-light activate Ag/WO3 films based on wood with enhanced negative oxygen ions production properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Likun; Gan, Wentao; Cao, Guoliang; Zhan, Xianxu; Qiang, Tiangang; Li, Jian

    2017-12-01

    The Ag/WO3-wood was fabricated through a hydrothermal method and a silver mirror reaction. The system of visible-light activate Ag/WO3-wood was used to produce negative oxygen ions, and the effect of Ag nanoparticles on negative oxygen ions production was investigated. From the results of negative oxygen ions production tests, it can be observed that the sample doped with Ag nanoparticles, the concentration of negative oxygen ions is up to 1660 ions/cm3 after 60 min visible light irradiation. Moreover, for the Ag/WO3-wood, even after 60 min without irradiation, the concentration of negative oxygen ions could keep more than 1000 ions/cm3, which is up to the standard of the fresh air. Moreover, due to the porous structure of wood, the wood acted as substrate could promote the nucleation of nanoparticles, prevent the agglomeration of the particles, and thus lead the improvement of photocatalytic properties. And such wood-based functional materials with the property of negative oxygen ions production could be one of the most promising materials in the application of indoor decoration materials, which would meet people's pursuit of healthy, environment-friendly life.

  15. Waste from glued wood - A base for new products and/or bio-fuel?

    OpenAIRE

    Bjurman, Therese

    2009-01-01

      The Swedwood Company is a supplier to IKEA of wood furniture. They have grown larger concurrently with IKEA and at present they have 47 production units spread over twelve countries of which most are located in Eastern Europe. One of the factories is Zbaszynek which is located in Poland. They manufacture so called board-on-frame furniture. A board-on-frame is basically made out of particle board frames which are filled with special design paper that enfolds air. The frames are then covered ...

  16. Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippayawong, Nakorn; Saengow, Nakarin; Chaiya, Ekarin

    2010-07-01

    There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.

  17. Production of wood pellets. Influence of additives on production, quality, storage, combustion and life cycle analysis of wood pellets; Herstellung von Holzpellets. Einfluss von Presshilfsmitteln auf Produktion, Qualitaet, Lagerung, Verbrennung sowie Energie- und Oekobilanz von Holzpellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasler, P.; Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Buerli, J. [Buerli Pellets, Willisau (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study concerning the influence of additives on the various factors related to the manufacture of wood pellets and their use. Results of tests concerning the production, storage and combustion of wood pellets with and without additives are presented. Process modifications are discussed. The report shows that for all investigated additives neither energy consumption nor pellet throughput was improved. The influence of additives on the mechanical strength of the pellets is discussed, as are the combustion characteristics of the pellets, which emit significantly lower levels of NO{sub x} and particulate matter than typical wood chips. The authors recommend the application of advanced control technology to ensure optimum combustion conditions. A life-cycle analysis is presented which shows that pellets are ecologically more favourable than wood chips. The ecological potential for improvement in the manufacturing process is discussed, including emission reductions and heat recovery.

  18. Review of test methods used to determine the corrosion rate of metals in contact with treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to give an overview of test methods previously used to evaluate the corrosion of metals in contact with wood. This article reviews the test methods used to evaluate the corrosion of metals in contact with wood by breaking the experiments into three groups: exposure tests, accelerated exposure tests, and electrochemical tests....

  19. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  20. Productivity of whole-tree bundler in energy wood and pulpwood harvesting from early thinnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuutinen, Yrjoe; Laitila, Juha (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), e-mail: Yrjo.Nuutinen@metla.fi; Kaerhae, Kalle; Keskinen, Sirkka (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)); Jylhae, Paula (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland))

    2011-06-15

    First thinnings have been neglected to great extent in Finland because of high harvesting costs. The whole-tree bundler (Fixteri) was developed in order to rationalize the integrated harvesting of small-diameter energy wood and pulpwood and to reduce transportation costs through load compaction. The operation of the whole-tree bundler is composed of cutting and compaction processes. In the present study, the productivity level and the performance characteristics of the second version of the whole-tree bundler (Fixteri II) in integrated energy wood and pulpwood harvesting from first thinnings were defined on the basis of a time study. When the mean volume of removed whole trees averaged 20 dm3 at the stand, the productivity of Fixteri II per effective working (E{sub 0} excluding delays) hour was 3.4 m3/(E{sub 0}) and with an average removal of 75 dm3, it was 6.1 m3/(E{sub 0}). When compared with the first prototype of the whole-tree bundler (Fixteri I), the productivity of Fixteri II was 38-77% higher, depending on the stand density and mean tree volume of the removal. The higher performance level of Fixteri II stemmed mainly from the increase in multi-tree cutting and from the introduction of grapple feeding of the bunches. Furthermore, the better hydraulic capacity of the base machine enabled a higher level of simultaneous working processes

  1. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  2. Fruit production and branching density affect shoot and whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Paoletti, Andrea; Al Hariri, Raeed; Famiani, Franco

    2018-02-14

    The amount of shoot stem (i.e., woody part of the shoot) dry matter per unit shoot leaf dry matter (i.e., the shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio) has been reported to be lower in short shoots than in long ones, and this is related to the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. This is important in fruit trees, since the greater and earlier carbon export ability of shoots with a lower wood to leaf biomass ratio improves fruit production. This ratio may vary with cultivars, training systems or plant age, but no study has previously investigated the possible effect of fruit production. In this study on two olive cultivars (i.e., Arbequina, with low growth rate, and Frantoio, with high growth rate) subject to different fruit production treatments, we found that at increasing fruit production, shoot length and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio were proportionally reduced in the new shoots growing at the same time as the fruit. Specifically, fruit production proportionally reduced total new-shoot biomass, length, leaf area and average shoot length. With decreasing shoot length, shoot diameter, stem mass, internode length, individual leaf area and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio also decreased. This may be viewed as a plant strategy to better support fruit growth in the current year, given the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. Moreover, at the whole-tree level, the percentage of total tree biomass production invested in leaves was closely correlated with branching density, which differed significantly across cultivars. By branching more, Arbequina concentrates more shoots (thus leaves) per unit of wood (trunk, branches and root) mass, decreasing wood to leaf biomass ratio at the whole-tree level. Therefore, while, at the shoot level, shoot length determines shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio, at the canopy level branching density is also an important determinant of whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio. Whole-tree wood to leaf

  3. Potential of synthesis gas production from rubber wood chip gasification in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewluan, Sommas; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat

    2011-01-01

    Experiments of rubber wood chip gasification were carried out in a 100-kW th bubbling fluidised bed gasifier to investigate the effect of air to fuel ratio (represented as equivalence ratio - ER) on the yield and properties of synthesis gas. For all experiments, the flow rate of ambient air was fixed, while the feed rate of rubber wood chip was adjusted to vary ER in the range of 0.32-0.43. Increasing ER continuously raised the bed temperature, which resulted in higher synthesis gas yield and lower yield of ash and tar. However, higher ER generally gave synthesis gas of lower heating value, partly due to the dilution of N 2 . Considering the energy efficiency of the process, the optimum operation was achieved at ER = 0.38, which yielded 2.33 Nm 3 of synthesis gas per kg of dry biomass at the heating value of 4.94 MJ/Nm 3 . The calculated carbon conversion efficiency and gasification efficiency were 97.3% and 80.2%, respectively. The mass and energy balance of the gasification process showed that the mass and energy distribution was significantly affected by ER and that the energy losses accounted for ∼25% of the total output energy. The economical assessment of synthesis gas utilisation for heat and electricity production based on a 1-MW th bubbling fluidised bed gasifier and the operational data resulting from the rubber wood chip gasification experiments in this study clearly demonstrated the attractiveness of replacing heavy fuel oil and natural gas by the synthesis gas for heat applications in terms of 70% and 50% annual saving of fuel cost, respectively. However, the case of electricity production does not seem a preferable option due to its current technical and non-technical barriers.

  4. Romanian legal management rules limit wood production in Norway spruce and beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouriaud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The quantitative impact of forest management on forests’ wood resource was evaluated for Picea and Fagus mixed forests. The effects on the productivity of tendering operations, thinnings and rotation length have seldom been directly quantified on landscape scale. Methods Two sites of similar fertility but subject to contrasted forest management were studied with detailed inventories: one in Germany, the other in Romania, and compared with the respective national forest inventories. In Romania, regulations impose very long rotations, low thinnings and a period of no-cut before harvest. In contrast, tending and thinnings are frequent and intense in Germany. Harvests start much earlier and must avoid clear cutting but maintain a permanent forest cover with natural regeneration. While Germany has an average annual wood increment representative for Central Europe, Romania represents the average for Eastern Europe. Results The lack of tending and thinning in the Romanian site resulted in twice as many trees per hectare as in the German site for the same age. The productivity in Romanian production forests was 20 % lower than in Germany despite a similar fertility. The results were supported by the data from the national forest inventory of each country, which confirmed that the same differential exists at country scale. Furthermore, provided the difference in rotation length, two crops are harvested in Germany when only one is harvested in Romania. The losses of production due to a lower level of management in Romania where estimated to reach 12.8 million m3.y-1 in regular mountain production forests, and to 15 million m3.y-1 if managed protection forest is included. Conclusions The productivity of Picea and Fagus mountain forests in Romania is severely depressed by the lack of tending and thinning, by overly long rotations and the existence of a 25-years no-cut period prior to harvest. The average standing volume in Germany was 50

  5. Energy consumption in the manufacture of sawn goods and wood-based panel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenius, A.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of energy consumption in 1979 and the possibilities of saving energy in the sawmill, plywood, particle board, fibreboard, joinery, wooden houses, glulam, and wood preservation industries. The energy consumption per product unit is minimum in sawmilling, 1.38 GJ/cubic meters and maximum in fibreboard manufacturing, 9.98 GJ/t. In plywood production, the energy consumption (6.95 GJ/cubic meters) is about double that in particleboard production (3.40 GJ/cubic meters). The main part of the energy (70-85%) is heat. In the drying process about 70-85% of total energy is used in individual processes. Over half (53.9%) of the total energy consumption is in the sawmill industry, 19.2% in the plywood industry, 12.2% in the particleboard industry, and 7.2% in the fibreboard industry.

  6. Analysis of marketing mix elements of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for high-quality products of biological origin has been increasing, in accordance with changes in objectives of forest management, which are caused by socio-economic development. Although non-wood forest products (NW­FPs have been collected and used for generations, only in recent decades their importance has been recognized. The aim of this paper is to analyze marketing strategies of companies involved in processing and distribution of NWFPs. Due to the specificity and comprehensiveness of the problem, the various general and specific methods and techniques, which are used in the study of marketing elements, have been applied. A’WOT analysis was applied in order to better interpret results of SWOT analysis. The survey was conducted among small and medium enterprises dealing with NWFPs in central Serbia. Conducted research determined the most important final products, prices, types of promotion and structure of distribution channel.

  7. Ethanol Production from Hydrothermally-Treated Biomass from West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edem Cudjoe Bensah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of diverse biomass resources in Africa, they have received little research and development focus. This study presents compositional analysis, sugar, and ethanol yields of hydrothermal pretreated (195 °C, 10 min biomass from West Africa, including bamboo wood, rubber wood, elephant grass, Siam weed, and coconut husk, benchmarked against those of wheat straw. The elephant grass exhibited the highest glucose and ethanol yields at 57.8% and 65.1% of the theoretical maximums, respectively. The results show that the glucose yield of pretreated elephant grass was 3.5 times that of the untreated material, while the ethanol yield was nearly 2 times higher. Moreover, the sugar released by the elephant grass (30.8 g/100 g TS was only slightly lower than by the wheat straw (33.1 g/100 g TS, while the ethanol yield (16.1 g/100 g TS was higher than that of the straw (15.26 g/100 g TS. All other local biomass types studied exhibited sugar and ethanol yields below 33% and 35% of the theoretical maximum, respectively. Thus, elephant grass is a highly promising biomass source for ethanol production in Africa.

  8. Projecting biodiversity and wood production in future forest landscapes: 15 key modeling considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Adam; Ranius, Thomas; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Öhman, Karin; Lämås, Tomas; Hynynen, Jari; Juutinen, Artti; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Nilsson, Urban; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika

    2017-07-15

    A variety of modeling approaches can be used to project the future development of forest systems, and help to assess the implications of different management alternatives for biodiversity and ecosystem services. This diversity of approaches does however present both an opportunity and an obstacle for those trying to decide which modeling technique to apply, and interpreting the management implications of model output. Furthermore, the breadth of issues relevant to addressing key questions related to forest ecology, conservation biology, silviculture, economics, requires insights stemming from a number of distinct scientific disciplines. As forest planners, conservation ecologists, ecological economists and silviculturalists, experienced with modeling trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity and wood biomass production, we identified fifteen key considerations relevant to assessing the pros and cons of alternative modeling approaches. Specifically we identified key considerations linked to study question formulation, modeling forest dynamics, forest processes, study landscapes, spatial and temporal aspects, and the key response metrics - biodiversity and wood biomass production, as well as dealing with trade-offs and uncertainties. We also provide illustrative examples from the modeling literature stemming from the key considerations assessed. We use our findings to reiterate the need for explicitly addressing and conveying the limitations and uncertainties of any modeling approach taken, and the need for interdisciplinary research efforts when addressing the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Typology of the supply chains of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonić Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies are characterized by a growing importance of cooperation and the creation of networks of enterprises, organizations and institutions, which are all part of a supply chain, in order to achieve competitive advantage in a market. The aim of this study was to determine the structure of the supply chains of non-wood forest products in selected forest areas of Central Serbia (Golijsko, Podrinjsko-kolubarsko, Posavsko-podunavsko, Rasinsko and Tarsko-zlatiborsko FAs. The comparative method was applied in this paper, along with the method of specialization (classification, the method of structural partial analysis (supply chain analysis and the statistical method (analysis of frequencies and two-step cluster. The data collection was conducted in 2011, by using the technique of door-to-door survey. The analysis of the basic types of the supply chains of non-wood forest products and their main stages (purchasing, processing and placement was conducted in the selected areas. A cluster analysis showed that there were six basic types of supply chains in the selected forest areas and one dominant type. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 443007/16 –III: Istraživanja klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu -praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje, podprojekat: Socio-ekonomski razvoj, ublažavanje i adaptacija na klimatske promene

