WorldWideScience

Sample records for treated municipal wastewaters

  1. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  2. Ultraviolet disinfection of treated municipal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Laan, H; Cairns, B

    1993-12-31

    A wastewater disinfection system developed by a Canadian company, Trojan Technologies Inc., was discussed. Disinfection for pathogen reduction prior to discharge of treated municipal wastewater back into rivers and lakes has been either ignored or treated by the use of chemicals. In 1979 the first pilot ultraviolet (UV) wastewater disinfection system was established. Since then, over 500 municipal UV installations have been commissioned. The largest installation can process 212 million gallons of water per day. The advantages of UV as a disinfectant are: (1) It is more effective than chlorine. (2) There are no mutagenic/carcinogenic byproducts formed with UV. (3) No toxic chemical residuals are discharged. (4) UV is safe to both the operators and the public. (5) It is cost effective. Europe has not been as active in wastewater disinfection as has North America. One result of the absence of wastewater disinfection in Europe is that the Rhine River, for example, carries 50 million salmonella per second. Disinfection of wastewater effluents is, of course, indispensable in protecting our drinking water supply. 2 figs.

  3. Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Rubino; Maurizia Catalano; Antonio Lonigro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being coll...

  4. Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being collected and compared. Successively, in order to provide useful indications for the use of treated municipal wastewaters, results of long-term field researches, carried out in Puglia, regarding two types of waters (treated municipal wastewater and conventional water and two irrigation methods (drip and capillary sub-irrigation on vegetable crops grown in succession, are being reported. For each crop cycle, chemical physical and microbiological analyses have been performed on irrigation water, soil and crop samples. The results evidenced that although irrigating with waters having high colimetric values, higher than those indicated by law and with two different irrigation methods, never soil and marketable yield pollutions have been observed. Moreover, the probability to take infection and/or disease for ingestion of fruits coming from crops irrigated with treated wastewaters, calculated by Beta-Poisson method, resulted negligible and equal to 1 person for 100 millions of exposed people. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil and crops were lesser than those admissible by law. The free chlorine, coming from disinfection, found in the wastewaters used for watering, in some cases caused toxicity effects, which determined significant yield decreases. Therefore, municipal wastewaters, if well treated, can be used for irrigation representing a valid alternative to the conventional ones.

  5. Inactivation of microorganisms in treated municipal wastewater and biosolids by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Increasing growth of the world's population, waste minimization policies and agricultural needs make the recycling of domestic wastewater quite a desirable practice. Factors like environmental and public health risks must be taken into account when considering treated wastewater for field irrigation and biosolids for land application. Pathogens present in wastewater and biosolids may remain active after treatment and there is always a great risk of transmission of infections via consuming crop and vegetables. Therefore it is very important to treat domestic wastewater properly before using it as an irrigation water and as a fertilizer. The work reported herein represents an evaluation of the variations in the population densities of below indicated pathogens monitored during a one year study in Ankara Central Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant, and the efficiency of gamma irradiation for the inactivation of these important waterborne pathogens. Parasitological investigation Treated wastewater and biosolids - Cryptosporidium sp. - Giardia lamblia - Entamoeba histolytica - Cyclospora cayetanensis - Helminth ova Bacteriological investigation Treated wastewater - Total coliforms - Salmonella sp. - Fecal streptococci - Enterococcus sp. Biosolids - Fecal coliforms - Salmonella sp. (Includes 12 tables, 16 figures)

  6. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  7. COD fractions changes in the SBR-type reactor treating municipal wastewater with controlled percentage of dairy sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struk-Sokołowska Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the influence of percentage of dairy wastewater in the municipal wastewater on the changes of COD fractions during the cycle of SBR-type reactor. The scope of the research included physicochemical analyses of municipal wastewater without dairy wastewater, dairy wastewater, mixture of municipal and dairy wastewater as well as treated sewage. Both the concentrations and the proportions between COD fractions changed in the SBR cycle. In raw municipal and dairy wastewater - XS, insoluble hardly bio-degradable fraction of COD dominated (49.6 and 64.5% respectively. In treated wastewater SI, COD for dissolved compounds that are not biologically decomposed (inert (from 62.1 to 74.6% dominated, while XS fraction was from 19.1 to 24.4%. The consumption rate of organic compounds depended on the type of COD fraction, SBR cycle phase and the percentage of dairy wastewater. The highest rates of organic compounds consumption were noted in the phase of mixing. In the case of fraction SI, no differences in concentration in the SBR cycle time, were found. Concentration of COD in treated wastewater was from 34.8 to 58.9 mgO2·L-1 (efficiency wastewater treatment from 96.0 to 98.6%.

  8. Rice production with minimal irrigation and no nitrogen fertilizer by intensive use of treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Ayumi; Watanabe, Toru; Sasaki, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We designed a new cultivation system of rice with circulated irrigation to remove nitrogen from treated municipal wastewater effectively and assessed the possibility of nitrogen removal in the new system without any adverse effects on rice production through bench-scale experiments through two seasons. Overgrowth of the rice plant, which can lead to lodging and tasteless rice, was found in the first season probably because nitrogen supply based on standard practice in normal paddy fields was too much in the closed irrigation system. In the second season, therefore, the amount of treated wastewater initially applied to the system was reduced but this resulted in a considerably decreased yield. On the other hand, the taste of the rice was significantly improved. The two-season experiments revealed that the new system enabled rice production with minimal irrigation (approximately 50% on the yield base compared to normal paddy fields) and no nitrogen fertilizer. The system also achieved >95% removal of nitrogen from the treated wastewater used for circulated irrigation. The accumulation of harmful metals in the rice was not observed after one season of cultivation in the new system. The accumulation after cultivation using the same soil repeatedly for a longer time should be examined by further studies.

  9. Modelling of sludge blanket height and flow pattern in UASB reactors treating municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.S.; Viraraghavan, T.

    2002-01-01

    Two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were started-up and operated for approximately 900 days to examine the feasibility of treating municipal wastewater under low temperature conditions. A modified solid distribution model was formulated by incorporating the variation of biogas production rate with a change in temperature. This model was used to optimize the sludge blanket height of UASB reactors for an effective operation of gas-liquid-solid (GLS) separation device. This model was found to simulate well the solid distribution as confirmed experimental observation of solid profile along the height of the reactor. Mathematical analysis of tracer curves indicated the presence of a mixed type of flow pattern in the sludge-bed zone of the reactor. It was found that the dead-zone and by-pass flow fraction were impacted by the change in operating temperatures. (author)

  10. Study of soil bacterial and crop quality irrigated with treated municipal wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinezhadian, A; Karim, A; Mohammadi, J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In arid and semi-arid regions, wastewater reuse has become an important element in agriculture. However, irrigation with this resource can be either beneficial or harmful, depending on the wastewater characteristics. The aim of this research was to investigate the soil...... bacterial and crops quality irrigated with treated wastewater. Material and Methods: This research was conducted on a maize field near the wastewater treatment plant in Shahr-e-kord in summer,2011. Plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design in 3 replications and 2 treatments, well water (W1...

  11. Heavy metal removal in an UASB-CW system treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Varga, D; Díaz, M A; Ruiz, I; Soto, M

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate for the first time the long-term removal of heavy metals (HMs) in a combined UASB-CW system treating municipal wastewater. The research was carried out in a field pilot plant constituted for an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) digester as a pretreatment, followed by a surface flow constructed wetland (CW) and finally by a subsurface flow CW. While the UASB showed (pseudo) steady state operational conditions and generated a periodical purge of sludge, CWs were characterised by the progressive accumulation and mineralisation of retained solids. This paper analyses the evolution of HM removal from the water stream over time (over a period of 4.7 year of operation) and the accumulation of HMs in UASB sludge and CW sediments at two horizons of 2.7 and 4.0 year of operation. High removal efficiencies were found for some metals in the following order: Sn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn > Fe (63-94%). Medium removal efficiencies were registered for Ni (49%), Hg (42%), and Ag (40%), and finally Mn and As showed negative percentage removals. Removal efficiencies of total HMs were higher in UASB and SF units and lower in the last SSF unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of nitrate and sulphate from biologically treated municipal wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun Kumar; Chopra, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation observed the effect of current density ( j), electrocoagulation (EC) time, inter electrode distance, electrode area, initial pH and settling time on the removal of nitrate (NO3 -) and sulphate (SO4 2-) from biologically treated municipal wastewater (BTMW), and optimization of the operating conditions of the EC process. A glass chamber of two-liter volume was used for the experiments with DC power supply using two electrode plates of aluminum (Al-Al). The maximum removal of NO3 - (63.21 %) and SO4 2- (79.98 %) of BTMW was found with the optimum operating conditions: current density: 2.65 A/m2, EC time: 40 min, inter electrode distance: 0.5 cm, electrode area: 160 cm2, initial pH: 7.5 and settling time: 60 min. The EC brought down the concentration of NO3 - within desirable limit of the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS)/WHO for drinking water. Under optimal operating conditions, the operating cost was found to be 1.01/m3 of water in terms of the electrode consumption (23.71 × 10-5 kg Al/m3) and energy consumption (101.76 kWh/m3).

  13. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment.

  14. Peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection of primary, secondary and tertiary treated municipal wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, J; Heinonen-Tanski, H

    2005-11-01

    The efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection against enteric bacteria and viruses in municipal wastewaters was studied in pilot-scale. Disinfection pilot-plant was fed with the primary or secondary effluent of Kuopio municipal wastewater treatment plant or tertiary effluent from the pilot-scale dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit. Disinfectant doses ranged from 2 to 7 mg/l PAA in the secondary and tertiary effluents, and from 5 to 15 mg/l PAA in the primary effluents. Disinfection contact times were 4-27 min. Disinfection of secondary and tertiary effluents with 2-7 mg/l PAA and 27 min contact time achieved around 3 log reductions of total coliforms (TC) and enterococci (EC). PAA disinfection also significantly improved the hygienic quality of the primary effluents: 10-15 mg/l PAA achieved 3-4 log reductions of TC and EC, 5 mg/l PAA resulting in below 2 log reductions. F-RNA coliphages were more resistant against the PAA disinfection and around 1 log reductions of these enteric viruses were typically achieved in the disinfection treatments of the primary, secondary and tertiary effluents. Most of the microbial reductions occurred during the first 4-18 min of contact time, depending on the PAA dose and microorganism. The PAA disinfection efficiency remained relatively constant in the secondary and tertiary effluents, despite of small changes of wastewater quality (COD, SS, turbidity, 253.7 nm transmittance) or temperature. The disinfection efficiency clearly decreased in the primary effluents with substantially higher microbial, organic matter and suspended solids concentrations. The results demonstrated that PAA could be a good alternative disinfection method for elimination of enteric microbes from different wastewaters.

  15. The effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater on fish communities of a small river tributary in Southern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Carolyn J.M.; Knight, Brendan W.; McMaster, Mark E.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Oakes, Ken D.; Tetreault, Grald R.; Servos, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Fish community changes associated with a tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent outfall in the Speed River, Ontario, Canada, were evaluated at nine sites over two seasons (2008) using standardized electrofishing. Habitat evaluations were conducted to ensure that the riffle sites selected were physically similar. The fish community was dominated by several species of darters that differed in their response to the effluent outfall. There was a significant decrease in Greenside Darter (Etheostoma blennioides) but an increase in Rainbow Darter (E. caeruleum) abundance directly downstream of the outfall. Stable isotope signatures (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), which indicate shifts in energy utilization and flow, increased in Rainbow Darter downstream, but showed no change in Greenside Darter. Rainbow Darter may be exploiting a food source that is not as available at upstream sites giving them a competitive advantage over the Greenside Darter immediately downstream of the outfall. - Highlights: → Fish communities are altered by tertiary treated municipal wastewater exposure. → Relative abundance of the two dominant fish (darter) species changed downstream. → Differing stable isotope signatures in fish suggests shifting energy flow and diet. → The altered environment may allow resilient species a competitive advantage. → The system recovers quickly downstream. - Tertiary treated effluent altered fish community composition in a small receiving stream possibly as a result of altered availability of resources (diet) as indicated by stable isotopes.

  16. Balancing the organic load and light supply in symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilm reactors treating synthetic municipal wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Temmink, B.G.; Janssen, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic microalgal–bacterial biofilms can be very attractive for municipal wastewater treatment. Microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus and simultaneously produce the oxygen that is required for the aerobic, heterotrophic degradation of organic pollutants. For the application of these biofilms

  17. Inhibition effect of phosphorus-based chemicals on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhanhui; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) could supply a viable alternative water resource for cooling water systems. Inorganic salts in the concentrated cooling water pose a great challenge to corrosion control chemicals. In this study, the inhibition effect of 1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) and 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA) on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated MWW was investigated by the means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of inhibitors. The corrosion rates of carbon steel were 1.5, 0.8, 0.2 and 0.5 mm a(-1) for blank, HEDP, ATMP and PBTCA samples at 50 mg L(-1), respectively. The phosphorus-based chemicals could adsorb onto the surface of the carbon steel electrode, form a coat of protective film and then protect the carbon steel from corrosion in the test solution.

  18. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  19. Effects of the dissolved organic carbon of treated municipal wastewater on soil infiltration as related to sodium adsorption ratio and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing scarcity of fresh water in arid and semi arid regions means that we must utilize alternative water supplies for irrigation if we are to sustain agricultural production in these regions. Treated municipal wastewaters are being increasingly utilized for irrigation. In general only the salin...

  20. Micropollutants removal from secondary-treated municipal wastewater using weak polyelectrolyte multilayer based nanofiltration membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abtahi, S. Mehran; Ilyas, Shazia; Joannis Cassan, Claire; Albasi, Claire; de Vos, Wiebe M.

    2018-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is seen as a very promising technology to remove micropollutants (MPs) from wastewater. Unfortunately this process tends to produce a highly saline concentrate stream, as commercial NF membranes retain both the MPs and most of the ions. The high salinity makes subsequent

  1. Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time on the Performance of a Membrane Bioreactor Treating Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Falahati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for effluents of higher quality from wastewater treatment plants due to the more stringent quality standards as well as the increasing pressure on water resources worldwide, which calls for effluent recycle and reuse. Membrane bioreactors (MBRs have been recently gaining rapid popularity as a promising technology for wastewater treatment. In order to improve the quality of the effluent from Shiraz wastewater treatment plant, an on-site pilot-scale membrane bioreactor was operated for 9 months. The pilot plant built at Shiraz wastewater treatment plant consisted of an aerobic reactor and a membrane compartment containing one submerged hollow fiber membrane module. In this study, eleven different aerobic hydraulic retention times (HRT ranging from 2 to 12 hours were tested to determine the membrane capacity and to investigate the performance of the system in removing total ammonia nitrogen, organic matter, total suspended solids, and turbidity.The system recorded a perfectly stable removal efficiency over the whole experimental period, except for the 2-hour aerobic HRT, so that its COD and BOD reductions exceeded 95% and 99%, respectively. Moreover, the system achieved complete nitrification in a stable manner during the whole study period, except for the 2-hour aerobic operation period. TSS concentration was almost zero and turbidity was less than 1 NTU. Membrane capacity measurements showed an average flux of 5.5 Lm-2h-1 with a mean trans-membrane pressure difference of 30 kPa. Results showed that the MBR outperformed the conventional sewage treatment processes. Additionally, it was not affected by aerobic HRT changes (12, 10, 8, 6, 4, and 3h. Based on the effluent qulity, teh system may be recommended for application toward water reuse in industrial and agricultural settings

  2. Methodological approach for evaluating the response of soil hydrological behavior to irrigation with treated municipal wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, A.; Santini, A.; Botti, P.; Vacca, S.; Comegna, V.; Severino, G.

    2004-06-01

    This paper aims mainly to provide experimental evidence of the consequences of urban wastewater reuse in irrigation practices on the hydrological behavior of soils. The effects on both the hydraulic and dispersive properties of representative soils in southern Sardinia are illustrated. Ten undisturbed soil monoliths, 120 cm in height and 40 cm in diameter, were collected from plots previously selected through a soil survey. Soil hydraulic and solute transport properties were determined before and after application of wastewater using transient water infiltration and steady state-solute transport column experiments. Detailed spatial-temporal information on the propagation of water and solute through the soil profiles were obtained by monitoring soil water contents, θ, pressure heads, h, and solute concentrations, C, measured by a network of time domain reflectometry probes, tensiometers and solution samplers horizontally inserted in each column at different depths. A disturbed layer at the soil surface, which expands in depth with time, was observed, characterized by reduced soil porosity, translation of pore size distribution towards narrower pores and consequent decrease in water retention, hydraulic conductivity and hydrodynamic dispersion. It is shown that these changes occurring in the disturbed soil layer, although local by nature, affect the hydrological behavior of the whole soil profile. Due to the disturbed layer formation, the soil beneath never saturates. Such behavior has important consequences on the solute transport in soils, as unsaturated conditions mean higher residence times of solutes, even of those normally characterized by considerable mobility (e.g. boron), which may accumulate along the profile. The results mainly provide experimental evidence that knowledge of the chemical and microbiological composition of the water is not sufficient to evaluate its suitability for irrigation. Other factors, mainly soil physical and hydrological

  3. Integration of coagulation and adsorption for removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors from biologically treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaomiao; Meng, Yingjie; Ma, Defang; Wang, Yan; Li, Fengli; Xu, Xing; Xia, Chufan; Gao, Baoyu

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential of various dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions in biologically treated municipal wastewater by UF fractionation, XAD-8 resin adsorption isolation, and excitation and emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Removal of various NDMA precursor fractions was also analyzed to evaluate the efficiency of traditional water treatment processes (coagulation, adsorption, and coagulation-adsorption). Results showed that NDMA were mainly formed by low molecular weight (MW) fractions (NDMA formation potential (57%), followed by isolated adsorption treatment (50%) and isolated coagulation treatment (28%). The powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption process could reduce the high MW precursors (>30 kDa) by 48%, which was higher than other treatments. In contrast, the highest uptake (66%) of low MW precursors (<30 kDa) was achieved by the coagulation-adsorption process. All treatments preferentially removed the hydrophobic acids (HoA) fraction compared to other fractions. Coagulation could remove more fulvic acid-like substances and adsorption could remove more microbial by-products and aromatic proteins.

  4. Molecular-based detection of potentially pathogenic bacteria in membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems treating municipal wastewater: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-02-01

    Although membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems provide better removal of pathogens compared to conventional activated sludge processes, they do not achieve total log removal. The present study examines two MBR systems treating municipal wastewater, one a full-scale MBR plant and the other a lab-scale anaerobic MBR. Both of these systems were operated using microfiltration (MF) polymeric membranes. High-throughput sequencing and digital PCR quantification were utilized to monitor the log removal values (LRVs) of associated pathogenic species and their abundance in the MBR effluents. Results showed that specific removal rates vary widely regardless of the system employed. Each of the two MBR effluents' microbial communities contained genera associated with opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter) with a wide range of log reduction values (5.5). Digital PCR further confirmed that these bacterial groups included pathogenic species, in several instances at LRVs different than those for their respective genera. These results were used to evaluate the potential risks associated both with the reuse of the MBR effluents for irrigation purposes and with land application of the activated sludge from the full-scale MBR system.

  5. Molecular-based detection of potentially pathogenic bacteria in membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems treating municipal wastewater: a case study

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2016-12-24

    Although membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems provide better removal of pathogens compared to conventional activated sludge processes, they do not achieve total log removal. The present study examines two MBR systems treating municipal wastewater, one a full-scale MBR plant and the other a lab-scale anaerobic MBR. Both of these systems were operated using microfiltration (MF) polymeric membranes. High-throughput sequencing and digital PCR quantification were utilized to monitor the log removal values (LRVs) of associated pathogenic species and their abundance in the MBR effluents. Results showed that specific removal rates vary widely regardless of the system employed. Each of the two MBR effluents’ microbial communities contained genera associated with opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter) with a wide range of log reduction values (< 2 to >5.5). Digital PCR further confirmed that these bacterial groups included pathogenic species, in several instances at LRVs different than those for their respective genera. These results were used to evaluate the potential risks associated both with the reuse of the MBR effluents for irrigation purposes and with land application of the activated sludge from the full-scale MBR system.

  6. Immunological responses, histopathological finding and disease resistance of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) exposed to treated and untreated municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, Fabiola M.; St-Jean, Sylvie D.; Bishay, Farida; Clarke, John; Rabitto, Ines da S.; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A. de

    2007-01-01

    This study provides new information on the response of the immune system of Mytilus edulis exposed to untreated and treated sewage, linking immune response to ecologically relevant endpoints, such as disease resistance. Our goal was to assess the potential effects of sewage on the immune system (phagocytic activity and production of cytotoxic metabolites, disease resistance) and gills (light microscope) of mussels through a bioassay and field study in an estuarine receiving environment (RE). A semi-static experiment was developed in a wastewater treatment plant in New Glasgow, NS Canada. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100% of untreated sewage influent and artificial seawater control. Sampling occurred after 7, 14 and 21 days of exposure. In the field study, eight sites were selected in East River and Pictou Harbour, NS, positioned upstream and downstream of sewage effluents outfalls. Caged mussels were exposed to the RE for 90 days (May-July 2005). Mussels were challenged to test their efficiency at eliminating the bacteria, Listonella anguillarium in the bioassay and field studies. The bioassay results showed that higher concentrations of untreated sewage could modulate the immune system of mussels through increased of phagocytic activity (PA), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production during 14 days of exposure, and decreased activity and production at 21 days, with the exception of H 2 O 2 production which was high even at 21 days. Mussels exposed to untreated sewage RE also presented a high PA, NO and H 2 O 2 production and lower number of haemocytes compared to mussels from reference sites. In the bacterial challenge, mussels pre-exposed to 100% sewage died 24 h after being infected with L. anguillarium, while mussels pre-exposed to 50% eliminated bacteria had a mortality rate of 30%. Mussels from the control, 12.5% and 25% groups eliminated bacteria and no mortality was observed. No significant difference was

  7. Differences in microbial communities and performance between suspended and attached growth anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating synthetic municipal wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2015-08-14

    Two lab-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), one up-flow attached-growth (UA) and another continuously stirred (CSTR), were operated under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) while treating synthetic municipal wastewater (800 mg L−1 COD). Each reactor was attached to both polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) microfiltration (MF) membranes in an external cross-flow configuration. Both reactors were started up and run under the same operating conditions for multiple steady-state experiments. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were similar for both reactors (90–96%), but captured methane was found to be 11–18% higher for the CSTR than the UA reactor. Ion Torrent sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes showed that several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) most closely related to fermentative bacteria (e.g., Microbacter margulisiae) were dominant in the suspended biomass of the CSTR, accounting for 30% of the microbial community. Conversely, methanogenic archaea (e.g., Methanosaeta) and syntrophic bacteria (e.g., Smithella propionica) were found in significantly higher relative abundances in the UA AnMBR as compared to the CSTR due to their affinity for surface attachment. Of the methanogens that were present in the CSTR sludge, hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated (e.g., Methanobacterium). Measured EPS (both proteins and carbohydrates), which has been broadly linked to fouling, was determined to be consistently lower in the UA AnMBR membrane samples than in CSTR AnMBR membrane samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on HPLC profiles of soluble microbial products (SMPs) further demonstrated these differences between reactor types in replicate runs. The results of this study showed that reactor configuration can significantly impact the development of the microbial communities of AnMBRs that are responsible for both membrane and reactor performance.

  8. Phylogenetic comparison of the methanogenic communities from an acidic, oligotrophic fen and an anaerobic digester treating municipal wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Lisa M; Regan, John M

    2008-11-01

    Methanogens play a critical role in the decomposition of organics under anaerobic conditions. The methanogenic consortia in saturated wetland soils are often subjected to large temperature fluctuations and acidic conditions, imposing a selective pressure for psychro- and acidotolerant community members; however, methanogenic communities in engineered digesters are frequently maintained within a narrow range of mesophilic and circumneutral conditions to retain system stability. To investigate the hypothesis that these two disparate environments have distinct methanogenic communities, the methanogens in an oligotrophic acidic fen and a mesophilic anaerobic digester treating municipal wastewater sludge were characterized by creating clone libraries for the 16S rRNA and methyl coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes. A quantitative framework was developed to assess the differences between these two communities by calculating the average sequence similarity for 16S rRNA genes and mcrA within a genus and family using sequences of isolated and characterized methanogens within the approved methanogen taxonomy. The average sequence similarities for 16S rRNA genes within a genus and family were 96.0 and 93.5%, respectively, and the average sequence similarities for mcrA within a genus and family were 88.9 and 79%, respectively. The clone libraries of the bog and digester environments showed no overlap at the species level and almost no overlap at the family level. Both libraries were dominated by clones related to uncultured methanogen groups within the Methanomicrobiales, although members of the Methanosarcinales and Methanobacteriales were also found in both libraries. Diversity indices for the 16S rRNA gene library of the bog and both mcrA libraries were similar, but these indices indicated much lower diversity in the 16S digester library than in the other three libraries.

  9. Seawater-driven forward osmosis for enriching nitrogen and phosphorous in treated municipal wastewater: effect of membrane properties and feed solution chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenchao; Tobino, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Fumiyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-02-01

    Seawater-driven forward osmosis (FO) is considered to be a novel strategy to concentrate nutrients in treated municipal wastewater for further recovery as well as simultaneous discharge of highly purified wastewater into the sea with low cost. As a preliminary test, the performance of FO membranes in concentrating nutrients was investigated by both batch experiments and model simulation approaches. With synthetic seawater as the draw solution, the dissolved organic carbon, phosphate, and ammonia in the effluent from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal wastewater were 2.3-fold, 2.3-fold, and 2.1-fold, respectively, concentrated by the FO process with approximately 57% of water reduction. Most of the dissolved components, including trace metals in the MBR effluent, were highly retained (>80%) in the feed side, indicating high water quality of permeate to be discharged. The effect of membrane properties on the nutrient enrichment performance was investigated by comparing three types of FO membranes. Interestingly, a polyamide membrane possessing a high negative charge demonstrated a poor capability of retaining ammonia, which was hypothesized because of an ion exchange-like mechanism across the membrane prompted by the high ionic concentration of the draw solution. A feed solution pH of 7 was demonstrated to be an optimum condition for improving the overall retention of nutrients, especially for ammonia because of the pH-dependent speciation of ammonia/ammonium forms. The modeling results showed that higher than 10-fold concentrations of ammonia and phosphate are achievable by seawater-driven FO with a draw solution to feed solution volume ratio of 2:1. The enriched municipal wastewater contains nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations comparable with typical animal wastewater and anaerobic digestion effluent, which are used for direct nutrient recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Start-up period investigation of pilot-scale submerged membrane electro-bioreactor (SMEBR) treating raw municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Shadi W; Elektorowicz, Maria; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2014-02-01

    Submerged membrane electro-bioreactor (SMEBR) is a new hybrid technology for wastewater treatment employing electrical field and microfiltration in a nutrient-removing activated sludge process. A pilot SMEBR system was located at the wastewater treatment plant in the City of l'Assomption (Quebec, Canada) with the objective of investigating the start-up period performance under variable organic loadings and environmental conditions with respect to effluent quality, membrane fouling, and sludge properties. The pilot SMEBR facility was fed with the raw de-gritted municipal wastewater. At steady state operation, the removal efficiencies of ammonia (as NH3(+)-N), phosphorus (as PO4(3-)-P), and COD were 99%, 99%, and 92%, respectively. No substantial increase in the monitored transmembrane pressure as 0.02kPad(-1) was reported. The time necessary to filter 100mL of the sludge sample has decreased by 78% after treatment whilst the sludge volume index averaged 119mLg(-1). Energy requirements were in the range of 1.1-1.6kWhm(-3) of wastewater. It was concluded that the SMEBR is a very competitive technology when compared to conventional membrane systems as it can enhance treatment performance to an appreciable extent, remove phosphorus and reduce fouling. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A cost analysis of microalgal biomass and biodiesel production in open raceways treating municipal wastewater and under optimum light wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zion; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Yang, Ji-Won; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Open raceway ponds are cost-efficient for mass cultivation of microalgae compared with photobioreactors. Although low-cost options like wastewater as nutrient source is studied to overcome the commercialization threshold for biodiesel production from microalgae, a cost analysis on the use of wastewater and other incremental increases in productivity has not been elucidated. We determined the effect of using wastewater and wavelength filters on microalgal productivity. Experimental results were then fitted into a model, and cost analysis was performed in comparison with control raceways. Three different microalgal strains, Chlorella vulgaris AG10032, Chlorella sp. JK2, and Scenedesmus sp. JK10, were tested for nutrient removal under different light wavelengths (blue, green, red, and white) using filters in batch cultivation. Blue wavelength showed an average of 27% higher nutrient removal and at least 42% higher chemical oxygen demand removal compared with white light. Naturally, the specific growth rate of microalgae cultivated under blue wavelength was on average 10.8% higher than white wavelength. Similarly, lipid productivity was highest in blue wavelength, at least 46.8% higher than white wavelength, whereas FAME composition revealed a mild increase in oleic and palmitic acid levels. Cost analysis reveals that raceways treating wastewater and using monochromatic wavelength would decrease costs from 2.71 to 0.73 $/kg biomass. We prove that increasing both biomass and lipid productivity is possible through cost-effective approaches, thereby accelerating the commercialization of low-value products from microalgae, like biodiesel.

  12. Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.; Davis, J. Hal

    2009-01-01

    Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3 m 3 /s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64 million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774 ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15 km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2 ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water

  13. Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Brian G. [U.S. Geological Survey, 2010 Levy Avenue, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)], E-mail: bkatz@usgs.gov; Griffin, Dale W.; Davis, J. Hal [U.S. Geological Survey, 2010 Levy Avenue, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3 m{sup 3}/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64 million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774 ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15 km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2 ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water

  14. Biological nutrient removal and molecular biological characteristics in an anaerobic-multistage anaerobic/oxic (A-MAO) process to treat municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Dong, Wenyi; Wang, Hongjie; Jiang, Shilong

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to present an anaerobic-multistage anaerobic/oxic (A-MAO) process to treat municipal wastewater. The average COD, NH 4 + -N, TN, and TP removal efficiency were 91.81%, 96.26%, 83.73% and 94.49%, respectively. Temperature plunge and C/N decrease have a certain impact on the modified process. Characteristics of microbial community, function microorganism, and correlation of microbial community with environmental variables in five compartments were carried out by Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The differences of microbial community were observed and Blastocatella, Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were the dominant genus. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira occupied a dominant position in AOB and NOB, respectively. Rhodospirillaceae and Rhodocyclaceae owned a considerable proportion in phosphorus removal bacteria. DO and COD played significant roles on affecting the microbial components. The A-MAO process in this study demonstrated a high potential for nutrient removal from municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  16. Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Kamran; Najafi, Payam; Cornelis, Wim M.

    2014-05-01

    Constant use of treated wastewater for irrigation over long periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants, animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of treated wastewater on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of using a deep emitter installation on lowering the potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub treatments (0, 15 and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam soil, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m a.s.l.. A two-crop rotation of wheat [Triticum spp.] and corn [Zea mays]) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting (initial value) and after harvesting (final value) for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were also collected. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. The results showed no significant difference (P>0.05) of soil heavy metal content between different depths of emitters. A pollution load index PLI showed that there was not substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils compared to

  17. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  18. Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-08-01

    Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (δ18O and δ2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have δ18O and δ2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (δ15N NO3) values above 10 ‰ in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (δ15N NO3 = 4.6 4.9 ‰), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N, N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil’s Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer

  19. Removal of Alkylphenols from Industrial and Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Derco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of removal of nonylphenol, octylphenol and their ethoxylates from real industrial and municipal wastewater are presented. Industrial wastewater was pre-treated by coagulation with FeCl3 and adsorption on zeolite, before discharging into municipal sewer system. Their removal efficiencies in primary sedimentation tank of municipal WWTP were very low. From the practical point of view, the highest and the most significant removal efficiencies within the whole WWTP were observed for nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates. Dominancy of abiotic mechanisms of alkylphenols removal follows from adsorption measurements. Activated sludge cultivated in lab-scale extended aeration tank accounted for relatively high adsorption affinity to these substances. Activated sludge sampled from municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP receiving industrial wastewater containing alkylphenols accounted for very low adsorption affinity to these pollutants. Significantly higher removal efficiency of octylphenol ethoxylates was observed with the O3/granular active carbon (GAC process compared to the ozonation process alone. Lower toxicity impact of intermediates and products of ozonation treatment on Vibrio fischeri was measured in comparison to the O3/GAC process. Actually, the municipal WWTP effluent discharge concentration values complies with EQS values, including nonylphenols.

  20. Single-stage versus two-stage anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactors in treating municipal wastewater: Performance, foulant characteristics, and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Li, Yifei; Lim, Weikang; Lee, Shi Lin; Guo, Qiming; Fane, Anthony G; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the receptive performance, membrane foulant characteristics, and microbial community in the single-stage and two-stage anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (AFMBR) treating settled raw municipal wastewater with the aims to explore fouling mechanisms and microbial community structure in both systems. Both AFMBRs exhibited comparable organic removal efficiency and membrane performances. In the single-stage AFMBR, less soluble organic substances were removed through biosorption by GAC and biodegradation than those in the two-stage AFMBR. Compared to the two-stage AFMBR, the formation of cake layer was the main cause of the observed membrane fouling in the single-stage AFMBR at the same employed flux. The accumulation rate of the biopolymers was linearly correlated with the membrane fouling rate. In the chemical-cleaned foulants, humic acid-like substances and silicon were identified as the predominant organic and inorganic fouants respectively. As such, the fluidized GAC particles might not be effective in removing these substances from the membrane surfaces. High-throughout pyrosequencing analysis further revealed that beta-Proteobacteria were predominant members in both AFMBRs, which contributed to the development of biofilms on the fluidized GAC and membrane surfaces. However, it was also noted that the abundance of the identified dominant in the membrane surface-associated biofilm seemed to be related to the permeate flux and reactor configuration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate on phosphorus removal and membrane fouling in MBR treating BAF effluent of municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A membrane bioreactor (MBR was used for treating biological aerated filter effluent in a municipal wastewater plant, and chemical phosphorus removal was accomplished in the MBR. The results showed that ferric chloride of 20 mg/L and aluminum sulfate of 30 mg/L were the optimal dosages for total phosphorus (TP removal, and the TP removal efficiency was over 80%. In long-term continuous operations, both ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate effectively mitigated membrane fouling, with the corresponding growth rate of transmembrane pressure decreased to 0.08 and 0.067 kPa/d, respectively. Sludge particle sizes analysis demonstrated that the decrease of particle sizes lower than 50 μm was the main reason for membrane fouling control. Simultaneously, the proteins and polysaccharide (PS concentrations in the MBR supernatant were analyzed, and the PS concentration significantly decreased to 2.02 mg/L at aluminum sulfate of 30 mg/L, indicating the flocculation of aluminum sulfate on PS was the main reason for mitigation of membrane fouling.