  10. Future carbon storage in harvested wood products from Ontario's Crown forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Colombo, S.J.; Ter-Mikaelian, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon (C) storage in harvested wood products (HWP) from Ontario's Crown forests were analyzed using a large-scale forest C budget model. The model was used to estimate HWP C stock changes as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The harvested C mass was then allocated to 4 HWP end-use categories, notably (1) in use; (2) landfill; (3) energy; and (4) emissions. C mass redistribution among HWP end-use categories was calculated using an age-based C distribution matrix. Emissions for harvest, transport, and manufacturing were accounted for as well as emission reductions gained by using the HWP in place of other construction materials and fossil fuels. Results of the study showed that C storage in HWP is projected to increase by 3.6 Mt per year. The projections indicated that the harvest of wood products in Ontario will result in a steadily increasing C sink in HWP and forests. 51 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts including wood ash and the importance of enhancing byproduct glycerol purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uprety, Bijaya K.; Chaiwong, Wittavat; Ewelike, Chinomnso; Rakshit, Sudip K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of biodiesel production using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. • Comparative study of CaO and CaO supported on alumina for biodiesel production. • Tradeoff between biodiesel conversion rate and purity. • Ash from birch bark and wood pellet industry explored as a potential catalyst. - Abstract: Transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with methanol in the presence of catalysts produces fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and glycerol as a co-product. This study was focused on a comparative study of the transesterification of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBD palm oil) using a heterogeneous catalysts CaO with and without γ-alumina (γ-Al_2O_3) as a support. The results were also compared to that using sodium hydroxide (NaOH), which is a homogenous catalyst. Parameters like the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction time and reaction temperature that affect methyl ester and glycerol formation were analyzed and the optimum conditions were determined. The FAME and glycerol content (96.75% and 92.73% respectively) obtained using CaO were lower in purity compared to that using CaO/Al_2O_3 (97.66% and 96.36% respectively). In the second phase of our work, wood ash from two different sources (birch bark & flyash from a biomass based power plant), which were calcined at 800 °C were studied for their potential use as a cheap renewable alternative heterogeneous catalyst. Both the wood ash samples were found to have good potential for use in such production process, but needs to be optimized further to obtain biodiesel which meets fuel biodiesel specifications. Both CaO and CaO supported on alumina produces FAME to levels that meet the fuel specifications required for blending with diesel. However, the latter produces a purer form of byproduct glycerol that can be easily converted to value added products, without the need for purification. On this basis the supported catalyst is

  12. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  13. A multi-tiered approach for assessing the forestry and wood products industries' impact on the carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The forestry and wood products industries play a significant role in CO 2 emissions reduction by increasing carbon stocks in living forest biomass and wood products. Moreover, wood can substitute for fossil fuels. Different methods can be used to assess the impact of regional forestry and wood products industries on regional CO 2 emissions. This article considers three of those methods and combines them into a multi-tiered approach. The multi-tiered approach proposed in this article combines: 1) a Kyoto-Protocol-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from regional industrial production, 2) a consumer-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from regional consumption, and 3) a value-creation-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from forest management and wood usage strategies. North Rhine-Westphalia is both a typical German state and an example of a region where each of these three methods yields different results. It serves as a test case with which to illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach. This case study argues that the choice of assessment methods is essential when developing and evaluating a strategy for reducing CO 2 emissions. Emissions can be reduced through various social and economic processes. Since none of the assessment methods considered above is suitable for all of these processes, only a multi-tiered approach may ensure that strategy development results in an optimal emissions reduction strategy.

  14. EVALUATION OF BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM Eucalyptus WOOD WITH Saccharomyces cerevisiae AND SACSV-10 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Enid Vazquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eucalyptus spp. residues of paper industry are a potential lignocellulosic raw material for production of second-generation bioethanol as an alternative to conventional production from cereal crops. Studying the behavior at 40 ºC of a commercial cellulase (Sunson, Eucalyptus sawdust saccharification was carried out under two pH conditions. With the aim to evaluate the bioethanol production from Eucalyptus wood, a strategy combining saccharification and Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF was undertaken at 40 ºC with a thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae with different substrate and inoculum concentrations, and different nitrogen sources. At last, the process was carried out in optimal conditions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae M522 and SacSV-10. Saccharification produced more free glucose at pH 5, reaching a maximum of 1.5 g/L. Encouraging results were obtained with 500 mg/L of ammonium sulphate as a nitrogen source and 10 % v/v initial inoculum at 106 cfu/mL concentration. Yeast SacSV-10 was not inhibited by phenols present in the culture media using a wood concentration of 10 g/L, but when the solids concentration was increased, the bioprocess yield was compromised. When the process was carried out in optimal conditions the bioethanol production, expressed as the conversion percentage of cellulose to ethanol, was 71.5 % and 73.6 % for M522 and the mutant strain respectively. The studied properties of the mutant strain provide added value to it, which pose new challenges to national companies dedicated to the production and sale of inputs for bioethanol industry.

  15. Domestic market opportunities for Alaska lumber-species preferences by secondary wood products manufacturers in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Roos; David L. Nicholls

    2006-01-01

    New equipment, technology, and marketing efforts have allowed Alaska’s wood products producers to consider opportunities previously unavailable to them. Until recently, the primary product produced by Alaska firms was rough, unseasoned lumber sold primarily within local markets. Given the purchase and installation of new drying and planing equipment, Alaska producers...

  16. Changes in wood product proportions in the Douglas-fir region with respect to size, age, and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Monserud; X. Zhou

    2007-01-01

    We examine both the variation and the changing proportions of different wood products obtained from trees and logs in the Douglas-fir region of the Northwestern United States. Analyses are based on a large product recovery database covering over 40 years of recovery studies; 13 studies are available for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  17. Assessment of the potential quality of preservative-treated pilings removed from service : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson; Robert J. Ross; Douglas J. Gardner; Gary D. McGinnis; Rodney C. DeGroot

    1999-01-01

    Preservative-treated wood products are important construction materials. Preservative-treated wood pilings, after removal from service, constitute a major disposal problem for managers of waterfront facilities. For example, approximately 7,000 to 8,000 tons of mechanically or biologically deteriorated wood pilings are currently removed from U.S. naval facilities...

  18. Harvested wood products in the context of climate change : A comparison of different models and approaches for the Norwegian greenhouse gas inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bache-Andreassen, Lihn

    2009-07-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases is accounted for and reported annually under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto protocol. In the current accounting system, emissions of CO2 from harvested wood products (HWP) are attributed to the year of harvest and the country of harvest. All harvested wood is thus assumed to be oxidised to CO{sub 2} in the year of harvesting, and no wood goes into long term storage. This is called the IPCC default approach. Much of the harvested wood will however be stored for a short or long period of time before it oxidises and this will cause a delayed emission of CO{sub 2}. If more wood is stored than oxidised in a given year, harvested wood products will act as a sink and a removal of CO{sub 2} is recorded. However, if the consumption of wood decreases to a level below what is oxidised, harvested wood products will act as a source and emissions of CO{sub 2} is recorded. In Norway, as on many other countries, the stock of harvested wood products has been increasing for many years, and is likely to increase further. Including emissions/removals of CO{sub 2} from harvested wood products in the post Kyoto 2012 regime is under consideration by the UNFCCC, and in that context it is imperative to evaluate estimation models and approaches for the reporting/accounting. (Author)

  19. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  20. Conservation value of low-productivity forests measured as the amount and diversity of dead wood and saproxylic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Aino; Strengbom, Joachim; Ranius, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    In many managed landscapes, low-productivity land comprises most of the remaining relatively untouched areas, and is often over-represented within protected areas. The relationship between the productivity and conservational value of a site is poorly known; however, it has been hypothesized that biodiversity increases with productivity due to higher resource abundance or heterogeneity, and that the species communities of low-productivity land are a nested subset of communities from more productive land. We tested these hypotheses for dead-wood-dependent beetles by comparing their species richness and composition, as well as the amount and diversity of dead wood, between low-productivity (potential forest growth dead wood, but volume appeared to be a better predictor than diversity for the higher species richness in set-asides. Beetle species composition was similar among stand types, and the assemblages in low-productivity stands were largely subsets of those in high-productivity set-asides. However, 11% of all species and 40% of red-listed species only occurred in high-productivity stands, while no species were unique to low-productivity stands. We conclude that low-productivity forests are less valuable for conservation than high-productivity forest land. Given the generally similar species composition among stand types, a comparable conservational effect could be obtained by setting aside a larger area of low-productivity forest in comparison to the high-productivity. In terms of dead wood volumes, 1.8-3.6 ha of low-productivity forest has the same value as 1 ha of unmanaged high-productivity forest. This figure can be used to estimate the conservation value of low-productivity forests; however, as high-productivity forests harbored some unique species, they are not completely exchangeable. © 2018 The Authors. Ecological Applications published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Ecological Society of America.

  1. Cell wall content and rumen dry matter disappearance of γ-irradiated wood by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, G.; Baer, M.; Zuber, S.; Tiroke, K.

    1990-01-01

    Spruce sawdust and barks of spruce, pine and larch were irradiated with various doses of γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 MGy). Cell wall constituents and rumen dry-matter disappearance (incubation time: 48 h) were determined. γ-Irradiation significantly reduced neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre content of all by-products. The crude lignin of the wood by-products was not significantly influenced by γ-irradiation. Rumen dry-matter loss of untreated sawdust was 5.6%, that of barks between 18.2 (pine) and 64.6% (spruce). γ-Irradiation significantly increased rumen dry-matter loss. Increased washout due to solubilization and particle breakdown was mainly responsible for the higher dry-matter losses in the rumen after irradiation. The results do not justify practical use because of the high dose of irradiation required. (author)

  2. Cost estimate for the production of ethanol from spent sulphite liquors and wood residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q.

    1990-03-01

    A Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet model for estimating the production cost of 95 wt % ethanol from spent sulfite liquors (SSL) and from a wood hydrolysis front-end is described. The most economically attractive process is the fermentation of softwood SSL (SSSL) by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yielding a production cost estimate of $0.47/liter. The cost of producing ethanol from cellulosic waste (clarifier sludge) via acid hydrolysis is approximately $0.55/liter, still below the market price of ca $0.60/liter for industrial ethanol. Neither the fermentation of hardwood SSL nor the conversion of sawdust to ethanol, using current technology, are economically viable. However, these processes can become commercially viable if acetic acid-tolerant xylose-fermenting yeasts can be found. 17 refs., 12 figs., 16 tabs

  3. ASSESSMENT OF THE MOISTURE EFFECT ON GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF SELF-HEATING OF WOOD CHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana VĚŽNÍKOVÁ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are stored in large quantities and may be susceptible to self-ignition. The possible methods of indication of temperature increase include the analysis of the gaseous products of heating where concentrations of certain gases may increase with increasing temperature. Gas release is also affected by the moisture of the material given that the moisture level changes surface accessibility for oxygen on the one side and serves as a catalyst of the oxidation reactions on the other. The present project analysed the effect of temperature and moisture on gaseous products of heating of wood chips, one of frequently used biofuels, with the aim to determine a suitable gaseous indicator of beginning self-ignition.

  4. LCA calculations on Swedish wood pellet production chains - according to the Renewable Energy Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagberg, Linus; Saernholm, Erik; Gode, Jenny; Ekvall, Tomas; Rydberg, Tomas

    2009-09-15

    The study includes calculations of typical life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases for representative Swedish pellet production chains in accordance with the calculation rules in RED (Directive 2009/28/EC). The study also intends to analyse how the directive is applicable on solid biofuels in general and on wood pellet production in particular, and to identify such aspects of the methodology in RED that are associated with obscurities, problems or lead to misleading results compared to other life cycle analysis principles. The report includes a large number of alternative calculations to show how different facts, assumptions and methodological choices affect the results. This includes the effect of what fuels are used for drying, different transport distances, assumed fuel mix for purchased electricity, the variance in efficiency between the investigated plants as well as the effect of different interpretations of the RED methodology for greenhouse gas calculations

  5. Landfill disposal of CCA-treated wood with construction and demolition (C&D) debris: arsenic, chromium, and copper concentrations in leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna R; Townsend, Timothy G; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2008-08-01

    Although phased out of many residential uses in the United States, the disposal of CCA-treated wood remains a concern because significant quantities have yet to be taken out of service, and it is commonly disposed in landfills. Catastrophic events have also led to the concentrated disposal of CCA-treated wood, often in unlined landfills. The goal of this research was to simulate the complex chemical and biological activity of a construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfill containing a realistic quantity of CCA-treated wood (10% by mass), produce leachate, and then evaluate the arsenic, copper, and chromium concentrations in the leachate as an indication of what may occur in a landfill setting. Copper concentrations were not significantly elevated in the control or experimental simulated landfill setting (alpha = 0.05). However, the concentrations of arsenic and chromium were significantly higher in the experimental simulated landfill leachate compared to the control simulated landfill leachate (alpha = 0.05, p debris can impact leachate quality which, in turn could affect leachate management practices or aquifers below unlined landfills.