  2. Removal of fecal indicators and pathogens in a waste stabilization pond system treating municipal wastewater in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Kazmi, A A; Chopra, A K

    2008-11-01

    This study assess the removal of fecal indicators (i.e., total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, fecal streptococci, and pathogens [Salmonella sp. and helminth eggs]) in a full-scale facultative and maturation pond system with primary screening and manual grit removal facility. The capacity of the plant is 6 ML/d. The results showed that the system was able to remove approximately 2.0 to 3.5 log units of fecal indicators and almost 100% of helminth eggs. Meanwhile, Salmonella was not eliminated significantly, as only 1.26 log units removal was found. Removal efficiency of fecal indicator bacteria was reported maximum during summers (3.4 to 4.0 log units) and minimum (1.9 to 2.0 log units) in winters. Further efforts were made to seek the correlation between key physicochemical wastewater quality parameters (biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and suspended solids) and indicator microorganisms (total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci). Among all these parameters, suspended solids showed the highest correlation coefficient (r2) with total coliforms (0.79), fecal coliforms (0.78), and fecal streptococci (0.75). These correlations manifest that the improvement of microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of suspended solids.

  3. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci with vanA gene in treated municipal wastewater and their association with human hospital strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcova, Veronika; Mihalcin, Matus; Zakova, Jana; Pospisilova, Lucie; Masarikova, Martina; Literak, Ivan

    2017-12-31

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are pathogens of increasing medical importance. In Brno, Czech Republic, we collected 37 samples from the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), 21 surface swabs from hospital settings, and 59 fecal samples from hospitalized patients and staff. Moreover, we collected 284 gull cloacal swabs from the colony situated 35km downstream the WWTP. Samples were cultured selectively. Enterococci were identified using MALDI-TOF MS, phenotypically tested for susceptibility to antibiotics, and by PCR for occurrence of resistance and virulence genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were used to examine genotypic diversity. VRE carrying the vanA gene were found in 32 (86%, n=37) wastewater samples, from which we obtained 49 isolates: Enterococcus faecium (44) and Enterococcus gallinarum (2), Enterococcus casseliflavus (2), and Enterococcus raffinosus (1). From 33 (69%) of 48 inpatient stool samples, we obtained 39 vanA-carrying VRE, which belonged to E. faecium (33 isolates), Enterococcus faecalis (4), and Enterococcus raffinosus (2). Nearly one-third of the samples from hospital surfaces contained VRE with the vanA gene. VRE were not detected among gulls. Sixty-seven (84%, n=80) E. faecium isolates carried virulence genes hyl and/or esp. Virulence of E. faecalis was encoded by gelE, asa1, and cylA genes. A majority of the E. faecium isolates belonged to the clinically important sequence types ST17 (WWTP: 10 isolates; hospital: 4 isolates), ST18 (9;8), and ST78 (5;0). The remaining isolates belonged to ST555 (2;0), ST262 (1;6), ST273 (3;0), ST275 (1;0), ST549 (2;0), ST19 (0;1), ST323 (3;0), and ST884 (7;17). Clinically important enterococci carrying the vanA gene were almost continually detectable in the effluent of the WWTP, indicating insufficient removal of VRE during wastewater treatment and permanent shedding of these antibiotic resistant pathogens into the environment from this

  4. QAC modified PVDF membranes: Antibiofouling performance, mechanisms, and effects on microbial communities in an MBR treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Zhang, Xingran; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Liang; Wu, Zhichao

    2017-09-01

    Biofouling remains as a critical issue limiting the widespread applications of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The use of antibiofouling membranes is an emerging method to tackle this issue. In this study, a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was modified using a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) to create an antibiofouling membrane. The membrane was used in an MBR and the performance, mechanisms, and effects on microbial communities of this membrane were compared to a control operated in parallel. Results showed that the membrane exhibited a significantly reduced transmembrane pressure increase rate of 0.29 kPa/d compared with 0.91 kPa/d of the control. Analysis using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) revealed almost complete lack of living microbes on the antibiofouling membrane in contrast to the control. However, specific oxygen uptake rate and dehydrogenase activity analyses demonstrated no adverse impacts on microbial viability of the bulk activated sludge. Bacterial population analysis using the Illumina Miseq platform added further evidence that the use of antibiofouling membrane did not exert negative influences on richness, diversity and structure of the bacterial community. Effluent quality of the test MBR also exhibited minimal difference from that of the control reactor. The amount of polysaccharides and proteins in the biofouling layer was also significantly reduced. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring suggested that the antibiofouling membrane only allowed organic matter with strong adhesion properties to attach onto the membrane surfaces. These findings highlight the potential of the antibiofouling membrane to be used in MBRs for wastewater treatment and reclamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sonochemical disinfection of municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Apostolos; Poulios, Ioannis; Nikolakaki, Eleni; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2007-01-01

    The application of high intensity, low frequency ultrasound for the disinfection of simulated and septic tank wastewaters is evaluated in this work. Laboratory scale experiments were conducted at 24 and 80 kHz ultrasound frequency with horn-type sonicators capable of operating in continuous and pulsed irradiation modes at nominal ultrasound intensities up to 450 W. For the experiments with simulated wastewaters, Escherichia coli were used as biological indicator of disinfection efficiency, while for the experiments with septic tank wastewaters, the total microbiological load was used. Complete elimination of E. coli could be achieved within 20-30 min of irradiation at 24 kHz and 450 W with the efficiency decreasing with decreasing intensity and frequency. Moreover, continuous irradiation was more effective than intermittent treatment based on a common energy input. Irradiation of the septic tank effluent prior to biological treatment at 24 kHz and 450 W for 30 min resulted in a three-log total microbiological load reduction, and this was nearly equal to the reduction that could be achieved during biological treatment. Bacterial cell elimination upon irradiation was irreversible as no reappearance of the microorganisms occurred after 24 h

  6. Occurrence of human-associated Bacteroidetes genetic source tracking markers in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin and comparison to standard and alternative indicators of faecal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, R.E.; Bofill-Mas, S.; Egle, L.; Reischer, G.H.; Schade, M.; Fernandez-Cassi, X.; Fuchs, W.; Mach, R.L.; Lindner, G.; Kirschner, A.; Gaisbauer, M.; Piringer, H.; Blaschke, A.P.; Girones, R.; Zessner, M.; Sommer, R.; Farnleitner, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    This was a detailed investigation of the seasonal occurrence, dynamics, removal and resistance of human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes faecal markers (GeBaM) compared with ISO-based standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB), human-specific viral faecal markers and one human-associated Bacteroidetes phage in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin. Characteristics of the selected activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from Austria and Germany were studied in detail (WWTPs, n = 13, connected populations from 3 to 49000 individuals), supported by volume-proportional automated 24-h sampling and chemical water quality analysis. GeBaM were consistently detected in high concentrations in raw (median log10 8.6 marker equivalents (ME) 100 ml−1) and biologically treated wastewater samples (median log10 6.2–6.5 ME 100 ml−1), irrespective of plant size, type and time of the season (n = 53–65). GeBaM, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations revealed the same range of statistical variability for raw (multiplicative standard deviations s* = 2.3–3.0) and treated wastewater (s* = 3.7–4.5), with increased variability after treatment. Clostridium perfringens spores revealed the lowest variability for raw wastewater (s* = 1.5). In raw wastewater correlations among microbiological parameters were only detectable between GeBaM, C. perfringens and JC polyomaviruses. Statistical associations amongst microbial parameters increased during wastewater treatment. Two plants with advanced treatment were also investigated, revealing a minimum log10 5.0 (10th percentile) reduction of GeBaM in the activated sludge membrane bioreactor, but no reduction of the genetic markers during UV irradiation (254 nm). This study highlights the potential of human-associated GeBaM to complement wastewater impact monitoring based on the determination of SFIB. In addition, human-specific JC polyomaviruses and adenoviruses seem to be a valuable support if

  7. Fate and impact of phthalates in activated sludge treated municipal wastewater on the water bodies in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaudeen, Taofeek; Okoh, Omobola; Agunbiade, Foluso; Okoh, Anthony

    2018-07-01

    The concentration and fates of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) in wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which adopted the activated sludge technology in the Amathole Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa were investigated. The six PAEs were detected in all the influents and in almost all the WWTP effluent of which DBP was the most abundant in the influent followed by DEHP. Influent concentration of DBP in the three WWTPs ranged between 2.7 and 2488 μgL -1 and the average effluent concentration was 4.90-8.88 μgL -1 . On average, the concentration of PAEs in WWTP effluents were higher than PAEs in the upstream and downstream of the discharging point suggesting PAE impact on the receiving water. The concentrations detected in the sludge of which DEHP and DBP were more pervasive ranged between 130 and 1094 μg/g dry weight. The average removal capacity; 27.3-99.5% suggested more adsorption on settling particles and sludge than biodegradation as high significant correlation was found between PAEs removal, total suspended solid and turbidity. Removal of high molecular weight and high octanol-water partition coefficient (logK ow ) PAEs through adsorption was found to be significantly high. It could be concluded that the release of PAEs into the sludge, and the amount in the final effluent which were found to exceed the acceptable levels allowed internationally, raises safety concern for both aquatic and human's health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dissinfection of municipal sludge and wastewater by energized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trump, J.G.; Wright, K.A.; Sinskey, A.J.; Shah, D.N.; Fernald, R.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory studies at M.I.T. and high flow rate studies at the M.D.C. Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant in Boston have shown the practicality and cost effectiveness of disinfecting liquid municipal sludges by injecting energized electrons. A dosage of 400 Kilorads (4 Kilograys) reduces gram-negative bacteria, including coliforms, fecal coliforms, salmonellae and shigellae, in primary raw or anaerobically digested sludges to undetectable levels. Enteric viruses are reduced by one to two orders of magnitude. This treatment also destroys parasite eggs or renders them non-infectious. Model system studies indicate that trace toxic compounds such as PCBs in water are degraded. The estimated cost of sludge disinfection by electron treatment is about $0.80 per liquid tonne for modular systems of 650 liquid tonnes per day capacity. About 6 Kilowatt-hours of input electric power per tonne is required. The temperature rise of the disinfected watery sludge is about 2 0 C. Electron disinfection combined with subsurface soil injection offers an environmentally attractive, energy-efficient, and economic two -step process for land disposal of municipal sludges with water conservation and soil improvement benefits. Combined with widely-distributed ocean feeding, electron disinfection of the municipal sludge of coastal communities offers a safe marine nutrient for increasing fish population in treated ocean areas. The electron disinfection of effluent wastewater, in lieu of chlorination, is a future application which avoids the production of potentially toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons. (Author) [pt

  9. Effects of pharmaceutical micropollutants on the membrane fouling of a submerged MBR treating municipal wastewater: case of continuous pollution by carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengcheng; Cabassud, Corinne; Reboul, Bernard; Guigui, Christelle

    2015-02-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is increasingly used for municipal wastewater treatment and reuse and great concerns have been raised to some emerging trace pollutants found in aquatic environment in the last decade, notably the pharmaceuticals. As a consequence the removal of pharmaceutical micropollutants by MBRs has been extensively investigated. But there is still a lack of knowledge on the effects of the current presence of pharmaceutical micropollutants in domestic wastewaters on MBR fouling. Among the different pharmaceuticals, it was decided to focus on carbamazepine (CBZ), an anti-epileptic drug, because of its occurrence in domestic wastewaters and persistency in biological processes including MBRs. This paper focuses on the effects of continuous carbamazepine pollution on MBR fouling. A continuous introduction of CBZ into the MBR via the feed (about 90 μg L(-1) CBZ in the feed) provoked a TMP jump. It occurred just 1 day after the addition of CBZ in MBR and a significantly higher increase rate of TMP was also observed after 1 day after addition of CBZ in MBR, as compared to that before addition of CBZ. This indicates that the pharmaceutical stress induced by CBZ causes more severe membrane fouling. Addition of CBZ was shown to induce a significant increase of the concentration of proteins in the supernatant at the beginning several days then stabilized to original level whereas no significant change was found for polysaccharides. HPLC-SEC analysis showed that addition of CBZ induced a decrease of 100-1000 kDa protein-like SMPs and a more significant increase of 10-100 kDa protein-like SMPs in the supernatant. Moreover it was found that addition of CBZ in the MBR affected the sludge microbial activities, as a slight inhibition (about 20%) of the exogenous respiration rate was observed. The increased membrane fouling could be related to the change in biomass characteristics and supernatant quality after addition of CBZ in MBR. This study allows also

  10. Quantum leap for treating wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: For many Australian food manufacturers there is increasing pressure from government agencies to reach higher standards of wastewater treatment for environmental discharge. In fact, throughout the western wolrd industrual water users are facing a similar challenge. One of the big problems is ageing pipe networks, particularly sewage pipes. Also, industrial wastewaters with high sugar-nutrient loads can cause serious damage to pipelines. This is because fermentation occurs within the wastewater, eroding and degrading the pipes, causing numerous cracks and fractures. This in turn leads to water ingress, which puts a strain on treatment plants because of the higher volume of water, especially in wet weather. Food manufacturing produces large volumes of mostly biodegradable liquid and solid waste. Wastewaters released from food manufacturing can be 'muddy', with high concentrations of suspended solids, fats, oils and grease (FOGs), and, usually, nutrients such as nitrogen. The issue for many food manufacturers is that existing wastewater treatment systems are unable to reduce the nutrient load in the biological treatment stage to a level allowing acceptable discharge. In addition, most rely on large tanks housing bacteria that are submerged in water and aerated. Aeration is energy-hungry and can create a 'sludge-cake' on top of the water, which is difficult to treat. Most existing technologies also use filters, but they foul easily and require ongoing maintenance. According to BioGill chief executive John West, the BioGill technology is groundbreaking and radically different from conventional bioreactors because the 'gills' are not submerged. Instead, the gills, composed of Nano-Ceramic Membrane sheets arranged vertically in pairs, are suspended in the air, above ground, with wastewater travelling down between them. “Fungi and bacteria, known as biomass, grow on the membranes in direct contact with the air, eating nutrients much faster than other systems

  11. Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant sewage sludge as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in the environment The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  12. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristic of Municipal Wastewater in Tropical Area: Case Study of Surabaya City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, I. M. W.; Soedjono, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    Municipal wastewater is the main contributor to diverse water pollution problems. In order to prevent the pollution risks, wastewater have to be treated before discharged to the main water. Selection of appropriated treatment process need the characteristic information of wastewater as design consideration. This study aims to analyse the physicochemical characteristic of municipal wastewater from inlet and outlet of ABR unit around Surabaya City. Medokan Semampir and Genteng Candi Rejo has been selected as wastewater sampling point. The samples were analysed in laboratory with parameters, such as pH, TSS, COD, BOD, NH4 +, NO3 -, NO2 -, P, and detergent. The results showed that all parameters in both locations are under the national standard of discharged water quality. In other words, the treated water is securely discharged to the river

  14. Alfred pilot wetland to treat municipal lagoon effluent - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C.

    2002-01-01

    A constructed wetland demonstration system has been built to polish the municipal lagoon effluent from the village of Alfred. The treatment lagoons have an annual discharge in the spring and have currently reached maximum capacity; inhibiting further population growth or expansion of the local agri-food industries. The demonstration wetland system is designed to treat 15% of the municipal lagoon influent, that is, 155 m 3 /day or 23,250 m 3 /year. A three year monitoring program (2000-2002) was put in place to evaluate the wetland as a cost effective means to treat municipal lagoon wastewater for the village of Alfred. The 2000 and 2001 monitoring seasons have been completed, and the 2002 monitoring season will operate between June and October 2002. At the completion of the three year monitoring program the Alfred wetland system will be evaluated for its ability to polish the municipal lagoon effluent to meet the Spring/Summer/Fall discharge criteria, set by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE), for the receiving water body (Azatica Brook). As phosphorus is the most difficult element to remove down to MOE guidelines, the Alfred research wetland includes slag phosphorus adsorption filters and a vegetated filter as phosphorus polishing systems. Once the wetland system is approved by the MOE, the village of Alfred will be able to increase its capacity for municipal wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands are still considered innovative systems in Ontario and government ministries (MOE, OMAFRA) are insisting upon 3-4 years of monitoring data for each constructed wetland system established. There is a clear need for monitoring data to be gathered on established systems, and for this data to be evaluated with the goal of developing reliable design guidelines. Ultimately this should result in having constructed wetlands recognised as viable wastewater treatment options in Ontario. With fewer grant programs for rural municipalities, cost effective systems such

  15. Treatment of winery wastewater in a conventional municipal activated sludge process: five years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzonella, D; Zanette, M; Battistoni, P; Cecchi, F

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale wastewater treatment plant where municipal and winery wastewaters were co-treated was studied for five years. The experimental results showed that suspended solids, COD, nitrogen and phosphorous were effectively removed both during the treatment of municipal wastewater and the cotreatment of municipal and winery wastewater. The sludge production increase from 4 tons to 5.5 tons per day during the harvesting and wine making period. In any case the specific sludge production was 0.2 kgMLVSS per kgCOD(removed) despite the organic loading increasing. About 70% of the COD was removed through respiration. Also the energy demand increased from 6,000 to 7,000 kWh per day. The estimated costs for the treatment of the winery wastewater was 0.2-0.3 Euros per m3 of treated wastewater. With reference to the process efficiency, the nitrogen removal was just 20%. The co-treatment of municipal and winery wastewater in conventional activated sludge processes can be a feasible solution for the treatment of these streams at relatively low costs.

  16. The current status on the selection and management of vegetation for slow rate and overland flow application systems to treat municipal wastewater in the North Central region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.G. Brockway; T.M. Burton; J.H. Cooley; F.M. D' Itri; R.H. Dowdy; B.G. Ellis; L. Epstein; A.E. Erickson; J.E. Hook; L.W. Jacobs; S.N. Kerr; B.D. Knezek; E.A. Myers; A.J. Palazzo; S. Poloncsik; G.R. Safir; W.E. Sopper; J.C. Sutherland; M.B. Tesar; R.E. Thomas; D.H. Urie

    1981-01-01

    The 1977 Clean Water Amendments to Public Law 92-500 were enacted to strengthen the orignal policy of encouraging the utilization ofinnovative, alternative management techniques far the treatment and disposal of municipal wastewater. These alternative techniques include spray irigation and overland flow land treatment systems which can be used individual cr...

  17. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are

  18. Applications of Natural Coagulants to Treat Wastewater − A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vicky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural water falls from the mountain is merging into the oceans. This water is preserved by humans that are consumed for agriculture, industrial, and municipal use. This water become wastewater after different usage, and finally, completes the hydrological cycle. The water becomes wastewater due to population growth, urbanization, industrialization, sewage from household, institutions, hospitals, industries and etc. Wastewater can be destructive for the public because it contains a variety of organic and inorganic substances, biological substances, toxic inorganic compounds and the presence of toxic materials. The coagulant chemicals and its associated products are resourceful but these may change the characteristics of water in terms of physical and chemical characteristics, this make matters worse in the disposal of sludge. An option of natural polymer can be used in water and wastewater in this review. The natural polymers are most efficient that provide several benefits such as; prolific, exempt from physical and chemical changes from the treated water.

  19. Efficient Bacteria Inactivation by Ultrasound in Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Ernesto Amabilis-Sosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of treated wastewaters could contribute to reducing water stress. In this research, ultrasound application on bacterial inactivation in municipal wastewater (MWW was evaluated. Total and fecal coliforms were used as standard fecal indicators; volatile suspended solids (VSS were analyzed too. Samples were taken from the effluent of secondary clarifiers. In addition, inactivation tests were carried out on pure cultures of E. coli (EC and B. subtilis (BS. Sonication was performed at 20 kHz, 35% amplitude and 600 W/L for 15, 30 and 45 min. After 15 min of sonication, bacterial density was reduced by 1.85 Log10 MPN/100 mL for EC and 3.16 Log10 CFU/mL for BS. After 30 min, no CFU/mL of BS were observed in MWW and, after 45 min, the reduction of total and fecal coliforms was practically 6.45 Log10 MPN/100mL. Inactivation mechanism was made by cavitation, which causes irreversible damage to the cell wall. Although high bacterial densities were employed, percentages of inactivation >99% were reached at 45 min. This research contributes to the implementation of ultrasound as a disinfection technique with high potential due to its high efficiency without producing byproducts. In fact, the water meets the guidelines for reuse in direct human contact services.

  20. Effect of temperature on the fate of genes encoding tetracycline resistance and the integrase of class 1 integrons within anaerobic and aerobic digesters treating municipal wastewater solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, David L; LaPara, Timothy M

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the ability of anaerobic and aerobic digesters to reduce the quantity of antibiotic resistant bacteria in wastewater solids. Lab-scale digesters were operated at different temperatures (22 °C, 37 °C, 46 °C, and 55 °C) under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and fed wastewater solids collected from a full-scale treatment facility. Quantitative PCR was used to track five genes encoding tetracycline resistance (tet(A), tet(L), tet(O), tet(W), and tet(X)) and the gene encoding the integrase (intI1) of class 1 integrons. Statistically significant reductions in the quantities of these genes occurred in the anaerobic reactors at 37 °C, 46 °C, and 55 °C, with the removal rates and removal efficiencies increasing as a function of temperature. The aerobic digesters, in contrast, were generally incapable of significantly decreasing gene quantities, although these digesters were operated at much shorter mean hydraulic residence times. This research suggests that high temperature anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids would be a suitable technology for eliminating various antibiotic resistance genes, an emerging pollutant of concern.

  1. Disinfection of wastewater by hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid: development of procedures for measurement of residual disinfectant and application to a physicochemically treated municipal effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Monika; Brumelis, Daina; Gehr, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    The Montreal Urban Community Wastewater Treatment Plant (MUCWTP) located in Montreal. Quebec, Canada, uses physicochemical treatment processes prior to discharging wastewater into the St. Lawrence River via an outfall tunnel of 2 hours retention time. Although chlorination facilities exist, they are not being used, and the MUCWTP is seeking alternative methods for disinfection to achieve a 2- to 3-log fecal coliform reduction. Liquid chemical disinfectants were attractive options because of their low capital costs. This led to an investigation of the feasibility of using hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid. A method for measuring peroxycompounds (hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid plus hydrogen peroxide) was developed using the peroxidase-based oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfuric acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) with hydrogen peroxide. The validity of the method was confirmed using effluent from the MUCWTP. Recovery was higher than 90% for peracetic acid levels as low as 1.0 mg/L. Quenching of hydrogen peroxide was achieved with 50-mg/L catalase; quenching of peracetic acid was achieved with 100 mg/L of sodium thiosulfate, followed by 50 mg/L of catalase. Batch disinfection tests were conducted on MUCWTP effluent. Hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid in wastewater over time could be modeled as a second-order decay, with the decay "constant" being a function of the initial concentration of peroxycompounds. This function was the same for both hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, possibly indicating similar decomposition pathways in wastewater matrices. Disinfection was modeled using a modified Hom equation. Required doses of hydrogen peroxide to reach the target fecal coliform levels ranged from 106 to 285 mg/L, with the higher doses occurring when ferric chloride instead of alum was used as the coagulant. Hence, hydrogen peroxide was infeasible as a disinfectant for this application. On the other hand, the peracetic acid dose needed to

  2. Nitrate-N movement in groundwater from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources in the Wakulla Springs springshed, Leon and Wakulla Counties, Florida, 1966-2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Hal; Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2010-01-01

    The City of Tallahassee began a pilot study in 1966 at the Southwest Farm sprayfield to determine whether disposal of treated municipal wastewater using center pivot irrigation techniques to uptake nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate-N) is feasible. Based on the early success of this project, a new, larger Southeast Farm sprayfield was opened in November 1980. However, a recent 2002 study indicated that nitrate-N from these operations may be moving through the Upper Floridan aquifer to Wakulla Springs, thus causing nitrate-N concentrations to increase in the spring water. The increase in nitrate-N combined with the generally clear spring water and abundant sunshine may be encouraging invasive plant species growth. Determining the link between the nitrate-N application at the sprayfields and increased nitrate-N levels is complicated because there are other sources of nitrate-N in the Wakulla Springs springshed, including atmospheric deposition, onsite sewage disposal systems, disposal of biosolids by land spreading, creeks discharging into sinks, domestic fertilizer application, and livestock wastes.

  3. Microalgal biomass and lipid production in mixed municipal, dairy, pulp and paper wastewater together with added flue gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Francesco G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to grow microalgae on mixed municipal and industrial wastewater to simultaneously treat the wastewater and produce biomass and lipids. All algal strains grew in all wastewater mixtures; however, Selenastrum minutum had the highest biomass and lipids yields, up to 37% of the dry matter. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal were high and followed a similar trend in all three strains. Ammonium was reduced from 96% to 99%; this reduction was due to algal growth and not to stripping to the atmosphere, as confirmed by the amount of nitrogen in the dry algal biomass. Phosphate was reduced from 91% to 99%. In all strains used the lipid content was negatively correlated to the nitrogen concentration in the algal biomass. Mixtures of pulp and paper wastewater with municipal and dairy wastewater have great potential to grow algae for biomass and lipid production together with effective wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing Anammox for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotti, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), like activated sludge systems, are energy demanding requiring a large electrical energy supply (e.g. 25 kWh PE-1 year-1) which, especially during peak-load periods, may account for an important quote of the grid installed power of the surrounding

  5. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  6. ASSESSMENT OF CARBON, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS TRANSFORMATIONS DURING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Bogumiła Przywara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper exploitation of waste water treatment plant is strictly connected with monitoring of basic parameters and effectiveness of particular its stages. Legal requirements include not only organic compounds (BOD5, COD and general suspensions but also highly effective removal of nutrients: nitrogen and phosphorus. Effectiveness of removal of biogenic compounds interferes with temperature fluctuations, effluent quality, problems of active sediment. The aim of this study was to show changes in concentrations of organic compounds, nitrogen and phosphorus in the municipal wastewater after subsequent stages of mechanical-biological treatment. During researches samples were taken down by the wastewater treatment line: raw wastewater, after mechanical treatment, pre-denitrification, dephosphatation, denitrification, nitrification and treated wastewater. Another aspect of this study was determination of COD fractions, and their changes in the municipal wastewater, after the successive stages of mechanical-biological treatment. It allows separation of dissolved and non-dissolved organic substances, taking into account also their biodegradability and the lack of susceptibility to biological decomposition. It can also be a very important method of the processes control during wastewater treatment.

  7. Improvement of municipal wastewater pretreatment by direct membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Thiago A; Mejía, Fanny R; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando; Peña Miranda, Mar

    2017-10-01

    The high content of particulate matter in municipal wastewater hinders the conventional anaerobic treatments at psychrophilic temperatures. The hydrolysis of the particulate chemical oxygen demand (pCOD) could be the limiting step under these conditions. Therefore, new pretreatments or improved conventional pretreatments are needed in order to separate pCOD. In this work, direct membrane filtration of municipal wastewater, using an ultrafiltration membrane, was investigated. This intensive pretreatment, which aims to separate soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and to concentrate pCOD, together with anaerobic treatments of both streams at psychrophilic and mesophilic conditions respectively, could be an alternative to the conventional activated sludge process. The obtained results show a removal yield of 24.9% of the total solids (TS) and 45% of total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), obtaining a permeate free of suspended solids. This physical removal implies the accumulation of solids inside the membrane tank, reaching the values of 45.4 and 4.4 g/L of TS in the sedimentation and filtration sections, respectively. The membrane operated with filtration, backwashing cycles and continuous gas sparging, with a permeate flux predominantly around 10 L/(m 2  h). The results show the viability of the technology to concentrate pCOD and so to improve energy recovery from municipal wastewater.

  8. Research and development on municipal Wastewater treatment processes using electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwaya, Mamoru

    1994-01-01

    This paper was described concerning the experimental results and their engineering evaluations on electron beam irradiation treatment to effluent and sludge produced in existing municipal wastewater treatment plants implemented by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the study committee for past five years. Laboratory tests using an electron accelerator were carried out for the purposes of disinfection both to effluent and to dewatered sludge. And composting tests by a pilot-plant were also carried out to find the optimal conditions on design and operation, and initial and operational cost estimations for pelletized sludge with/without the irradiation. It was found that these applications to effluent, sludge and supernatant were quite effective. However, several problems awaiting solution were found from the tests and evaluating works on the matters of marketed electron accelerators. As the results of tests and evaluating works, electron beam irradiation treatment process applied to effluent should be carried out at the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Regenerated granular activated carbon treated by electron beam irradiation may also be applicable to remove hazardous organic substances in effluent. However, long-term tests by pilotplants will be necessary to determine the design criteria, operation and maintenance conditions, and so on. For composting of dewatered sludge produced at municipal wastewater treatment plants, several sizes of smaller electron accelerator are required to be on the market. Especially, medium and small sizes municipalities expect to install composting facilities in the plant. (J.P.N.)

  9. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria And Their Associated Resistance Genes in a Conventional Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2013-12-01

    With water scarcity as a pressing issue in Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries, the treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater is increasingly being used as an alternative water source to supplement country water needs. Standards are in place to ensure a safe treated wastewater quality, however they do not regulate pathogenic bacteria and emerging contaminants. Information is lacking on the levels of risk to public health associated with these factors, the efficiency of conventional treatment strategies in removing them, and on wastewater treatment in Saudi Arabia in general. In this study, a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Saudi Arabia is investigated to assess the efficiency of conventional treatment in meeting regulations and removing pathogens and emerging contaminants. The study found pathogenic bacterial genera, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistant bacteria, many of which were multi-resistant in plant discharges. It was found that although the treatments are able to meet traditional quality guidelines, there remains a risk from the discussed contaminants with wastewater reuse. A deeper understanding of this risk, and suggestions for more thorough guidelines and monitoring are needed.

  10. Methane production as from the mixture of the urban solid waste lixiviate and municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy-Hermosillo, Oscar; Ramírez-Vives, Florina; Rodríguez-Pimentel, Reyna I.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Suyén

    2015-01-01

    The generation of solid wastes and wastewater in Mexico , as other countries, has increased considerably of late years, so its treatment is very important to reduce the pollution. In this work are presented the results on the anaerobic digestion of lixiviate generated with the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste recollected in the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Unidad Iztapalapa coffee shop. Theses lixiviated were diluted with municipal wastewater to different organic loads (2,3-20 gCOD/L.d) and after treated anaerobically in UASB reactor. Biogas's average production in the last load of the UASB reactor was up to 12 L/L.d with an efficiency to remove COD on top of 90 % and a production of methane of 0,38 LCH4. gSSV-1. (author)

  11. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  12. Efficiency of electrical coagulation process using aluminum electrodes for municipal wastewater treatment: a case study at Karaj wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Gholami Yengejeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reuse of treated municipal wastewater is an important source of water for different purposes. This study evaluated the efficiency of the electrocoagulation process in removing turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, nitrate, and phosphate from wastewater at the treatment facility in Karaj, Iran. Methods: This experimental study was performed at a pilot scale and in a batch system. A 4-liter tank made from safety glass with 4 plate electrodes made from aluminum was unipolarly connected to a direct current power supply with a parallel arrangement. Wastewater samples were taken from the influent at the Karaj wastewater treatment facility. Rates of turbidity, TSS, COD, nitrate, and phosphate removal under different conditions were determined. Results: The highest efficiency of COD, TSS, nitrate, turbidity, and phosphate elimination was achieved at a voltage of 30 volts and a reaction time of 30 minutes. The rates were 88.43%, 87.39%, 100%, 80.52%, and 82.69%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, electrocoagulation is an appropriate method for use in removing nitrate, phosphate, COD, turbidity, and TSS from wastewater.

  13. Ultraviolet and solar photocatalytic ozonation of municipal wastewater: Catalyst reuse, energy requirements and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, Achisa C; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi; Momba, Maggy N B

    2017-11-01

    The present study evaluated the treatment of municipal wastewater containing phenol using solar and ultraviolet (UV) light photocatalytic ozonation processes to explore comparative performance. Important aspects such as catalyst reuse, mineralization of pollutants, energy requirements, and toxicity of treated wastewater which are crucial for practical implementation of the processes were explored. The activity of the photocatalysts did not change significantly even after three consecutive uses despite approximately 2% of the initial quantity of catalyst being lost in each run. Analysis of the change in average oxidation state (AOS) demonstrated the formation of more oxidized degradation products (ΔAOS values of 1.0-1.7) due to mineralization. The energy requirements were determined in terms of electrical energy per order (E EO ) and the collector area per order (A CO ). The E EO (kWh m -3  Order -1 ) values were 26.2 for ozonation, 38-47 for UV photocatalysis and 7-22 for UV photocatalytic ozonation processes. On the other hand, A CO (m 2  m -3  order -1 ) values were 31-69 for solar photocatalysis and 8-13 for solar photocatalytic ozonation. Thus photocatalytic ozonation processes required less energy input compared to the individual processes. The cytotoxicity of the wastewater was analysed using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay with Vero cells. The cell viability increased from 28.7% in untreated wastewater to 80% in treated wastewater; thus showing that the treated wastewater was less toxic. The effectiveness of photocatalytic ozonation, recovery and reusability of the photocatalysts, as well as detoxification of the wastewater make this low energy consumption process attractive for wastewater remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Municipal wastewater biological nutrient removal driven by the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang; Wu, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Carbon substrate is required by biological nutrient removal (BNR) microorganism, but it is usually insufficient in the influent of many municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study the use of ethanol-enriched fermentation liquid, which was derived from dairy wastewater, as the preferred carbon substrate of BNR was reported. First, the application of dairy wastewater and food processing wastewater and their fermentation liquid as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared in the short-term tests. The fermented wastewater showed higher BNR performance than the unfermented one, and the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater (FL-DW), which was obtained under pH 8 and fermentation time of 6 day, exhibited the highest phosphorus (95.5%) and total nitrogen (97.6%) removal efficiencies due to its high ethanol content (57.9%). Then, the long-term performance of FL-DW acting as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared with that of acetate and ethanol, and the FL-DW showed the greatest phosphorus and total nitrogen removal. Further investigation showed that the use of FL-DW caused the highest polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) synthesis in BNR microbial cells, and more PHAs were used for phosphorus uptake and denitrification rather than glycogen synthesis and microbial growth. The FL-DW can be used as a preferred carbon substrate for BNR microbes. AB: aerobic end sludge active biomass; BNR: biological nutrient removal; DW: dairy wastewater; FL-DW: fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater; FPW: food processing wastewater; FL-FPW: fermentation liquid of food processing wastewater; PHAs: polyhydroxyalkanoates; PHB: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHV: poly-3-hydroxyvalerate; PH2MV: poly-3-hydroxy-2- methylvalerate; PAOs: phosphorus accumulating organisms; SBR: sequencing batch reactor; SOP: soluble ortho-phosphorus; TN: total nitrogen; TSS: total suspended solids; VSS: volatile suspended solids; VFAs: volatile fatty acids; WWTPs: wastewater treatment plants.

  15. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Wenshi [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Vidic, Radisav D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus® with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH3 and CO2 evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH3 mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., kNH3 < 4×10-3 m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO3). The effect of the CO2 mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., kCO2<4×10-6 m/s).

  16. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J. s.; Herrera, I.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  17. Analysis of some pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater of Almadinah Almunawarah

    KAUST Repository

    Shraim, Amjad

    2012-11-29

    The chemical pollution of water resources is a major challenge facing the humanity in this century. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a group of emerging environmental chemical pollutants distinguished by their bioactivity and high solubility. They may also cause health complications to humans and living organisms. Pharmaceuticals enter the environment, mainly via wastewater and can eventually reach the surface and ground water. Despite this, PPCPs received less attention as environmental pollutants than other chemical pollutants (e.g. heavy metals and pesticides). The purpose of this work was to investigate the presence of some of the most frequently dispensed drugs for the residents of Almadinah Almunawarah, Saudi Arabia in the municipal wastewater before and after treatment. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected biweekly from the city’s sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 months and analyzed the targeted drugs using tandem LC–MS. Out of the 19 investigated drugs, 5 pharmaceuticals have been found in concentrations greater than the limit of detection in both the influents and effluents of the sewage treatment plant. As expected, the concentrations of investigated pharmaceuticals in the wastewater were found to be low. These drugs and their average concentrations (in ng mL−1) in the influents were: acetaminophen (38.9), metformin (15.2), norfluoxetine (7.07), atenolol (2.04), and cephalexin (1.88). Meanwhile, the effluents contained slightly lower levels (in ng mL−1) than those of influents: acetaminophen (31.2), metformin (3.19), norfluoxetine (7.25), atenolol (0.545), and cephalexin (1.53). The results of this study supported by many other investigations indicate the inefficiency of current conventional wastewater treatment protocols in eliminating such a group of active and potentially hazardous pollutants from the wastewater.

  18. Analysis of some pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater of Almadinah Almunawarah

    KAUST Repository

    Shraim, Amjad; Diab, Atef; Alsuhaimi, Awadh; Niazy, Esmail; Metwally, Mohammed; Amad, Maan H.; Sioud, Salim; Dawoud, Abdulilah

    2012-01-01

    The chemical pollution of water resources is a major challenge facing the humanity in this century. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a group of emerging environmental chemical pollutants distinguished by their bioactivity and high solubility. They may also cause health complications to humans and living organisms. Pharmaceuticals enter the environment, mainly via wastewater and can eventually reach the surface and ground water. Despite this, PPCPs received less attention as environmental pollutants than other chemical pollutants (e.g. heavy metals and pesticides). The purpose of this work was to investigate the presence of some of the most frequently dispensed drugs for the residents of Almadinah Almunawarah, Saudi Arabia in the municipal wastewater before and after treatment. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected biweekly from the city’s sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 months and analyzed the targeted drugs using tandem LC–MS. Out of the 19 investigated drugs, 5 pharmaceuticals have been found in concentrations greater than the limit of detection in both the influents and effluents of the sewage treatment plant. As expected, the concentrations of investigated pharmaceuticals in the wastewater were found to be low. These drugs and their average concentrations (in ng mL−1) in the influents were: acetaminophen (38.9), metformin (15.2), norfluoxetine (7.07), atenolol (2.04), and cephalexin (1.88). Meanwhile, the effluents contained slightly lower levels (in ng mL−1) than those of influents: acetaminophen (31.2), metformin (3.19), norfluoxetine (7.25), atenolol (0.545), and cephalexin (1.53). The results of this study supported by many other investigations indicate the inefficiency of current conventional wastewater treatment protocols in eliminating such a group of active and potentially hazardous pollutants from the wastewater.

  19. Analysis of some pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater of Almadinah Almunawarah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Shraim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical pollution of water resources is a major challenge facing the humanity in this century. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs are a group of emerging environmental chemical pollutants distinguished by their bioactivity and high solubility. They may also cause health complications to humans and living organisms. Pharmaceuticals enter the environment, mainly via wastewater and can eventually reach the surface and ground water. Despite this, PPCPs received less attention as environmental pollutants than other chemical pollutants (e.g. heavy metals and pesticides. The purpose of this work was to investigate the presence of some of the most frequently dispensed drugs for the residents of Almadinah Almunawarah, Saudi Arabia in the municipal wastewater before and after treatment. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected biweekly from the city's sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 months and analyzed the targeted drugs using tandem LC–MS. Out of the 19 investigated drugs, 5 pharmaceuticals have been found in concentrations greater than the limit of detection in both the influents and effluents of the sewage treatment plant. As expected, the concentrations of investigated pharmaceuticals in the wastewater were found to be low. These drugs and their average concentrations (in ng mL−1 in the influents were: acetaminophen (38.9, metformin (15.2, norfluoxetine (7.07, atenolol (2.04, and cephalexin (1.88. Meanwhile, the effluents contained slightly lower levels (in ng mL−1 than those of influents: acetaminophen (31.2, metformin (3.19, norfluoxetine (7.25, atenolol (0.545, and cephalexin (1.53. The results of this study supported by many other investigations indicate the inefficiency of current conventional wastewater treatment protocols in eliminating such a group of active and potentially hazardous pollutants from the wastewater.

  20. UASB/flash aeration enable complete treatment of municipal wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abid Ali; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Lew, Beni; Diamantis, Vasileios; Mehrotra, Indu; Kazmi, A A

    2012-08-01

    A simple, efficient and cost-effective method for municipal wastewater treatment is examined in this paper. The municipal wastewater is treated using an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor followed by flash aeration (FA) as the post-treatment, without implementing aerobic biological processes. The UASB reactor was operated without recycle, at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h and achieved consistent removal of BOD, COD and TSS of 60-70% for more than 12 months. The effect of FA on UASB effluent post-treatment was studied at different HRT (15, 30 and 60 min) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (low DO = 1-2 mg/L and high DO = 5-6 mg/L). The optimum conditions for BOD, COD and sulfide removal were 30-60 min HRT and high DO concentration inside the FA tank. The final effluent after clarification was characterized by BOD and COD values of 28-35 and 50-58 mg/L, respectively. Sulfides were removed by more than 80%, but the fecal coliform only by ~2 log. The UASB followed by FA is a simple and efficient process for municipal wastewater treatment, except for fecal coliform, enabling water and nutrients recycling to agriculture.

  1. Vermistabilization of Municipal Wastewater Sludge with Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Parvaresh, H Movahedian, L Hamidian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Sludges are stabilized to reduce pathogens, eliminate offensive odors and inhibit, reduce or eliminate the potential for putrification. In this study, stabilization of municipal wastewater sludge with and without earthworms (Eisenia fetida was tested in a pilot study. The earthworms were fed at the optimum level of 0.75 kg-feed/kg-worm/day. Decomposition and stabilization of wastewater sludge occurred both in the presence and in the absence of earthworms during 9 weeks but the process was accelerated in their presence. Phosphorus content increased in the sludge with earthworms but decreased in it without them. Nitrogen content in the resulting vermicompost showed no difference with its quantity in the original substrate while it increased in the control treatment.

  2. Phycoremediation of municipal wastewater by microalgae to produce biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Nikunj; Farooqi, Humaira; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Mock, Thomas; Kumar, Shashi

    2017-09-02

    Municipal wastewater (WW), if not properly remediated, poses a threat to the environment and human health by carrying significant loads of nutrients and pathogens. These contaminants pollute rivers, lakes, and natural reservoirs where they cause eutrophication and pathogen-mediated diseases. However, the high nutrient content of WW makes it an ideal environment for remediation with microalgae that require high nutrient concentrations for growth and are not susceptible to toxins and pathogens. Given that an appropriate algal strain is used for remediation, the incurred biomass can be refined for the production of biofuel. Four microalgal species (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella sp., Parachlorella kessleri-I, and Nannochloropsis gaditana) were screened for efficient phycoremediation of municipal WW and potential use for biodiesel production. Among the four strains tested, P. kessleri-I showed the highest growth rate and biomass production in 100% WW. It efficiently removed all major nutrients with a removal rate of up to 98% for phosphate after 10 days of growth in 100% municipal WW collected from Delhi. The growth of P. kessleri-I in WW resulted in a 50% increase of biomass and a 115% increase of lipid yield in comparison to growth in control media. The Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), and fuel properties of lipids isolated from cells grown in WW complied with international standards. The present study provides evidence that the green alga P. kessleri-I effectively remediates municipal WW and can be used to produce biodiesel.

  3. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa

    2018-01-01

    electricity, energy and area demands. Both concepts would fulfil the Swedish discharge demands for small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants at full scale: (1) direct MF and (2) direct FO with seawater as the draw solution. The framework of this study is based on a combination of data obtained from...... positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to that using conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area...

  4. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelic, Aleksandra [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Petrovic, Mira, E-mail: mpetrovic@icra.cat [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 80010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); Cecchi, Franco [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ss-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 {mu}g/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  5. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Petrovic, Mira; Cecchi, Franco; Barcelo, Damia

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ß-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification–denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 μg/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  6. Liquid manna? Treating urban wastewater for local gardening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... “Before, we had no proper sewage system and people were forced to empty ... Conventional sewage treatment is beyond the means of the municipality, ... Researchers found that some vegetables irrigated with wastewater ...

  7. Disinfection of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Municipal Wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Bibby

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised regarding handling of Ebola virus contaminated wastewater, as well as the adequacy of proposed disinfection approaches. In the current study, we investigate the inactivation of Ebola virus in sterilized domestic wastewater utilizing sodium hypochlorite addition and pH adjustment. No viral inactivation was observed in the one-hour tests without sodium hypochlorite addition or pH adjustment. No virus was recovered after 20 seconds (i.e. 4.2 log10 unit inactivation to detection limit following the addition of 5 and 10 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite, which resulted in immediate free chlorine residuals of 0.52 and 1.11 mg L-1, respectively. The addition of 1 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite resulted in an immediate free chlorine residual of 0.16 mg L-1, which inactivated 3.5 log10 units of Ebola virus in 20 seconds. Further inactivation was not evident due to the rapid consumption of the chlorine residual. Elevating the pH to 11.2 was found to significantly increase viral decay over ambient conditions. These results indicate the high susceptibility of the enveloped Ebola virus to disinfection in the presence of free chlorine in municipal wastewater; however, we caution that extension to more complex matrices (e.g. bodily fluids will require additional verification.

  8. Disinfection of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Municipal Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Kyle; Fischer, Robert J; Casson, Leonard W; de Carvalho, Nathalia Aquino; Haas, Charles N; Munster, Vincent J

    2017-02-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding handling of Ebola virus contaminated wastewater, as well as the adequacy of proposed disinfection approaches. In the current study, we investigate the inactivation of Ebola virus in sterilized domestic wastewater utilizing sodium hypochlorite addition and pH adjustment. No viral inactivation was observed in the one-hour tests without sodium hypochlorite addition or pH adjustment. No virus was recovered after 20 seconds (i.e. 4.2 log10 unit inactivation to detection limit) following the addition of 5 and 10 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite, which resulted in immediate free chlorine residuals of 0.52 and 1.11 mg L-1, respectively. The addition of 1 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite resulted in an immediate free chlorine residual of 0.16 mg L-1, which inactivated 3.5 log10 units of Ebola virus in 20 seconds. Further inactivation was not evident due to the rapid consumption of the chlorine residual. Elevating the pH to 11.2 was found to significantly increase viral decay over ambient conditions. These results indicate the high susceptibility of the enveloped Ebola virus to disinfection in the presence of free chlorine in municipal wastewater; however, we caution that extension to more complex matrices (e.g. bodily fluids) will require additional verification.

  9. Outfall as a Suitable Alternative for Disposal of Municipal Wastewater in Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of raw municipal wastewater or effluent of preliminary treatment into the sea and ocean is economically more accepted and technically more efficient than secondary treatment. In this method, the wastewater disposed at the bottom of the sea in some points from diffuser. Nowadays, lots of researchers select outfall as a suitable alternative treatment method for coastal cities. The goal of this paper was to introduce the outfall as a wastewater treatment method and its design criteria considering different characteristics of the sea such as salinity, density, temperature, stratification etc. In addition, stagnant sea and thermal stratification is reviewed. In this paper the latest information were reviewed. In this alternative the wastewater treated under dilution, mixing and natural conditions. Moreover, sensitive coastal point are preserved from different wastewater pollutants. Usually, there is no limitation regarding discharge of coliform, DO, BOD, and nutrient concentrations in initial mixing zoom. The parameters such as thermal stratification, salinity stratification, density stratification, marine flows influence design of outfall.

  10. Scenario Analysis of Nutrient Removal from Municipal Wastewater by Microalgal Biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Temmink, H.; Janssen, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae can be used for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The application of microalgal biofilms in wastewater treatment systems seems attractive, being able to remove nitrogen, phosphorus and COD from wastewater at a short hydraulic retention time. This study therefore investigates the area

  11. Performance assessment of aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mumtaz; Hashmi, Hashim Nisar; Ali, Arshad; Ghumman, Abdul Razzaq

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of three different aquatic macrophytes for treatment of municipal wastewater collected from Taxila (Pakistan). A physical model of treatment plant was constructed and was operated for six experimental runs with each species of macrophyte. Every experimental run consist of thirty days period. Regular monitoring of influent and effluent concentrations were made during each experimental run. For the treatment locally available macrophyte species i.e. water hyacinth, duckweed & water lettuce were selected to use. To evaluate the treatment performance of each macrophyte, BOD5, COD, and Nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) were monitored in effluent from model at different detention time of every experimental run after ensuring steady state conditions. The average reduction of effluent value of each parameter using water hyacinth were 50.61% for BOD5, 46.38% for COD, 40.34% for Nitrogen and 18.76% for Phosphorus. For duckweed the average removal efficiency for selected parameters were 33.43% for BOD5, 26.37% for COD, 17.59% for Nitrogen and 15.25% for Phosphorus and for Water Lettuce the average removal efficiency were 33.43% for BOD5, 26.37% for COD, 17.59% for Nitrogen and 15.25% for Phosphorus. The mechanisms of pollutant removal in this system include both aerobic and anaerobic microbiological conversions, sorption, sedimentation, volatilization and chemical transformations. The rapid growth of the biomass was measured within first ten days detention time. It was also observed that performance of macrophytes is influenced by variation of pH and Temperature. A pH of 6-9 and Temperature of 15-38°C is most favorable for treatment of wastewater by macrophytes. The option of macrophytes for treatment of Municipal sewage under local environmental conditions can be explored by further verifying the removal efficiency under variation of different environmental conditions. Also this is need of time that macrophyte

  12. Impact assessment of treated wastewater on water quality of the receiver using the Wilcoxon test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofman Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is a process which aims to reduce the concentration of pollutants in wastewater to the level allowed by current regulations. This is to protect the receivers which typically are rivers, streams, lakes. Examination of the quality of treated wastewater allows for quick elimination of possible negative effects, and the study of water receiver prevents from excessive contamination. The paper presents the results of selected physical and chemical parameters of treated wastewater from the largest on the region in north-eastern Poland city of Bialystok municipal wastewater treatment and Biała River, the receiver. The samples for research were taken 3–4 a month in 2015 from two points: before and after discharge. The impact of the wastewater treatment plant on the quality of the receiver waters was studied by using non-parametric Wilcoxon test. This test determined whether the analyzed indicators varied significantly depending on different sampling points of the river, above and below place of discharge of treated wastewater. These results prove that the treated wastewater does not affect the water quality in the Biała River.

  13. Recovery of polyhydroxyalkanoates from municipal secondary wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2018-05-01

    In the current study, the feasibility of utilizing municipal secondary wastewater sludge for Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) extraction was improved by optimization of various parameters (temperature, duration and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized process parameters resulted in PHA recovery of 0.605 g, significantly higher than un-optimized conditions. The characterization of PHA was carried out by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) spectroscopy. The PHA profile was found to be dominated by mcl PHA (58%) along with other diverse PHA. The results of the present study show rich diversity of PHA extracted from a raw material which is readily available at minimal cost. In conclusion, exploring the potential of wastes for production of bioplastics not only reduces the cost of bioplastic production, but also provides a sustainable means for waste management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on evaluation index system of operational performance of municipal wastewater treatment plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoxin, Zhang; Jin, Huang; Ling, Lin; Yan, Li

    2018-05-01

    According to the undeveloped evaluation method for the operational performance of the municipal wastewater treatment plants, this paper analyzes the policies related to sewage treatment industry based on the investigation of the municipal wastewater treatment plants. The applicable evaluation method for the operational performance was proposed from environmental protection performance, resources and energy consumption, technical and economic performance, production management and main equipment, providing a reliable basis for scientific evaluation of the operation as well as improving the operational performance of municipal wastewater treatment plant.

  15. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa; Vogel, Jörg; Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Jönsson, Karin

    2018-02-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps to protect humans and the environment from adverse effects. Membrane technology has gained increasing attention as an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment due to increased urbanization. Among the available membrane technologies, microfiltration (MF) and forward osmosis (FO) have been selected for this study due to their specific characteristics, such as compactness and efficient removal of particles. In this study, two treatment concepts were evaluated with regard to their specific electricity, energy and area demands. Both concepts would fulfil the Swedish discharge demands for small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants at full scale: (1) direct MF and (2) direct FO with seawater as the draw solution. The framework of this study is based on a combination of data obtained from bench- and pilot-scale experiments applying direct MF and FO, respectively. Additionally, available complementary data from a Swedish full-scale wastewater treatment plant and the literature were used to evaluate the concepts in depth. The results of this study indicate that both concepts are net positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to that using conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area-efficient manner with techniques that are already commercially available and with future membrane technology.

  16. Evaluation of flat sheet membrane bioreactor efficiency for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Fazeli

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that FS-MBR can be used in the large scale municipal wastewater treatment plants to improve effluent quality due to high removal of COD, BOD 5 , TSS and VSS to meet effluent discharge standards.

  17. Evaluation of synergy and bacterial regrowth in photocatalytic ozonation disinfection of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, Achisa C; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi; Momba, Maggy N B

    2017-12-01

    The use of solar and ultraviolet titanium dioxide photocatalytic ozonation processes to inactivate waterborne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Shigella species and Vibrio cholerae) in synthetic water and secondary municipal wastewater effluent is presented. The performance indicators were bacterial inactivation efficiency, post-disinfection regrowth and synergy effects (collaboration) between ozonation and photocatalysis (photocatalytic ozonation). Photocatalytic ozonation effectively inactivated the target bacteria and positive synergistic interactions were observed, leading to synergy indices (SI) of up to 1.86 indicating a performance much higher than that of ozonation and photocatalysis individually (SI≤1, no synergy; SI>1 shows synergy between the two processes). Furthermore, there was a substantial reduction in contact time required for complete bacterial inactivation by 50-75% compared to the individual unit processes of ozonation and photocatalysis. Moreover, no post-treatment bacterial regrowth after 24 and 48h in the dark was observed. Therefore, the combined processes overcame the limitations of the individual unit processes in terms of the suppression of bacterial reactivation and regrowth owing to the fact that bacterial cells were irreparably damaged. The treated wastewater satisfied the bacteriological requirements in treated wastewater for South Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytoremediation potential of water caltrop (Trapa natans L.) using municipal wastewater of the activated sludge process-based municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2018-01-01

    Phytoremediation experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of water caltrop (Trapa natans L.) using municipal wastewater collected from the activated sludge process- (ASP) based municipal wastewater treatment plant. The results revealed that T. natans significantly (P ≤ .05/P ≤ .01/P ≤ .001) reduced the contents of total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), chemical oxygen demand, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate ([Formula: see text]), sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), calcium (Ca 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), standard plate count, and most probable number of the municipal wastewater after phytoremediation experiments. The maximum removal of these parameters was obtained at 60 days of the phytoremediation experiments, but the removal rate of these parameters was gradually increased from 15 to 45 days and it was slightly decreased at 60 days. Most contents of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were translocated in the leaves of T. natans, whereas most contents of Cr and Pb were accumulated in the root of T. natans after phytoremediation experiments. The contents of different biochemical components were recorded in the order of total sugar > crude protein > total ash > crude fiber > total fat in T. natans after phytoremediation of municipal wastewater. Therefore, T. natans was found to be effective for the removal of different parameters of municipal wastewater and can be used effectively to reduce the pollution load of municipal wastewater drained from the ASP-based treatment plants.

  19. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  20. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  1. Municipal wastewater treatment in Mexico: current status and opportunities for employing ecological treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Florentina; Roy, Eric D; White, John R

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of municipal wastewater (MWW) treatment in Mexico, as well as to assess opportunities for using ecological treatment systems, such as constructed wetlands. In 2008, Mexico had 2101 MWW treatment plants that treated only 84 m3/s of wastewater (208 m3/s ofMWW were collected in sewer systems). Unfortunately, most treatment plants operate below capacity owing to a lack of maintenance and paucity of properly trained personnel. The main types of treatment systems applied in Mexico are activated sludge and waste stabilization ponds, which treat 44.3% and 18% of the MWW collected, respectively. As in many other developing nations around the world, there is a great need in Mexico for low-cost, low-maintenance wastewater treatment systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. In 2005, 24.3 million Mexicans lived in villages of less than 2500 inhabitants and 14.1 million lived in towns with 2500-15,000 inhabitants. An opportunity exists to extend the use of ecological treatment systems to these low population density areas and considerably increase the percentage of MWW that is treated in Mexico. Small-scale and medium-size constructed wetlands have been built successfully in some states, primarily during the past five years. Several barriers need to be overcome to increase the adoption and utilization of ecological wastewater technology in Mexico, including: a lack of knowledge about this technology, scarce technical information in Spanish, and the government's concentration on constructing MWW treatment plants solely in urban areas.

  2. Peracetic Acid (PAA Disinfection: Inactivation of Microbial Indicators and Pathogenic Bacteria in a Municipal Wastewater Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bonetta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have noted that treated and untreated wastewaters are primary contributors of a variety of pathogenic microorganisms to the aquatic ecosystem. Conventional wastewater treatment may not be sufficient to achieve microbiologically safe effluent to be discharged into natural waters or reused, thus requiring wastewater effluents to be disinfected. In recent years, peracetic acid (PAA has been adopted as a disinfectant for wastewater effluents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the disinfection efficiency of PAA at low doses (range 0.99–2.10 mg/L against microbial indicators and pathogenic bacteria in a municipal wastewater plant. Samples of untreated sewage and effluents before and after PAA treatment were collected seasonally for 1 year and were analysed for pathogenic Campylobacter, Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli virulence genes using molecular methods; moreover, the detection of specific microbial indicators (E. coli, faecal coliforms, enterococci, C. perfringens and Salmonella spp. were carried out using culturing methods. Salmonella spp. DNA was found in all untreated sewage and effluent before PAA treatment, whereas it was recovered in 50% of the samples collected after PAA treatment. Although E. coli O157:H7 was never identified, the occurrence of Shiga-like toxin I amplicons was identified in 75% of the untreated sewage samples, in 50% of the effluents assayed before PAA treatment, and in 25% of the effluents assayed after PAA treatment, whereas the stx2 gene was never found. Campylobacter coli was only detected in one effluent sample before PAA treatment. In the effluents after PAA treatment, a lower load of indicator bacteria was observed compared to the effluents before treatment. The results of this study highlight that the use of low doses of PAA seems to lead to an improvement of the microbiological quality of the effluent, although it is not sufficient to guarantee its suitability for irrigation

  3. Removal of Organic Pollutants from Municipal Wastewater by Applying High-Rate Algal Pond in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Keneni; Assefa, Berhanu; Kifle, Demeke; Kloos, Helmut

    2018-05-01

    The discharge of inadequately treated municipal wastewater has aggravated the pollution load in developing countries including Ethiopia. Conventional wastewater treatment methods that require high capital and operational costs are not affordable for many developing nations, including Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate the performance of two high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs) in organic pollutant removal from primary settled municipal wastewater under highland tropical climate conditions in Addis Ababa. The experiment was done for 2 months at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 2 to 8 days using an organic loading rates ranging 333-65 kg {BOD}5 /ha/day using two HRAPs, 250 and 300 mm deep, respectively. In this experiment, Chlorella sp., Chlamydomonas sp., and Scenedesmus sp., the class of Chlorophyceae, were identified as the dominant species. Chlorophyll-a production was higher in the shallower ponds (250 mm) throughout the course of the study, whereas the deeper HRAP (300 mm) showed better dissolved oxygen production. The maximum COD and {BOD}5 removal of 78.03 and 81.8% was achieved at a 6-day HRT operation in the 250-mm-deep HRAP. Therefore, the 300-mm-deep HRAP is promising for scaling up organic pollutant removal from municipal wastewater at a daily average organic loading rate of 109.3 kg {BOD}5 /ha/day and a 6-day HRT. We conclude that the removal of organic pollutants in HRAP can be controlled by pond depth, organic loading rate, and HRT.

  4. A Survey on the Removal Efficiency of Fat, Oil and Grease in Shiraz Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Fat, oil and grease (FOG in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP caused many problems. Objectives This study aimed to determine the removal efficiency of FOG in Shiraz MWWTP. Materials and Methods The removal efficiencies of FOG in the MWWTP were studied from June 2011 to September 2011 in Shiraz (Iran. The influent and effluent wastewater samples were collected in a volume of one liter (4 samples per week and analyzed according to the standard methods. Samples are transferred to the laboratory immediately. The concentration of FOG was determined using the solvent extraction and separating funnel and then compared with the effluent standards. To analyze the data, SPSS (version 11.5, Chi-square test and t test were used. Results The results showed that the FOG amount in input raw sewage in the MWWTP from June 2011 to September 2011 was around 25.5 mg/L and the amount in treated wastewater was about 8.1 mg/L. The FOG removal efficiency in this refinery was about 70% and met the environmental standards for the discharge (less than 10 mg/L (P < 0.05. Conclusions The effluent can be discharged to surface waters or used for irrigation. In order to the FOG concentration met the effluent standards, it is very crucial to control the entrance of industrial wastewater to the municipal wastewater collection networks. Otherwise, the MWWTP should be upgraded and the special techniques used to reduce FOG.

  5. Multi-year prediction of estrogenicity in municipal wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlos, Maricor J; Parker, Wayne J; Bicudo, José R; Law, Pam; Marjan, Patricija; Andrews, Susan A; Servos, Mark R

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the estrogenicity of two major wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents located in the central reaches of the Grand River watershed in southern Ontario was estimated using population demographics, excretion rates, and treatment plant-specific removals. Due to the lack of data on estrogen concentrations from direct measurements at WWTPs, the treatment efficiencies through the plants were estimated using the information obtained from an effects-directed analysis. The results show that this approach could effectively estimate the estrogenicity of WWTP effluents, both before and after major infrastructure upgrades were made at the Kitchener WWTP. The model was then applied to several possible future scenarios including population growth and river low flow conditions. The scenario analyses showed that post-upgrade operation of the Kitchener WWTP will not release highly estrogenic effluent under the 2041 projected population increase (36%) or summer low flows. Similarly, the Waterloo WWTP treatment operation is also expected to improve once the upgrades have been fully implemented and is expected to effectively treat estrogens even under extreme scenarios of population growth and river flows. The developed model may be employed to support decision making on wastewater management strategies designed for environmental protection, especially on reducing the endocrine effects in fish exposed to WWTP effluents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidation of pharmaceuticals by chlorine dioxide in biologically treated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, G.; Grabic, R.; Ledin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater spiked with a mixture of 56 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was treated with 0–20mg/L chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution in laboratory-scale experiments. Wastewater effluents were collected from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with extended......O2, while in high COD effluent a significant increase in API oxidation was observed after treatment with 8mg/L ClO2. This study illustrates the successful degradation of several APIs during treatment of wastewater effluents with chlorine dioxide....

  7. Dutch analysis for P-recovery from municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeleveld, Paul; Loeffen, Patricia; Temmink, Hardy; Klapwijk, Bram

    2003-07-01

    There is a considerable practical interest in phosphorus recovery from water authorities, elementary P-industry, fertilizer industry and regulators in a number of countries. Due to a handful of full-scale plants worldwide, P-recovery can be seen as technically feasible. However, the economic feasibility of P-recovery from sewage can still be judged as dubious. Most important reason for this is that the prices of the techniques (in Euro/tonne P) are much higher compared to the prices of phosphate rock. In this paper an analysis is given to recover phosphate from municipal wastewater for the elementary P-industry Thermphos International B.V. and the fertiliser industry Amsterdam Fertilizers B.V. in The Netherlands. Several scenarios are evaluated and the end products of these scenarios are compared to the quality required by both industries. From a Dutch study it became clear that all end products from the final sludge treatment do not provide a good source of secondary phosphate. As a consequence of this, the most preferred possibility for P-recovery is to extract phosphate before sludge goes to the final sludge treatment. Different scenario's can be selected based on the position of P-recovery in the WWTP configuration, the type of P-recovery product, and the precipitation technique. Local conditions will determine which scenario is the most expedient. Because it is more realistic to judge a practical situation instead of theoretical estimations based on literature, some local situations have to be assessed in sufficient detail to gain more feeling for the expenses and possible savings of P-recovery. One important actor that should be involved in the process management around P-recovery, is the national government. Especially they have the responsibility for a sustainable development and should have attention for some stimulation of P-recovery in The Netherlands. Water authorities and the P- and fertilizer industry made already some good steps. (author)

  8. Electrodialytic treatment of municipal wastewater and sludge for the removal of heavy metals and recovery of phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbers, Benjamin; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Municipal wastewater and sewage sludge is an abundant source of phosphorus (P), but its usage is often limited due to wastewater treatment methods and contaminants, mostly heavy metals (HM's). Three compartment (3C) electrodialysis (ED) was used to simultaneously extract HM's (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb...... of heavy metals or recovery of phosphorus using ED, the end-products in wastewater treatment, like anaerobically digested sludge and reject-water streams, are therefore best to be treated....... pH using anaerobically digested sludge. The hydrolysis of OM during anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic conditions allowed for easier extraction of HM's such as Cd, Ni and Zn as they had fewer adsorption places, and improved P availability and extractability. Extraction of P from high...

  9. Disinfection process of municipal wastewater through ultraviolet radiation: Application in the wastewater treatment plant of Jerez de la Frontera; Desinfeccion de aguas residuales urbanas mediante radiacion ultravioleta: Aplicacion enla EDAR de Jerez de la Frontera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo Davila, I.; Andrades Balao, J. A.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports the results obtained of the disinfection through ultraviolet radiation of the treated municipal wastewater in the plant of Jerez de la Frontera for possible municipal and tourist/recreational reuse. The results obtained show that 1.265 J/m''2 of UV doses cause nearly a 99, 9% decrease of the studied microorganisms (total coliform, fecal coliform and fecal strepto cocos) in more than 77% of the carried out studies. The disinfection unitary cost, at industrial scale, was 0.03 E/m''3 waste-water, which means the UV radiation treatment is very competitive against others disinfection systems. (Author) 10 refs.

  10. Occurrence of antibiotics in hospital, residential, and dairy effluent, municipal wastewater, and the Rio Grande in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn D; Kulis, Jerzy; Thomson, Bruce; Chapman, Timothy H; Mawhinney, Douglas B

    2006-08-01

    This study had three objectives: 1) determine occurrence of antibiotics in effluent from hospitals, residential facilities, and dairies, and in municipal wastewater 2) determine antibiotic removal at a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Albuquerque, NM, and 3) determine concentrations of antibiotics in the Rio Grande, which receives wastewater from the Albuquerque WWTP. Twenty-three samples of wastewater and 3 samples of Rio Grande water were analyzed for the presence of 11 antibiotics. Fifty-eight percent of samples had at least one antibiotic present while 25% had three or more. Hospital effluent had detections of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, lincomycin, and penicillin G, with 4 of 5 hospital samples having at least one antibiotic detected and 3 having four or more. At the residential sampling sites, ofloxacin was found in effluent from assisted living and retirement facilities, while the student dormitory had no detects. Only lincomycin was detected in dairy effluent (in 2 of 8 samples, at 700 and 6600 ng/L). Municipal wastewater had detections of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, with 4 of 6 samples having at least one antibiotic present and 3 having 3 or more. The relatively high concentrations (up to 35,500 ng/L) of ofloxacin found in hospital and residential effluent may be of concern due to potential genotoxic effects and development of antibiotic resistance. At the Albuquerque WWTP, both raw wastewater and treated effluent had detections of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and ofloxacin, at concentrations ranging from 110 to 470 ng/L. However, concentrations in treated effluent were reduced by 20% to 77%. No antibiotics were detected in the Rio Grande upstream of the Albuquerque WWTP discharge, and only one antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole, was detected in the Rio Grande (300 ng/L) below the WWTP.