  6. Carbon stored in harvested wood products in Turkey and projections for 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is an Annex-I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and therefore submits its Greenhouse gases (GHG emissions and removals from anthropogenic sources to the UNFCCC secretariat on an annual basis, through a National GHG Inventory Report (NIR. GHG emissions and removals from Land Use, Land Use and Forestry (LULUCF constitute one of the main sectors in this report. One of the major land use categories in this sector is Forestland, and harvests in this category must be considered as a direct GHG emission to the atmosphere, unless the fate of the Harvested Wood Products (HWP is reported. In this study, we estimated the carbon sequestration in the HWP category of the Turkish NIR, according to the 2006 Guidelines for GHG inventory in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sector, from the International Panel of Experts on Climate Change (IPCC. This is the first time such an estimate of carbon stocks and carbon stock changes in the HWP pool has been carried out in Turkey. The calculation has been done in Tier 2. We used United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE Timber database disaggregated figures for HWP produced in Turkey from 1964 to 2013. We focused on the two main HWP categories, which are sawnwood and wood-based panels. Comparing UNECE data series with Orman Genel Müdürlügü (OGM, the Republic of Turkey, General Directorate of Forestry data series for industrial roundwood over 1976-2013 (starting date for OGM data series, we noticed some anomalies (with UNECE data series as a basis: max: +47%, min = -23%, mean = +16%. Thus, the UNECE data on sawnwood and wood based panels were corrected based on OGM data. These anomalies could be due to: (i use of volume over bark for UNECE and volume under bark for OGM (+15% for volume over bark, and (ii integration of industrial roundwood coming from the private sector for UNECE. In order to ensure coherence, we then corrected the 1976

  7. Production of palm frond based wood plastic composite by using twin screw extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russita, M.; Bahruddin

    2018-04-01

    Wood plastic composite (WPC) is the blending product from wood as filler and polymer thermoplastic as matric. Palm frond waste is a material with selulose about 68%, so it has potential to be developed as raw material for WPC. The purpose of this research was to learn how to produce WPC based on palm frond use twin screw extruder. It used popropilen as matric. As for aditif, it used Maleated Polypropilene (MAPP) as compatibilizer and paraffin as plasticizer. The size of palm frond is 40 – 80 mesh. WPC is made from blending polipropylene, palm frond, MAPP and paraffin with dry mixing method in room temperature. Then, PP, Palm frond and additive from dry mixing is fed into twin screw extruder at 190°C and 60 rpm. It use palm frond/polypropylene 60/40, MAPP 5% w/w and paraffin 2% w/w. From the result, it shown that WPC based on palm frond met the standards forcommercial WPC. It has tensile strength up to 19.2 MPa, bending strength 43.6 MPa and water adsorption 0,32% w/w. So, WPC based on palm frond has prospective to be developed for commercial WPC.

  8. Residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene applied to wood, metal and concrete for control of stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Frank H; Liu, Siwei; Zhao, Baige; Phillips, Thomas W

    2009-07-01

    Pyriproxyfen and hydroprene are insect growth regulators (IGRs) that have been evaluated to control insect pests of field crops, but there are limited reports of efficacy against stored-product insects. A laboratory study was conducted to determine residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene on wood, metal and concrete surfaces. Pyriproxyfen was applied to the surfaces at 1.15 and 2.3 mg active ingredient [AI] m(-2), while hydroprene was applied at the label rate of 19 mg AI m(-2). Late-instar larvae of Tribolium confusum Jacqueline DuVal, T. castaneum (Herbst), Oryzaephilus surinamenis L., Lasioderma serricorne (F.) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) were exposed with a food source on the treated surfaces. Residual testing was conducted at 1, 28 and 56 days post-treatment. Hydroprene was least persistent on concrete and generally most persistent on metal. Pyriproxyfen gave greater residual persistence than hydroprene, and there was no consistent difference in efficacy among the three surfaces. Efficacy varied among the five insect species, but generally P. interpunctella was the most tolerant species to both IGRs. Pyriproxyfen gave effective residual control of primary stored-product insect species by inhibiting adult emergence of exposed larvae. Results show that pyriproxyfen can be a useful addition for pest management programs in mills, warehouses and food storage facilities. (c) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Commercialization and marketing of non-wood forest products in Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of return to nature and its original values is increasingly common worldwide in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. In this context, it is particularly important to pay attention to organic products, as well as the increased demand for healthy food. In these circumstances non-wood forest products (NWFPs emerge as forestry products that meet the criteria of organic farming and as such are placed on the market. The aim of this research was to acquire knowledge about the behavior of the marketing mix elements of NWFPs in Central Serbia in the period from 2007 to 2011. The purpose of this paper was to point to the opportunities for the development of enterprises, and the overall potential of Serbia for the development of companies engaged in purchasing, processing and placement of NWFPs. The research object were the quantities of products purchased and placed on both domestic and foreign markets, the types of promotional activities, the prices of final products and distribution of the products among the enterprises engaged in purchasing, processing and placement of NWFPs in Central Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji

  10. Micronized copper wood preservatives: An efficiency and potential health risk assessment for copper-based nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schwarze, Francis W.M.R.; Wick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential biocide for wood protection, but fails to protect wood against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi. Recently Cu particles (size range: 1 nm–25 μm) were introduced to the wood preservation market. The new generation of preservatives with Cu-based nanoparticles (Cu-based NPs) is reputedly more efficient against wood-destroying fungi than conventional formulations. Therefore, it has the potential to become one of the largest end uses for wood products worldwide. However, during decomposition of treated wood Cu-based NPs and/or their derivate may accumulate in the mycelium of Cu-tolerant fungi and end up in their spores that are dispersed into the environment. Inhaled Cu-loaded spores can cause harm and could become a potential risk for human health. We collected evidence and discuss the implications of the release of Cu-based NPs by wood-destroying fungi and highlight the exposure pathways and subsequent magnitude of health impact. - Highlights: • We compared copper particulate wood preservatives with conventional ones. • We assessed the fungicidal activity of particulate copper wood preservatives. • We reviewed the Cu-tolerance mechanisms of some wood-destroying fungi. • Fungi colonizing wood treated with particulate copper may release Cu-loaded spores. - We assess the fungicidal activity of particulate copper wood preservatives and their possible release in the air by Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi

  11. How to reconcile wood production and biodiversity conservation? The Pan-European boreal forest history gradient as an "experiment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Vladimir; Manton, Michael; Elbakidze, Marine; Rendenieks, Zigmars; Priednieks, Janis; Uhlianets, Siarhei; Yamelynets, Taras; Zhivotov, Anton; Angelstam, Per

    2018-07-15

    There are currently competing demands on Europe's forests and the finite resources and services that they can offer. Forestry intensification that aims at mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation is one example. Whether or not these two objectives compete can be evaluated by comparative studies of forest landscapes with different histories. We test the hypothesis that indicators of wood production and biodiversity conservation are inversely related in a gradient of long to short forestry intensification histories. Forest management data containing stand age, volume and tree species were used to model the opportunity for wood production and biodiversity conservation in five north European forest regions representing a gradient in landscape history from very long in the West and short in the East. Wood production indicators captured the supply of coniferous wood and total biomass, as well as current accessibility by transport infrastructure. Biodiversity conservation indicators were based on modelling habitat network functionality for focal bird species dependent on different combinations of stand age and tree species composition representing naturally dynamic forests. In each region we randomly sampled 25 individual 100-km 2 areas with contiguous forest cover. Regarding wood production, Sweden's Bergslagen region had the largest areas of coniferous wood, followed by Vitebsk in Belarus and Zemgale in Latvia. NW Russia's case study regions in Pskov and Komi had the lowest values, except for the biomass indicator. The addition of forest accessibility for transportation made the Belarusian and Swedish study region most suitable for wood and biomass production, followed by Latvia and two study regions in NW Russian. Regarding biodiversity conservation, the overall rank among regions was opposite. Mixed and deciduous habitats were functional in Russia, Belarus and Latvia. Old Scots pine and Norway spruce habitats were only functional in Komi. Thus

  12. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  13. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  14. Effect of non-tariff barriers on secondary processed wood product trade: New Zealand exports to the United States, China and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Frances Maplesden

    2008-01-01

    Secondary processed wood products - builder's carpentry and joinery, moldings and millwork, wooden furniture, and prefabricated buildings - have grown significantly in importance in the global trade of wood products. At the same time there has been increased use of non-tariff barriers to restrict their trade.  These barriers could have an important impact on the...

  15. 2006 : Wood Products Used in New Residential Construction U.S. and Canada, with Comparisons to 1995, 1998 and 2003 : Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Adair; David B. McKeever

    2009-01-01

    The construction of new single family, multifamily, and manufactured housing is an important market for wood products in both the United States and Canada. Annual wood products consumption is dependent on many factors, including the number of new units started, the size of units started, architectural characteristics, and consumer preferences. In 2006, about 39 percent...

  16. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  17. Integrated production of nano-fibrillated cellulose and cellulosic biofuel (ethanol) by enzymatic fractionation of wood fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; Ronald Sabo; Xiaolin Luo

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of integrating the production of nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC), a potentially highly valuable biomaterial, with sugar/biofuel (ethanol) from wood fibers. Commercial cellulase enzymes were used to fractionate the less recalcitrant amorphous cellulose from a bleached Kraft eucalyptus pulp, resulting in a highly crystalline and...

  18. The Colville Study: wood utilization for ecosystem management: preliminary results of study of product potential from small-diameter stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Willits; R. J. Barbour; J. McNeel; R. D. Fight; G. C. Myers; A. Mason

    The Colville Study was developed in 1994 to identify and evaluate a series of management options for achieving ecosystem objectives in dense stands of small-diameter trees while also producing wood products. The Colville National Forest selected the Rocky II Timber Sale as an example of this type of stand that needed management to achieve the following goals: (1)...

  19. Wood ant nests as hot spots of carbon dioxide production and cold spots of methane oxidation in temperate forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Veronika; Picek, T.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Frouz, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, April (2016), EGU2016-4634 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : wood ant nests * hot spots of carbon dioxide production * cold spots of methane oxidation * temperate forests Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  20. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  1. Long-term influence of alternative forest management treatments on total ecosystem and wood product carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua J. Puhlick; Aaron R. Weiskittel; Ivan J. Fernandez; Shawn Fraver; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; Randall K. Kolka; Lindsey E. Rustad; John C. Brissette

    2016-01-01

    Developing strategies for reducing atmospheric CO2 is one of the foremost challenges facing natural resource professionals today. The goal of this study was to evaluate total ecosystem and harvested wood product carbon (C) stocks among alternative forest management treatments (selection cutting, shelterwood cutting, commercial clearcutting, and...

  2. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of climate change on U.S. forests, wood-product markets, and forest recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland; Darius Adams; Ralph Alig; Carter J. Betz; Chi-Chung Chen; Mark Hutchins; Bruce A. McCarl; Ken Skog; Brent L. Sohngen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the problems of projecting social and economic changes affecting forests and review recent efforts to assess the wood-market impacts of possible climate changes. To illustrate the range of conditions encountered in projecting socioeconomic change linked to forests, we consider two markedly different uses: forest products markets and forest...

  3. Wood products and other building materials used in new residential construction in Canada, with comparison to previous studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Elling; David B. McKeever

    2015-01-01

    New residential construction is a critical driver of the demand for lumber, structural panels and engineered wood products in Canada. For the period 2010 through 2013, residential construction accounted for roughly 23 percent of the lumber consumed in Canada and 47 percent of structural panel usage. Insufficient data concerning imports and exports prevent estimates of...

  4. Criterion 6, indicator 30 : value and volume in round wood equivalents of exports and imports of wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth Skog

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a wide range of specific and statistical information on forest products markets in terms of production, trade, prices and consumption, employment, and other factors influencing forest sustainability.

  5. Production of plastified wood with stronger static bending strength means of polymerization induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, Elias

    1999-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation to obtain wood-polymer composites is one of the applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. The process, denominated radiopolymerization, comprises the impregnation of monomers into the completely dried wood followed by exposure to gamma radiation to induce polymerization of the impregnated monomers. I this context, the present work aimed the application of this process to seven kinds of wood existing in the brazilian forests. The considered monomer is styrene and the gamma source is Cobalt-60. The obtained wood-polystyrene composites were found to have stronger static bending strength. (author)

  6. Non-timber forest products marketing systems and market players in southwest Virginia: crafts, medicinal and herbal, and specialty wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Greene; A.L. Hammett; S. Kant

    2000-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Virginia as a source of household income. Marketing system of crafts, medicinal and herbal, and specialty wood products are studied using exploratory and qualitative research methods. Fifty market players at various levels in marketing chains are interviewed to get the information on elements of...

  7. Environmentally adapted energy production and working environment. Manufacture of wood pellets; Miljoeanpassad energiproduktion och arbetsmiljoe. Tillverkning av traepellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez de Davila, Eliana

    2002-04-01

    The working environment at three wood pellet production plants was studied. Measurements were made of dust, microorganisms (bacteria and molds) and terpenes. Both stationary and personal sampling equipment were used. Dust sources and dust diffusion were mapped. Work in the raw material storage rooms and at the semi-automatic sack-filling stations can give high exposure to wood dusts (max. 4.7 mg/m{sup 3}). These high levels might cause irritations in the respiratory tract. Relatively high levels of terpenes were detected in the plant that did not dry wood shavings or sawdust. Pressing of non-dried shavings probably leads to emission of terpenes and other gaseous substances in the plant. Recommendations for improvements of the working conditions are given in the report.

  8. Biosorbents prepared from wood particles treated with anionic polymer and iron salt: Effect of particle size on phosphate adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Soo-Hong Min

    2008-01-01

    Biomass-based adsorbents have been widely studied as a cost-effective and environmentally-benign means to remove pollutants and nutrients from water. A two-stage treatment of aspen wood particles with solutions of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and ferrous chloride afforded a biosorbent that was effective in removing phosphate from test solutions. FTIR spectroscopy of...

  9. A comparative study on Cu, Cr and As removal from CCA-treated wood waste by dialytic and electrodialytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, Emiliya; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2002-01-01

    with the performance of a pure dialytic experiment (without an external power supply) in order to reveal transport of charged particles induced solely by internal electrochemical potential differences in the system. Oxalic acid proved to be a more suitable pre-treatment solution than deionised water for wood chips...

  10. A General Evaluation for Recycling Process of Impregnated Wood Removed From the Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Taşçıoğlu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood presevatives such as creosote, pentaclorophenol (PCP and chromated copper arsenate (CCA have been widely used over the years in order to extend wood products’ service life. CCA was known as most widely used wood preservative chemical in residendial and commercial applications world wide until 2004 volanteered phase out of the chemical from residential use bye the major manufacturers. Over the years CCA treated wood acuumulated in service reaching millions of cubic meters. But there is growing concern about the environmental impacts and increasing difficulty in disposing of treated wood products in many countries. Since disposal of CCA treated wood material poses greater problems than the other treated wood products due to heavy and toxic metal componets of CCA such as chromium and arsenic Traditional disposal methods like landfillig or incineration, both have negative environmental consequences. For that reason the increasing volume of CCA-treated wood products coming out of service requires alternative disposal methods and recycling techniques never tried before. The main purpose of this study, except for traditional methods like landfilling and incineration, is to evaluate the current alternative disposal and recycling methods for CCA treated wood removed from service.

  11. Reporting harvested wood products in national greenhouse gas inventories: Implications for Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Carly; Avitabile, Valerio; Farrell, Edward P.; Byrne, Kenneth A.