  11. Influences of mechanical pretreatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pretreatment configurations, for example, direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pretreatment, for example, microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using Aquaporin Inside™ and Hydration Technologies Inc. (HTI) membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested in parallel for the different types of pretreated feed and evaluated in terms of water flux and solute rejection, that is, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 7 ) and total and soluble phosphorus contents. The Aquaporin and HTI membranes achieved a stable water flux with rejection rates of more than 96% for BOD 7 and total and soluble phosphorus, regardless of the type of mechanical pretreated wastewater considered. This result indicates that forward osmosis membranes can tolerate exposure to municipal waste water and that the permeate can fulfil the Swedish discharge limits.

  12. Environmental footprint of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine environmentally friendlier construction materials for constructed wetland facilities treating wastewater. This is done by computing the environmental footprint of the facility based on the methodology of life cycle assessment (LCA). This methodology reveals the dominant aggravating processes during the construction of a constructed wetland (CW) and can help to create alternative environmentally friendlier solutions. This methodology was applied for the determination of the overall environmental profile of a hybrid CW facility. The LCA was applied first to the facility as originally designed, where reinforced concrete was used in some components. Then, alternative construction materials to reinforced concrete were used, such as earth covered with high density polyethylene (HDPE) or clay, and LCA was applied again. Earth structures were found to have reduced environmental impact compared to concrete ones, and clay was found environmentally friendlier compared to HDPE. Furthermore, estimation of the construction costs of the three scenarios indicate that the last scenario is also the least expensive.

  13. Detection of a wide variety of human and veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke; Soares, Ana Dulce; Adejumo, Hollie; McDiarmid, Melissa; Squibb, Katherine; Blaney, Lee

    2015-03-15

    As annual sales of antibiotics continue to rise, the mass of these specially-designed compounds entering municipal wastewater treatment systems has also increased. Of primary concern here is that antibiotics can inhibit growth of specific microorganisms in biological processes of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or in downstream ecosystems. Growth inhibition studies with Escherichia coli demonstrated that solutions containing 1-10 μg/L of fluoroquinolones can inhibit microbial growth. Wastewater samples were collected on a monthly basis from various treatment stages of a 30 million gallon per day WWTP in Maryland, USA. Samples were analyzed for the presence of 11 fluoroquinolone antibiotics. At least one fluoroquinolone was detected in every sample. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin exhibited detection frequencies of 100% and 98%, respectively, across all sampling sites. Concentrations of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater were as high as 1900 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and 600 ng/L for ofloxacin. Difloxacin, enrofloxacin, fleroxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, and orbifloxacin were also detected at appreciable concentrations of 9-170 ng/L. The total mass concentration of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater was in the range that inhibited E. coli growth, suggesting that concerns over antibiotic presence in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water are valid. The average removal efficiency of fluoroquinolones during wastewater treatment was approximately 65%; furthermore, the removal efficiency for fluoroquinolones was found to be negatively correlated to biochemical oxygen demand removal and positively correlated to phosphorus removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated system of phytodepuration and water reclamation: A comparative evaluation of four municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Andrea; Giannotti, Maurizio; Marras, Tatiana; Allegrini, Elena

    2017-06-03

    In dry regions, water resources have become increasingly limited, and the use of alternative sources is considered one of the main strategies in sustainable water management. A highly viable alternative to commonly used water resources is treated municipal wastewater, which could strongly benefit from advanced and low-cost techniques for depuration, such as the integrated system of phytodepuration (ISP). The current manuscript investigates four Italian case studies with different sizes and characteristics. The raw wastewaters and final effluents were sampled on a monthly basis over a period of up to five years, allowing the quantification of the ISP performances. The results obtained show that the investigated plants are characterized by an average efficiency value of approximately 83% for chemical oxygen demand removal, 84% for biochemical oxygen demand, 89% for total nitrogen, 91% for total phosphorus, and 85% for total suspended solids. Moreover, for three of the case studies, the ISP final effluent is suitable for irrigation, and in the fourth case study, the final effluent can be released in surface water.

  15. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. in brackish groundwater supplemented with municipal wastewater as a nutrient source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Lins de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study growth potential of the green microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. using brackish groundwater from a well in the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil as culture medium. The medium was supplemented with (% 19.4, 22.0, 44.0 and 50.0% of municipal wastewater after UASB treatment as a low-cost nutrient source. The results showed that the culture tested was capable of growing in the brackish groundwater even at salinity levels as low as 2 ppt. Furthermore it was shown that municipal wastewater could be used as a sole nutrient source for Nannochloropsis sp.

  16. Treatment of micropollutants in municipal wastewater using white-rot fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Margot, Jonas; Vargas, Micaela; Contijoch, Andreu; Barry, David Andrew; Holliger, Christof

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides in municipal wastewater is challenging due to their very low concentrations (ng/l to µg/l), their relatively low biodegradability, and their different physico-chemical characteristics. One potential way to improve micropollutant biodegradation in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent is by using microorganisms such as white-rot fungi that produce powerful unspecific oxidative exo-enzymes (laccase, peroxidase) that are ab...

  17. Estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    According to the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection, 5,100 wastewater treatment systems were in operation during 1990. Of this total, 72 percent were domestic wastewater facilities and 28 percent were industrial waste- water facilities. The number of wastewater systems inventoried for 1990 was 1,062 (systems that treated and discharged more than 0.01 Mgal/d or had a plant capacity of greater than 0.04 Mgal/d. Based on this inventory, the estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,638 million gallons per day. Approxi- mately 65 percent of this water was discharged to surface water during 1990 and the remaining 35 percent was discharged to ground water. Discharge to surface water includes effluent outfalls into the Atlantic Ocean (32 percent), while the re- maining (68 percent) is discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, bays, rivers, wetlands, and other surface water bodies throughout Florida. Discharge to ground-water includes treated effluent outfalls to land application systems (reuse systems and spray fields), drain fields, percolation ponds (51 percent), and to injection wells (49 percent). An estimated 322 million gallons per day of the treated domestic and industrial wastewater was reused during 1990. Discharge of treated domestic wastewater from the 994 systems inventoried in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,353 million gallons per day and served an estimated 8.58 million people (66 percent of the population of Florida in 1990). The remaining 34 percent of the popu- lation (4.36 million) are served by the 2,700 smaller domestic wastewater systems or have individual septic tanks. In 1990, there were 1.56 million septic tanks in Florida. Discharge of industrial wastewater was inventoried for 68 systems in 1990 and totaled 285 million gallons per day. Discharge of domestic wastewater in- creased more than 20 percent and industrial wastewater discharge increased 5 percent from 1985 to 1990. (USGS)

  18. Energy Efficiency Strategies for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.; Hallett, K.; DeWolfe, J.; Venner, I.

    2012-01-01

    Water and wastewater systems are significant energy consumers with an estimated 3%-4% of total U.S. electricity consumption used for the movement and treatment of water and wastewater. Water-energy issues are of growing importance in the context of water shortages, higher energy and material costs, and a changing climate. In this economic environment, it is in the best interest for utilities to find efficiencies, both in water and energy use. Performing energy audits at water and wastewater treatment facilities is one way community energy managers can identify opportunities to save money, energy, and water. In this paper the importance of energy use in wastewater facilities is illustrated by a case study of a process energy audit performed for Crested Butte, Colorado's wastewater treatment plant. The energy audit identified opportunities for significant energy savings by looking at power intensive unit processes such as influent pumping, aeration, ultraviolet disinfection, and solids handling. This case study presents best practices that can be readily adopted by facility managers in their pursuit of energy and financial savings in water and wastewater treatment. This paper is intended to improve community energy managers understanding of the role that the water and wastewater sector plays in a community's total energy consumption. The energy efficiency strategies described provide information on energy savings opportunities, which can be used as a basis for discussing energy management goals with water and wastewater treatment facility managers.

  19. Cultivation of Azolla microphylla biomass on secondary-treated Delhi municipal effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, A.; Saxena, S. [Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (India). Centre for Conservation of Blue Green Algae

    2005-07-01

    Study was conducted on recycling municipal wastewaters for cultivation of Azolla microphylla biomass, which is used for inoculation into paddy fields as N biofertiliser and has other applications as green manure, animal feed and biofilter. Secondary-treated municipal wastewaters were collected from Wazirabad sewage treatment plant in New Delhi during all four seasons and tested for reactive P and heavy metal content. The reactive P levels in effluents ranged between 1-2 ppm and levels of heavy metals like Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn were well below permissible limits. A. microphylla was grown in sewage effluents and its dilutions prepared with tapwater. It showed good growth potential on sewage effluents. Doubling times during September and December months compared well with those on Espinase and Watanabe (E and W) medium and tapwater. Dried Azolla biomass produced on sewage waters did not show presence of toxic heavy metals Cd, Cr and Pb. However, levels of P in dried biomass cultivated on sewage effluents were lower as compared to those from E and W medium and tapwater. The biomass produced can be used for inoculating paddy fields or for other applications and polished wastewaters can be recycled for irrigation purposes. (author)

  20. Effect of static magnetic field on the oxygen production of Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Renjie; Jin, Wenbiao; Xi, Tingting; Yang, Qian; Han, Song-Fang; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah

    2015-12-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiotic system, with biological synergism of physiological functions of both algae and bacteria, has been proposed for cultivation of microalgae in municipal wastewater for biomass production and wastewater treatment. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system can enhance dissolved oxygen production which enhances bacterial growth and catabolism of pollutants in wastewater. Therefore, the oxygen production efficiency of microalgae in algal-bacterial systems is considered as the key factor influencing the wastewater treatment efficiency. In the present study, we have proposed a novel approach which uses static magnetic field to enhance algal growth and oxygen production rate with low operational cost and non-toxic secondary pollution. The performance of oxygen production with the magnetic field was evaluated using Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater and was calculated based on the change in dissolved oxygen concentration. Results indicated that magnetic treatment stimulates both algal growth and oxygen production. Application of 1000 GS of magnetic field once at logarithmic growth phase for 0.5 h increased the chlorophyll-a content by 11.5% over the control after 6 days of growth. In addition, magnetization enhanced the oxygen production rate by 24.6% over the control. Results of the study confirmed that application of a proper magnetic field could reduce the energy consumption required for aeration during the degradation of organic matter in municipal wastewater in algal-bacterial symbiotic systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Qualitative monitoring of a treated wastewater reuse extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative monitoring of a treated wastewater reuse extensive distribution system: ... region where 80 % of the freshwater resources are consumed by agriculture. ... the reuse limits for orchard irrigation, being 80 mg/ℓ and 25 mg/ℓ respectively.

  2. Treatment efficiency in wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality by quantitative removal of microbial indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Kantachote

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment in a wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality through stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands was monitored by using the bacterial indicators, total coliforms (TC, fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci (FS, and photosynthetic microbes. The sequence of water flow in the wastewater treatment plant is as follows: primary or anaerobic pond (P, facultative pond (F, maturation pond (M, constructed wetlands (W1, W2 and W3, and an effluent storage pond (S for the treated wastewater. The wastewater treatment plant has an approximate area of 3,264,000 m2 (2,040 rai and its dry weather flow was running at only 40,000 m3/ day. There were 10 sampling times used for all the 7 ponds during July-October, 2006.Statistical analysis using a Two-Factorial Design model, indicated that pond types significantly affected temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, and pH (p<0.05, whereas the time of sampling during the day had a significant effect (p<0.05 only on the temperature and light intensity available to the ponds. There were also significant different removal efficiencies of the different bacterial indicator groups tested (p<0.05. The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant effectively removed TC, FC, E. coli, and FS as follows, 99.8%, 99.8%, 75.8% and 98.8%, respectively. The amounts of bacterial indicators, except for E. coli, showed a negative correlation with levels of light intensity and DO, whereas there was no correlation between the pH and the different indicator bacteria. There was a positive middle level correlation between pHand chlorophyll a.There were five different divisions of photosynthetic organisms detected throughout the plant as follows, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, and Pyrrhophyta. The least diversity was found in the anaerobic pond (P as there were only 15 genera. Euglena, an indicator of dirty water, was detected only in this pond. The

  3. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre-treatment......, e.g., microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using thin-film-composite, Aquaporin Inside(TM) and HTI membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested......-sized wastewater treatment plants....

  4. Genotoxicity biomonitoring of sewage in two municipal wastewater treatment plants using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewes, Márcia Regina; Junior, Delio Endres; Droste, Annette

    2011-10-01

    The genotoxicity of untreated and treated sewage from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTP BN and WTP SJN) in the municipality of Porto Alegre, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated over a one-year period using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Inflorescences of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed to sewage samples in February (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) 2009, and the micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were estimated in each period. The high genotoxicity of untreated sewage from WTP BN in February and April was not observed in treated sewage, indicating the efficiency of treatment at this WTP. However, untreated and treated sewage samples from WTP SJN had high MCN frequencies, except in October, when rainfall may have been responsible for reducing these frequencies at both WTPs. Physicochemical analyses of sewage from both WTPs indicated elevated concentrations of organic matter that were higher at WTP SJN than at WTP BN. Chromium was detected in untreated and treated sewage from WTP SJN, but not in treated sewage from WTP BN. Lead was found in all untreated sewage samples from WTP SJN, but only in the summer and autumn at WTP BN. These results indicate that the short-term Trad-MCN genotoxicity assay may be useful for regular monitoring of municipal WTPs.

  5. Thermo-Oxidization of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge for Production of Class A Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-scale reactors were used to test a novel thermo-oxidation process on municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) waste activated sludge (WAS) using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to achieve a Class A sludge product appropriate for land application. Reactor ...

  6. Air Emission Reduction Benefits of Biogas Electricity Generation at Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2018-02-06

    Conventional processes for municipal wastewater treatment facilities are energy and materially intensive. This work quantifies the air emission implications of energy consumption, chemical use, and direct pollutant release at municipal wastewater treatment facilities across the U.S. and assesses the potential to avoid these damages by generating electricity and heat from the combustion of biogas produced during anaerobic sludge digestion. We find that embedded and on-site air emissions from municipal wastewater treatment imposed human health, environmental, and climate (HEC) damages on the order of $1.63 billion USD in 2012, with 85% of these damages attributed to the estimated consumption of 19 500 GWh of electricity by treatment processes annually, or 0.53% of the US electricity demand. An additional 11.8 million tons of biogenic CO 2 are directly emitted by wastewater treatment and sludge digestion processes currently installed at plants. Retrofitting existing wastewater treatment facilities with anaerobic sludge digestion for biogas production and biogas-fueled heat and electricity generation has the potential to reduce HEC damages by up to 24.9% relative to baseline emissions. Retrofitting only large plants (>5 MGD), where biogas generation is more likely to be economically viable, would generate HEC benefits of $254 annually. These findings reinforce the importance of accounting for use-phase embedded air emissions and spatially resolved marginal damage estimates when designing sustainable infrastructure systems.

  7. UASB reactor startup for the treatment of municipal wastewater followed by advanced oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Bhatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done to shorten the start-up time of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor. Two different nutrients were used during the UASB start-up period, which was designed to decrease the hydraulic retention time (HRT from 48 to 24 and 12 to 6 hrs at average temperatures of 25-34 ºC. In the first stage, start-up was with glucose for 14 days and then the reactor was also fed with macro- and micronutrients as a synthetic nutrient influent (SNI from 15 to 45 days as the second stage. For the control, a second reactor was kept on glucose feeding from day 1 to 45. The removal efficiencies of the chemical oxygen demand (COD were 80% and 98% on the 6th and 32nd day of the first and second stage, respectively. The maximum substrate removal rate of 0.08 mg COD mg-1 VSS d-1 was observed for glucose and synthetic nutrient influent (SNI on the 8th and 40th days, respectively. When the reactor reached the maximum COD removal efficiency it was then shifted to municipal wastewater (MWW mixed with industrial wastewater. The HRT was reduced gradually with a one week gap while treating MWW. For further cleaning, the UASB effluent was treated with 40% waste hydrogen peroxide. The whole integrated treatment process was successful to reduce the COD by 99%, total suspended solids (TSS by 73%, total nitrogen (TN by 84% and turbidity by 67%.

  8. Fouling Characterization of Forward Osmosis Biomimetic Aquaporin Membranes Used for Water Recovery from Municipal Wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarebska, Agata; Petrinic, Irena; Hey, Tobias

    , organic, and biological fouling, membrane characterization is not a trivial task. The aim of this work is to characterize fouling of FO biomimetic aquaporin membranes during water recovery from municipal wastewater. Membrane fouling was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Dispersive......Generally more than 99.93% of municipal wastewater is composed of water, therefore water recovery can alleviate global water stress which currently exists. Traditional ways to extract water from wastewater by the use of membrane bioreactors combined with reverse osmosis (RO), or micro...... compared to other pressure driven membrane processes, some fouling can occur. This entails that by reducing fouling, increased FO membrane performance can be expected, thus increasing the economic viability of FO processes. Since various types of fouling might occur in membrane systems such as inorganic...

  9. The Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Cost Implications of Municipal Water Supply & Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Winter, Thelma

    All man-made structures and materials have a design life. Across the United States there is a common theme for our water and wastewater treatment facilities and infrastructure. The design life of many of our mid 20 th century water and wastewater infrastructures in the United States have reached or are reaching life expectancy limits (ASCE, 2010). To compound the financial crisis of keeping up with the degradation, meeting and exceeding quality standards has never been more important in order to protect local fresh water supplies. This thesis analyzes the energy consumption of a municipal water and wastewater treatment system from a Lake Erie intake through potable treatment and back through wastewater treatment then discharge. The system boundary for this thesis includes onsite energy consumed by the treatment system and distribution/reclamation system as well as the energy consumed by the manufacturing of treatment chemicals applied during the study periods. By analyzing energy consumption, subsequent implications from greenhouse gas emissions and financial expenditures were quantified. Through the segregation of treatment and distribution processes from non-process energy consumption, such as heating, lighting, and air handling, this study identified that the potable water treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.42E+08 kBtu, spent 5,812,144 for treatment and distribution, and emitted 28,793 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. Likewise, the wastewater treatment system consumed an annual average of 2.45E+08 kBtu, spent 3,331,961 for reclamation and treatment, and emitted 43,780 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions. The area with the highest energy usage, financial expenditure, and greenhouse gas emissions for the potable treatment facility and distribution system was from the manufacturing of the treatment chemicals, 1.10E+08 kBtu, 3.7 million, and 17,844 metric tons of CO2 equivalent, respectively. Of the onsite energy (1.4E-03 kWh per gallon

  10. The State of Water and Wastewater Management in the Municipalities of the Polesie National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jóżwiakowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to present the current state of water and wastewater management in the municipalities where the Polesie National Park (PNP is located. The PNP is situated in Lublin Voivodeship, in the area of six municipalities: Sosnowica, Hańsk, Urszulin, Stary Brus, Wierzbica and Ludwin. The data used in this paper, were obtained on the basis of the surveys conducted in these municipalities in 2016 by the Department of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. In the analyzed communes, there was a very large disproportion between the usage of sewerage and the water supply network. It has been shown that 79.1% of the inhabitants living in the afore-mentioned communes used the water supply network and only 22.5% of them used sewerage. In the discussed communities there are 9 collective, mechanical and biological wastewater treatment plants with a capacity of over 5 m3d-1. On the farms located in the scattered areas, which are not connected to the sewerage, wastewater is discharged mainly to the septic tanks. In four out of the six analyzed municipalities, there were 2345 septic tanks registered. Domestic sewage from some farms is purified in household wastewater treatment plants (395 pieces. The plants with the drainage systems are prevalent (84.9%, which may contribute to the groundwater quality degradation. In order to protect the natural environment within the communes that form the PNP, it is necessary to undertake the actions that will contribute to the improvement of the current state of water and wastewater management. While solving the existing problems related to water supply and wastewater treatment, it is strongly required to adhere to the principle of sustainable development and use highly effective systems in order to ensure that the ecological effects are appropriate.

  11. Municipal wastewater treatment for effective removal of organic matter and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenevich, E.V.; Zaletova, N.A.; Terentieva, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The organic matter, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus, are nutrient substances. Their excess concentrations in water receiving bodies lead to eutrophication, moreover, the nitrogen content in water bodies is standardized according the sanitary-toxicological criterion of harmfulness: NH 4 + -N ≤0,39-2,0 mgl - , NO 3 -N ≤9,1-10 mgl - . The municipal wastewater contain, usually, organic matter estimated by BOD 150-200 mgl - , and COD 300-400 mgl - , the nitrogen compounds 50-60 mgl - , and NH 4 + -N 20-25 mgl - . NO x -N are practically absent. Their presence indicated on discharge of industrial wastewater. The total phosphorus is present in the concentration of 15 mgl - , PO 4 - - P 5-8 mgl - . Activated sludge process has been most widely used in the USSR for municipal wastewater treatment. The activated sludge is biocenoses of heterotrophic and auto trophic microorganisms. They consume nutrient matters, transferring pollution of wastewater by means of enzyme systems in acceptable forms. C, N and P-containing matters are removed from wastewater by biological intake for cell synthesis. Moreover C- containing matters are removed by oxidation to CO 2 and H 2 O. P-containing compounds under definite conditions associate with solid fraction of activated sludge and thus simultaneously removed from wastewater. The removal of nitrogen in addition to biosynthesis is carried out only in the denitrification process, when oxygen of NO x -N is used for oxidation of organic matter and produced gaseous nitrogen escapes into the atmosphere

  12. Microalgae cultivation for bioenergy production using wastewaters from a municipal WWTP as nutritional sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunja; Lee, Nakyeong; Park, Seonghwan; Yu, Jaecheul; Luong, Thanh Thao; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Taeho

    2013-03-01

    In order to reduce input cost for microalgal cultivation, we investigated the feasibility of wastewater taken from a municipal WWTP in Busan, Korea as wastewater nutrients. The wastewaters used in this study were the effluent from a primary settling tank (PS), the effluent from an anaerobic digestion tank (AD), the conflux of wastewaters rejected from sludge-concentrate tanks and dewatering facilities (CR), and two combined wastewaters of AD:PS (10:90, v/v) and AD:CR (10:90, v/v). Chlorella sp. ADE5, which was isolated from the AD, was selected for the feasibility test. The highest biomass production (3.01 g-dry cell weight per liter) of the isolate was obtained with the combined wastewater ADCR, and it was 1.72 times higher than that with BG 11 medium. Interestingly, the cells cultivated with wastewater containing PS wastewater were easily separated from the culture and improved lipid content, especially oleic acid content, in their cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Method for treating wastewater using microorganisms and vascular aquatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method for treating wastewater compresses subjecting the wastewater to an anaerobic setting step for at least 6 hours and passing the liquid effluent from the anaerobic settling step through a filter cell in an upflow manner. There the effluent is subjected first to the action of anaerobic and facultative microorganisms, and then to the action of aerobic microorganisms and the roots of at least one vascular aquatic plant.

  14. Analysis of Treated Wastewater Produced from Al-Lajoun Wastewater Treatment Plant, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Manasreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of treated wastewater produced from Al-Lajoun collection tanks of the wastewater treatment plant in Karak province was carried out in term of physical properties, its major ionic composition, heavy metals and general organic content, for both wastewater influent and effluent. Sampling was done in two periods during (2005-2006 summer season and during winter season to detect the impact of climate on treated wastewater quality. Soil samples were collected from Al-Lajoun valley where the treated wastewater drained, to determine the heavy metal and total organic carbon concentrations at same time. The study showed that the treated wastewater was low in its heavy metals contents during both winter and summer seasons, which was attributed to high pH value enhancing their precipitations. Some of the major ions such as Cl-, Na+, HCO33-, Mg2+ in addition to biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were higher than the recommended Jordanian guidelines for drained water in valleys. The treated wastewater contained some organic compounds of toxic type such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Results showed that the soil was low in its heavy metal contents and total organic carbon with distance from the discharging pond, which attributed to the adsorption of heavy metals, total organic carbon and sedimentation of suspended particulates. From this study it was concluded that the treated wastewater must be used in situ for production of animal fodder and prohibit its contact with the surface and groundwater resources of the area specially Al-Mujeb dam where it is collected.

  15. Microbial-based evaluation of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the sustainable and efficient treatment of municipal wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2017-03-01

    Conventional activated sludge-based wastewater treatment is an energy and resource-intensive process. Historically it has been successful at producing safely treated wastewater effluents in the developed world, specifically in places that have the infrastructure and space to support its operation. However, with a growing need for safe and efficient wastewater treatment across the world in both urban and rural settings, a paradigm shift in waste treatment is proving to be necessary. The sustainability of the future of wastewater treatment, in a significant way, hinges on moving towards energy neutrality and wastewater effluent reuse. This potential for reuse is threatened by the recent emergence and study of contaminants that have not been previously taken into consideration, such as antibiotics and other organic micropollutants (OMPs), antibiotic resistance genes, and persistent pathogenic bacteria. This dissertation focuses on investigating the use of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology for the sustainable treatment of municipal-type wastewaters. Specifically, a microbial approach to understanding biofouling and methane recovery potential in anaerobic MBR systems has been employed to assess different reactor systems’ efficiency. This dissertation further compares AnMBRs to their more widely used aerobic counterparts. This comparison specifically focuses on the removal and biodegradation of OMPs and antibiotics in both anaerobic and aerobic MBRs, while also investigating their effect on the proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes. Due to rising interest in wastewater effluent reuse and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of MBR systems’ effects on pathogen proliferation, this dissertation also investigates the presence of pathogens in both aerobic and anaerobic MBR effluents by using molecularbased detection methods. The findings of this dissertation demonstrate that membrane-associated anaerobic digestion processes have significant

  16. A nine-point pH titration method to determine low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hainan; Zhang, Daijun; Lu, Peili; He, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of volatile fatty acid (VFA) in wastewater is significant for understanding the wastewater nature and the wastewater treatment process optimization based on the usage of Activated Sludge Models (ASMs). In this study, a nine-point pH titration method was developed for the determination of low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater. The method was evaluated using synthetic wastewater containing VFA with the concentration of 10-50 mg/l and the possible interfering buffer systems of carbonate, phosphate and ammonium similar to those in real municipal wastewater. In addition, the further evaluation was conducted through the assay of real wastewater using chromatography as reference. The results showed that the recovery of VFA in the synthetic wastewater was 92%-102 and the coefficient of variance (CV) of reduplicate measurements 1.68%-4.72%. The changing content of the buffering substances had little effect on the accuracy of the method. Moreover, the titration method was agreed with chromatography in the determination of VFA in real municipal wastewater with R(2)= 0.9987 and CV =1.3-1.7. The nine-point pH titration method is capable of satisfied determination of low-concentration VFA in municipal wastewater.

  17. Low removal of acidic and hydrophilic pharmaceutical products by various types of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gagnon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical substances represent a risk for aquatic environments and their potential impacts on the receiving environment are poorly understood. Municipal effluents are important sources of contaminants including common pharmaceuticals like anti-inflammatory and anti-convulsive substances. The removal of pharmaceuticals, particularly those highly soluble can represent a great challenge to conventional wastewater treatment processes. Hydrophilic drugs (e.g. acidic drugs have properties that can highly influence removal efficiencies of treatment plants. The performance of different wastewater treatment processes for the removal of specific pharmaceutical products that are expected to be poorly removed was investigated. The obtained results were compared to inherent properties of the studied substances. Clofibric acid, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen were largely found in physicochemical primary-treated effluents at concentrations ranging from 77 to 2384 ng/L. This treatment type showed removal yields lower than 30%. On the other hand, biological treatments with activated sludge under aerobic conditions resulted in much better removal rates (>50% for 5 of the 8 studied substances. Interestingly, this latter type of process showed evidence of selectivity with respect to the size (R2=0.7388, solubility (R2=0.6812, and partitioning (R2=0.9999 of the removed substances; the smallest and least sorbed substances seemed to be removed at better rates, while the persistent carbamazepine (392 ng/L and diclofenac (66 ng/L were poorly removed (<10% after biological treatment. In the case of treatment by aerated lagoons, the most abundant substances were the highly soluble hydroxy-ibuprofen (350-3321 ng/L, followed by naproxen (42-413 n/L and carbamazepine (254-386 ng/L. In order to assess the impacts of all these contaminants of various properties on the environment and human health, we need to better understand the chemical and physical

  18. Stabilisation of Biological Phosphorus Removal from Municipal Wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich

    variations of the influent wastewater concentrations and are not yet always guaranteed. Even though the scientific knowledge and practical experience has reached a high level of understanding of the involved key-processes it is still necessary to apply chemical precipitation of phosphorus during the time...... periods, where the complete BPR can not be achieved. The understanding of the main phenomena involved into such failure of BPR and the development of operational or control strategies to overcome these deficiencies are the main areas of investigation of this thesis. Investigations of the failure of BPR...... and increased hydraulic load, with subsequent re-establishment of normal conditions. A process disturbance of this type results in an increase in the phosphate concentration level in the effluent, shortly after the wastewater returns to normal strength. During the first part of the thesis it was examined...

  19. Banana fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater: postharvest and microbiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernando Santos Alves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sewage may serve as a source of water and nutrients for plants. In this study, the effects of fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater from Janaúba Sewage Treatment Plant were evaluated on the postharvest and microbiological quality of ‘Prata-Anã’ banana. A randomized block experimental design was used. Four concentrations of wastewater were tested (70, 130, 170, and 200% of 150 kg ha-1 sodium. A wastewater-free control treatment was used for comparison. Two crop cycles were assessed for postharvest and microbiological quality. The parameters measured included total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio, pH, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms on both the peel and the pulp. In the first crop cycle, both soluble solids and fruit pulp pH decreased as wastewater level increased up to a maximum of 141.5%. These correlations were not observed in the second cycle. Wastewater management did not affect the titratable acidity of the soluble solids. The agricultural application of treated sanitary wastewater provided banana fruits with a microbiological profile similar to that obtained with the control (pure water and with mineral fertilizers. A microbial balance is necessary to maintain the nutritional status of the banana crop.

  20. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Grismer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, wineries in the western United States and sugarcane processing for ethanol in Central and South America have experienced problems related to the treatment and disposal of process wastewater. Both winery and sugarcane (molasses wastewaters are characterized by large organic loadings that change seasonally and are detrimental to aquatic life. We examined the role of plants for treating these wastewaters in constructed wetlands. In the greenhouse, subsurface-flow flumes with volcanic rock substrates and plants steadily removed approximately 80% of organic-loading oxygen demand from sugarcane process wastewater after about 3 weeks of plant growth; unplanted flumes removed about 30% less. In field studies at two operational wineries, we evaluated the performance of similar-sized, paired, subsurface constructed wetlands with and without plants; while both removed most of the oxygen demand, removal rates in the planted system were slightly greater and significantly different from those of the unplanted system under field conditions.

  1. Electron beam technology for purification of municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Podzorova, E.A.; Bakhtin, O.M.; Lysenko, S.L.; Belyshev, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results from the study on EB and ozone treatment of wastewater in the aerosol flow. It includes the description of the respective pilot plant with output 500 m 3 /day (it is equipped with electron accelerator with electron energy 0.3 MeV and beam power 15 kW), the results of the study on the effects of electron irradiation on various group parameters (colour, COD, BOD 5 , total number of microbes, odour and so on) and content of inorganic and organic pollutants of municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow and the preliminary data on economic feasibility of the purification method. (author)

  2. Sekhukhune District Municipality workshop proceedings: Wastewater treatment: Towards improved water quality to promote social and economic development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntombela, C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the workshop was to reinforce, at the strategic decision-making level within the municipality, the significance of properly managed wastewater treatment facilities towards improved water quality....

  3. Soil Chemistry after Irrigation with Treated Wastewater in Semiarid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carlos Pacheco de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil irrigation using treated wastewater in the Brazilian semiarid region is a promising practice as this area currently faces water scarcity and pollution of water resources by domestic sewage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of treated wastewater in drip irrigation and its effect on the chemistry of soil cultivated with squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. Coroa IAC and to verify whether there was an increase in soil salinity under a semiarid climate. The experiment was conducted for 123 days on a farm close to the sewage treatment plant, in a randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of two irrigation water depths (100 and 150 % of the evapotranspiration, two applications of gypsum to attenuate wastewater sodicity (0 and 5.51 g per plant, and a control treatment with no application of wastewater or gypsum. During the experiment, treated wastewater and soil gravitational water, at a depth of 0.40 m, were collected for measurement of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO−3, NH4+, Cl− , alkalinity, electrical conductivity, pH and sodium adsorption ratio. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected at depths of 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.40 m; and pH, total N, organic C, exchangeable cations and electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (CEs were analyzed. Besides an increase in pH and a reduction in total N, the irrigation with wastewater reduces soil salinity of the naturally salt-rich soils of the semiarid climate. It also led to soil sodification, in spite of the added gypsum, which indicates that irrigation with wastewater might require the addition of greater quantities of gypsum to prevent physical degradation of the soil.

  4. Regulation of wastewater treatment plants in the Ba-Phalaborwa municipality / Q.N. Gopo

    OpenAIRE

    Gopo, Nothando Lilian Queen

    2013-01-01

    South Africa is a water-scarce country and over the years, the quality of water resources has deteriorated due to poor effluent discharge, agricultural, industrial, mining and human activities. The major contributing factors of poorly-treated or inadequately treated wastewater may be attributed to: (a) the poor design and construction of wastewater treatment plants; (b) lack of qualified process controllers; (c) non-compliance with applicable legislation; (d) lack of proper monitoring; and (e...

  5. Removal of micropollutants from municipal wastewater by graphene adsorption and simultaneous electrocoagulation/electrofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Tang, Pei-Ling; Yen, Chia-Heng

    2017-04-01

    In this work the optimal operating conditions for removing selected micropollutants (also known as emerging contaminants, ECs) from actual municipal wastewater by graphene adsorption (GA) and simultaneous electrocoagulation/electrofiltration (EC/EF) process, respectively, were first determined and evaluated. Then, performance and mechanisms for the removal of selected phthalates and pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewater simultaneously by the GA and EC/EF process were further assessed. ECs of concern included di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), acetaminophen (ACE), caffeine (CAF), cefalexin (CLX) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX). It was found that GA plus EC/EF process yielded the following removal efficiencies: DnBP, 89 ± 2%; DEHP, 85 ± 3%; ACE, 99 ± 2%; CAF, 94 ± 3%; CLX, 100 ± 0%; and SMX, 98 ± 2%. Carbon adsorption, size exclusion, electrostatic repulsion, electrocoagulation, and electrofiltration were considered as the main mechanisms for the removal of target ECs by the integrated process indicated above.

  6. Qualitative monitoring of a treated wastewater reuse extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... limited and threatened by pollution from various human activi- ties. ... The problem with treated wastewater sampling, which will ... since any alternative solution (such as discharge into the sea) is not permitted, due to the extensive tour- ism. Hersonissos is famous for its crystal-clean sea and beaches.

  7. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use and conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  8. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications, Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use on conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  9. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wenbiao; Tu, Renjie; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah; Wang, Zhi-Han

    2016-07-01

    Despite the significant breakthroughs in research on microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel, its production cost is still much higher than that of fossil diesel. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to optimize algal growth and lipid production in wastewater. The present study examines the optimization of pretreatment of municipal wastewater and aeration conditions in order to enhance the lipid productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus. Results showed that no significant differences were recorded in lipid productivity of S. obliquus grown in primary settled or sterilized municipal wastewater; however, ultrasound pretreatment of wastewater significantly decreased the lipid production. Whereas, aeration rates of 0.2 vvm significantly increased lipid content by 51 %, with respect to the non-aerated culture, which resulted in maximum lipid productivity (32.5 mg L(-1) day(-1)). Furthermore, aeration enrichment by 2 % CO2 resulted in increase of lipid productivity by 46 % over the CO2 non-enriched aerated culture. Fatty acid profile showed that optimized aeration significantly enhanced monounsaturated fatty acid production, composed mainly of C18:1, by 1.8 times over the non-aerated S. obliquus culture with insignificant changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion; suggesting better biodiesel characteristics for the optimized culture.

  10. Autonomous mobile platform for monitoring air emissions from industrial and municipal wastewater ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Long; Huda, Quamrul; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Lucas; Hashisho, Zaher

    2017-11-01

    Significant amounts of volatile organic compounds and greenhouse gases are generated from wastewater lagoons and tailings ponds in Alberta, Canada. Accurate measurements of these air pollutants and greenhouse gases are needed to support management and regulatory decisions. A mobile platform was developed to measure air emissions from tailings pond in the oil sands region of Alberta. The mobile platform was tested in 2015 in a municipal wastewater treatment lagoon. With a flux chamber and a CO 2 /CH 4 sensor on board, the mobile platform was able to measure CO 2 and CH 4 emissions over two days at two different locations in the pond. Flux emission rates of CO 2 and CH 4 that were measured over the study period suggest the presence of aerobic and anaerobic zones in the wastewater treatment lagoon. The study demonstrated the capabilities of the mobile platform in measuring fugitive air emissions and identified the potential for the applications in air and water quality monitoring programs. The Mobile Platform demonstrated in this study has the ability to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fugitive sources such as municipal wastewater lagoons. This technology can be used to measure emission fluxes from tailings ponds with better detection of spatial and temporal variations of fugitive emissions. Additional air and water sampling equipment could be added to the mobile platform for a broad range of air and water quality studies in the oil sands region of Alberta.

  11. Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

    2009-06-30

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown

  12. Deactivation of Legionella Pneumophila in municipal wastewater by ozone generated in arrays of microchannel plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shengkun; Li, Jun; Kim, Min-Hwan; Cho, Jinhoon; Park, Sung-Jin; Nguyen, Thanh H.; Eden, J. Gary

    2018-06-01

    A greater than four log10 reduction in the concentration of Legionella pneumophila in municipal wastewater has been achieved in 1 min with ozone produced by a microchannel plasma reactor. Requiring less than 22 W of electrical power, and ambient air as the feedstock gas, the microplasma ozone generator is robust and a promising alternative to conventional corona and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technologies. Contrary to previous studies, the Ct model for pathogen deactivation (i.e. rate proportional to the product of the available disinfectant concentration and the exposure duration) is found to be valid for L. pneumophila. Accordingly, wastewater-specific Ct equations have been developed to predict the deactivation of L. pneumophila in the secondary wastewater environment. Inactivation of this pathogen was found to be dependent on temperature only in the absence of wastewater organic matter (WOM). In the presence of WOM, pathogen deactivation is controlled by the disinfection contact time, initial ozone concentration (varied between 15 and 281 µg l‑1), and initial WOM loading. The data reported here will assist in the implementation of plasma ozone generators for L. pneumophila deactivation in cooling towers, point-of-use systems, and wastewater reclamation facilities.

  13. Alternative Treatment Technologies for Low-Cost Industrial and Municipal Wastewater Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    Roughly the same volume of water that rushes over the Niagara Falls is produced as wastewater in North America. This wastewater is treated through a variety of means to ensure that it can be safely returned to the natural ecosystem. This thesis examines two novel means for this treatment, one biological and one physical-chemical in nature, namely, Rotating Algae Biofilm Reactor treatment and expanded shale augmented coagulation-flocculation. Rotating algae biofilm reactors (RABRs) support ...

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent a source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Direct GHG emissions include emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that can be biologically produced during wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. This is also highlighted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2006) guidelines used for national GHG inventories. Indirect GHG emissions occur at WWTPs mainly by the consumption of electricity, fossil fuel for transportation and by the use of chemicals (e.g. coagulants). In this study, the impact of direct and indirect GHG emissions was quantified for two model WWTPs of 50.000 person equivalents (p.e.) using carbon footprint analyses. It was assumed that at one WWTP sewage sludge is digested anaerobically, at the other one it is aerobically stabilised in the activated sludge tank. The carbon footprint analyses were performed using literature emission factors. A new estimation model based on measurements at eight Austrian WWTPs was used for the assessment of N2O direct emissions (Parravicini et al., 2015). The results of the calculations show that, under the selected assumptions, the direct N2O emission from the activated sludge tank can dominate the carbon footprint of WWTP with a poor nitrogen removal efficiency. Through an improved operation of nitrogen removal several advantages can be gained: direct N2O emissions can be reduced, the energy demand for aeration can be decreased and a higher effluent quality can be achieved. Anaerobic digesters and anaerobic sludge storage tanks can become a relevant source of direct CH4 emissions. Minimising of CH4 losses from these sources improves the carbon footprint of the WWTP also increasing the energy yield achievable by combusting this renewable energy carrier in a combined heat and power unit. The estimated carbon footprint of the model WWTPs lies between 20 and 40 kg CO2e/p.e./a. This corresponds to 0.2 to 0.4% of the CO2e average emission caused yearly

  15. Evaluation of the performances of wastewater treatment services provided by the metropolitan municipalities in Turkey using Entropy integrated SAW, MOORA and TOPSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Ertuğrul; Özçelik, Gökhan

    2018-01-01

    Reusingof the wastewater has a vital importance because of limited natural waterresources all around the world. Recycled wastewater can be used in many areassuch as agriculture, industry, cleaning etc. Treatment of wastewater is one ofthe important tasks of metropolitan municipalities. The aim of this study is toevaluate the performances of wastewater treatment services provided by themetropolitan municipalities in Turkey using Entropy integrated SAW, MOORA andTOPSIS methods. In the scope of ...

  16. Stress-related gene expression changes in rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to various municipal wastewater treatment influents and effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, F; Smyth, S A; André, C; Douville, M; Gélinas, M; Barclay, K

    2013-03-01

    The present study sought to examine the performance of six different wastewater treatment processes from 12 wastewater treatment plants using a toxicogenomic approach in rainbow trout hepatocytes. Freshly prepared rainbow trout hepatocytes were exposed to increasing concentrations of influent (untreated wastewaters) and effluent (C(18)) extracts for 48 h at 15 °C. A test battery of eight genes was selected to track changes in xenobiotic biotransformation, estrogenicity, heavy metal detoxification, and oxidative stress. The wastewaters were processed by six different treatment systems: facultative and aerated lagoons, activated sludge, biological aerated filter, biological nutrient removal, chemically assisted primary treated, and trickling filter/solids contact. Based on the chemical characteristics of the effluents, the treatment plants were generally effective in removing total suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand, but less so for ammonia and alkalinity. The 12 influents differed markedly with each other, which makes the comparison among treatment processes difficult. For the influents, both population size and flow rate influenced the increase in the following mRNA levels in exposed hepatocytes: metallothionein (MT), cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4), and vitellogenin (VTG). Gene expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the estrogen receptor (ER), were influenced only by population size in exposed cells to the influent extracts. The remaining genes-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and multidrug resistance transporter (MDR)-were not influenced by either population size or flow rate in exposed cells. It is noteworthy that the changes in MT, ER, and VTG in cells exposed to the effluents were significantly affected by the influents across the 12 cities examined. However, SOD, CYP1A1, CYP3A4, GST, and MDR gene expression were the least influenced by the incoming influents. The data also suggest that wastewater treatments involving biological or aeration

  17. Potential investigation of Reusing Ardabil Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge Based on AHP and TOPSIS Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhan Maghsoudlou Kamali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction :By ever-increasing of population, shortage of water resources and the necessity of wastewater treatment, huge volumes of sludge that is a byproduct of wastewater treatment, requires to be disposed in environmentally secure ways. The target of specifying strategic preferences of reuse of sludge has been to find the correct way of disposal or beneficial use of sludge. Material and methods: In this study, to select the best alternative for reuse of wastewater sludge two systematic methods are introduced, which four alternatives for reuse of sludge (use in agriculture, use in green space, biogas, desert combat are introduced and they are compared by four main parameters including: 1- physicochemical 2-biological 3 - economic, social and cultural, and 4 - environmental pollution situation, that each contains some criteria. In this study, first each of the related parameters and criteria are compared by the expert groups of and through questionnaire. Then these weights are entered into Expert Choice software for the analyze of AHP model and paired comparisons and weightings have been done on the related parameters and criteria. Ultimately, the output of the software is entered into TOPSIS software for the analyze of TOPSIS model until the best alternative is selected. Results: sludge of Ardabil municipal wastewater treatment plant, according to standards and EPA regulations is eligible to class B, and due to the chemical in terms of heavy metals have special (excellent quality and contains considerable quantities of organic substance, nutrients and micronutrients which indicates the fertilizer value of the sludge. Conclusion: The result of this comparison has shown that the application of sludge in green spaces is the most appropriate alternative and then use in agriculture, biogas alternative, and desert combat alternative are, respectively, placed in the second to fourth preference for the reuse of sludge derived from municipal

  18. Coagulation and electrocoagulation for co-treatment of stabilized landfill leachate and municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini Verma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate and municipal wastewater at various ratios (1:20, 1:10, 1:7 and 1:5 were subjected to coagulation and electrocoagulation (EC. Alum was used in conventional coagulation at pH 6 and aluminum plate as electrode was used in EC at a current density of 386 A/m2 with 5 cm inter electrode spacing. Treatment efficiency was assessed from removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, turbidity, ammonia, nitrate and phosphate. At 1:5 ratio of landfill leachate to municipal wastewater, highest COD removal was with 3.8 g/L alum whereas highest turbidity removal was with 3.3 g/L alum during coagulation. EC exhibited almost similar removal efficiency for all the parameters at different ratios tested except for COD which was considerably higher at 1:20 ratio. Aluminum consumption from electrode was 0.7 g/L following EC as compared to 3.8 g/L alum used in coagulation. The amount of sludge produced was found to be higher with EC as compared to coagulation which could be due to the fact that the electrochemical method was performed for a longer duration than conventional coagulation. For minimal sludge generation, EC reaction time should be ∼30 min. Further studies with EC process on costing and sludge generation will help to advance the technology for wastewater treatment.

  19. Mixotrophic cultivation of a microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in municipal wastewater supplemented with food wastewater and flue gas CO2 for biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Park, Young-Tae; Kabra, Akhil N; Oh, In-Hwan; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-08-15

    The biomass and lipid/carbohydrate production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus under mixotrophic condition using food wastewater and flue gas CO2 with municipal wastewater was investigated. Different dilution ratios (0.5-2%) of municipal wastewater with food wastewater were evaluated in the presence of 5, 10 and 14.1% CO2. The food wastewater (0.5-1%) with 10-14.1% CO2 supported the highest growth (0.42-0.44 g L(-1)), nutrient removal (21-22 mg TN L(-1)), lipid productivity (10-11 mg L(-1)day(-1)) and carbohydrate productivity (13-16 mg L(-1)day(-1)) by S. obliquus after 6 days of cultivation. Food wastewater increased the palmitic and oleic acid contents up to 8 and 6%, respectively. Thus, application of food wastewater and flue gas CO2 can be employed for enhancement of growth, lipid/carbohydrate productivity and wastewater treatment efficiency of S. obliquus under mixotrophic condition, which can lead to development of a cost effective strategy for microalgal biomass production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbial community analysis of anaerobic reactors treating soft drink wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Narihiro

    Full Text Available The anaerobic packed-bed (AP and hybrid packed-bed (HP reactors containing methanogenic microbial consortia were applied to treat synthetic soft drink wastewater, which contains polyethylene glycol (PEG and fructose as the primary constituents. The AP and HP reactors achieved high COD removal efficiency (>95% after 80 and 33 days of the operation, respectively, and operated stably over 2 years. 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analyses on a total of 25 biofilm samples generated 98,057 reads, which were clustered into 2,882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Both AP and HP communities were predominated by Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and candidate phylum KSB3 that may degrade organic compound in wastewater treatment processes. Other OTUs related to uncharacterized Geobacter and Spirochaetes clades and candidate phylum GN04 were also detected at high abundance; however, their relationship to wastewater treatment has remained unclear. In particular, KSB3, GN04, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi are consistently associated with the organic loading rate (OLR increase to 1.5 g COD/L-d. Interestingly, KSB3 and GN04 dramatically decrease in both reactors after further OLR increase to 2.0 g COD/L-d. These results indicate that OLR strongly influences microbial community composition. This suggests that specific uncultivated taxa may take central roles in COD removal from soft drink wastewater depending on OLR.

  1. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a municipal wastewater treatment plant: mass balance and removal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pin; Ding, Yunjie; Li, Hui; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2012-06-01

    Occurrence and removal efficiencies of fifteen pharmaceuticals were investigated in a conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant in Michigan. Concentrations of these pharmaceuticals were determined in both wastewater and sludge phases by a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer. Detailed mass balance analysis was conducted during the whole treatment process to evaluate the contributing processes for pharmaceutical removal. Among the pharmaceuticals studied, demeclocycline, sulfamerazine, erythromycin and tylosin were not detected in the wastewater treatment plant influent. Other target pharmaceuticals detected in wastewater were also found in the corresponding sludge phase. The removal efficiencies of chlortetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamerazine, acetaminophen and caffeine were >99%, while doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfadiazine and lincomycin exhibited relatively lower removal efficiencies (e.g., <50%). For sulfamethoxazole, the removal efficiency was approximately 90%. Carbamazepine manifested a net increase of mass, i.e. 41% more than the input from the influent. Based on the mass balance analysis, biotransformation is believed to be the predominant process responsible for the removal of pharmaceuticals (22% to 99%), whereas contribution of sorption to sludge was relatively insignificant (7%) for the investigated pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. THE USE OF HALLOYSITE TO REDUCE POLLUTIONS CONCENTRATION IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Machnicka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of municipal wastewater treatment allows the use of biofilters. The study used a bed filled halloysite. In operation of the bed, depending on the hydraulic load, the concentration of phosphate, ammonium and organic matter was reduced. Highest reduction of the concentration PO43- (89% and N – NH4+ (81% in the waste water of the hydraulic load – 0,04 m3/m2h was obtained. The concentration of the organic substrate was reduced by approximately 86%.

  3. Study of efficiency of particles removal by different filtration systems in a municipal wastewater tertiary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreu, P. S.; Lardin Mifsut, C.; Farinas Iglesias, M.; Sanchez-Arevalo Serrano, J.; Perez Sanchez, P.; Rancano Perez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The disinfection of municipal wastewater using ultraviolet radiation depends greatly on the presence within the water of particles in suspension. This work determines how the level of elimination of particles varies depending on the technique of filtration used (open, closed sand filters, with continuous washing of the sand, cloth, disk and ring filters). all systems are very effective in the removal of particles more than 25 microns and for removing helminth eggs. The membrane bio-reactors with ultrafiltration membranes were superior in terms of particle removal when compared to conventional filters. (Author) 11 refs.

  4. Performance of the Subsurface Flow Wetland in Batch Flow for Municipal Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazle Rahmani sani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface flow wetlands are one of the natural treatment methods used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment that are economical in terms of energy consumption and cost-effectiveness. Much research has been conducted on wetland operation with continuous flow but not enough information is available on batch flow. This study investigates wetland efficiency in batch flow. For the purposes of this research, two pretreatment units of the anaerobic pond type with digestion pits and two subsurface flow wetlands with a 2-day detention time were built on the pilot scale. The cells were charged with sand of 5 mm effective size, uniformity coefficient of 1.5, and a porosity of 35%. One wetland cell and one pretreatment unit were used as control. The municipal wastewater selected to be monitored for the one-year study period had a flow rate of 26 m3/day and average BOD5 of 250mg/l, TSS of 320mg/l, TKN of 35mg/l, TP of 12mg/l and TC of 2×108 MPN/100ml from Sabzevar Wastewater Treatment Plant. The average removal efficiencies of BOD5,TSS,TKN,TP, and TC in the continuous flow for the combined control pretreatment and wetland cell were 77.2%, 92%, 91%, 89%, 96.5% while the same values for the batch flow for the combined experimental pretreatment and wetland cell were 92%, 97%, 97.5%, 97%, and 99.75%, respectively. The removal efficiency in the subsurface flow wetlands in the batch flow was higher than that of the continuous flow. Thus, for wastewaters with a high pollution level, the batch flow can be used in cell operation in cases where there is not enough land for spreading the wetland cell.

  5. Two synthetic progestins and natural progesterone are responsible for most of the progestagenic activities in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents in the Czech and Slovak republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šauer, Pavel; Stará, Alžběta; Golovko, Oksana; Valentová, Olga; Bořík, Adam; Grabic, Roman; Kroupová, Hana Kocour

    2018-06-15

    Vast numbers of xenobiotics are known still to be present in treated municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Some of these possess endocrine-disrupting potency and pose risks for exposed aquatic animals. We searched for 17 potential environmental contaminants having affinity to the progesterone receptor. Relative potency values of these progesterone receptor-active chemicals were obtained. On the basis of relative potencies and measured environmental concentrations, the contribution of progestins to measured progestagenic activities was evaluated. Wastewaters (influent and effluent) and surrounding surface waters (upstream and downstream) at six municipal WWTPs were screened using instrumental chemical analysis and in vitro reporter gene bioassay. We showed the presence of target compounds and (anti-)progestagenic activities in municipal wastewater and surface water. Nine and seven progestins were identified in influent and effluent wastewaters, respectively. Only two compounds, progesterone and medroxyprogesterone were found in surface waters. Progestagenic agonistic activities in influents were partially masked by strong anti-progestagenic activities that were detected in all influents and ranged from 2.63 to 83 ng/L of mifepristone equivalents (EQs). Progestagenic activities were detected in all effluents and ranged from 0.06 to 0.47 ng/L of reference compound ORG 2058 EQs (a synthetic progestin equivalents), thus indicating incomplete removal of progestins during wastewater treatment processing. This activity poses a continuing risk for the aquatic environment. By contrast, anti-progestagenic activities showed better removal efficiency in WWTPs compared to progestagenic agonistic activities. Anti-progestagenic activities were found in only three of six effluents and ranged from 0.26 to 2.1 ng/L mifepristone EQs. We explained most of the progestagenic activity in municipal WWTP effluents by the presence of synthetic progestins and

  6. Seasonal variation of diclofenac concentration and its relation with wastewater characteristics at two municipal wastewater treatment plants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Sevgi; Ozdemir, Gamze; Yangin-Gomec, Cigdem; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Topuz, Emel; Aydin, Egemen; Pehlivanoglu-Mantas, Elif; Okutman Tas, Didem

    2014-05-15

    The pharmaceutically active compound diclofenac has been monitored during one year at separate treatment units of two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to evaluate its seasonal variation and the removal efficiency. Conventional wastewater characterization was also performed to assess the possible relationship between conventional parameters and diclofenac. Diclofenac concentrations in the influent and effluent of both WWTPs were detected in the range of 295-1376 and 119-1012ng/L, respectively. Results indicated that the higher diclofenac removal efficiency was observed in summer season in both WWTPs. Although a consistency in diclofenac removal was observed in WWTP_1, significant fluctuation was observed at WWTP_2 based on seasonal evaluation. The main removal mechanism of diclofenac in the WWTPs was most often biological (55%), followed by UV disinfection (27%). When diclofenac removal was evaluated in terms of the treatment units in WWTPs, a significant increase was achieved at the treatment plant including UV disinfection unit. Based on the statistical analysis, higher correlation was observed between diclofenac and suspended solids concentrations among conventional parameters in the influent whereas the removal of diclofenac was highly correlated with nitrogen removal efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Treated Wastewater Changes the Export of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Its Isotopic Composition and Leads to Acidification in Coastal Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xufeng; Xue, Liang; Li, Yunxiao; Han, Ping; Liu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Longjun; Cai, Wei-Jun

    2018-04-25

    Human-induced changes in carbon fluxes across the land-ocean interface can influence the global carbon cycle, yet the impacts of rapid urbanization and establishment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on coastal ocean carbon cycles are poorly known. This is unacceptable as at present ∼64% of global municipal wastewater is treated before discharge. Here, we report surface water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and sedimentary organic carbon concentrations and their isotopic compositions in the rapidly urbanized Jiaozhou Bay in northeast China as well as carbonate parameters in effluents of three large WWTPs around the bay. Using DIC, δ 13 C DIC and total alkalinity (TA) data and a tracer model, we determine the contributions to DIC from wastewater DIC input, net ecosystem production, calcium carbonate precipitation, and CO 2 outgassing. Our study shows that high-DIC and low-pH wastewater effluent represents an important source of DIC and acidification in coastal waters. In contrast to the traditional view of anthropogenic organic carbon export and degradation, we suggest that with the increase of wastewater discharge and treatment rates, wastewater DIC input may play an increasingly more important role in the coastal ocean carbon cycle.

  8. Structure and Composition of Mangrove Associations in Tubli Bay of Bahrain as Affected by Municipal Wastewater Discharge and Anthropogenic Sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud Abou Seedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of municipal wastewater discharge and anthropogenic sedimentation on the structure and composition of gray mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh. communities along Tubli Bay coastlines in Bahrain were investigated. Growth and regeneration of mangrove were measured, and its community was characterized. Sediment profile was analyzed for texture, pH, and salinity. Mangrove area covered by sand depositions was measured using Google Earth Pro. ANOVA and regression tests were employed in the analysis of the data. Results indicated that mangrove overwhelmingly dominated plant community in the study area, which was zoned by a community of other salt-tolerant species. Three main habitats exist in the study area with high similarity in their floristic composition. Species richness and the number of habitats were low due to the aridity and high sediment salinity. The dilution effect of the secondary treated wastewater had a favorable effect on height and diameters of mangrove trees. However, no differences were observed in leaf area index, basal area, and density of mangrove. The long-term accumulation of anthropogenic sedimentation had a detrimental effect on the mangrove community, expressed in swath death of mangrove trees due to root burials and formation of high topography within the community boundaries.

  9. Modeling the fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons during thermophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tucker R; Sadowsky, Michael J; LaPara, Timothy M

    2015-10-19

    This study investigated the use of thermophilic anaerobic digestion for removing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from residual municipal wastewater solids. Four laboratory-scale anaerobic digesters were operated in 8-day batch cycles at temperatures of 40, 56, 60, and 63 °C. Two tetracycline resistance genes (tet(W) and tet(X)), a fluoroquinolone resistance gene (qnrA), the integrase gene of class 1 integrons (intI1), 16S rRNA genes of all Bacteria, and 16S rRNA genes of methanogens were quantified using real-time quantitative PCR. ARG and intI1 quantities decreased at all temperatures and were described well by a modified form of the Collins-Selleck disinfection kinetic model. The magnitudes of Collins-Selleck kinetic parameters were significantly greater at thermophilic temperatures compared to 40 °C, but few statistically significant differences were observed among these parameters for the thermophilic anaerobic digesters. This model allows for the direct comparison of different operating conditions (e.g., temperature) on anaerobic digestion performance in mitigating the quantity of ARGs in wastewater solids and could be used to design full-scale anaerobic digesters to specifically treat for ARGs as a "pollutant" of concern.

  10. Integrated nitrogen removal biofilter system with ceramic membrane for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong-Jin; Yun, Chan-Young; Kim, Woo-Yeol; Zhang, Xing-Ya; Kim, Dae-Gun; Chang, Duk; Sunwoo, Young; Hong, Ki-Ho

    2016-12-01

    The pre-denitrification biofilm process for nitrogen removal was combined with ceramic membrane with pore sizes of 0.05-0.1 µm as a system for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater. The system was operated under an empty bed hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h, recirculation ratio of 3, and transmembrane pressure of 0.47 bar. The system showed average removals of organics, total nitrogen, and solids as high as 93%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Rapid nitrification could be achieved and denitrification was performed in the anoxic filter without external carbon supplements. The residual particulate organics and nitrogen in effluent from biofilm process could be also removed successfully through membrane filtration and the removal of total coliform was noticeably improved after membrane filtration. Thus, a system composed of the pre-denitrification biofilm process with ceramic membrane would be a compact and flexible option for advanced post-treatment of municipal wastewater.

  11. Application of photo-fenton as a tertiary treatment of emerging contaminants in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerth, N; Malato, S; Maldonado, M I; Agüera, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2010-03-01

    This work focuses on the treatment of real effluents from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (RE) with solar photo-Fenton (5 mg and 20 mg L(-1) Fe, pH approximately 3 and 50 mg L(-1) initial H(2)O(2) concentration) at pilot plant scale. In some experiments RE was spiked with 15 different (acetaminophen, antipyrine, atrazine, caffeine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, flumequine, hydroxybiphenyl, ibuprofen, isoproturon, ketorolac, ofloxacin, progesterone, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan) emerging contaminants (ECs) at 100 and 5 microg L(-1) each which were added directly into RE prior to treatment. All experiments showed successful degradation of ECs in real effluents from different municipal wastewater treatment plants at low iron concentration (5 mg L(-1)). Although the most degradation took place during the Fenton process, photo-Fenton was necessary to degrade all ECs below their limit of detection (LOD). In the case of the RE containing 52 ECs (determined by HPLC-QTRAP-MS), four of them could not be degraded to their LOD and were still present, although at extremely low concentrations (nicotine 47 ng L(-1), cotinine 11 ng L(-1), chlorfenvinphos 99 ng L(-1), and caffeine 8 ng L(-1)). ECs were easily degraded by (*)OH without substantial competition with the organic content of the RE.

  12. Removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewater by graphene adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Tang, Pei-Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this work graphene was used for evaluation of its adsorption behavior and performance in removing phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), acetaminophen (ACE), caffeine (CAF), cephalexin (CLX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were emerging contaminants (ECs) with detection frequencies over 92% in a one-year monitoring of the occurrence of ECs in influent samples of a sewage treatment plant in Taiwan. Thus, these ECs were selected as the target contaminants for removal by graphene adsorption process. Experimental results showed that the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to Langmuir model equation. It was also found that the adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. A graphene dosage of 0.1 g/L and adsorption time of 12 h were found to be the optimal operating conditions for the ECs of concern in model solutions in a preliminary study. By using the determined optimal operating conditions for removal of such ECs in actual municipal wastewater, removal efficiencies for various ECs were obtained and given as follows: (1) DnBP, 89%, (2) DEHP, 86%, (3) ACE, 43%, (4) CAF, 84%, (5) CLX, 81%, and (6) SMX, 34%.

  13. Study on Relationship between Seasonal Temperatures and Municipal Wastewater Pollutant Concentration and Removal Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the temperatures, pollutant concentrations and other indicators of municipal wastewater influent and effluent were tested for 7 months in 6 constructed wetland microcosms; the hydraulic retention time is 2 days. The results indicated that for both influent and effluent, there was a highly significant negative correlation (P<0.01 between the temperature and the pollutant concentrations, there was a significant difference (P<0.05 between seasonal temperatures, and the pollutant concentrations in summer and autumn were significantly different from those in winter (P<0.05. Furthermore, a regression analysis of pollutant concentration (y based on changes in water temperature (x in different seasons was performed. The analysis revealed that the relationship has the form ‘y = a -bx + cx2’, that under certain circumstances, pollutant concentrations can be calculated based on the temperature, and that the concentrations of NH4-N, Total Phosphorus (TP and Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP had a significantly negative correlation with their removal rate (P < 0.01. However, seasonal temperature clearly did not have a direct impact on the pollutant concentration, and some studies have indicated that the different manners in which urban residents use water as the temperature changes may be the real reason that the pollutant concentrations of municipal wastewater vary with seasonal temperature. Furthermore, when designing and operating constructed wetlands, the impact of the changes in pollutant concentrations generated by seasonal temperature should be fully considered, dilution and other means should be taken to ensure purification.

  14. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the extension of wastewater treatment plants to nutrient removal and the development towards reuse of sludge m agriculture, new guidelines for regulating industrial discharges m Denmark were needed. The paper describes how a concept for regulating the discharge of specific organic substances...... substances, present knowledge of fate and effects in biological treatment plants is too scarce to underpin the setting of general standards. Therefore, it has been decided to base the developed priority system on the data used in the EEC-system for classification of hazardous chemicals. This includes ready...... degradability, defined by the OECD-test, bio-sorption and bio-accumulation, defined by the octanol/water distribution coefficient and toxic effects on water organisms. Several potential effects of seven heavy metals have been evaluated, and the most critical effects were found to be the quality criteria...

  15. Application of peat filters for treating milkhouse wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahie, C.R.; Gagnon, G.A. [Dalhousie Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Gordon, R.J. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Dept. of Engineering, Bible Hill, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    This study investigates the suitability of using peat as a filtering media for the treatment of agricultural wastewater. A full-scale experimental filter system was used to evaluate the ability of the filter system to treat milkhouse wastewater. The full-size modular peat filtration system was installed and monitored on a dairy farm located in Hilden, NS. The peat filter models used in the study were constructed from pre-cast concrete, which are approximately 3.2 m long by 1.8 m wide and 1.0 m high and filled are packed with sphagnum peat moss compacted to a density of 0.15 g cm{sup -3} . Parameters that were monitored include BOD, pH, NO{sub 3}-N, SO{sub 4}, TSS, SRP, and TP. The milkhouse wastewater was characterized by having a BOD{sub 5} of approximately 1500 mg L{sup -1} , an average TSS concentration of 510 mg L{sup -1} and an average SRP concentration of 100 mg L{sup -1} . Removal efficiencies of BOD{sub 5} and TSS were observed to be 59% and 82% respectively. In general, phosphorus removal was poor and subsequent research will examine mechanisms of improving phosphorus removal. (author)

  16. Application of peat filters for treating milkhouse wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahie, C.R.; Gagnon, G.A.; Gordon, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the suitability of using peat as a filtering media for the treatment of agricultural wastewater. A full-scale experimental filter system was used to evaluate the ability of the filter system to treat milkhouse wastewater. The full-size modular peat filtration system was installed and monitored on a dairy farm located in Hilden, NS. The peat filter models used in the study were constructed from pre-cast concrete, which are approximately 3.2 m long by 1.8 m wide and 1.0 m high and filled are packed with sphagnum peat moss compacted to a density of 0.15 g cm -3 . Parameters that were monitored include BOD, pH, NO 3 -N, SO 4 , TSS, SRP, and TP. The milkhouse wastewater was characterized by having a BOD 5 of approximately 1500 mg L -1 , an average TSS concentration of 510 mg L -1 and an average SRP concentration of 100 mg L -1 . Removal efficiencies of BOD 5 and TSS were observed to be 59% and 82% respectively. In general, phosphorus removal was poor and subsequent research will examine mechanisms of improving phosphorus removal. (author)

  17. Performance of a UASB reactor treating coffee wet wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardia Puebla, Yans; Rodríguez Pérez, Suyén; Janet Jiménez Hernández; Sánchez Girón, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The present work shows the results obtained in the anaerobic digestion process of coffee wet wastewater processing. An UASB anaerobic reactor was operated in single-stage in mesophilic temperature controlled conditions (37±1ºC). The effect of both organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the anaerobic digestion of coffee wet wastewater was investigated. The OLR values considered in the single-stage UASB reactor varied in a range of 3,6-4,1 kgCOD m-3 d-1 and the HRT stayed in a range of 21,5-15,5 hours. The evaluation results show that the best performance of UASB reactor in single-stage was obtained at OLR of 3,6 kg COD m-3 d-1 with an average value of total and soluble COD removal of 77,2% and 83,4%, respectively, and average methane concentration in biogas of 61%. The present study suggests that the anaerobic digestion is suitable to treating coffee wet wastewater. (author)

  18. In-plant testing of membranes to treat electroplating wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, D. B.; Talu, Orhan

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report submitted for the work performed under the NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC3-301 for the project entitled 'In-Plant Testing of Membranes To Treat Electroplating Waste water'. The main objective of the research project was to determine if the crosslinked polyacrylic acid salt films developed by NASA scientists could be used for heavy metal removal from the wastewater generated by the metals-finishing or electroplating industry. A variety of tasks identified in the original proposal were completed. These included: (1) analysis of our industrial partner Aetna Plating's zinc electroplating process and its wastewater treatment needs for zinc removal; (2) design and construction of a laboratory-scale unit to continuously supply and remove the ion exchange films from the zinc wastewater; (3) performance of a series of runs on such a unit to determine its operating characteristics; and (4) design of a prototype unit for use at the industrial site. In addition, there were a number of tasks that had not been identified in the original proposal but were later judged to be necessary for the successful completion of the project. These were: (1) batch equilibrium and kinetic experiments with analysis of the experimental results to accurately determine the equilibrium and kinetic parameters for the ion exchange films; (2 ) simulation studies for proper design of the prototype unit; and (3) preliminary runs to exchange the films from H form to Calcium form.