    2006-01-01

    During recent years harvested wood products (HWP) have received growing attention because they may be included in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories and possibly Kyoto Protocol (KP) accounting procedures in future commitment periods, with practical and economic consequences for both reporting and timber markets. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified three approaches to estimating and reporting carbon (C) stock in HWP; the stock-change approach, the production approach, and the atmospheric-flow approach. Should countries choose to report C stocks in HWP, one approach needs to be universally agreed for consistency. Using a model, the C stock both in use and in solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) at a national scale in Ireland was estimated and compared for the period 1961-2003 with uncertainty in the estimates generated using a Monte Carlo analysis. In 2003, the stock-change approach yielded the highest C sink, relative to the IPCC default approach of 375 Gg C yr -1 ±40% with the production approach and atmospheric-flow approach estimating the stock change at 271 Gg C yr -1 ±48% and 149 Gg C yr -1 ±31%, respectively. On the basis of the model results, the implications of selecting one approach over another and the contribution HWP may have in the future to help Ireland reach its reduction target under the KP are discussed

  12. Certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European union legislations: Current situation, problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of the current situation in the area of certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European Union legislation referring to the placement of wood and wood products on this market. The objective of the research was to observe the situation, phases which Serbia implemented in the process of forest and wood products certification until now, as well as the problems and challenges the companies in this process face. Based on research results, future development of the market of certified wood products in Serbia was assessed and the proposal of measures which should be realized in order for Serbia to become a country whose companies will be ready for the moment when provisions and measures of the new EU legislation become effective was given. The selection of the abovementioned objective was conditioned by the fact that from January 1st, 2013 new legislation takes effect, with significantly stricter terms for the placement of wood and wood products from other countries on this market. One of the conditions which will have to be fulfilled by the companies wishing to export their products on this market refers to proving their origin. Since the EU is the most significant market for wood products exported from Serbia, fulfillment of the stated and other terms from the new EU legislation is of great importance to Serbian companies. Until the beginning of September 2010, only 387,000 ha were certified, namely 17.2% of the total area under forests. In the same period, only 33 wood processing companies in Serbia possessed CoC certificates for their products. Such a small number of companies possessing certificates for their wood products compared to competitive neighboring countries can represent a serious limitation in achieving their satisfactory competitiveness on the EU market in the following period.

  13. Instream large wood: Denitrification hotspots with low N2O production

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of instream large wood on denitrification capacity in two contrasting, lower order streams — one that drains an agricultural watershed with no riparian forest and minimal stores of instream large wood and another that drains a forested watershed with an ext...

  14. Consumer willingness to pay for a naturally decay-resistant wood product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey Donovan; Hayley. Hesseln

    2004-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is the most widely used chemical wood preservative in the United States. Concerns about the safety of CCA led to an agreement between the Environmental Protection Agency and the wood treatment industry to withdraw CCA for nonindustrial uses by the end of 2003. In light of the publicity surrounding the withdrawal of CCA, this article...

  15. Isolation and characterization of lignin from the oak wood bioethanol production residue for adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cho, Eun Jin; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Lignin was isolated from the residue of bioethanol production with oak wood via alkaline and catalyzed organosolv treatments at ambient temperature to improve the purity of lignin for the materials application. The isolated lignins were analyzed for their chemical composition by nitrobenzene oxidation method and their functionality was characterized via wet chemistry method, element analysis, (1)H NMR, GPC and FTIR-ATR. The isolated lignin by acid catalyzed organosolv treatment (Acid-OSL) contained a higher lignin content, aromatic proton, phenolic hydroxyl group and a lower nitrogen content that is more reactive towards chemical modification. The lignin-based adhesives were prepared and the bond strength was measured to evaluate the enhanced reactivity of lignin by the isolation. Two steps of phenolation and methylolation were applied for the modification of the isolated lignins and their tensile strengths were evaluated for the use as an adhesive. The acid catalyzed organosolv lignin-based adhesives had comparable bond strength to phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. The analysis of lignin-based adhesives by FTIR-ATR and TGA showed structural similarity to phenol adhesive. The results demonstrate that the reactivity of lignin was enhanced by isolation from hardwood bioethanol production residues at ambient temperature and it could be used in a value-added application to produce lignin-based adhesives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Feedbacks between earlywood anatomy and non-structural carbohydrates affect spring phenology and wood production in ring-porous oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Lis, Gonzalo; García-González, Ignacio; Rozas, Vicente; Olano, José Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) play a central role in the construction and maintenance of a tree's vascular system, but feedbacks between the NSC status of trees and wood formation are not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate multiple dependencies among wood anatomy, winter NSC, and phenology for coexisting temperate (Quercus robur) and sub-Mediterranean (Q. pyrenaica) oaks along a water-availability gradient in the NW Iberian Peninsula. Sapwood NSC concentrations were quantified at three sites in December 2012 (N = 240). Leaf phenology and wood anatomy were surveyed in 2013. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the interplay among hydraulic diameter (Dh), winter NSC, budburst date, and earlywood vessel production (EVP), while the effect of Dh and EVP on latewood width was assessed by using a mixed-effects model. NSC and wood production increased under drier conditions for both species. Q. robur showed a narrower Dh and lower soluble sugar (SS) concentration (3.88-5.08 % dry matter) than Q. pyrenaica (4.06-5.57 % dry matter), but Q. robur exhibited larger EVP and wider latewood (1403 µm) than Q. pyrenaica (667 µm). Stem diameter and Dh had a positive effect on SS concentrations, which were related to an earlier leaf flushing in both species. Sapwood sugar content appeared to limit EVP exclusively in Q. pyrenaica. In turn, Dh and EVP were found to be key predictors of latewood growth. Our results confirm that sapwood SS concentrations are involved in modulating growth resumption and xylem production in spring. Q. pyrenaica exhibited a tighter control of carbohydrate allocation to wood formation than Q. robur, which would play a role in protecting against environmental stress in the sub-Mediterranean area.

  17. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service's Sierra Nevada Bio-Regional Assessment Area of the Pacific Southwest Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  18. Regional and forest-level estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States Forest Service Northern Region, 1906-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Anderson; J. Young; K. Stockmann; K. Skog; S. Healey; D. Loeffler; J.G. Jones; J. Morrison

    2013-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  19. Consequences of increasing bioenergy demand on wood and forests: An application of the Global Forest Products Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno, J.; Raunikar, R.; Zhu, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) was applied to project the consequences for the global forest sector of doubling the rate of growth of bioenergy demand relative to a base scenario, other drivers being maintained constant. The results showed that this would lead to the convergence of the price of fuelwood and industrial roundwood, raising the price of industrial roundwood by nearly 30% in 2030. The price of sawnwood and panels would be 15% higher. The price of paper would be 3% higher. Concurrently, the demand for all manufactured wood products would be lower in all countries, but the production would rise in countries with competitive advantage. The global value added in wood processing industries would be 1% lower in 2030. The forest stock would be 2% lower for the world and 4% lower for Asia. These effects varied substantially by country. ?? 2011 Department of Forest Economics, SLU Ume??, Sweden.

  20. Sustainability Impact Assessment on the Production and Use of Different Wood and Fossil Fuels Employed for Energy Production in North Karelia, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Pekkanen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization rate of woody biomass in eastern Finland is high and expected to increase further in the near future as set out in several regional, national and European policies and strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the sustainability impacts of changes in fuel consumption patterns. We investigated fossil and woody biomass-based energy production chains in the region of North Karelia, focusing on some economic, environmental and social indicators. Indicators were selected based on stakeholder preferences and evaluated using the Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA. The analysis was based on representative values from National Forest Inventory data, scientific publications, national and regional statistics, databases, published policy targets and expert opinion. From the results it became evident that shifting from fossil to wood-based energy production implies some trade-offs. Replacing oil with woody biomass in energy production would increase the local value added remaining in the region, create employment opportunities and would reduce total GHG emissions. However, firewood, wood chips from small-diameter trees from early thinning and wood pellets have high production costs. Moreover, large greenhouse gas emission resulted from wood pellet production. The case study generated valuable reference data for future sustainability assessments and demonstrated the usefulness of ToSIA as a tool presenting existing knowledge on sustainability impacts of alternative energy supply chains to inform decision making.

  1. Copper tolerance of brown-rot fungi : oxalic acid production in southern pine treated with arsenic-free preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen

    2005-01-01

    The voluntary withdrawal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood from most residential applications has increased the use of non-arsenical copper-based organic wood preservatives. Because the arsenic component of CCA controlled copper tolerant fungi, scientists have renewed interest in and concern about the decay capacity in the important copper-tolerant group...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD AND THEIR REDUCTION BY CHEMICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Peters

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment is a suitable method for improving the quality of wood types like spruce, beech or poplar, and thus to open up new fields of application that used to be limited to tropical woods or woods treated with timber preservatives. These thermally treated woods are characterized by a typical odor caused by degradation products of miscellaneous wood components. The characterization and removal of those odorous substances were investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Headspace gas chromatography (GC in combination with solid-phase microextraction (SPME was used for a qualitative analysis of volatile wood emissions, and the detectable volatiles were compared before and after solvent extraction. Wood solvent extractives were investigated by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and then evaluated in terms of changes in composition caused by the thermal treatment process.

  3. Commercialization of non-wood forest products on the territory of AP Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous utilization of natural resources in forestry as an economic activity, timber exploitation was always the dominant part, and the utilization of other forest products was partly neglected. Nowadays, non-wood forest products (NWFPs occupy an increasingly significant position in the forestry sector in numerous countries, so that the revenue from their utilization approaches the returns realized by the classical production of timber products. The research performed in Vojvodina, on the sample of six enterprises dealing with NWFP purchase, processing and sale was aimed at the analysis of their market activities to create the image of the market of this group of products. After the study data were analyzed by dynamic statistical methods, the changes in the activities on purchase, the domestic sales and export sales between 2004 and 2010 were presented and future projects were visualized. The research in the form of questionnaire included the quantities of purchased raw materials, the scope of production and sales, both in the domestic, and in foreign markets, as well as the prices of final products. Some species of medicinal plants were purchased on the territories of Croatia and Macedonia, and the purchasing network in the domestic market was remarkably wide and it included predominantly: Niš, Svrljig, Čoka, Apatin, Pančevo, Ruma, Boljevac, Kanjiža, etc. The most significant growth was realised in the purchase of a mixture of medicinal plants. Also significant are the purchased quantities of mint, which on average increased by 7.9 t and rose hip by 5.5 t per year. During the study period, the domestic sale of all species of herbal teas and medicinal plants increased significantly, while spices and honey were subject to a fluctuation in sales quantity. Average algebraic deviation of the original final NWFP sale value from the arithmetic mean accounts for 3.48%. With the significance level of 95%, it is estimated that the sale in

  4. Special Analysis: Updated Analysis of the Effect of Wood Products on Trench Disposal Limits at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) develops revised radionuclide inventory limits for trench disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the presence of wood products in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility. These limits should be used to modify the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for trench disposal. Because the work on which this SA is based employed data from tests using 100 percent wood products, the 40 percent limitation on wood products for trench (i.e., slit or engineered trench) disposal is not needed in the modified WAC

  5. Production of high quality adsorbent charcoal from Phil. Wood II. Granulated activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arida, V.P.; Atienza, O.G.; Quilao, T.A.; Caballero, A.R.; Laxamana, J.S.; Pugal, D.L.; Guce, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    Two Philippine wood species out of twelve earlier studied in part I namely ''ipil-ipil'' Leucaena leucocephala (Lann) de Wit and coconut coir dust were selected for the production of good quality granulated activated carbon. Fluidization method was used in the study. The conditions for the granulation of the carbonized chars using molasses were established. An optimum ratio of 1:0.5 and 1:0.8 (char:binder) was used in the granulation process for ''ipil-ipil'' and coir dust, respectively. Carbonization was done at gradually increasing temperature of 3 0 C/min at 600 0 C. Carbonized granules with particle sizes ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm were used for the activation study. The produced granules were activated in an external heat type stainless steel reactor as mentioned in Part I using steam as activating agent. The physical properties and adsorptive capacity of the activated granular products obtained at varying activation were determined and correlated. Methylene blue adsorption and internal surface area obtained at varying conditions were determined and correlated. Maximum values obtained for methylene blue adsorption and internal surface area are 290 mg/g AC and 1,200m 2 /g AC at 900 0 C, respectively for ''ipil-ipil'' and 390 mg/g AC and 1,000m 2 g AC at 850 0 C respectively for coir dust. Gas adsorption tests done using benzene acetone and carbon tetrachloride for both ''ipil-ipil'' and coir dust activated granular char products showed that both exhibited maximum absorbability at 900 0 C. Results of the study have shown that good quality granulated activated carbon can be produced from ''ipil-ipil'' and coir dust which find suitable applications in various adsorption processes such as organic solvent adsorption, gas adsorption, water purification, oil and sugar refining, among others. (auth.). 3 refs.; 4 tabs.; 14 figs

  6. Potential availability of urban wood biomass in Michigan: Implications for energy production, carbon sequestration and sustainable forest management in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Tree and wood biomass from urban areas is a potentially large, underutilized resource viewed in the broader social context of biomass production and utilization. Here, data and analysis from a regional study in a 13-county area of Michigan, U.S.A. are combined with data and analysis from several other studies to examine this potential. The results suggest that urban trees and wood waste offer a modest amount of biomass that could contribute significantly more to regional and national bio-economies than it does at present. Better utilization of biomass from urban trees and wood waste could offer new sources of locally generated wood products and bio-based fuels for power and heat generation, reduce fossil fuel consumption, reduce waste disposal costs and reduce pressure on forests. Although wood biomass generally constitutes a 'carbon-neutral' fuel, burning rather than burying urban wood waste may not have a net positive effect on reducing atmospheric CO 2 levels, because it may reduce a significant long term carbon storage pool. Using urban wood residues for wood products may provide the best balance of economic and environmental values for utilization

  7. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, R.