  19. Research on safety of reverse osmosis to treat radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Tian Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    The security of reverse osmosis combined with a pretreatment process of disc filtration-ultrafiltration to treat the radioactive wastewater was analyzed and evaluated. Several aspects including reliability and security during operation, maintenance and decommissioning were investigated in this paper. Results showed that safe operation can be ensured by rational process design and scientific management. Estimation on radiation safety showed that the absorbed dose rate is below 0.04 mSv/h on the surface of reverse osmosis module, which can ensure the radiation safety of operators. (authors)

  20. Estimating the energy independence of a municipal wastewater treatment plant incorporating green energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kang, Jihoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We estimated green energy production in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. • Engineered approaches in mining multiple green energy resources were presented. • The estimated green energy production accounted for 6.5% of energy independence in the plant. • We presented practical information regarding green energy projects in water infrastructures. - Abstract: Increasing energy prices and concerns about global climate change highlight the need to improve energy independence in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper presents methodologies for estimating the energy independence of a municipal WWTP with a design capacity of 30,000 m 3 /d incorporating various green energy resources into the existing facilities, including different types of 100 kW photovoltaics, 10 kW small hydropower, and an effluent heat recovery system with a 25 refrigeration ton heat pump. It also provides guidance for the selection of appropriate renewable technologies or their combinations for specific WWTP applications to reach energy self-sufficiency goals. The results showed that annual energy production equal to 107 tons of oil equivalent could be expected when the proposed green energy resources are implemented in the WWTP. The energy independence, which was defined as the percent ratio of green energy production to energy consumption, was estimated to be a maximum of 6.5% and to vary with on-site energy consumption in the WWTP. Implementing green energy resources tailored to specific site conditions is necessary to improve the energy independence in WWTPs. Most of the applied technologies were economically viable primarily because of the financial support under the mandatory renewable portfolio standard in Korea

  1. Development and prospects of standardization in the German municipal wastewater sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, Claudia; Oelmann, Mark; Amann, Erwin

    2018-04-17

    Given the significance of wastewater treatment and disposal for society and the economy together with the omnipresence of standards in the sector, we studied the development and prospects of the rules governing standardization in the German municipal wastewater sector. We thereby provide a detailed description of sector-specific committee-based standardization and significantly contribute to the understanding of this complex arena. We find that the German Association for Water Wastewater and Waste (DWA) has significantly improved its rules on standardization over time by aligning them closer to the generally accepted superordinate standardization principles. However, by focusing on theoretical findings of committee decision-making and committee composition, we argue that there is still scope for improvement with respect to rule reading and rule compliance. We show that the incentives at work in standardization committees are manifold, whereas the representation of the different stakeholder groups needs' remains unbalanced. Due to vested interests and potential strategic behavior of the various agents involved in standardization rule compliance does not necessarily happen naturally. To this end, we claim that the implementation of monitoring mechanisms can be a significant contribution to the institutional design of standardization and briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different schemes. Finally, we show that there is ample need for future research on the optimal design of such a scheme. Even though the analysis relates specifically to the DWA our claims apply to a wide range of standards development organizations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of the irrigation feasibility of low-cost filtered municipal wastewater for red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L cv. Surma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokul Chandra Biswas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the scarcity of clean water, treated wastewater potentially provides an alternative source for irrigation. In the present experiment, the feasibility of using low-cost filtered municipal wastewater in the irrigation of red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L cv. Surma cultivation was assessed. The collected municipal wastewater from fish markets, hospitals, clinics, sewage, and kitchens of households in Sylhet City, Bangladesh were mixed and filtered with nylon mesh. Six filtration methods were applied using the following materials: sand (T1; sand and wood charcoal consecutively (T2; sand, wood charcoal and rice husks consecutively (T3; sand, wood charcoal, rice husks and sawdust consecutively (T4; sand, wood charcoal, rice husks, sawdust and brick chips consecutively (T5; and sand, wood charcoal, rice husks, sawdust, brick chips and gravel consecutively (T6. The water from ponds and rivers was considered as the control treatment (To. The chemical properties and heavy metals content of the water were determined before and after the low cost filtering, and the effects of the wastewater on seed germination, plant growth and the accumulation rate of heavy metals by plants were assessed. After filtration, the pH, EC and TDS ranged from 5.87 to 9.17, 292 to 691 µS cm−1 and 267 to 729 mg L−1, respectively. The EC and TDS were in an acceptable level for use in irrigation, satisfying the recommendations of the FAO. However, select pH values were unsuitable for irrigation. The metal concentrations decreased after applying each treatment. The reduction of Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, As and Zn were 73.23%, 92.69%, 45.51%, 69.57%, 75.47% and 95.06%, respectively. When we considered the individual filtering material, the maximum amount of As and Pb was absorbed by sawdust; Cu and Zn by wood charcoal; Mn and Cu by sand and Fe by gravel. Among the six filtration treatments, T5 showed the highest seed germination (67.14%, similar to the control T0 (77

  3. Removal and Degradation Pathways of Sulfamethoxazole Present in Synthetic Municipal Wastewater via an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Sanchez Huerta, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    The current global water crisis in addition to continues contamination of natural water bodies with harmful organic micropollutants (OMPs) have driven the development of new water treatment technologies that allow the efficient removal of such compounds. Among a long list of OMPs, antibiotics are considered as top priority pollutants to be treated due to their great resistance to biological treatments and their potential to develop bacterial resistance. Different approaches, such as membrane-based and advance oxidation processes have been proposed to alleviate or minimize antibiotics discharge into aquatic environments. However most of these processes are costly and generate either matrices with high concentration of OMPs or intermediate products with potentially greater toxicity or persistence. Therefore, this thesis proposes the study of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for the treatment of synthetic municipal wastewater containing sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a world widely used antibiotic. Besides the general evaluation of AnMBR performance in the COD removal and biogas production, this research mainly focuses on the SMX removal and its degradation pathway. Thus 5 SMX quantification was performed through solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the identification of its transformation products (TPs) was assessed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The results achieved showed that, working under optimal conditions (35°C, pH 7 and ORP around -380 to -420 mV) and after a biomass adaptation period (maintaining 0.85 VSS/TSS ratio), the AnMBR process provided over 95% COD removal and 95-98% SMX removal, while allowing stable biogas composition and methane production (≈130 mL CH4/g CODremoved). Kinetic analysis through a batch test showed that after 24 h of biological reaction, AnMBR process achieved around 94% SMX removal, indicating a first order kinetic reaction with K= 0.119, which highlights the high degradation

  4. Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Chris, E-mail: cmetcalfe@trentu.c [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Tindale, Kathryn [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Li, Hongxia, E-mail: lihongxia@trentu.c [Worsfold Water Quality Centre, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Rodayan, Angela [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Yargeau, Viviane, E-mail: viviane.yargeau@mcgill.c [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    In this study of wastewater treatment plants in three Canadian cities, selected illicit drugs, including cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy (i.e. MDMA) were detected in untreated wastewater. Cocaine was the most widely used illicit drug at a median level for the 3 cities of 15.7 doses per day per 1000 people. For the other drugs, the median doses per day per 1000 people were 1.8 for amphetamine, 4.5 for methamphetamine and 0.4 for ecstasy. Methamphetamine use was highest in the largest city and cocaine use was lowest in the smallest city. Removal of the illicit drugs by wastewater treatment was generally >50%, except in a WWTP that uses primary treatment. The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy. - Cocaine and amphetamines were detected in untreated and treated sewage in the wastewater treatment plants of three Canadian cities, and community consumption patterns estimated from the concentrations of the drugs in untreated wastewater were consistent with estimates of the use of illicit drugs in Canada.

  5. Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Tindale, Kathryn; Li, Hongxia; Rodayan, Angela; Yargeau, Viviane

    2010-01-01

    In this study of wastewater treatment plants in three Canadian cities, selected illicit drugs, including cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy (i.e. MDMA) were detected in untreated wastewater. Cocaine was the most widely used illicit drug at a median level for the 3 cities of 15.7 doses per day per 1000 people. For the other drugs, the median doses per day per 1000 people were 1.8 for amphetamine, 4.5 for methamphetamine and 0.4 for ecstasy. Methamphetamine use was highest in the largest city and cocaine use was lowest in the smallest city. Removal of the illicit drugs by wastewater treatment was generally >50%, except in a WWTP that uses primary treatment. The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy. - Cocaine and amphetamines were detected in untreated and treated sewage in the wastewater treatment plants of three Canadian cities, and community consumption patterns estimated from the concentrations of the drugs in untreated wastewater were consistent with estimates of the use of illicit drugs in Canada.

  6. Municipal wastewater characteristics in Thailand and effects of soft intervention measures in households on pollutant discharge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Y; Koottatep, T; Jiawkok, S; Saengpeng, S

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries with large Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) sanitation indicator, pollutant discharge reduction function of wastewater treatment systems should be considered. In this paper, pollutant generations per capita (PGCs) and pollutant discharges per capita (PDCs) are estimated as a base dataset for wastewater management in Thailand. PDCs of black water, i.e. toilet wastewater, are found to be much smaller than PGCs of black water. However, PDCs of gray water, i.e. municipal wastewater other than toilet wastewater are large. Gray water is often discharged without treatment and contributes much to ambient water deterioration. Moreover, possible 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) discharge reductions with "soft interventions", i.e. measurements in households to reduce wastewater pollutant discharge such as using a paper filter or a plastic net in kitchen sinks and so on, are estimated as 39, 21 and 34% for BOD5, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and phosphate (PO4-P), respectively. For the estimation, environmental accounting housekeeping (EAH) books of domestic wastewater, spreadsheets with pollutant discharges by water usages and possible effects of "soft interventions" are applied. The framework of this study with "soft intervention" effects on pollutant discharge reductions should enhance wastewater management especially in the areas under development of wastewater treatment systems.

  7. Quality assessment of treated wastewater to be reused in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Rahimi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quality of a treated wastewater for agricultural and irrigation purposes was investigated. 39 quality parameters were investigated at the entrance of an effluent channel to the destination plain in monthly time intervals during a year. The aim of this study was drawing an analogy between analyses results and the latest standards in the world (nationwide and internationally, the agricultural and irrigation usage indexes and the Wilcox diagram. The results showed that some parameters such as turbidity, total suspended solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, detergents, total coliform and focal coliform, ammonium, residual sodium carbonate, the Kelly’s Ratio and the Wilcox diagram were exceeding the permissible limit and are not suitable for agriculture and irrigation. It was found that the aquifers in the study area were polluted by natural salinity and geogenic source. As a result, application of the treated wastewater from Qom for agriculture and irrigation purposes needs to be revised and monitored. An action plan is also needed to manage a huge source of water and to avoid further environmental and health risks.

  8. Treatment of micropollutants in municipal wastewater: Ozone or powdered activated carbon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margot, Jonas; Kienle, Cornelia; Magnet, Anoÿs; Weil, Mirco; Rossi, Luca; Alencastro, Luiz Felippe de; Abegglen, Christian; Thonney, Denis; Chèvre, Nathalie; Schärer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many organic micropollutants present in wastewater, such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides, are poorly removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To reduce the release of these substances into the aquatic environment, advanced wastewater treatments are necessary. In this context, two large-scale pilot advanced treatments were tested in parallel over more than one year at the municipal WWTP of Lausanne, Switzerland. The treatments were: i) oxidation by ozone followed by sand filtration (SF) and ii) powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption followed by either ultrafiltration (UF) or sand filtration. More than 70 potentially problematic substances (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors, drug metabolites and other common chemicals) were regularly measured at different stages of treatment. Additionally, several ecotoxicological tests such as the Yeast Estrogen Screen, a combined algae bioassay and a fish early life stage test were performed to evaluate effluent toxicity. Both treatments significantly improved the effluent quality. Micropollutants were removed on average over 80% compared with raw wastewater, with an average ozone dose of 5.7 mg O 3 l −1 or a PAC dose between 10 and 20 mg l −1 . Depending on the chemical properties of the substances (presence of electron-rich moieties, charge and hydrophobicity), either ozone or PAC performed better. Both advanced treatments led to a clear reduction in toxicity of the effluents, with PAC-UF performing slightly better overall. As both treatments had, on average, relatively similar efficiency, further criteria relevant to their implementation were considered, including local constraints (e.g., safety, sludge disposal, disinfection), operational feasibility and cost. For sensitive receiving waters (drinking water resources or recreational waters), the PAC-UF treatment, despite its current higher cost, was considered to be the most suitable option, enabling good removal of most

  9. Characteristic numbers of granular activated carbon for the elimination of micropollutants from effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstoem, F; Pinnekamp, J

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) is a promising step to extend existing treatment trains in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and, thus, to reduce the concentration of micropollutants (MPs) (e.g. pharmaceuticals) in wastewater. It is common practice to use characteristic numbers when choosing GAC for a specific application. In this study, characteristic numbers were correlated for five different GACs, with measured adsorption capacities of these carbons for three pharmaceutical MPs (carbamazepine, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) and dissolved organic carbon of a WWTP effluent. The adsorption capacities were measured using rapid small scale column tests. Density of GAC showed the highest correlation to adsorption of MP. All other characteristic numbers (iodine number, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface and methylene blue titre) are not suitable markers for choosing an appropriate activated carbon product for the elimination of MPs from municipal wastewater.

  10. Comparative experimental study on municipal wastewater disinfection with ozone and peracetic acid; Indagine sperimentale comparata sulla disinfezione di acque reflue urbane con ozono e acido peracetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, G.; Bertola, P.; Ziglio, G. [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Civile Ambientale

    1996-04-01

    The results of a pilot experimental study on the disinfection of treated municipal wastewater to be used in agriculture are presented. A comparative evaluation has been carried out on two parallel pilot-scale disinfection plants using respectively ozone and peracetic acid. After a preliminary sand filtration pilot unit. Both processes showed the capability of meeting the Italian standards for agricultural reuse, but the disinfection process with ozone required much higher doses than the one with peracetic acid, probably because of the higher reactivity of ozone, if compared to peracetic acid with the organic matter present in wastewater. Further research is needed in order to evaluate the efficiency of peracetic acid applied to microorganism different from the bacterial ones and to identify nature and consequences of possible disinfection by products.

  11. Evaluating the potential for dissimilatory nitrate reduction by anammox bacteria for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Barros, Celia M; Jia, Mingsheng; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P; Winkler, Mari K H

    2017-06-01

    Anammox bacteria can perform dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) with nitrite as intermediate coupled to the oxidation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). Batch tests with enriched anammox and a co-culture of anammox and heterotrophic bacteria showed the capacity of Candidatus 'Brocadia fulgida' to perform the DNRA coupled to the anammox reaction (DNRA-anammox) at a high rate although the culture was not previously adapted to VFA. From thermodynamic calculations it could be stated that low COD/N influent ratios favour the DNRA-anammox transformation over heterotrophic conversions since more free energy is gained. A process scheme is proposed for an innovative nitrogen removal system in which the nitrate produced by nitrite oxidizing bacteria and/or anammox bacteria is converted during DNRA-anammox pathway, resulting in a sustainable nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater while circumventing the troublesome out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria encountered in mainstream applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Peracetic acid as disinfectant of municipal wastewaters; L'acido peracetico nella disinfezione dei reflui urbani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Reparto di Medicina Ambientale, Rome (Italy); Lopez, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Acque, Reparto di Chimica e Tecnologia delle Acque, Bari (Italy)

    2000-09-01

    Based on the currently available literature, this paper is aimed at providing a sort of the <> on the use of peracetic acid (C{sub 3}COOOH{identical_to} Paa) as disinfectant of biologically treated municipal wastewater: the growing interest for this substance, used since many years in other sectors (e.g., food-industry, breweries, etc.) is mainly due to the claimed limited formation, if any, of harmful disinfecting by-products (Dbp) with consequent lack of toxicity in Paa treated wastewaters. Such features are just the opposite of those of chlorine, i.e. the most used disinfectant for municipal wastewater. During chlorine-disinfecting, in fact, numerous harmful organo-chlorinated Dbp are formed and, accordingly, the toxicity of chlorinated effluents results very high. In spite of the above reported <> properties of Paa, its use at large scale facilities is still restricted and this not only because of its costs but even for the limited knowledge concerning: the actual disinfecting effectiveness towards different pathogens, the nature and the toxicological properties of its potential Dbp, and the disinfecting performances at large scale facilities. The present paper, besides reporting an extensive and useful collection of references concerning Paa, provides a critical review on the current knowledge regarding specific Paa features such as: its disinfecting effectiveness towards different pathogenic micro-organisms, the nature and the toxicity of its disinfecting by-products, the environmental impact of Paa treated effluents, and the operative conditions used at large scale wastewater treatment plants. [Italian] Il presente lavoro, basandosi sui dati disponibili in letteratura, si propone di fare il punto sull'impiego dell'acido peracetico (CH{sub 3}COOOH{identical_to} PAA) come disinfettante di reflui urbani depurati. Il crescente interesse nei confronti di questa sostenza, gia' nota come disinfettante in

  13. Possible Use of Treated Wastewater as Irrigation Water at Urban Green Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Bozdoğan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing demands for fresh water resources have brought the reuse of treated wastewater into agendas. Wastewater has year-long potential to be used as an irrigation water source. Therefore, treated wastewater is used as irrigation water over agricultural lands and urban landscapes, as process water in industrial applications, as back-up water in environmental applications in water resources and wetlands of dry regions. The present study was conducted to investigate the possible use of domestic wastewater treated through pilot-scale constructed wetland of Adana-Karaisalı with dominant Mediterranean climate in irrigation of marigold (Tagetes erecta, commonly used over urban landscapes. Experiments were carried out between the dates May-November 2008 for 7 months with fresh water and treated wastewater. Plant growth parameters (plant height, plant diameter, number of branches and flowering parameters (number of flowers, flower diameter, flower pedicle thickness were monitored in monthly basis. Results revealed positive impacts of treated wastewater irrigations on plant growth during the initial 5 months between May-September but negative impacts in October and November. Similarly, treated wastewater irrigations had positive impacts on flowering parameters during the initial 3 months but had negative impacts during the subsequent 4 months. Such a case indicated shortened visual efficiencies of marigold. Therefore, treated wastewater can be used as an alternative water resource in irrigation of annual flowers, but better results can be attained by mixing treated wastewater with fresh water at certain ratios.

  14. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  15. The State of Water and Wastewater Management in the Municipalities of the Roztocze National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jóżwiakowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the current state of water and sewage management in the communes where the Roztocze National Park (RNP is located. The park is located in Lubelskie voivodship, in the territory of four communes: Zamość, Zwierzyniec, Adamów and Józefów, while its buffer zone is located in the communes of Krasnobród, Tereszpol and Szczebrzeszyn. The paper uses data from surveys conducted in these municipalities in 2016. On average, 68.9% of the population used the water supply system in the municipalities surveyed, while 33.4% of the inhabitants had the possibility of discharging sewage to the sewerage system. In the area of the communes, there are 10 collective, mechanical and biological wastewater treatment plants with a capacity exceeding 5 m 3 ·d -1 . The households which are not connected to the sewage network discharge wastewater mainly to non-return tanks. Four out of the seven surveyed communities had 64 domestic sewage treatment plants, including 60 systems with infiltration drainage, which do not ensure high efficiency of removing pollution and may even contribute to the degradation of groundwater quality. In order to solve the existing problems in the area of sewage and water management occurring in the communes where the Roztocze National Park is located, it is necessary to further develop collective sewage systems and equip the areas with dispersed buildings with highly efficient, residential sewage treatment plants, e.g. constructed wetlands.

  16. Impact of municipal wastewater effluent on seed bank response and soils excavated from a wetland impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, R.G.; Kremer, R.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive management of wetlands to improve wildlife habitat typically includes the manipulation of water depth, duration, and timing to promote desired vegetation communities. Increased societal, industrial, and agricultural demands for water may encourage the use of alternative sources such as wastewater effluents in managed wetlands. However, water quality is commonly overlooked as an influence on wetland soil seed banks and soils. In four separate greenhouse trials conducted over a 2-yr period, we examined the effects of municipal wastewater effluent (WWE) on vegetation of wetland seed banks and soils excavated from a wildlife management area in Missouri, USA. We used microcosms filled with one of two soil materials and irrigated with WWE, Missouri River water, or deionized water to simulate moist-soil conditions. Vegetation that germinated from the soil seed bank was allowed to grow in microcosms for approximately 100 d. Vegetative taxa richness, plant density, and biomass were significantly reduced in WWE-irrigated soil materials compared with other water sources. Salinity and sodicity rapidly increased in WWE-irrigated microcosms and probably was responsible for inhibiting germination or interfering with seedling development. Our results indicate that irrigation with WWE promoted saline-sodic soil conditions, which alters the vegetation community by inhibiting germination or seedling development. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  17. Efficacy of HRF in COD Removal from Secondary Effluent of Yasuj Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ehteshami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Re-use of wastewater is an appropriate approach for development of water resources and water supply strategies. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of HRF in COD removal from secondary effluent of municipal wastewater in Yasouj. Methods: The pilot which was used in the present study was a horizontal roughing filter designed and prepared according to the Wegelin’s Design Criteria. The Samples were removed daily and instantaneous based on the predicted number of samples (28 samples at each filtration rate from the input and output filter, and then tested in the laboratory by the D5000 device. The collected data was analyzed using ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: The results indicated that the average COD removal in the filtration rate of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 were 60, 51, and 38 percent respectively. Conclusion: The average output of the HRF for all three filtration rates was lower than the maximum EPA standard of Iran.

  18. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Municipal Wastewater and the Marine Receiving Environment Near Victoria Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Krogh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP within the environment have been growing with the advent of more precise analytical methods. The discharge of municipal wastewater has been identified as a significant source of these contaminants, particularly where wastewater treatment is minimal. Here we present results from a comprehensive monitoring regime located around Victoria, BC, Canada. Samples were collected between 2009 and 2016 from a variety of sources including marine water, sediment and biota adjacent to two major untreated sewage outfalls, as well as the sewage itself. PPCP concentrations within the untreated sewage were high, and the sediment surrounding the outfalls showed corresponding contamination. However, this contamination dropped quickly with distance from the outfall such that by 800 m distance most PPCPs were below detection limits. Tissue samples of resident Northern Horse mussels (Modiolus modiolus collected adjacent to one of the major sewage outfalls showed high single sample concentrations of the antimicrobial triclosan (317 ng g−1 dry weight, the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (176 ng g−1 dry weight, as well as the antidepressant sertraline (84.1 ng g−1 dry weight. Reference stations from around the region showed very low concentrations of contamination with almost all PPCP concentrations being below detection limits. Within the sewage, concentrations were largely stable overtime, with the exception of triclosan and triclocarban which both showed declines over the study period.

  19. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T.; Nguyen, Mi T.; Jones, Zackary L.; Ismail, Niveen S.; Sedlak, David L.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Luthy, Richard G.; Horne, Alex J.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe. PMID:23983451

  20. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the river receiving the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Taherkhani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Listeria spp. in the river water before and after discharge of the effluent of the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 samples were collected bi-weekly over 4 months from eleven discrete sampling locations in Zayandehrood River, Iran. Three sampling sites were located above the discharge point and five sites were located after the discharge point of WWTP. Samples were also collected from the influent and the effluent of WWTP. Listeria spp. were isolated using a selective enrichment procedure and a subculture onto polymyxin-acriflavine-lithium chloride-ceftazidime-esculin-mannitol Agar. All isolates were subjected to standard biochemical tests. Results: L. monocytogenes was isolated from influent (83%, effluent (50% and (18.5% river water. Listeria spp. was not found before the discharge point in river water. However, L. monocytogenes was isolated in samples collected from 200 m (33%, 500 m (33%, 2 km (16.5%, 5 km (16.5% and 10 km (16.5% downstream from the WWTP. Listeria innocua (9% and Listeria seeligeri (10% were the second most frequently isolated species. Conclusion: During the wastewater treatment, Listeria spp. is not removed completely. L. monocytogenes is widely distributed in the Zayandehrood river. L. monocytogenes released into surface water demonstrates a potential risk for public health. These results indicate the need for appropriate water management in order to reduce human and animal exposure to such pathogens.

  1. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T; Nguyen, Mi T; Jones, Zackary L; Ismail, Niveen S; Sedlak, David L; Sharp, Jonathan O; Luthy, Richard G; Horne, Alex J; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-08-01

    Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe.

  2. Phytoaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Natural Vegetation at the Municipal Wastewater Site in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Ruqia, Bibi; Hussain, Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in crops and soils from wastewater irrigation poses a significant threat to the human health. A study was carried out to investigate the removal potential of heavy metals (HM) by native plant species, namely Cannabis sativa L., Chenopodium album L., Datura stramonium L., Sonchus asper L., Amaranthus viridus L., Oenothera rosea (LHer), Xanthium stramonium L., Polygonum macalosa L., Nasturtium officinale L. and Conyza canadensis L. growing at the municipal wastewater site in Abbottabad city, Pakistan. The HM concentrations varied among plants depending on the species. Metal concentrations across species varied in the order iron (Fe) > zinc (Zn) > chromium (Cr) > nickel (Ni) > cadmium (Cd). Majority of the species accumulated more HM in roots than shoots. Among species, the concentrations (both in roots and shoots) were in the order C. sativa > C. album > X. stramonium > C. canadensis > A. viridus > N. officinale > P. macalosa > D. stramonium > S. asper > O. rosea. No species was identified as a hyperaccumulator. All species exhibited a translocation factor (TF) less than 1. Species like C. sativa, C. album and X. stramonium gave higher (> 1) biological concentration factor (BCF) and biological accumulation coefficient (BAC) especially for Fe, Cr and Cd than other species. Higher accumulation of heavy metals in these plant species signifies the general application of these species for phytostabilization and phytoextraction of HM from polluted soils.

  3. Tetracycline antibiotics in hospital and municipal wastewaters: a pilot study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, A; Paulo, M; Silva, L J G; Seifrtová, M; Lino, C M; Solich, P

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of tetracyclines (TCs), namely minocycline (MIN), TC, and its epimer epitetracycline (ETC), and doxycycline (DC), in four hospital wastewater effluents and its fate in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), in Coimbra, Portugal. Analytical determination was carried out by solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. A gradient system with a mobile phase containing oxalic acid 0.02 M and acetonitrile was used. After postcolumn derivatization with magnesium reagent, TCs were detected at lambda(exc) 386 nm and lambda(em) 500 nm. The proposed method allowed good sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. LOQs were 0.5 microg l(-1) for ETC and TC and 15 and 5 microg l(-1) for MIN and DC, respectively. The recovery values ranged between 66.4% and 117.1%, and intraday and interday repeatability was lower than 6.8%. The method was successfully used to determine the presence of the above-mentioned TCs in 24 wastewater composite samples obtained from hospital effluents and from influent and effluent of the WWTP located in Coimbra, Portugal. MIN and TC were found in 41.7% of the samples; ETC and DC were found in 25% and 8.3% of the samples, respectively. The levels found ranged from 6 to 531.7 microg l(-1) in hospital effluents, while its concentrations in WWTP ranged from 95.8 to 915.3 microg l(-1). A seasonal influence in the concentrations found has also been observed, the levels found in samples collected during spring being higher than those observed in samples collected during autumn; however, these are only preliminary results. The WWTP removal rate ranged between 89.5% and 100%.

  4. Protecting Lake Ontario - Treating Wastewater from the Remediated Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facility - 13227

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihammer, Till; Chaput, Barb [AECOM, 99 Commerce Drive, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3P 0Y7 (Canada); Vandergaast, Gary [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada); Arey, Jimi [Public Works and Government Services Canada, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative, a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soils (MCS). The Port Granby Project involves the relocation and remediation of up to 0.45 million cubic metres of such waste from the current Port Granby Waste Management Facility located in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, adjacent to the shoreline of Lake Ontario. The waste material will be transferred to a new suitably engineered Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) to be located inland approximately 700 m from the existing site. The development of the LTWMF will include construction and commissioning of a new Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) designed to treat wastewater consisting of contaminated surface run off and leachate generated during the site remediation process at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility as well as long-term leachate generated at the new LTWMF. Numerous factors will influence the variable wastewater flow rates and influent loads to the new WWTP during remediation. The treatment processes will be comprised of equalization to minimize impacts from hydraulic peaks, fine screening, membrane bioreactor technology, and reverse osmosis. The residuals treatment will comprise of lime precipitation, thickening, dewatering, evaporation and drying. The distribution of the concentration of uranium and radium - 226 over the various process streams in the WWTP was estimated. This information was used to assess potential worker exposure to radioactivity in the various process areas. A mass balance approach was used to assess the distribution of uranium and radium - 226, by applying individual contaminant removal rates for each process element of the WTP, based on pilot scale results and experience-based assumptions. The mass balance calculations were repeated for various flow

  5. Protecting Lake Ontario - Treating Wastewater from the Remediated Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facility - 13227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freihammer, Till; Chaput, Barb; Vandergaast, Gary; Arey, Jimi

    2013-01-01

    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative, a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soils (MCS). The Port Granby Project involves the relocation and remediation of up to 0.45 million cubic metres of such waste from the current Port Granby Waste Management Facility located in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, adjacent to the shoreline of Lake Ontario. The waste material will be transferred to a new suitably engineered Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) to be located inland approximately 700 m from the existing site. The development of the LTWMF will include construction and commissioning of a new Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) designed to treat wastewater consisting of contaminated surface run off and leachate generated during the site remediation process at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility as well as long-term leachate generated at the new LTWMF. Numerous factors will influence the variable wastewater flow rates and influent loads to the new WWTP during remediation. The treatment processes will be comprised of equalization to minimize impacts from hydraulic peaks, fine screening, membrane bioreactor technology, and reverse osmosis. The residuals treatment will comprise of lime precipitation, thickening, dewatering, evaporation and drying. The distribution of the concentration of uranium and radium - 226 over the various process streams in the WWTP was estimated. This information was used to assess potential worker exposure to radioactivity in the various process areas. A mass balance approach was used to assess the distribution of uranium and radium - 226, by applying individual contaminant removal rates for each process element of the WTP, based on pilot scale results and experience-based assumptions. The mass balance calculations were repeated for various flow

  6. Abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in five municipal wastewater treatment plants in the Monastir Governorate, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafraf, Ikbel Denden; Lekunberri, Itziar; Sànchez-Melsió, Alexandre; Aouni, Mahjoub; Borrego, Carles M; Balcázar, José Luis

    2016-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a growing and significant threat to global public health, requiring better understanding of the sources and mechanisms involved in its emergence and spread. We investigated the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) before and after treatment in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in different areas of the Monastir Governorate (Tunisia). Three of these WWTPs (Frina, Sahline and Zaouiet) use a conventional activated sludge process as secondary treatment, whereas the WWTP located in Beni Hassen applies an ultraviolet disinfection step after the activated sludge process and the WWTP located in Moknine treats wastewater using naturally aerated lagoons as a secondary treatment process. The abundance of six ARGs (bla CTX-M , bla TEM , qnrA, qnrS, sul I and ermB) and the class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) were determined by quantitative PCR. All ARGs and the intI1 gene were detected in the wastewater samples, except the bla CTX-M gene, which was not detected in both influent and effluent samples from Sahline and Beni Hassen WWTPs, and the qnrS gene, which was not detected neither in the WWTP influent in Moknine nor in the WWTP effluent in Beni Hassen. Although the relative concentration of ARGs was generally found to be similar between samples collected before and after the wastewater treatment, the abundance of bla CTX-M , bla TEM , and qnrS genes was higher in the effluent of the Frina WWTP which, unlike other WWTPs, not only receives domestic or industrial sewage but also untreated hospital waste. To the best of our knowledge, this study quantified for the first time the abundance of ARGs in different Tunisian WWTPs, and the results agree with previous studies suggesting that conventional wastewater treatment does not efficiently reduce ARGs. Therefore, these findings could be useful to improve the design or operation of WWTPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recycling of treated domestic effluent from an on-site wastewater treatment system for hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, N; Nair, J; Ho, G E

    2005-01-01

    An alternative method to conserve water and produce crops in arid regions is through hydroponics. Application of treated wastewater for hydroponics will help in stripping off nutrients from wastewater, maximising reuse through reduced evaporation losses, increasing control on quality of water and reducing risk of pathogen contamination. This study focuses on the efficiency of treated wastewater from an on-site aerobic wastewater treatment unit. The experiment aimed to investigate 1) nutrient reduction 2) microbial reduction and 3) growth rate of plants fed on wastewater compared to a commercial hydroponics medium. The study revealed that the chemical and microbial quality of wastewater after hydroponics was safe and satisfactory for irrigation and plant growth rate in wastewater hydroponics was similar to those grown in a commercial medium.

  8. Water harvesting from municipal wastewater via osmotic gradient: An evaluation of process performance

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Li, Zhenyu; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Wei, Chunhai; Amy, Gary L.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2013-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) presents a unique opportunity for integrated wastewater treatment and seawater desalination. This study assesses the efficiency of a submerged FO system to reduce the volume of wastewater that needs to be treated while recovering high quality water that can be further treated for sustainable fresh water production. A semi-batch operation was employed with two membrane orientations in terms of active and support layers. A change of membrane orientation could improve the flux and slightly reduce the salt leakage from the draw solution to the feed solution. The formation of fouling on the membrane resulted in a decrease of the initial flux and average flux with both membrane orientations. The fouling layer on the membrane surface was determined to be caused by biopolymer-like substances. Osmotic backwash removed almost all organic foulants from the membrane surface, but did not improve the flux. There was a moderate to high retention of nutrients (N and P), varying from 56% to 99%, and almost a complete retention for trace metals regardless of membrane orientation. However the membrane showed a limited ability to retain low molecular weight acids and low molecular weight neutral compounds. This study identified a possible role of the FO process to integrate wastewater treatment and seawater desalination for a sustainable solution of the water-energy nexus for coastal cities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

  9. Water harvesting from municipal wastewater via osmotic gradient: An evaluation of process performance

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) presents a unique opportunity for integrated wastewater treatment and seawater desalination. This study assesses the efficiency of a submerged FO system to reduce the volume of wastewater that needs to be treated while recovering high quality water that can be further treated for sustainable fresh water production. A semi-batch operation was employed with two membrane orientations in terms of active and support layers. A change of membrane orientation could improve the flux and slightly reduce the salt leakage from the draw solution to the feed solution. The formation of fouling on the membrane resulted in a decrease of the initial flux and average flux with both membrane orientations. The fouling layer on the membrane surface was determined to be caused by biopolymer-like substances. Osmotic backwash removed almost all organic foulants from the membrane surface, but did not improve the flux. There was a moderate to high retention of nutrients (N and P), varying from 56% to 99%, and almost a complete retention for trace metals regardless of membrane orientation. However the membrane showed a limited ability to retain low molecular weight acids and low molecular weight neutral compounds. This study identified a possible role of the FO process to integrate wastewater treatment and seawater desalination for a sustainable solution of the water-energy nexus for coastal cities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

  10. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m2 h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future.

  11. Inactivation of natural enteric bacteria in real municipal wastewater by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Gómez, E; Esteban García, B; Ballesteros Martín, M M; Fernández Ibáñez, P; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2014-10-15

    This study analyses the use of the solar photo-Fenton treatment in compound parabolic collector photo-reactors at neutral pH for the inactivation of wild enteric Escherichia coli and total coliform present in secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (SEWWTP). Control experiments were carried out to find out the individual effects of mechanical stress, pH, reactants concentration, and UVA radiation as well as the combined effects of UVA-Fe and UVA-H2O2. The synergistic germicidal effect of solar-UVA with 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 led to complete disinfection (up to the detection limit) of total coliforms within 120 min. The disinfection process was accelerated by photo-Fenton, achieving total inactivation in 60 min reducing natural bicarbonate concentration found in the SEWWTP from 250 to 100 mg L(-1) did not give rise to a significant enhancement in bacterial inactivation. Additionally, the effect of hydrogen peroxide and iron dosage was evaluated. The best conditions were 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 20 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+). Due to the variability of the SEWWTP during autumn and winter seasons, the inactivation kinetic constant varied between 0.07 ± 0.04 and 0.17 ± 0.04 min(-1). Moreover, the water treated by solar photo-Fenton fulfilled the microbiological quality requirement for wastewater reuse in irrigation as per the WHO guidelines and in particular for Spanish legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The implications of drought and water conservation on the reuse of municipal wastewater: Recognizing impacts and identifying mitigation possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quynh K; Jassby, David; Schwabe, Kurt A

    2017-11-01

    As water agencies continue to investigate opportunities to increase resilience and local water supply reliability in the face of drought and rising water scarcity, water conservation strategies and the reuse of treated municipal wastewater are garnering significant attention and adoption. Yet a simple water balance thought experiment illustrates that drought, and the conservation strategies that are often enacted in response to it, both likely limit the role reuse may play in improving local water supply reliability. For instance, as a particular drought progresses and agencies enact water conservation measures to cope with drought, influent flows likely decrease while influent pollution concentrations increase, particularly salinity, which adversely affects wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) costs and effluent quality and flow. Consequently, downstream uses of this effluent, whether to maintain streamflow and quality, groundwater recharge, or irrigation may be impacted. This is unfortunate since reuse is often heralded as a drought-proof mechanism to increase resilience. The objectives of this paper are two-fold. First, we illustrate-using a case study from Southern California during its most recent drought- how drought and water conservation strategies combine to reduce influent flow and quality and, subsequently, effluent flow and quality. Second, we use a recently developed regional water reuse decision support model (RWRM) to highlight cost-effective strategies that can be implemented to mitigate the impacts of drought on effluent water quality. While the solutions we identify cannot increase the flow of influent or effluent coming into or out of a treatment plant, they can improve the value of the remaining effluent in a cost-effective manner that takes into account the characteristics of its demand, whether it be for landscaping, golf courses, agricultural irrigation, or surface water augmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental transport and fate of endocrine disruptors from non-potable reuse of municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, B; Beller, H; Bartel, C M; Kane, S; Campbell, C; Grayson, A; Liu, N; Burastero, S

    2005-11-16

    This project was designed to investigate the important but virtually unstudied topic of the subsurface transport and fate of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) when treated wastewater is used for landscape irrigation (non-potable water reuse). Although potable water reuse was outside the scope of this project, the investigation clearly has relevance to such water recycling practices. The target compounds, which are discussed in the following section and include EDCs such as 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 17{beta}-estradiol, were studied not only because of their potential estrogenic effects on receptors but also because they can be useful as tracers of wastewater residue in groundwater. Since the compounds were expected to occur at very low (part per trillion) concentrations in groundwater, highly selective and sensitive analytical techniques had to be developed for their analysis. This project assessed the distributions of these compounds in wastewater effluents and groundwater, and examined their fate in laboratory soil columns simulating the infiltration of treated wastewater into an aquifer (e.g., as could occur during irrigation of a golf course or park with nonpotable treated water). Bioassays were used to determine the estrogenic activity present in effluents and groundwater, and the results were correlated with those from chemical analysis. In vitro assays for estrogenic activity were employed to provide an integrated measure of estrogenic potency of environmental samples without requiring knowledge or measurement of all bioactive compounds in the samples. For this project, the Las Positas Golf Course (LPGC) in the City of Livermore provided an ideal setting. Since 1978, irrigation of this area with treated wastewater has dominated the overall water budget. For a variety of reasons, a group of 10 monitoring wells were installed to evaluate wastewater impacts on the local groundwater. Additionally, these wells were regularly monitored for tritium ({sup 3}H

  14. Treated wastewater and Nitrate transport beneath irrigated fields near Dodge city, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.; Townsend, M.A.; Vocasek, F.; Ma, Liwang; Ashok, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    Use of secondary-treated municipal wastewater for crop irrigation south of Dodge City, Kansas, where the soils are mainly of silty clay loam texture, has raised a concern that it has resulted in high nitratenitrogen concentrations (10-50 mg/kg) in the soil and deeper vadose zone, and also in the underlying deep (20-45 m) ground water. The goal of this field-monitoring project was to assess how and under what circumstances nitrogen (N) nutrients under cultivated corn that is irrigated with this treated wastewater can reach the deep ground water of the underlying High Plains aquifer, and what can realistically be done to minimize this problem. We collected 15.2-m-deep cores for physical and chemical properties characterization; installed neutron moisture-probe access tubes and suction lysimeters for periodic measurements; sampled area monitoring, irrigation, and domestic wells; performed dye-tracer experiments to examine soil preferential-flow processes through macropores; and obtained climatic, crop, irrigation, and N-application rate records. These data and additional information were used in the comprehensive Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) to identify key parameters and processes that influence N losses in the study area. We demonstrated that nitrate-N transport processes result in significant accumulations of N in the thick vadose zone. We also showed that nitrate-N in the underlying ground water is increasing with time and that the source of the nitrate is from the wastewater applications. RZWQM2 simulations indicated that macropore flow is generated particularly during heavy rainfall events, but during our 2005-06 simulations the total macropore flow was only about 3% of precipitation for one of two investigated sites, whereas it was more than 13% for the other site. Our calibrated model for the two wastewater-irrigated study sites indicated that reducing current levels of corn N fertilization by half or more to the level of 170 kg/ha substantially

  15. Heavy metal input to agricultural soils from irrigation with treated wastewater: Insight from Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Cary, Lise; Psarras, Georgios; Surdyk, Nicolas; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Pettenati, Marie; Maton, Laure

    2010-05-01

    A major objective of the EU FP6 project SAFIR was to overcome certain drawbacks of wastewater reuse through the development of a new irrigation technology combining small-scale modular water treatment plants on farm level and improved irrigation hardware, in the aim to lower the risks related to low quality water and to increase water use efficiency. This innovative technology was tested in several hydro-climatic contexts (Crete, Italy, Serbia, China) on experimental irrigated tomato and potato fields. Here we present the heavy metal variations in soil after medium-term (3 irrigation seasons from 2006-2008) use of treated municipal wastewater with a special focus on lead and lead isotope signatures. The experimental site is located in Chania, Crete. A matrix of plots were irrigated, combining different water qualities (secondary, primary treated wastewater, tap water, partially spiked with heavy metals, going through newly developed tertiary treatment systems) with different irrigation strategies (surface and subsurface drip irrigation combined with full irrigation and partial root drying). In order to assess small scale heavy metal distribution around a drip emitter, Pb isotope tracing was used, combined with selective extraction. The sampling for Pb isotope fingerprinting was performed after the 3rd season of ww-irrigation on a lateral profile from a drip irrigator (half distance between drip lines, i.e. 50cm) and three depth intervals (0-10, 10-20, 20-40 cm). These samples were lixiviated through a 3 step selective extraction procedure giving rise to the bio-accessible, mobile and residual fraction: CaCl2/NaNO3 (bio-accessible fraction), DPTA (mobile fraction), total acid attack (residual fraction). Those samples were analysed for trace elements (including heavy metals) and major inorganic compounds by ICP-MS. The extracted fractions were then analysed by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) for their lead isotope fingerprints (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb

  16. Use of hydroponics culture to assess nutrient supply by treated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrover, M.; Moya, G.; Vadell, J.

    2009-07-01

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation is increasing, especially in those areas where water resources are limited. Treated wastewaters contain nutrients that are useful for plant growth and help to reduce fertilizers needs. Nutrient content of these waters depends on the treatment system. (Author)

  17. Treatment of municipal wastewater in full-scale on-site sand filter reduces BOD efficiently but does not reach requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Petteri; Sinkkonen, Aki; Zaitsev, Gennadi; Mäkinen, Esa; Grönroos, Timo; Romantschuk, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A traditional sand filter for treatment of household wastewater was constructed in the fall of 2012 at Biolinja 12, Turku, Finland. Construction work was led and monitored by an authorized wastewater treatment consultant. The filter was placed on a field bordered by open ditches from all sides in order to collect excess rain and snowmelt waters. The filter was constructed and insulated from the environment so that all outflowing water was accounted for. Untreated, mainly municipal, wastewater from Varissuo suburb was pumped from a sewer separately via three septic tanks (volume = 1 m 3 each) into the filters. Normally, wastewater was distributed to ground filters automatically according to pre-programmed schedule. Initially, the daily flow was 1200 L day -1 to reflect the average organic load of a household of five persons (load: ca 237 g day -1 BOD; 73 g day -1 total N; and 10.4 g day -1 total P). Later in the test, the flow rate was decreased first to 900 and then to 600 L day -1 to better reflect the average volume produced by five persons. Volumes of inlet wastewater as well as treated water were monitored by magnetic flow meters. Samples were withdrawn from the inlet water, from the water entering the filters after the third septic tank, and from the outflowing water. After an initial adaption time, the reductions in BOD and chemical oxygen demand were constantly between 92 and 98%, showing that the biological degradation process in the filters functioned optimally and clearly comply with the national and EU standards. The reduction in total nitrogen and total phosphorus, however, reached required levels only during the first months of testing, apparently when buildup of microbial biomass was still ongoing. After this initial period of 3 months showing satisfactory reduction levels, the reduction of total nitrogen varied between 5 and 25% and total phosphorus mostly between 50 and 65%. Nitrification was efficient in the filter, but as indicated

  18. The assessment of treated wastewater quality and the effects of mid-term irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties (case study: Bandargaz-treated wastewater)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboosi, Kami

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of inflow and outflow wastewater of the Bandargaz wastewater treatment plant on the basis of the data collection of operation period and the samples taken during the study. Also the effects of mid-term use of the wastewater for irrigation (from 2005 to 2013) on soil physical and chemical characteristics were studied. For this purpose, 4 samples were taken from the inflow and outflow wastewater and 25 quality parameters were measured. Also, the four soil samples from a depth of 0-30 cm of two rice field irrigated with wastewater in the beginning and middle of the planting season and two samples from one adjacent rice field irrigated with fresh water were collected and their chemical and physical characteristics were determined. Average of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, chemical oxygen demand and 5 days biochemical oxygen demand in treated wastewater were 1.35 dS/m, 707 ppm, 0.93, 80 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. Results showed that although some restrictions exist about chlorine and bicarbonate, the treated wastewater is suitable for irrigation based on national and international standards and criteria. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused a little increase of soil salinity. However, it did not lead to increase of soil salinity beyond rice salinity threshold. Also, there were no restrictions on soil in the aspect of salinity and sodium hazard on the basis of many irrigated soil classifications. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused the increase of total N, absorbable P and absorbable K in soil due to high concentration of those elements in treated wastewater.

  19. A new hybrid treatment system of bioreactors and electrocoagulation for superior removal of organic and nutrient pollutants from municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yoon, Yong Soo

    2014-02-01

    This paper evaluated a novel pilot scale hybrid treatment system which combines rotating hanging media bioreactor (RHMBR), submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) along with electrocoagulation (EC) as post treatment to treat organic and nutrient pollutants from municipal wastewater. The results indicated that the highest removal efficiency was achieved at the internal recycling ratio as 400% of the influent flow rate which produced a superior effluent quality with 0.26mgBOD5L(-1), 11.46mgCODCrL(-1), 0.00mgNH4(+)-NL(-1), and 3.81mgT-NL(-1), 0.03mgT-PL(-1). During 16months of operation, NH4(+)-N was completely eliminated and T-P removal efficiency was also up to 100%. It was found that increasing in internal recycling ratio could improve the nitrate and nitrogen removal efficiencies. Moreover, the TSS and coliform bacteria concentration after treatment was less than 5mgL(-1) and 30MPNmL(-1), respectively, regardless of internal recycling ratios and its influent concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

    2014-01-01

    Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits.

  1. Impact of treated wastewater for irrigation on soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A M; Gonzalez-Rubio, A; Suarez, D L

    2018-05-01

    The use of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation has been suggested as an alternative to use of fresh water because of the increasing scarcity of fresh water in arid and semiarid regions of the world. However, significant barriers exist to widespread adoption due to some potential contaminants that may have adverse effects on soil quality and or public health. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of bacterial communities and the presence of potential pathogenic bacterial sequences in TWW in comparison to synthetic fresh water (SFW) using pyrosequencing. The results were analyzed using UniFrac coupled with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) to compare diversity and abundance of different bacterial groups in TWW irrigated soils to soils treated with SFW. Shannon diversity index values (H') suggest that microbial diversity was not significantly different (P<0.086) between soils with TWW and SFW. Pyrosequencing detected sequences of 17 bacterial phyla with Proteobacteria (32.1%) followed by Firmicutes (26.5%) and Actinobacteria (14.3%). Most of the sequences associated with nitrifying bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, carbon degraders, denitrifying bacteria, potential pathogens, and fecal indicator bacteria were more abundant in TWW than in SFW. Therefore, TWW effluent may contain bacterial that may be very active in many soil functions as well as some potential pathogens. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Removal of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes by conventional wastewater treatment processes in Saudi Arabia: Is the treated wastewater safe to reuse for agricultural irrigation?

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants in a local wastewater treatment plant over the duration of one year, and to assess the microbial risk associated with reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation

  3. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal AZIZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. In this context, the present work is a review focusing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture as an important strategy for solving water deficit problems in arid areas. Much information concerning the wastewater reuse in different regions of the world and in Morocco, the different wastewater treatment technologies existing in Morocco were discussed. The review focused also the fertilizing potential of wastewater in agriculture, the role of nutrients and their concentrations in wastewater and their advantages effects on plant growth and yield.

  4. Occurrence and removal of benzotriazoles and ultraviolet filters in a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yousheng; Ying Guangguo; Shareef, Ali; Kookana, Rai S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence and removal of four benzotriazoles (BTs) (benzotriazole: BT; 5-methyl-benzotriazole: 5-TTri; 5-chloro-benzotriazole: CBT; 5,6-dimethyl-benzotriazole: XTri) and six UV filters (benzophenone-3: BP-3; 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor: 4-MBC; octyl 4-methoxycinnamate: OMC; 2-(3-t-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-5-chloro benzotriazole: UV-326; 2-(2′-Hydroxy-5′-octylphenyl)-benzotriazole: UV-329; octocrylene: OC) in a full scale municipal wastewater treatment in South Australia. BT, 5-TTri and BP-3 were found as the dominant compounds detected in the wastewater samples with average concentrations up to 5706 ± 928 ng/L, 6758 ± 1438 ng/L and 2086 ± 1027 ng/L in influent, and up to 2439 ± 233 ng/L, 610 ± 237 ng/L and 153 ± 121 ng/L in effluent, respectively. In the biosolid, 4-MBC and OC were found with the highest concentrations of 962 ± 135 ng/g and 465 ± 65 ng/g, respectively. Sorption onto sludge played a dominant role in the removal for UV filters, especially for 4-MBC, UV-326 and OC, which accounted for 54%–92% of influent loads, while biological degradation played a significant role for the other compounds. Highlights: ► Selected benzotriazoles (BTs) and UV filters were removed at various rates in a full scale WWTP. ► High aqueous phase removals were achieved for UV filters, and low to moderate removals for benzotriazoles. ► Sorption played a dominant role in elimination of UV filters, while degradation is the main factor for the others. - Various removal rates were achieved for benzotriazoles and UV filters by sorption and degradation processes in different stages of WWTPs.

  5. Two strategies for phosphorus removal from reject water of municipal wastewater treatment plant using alum sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Kearney, P

    2009-01-01

    In view of the well recognized need of reject water treatment in MWWTP (municipal wastewater treatment plant), this paper outlines two strategies for P removal from reject water using alum sludge, which is produced as by-product in drinking water treatment plant when aluminium sulphate is used for flocculating raw waters. One strategy is the use of the alum sludge in liquid form for co-conditioning and dewatering with the anaerobically digested activated sludge in MWWTP. The other strategy involves the use of the dewatered alum sludge cakes in a fixed bed for P immobilization from the reject water that refers to the mixture of the supernatant of the sludge thickening process and the supernatant of the anaerobically digested sludge. Experimental trials have demonstrated that the alum sludge can efficiently reduce P level in reject water. The co-conditioning strategy could reduce P from 597-675 mg P/L to 0.14-3.20 mg P/L in the supernatant of the sewage sludge while the organic polymer dosage for the conditioning of the mixed sludges would also be significantly reduced. The second strategy of reject water filtration with alum sludge bed has shown a good performance of P reduction. The alum sludge has P-adsorption capacity of 31 mg-P/g-sludge, which was tested under filtration velocity of 1.0 m/h. The two strategies highlight the beneficial utilization of alum sludge in wastewater treatment process in MWWTP, thus converting the alum sludge as a useful material, rather than a waste for landfill.

  6. Removal of Escherichia coli in treated wastewater used for food production in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, J. O.; Mdegela, R. H.; Kusiluka, L. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the removal efficiency of Escherichia coli at Mafisa and Mzumbe domestic wastewater treatment ponds in Morogoro, Tanzania. The study was done from October, 2013 to April, 2014. A total of 125 water samples from inlets and subsequent anaerobic, facultative......, April and August. To conclude, the simple wastewater treatment ponds in the study sites were effective and demonstrated potential for reduction of public health risks associated with use of treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation and aquaculture....... and maturation ponds as well as treated wastewater were collected and analysed for E. coli. The estimated retention times of the wastewater treatment units were 19 and 22 days in Mafisa and Mzumbe ponds, respectively. The concentration of E. coli ranged from 4.70 to 5.60 log cfu/mL in untreated wastewater...

  7. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%, biochemical oxygen demand (BODT (93.98%, chemical oxygen demand (COD (95.59%, total suspended solid (TSS (95.98%, ammonia (80.68%, nitrite (79.71%, nitrate (71.16%, phosphorous (44.77%, total coliform (TC (99.9%, and fecal coliform (FC (99.9% was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF, and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  8. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD) column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (BODT) (93.98%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (95.59%), total suspended solid (TSS) (95.98%), ammonia (80.68%), nitrite (79.71%), nitrate (71.16%), phosphorous (44.77%), total coliform (TC) (99.9%), and fecal coliform (FC) (99.9%) was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  9. Combined treatment of municipal waste-water and landfill leachate by means of membrane bioreactor: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannelli, R.; Lizza, E.; Giraldi, D.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study focusing on the applicability of the membrane bioreactor technology for the combined treatment of municipal wastewater and landfill leachate. In the experiment we used both a micro-filtration unit and a traditional secondary settler in an innovative combined process that can present some economic advantages on the pure membrane separation, so as to evaluate and compare the efficiencies of the two adopted technologies. The experiment was carried out in two phases: first, we evaluated the system only with municipal wastewater; then we tested the treatment of a mixture of municipal wastewater and landfill leachate. We obtained good results in both cases for standard quality indicators (COD, TSS, NH 4 ), specific inorganic compounds such as Fe and Zn and microorganisms. The micro-filtrations unit had very good performances with respect to both treatment efficiency and hydraulic behaviour: after the first start-up period, we observed a regular running of the unit with no need for special chemical or mechanical treatment different from the ones adopted ordinarily in the MBR treatment systems [it

  10. Design of future municipal wastewater treatment plants: A mathematical approach to manage complexity and identify optimal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    The increasing number of alternative wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies and stricter effluent requirements imposed by regulations make the early stage decision making for WWTP layout design, which is currently based on expert decisions and previous experiences, much harder. This paper...... therefore proposes a new approach based on mathematical programming to manage the complexity of the problem and generate/identify novel and optimal WWTP layouts for municipal/domestic wastewater treatment. Towards this end, after developing a database consisting of primary, secondary and tertiary WWT...... solved to obtain the optimal WWT network and the optimal wastewater and sludge flow through the network. The tool is evaluated on a case study, which was chosen as the Benchmark Simulation Model no.1 (BSM1) and many retrofitting options for obtaining a cost-effective treatment were investigated...

  11. Chromium fate in constructed wetlands treating tannery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotro, Gabriela; Palazolo, Paul; Larsen, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Nine experimental wetlands were built to determine chromium partitioning inside systems treating tannery wastewaters. Results showed 5-day biochemical oxygen demand and chromium removals of 95 to 99% and 90 to 99%, respectively. The majority of chromium was found in association with media (96 to 98%), followed by effluents (2.9 to 3.9%), and the least was found in plant parts (0.1%). Chemical speciation modeling of solutions and scanning electron microscope analysis suggest two potential chromium removal mechanisms--sorption/coprecipitation with iron hydroxides or oxyhydroxides and biomass sorption. The release of the majority of chromium in the iron- and organic-bound phases during sequential extractions supports the proposed dominant removal mechanisms. The use of a mixture of peat and gravel resulted in lower removal efficiencies and stronger partitioning in organic phases during sequential extractions. Chromium was efficiently removed by wetlands, retained through chemical and biological processes. Future research will focus on further exploring removal mechanisms and proposing management strategies for the chromium-containing wetland media.

  12. Survey of onsite wastewater treatment systems in Kristiansand municipality Norway : pollutants removal performance and solutions : performance analysis based on Web-GIS model

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    In Norway, 16% of the population lives in rural areas where centralized infrastructure for wastewater treatment is neither cost effective and nor sustainable due to topography and long distance to connect a treatment facility. There are 330,000 small decentralized wastewater treatment plants in Norway and out of those 1,500 plants are located in Kristiansand municipality. Eutrophication and fecal contamination in the recipients are the major cause of concern to wastewater disposal from such o...

  13. Hydrothermal liquefaction of municipal wastewater cultivated algae: Increasing overall sustainability and value streams of algal biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Griffin William

    The forefront of the 21st century presents ongoing challenges in economics, energy, and environmental remediation, directly correlating with priorities for U.S. national security. Displacing petroleum-derived fuels with clean, affordable renewable fuels represents a solution to increase energy independence while stimulating economic growth and reducing carbon-based emissions. The U.S. government embodied this goal by passing the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in 2007, mandating 36 billion gallons of annual biofuel production by 2022. Algae possess potential to support EISA goals and have been studied for the past 30-50 years as an energy source due to its fast growth rates, noncompetitive nature to food markets, and ability to grow using nutrient waste streams. Algae biofuels have been identified by the National Research Council to have significant sustainability concerns involving water, nutrient, and land use. Utilizing municipal wastewater to cultivate algae provides both water and nutrients needed for growth, partially alleviating these concerns. This dissertation demonstrates a pathway for algae biofuels which increases both sustainability and production of high-value products. Algae are cultivated in pilot-scale open ponds located at the Lawrence Wastewater Treatment Plant (Lawrence, KS) using solely effluent from the secondary clarifier, prior to disinfection and discharge, as both water and nutrient sources. Open ponds were self-inoculated by wastewater effluent and produced a mixed-species culture of various microalgae and macroalgae. Algae cultivation provided further wastewater treatment, removing both nitrogen and phosphorus, which have devastating pollution effects when discharged to natural watersheds, especially in large draining watersheds like the Gulf Coast. Algae demonstrated significant removal of other trace metals such as iron, manganese, barium, aluminum, and zinc. Calcium did not achieve high removal rate but did present a

  14. Development of permeate flux model for municipal wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, S.; Zhou, H.; Zytner, R.; Melin, T.

    2002-01-01

    In municipal wastewater treatment, membrane filtration technologies receive great attention because they usually produce the better quality effluent, generate less sludge and require a smaller aeration tank volume. However, one main challenge of using membranes is membrane fouling, which results in a permeate flux decrease or transmembrane pressure increase over the time. Many efforts have been directed to develop the mechanistic permeate flux model to correlate the permeate flux with process parameters. However, their applicability has been largely thwarted due to complicated membrane fouling mechanisms and the interactions of many factors affecting the membrane bioreactor. This paper proposes a semi-empirical permeate flux model for the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process using ZENON immersed hollow fibre membrane modules. The semi-empirical model was proposed by assuming that the permeate flux is equal to transmembrane pressure divided by total resistance. The total resistance is divided into two components: an inside membrane resistance and an outer fouling layer resistance. These membrane resistances are then related to the ageing of membrane used. Good correlation was found between the predicted and measured flux, with the mean absolute deviation being less than 4%. The observations also identified some general rules for operating membrane systems. Ideally, it is advisable that high pressure periods be avoided as this leads to a faster increase of non-reversal membrane resistance. It was also observed that membrane preservatives should be washed out carefully prior to use. (author)

  15. Microalgae Cultivation on Anaerobic Digestate of Municipal Wastewater, Sewage Sludge and Agro-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Zuliani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are fast-growing photosynthetic organisms which have the potential to be exploited as an alternative source of liquid fuels to meet growing global energy demand. The cultivation of microalgae, however, still needs to be improved in order to reduce the cost of the biomass produced. Among the major costs encountered for algal cultivation are the costs for nutrients such as CO2, nitrogen and phosphorous. In this work, therefore, different microalgal strains were cultivated using as nutrient sources three different anaerobic digestates deriving from municipal wastewater, sewage sludge or agro-waste treatment plants. In particular, anaerobic digestates deriving from agro-waste or sewage sludge treatment induced a more than 300% increase in lipid production per volume in Chlorella vulgaris cultures grown in a closed photobioreactor, and a strong increase in carotenoid accumulation in different microalgae species. Conversely, a digestate originating from a pilot scale anaerobic upflow sludge blanket (UASB was used to increase biomass production when added to an artificial nutrient-supplemented medium. The results herein demonstrate the possibility of improving biomass accumulation or lipid production using different anaerobic digestates.

  16. Two-stage combined treatment of acid mine drainage and municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dongyang; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of the combined treatment of field-collected acid mine drainages (AMD, pH = 4.2 ± 0.9, iron = 112 ± 118 mg/L, sulfate = 1,846 ± 594 mg/L) and municipal wastewater (MWW, avg. chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 234-333 mg/L) using a two-stage process. The process consisted of batch mixing of the two wastes to condition the mixture solutions, followed by anaerobic biological treatment. The mixings performed under a range of AMD/MWW ratios resulted in phosphate removal of 9 to ∼100%, the mixture pH of 6.2-7.9, and COD/sulfate concentration ratio of 0.05-5.4. The biological treatment consistently removed COD and sulfate by >80% from the mixture solutions for COD/sulfate ratios of 0.6-5.4. Alkalinity was produced in the biological treatment causing increased pH and further removal of metals from the solutions. Scanning electron microscopy of produced sludge with energy dispersion analysis suggested chemical precipitation and associated adsorption and co-precipitation as the mechanisms for metal removal (Fe: >99%, Al: ∼100%, Mn: 75 to ∼100%, Ca: 52-81%, Mg: 13-76%, and Na: 56-76%). The study showed promising results for the treatment method and denoted the potential of developing innovative technologies for combined management of the two wastes in mining regions.

  17. Nitrogen and Phosphorous Removal in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in China: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water environment in China was degraded rapidly in the last two decades, resulting in increasingly tighten criteria issued for municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. This paper reviewed the recent advances of process design and operational optimization for nutrients removal. Three major processes, as anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO process, oxidation ditch (OD, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR occupied 65% of WWTPs amounts and 54% of treatment volumes of China in 2006. However conservative process designs and operational faults often impaired the process performances and energy efficiency. Therefore, typical processes were modified, combined, and innovated to meet the requirements of the diverse influent characteristics and lower energy consumptions. Furthermore, operational optimization techniques by modeling, simulation, and real-time control were also developed and applied in China to improve the process operation. Although great efforts had been contributed to improve the WWTPs performances in China, attentions should be continuously paid to the introduction, instruction, and implementation of advanced techniques. At last, the technical demands and appropriated techniques of WWTPs in China were briefly discussed.

  18. Anaerobic Codigestion of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge with Food Waste: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubayeda Zahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the codigestion of food manufacturing and processing wastes (FW with sewage sludge (SS, that is, municipal wastewater treatment plant primary sludge and waste activated sludge. Bench scale mesophilic anaerobic reactors were fed intermittently with varying ratio of SS and FW and operated at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days and organic loading of 2.0 kg TS/m3·d. The specific biogas production (SBP increased by 25% to 50% with the addition of 1%–5% FW to SS which is significantly higher than the SBP from SS of 284±9.7 mLN/g VS added. Although the TS, VS, and tCOD removal slightly increased, the biogas yield and methane content improved significantly and no inhibitory effects were observed as indicated by the stable pH throughout the experiment. Metal screening of the digestate suggested the biosolids meet the guidelines for use as a soil conditioner. Batch biochemical methane potential tests at different ratios of SS : FW were used to determine the optimum ratio using surface model analysis. The results showed that up to 47-48% FW can be codigested with SS. Overall these results confirm that codigestion has great potential in improving the methane yield of SS.

  19. Novel passive co-treatment of acid mine drainage and municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, William H J; Winfrey, Brandon K; Nairn, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-scale, four-stage continuous-flow reactor system was constructed to test the viability of high-strength acid mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) passive co-treatment. Synthetic AMD of pH 2.6 and acidity of 1870 mg L(-1) as CaCO3 equivalent containing a mean 46, 0.25, 2.0, 290, 55, 1.2, and 390 mg L(-1) of Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn, respectively, was added at a 1:2 ratio with raw MWW from the City of Norman, OK, to the system which had a total residence time of 6.6 d. During the 135-d experiment, dissolved Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were consistently decreased by 99.8, 87.8, 97.7, 99.8, 13.9, 87.9, and 73.4%, respectively, pH increased to 6.79, and net acidic influent was converted to net alkaline effluent. At a wasting rate of 0.69% of total influent flow, the system produced sludge with total Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations at least an order of magnitude greater than the influent mix, which presents a metal reclamation opportunity. Results indicate that AMD and MWW passive co-treatment is a viable approach to use wastes as resources to improve water quality with minimal use of fossil fuels and refined materials.

  20. Flexible and stable heat energy recovery from municipal wastewater treatment plants using a fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Ren, Xianghao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Specially designed fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system was developed. • Hybrid operation performed better at part loads than single inverter operation. • The applied heat pump can work stably over a wide range of heat load variations. • Heat energy potential of treated effluent was better than influent. • The heat pump’s COP from the field test was 4.06 for heating and 3.64 for cooling. - Abstract: Among many options to improve energy self-sufficiency in sewage treatment plants, heat extraction using a heat pump holds great promise, since wastewater contains considerable amounts of thermal energy. The actual heat energy demand at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) varies widely with time; however, the heat pumps typically installed in WWTPs are of the on/off controlled fixed-speed type, thus mostly run intermittently at severe part-load conditions with poor efficiency. To solve this mismatch, a specially designed, fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system incorporating a fixed-speed compressor and an inverter-driven, variable-speed compressor was developed and tested in a real WWTP. In this hybrid configuration, to improve load response and energy efficiency, the base-heat load was covered by the fixed-speed compressor consuming relatively less energy than the variable-speed type at nominal power, and the remaining varying load was handled by the inverter compressor which exhibits a high load-match function while consuming relatively greater energy. The heat pump system developed reliably extracted heat from the treated effluent as a heat source for heating and cooling purposes throughout the year, and actively responded to the load changes with a high measured coefficient of performance (COP) of 4.06 for heating and 3.64 for cooling. Moreover, this hybrid operation yielded a performance up to 15.04% better on part loads than the single inverter operation, suggesting its effectiveness for improving annual energy saving when

  1. Evaluation on ecological stability and biodegradation of dyeing wastewater pre-treated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Park, C.K.; Yoo, D.H.; Lee, J.K.; Lee, B.J.; Han, B.S.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.