    1997-04-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected radionuclide in fuels. It's activity concentration in Bq/kg normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from K in emission from combustion is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to man are the U- and Th-isotopes and 210 Pb and 210 Po. 137 Cs is the most common nuclide among the fission products in fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137 Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approx. only a few μSv from inhalation can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 manSv/year. 143 refs

  8. COLOR STABILITY FOR WOOD PRODUCTS DURING USE: EFFECTS OF INORGANIC NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Blanchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress having been achieved in recent years to improve wood’s durability, additional developments are still necessary to increase its color stability. ZnO and CeO2 nanoparticles were compared to UV absorbers (Tinuvin 477 DW, 292 and 5151 commonly used to stabilize the wood products color. Nanoparticles, with concentrations in the range 1 to 2 wt%, and UV absorbers, using concentrations advised by the manufacturer, were dispersed in a waterborne UV curable polyurethane/polyacrylate resin. Dispersions were carried out with a high speed mixer at 2,500 RPM with micro glass beads or not, depending on the form of the nanoparticles. Nanocomposite coatings were aged with a weather-o-meter (CI 3000+ - Atlas according ASTM G155. Color variations were measured with a colorimeter (BYK Gardner – Color Guide 45/0 working with the CIE L*a*b* system. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of inorganic UV absorbers on the stabilization of color under indoor conditions. Results showed that nanoparticles (ZnO, CeO2 absorbed UV light frequencies in a manner similar to common organic molecules. Their efficiency was better at medium durations of light exposure, for which they could achieve the action of organic absorbers. Finally, the simultaneous use of both absorbers seems to create a protective synergy when degradation is due to UV energy alone.

  9. Improving the environmental profile of wood panels via co-production of ethanol and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, J Mason; Halog, Anthony; Shaler, Stephen

    2011-11-15

    The oriented strand board (OSB) biorefinery is an emerging technology that could improve the building, transportation, and chemical sectors' environmental profiles. By adding a hot water extraction stage to conventional OSB panel manufacturing, hemicellulose polysaccharides can be extracted from wood strands and converted to renewably sourced ethanol and acetic acid. Replacing fossil-based gasoline and acetic acid has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, among other possible impacts. At the same time, hemicellulose extraction could improve the environmental profile of OSB panels by reducing the level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during manufacturing. In this study, the life cycle significance of such GHG, VOC, and other emission reductions was investigated. A process model was developed based on a mix of laboratory and industrial-level mass and energy flow data. Using these data a life cycle assessment (LCA) model was built. Sensitive process parameters were identified and used to develop a target production scenario for the OSB biorefinery. The findings suggest that the OSB biorefinery's deployment could substantially improve human and ecosystem health via reduction of select VOCs compared to conventionally produced OSB, gasoline, and acetic acid. Technological advancements are needed, however, to achieve desirable GHG reductions.

  10. Pectinase Production by Bacillus and Paenibacillus sp. Isolated from Decomposing Wood Residues in the Lagos Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busayo Tosin Akinyemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Three wood decomposing bacteria isolated from the Lagos lagoon, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus bataviensis and Paenibacillus sp. were screened for their pectinase producing abilities using pectin as substrate under submerged fermentation (SMF conditions. The results showed that all three isolates produced appreciable pectinolytic activities. Paenibacillus sp. showed the highest pectinase activity when compared with the other two isolates. The optimum pH for pectinase activity for both B. megaterium and B. bataviensis was 8.0 while it was 6.5 for Paenibacillus sp., B. bataviensis, and B. megaterium showed optimum pectinase activity at 60°C and Paenibacillus sp. at 40°C. Metal ions such as Na+ and K+ improved the activity of pectinase produced by the three isolates when compared to the effect of Zn2+ and Mn2+. The molecular weights of the enzymes were also estimated by gel filtration as 29,512 da, 32,359 da, and 25,119 da for Paenibacillus sp., B. megaterium and B. bataviensis respectively. The study has provided a platform for further investigation into the biochemical characterization of the enzyme, and optimization of culture conditions to scale up pectinase production for commercial exploitation.

  11. A co-production of sugars, lignosulfonates, cellulose, and cellulose nanocrystals from ball-milled woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lanxing; Wang, Jinwu; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Wolcott, Michael P; Yu, Zhiming

    2017-08-01

    This study demonstrated the technical potential for the large-scale co-production of sugars, lignosulfonates, cellulose, and cellulose nanocrystals. Ball-milled woods with two particle sizes were prepared by ball milling for 80min or 120min (BMW 80 , BMW 120 ) and then enzymatically hydrolyzed. 78.3% cellulose conversion of BMW 120 was achieved, which was three times as high as the conversion of BMW 80 . The hydrolyzed residues (HRs) were neutrally sulfonated cooking. 57.72g/L and 88.16g/L lignosulfonate concentration, respectively, were harvested from HR 80 and HR 120 , and 42.6±0.5% lignin were removed. The subsequent solid residuals were purified to produce cellulose and then this material was acid-hydrolyzed to produce cellulose nanocrystals. The BMW 120 maintained smaller particle size and aspect ratio during each step of during the multiple processes, while the average aspect ratio of its cellulose nanocrystals was larger. The crystallinity of both materials increased with each step of wet processing, reaching to 74% for the cellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on the Wood-Based Furniture, Leather Products and Footwear Manufacturing Industries in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Poblador, Niceto; Solis, Adriano; Ybanez, Roy; Aragon, Bienvenido

    1983-01-01

    This paper aims to develop both the micro and macro data on the entire range of socioeconomic, managerial and technical issues faced by the wood-based furniture, footwear and leather tanning industry. The studies are intended to provide an initial base for policy formulation and implementation and to evolve a set of relevant guidelines for managerial and technical decisions. Findings show that the wood-based furniture industry is characterized by relative ease of entry that allows manufacture...

  13. Partial-impregnation techniques in the production of wood-polymer composites through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Du Toit, G.S.; Jurriaanse, A.

    1977-04-01

    Radiation-processed wood-polymer composites produced from various partially impregnated Pinus species grown in South Africa were investigated and compared to a number of locally available noble hardwoods in respect of dimensional stability, hardness, homogeneity and weathering properties. This investigation clearly demonstrates that, through partial-impregnation techniques, wood-polymer composites can be formed from the locally grown Pinus species with a considerable saving in monomer costs without sacrificing most of the important physical properties of these materials [af

  14. More energy wood from forestry operations through integrated harvesting and multi-products processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    Abundant supplies of forest biomass that could potentially be used for energy wood are not being accessed because of marginal economics, inadequate harvest methods, and restrictive land management practices. Future forestry objectives may impose even more restrictive conditions. Improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of harvest methods, marketing, and bureaucratic processes may, however, render more energy wood while meeting new post-harvest stand conditions. Some improvements have been achieved while others lie on the horizon

  15. Xylitol Production from Eucalyptus Wood Hydrolysates in Low-Cost Fermentation Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects concerning the bioconversion of xylose-containing hydrolysates (obtained from Eucalyptus wood into xylitol were assessed. Debaryomyces hansenii yeast strains were adapted to fermentation media (obtained either by prehydrolysis or autohydrolysis- posthydrolysis of wood supplemented with low-cost nutrients. Media containing up to 80 g/L xylose were efficiently fermented when the hydrolysates were detoxified by charcoal adsorption and supplemented with corn steep liquor.

  16. Modeling of electrodialytic and dialytic removal of Cr, Cu and As from CCA-treated wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Mateus, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    + and NO3 used as electrolyte solutions in the electrode compartments, and oxalate ions and protons incorporated with the oxalic acid solution during wood chips incubation. The model simulation also takes into account that OH generated on the cathode, during electrodialytic remediation, is periodically...... neutralized by addition of nitric acid in the cathode compartment. The anion and cation-exchange membranes are simply represented as ionic filters that preclude the transport of co-ions (the cations and anions respectively) with the exception of H+, which is retarded but considered to pass through the anion...

  17. Preliminary evaluation of production and characterization of wood vinegar from rubberwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraivan Ratanapisit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a slow pyrolysis of rubberwood in a furnace at an atmospheric pressure to produce pyroligneous liquid or wood vinegar. Pyroligneous liquids produced were separated into two fractions based on temperatures in a furnace. The yields of wood vinegar were quantified. Also pH, SG and boiling ranges were determined. The optimum condition of pyrolysis was obtained at the heating rate of 1.4oC/min to the final temperature at 550oC/min with a yield of 27.45%. The pH and specific gravity were attained at about 2.9-3.83 and 1.009-1.027, respectively, depend on process conditions. Also the boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar approximately were 96-108oC based on the ASTM-D86 method. However, no significantlychanges were seen in the pH, specific gravity and boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar regarding to hearting rates. For characterization, wood vinegar was fractionated by a distillation into three fractions. Both crude and distilled wood vinegars were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Results showed that the wood vinegar is mainly composed of acetic acid. Also the rubberwood pyrolysis yields high methanol content compared to other woods.

  18. Wood-energy market impact on competition, procurement practices, and profitability of landowners and forest products industry in the U.S. south

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, Joseph L. IV.; Bolding, M. Chad; Smith, Robert L.; Aust, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Recent emphasis on producing energy from woody biomass has raised questions about the impact of a wood-energy market on the U.S. South's wood supply chain. We surveyed wood-energy facilities, fibermills, sawmills, private landowners, and government landholders to investigate the expected impact of a vibrant wood-energy market on the southern wood supply chain. Specifically, our study was designed to document potential competition for resources, wood supply chain profitability, and landowner willingness to sell timber to energy facilities. Results indicate that wood-energy facilities and traditional mills were not competing for raw material on a large scale at the time of the study, but competition is expected over the next decade. Almost 90% of fibermills reported that traditional forest industry mills should enter the wood-energy market, but most were skeptical that the new market would improve profitability. Ninety percent of responding landowners reported a willingness to sell to energy facilities if the right price is offered and all of those who had already sold timber to an energy facility were satisfied with the experience. Only 3.5% of respondents were unwilling to sell timber to an energy company, and only one of these respondents listed timber production as a primary objective, which indicates those who would not harvest timber for energy, may be unlikely to harvest timber for other purposes also. This study suggests that the southern wood supply chain is in position to profit from a wood-energy market; however, concerns remain about the coexistence of the forest products and wood-energy industries. (author)

  19. What incentives to climate change mitigation through harvested wood products in the current french policy framework? (Summary). Climate Report no. 47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deheza, Mariana; N'Goran, Carmen; Bellassen, Valentin

    2014-09-01

    Beyond the important role that forests play in the fight against climate change through the sequestration of carbon in their biomass, wood products also contribute to climate change through three channels: - Material substitution: the manufacturing of wood products being less energy intensive allows to avoid carbon emissions from the processing of other alternative materials (eg. concrete, steel, etc); - Energy substitution: achieved by the generation of energy from wood combustion replacing other fossil fuels. - Carbon sequestration in the wood products: wood products sequester carbon during their whole life span until their decomposition. This Climate Report identifies French policies that have an impact on climate change mitigation by wood products through these three mitigation channels. Our analysis asserts that similarly to the context at the EU level, the current national policy framework incentives are mostly directed to the 'energy wood' sector. These incentives include fiscal and financial instruments such as: - The heat fund ('fonds chaleur'), which subsidizes the production of renewable heat particularly from biomass; - The zero interest rate eco-loans ('eco-pret a taux zero') and the Sustainable development tax credit ('credit d'impot developpement durable (CIDD)') which partly subsidize wood heating; - Reduced VAT on renewable heat purchases. The use of wood as a material is currently less encouraged, at least on the financial side: the few devices that support it are rarely binding and mobilize limited resources. Future measures planned under the National Action Plan for the forest-based sector and the upcoming law for the future of agriculture and forestry ('Loi d'avenir pour l'agriculture et la foret') could slightly re-balance this situation. (authors)

  20. Wood Colorization through Pressure Treating: The Potential of Extracted Colorants from Spalting Fungi as a Replacement for Woodworkers’ Aniline Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. Robinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular colorants produced by Chlorociboria aeruginosa, Scytalidium cuboideum, and Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, three commonly utilized spalting fungi, were tested against a standard woodworker’s aniline dye to determine if the fungal colorants could be utilized in an effort to find a naturally occurring replacement for the synthetic dye. Fungal colorants were delivered in two methods within a pressure treater—the first through solubilization of extracted colorants in dichloromethane, and the second via liquid culture consisting of water, malt, and the actively growing fungus. Visual external evaluation of the wood test blocks showed complete surface coloration of all wood species with all colorants, with the exception of the green colorant (xylindein from C. aeruginosa in liquid culture, which did not produce a visible surface color change. The highest changes in external color came from noble fir, lodgepole pine, port orford cedar and sugar maple with aniline dye, cottonwood with the yellow colorant in liquid culture, lodgepole pine with the red colorant in liquid culture, red alder and Oregon maple with the green colorant in dichloromethane, and sugar maple and port orford cedar with the yellow colorant in dichloromethane. The aniline dye was superior to the fungal colorants in terms of internal coloration, although none of the tested compounds were able to completely visually color the inside of the test blocks.

  1. Ethanol Production from Hydrothermally-Treated Biomass from West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem C.; Kádár, Zsófia; Mensah, Moses Y.

    2015-01-01

    wood, elephant grass, Siam weed, and coconut husk, benchmarked against those of wheat straw. The elephant grass exhibited the highest glucose and ethanol yields at 57.8% and 65.1% of the theoretical maximums, respectively. The results show that the glucose yield of pretreated elephant grass was 3...

  2. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarniala, M.; Puhakka, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  3. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedvall, Robert Hans

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radiation is a natural phenomenon and radionuclides occur naturally. The first man-made spread of concentrated radioactivity occurred some 100,000 years ago when the first fireplace was lit, with fallout as a later consequence. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected nuclide in fuels. Its activity concentration in Bq kg-1 normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from potassium in the emission is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to humans are the U- and Th-isotopes and also 210Pb and 210Po. Of fission products in fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests and after the Chernobyl accident, 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approximately a few μSv from inhalation only can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 person Sv a-1.

  4. Harvested wood products and carbon sink in a young beech high forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol (KP, Italy has elected forest management as additional human-induced activity to attain the goal of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The whole forest area not subjected to afforestation, reforestation or deforestation processes since 1990 will be considered as managed forest. In order to analyse different management strategies, the Carbon-Pro Project, involving 9 partners of the European CADSES area, considered a young beech high forest (ex-coppice, defined as "transitory silvicultural system" as a common case study for the Pre-alps region. Using data collected with forest plans during the period 1983 - 2005, aboveground and belowground forest carbon stock and sink of a specific forest compartment were estimated by the Carbon Stock Method proposed by the IPCC Guidelines. In order to apply this approach 41 trees were cut and a species-specific allometric equation was developed. Considering the aboveground tree biomass, the carbon sink amounts to 1.99 and 1.84 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for the period 1983 - 1994 and 1994 - 2005 respectively. Adding the belowground tree biomass, the estimated sink amounts to 2.59 and 2.39 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for each period. Taking the harvested wood products (firewood, the total carbon sequestration during the second period is 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1. The case study highlights the possible rules for the different management strategies. In effect, the utilisation of the entire increase in aboveground biomass as firewood gives an energy substitution effect but, according to the Marrakesh Accords, it cannot be accounted for the KP. On the other hand, an accumulation strategy gives the maximum possible carbon absorption and retention.

  5. Characterization of residues from thermal treatment of treated wood and extraction of Cu, Cr, As and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2005-01-01

    , that the charcoal contained a high concentration of Zn, probably from paint. Chemical extraction experiments in HNO were conducted with the charcoal and it was found that the order of extraction (in percentage) was Zn > Cu > As > Cr. A SEM/EDX investigation of the mixed ash from combustion showed the presence...... a matter to cope with when methods to avoid As emission are implemented: the residues with increased concentrations of Cu, Cr and As. In the present paper two different residues after thermal treatment are characterized: a mixed bottom and fly ash from combustion of CCA impregnated wood, and a charcoal...... form in a small layer on the surface of some matrix particles indicating condensation of volatile Cu species. Chemical extraction with inorganic acids showed the order of percentages mobilized as: As > Cu > Cr....

  6. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Bruder, Edson Marcelo; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from 241 Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m 3 . Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m 3 . These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in productivity

  7. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  8. Effects of long-term ambient ozone exposure on biomass and wood traits in poplar treated with ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriero, G.; Emiliani, G.; Giovannelli, A.; Hoshika, Y.; Manning, W.J.; Traversi, M.L.; Paoletti, E.

    2015-01-01

    This is the longest continuous experiment where ethylenediurea (EDU) was used to protect plants from ozone (O 3 ). Effects of long-term ambient O 3 exposure (23 ppm h AOT40) on biomass of an O 3 sensitive poplar clone (Oxford) were examined after six years from in-ground planting. Trees were irrigated with either water or 450 ppm EDU. Above (−51%) and below-ground biomass (−47%) was reduced by O 3 although the effect was significant only for stem and coarse roots. Ambient O 3 decreased diameter of the lower stem, and increased moisture content along the stem of not-protected plants (+16%). No other change in the physical wood structure was observed. A comparison with a previous assessment in the same experiment suggested that O 3 effects on biomass partitioning to above-ground organs depend on the tree ontogenetic stage. The root/shoot ratios did not change, suggesting that previous short-term observations of reduced allocation to tree roots may be overestimated. - Highlights: • 6-y ambient O 3 exposure was investigated in a sensitive poplar clone. • EDU irrigation protected poplar against ambient O 3 exposure. • O 3 reduced biomass of roots and stem, but did not change biomass allocation. • O 3 decreased stem diameter only in the lower third of the stem. • O 3 increased moisture content of the wood along the stem. - Ozone exposure reduced lateral branching, leaves and roots in younger trees, and affected stem and roots in older trees, while shoot/root ratios did not change.

  9. Eucalyptus urophylla stands wood utilization at two different ages for production of particleboard panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the quality of wood particle panels manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12 years. To that end, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB and cement-bonded panels were produced in a laboratory and then analyzed for the following physical and mechanical properties: water absorption and thickness swell 2 and 24 hours after immersion, internal bond, compression parallel, as well as MOE and MOR from static bending. The obtained results demonstrate that tree age had little influence on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard, OSB and cement-bonded panels. After evaluating the physical and mechanical properties of these three panel types, all manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12, we can argue that our results are satisfactory in comparison to existing literature results.

  10. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  11. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  12. Greenhouse effects of the peat production and use as compared to coal, oil, natural gas and wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, K.; Wihersaari, M.

    1993-01-01

    This report examines the greenhouse effects of greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) arising from certain production and utilization chains of peat and compares them with the corresponding effects associated with the production and utilization chains of coal, oil, natural gas and wood. In order to estimate the greenhouse effects of the peat production and utilization chains, the initial state of the peat bog together with the instantaneous and cumulative greenhouse effects associated with the production and burning of peat as well as subsequent use of the production area were taken into account. The initial state of the peat bog was taken to be either a bog in its natural sale, a forest-drained bog or a cultivated peatland. As regards alternatives for subsequent use of the peat production area, afforestation, paludification and lake formation were all examined

  13. Two new termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) feeding indexes for woods of varing palatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris J. Peterson; P.D. Gerard

    2009-01-01

    In order for bait matrices, treated wood and resistant wood species to be properly evaluated in the laboratory for termite resistance or palatability, reliable tests that can distinguish between food choices must be developed; otherwise, inferior products may enter the marketplace. In the current study, a bioassay method is proposed that allows the calculation of two...

  14. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Southern Maryland Wood Treating Site, Hollywood, Maryland (first remedial action) June 1988. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-29

    The Southern Maryland Wood Treating (SMWT) site is located in Hollywood, St. Mary's County, Maryland. The site is situated within a wetland area in a drainage divide such that runoff from the site discharges into Brooks Run and McIntosh Run tributaries, which flow into the Potomac River. The area surrounding the site is predominantly used for agricultural and residential purposes. Currently, part of the site is being used as a retail outlet for pretreated lumber and crab traps. The waste generated at the site included retort and cylinder sludges, process wastes, and material spillage. These wastes were in six onsite unlined lagoons. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the onsite ground water, soil, surface water, sediments, and debris include: VOCs, PNA, and base/neutral acid extractables. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  16. Effect of different extracting solutions on the electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated wood waste Part I. - Behaviour of Cu and Cr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, E.; Ribeiro, A. B.; Mateus, E.

    2004-01-01

    Removal of Cu and Cr from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste under batch electrodialytic conditions was studied. The effect of different types of extracting solutions, such as deionised water or aqueous solutions of NaCl, formic acid, oxalic acid, and EDTA, on the magnitude...... and direction of the fluxes of Cu- and Cr-containing species in the electrodialytic cell was investigated. Oxalic acid was found to have the best performance if simultaneous removal of the two elements is required (removal efficiencies of 80.5% for Cu and 87.4% for Cr, respectively). A mixture of oxalic acid...... and formic acid also led to similar removal efficiencies. In these experiments, the target elements were accumulated in both the anode and cathode compartments of the electrodialytic cell due to the formation of negatively charged complexes with the organic acids used besides the free cationic forms...

  17. EPD--environmental product declarations for wood products : an application of life cycle information about forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Adam Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Transparent and credible environmental labeling of products is vital for a sustainable future. Ecolabeling shows information on the environmental performance of products, processes, and services. This article focuses on one type of ecolabeling referred to as environmental product declarations (EPDs) that provide environmental impact information based on life cycle...

  18. Wood Products Consumption for Industrial Markets in the United States, Testing a New Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Adair; David B. McKeever

    2013-01-01

    In early 2012, APA-The Engineered Wood Association conducted studies of three industries: institutional furniture, motor homes, and travel trailers and campers. The survey procedure was the same as that used by APA for many years. Lists of individual manufacturers were purchased, a telephone interviewing company was hired to administer a questionnaire, and APA...

  19. Preliminary investigation on the natural durability of guayule (Parthenium argentatum) based wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis S. Nakayama; Poo. Chow; Dilpreet S. Bajwa; John A. Youngquist; James H. Muehl; Andrzej M. Krzysik

    2000-01-01

    Conventional preservatives used to protect wood from insect and microbial damages are presently of major concern to human health and the environment. Finding alternative and economical preservatives has not been successful. Previous studies have shown that the resinous material extracted from the guayule plant (Parthenium argentatum, Gray) has both insect- and...

  20. Lightweight panel study 2012: Perceptions and usage by North American wood products manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Karl D. Forth

    2012-01-01

    Lightweight panels (panels made of two thin panels on the outside and a lightweight material in the core) can offer enhanced performance, reduced material use, and new design opportunities over traditional types of panels. Opportunities exist for the adoption of lightweight panels by the secondary wood industry in North America, as 62 percent of respondents to a recent...

  1. Effects of impregnation of Eucalyptus grandis wood with fire-retardant salt on the production and quality of its charcoal; Efeito da impregnacao da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis com sais ignifugos na producao e na qualidade do carvao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ana Marcia Macedo Ladeira; Vital, Benedito Rocha; Gomide, Jose Livio; Della Lucia, Ricardo Marius; Leite, Helio Garcia [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal

    1998-12-31

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of impregnating Eucalyptus grandis wood fire retardant salts on the production and quality of its charcoal. The wood used came from a commercial stand of 72-month old Eucalyptus grandis planted at an initial 3.0 x 2.0 m spacing, established in Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This wood was transformed in chips, treated with some fire-retardant salts and carbonized. results were evaluated through multivariate analysis. The difference among the 34 treatments, evaluated on the wood characteristics, based on group analysis, and using the distance D{sup 2} of Mahalanobis and the Tocher method, showed distinct group and subgroup formations. Based on technological data, treatment with ammonium sulphate at 15% concentration was classified as being the most promising one. The use of canonic variables analysis showed that the treatment with ammonium sulphate at a concentration of 5% was the best, and was given preference because of its lower sulphur content. (author) 12 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  2. Method of treating final products from flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloss, W.; Mohn, U.

    1984-01-01

    A method of treating final products from a flue gas desulfurization. The flue gas desulfurization is carried out by the absorption of sulfur oxide in a spray dryer with a suspension which contains lime, or in a reactor with a dry, fine-grained, absorbent which contains lime. Prior to desulfurization, the fly ash carried along by the flue gas which is to be desulfurized is separated entirely, partially, or not at all from the flue gas, and the final products from the flue gas desulfurization, prior to any further treatment thereof, amount to 1-99% by weight, preferably 1-70% by weight, of fly ash, and 1-99% by weight, preferably 30-99% by weight, of the sum of the desulfurization products, preferably calcium sulfite hemihydrate, and/or calcium sulfite, and/or calcium sulfate dyhydrate, and/or calcium sulfate hemihydrate, and/or calcium sulfate, as well as residue of the absorbent. The reduction of the amount of calcium sulfite is implemented by a dry oxidation with air

  3. Different accounting approaches to harvested wood products in national greenhouse gas inventories: their incentives to achievement of major policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories provide four accounting approaches to harvested wood products (HWP). These differ in the way they define system boundaries. Therefore, reported national carbon emissions differ according to the accounting approach used, and the implications of each accounting approach differ for different countries. This paper investigates four IPCC accounting approaches, as well as the 1996 IPCC default approach, to determine whether they provide incentives to achievement of major policy goals related to climate, forest, trade, and waste, taking into account indirect effects of wood use change (i.e., the effects on forest carbon stocks and on carbon emissions from the use of other fuels and materials). Conclusions are as follows: (1) The analyses produced many different results from those of previous studies. These differences appear to be attributable to whether or not the indirect effects of wood use change are taken into account and the reference scenarios that are assumed; (2) The best approaches for achieving each policy goal differ, and the best approaches for particular policy goals might pose problems for other policy goals; (3) Overall, the IPCC default approach is the best accounting approach from the viewpoint of greater compatibility with, or integration across, the array of policy goals, although it does not address the issue of an increasing global carbon stock in HWP

  4. Biocentricity and economy of scale : hypothesis (and product) testing when wood is a part of an experimental system evaluating durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2009-01-01

    Wood is a biological material, and its structure and organization are relicts of its biogenesis. From the hydrogen bonding of water molecules in the cell wall to extractives bleeding from knots in siding, the characteristics and behavior of wood are derived from its biological origin; this is my unashamedly biocentric view of wood structure. The structure of wood...

  5. Production of liquid transport fuel from cellulose material (wood). III Laboratory preparation of wood sugars and fermentation to ethanol and yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, D A; Harwood, V D

    1977-10-25

    A laboratory procedure is described for hydrolyzing cellulose material to sugars by the use of hot sulfuric acid. The procedure has been used routinely for assessing raw materials. Raw materials used were radiata pine (fresh wood and decayed thinnings), pine needles, sawdust from old dumps, newspaper, cardboard, beech wood, and coconut wood. The neutralized sugar-liquors produced, supplemented with fertilizer grade nutrients, were fermented with bakers' yeast and gave near optimal conversion of hexoses to ethanol and of pentoses to protein biomass. From 100 g radiata pine (wood: bark mix 85:15) 25 ml (20 g) of ethanol and 2 g yeast biomass were routinely produced, although fermentation rates were lower than with pure sugars. The results, however, clearly showed that, by a hot dilute sulfure acid hydrolysis followed by a yeast fermentation process, cellulose resources avaliable in New Zealand are suitable for conversion to ethanol. 5 table, 1 figure.

  6. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  7. Life Cycle Analysis of Carbon Flow and Carbon Footprint of Harvested Wood Products of Larix principis-rupprechtii in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Larix principis-rupprechtii is a native tree species in North China with a large distribution; and its harvested timbers can be used for producing wood products. This study focused on estimating and comparing carbon flows and carbon footprints of different harvested wood products (HWPs from Larix principis-ruppechtii based on the life cycle analysis (from seedling cultivation to HWP final disposal. Based on our interviews and surveys, the system boundary in this study was divided into three processes: the forestry process, the manufacturing process, and the use and disposal process. By tracking carbon flows of HWPs along the entire life cycle, we found that, for one forest rotation period, a total of 26.81 tC/ha sequestered carbon was transferred into these HWPs, 66.2% of which were still stored in the HWP when the rotation period had ended; however, the HWP carbon storage decreased to 0.25 tC/ha (only 0.9% left in the 100th year after forest plantation. The manufacturing process contributed more than 90% of the total HWP carbon footprint, but it was still smaller than the HWP carbon storage. In terms of the carbon storage and the carbon footprint, construction products had the largest net positive carbon balance compared to furniture and panel products. In addition, HWP are known to have a positive impact on global carbon mitigation because they can store parts of the sequestered carbon for a certain period of time and they have a substitution effect on carbon mitigation. Furthermore, there still exist great opportunities for carbon mitigation from HWPs through the use of cleaner energy and increasing the utilization efficiency of wood fuel.

  8. Determination of Mn, Fe, and Cu in chemically-treated wood pulps by the XRF addition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemoe, J.; Klasila, T.; Piepponen, S. [VTT Chemical Technology (Finland); Sillanpaeae, M. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    2001-08-01

    A rapid X-ray fluorescence addition method has been developed for quantification of the technically most important metals in wood pulp matrix (Mn, Fe, and Cu). Pretreatment consisted of just two steps: first, acid was added to the sample to achieve homogeneous distribution of the metals; the pulp was then pressed lightly on to Mylar film. Total analysis time was less than 10 min. The concentration range investigated was up to 15 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and up to 5 mg kg{sup -1} for Fe and Cu. Metal concentrations in Scandinavian pulps are not expected to exceed these amounts. The quantification limit was 2 mg kg{sup -1} for all three metals. The reproducibilities and repeatabilities were concentration-dependent and varied between 3 and 19% and between 1 and 17%, respectively. The squares of the linear correlation coefficients between measured intensity and added metal concentration were 0.994, 0.950, and 0.932 for Mn, Fe, and Cu, respectively. (orig.)

  9. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  10. Analysis of existing structure and emissions of wood combustion plants for the production of heat and electricity in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joa, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the detailed analysis of the existing structure of all Bavarian wood burning plants for the generation of heat and electricity as well as the determination of the resulting emission emissions in 2013. The number of wood burning plants in the single-chamber fireplaces, wood central heating and wood-fired heating plants which are in operation in the year 2013 were determined, and how many plants are existing in the various areas like pellet stoves, traditional ovens, wood-burning fireplace, pellet central heating systems, wood chips central heating systems, fire-wood central heating systems, wood combined heat and power plant (electricity and heat) and wood power plants (heat). In addition, the regional distribution of the wood burning plants in the Bavarian governmental districts is investigated as well as the type and amount of energy produced by them (heat, electricity). [de

  11. Environmental life cycle assessment of wood-based building materials and building product. Oekobilanzen von Baustoffen und Bauprodukten aus Holz; Zusammenfassung erster Erkenntnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, K; Sell, J [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Industrie, Bauwesen und Gewerbe, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    1992-08-01

    This report presents a summary of the main studies on the topic carried out at EMPA wood department in the last 4 years.In its first part, the concept of an environmental life cycle analysis (LCA), whose purpose is to quantify the known environmental impacts of a product by means of a systematic input/output analysis, is described. Such evaluation must include all phases of a product's life cycle, from the extraction of resources to the final disposal. Raw material and energy supply are input values, whereas main products, by-products, and emissions to the environment are outputs. It is essential for a meaningful data collection as well as for the final interpretation of the results to define exact system boundaries and explain the models used for data aggregation which are, therefore, described in detail. The report's second part summarizes the results of an environmental assessment of wood as a raw material and construction component, and of some important wood-based products. First, some product-independent ecological values of wood are shown, which today cannot be quantified sufficiently in LCA (e.g. relations between forest management and multi-functional values of forests, sustainable reproduction of wood, careful and benign harvesting practices, CO[sub 2] cycling with wood, and the complete utilization of the resource for industrial productions). Although all these basic characteristics contribute to the out-standing ecologic value of wood, an environmental analysis has to concentrate on material- and product-related aspects. In our study, this is realized by assessing energy consumption and air pollution. In a case study the data compiled are used to compare a timber frame wall with several wall types of different materials, but with identical heat transmission and acoustic performance: as expected, the timber frame wall shows very good ratings. (author) figs., tabs., 21 refs.

  12. Coniferous tree plantations in forest conditions-economic analysis of dedicated and semi-dedicated pathways to increase wood production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotoarison, Hanitra; Richter, Claudine; Cailly, Priscilla; Deleuze, Christine; Berthelot, Alain

    2015-01-01

    To meet growing demand for wood, particularly softwoods, the authors study a number of new silvicultural pathways for planting 3 species: Douglas fir, spruce and maritime pine. The goal of these pathways is to achieve specialised production of either industrial and workable timber, or a mixture of industrial and workable timber with medium-diameter workable timber. Pathways of this type have already been standardised for hardwoods, generally on fertile farmland. In a less fertile forest context, softwoods have a significant potential for woody production but specialized pathways and their profitability have yet to be studied. This article describes the innovative work being done to construct and simulate profitable production, new potential pathways, where plantation density, rotation time, the level of fertility are made to vary using the data from the FCBA test network in conjunction with the FCBA growth models (Oasis for spruce and Douglas fir, Sylveco for maritime pine). Economic data is derived from auction sales statistics and the ONF management and forestry work costs for the period 2012-2015. The Economics module developed by FCBA and ONF on the Capsis platform in the framework of the ICI project (Futurol) was used for the economic simulations. The analyses show that compared to conventional pathways, these pathways generally increase productivity but are nonetheless less profitable than current economic assumptions, although results vary according to species, fertility and the particular pathway. The sensitivity study shows that variations in the price of wood could alter the performance ratings as between conventional and specialised pathways. (authors)

  13. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  14. Developing technology for large-scale production of forest chips. Wood Energy Technology Programme 1999-2003. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2003-01-01

    Finland is enhancing its use of renewable sources in energy production. From the 1995 level, the use of renewable energy is to be increased by 50 % by 2010, and 100 % by 2025. Wood-based fuels will play a leading role in this development. The main source of wood-based fuels is processing residues from the forest industries. However, as all processing residues are already in use, an increase is possible only as far as the capacity and wood consumption of the forest industries grow. Energy policy affects the production and availability of processing residues only indirectly. Another large source of wood-based energy is forest fuels, consisting of traditional firewood and chips comminuted from low-quality biomass. It is estimated that the reserve of technically harvest-able forest biomass is 10-16 Mm' annually, when no specific cost limit is applied. This corresponds to 2-3 Mtoe or 6-9 % of the present consumption of primary energy in Finland. How much of this re-serve it will actually be possible to harvest and utilize depends on the cost competitiveness of forest chips against alternative sources of energy. A goal of Finnish energy and climate strategies is to use 5 Mm' forest chips annually by 2010. The use of wood fuels is being promoted by means of taxation, investment aid and support for chip production from young forests. Furthermore, research and development is being supported in order to create techno-economic conditions for the competitive production of forest chips. In 1999, the National Technology Agency Tekes established the five-year Wood Energy Technology Programme to stimulate the development of efficient systems for the large-scale production of forest chips. Key tar-gets are competitive costs, reliable supply and good quality chips. The two guiding principles of the programme are: (1) close cooperation between researchers and practitioners and (2) to apply research and development to the practical applications and commercialization. As of November

  15. Production of wood vinegars from coconut shells and additional materials for control of termite workers, Odontotermes sp. and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisia virgata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunan Wititsiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shells and coir are considered as wastes of coconut based products that have not been utilized efficiently.By using these abundant bioresources, which are widely available in Thailand, as raw materials, we were able to producewood vinegars that may be alternatives to termiticides and pesticides. The wood vinegars were obtained from carbonizationprocess using a 200-liter fuel tank as charcoal brazier under temperatures of 300-400°C. In this study, termiticidal and pesticidalactivities of wood vinegars were evaluated against termite workers, Odontotermes sp., and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisiavirgata, using direct contact application. Percent mortalities in the experiments were recorded after 24 hours and correctedfor control mortality with Abbott’s formula. Wood vinegars of 850, 696, and 898 milliliters were produced from coconut shell(wood vinegar A and the mixture of coconut shell and coir (wood vinegar B and the mixture of coconut shell, coir and holybasil (wood vinegar C, respectively. Wood vinegar A exhibited high termiticidal activity against termite workers at a dilutionof 1:50, wood vinegar: sterile water (v/v. By this way, 85% (81.71% corrected mortality of termite workers were killed afterthe 24 hours of test. At a dilution of 1:10, both wood vinegar A and B had exhibited high pesticidal activities against mealybugs, 96% (95.12% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs were killed by those wood vinegars. In the weakest termiticidaland pesticidal activities, wood vinegar C was able to kill 60% (51.22% corrected mortality of termite workers at a dilution of1:50 within 24 hours. Also it killed 93% (91.89% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs with a dilution of 1:10 (v/v withinthe same amount of time. Post-hoc comparisons (Tukey test revealed that wood vinegar A possessed the most effectivetermiticidal activity against termite workers. However, a similarity in high pesticidal activity was found among three woodvinegars

  16. A comparative study on Cu, Cr and As removal from CCA-treated wood waste by dialytic and electrodialytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, Emiliya; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, electrodialytic and dialytic techniques were used for Cu, Cr and As removal from 20-years out-of-service CCA-treated Pinus pinaster Ait. pole. The effect of applying direct current, as "cleaning agent", of up to 120mA was investigated. Focus was given to a parallel comparison...

  17. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Conners, T.; Ingram, L.L.; Dalton, A.T.; Templeton, M.C.; Diehl, S.V. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace by placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.

  18. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9 [January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Conners, T.; Ingram, L.L.; Dalton, A.T.; Templeton, M.C.; Diehl, S.V. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace by placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.

  19. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  20. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON WOOD MARKETS (CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION AND TRADE)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria‐Loredana POPESCU; Antoniu PREDESCU; Mihaela‐Diana OANCEA‐NEGESCU

    2013-01-01

    Global economic crisis represents one of the causes why wood consumption is increasing especially in countries less developed. In countries where governments couldn’t improve the quality of life and unemployment rate is higher, local communities devastate a lot of forestry. In last thirty years we saw a deforestation process at the global level related to land being converted to other uses: agriculture and urbanization, which represent a positive trend of a negative use. The stati...

  1. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON WOOD MARKETS (CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION AND TRADE)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Loredana POPESCU; Antoniu PREDESCU

    2013-01-01

    Global economic crisis represents one of the causes why wood consumption is increasing especially in countries less developed. In countries where governments couldn’t improve the quality of life and unemployment rate is higher, local communities devastate a lot of forestry. In last thirty years we saw a deforestation process at the global level related to land being converted to other uses: agriculture and urbanization, which represent a positive trend of a negative use. The statistics reveal...

  2. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report number 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooda, U.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This project is based on the finding that brief microwave or RF-treatment of wood under low-headspace conditions leads to the release of VOCs. On occasion the authors have found that prolonged irradiation increases turpentine yield much more than anticipated from a simple mass balance; i.e., more pinene appeared to be released than was present in the wood in the first place. If taken at face value, this suggests that brief low-headspace irradiation removes VOCs, while prolonged exposure creates it. While seemingly improbable, this could follow if dielectric heating exposed regions of wood that were otherwise inaccessible to the solvent used for extraction (unlikely), or if the irradiation induced depolymerization of terpene dimers or higher polymers. In this report the authors attempt to identify the conditions that lead to this apparent enhancement of terpene yield, by constructing relationships between yield and irradiation parameters. The tentative conclusions are that this enhancement only occurs with relatively wet heartwood, and only under prolonged irradiation. An additional conclusion is that continuing analyses of twelve trees in the MSU forest confirm that the absence of a significant seasonal influence on turpentine content. An apparatus for permeability testing has been constructed, and work is underway.

  3. A Bayesian Belief Network approach to assess the potential of non wood forest products for small scale forest owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacik, Harald; Huber, Patrick; Hujala, Teppo; Kurtilla, Mikko; Wolfslehner, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    It is an integral element of the European understanding of sustainable forest management to foster the design and marketing of forest products, non-wood forest products (NWFPs) and services that go beyond the production of timber. Despite the relevance of NWFPs in Europe, forest management and planning methods have been traditionally tailored towards wood and wood products, because most forest management models and silviculture techniques were developed to ensure a sustained production of timber. Although several approaches exist which explicitly consider NWFPs as management objectives in forest planning, specific models are needed for the assessment of their production potential in different environmental contexts and for different management regimes. Empirical data supporting a comprehensive assessment of the potential of NWFPs are rare, thus making development of statistical models particularly problematic. However, the complex causal relationships between the sustained production of NWFPs, the available ecological resources, as well as the organizational and the market potential of forest management regimes are well suited for knowledge-based expert models. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) are a kind of probabilistic graphical model that have become very popular to practitioners and scientists mainly due to the powerful probability theory involved, which makes BBNs suitable to deal with a wide range of environmental problems. In this contribution we present the development of a Bayesian belief network to assess the potential of NWFPs for small scale forest owners. A three stage iterative process with stakeholder and expert participation was used to develop the Bayesian Network within the frame of the StarTree Project. The group of participants varied in the stages of the modelling process. A core team, consisting of one technical expert and two domain experts was responsible for the entire modelling process as well as for the first prototype of the network

  4. Impact of wood pellets export on the development of their production in Serbia with the effects of substituting enegry from fossil fuels and reduction of carbon dioxide emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching the impact of export on the production of wood pellets as well as the situation on the market for this wood fuel in Serbia. Objective of the research was to produce scientifically and professionally founded conclusions and the related adequate recommendations to the decision makers in order to improve the situation on wood pellets market in Serbia and eliminate the existing problems which significantly burden and slow down this development. Special objective of the research was to observe the contributions of wood pellets to the mitigation of climate changes using Serbia as the example. Results of the conducted research show that the expansion of the consumption (demand increase in the European Union countries in the last fifteen years and the related increase of export from Serbia are the most significant factors which have influenced the development of wood pellets production in Serbia. Parameters of econometric model of the impact of export on the increase of production show that production increase of 1.17% can be expected with the increase of export of 1%. Thus, the number of wood pellet producers has rapidly increased in the last ten years, from 2 producers in 2006 to 52 active producers in 2016. Increase of the number of producers was also accompanied by the increase of the installed capacities. At the end of 2015, total installed capacities for wood pellet production in Serbia reached 550 thousand tons, and the realized production was 229 thousand tons, or 41.6% of the installed capacity. Consumption of wood pellets in Serbia in the last four years achieved significant increase and reached the level of 89 thousand tons in 2015. However, concerning the segment of wood pellets consumption in Serbia, the situation is still unsatisfactory despite the fact that the consumption has been increasing year after year. Average price of 1 kWh of energy from wood pellets exported from Serbia was in the

  5. Impact of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in wood mulch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy G; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Tolaymat, Thabet; Stook, Kristin

    2003-06-20

    The production of landscape mulch is a major market for the recycling of yard trash and waste wood. When wood recovered from construction and demolition (C&D) debris is used as mulch, it sometimes contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The presence of CCA-treated wood may cause some potential environmental problems as a result of the chromium, copper, and arsenic present. Research was performed to examine the leachability of the three metals from a variety of processed wood mixtures in Florida. The mixtures tested included mixed wood from C&D debris recycling facilities and mulch purchased from retail outlets. The synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) was performed to examine the leaching of chromium, copper and arsenic. Results were compared to Florida's groundwater cleanup target levels (GWCTLs). Eighteen of the 22 samples collected from C&D debris processing facilities leached arsenic at concentrations greater than Florida's GWCTL of 50 microg/l. The mean leachable arsenic concentration for the C&D debris samples was 153 microg/l with a maximum of 558 microg/l. One of the colored mulch samples purchased from a retail outlet leached arsenic above 50 microg/l, while purchased mulch samples derived from virgin materials did not leach detectable arsenic (<5 microg/l). A mass balance approach was used to compute the potential metal concentrations (mg/kg) that would result from CCA-treated wood being present in wood mulch. Less than 0.1% CCA-treated wood would cause a mulch to exceed Florida's residential clean soil guideline for arsenic (0.8 mg/kg).

  6. Multi-dimensional sustainability framework to evaluate forest and wood energy production; Moniulotteinen kestaevyyden arviointikehikko puuenergian tuotannolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskinen, P.; Kaehkoenen, T.; Laehtinen, K.; Pasanen, K.; Pitkaenen, S.; Sironen, S.; Myllyviita, T.; Sikanen, L.; Asikainen, A.

    2012-02-15

    The future economy will be more and more dependent on the sustainable use of natural resources, at least if the views on the importance and possibilities of the bioeconomy are realized in practice. The sustainability of the use of natural resources has previously been studied from the perspective of ecological sustainability in particular. Social sustainability has also been examined in several studies. On the other hand, economic sustainability is a prerequisite for developing business activities. As defining and framing of cultural sustainability is challenging, up to now it has only been discussed to some extent, although the importance of cultural sustainability has not been understated. When developing the sustainability of the use of natural resources, all the above-mentioned dimensions of sustainability are present in parallel and they need to be acknowledged in decision-making. The starting point of this study is that natural resources need to be used sustainably and that different options for utilizing natural resources need to be compared from the sustainability perspective, without giving higher priority to any sustainability dimension compared to others beforehand. In this study four production chains based on energy use of forest biomass were examined: (1) local district heating based on forest chips, (2) combined heat and power with wood and peat, (3) wood pellet production from by-products of the wood product industry, and (4) biodiesel production based on wood and peat. The indicators for different sustainability dimensions in the studied production chains were determined through expert interviews and the indicator values were determined through literature review and interviews. The mathematical examination of sustainability was based on multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) so that a computational tool suitable for the calculations was developed. In total, 20 - 40 indicators were defined for each sustainability dimension; out of these, five to

  7. Report on the survey of the commercialization of wood biomass energy. Project on the production of wood pellet fuel; 2001 nendo mokushitsu baiomasu energy jigyoka chosa hokokusho. Mokushitsu peretto nenryo seizo jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For the purpose of regenerating forestry and contributing to the policy for prevention of global warming, a potential study was made of the commercialization of the wood pellet using low-quality wood materials such as thinnings and wood pieces from lumber mill. In the study, based on the survey of raw materials of wood pellet and the demand amount, the scale of pellet production was assumed, and subjects were arranged toward the basic design of plant, evaluation of economical efficiency and commercialization. As a result of the study, the following subjects were extracted. In the study, the supply of lumbers of 2,800 t/y and securing of demand of about 1,600 t/y were set forth as a premise, but the subject was to secure the initial demand. The pellet combustor was higher in price than the kerosene combustor, and for the imported combustion equipment, the combustion of white pellet was supposed. It is necessary to develop combustor of pellets including the bark. In the trial calculation of the unit price of heat utilization (yen/Mcal), the pellet stove was about 3.3 times as high in price as the kerosene stove. It is necessary to reduce the pellet price down to 30 yen/kg or so by decreasing the cost of pellet production. (NEDO)

  8. Life cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main process variable was the detoxification strategy applied to the pretreated feedstock material. The results of the assessment show that a process configuration, in which washing of the pretreated slurry is the detoxification strategy, leads to the lowest environmental impact of the process. Enzyme production and use are the main contributors to the environmental impact in all process configurations, and strategies to significantly reduce this contribution are enzyme recycling and on-site enzyme production. Furthermore, a strong linear correlation between the ethanol yield of a configuration and its environmental impact is demonstrated, and the selected environmental impacts show a very strong cross-correlation ([Formula: see text] in all cases) which may be used to reduce the number of impact categories considered from four to one (in this case, global warming potential). Lastly, a comparison with results of an LCA of ethanol production under high-gravity conditions using wheat straw shows that the environmental performance does not significantly differ when using spruce wood chips. For this comparison, it is shown that eutrophication potential also needs to be considered due to the fertilizer use in wheat cultivation. The LCA points out the environmental hotspots in the ethanol production process, and thus provides input to the further development of the high-gravity technology. Reducing the number of impact categories based only on cross-correlations should be done with caution. Knowledge of the

  9. Analytical inventory of process variables for sustainable development of a small business for integrated production of wood pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merticaru Vasile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some theoretical considerations and the related deliverable results obtained within a research approach developed for analytically inventorying the process variables for a wood pellets micro-production activity integrated with self-providing crops of energetic willow. The study is part of a larger research approach intended to accurately define the appropriate specifications for developing a sustainable small business in this area. Within the particular research approach being discussed in the paper, some conceptual models have been structured and are proposed, based on process systematic analysis, as following: a model of the research general hypotheses; a model of the general conceptual research frame; a process flow model for the considered integrated processes, respectively wood pellets micro-production and energetic willow crops; a model for sustainability groups of indicators to be considered; two models for process variables inventorying and classification, one for each of the two considered integrated processes. After the research hypotheses are simplified by considering some particular implementing conditions, a final model of the investigated variables is submitted to discussion. Some adequate conclusions revealed by the research approach, together with some directions of further research development are finally identified and presented in the paper.

  10. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  11. Health assessment for Southern Maryland Wood Treating (SMWT) National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Hollywood, St. Mary's County, Maryland, Region 3. CERCLIS No. MDD980704852. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-10

    The Southern Maryland Wood Treating National Priorities List site is located in Hollywood, St. Mary's County, Maryland. Approximately 12,000 gallons of dioxin-contaminated wastes and 2,000 gallons of wastes contaminated with volatile organic compounds or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, or both, remain in on-site tanks used during wood treatment operations. Until remediation of the site is completed there is a potential public health concern from dermal absorption, ingestion, or inhalation of contaminants from groundwater, surface water, sediments, soil, and contaminated on-site structures.

  12. Waste wood as bioenergy feedstock. Climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties from waste wood based energy systems in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Mirjam; Thornley, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    Considering the urgent need to shift to low carbon energy carriers, waste wood resources could provide an alternative energy feedstock and at the same time reduce emissions from landfill. This research examines the climate change impacts and related emission uncertainties of waste wood based energy. For this, different grades of waste wood and energy application have been investigated using lifecycle assessment. Sensitivity analysis has then been applied for supply chain processes and feedstock properties for the main emission contributing categories: transport, processing, pelletizing, urea resin fraction and related N 2 O formation. The results show, depending on the waste wood grade, the conversion option, scale and the related reference case, that emission reductions of up to 91% are possible for non-treated wood waste. Compared to this, energy from treated wood waste with low contamination can achieve up to 83% emission savings, similar to untreated waste wood pellets, but in some cases emissions from waste wood based energy can exceed the ones of the fossil fuel reference - in the worst case by 126%. Emission reductions from highly contaminated feedstocks are largest when replacing electricity from large-scale coal and landfill. The highest emission uncertainties are related to the wood's resin fraction and N 2 O formation during combustion and, pelletizing. Comparing wood processing with diesel and electricity powered equipment also generated high variations in the results, while emission variations related to transport are relatively small. Using treated waste wood as a bioenergy feedstock can be a valid option to reduce emissions from energy production but this is only realisable if coal and landfill gas are replaced. To achieve meaningful emission reduction in line with national and international climate change targets, pre-treatment of waste wood would be required to reduce components that form N 2 O during the energy conversion. Copyright © 2017

  13. Study on wood vinegars for use as coagulating and antifungal agents on the production of natural rubber sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimark, Yodthong; Niamsa, Noi [Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand)

    2009-06-15

    Coagulating and antifungal properties of wood vinegars in the preparation process of Hevea brasiliensis natural rubber (NR) sheets were investigated and compared with those of formic and acetic acids. The wood vinegars produced from biomasses such as inner coconut shell, bamboo and Eucalyptus woods were evaluated. It was found that plasticity retention index, Mooney viscosity and mechanical properties of NR coagulated by wood vinegars were similar to those using acetic acid and better than using formic acid. The antifungal efficiency of coagulants determined from a fungi growth area on NR sheet surfaces was found in the following order: coconut shell wood vinegar > bamboo wood vinegar {approx} Eucalyptus wood vinegar > acetic acid {approx} formic acid. The antifungal efficiency of the wood vinegars was strongly depended upon their phenolic compound contents and confirmed through the inhibitory growth of the main fungi, Penicillium griseofulvum, on potato dextrose agar. (author)

  14. Startup and long-term performance of biotrickling filters packed with polyurethane foam and poplar wood chips treating a mixture of ethylmercaptan, H2S, and NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J; Lafuente, J; Prado, O J; Gabriel, D

    2013-04-01

    Treatment of a mixture of NH3, H2S, and ethylmercaptan (EM) was investigated for more than 15 months in two biotrickling filters packed with poplar wood chips and polyurethane foam. Inlet loads ranging from 5 to 10 g N-NH3 m-3 hr-1, from 5 to 16 g S-H2S m-3 hr-1, and from 0 to 5 g EM m-3 hr-1 were applied. During startup, the biotrickling filter packed with polyurethane foam was re-inoculated due to reduced biomass retention as well as a stronger effect of nitrogen compounds inhibition compared with the biotrickling filter packed with poplar wood. Accurate pH control between 7 and 7.5 favored pollutants abatement. In the long run, complete NH3 removal in the gas phase was achieved in both reactors, while H2S removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. EM abatement was significantly different in both reactors. A systematically lower elimination capacity was found in the polyurethane foam bioreactor. N fractions in the liquid phase proved that high nitrification rates were reached throughout steady-state operation in both bioreactors. CO2 production showed the extent of the organic packing material degradation, which allowed estimating its service lifetime in around 2 years. In the long run, the bioreactor packed with the organic packing material had a lower stability. However, an economic analysis indicated that poplar wood chips are a competitive alternative to inorganic packing materials in biotrickling filters. We provide new insights in the use of organic packing materials in biotrickling filters for the treatment of H2S, NH3, and mercaptans and compare them with polyurethane foam, a packing commonly used in biotrickling filters. We found interesting features related with the startup of the reactors and parameterized both the performance under steady-state conditions and the influence of the gas contact time. We provide relevant conclusions in the profitability of organic packing materials under a biotrickling filter configuration, which is infrequent but proven reliable

  15. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  16. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  17. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  18. A method countries can use to estimate changes in carbon stored in harvested wood products and the uncertainty of such estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Kim Pingoud; James E. Smith

    2004-01-01

    A method is suggested for estimating additions to carbon stored in harvested wood products (HWP) and for evaluating uncertainty. The method uses data on HWP production and trade from several decades and tracks annual additions to pools of HWP in use, removals from use, additions to solid waste disposal sites (SWDS), and decay from SWDS. The method is consistent with...

  19. Use of non wood forest products by local people bordering the "Parc National Kaboré Tambi", Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belem, Bassirou; Nacoulma, Blandine M I; Gbangou, Roland

    2007-01-01

    this issue in the case of the "Parc National Kaboré Tambi" in Burkina Faso, byproposing a combination of ethno-botanical surveys and botanical inventories. The article analyses the importance of the park plant species, identify the constraints faced by local people to harvest the park plant products, analyse...... people. As a consequence, approaches of participatory planning of forest management schemes have become necessary. A major challenge has been the issue of how to (use?) scientific knowledge and local knowledge in the most appropriate way. This article provides an account of a contribution to addressing...... in the park Non Wood Forest Products (NWFPs), although the Forest Code bans free access. About one hundred plants species are used, but the pattern of extraction of the productsor some plant parts could destroy the resource base. Technically, conservation by domestication of thesource species and improved...

  20. Wood blocks as a carrier for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells used in the production of fructose and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenette, Maryse

    1993-10-01

    The selective conversion of glucose to a product more easily separated from fructose would reduce the fructose separation problem and reduce costs of fructose purification. The production of a valuable byproduct would make the process even more profitable. Accordingly, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 39859 was immobilized onto small cubes of wood in order to produce highly enriched fructose syrup from synthetic glucose/fructose mixtures, through the selective fermentation of glucose. The kinetics of growth and byproduct ethanol production rates were measured. Tests were conducted to assess the influence of substrate and product concentration on production rates, and appropriate rate equations were proposed as a design basis for continuous immobilized reactors. The growth and ethanol production rates were found to be inhibited linearly by both substrate and product concentrations. A maximum ethanol productivity of 21.9 g/l/h was attained from a feed containing 10 wt % glucose and 10 wt % fructose. The ethanol concentration was 29.6 g/l, glucose conversion was 78%, and fructose yield was 99%, resulting in a fructose to glucose ratio of 2.7. At lower ethanol productivity levels, the fructose/glucose ratio increases, as does the ethanol concentration in the effluent. Addition of oleic acid, a known anaerobic growth factor, increased the productivity by 13%. Ethanol productivity peaked at 32.6[degree]C and approached 0 near 44[degree]C. Batch fermentation productivity was not high due to low biomass concentration leaving the reactor. Addition of yeast extract or active biomass increased productivity substantially. The immobilized cell bioreactor was also used to produce sorbitol continuously from fructose. 124 refs., 28 figs., 27 tabs.