    2005-01-01

    Biological treatment of dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam has been performed in order to evaluate the biodegradation and ecological stability of effluent. In the process of electron-beam treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. Partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages like as biological processing. Dyeing wastewater contains many kind of pollutants which are difficult to be decomposed completely by microorganisms. In this study, biodegradation with dyeing wastewater pre-treated by electron beams was observed. On the other hand, consideration on public acceptance in terms of ecological stability of biological effluent pre-treated by electron beams was given in this study. The results of laboratory investigations on biodegradation and ecological stability of effluent showed that biodegradation of dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam was enhanced compared to unirradiated one. In the initial stage of biological oxidation regardless of different HRT, dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam could be oxidized easily compare to without treated one. More number of survived daphnia magna could be observed in the biological effluent pre-treated by electron beam. This means that biological effluent pre-treated by electron beam can be said 'it is safe on the ecological system'

  2. Nitrogen removal in Northern peatlands treating mine wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Katharina; Karlsson, Teemu; Turunen, Kaisa; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Backnäs, Soile

    2015-04-01

    Natural peatlands can be used as passive purification systems for mine wastewaters. These treatment peatlands are well-suited for passive water treatment as they delay the flow of water, and provide a large filtration network with many adsorptive surfaces on plant roots or soil particles. They have been shown to remove efficiently harmful metals and metalloids from mine waters due to variety of chemical, physical and biological processes such as adsorption, precipitation, sedimentation, oxidation and reduction reactions, as well as plant uptake. Many factors affect the removal efficiency such as inflow water quality, wetland hydrology, system pH, redox potential and temperature, the nature of the predominating purification processes, and the presence of other components such as salts. However, less attention has been paid to nitrogen (N) removal in peatlands. Thus, this study aimed to assess the efficiency of N removal and seasonal variation in the removal rate in two treatment peatlands treating mine dewatering waters and process effluent waters. Water sampling from treatment peatland inflow and outflow waters as well as pore waters in peatland were conducted multiple times during 2012-2014. Water samples were analysed for total N, nitrate-N and ammonium-N. Additionally, an YSI EXO2 device was used for continuous nitrate monitoring of waters discharged from treatment peatlands to the recipient river during summer 2014. The results showed that the oxic conditions in upper peat layer and microbial activity in treatment peatlands allowed the efficient oxidation of ammonium-N to nitrite-N and further to nitrate-N during summer time. However, the slow denitrification rate restricts the N removal as not all of the nitrate produced during nitrification is denitrified. In summer time, the removal rate of total N varied between 30-99 % being highest in late summer. N removal was clearly higher for treatment peatland treating process effluent waters than for peatland

  3. Non linear relationship between change in awareness in municipal solid waste management and domestic wastewater management - A case of the Jodipan and Ksatrian village, Malang, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyya, Nida Maisa; Sarli, Prasanti Widyasih; Soewondo, Prayatni

    2017-11-01

    In developing countries the awareness on the importance of sanitation facilities, whether it is for municipal solid waste or domestic wastewater treatment, is still very low. Jodipan and Ksatrian Village, in Malang, East Java, are two slum areas that have recently been improved visually by using simple colorful paints. The visual improvement was expected to increase the resident's awareness on the importance of keeping the area clean; adjacent to the project, a new municipal waste management system was also put in place, changing the president's behaviour towards municipal solid waste. This study focuses on the relationship between community awareness in municipal solid waste management and domestic wastewater management. The result is expected to be an input for the government to enhance wastewater infrastructure program and its sustainability, related to its awareness on municipal solid waste. A descriptive model through questionnaire to 48 households of Jodipan sub district in Kampung Warna-warni and 69 households of Ksatrian sub district in Kampung 3D by random sampling, with an error of 0.1, was used to conduct this research. A nonlinear relationship between the change in awareness in municipal solid waste management (MSW) and domestic wastewater management was observed, with only 0.1312 of determination coefficient. Weak Spearman correlation coefficient number was found, ranging from 0.284 to 0.39, indicating another parameter turned into a role on affecting the awareness of wastewater. Further study about another parameter (eg. social and economic parameter) intervension on sanitation awareness could be investigated.

  4. Chemical changes in the soil and production of oat fertilized with treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fortes Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project was to ensure the quality and impact of the application of treated sewage wastewater on the chemical properties of Dystrophic Yellow Argisol and on biomass and grain production of white oat (Avena sativa, L. After the wastewater was chemically characterized, it was applied to the soil in concentrations of 0, 30, 60 and 90 m3 ha-1 in plots of 200 m2. Doses of water were compared with mineral fertilizer doses recommended for oat. The experimental design was a split plot with four randomized blocks. The wastewater had chemical qualities useful for grain cultivation. The values of calcium, CTC, V, pH increased and acidity potential decreased in the soil after the wastewater was applied. Doses of the wastewater provided increments in biomass production and oat grains similar to that obtained with chemical fertilizers. We conclude that wastewater can be used to correct soil acidity and replace or supplement chemical fertilizers.

  5. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    soil contamination and the cumulative impact of wastewater, we compared two plots, all under orange- ... A slight increase in the concentration of soil enteric bacteria and soil fungal densities was ..... could be used for fruit tree irrigation.

  6. Wastewater garden--a system to treat wastewater with environmental benefits to community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Jaya

    2008-01-01

    Many communities and villages around the world face serious problems with lack of sanitation especially in disposing of the wastewater-black water and grey water from the houses, or wash outs from animal rearing sheds. Across the world diverting wastewater to the surroundings or to the public spaces are not uncommon. This is responsible for contaminating drinking water sources causing health risks and environmental degradation as they become the breeding grounds of mosquitoes and pathogens. Lack of collection and treatment facilities or broken down sewage systems noticed throughout the developing world are associated with this situation. Diverting the wastewater to trees and vegetable gardens was historically a common practice. However the modern world has an array of problems associated with such disposal such as generation of large quantity of wastewater, unavailability of space for onsite disposal or treatment and increase in population. This paper considers the wastewater garden as a means for wastewater treatment and to improve the vegetation and biodiversity of rural areas. This can also be implemented in urban areas in association with parks and open spaces. This also highlights environmental safety in relation to the nutrient, pathogen and heavy metal content of the wastewater. The possibilities of different types of integration and technology that can be adopted for wastewater gardens are also discussed. IWA Publishing 2008.

  7. Analysis of pollution removal from wastewater by Ceratophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... The treatments included raw municipal wastewater (RMW) and treated ... municipal wastewater (from 1.34 to 0.95 ds/m) and the EC of raw ... wastes are generated daily from highly populated cities ... plants is an integral part of the biogeochemical cycle of .... Waste Management and Treatment, 2nd ed.

  8. Transfer of wastewater associated pharmaceuticals and personal care products to crop plants from biosolids treated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenxi; Spongberg, Alison L; Witter, Jason D; Sridhar, B B Maruthi

    2012-11-01

    The plant uptake of emerging organic contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is receiving increased attention. Biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment have been previously identified as a major source for PPCPs. Thus, plant uptake of PPCPs from biosolids applied soils needs to be understood. In the present study, the uptake of carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, and triclocarban by five vegetable crop plants was examined in a field experiment. At the time of harvest, three compounds were detected in all plants grown in biosolids-treated soils. Calculated root concentration factor (RCF) and shoot concentration factor (SCF) are the highest for carbamazepine followed by triclocarban and diphenhydramine. Positive correlation between RCF and root lipid content was observed for carbamazepine but not for diphenhydramine and triclocarban. The results demonstrate the ability of crop plants to accumulate PPCPs from contaminated soils. The plant uptake processes of PPCPs are likely affected by their physico-chemical properties, and their interaction with soil. The difference uptake behavior between plant species could not solely be attributed to the root lipid content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Managed aquifer recharge using quaternary-treated wastewater: an economic perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Zekri, Slim Mohamed; Ahmed, Mushtaque; Chaieb, Randa; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2013-01-01

    An excess of 31 million m3/y of tertiary-treated wastewater is expected in Muscat, Oman, by 2015. This paper addresses the technical and cost estimation of managed aquifer recharge after reverse-osmosis treatment. The results indicate

  10. Biological nutrient removal from municipal wastewater in sequencing batch biofilm reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnz, P

    2001-07-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has only been put into practice in activated sludge systems. In recent years, the Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) has emerged as an alternative allowing EBPR to be achieved in a biofilm reactor. High efficiency of phosphate removal was demonstrated in a SBBR fed with synthetic wastewater containing acetate. The aim of this study was to investigate EBPR from municipal wastewater in semi full-scale and laboratory-scale SBBRs. The focus of the investigation in the semi full-scale reactor was on determination of achievable reaction rates and effluent concentrations under varying influent conditions throughout all seasons of a year. Interactions between nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the influence of backwashing on the reactor performance was examined. Summing up, it can be stated that the SBBR proved to be an attractive alternative to activated sludge systems. Phosphorus elimination efficiency was comparable to common systems but biomass sedimentation problems were avoided. In order to further exploit the potential of the SBBR and to achieve reactor performances superior to those of existing systems designing a special biofilm carrier material may allow to increase the phenomenon of simultaneous nitrification/denitrification while maintaining EBPR activity. (orig.) [German] Die vermehrte biologische Phosphorelimination (Bio-P) aus Abwasser wurde bisher nur in Belebtschlammsystemen praktiziert. In den letzten Jahren konnte jedoch gezeigt werden, dass sich durch die Anwendung des Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) - Verfahrens auch in Biofilmreaktoren Bio-P verwirklichen laesst. Versuche in Laboranlagen haben ergeben, dass sich eine weitgehende Phosphorelimination aufrecht erhalten laesst, wenn die Reaktoren mit einem ideal zusammengesetzten, synthetischen Abwasser beschickt werden. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, Bio-P aus kommunalem Abwasser in SBBR-Versuchsanlagen im halbtechnischen und im Labormassstab zu

  11. A participatory modelling approach to define farm-scale effects of reclaimed wastewater irrigation in the Lockyer Valley, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstal, van J.D.; Huibers, F.P.; Cresswell, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    The Lockyer Valley is an important agricultural area experiencing water insecurity, which causes a decrease in agricultural production. Regional authorities are initiating a wastewater reclamation project conveying treated municipal wastewater to water users, including potentially the Lockyer

  12. Characterization and biotoxicity assessment of dissolved organic matter in RO concentrate from a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Gao, Yue; Hu, Hong-Ying; Tang, Fang; Yang, Zhe

    2014-12-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) system containing organic compounds may associate with toxic risk, and its discharge might pose an environmental risk. To identify a basis for the selection of feasible technology in treating RO concentrates, the characteristics and biotoxicity of different fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in RO concentrates from an mWRRO system were investigated. The results indicated that the hydrophilic neutrals (HIN), hydrophobic acids (HOA) and hydrophobic bases (HOB) accounted for 96% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the total DOM in the RO concentrate. According to the SEC chromatograph detected at 254 nm wavelength of UV, the DOM with molecular weight (MW) 1-3 kDa accounted for the majority of the basic and neutral fractions. The fluorescence spectra of the excitation emission matrix (EEM) indicated that most aromatic proteins, humic/fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like substances existed in the fractions HOA and hydrophobic neutrals (HON). The genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate were 1795.6 ± 57.2 μg 4-NQOL(-1) and 2.19 ± 0.05 mg TAM L(-1), respectively. The HIN, HOA, and HOB contributed to the genotoxicity of the RO concentrate, and the HIN was with the highest genotoxic level of 1007.9 ± 94.8 μg 4-NQOL(-1). The HOA, HON, and HIN lead to the total anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate, and HOA occupied approximately 60% of the total, which was 1.3 ± 0.17 mg TAM L(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Class 1 Integrons and the Antiseptic Resistance Gene (qacEΔ1) in Municipal and Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Plants and Wastewater-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min Tao; Chou, Chin Cheng

    2015-06-02

    Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs) containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants. This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M) and swine slaughterhouse (S) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wastewater samples. The abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 96 wastewater samples were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR), and 113 MRSA isolates recovered from the wastewater samples were detected class 1 integrons and linked antiseptic resistance genes (qacEΔ1), and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for QAC antiseptics. The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples. A higher percentage of MRSA isolates carried qacEΔ1 in MRSA from swine wastewater samples (62.8%) than in municipal MRSA (3.7%). All the MRSA isolates showed high MICs for antiseptic agents. This study provides important evidence regarding the abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in municipal and swine slaughterhouse wastewater, and antiseptic-resistant MRSA strains were detected in swine slaughterhouse wastewater.

  14. Seasonal and diurnal variability of N{sub 2}O emissions from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daelman, Matthijs R.J., E-mail: m.r.j.daelman@tudelft.nl [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Department of Biosystems engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Voorthuizen, Ellen M. van [Royal HaskoningDHV, P.O. Box 151, 6500AD Nijmegen (Netherlands); Dongen, Udo G.J.M. van [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Volcke, Eveline I.P. [Department of Biosystems engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Loosdrecht, Mark C.M. van [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-12-01

    During nitrogen removal in conventional activated sludge processes, nitrous oxide can be emitted. With a global warming potential of 298 CO{sub 2}-equivalents it is an important greenhouse gas that affects the sustainability of wastewater treatment. The present study reports nitrous oxide emission data from a 16 month monitoring campaign on a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment. The emission demonstrated a pronounced diurnal and seasonal variability. This variability was compared with the variability of a number of process variables that are commonly available on a municipal wastewater treatment plant. On a seasonal timescale, the occurrence of peaks in the nitrite concentration correlated strongly with the emission. The diurnal trend of the emission coincided with the diurnal trend of the nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the tank, suggesting that suboptimal oxygen concentrations may induce the production of nitrous oxide during both nitrification and denitrification. This study documents an unprecedented dataset that could serve as a reference for further research. - Highlights: • Unique dataset of long-term nitrous oxide emission from activated sludge tanks • Emission exhibited pronounced diurnal variability, superimposed on seasonal trend • Seasonal nitrous oxide emission trend correlated with daily nitrite peaks • Emission’s diurnal trend suggests suboptimal oxygen concentrations as cause.

  15. Consumption-based approach for assessing the contribution of hospitals towards the load of pharmaceutical residues in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Kristell S; Ort, Christoph; Kateley, Diana; Allen, Belinda; Escher, Beate I; Keller, Jurg

    2012-09-15

    Hospitals are considered as major sources of pharmaceutical residues discharged to municipal wastewater, but recent experimental studies showed that the contribution of hospitals to the loads of selected, quantifiable pharmaceuticals in sewage treatment plant (STP) influents was limited. However such conclusions are made based on the experimental analysis of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater which is hindered by a number of factors such as access to suitable sampling sites, difficulties in obtaining representative samples and availability of analytical methods. Therefore, this study explores a refined and extended consumption-based approach to predict the contribution of six selected Australian hospitals to the loads of 589 pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater. In addition, the possibility that hospital-specific substances are present at levels that may pose a risk for human health was evaluated. For 63 to 84% of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the selected hospitals are not a major point source with individual contributions likely to be less than 15% which is in line with previous experimental studies. In contrast, between 10 and 20% of the pharmaceuticals consumed in the selected hospitals are exclusively used in these hospitals. For these hospital-specific substances, 57 distinct pharmaceuticals may cause concerns for human health as concentrations predicted in hospital effluents are less than 100-fold lower than effect thresholds. However, when concentrations were predicted in the influent of the corresponding STP, only 12 compounds (including the antineoplastic vincristine, the antibiotics tazobactam and piperacillin) remain in concentration close to effect thresholds, but further decrease is expected after removal in STP, dilution in the receiving stream and drinking water treatment. The results of this study suggest that risks of human exposure to the pharmaceuticals exclusively administered in the investigated hospitals are limited and

  16. Treatment of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents with modified photo-Fenton as a tertiary treatment for the degradation of micro pollutants and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerth, Nikolaus; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo; Mailhot, Gilles

    2012-03-06

    The goal of this paper was to develop a modified photo-Fenton treatment able to degrade micro pollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluents at a neutral pH with minimal iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations. Complexation of Fe by ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) leads to stabilization and solubilization of Fe at natural pH. Photo-Fenton experiments were performed in a pilot compound parabolic collector (CPC) solar plant. Samples were treated with solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by HPLC-Qtrap-MS. The rapid degradation of contaminants within the first minutes of illumination and the low detrimental impact on degradation of bicarbonates present in the water suggested that radical species other than HO(•) are responsible for the efficiency of such photo-Fenton process. Disinfection of MWTP effluents by the same process showed promising results, although disinfection was not complete.

  17. Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge: A Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billing, Justin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Samuel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maupin, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-08

    A preliminary process model and techno-economic analysis (TEA) was completed for fuel produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sludge waste from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequent biocrude upgrading. The model is adapted from previous work by Jones et al. (2014) for algae HTL, using experimental data generated in fiscal year 2015 (FY15) bench-scale HTL testing of sludge waste streams. Testing was performed on sludge samples received from MetroVancouver’s Annacis Island WWTP (Vancouver, B.C.) as part of a collaborative project with the Water Environment and Reuse Foundation (WERF). The full set of sludge HTL testing data from this effort will be documented in a separate report to be issued by WERF. This analysis is based on limited testing data and therefore should be considered preliminary. Future refinements are necessary to improve the robustness of the model, including a cross-check of modeled biocrude components with the experimental GCMS data and investigation of equipment costs most appropriate at the smaller scales used here. Environmental sustainability metrics analysis is also needed to understand the broader impact of this technology pathway. The base case scenario for the analysis consists of 10 HTL plants, each processing 100 dry U.S. ton/day (92.4 ton/day on a dry, ash-free basis) of sludge waste and producing 234 barrel per stream day (BPSD) biocrude, feeding into a centralized biocrude upgrading facility that produces 2,020 barrel per standard day of final fuel. This scale was chosen based upon initial wastewater treatment plant data collected by the resource assessment team from the EPA’s Clean Watersheds Needs Survey database (EPA 2015a) and a rough estimate of what the potential sludge availability might be within a 100-mile radius. In addition, we received valuable feedback from the wastewater treatment industry as part of the WERF collaboration that helped form the basis for the selected HTL and upgrading

  18. Effects of treated industrial wastewaters and temperatures on growth and enzymatic activities of duckweed (Lemna minor L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiglini, E; Pintore, M; Forni, C

    2018-05-30

    The efficacy of the removal of contaminants from wastewater depends on physico-chemical properties of pollutants and the efficiency of treatment plant. Sometimes, low amounts of toxic compounds can be still present in the treated sewage. In this work we considered the effects of contaminant residues in treated wastewaters and of temperatures on Lemna minor L. Treated effluent waters were collected, analyzed and used as duckweed growth medium. In order to better understand the effects of micropollutants and seasonal variation, the plants were grown under ambient conditions for seven days in summer and winter. Relative growth rate, pigments and phenolic compounds concentrations were determined, as well as the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The pollutant concentrations varied in the two seasons, depending on the industrial and municipal activities and efficiency of treatments. Treated waters contained heavy metals, nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds, surfactants and hydrocarbons. Compared to the control, duckweed growth of treated plants decreased by 25% in summer, while in the winter due to the lower temperatures and the presence of pollutants was completely impeded. The amounts of photosynthetic pigments of treated plants were not significantly affected in the summer, while they were higher than the control in the winter when the effluent had a high nitrogen amount. High CAT activity was registered in both seasons. Treated plants had significantly lower APX activity in the summer (53%) and winter (59%) respect to the controls. The observed inhibition of the peroxidase activities in the exposed plants, confirms the controversy existing in the literature about the variability of enzymatic response in stress condition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The functional and physiological status of Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea; Amphipoda) exposed to secondary treated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P.; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Climate change scenarios predict lower flow rates during summer that may lead to higher proportions of wastewater in small and medium sized streams. Moreover, micropollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals and other contaminants) continuously enter aquatic environments via treated wastewater. However, there is a paucity of knowledge, whether extended exposure to secondary treated wastewater disrupts important ecosystem functions, e.g. leaf breakdown. Therefore, the amphipod shredder Gammarus fossarum was exposed to natural stream water (n = 34) and secondary treated wastewater (n = 32) for four weeks in a semi-static test system under laboratory conditions. G. fossarum exposed to wastewater showed significant reductions in feeding rate (25%), absolute consumption (35%), food assimilation (50%), dry weight (18%) and lipid content (22%). Thus, high proportions of wastewater in the stream flow may affect both the breakdown rates of leaf material and thus the availability of energy for the aquatic food web as well as the energy budget of G. fossarum. - Micropollutants in wastewater cause functional and physiological alteration in a leaf-shredding amphipod.

  20. Variation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment plant with A(2)O-MBR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Yan

    2015-03-01

    The variation of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs)-tetG, tetW, tetX, sul1, and intI1-in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant with A(2)O-MBR system was studied. The concentrations of five resistance genes both in influent and in membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent decreased as sul1 > intI1 > tetX > tetG > tetW, and an abundance of sul1 was statistically higher than three other tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetW, and tetX) (p MBR effluent. The reduction of tetW, intI1, and sul1 was all significantly positively correlated with the reduction of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in the wastewater treatment process (p MBR was observed for all ARGs.

  1. Analysis of Trace Pharmaceuticals and Related Compounds in Municipal Wastewaters by Preconcentration, Chromatography, Derivatization, and Separation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Camilla Lindholm

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals consumed by people and animals are released into municipal wastewater treatment plants. Most of them are degraded during the wastewater treatment processes, but some of them degrade only partially and may be widely transported and dispersed into the aquatic environment. This is why efficient and fast analytical methods are needed for detection of organic compounds in wastewaters at trace levels. Because wastewaters often consist of complex matrices and high-molecular mass materials, e.g., lignocellulosic biomass, which may bring challenges to the sample preparation procedures, efficient pre-concentration methods such as solid phase extraction (SPE solid phase microextraction (SPME, or single drop microextraction (SDME are needed. The most common analysis methods are gas chromatography (GC and liquid chromatography (LC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. The aim of this review is to give an overview of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods when characterizing low- and medium-molecular weight organic pollutants, mainly focusing on pharmaceuticals, biocides, and personal care products in environmental matrices.

  2. Estimating biogas production of biologically treated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, Barbara; Confalonieri, Roberto; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-02-01

    In this work, a respirometric approach, i.e., Dynamic Respiration Index (DRI), was used to predict the anaerobic biogas potential (ABP), studying 46 waste samples coming directly from MBT full-scale plants. A significant linear regression model was obtained by a jackknife approach: ABP=(34.4+/-2.5)+(0.109+/-0.003).DRI. The comparison of the model of this work with those of the previous works using a different respirometric approach (Sapromat-AT(4)), allowed obtaining similar results and carrying out direct comparison of different limits to accept treated waste in landfill, proposed in the literature. The results indicated that on an average, MBT treatment allowed 56% of ABP reduction after 4weeks of treatment, and 79% reduction after 12weeks of treatment. The obtainment of another regression model allowed transforming Sapromat-AT(4) limit in DRI units, and achieving a description of the kinetics of DRI and the corresponding ABP reductions vs. MBT treatment-time.

  3. Performance of ceramic ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes in treating car wash wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzem, Shamima; Wills, Jamie; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity; Jegatheesan, Veeriah

    2018-03-01

    Reusing treated effluents in industries is a great option to conserve freshwater resources. For example, car wash centres all over Australia are estimated to use 17.5 billion litres of water and discharge it as wastewater and spend $75 million a year for both purchasing fresh water and for treating and/or discharging the wastewater. Therefore, it is important to develop simple but reliable systems that can help to treat and reuse car wash wastewater. Significant savings could also be associated with the implementation of such systems. This study evaluates the performance of granular and membrane filtration systems with coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation in treating car wash wastewater for the purpose of reuse. Overall, 99.9% of turbidity, 100% of suspended solids and 96% of COD were removed from the car wash wastewater after treating by coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ceramic ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis and the treated water meets the standards required for class A recycled water in Australia and standards imposed in Belgium and China. The treated water can be reused. However, optimisation is required to reduce the sludge produced by this system.

  4. Chemical properties of a Haplustalf soil under irrigation with treated wastewater and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda V. B. D. Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of irrigation with treated wastewater and nitrogen (N fertilization on the chemical characteristics of a Haplustalf soil cultivated with cotton. An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with four replicates, and arranged in a 5 x 4 factorial. Five doses of N fertilization (0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 kg ha-1 and four sources of irrigation water (freshwater, wastewater treated by an anaerobic reactor, wastewater treated by an anaerobic reactor and post-treated by intermittent sand filter in series, wastewater treated in a septic tank and post-treated by an intermittent sand filter were tested. Irrigation was daily performed from July 2011 to January 2012 according to the water demand of cotton resulting in a water depth of 620 mm. It was found that, compared with the conventional management with freshwater irrigation, treated wastewater provides greater accumulation of micronutrient, potassium and sodium in the soil, increasing the risk of sodification in irrigated areas.

  5. Electrochemical generation of fentons reagent to treat spent caustic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H. K.; Nunez, P.; Rodriguez, N.; Guzman, J.

    2009-01-01

    An important wastewater stream from oil refineries is the spent caustic. Caustic solutions are used as scrubbing agent during the desulphurization process to eliminate sulphur an mercaptans from oil and gasses. Spent caustic is classified as DOO3 (reactive sulphide) hazardous waste under the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). (Author)

  6. Impact assessment of mine drainage water and municipal wastewater on the surface water in the vicinity of Bor

    OpenAIRE

    Gardić Vojka R.; Petrović Jelena V.; Đurđevac-Ignjatović Lidija V.; Kolaković Srđan R.; Vujović Svetlana R.

    2015-01-01

    Mining and copper production in Bor, in the past hundred years, had a huge impact on the environment of town, but also in a wide region. In the area of Bor, in the zone of Mining and Smelting Company (RTB) activity, over 29,000 ha of land under forests and fields is degraded. The area of degraded agricultural land in the Bor municipality is over 60% of total agricultural land. Wastewater, generated in the sites of RTB Bor, pollute the Bor River and Krivelj ...

  7. Pretreatment techniques of biodegradable municipal wastewater for sustainable development of surface and groundwater resources: a survey/case studies (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, A.; Sajjad, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Water being a scarce commodity, recharge of groundwater with clean surface water is important to maintain good quality water resources. This paper reviews and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques for the treatment of municipal wastewater's in developing countries. Different processes discussed include from simple stabilization ponds and land treatment to aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. More sophisticated techniques of activated sludge and anaerobic digestion are also discussed. The feasibility of these techniques in terms of cost, land area, removal of pathogens, effluent quality and need of technical expertise is discussed. (author)

  8. Simulation of Constructed Wetland in treating Wastewater using Fuzzy Logic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsan, J. S.; Subramani, Sheekha; Rajan, Rajitha J.; Shah, Isha; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2018-04-01

    Constructed wetlands act as a natural alternative to conventional methods of wastewater treatment. CW are found effective in wastewater containing inorganic matter, organic matter, toxic compounds, metals, nitrogen, phosphorous, heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. The treatment efficiency by the adaptation of CWs in treatment process is achieved by a complex interaction between plants, microorganisms, soil matrix and substances in the wastewater. Constructed wetland treatment systems are engineered systems designed in such a manner that it could take advantages of those processes occurring in natural wetlands in treating the wastewater concerned, but in a more controlled environment. Petrochemical wastewater was the type of wastewater taken for the study. Characteristics of petrochemical wastewater mainly oil, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD) were selected for treatment in constructed wetland as they are predominant in petrochemical wastewater. The conventional methods followed in the treatment are chemical and biological treatment. In this study, a fuzzy model for water quality assessment has been developed and water quality index value was obtained. The experiment conducted and further analysis using fuzzy logic indicated that interpretation of certain imprecise data can be improved within fuzzy inference system (FIS). Based on the analysis, we could observe that Typha sp contained wetland cell showed greater efficiency in removal of parameters such as COD and BOD than Phragmites sp. wetland cell.

  9. Oxidation of Mixed Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Biologically Treated Wastewater by ClO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradas, Gerly; Fick, Jerker; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater containing a mixture of 53 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)was treated with 0-20 mg/l chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution. Wastewater effluents were taken from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with (low COD) and one without (high COD) extended...... removed at 5 mg/l ClO2 dose. Removal of the same APIs from the high COD effluent was observed when the ClO2 dose was increased to 1.25 mg/l and an increase in API removal only after treatment with 8 mg/l ClO2. This illustrates that treatment of wastewater effluents with chlorine dioxide has potential...

  10. Municipal Wastewater Privatization: An Alternative with Solutions for Infrastructure Development, Environmental Compliance, and Improved Efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    wakeman, Roger

    1998-01-01

    .... Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed...

  11. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jabari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens, and msbl6 (candidate division were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published.

  12. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.cn; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 0.01 mol L{sup −1} with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2 h, 2.58–3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH = 7.0), the removal was 2.26–3.35 logs. For the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 0.01 mol L{sup −1} accompanied by 30 min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8–3.5 logs, and 1.55–2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molar ratios, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. - Highlights: • AOPs including Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process could reduce ARGs effectively. • Fenton oxidation is slightly more effective than UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process in ARG reduction. • Removal of ARGs by AOPs follows the first-order reaction kinetic model. • Selected ARGs and 16S rRNA genes exhibit similar change trends during AOPs.

  14. Polishing of Anaerobic Secondary Effluent and Symbiotic Bioremediation of Raw Municipal Wastewater by Chlorella Vulgaris

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Tuoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To assess polishing of anaerobic secondary effluent and symbiotic bioremediation of primary effluent by microalgae, bench scale bubbling column reactors were operated in batch modes to test nutrients removal capacity and associated factors. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) together with oil and grease in terms of hexane extractable material (HEM) in the reactors were measured after batch cultivation tests of Chlorella Vulgaris, indicating the releasing algal metabolites were oleaginous (dissolved HEM up to 8.470 mg/L) and might hazard effluent quality. Ultrafiltration adopted as solid-liquid separation step was studied via critical flux and liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Although nutrients removal was dominated by algal assimilation, nitrogen removal (99.6% maximum) was affected by generation time (2.49 days minimum) instead of specific nitrogen removal rate (sN, 20.72% maximum), while phosphorus removal (49.83% maximum) was related to both generation time and specific phosphorus removal rate (sP, 1.50% maximum). COD increase was affected by cell concentration (370.90 mg/L maximum), specific COD change rate (sCOD, 0.87 maximum) and shading effect. sCOD results implied algal metabolic pathway shift under nutrients stress, generally from lipid accumulation to starch accumulation when phosphorus lower than 5 mg/L, while HEM for batches with initial nitrogen of 10 mg/L implied this threshold around 8 mg/L. HEM and COD results implied algal metabolic pathway shift under nutrients stress. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent polishing showed similar results to synthetic anaerobic secondary effluent with slight inhibition while 4 symbiotic bioremediation of raw municipal wastewater with microalgae and activated sludge showed competition for ammonium together with precipitation or microalgal luxury uptake of phosphorus. Critical flux was governed by algal cell concentration for ultrafiltration membrane with pore size of 30 nm, while

  15. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe"2"+/H_2O_2) and UV/H_2O_2 process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H_2O_2 process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H_2O_2 method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe"2"+/H_2O_2 had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H_2O_2 concentration of 0.01 mol L"−"1 with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2 h, 2.58–3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH = 7.0), the removal was 2.26–3.35 logs. For the UV/H_2O_2 process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H_2O_2 concentration of 0.01 mol L"−"1 accompanied by 30 min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8–3.5 logs, and 1.55–2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H_2O_2 process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe"2"+/H_2O_2 molar ratios, H_2O_2 concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. - Highlights: • AOPs including Fenton oxidation and UV/H_2O_2 process could reduce ARGs effectively. • Fenton oxidation is slightly more effective than UV/H_2O_2 process in ARG reduction. • Removal of ARGs by AOPs follows the first-order reaction kinetic model. • Selected ARGs and 16S rRNA genes exhibit similar change trends during AOPs.

  16. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Zalesny; S.R.  Evett; N.F. Kandil; C.  Soriano; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt’s freshwater supply. Egypt’s share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo began...

  17. Performance of MBBR in the Treatment of Combined Municipal and Industrial Wastewater A Case Study: Mashhad Sewage Treatment Plant of Parkandabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mohammadyari

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available MBBR is a combination of three systems: Activated sludge, Fixed film, and Fluidized bed. This system has been designed in a manner to include the advantages of the above systems but removing most of their disadvantages. The main characteristic of the system is the growth of a biofilm on the small packing that moves through the reactor. Because of the biofilm growth on the kaldnes packing, the internal special area of the MBBR is high and around 350 m2/m3. Evidenced by reports in the literature, MBBR has been successfully used for the treatment of different industrial effluents from dairy industries, food industries, slaughter houses, paper mills, refineries, and chemical plants. In this study, the operation of MBBR in treating the combined municipal and industrial wastewater (Parkand Abad Wastewater Treatment Plant, Mashhad, Iran is studied. The results from the pilot study revealed that MBBR was capable of reducing COD levels to 43, 57, 76% at such low hydraulic retention times of 8, 12, 24 hrs, respectively. The system was also found to be capable of handling hydraulic shocks such that the system regained its stability over a short time after the shock and that the effluent COD fluctuation before and after the shock was as low as 70 mg/l.

  18. Influence of air scouring on the performance of a Self Forming Dynamic Membrane BioReactor (SFD MBR) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Carlo; Vergine, Pompilio; Berardi, Giovanni; Pollice, Alfieri

    2017-01-01

    The Membrane BioReactor (MBR) is a well-established filtration-based technology for wastewater treatment. Despite the high quality of the effluent produced, one of the main drawbacks of the MBR is membrane fouling. In this context, a possible evolution towards systems having potentially lower installation and operating costs is the Self Forming Dynamic Membrane BioReactor (SFD MBR). Key of this technology is the self-formation of a biological filtering layer on a support of inert material. In this work, a lab-scale aerobic SFD MBR equipped with a nylon mesh was operated at approximately 95Lm -2 h -1 . Two mesh pore sizes (20 and 50μm) and three air scouring flow rates (150, 250, and 500mL air min -1 ) were tested at steady state. Under all the tested conditions, the SFD MBR effectively treated real municipal wastewater. The quality of the produced effluent increased for lower mesh size and lower air scouring intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental exposure of pharmaceuticals and musk fragrances in the Somes River before and after upgrading the municipal wastewater treatment plant Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Zaharie; Chira, Romeo; Alder, Alfredo C

    2009-08-01

    ), cyclophosphamide (cytostatic), ibuprofen (analgesic), and galaxolide (musk fragrance), were determined in samples of the Somes River. The analytes were enriched by solid-phase extraction and subsequently determined by GC/MS. Caffeine, pentoxifylline, and galaxolide were determined underivatized, whereas the acidic pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, cyclophosphamide, and ibuprofen were determined after derivatization with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide. The concentrations in the Somes River varied from below 10 ng/L up to 10 microg/L. A substantial decrease of the exposure in the Somes River could be observed due to the upgrade of the municipal WWTP in Cluj-Napoca. The loads in the river stretch between Cluj-Napoca and Dej (Somes Mic) varied strongly: caffeine (400-2,000 g/day), carbamazepine (78-213 g/day), galaxolide (140-684 g/day), ibuprofen (84-108 g/day). After the upgrade of the WWTP Cluj-Napoca, the concentrations in the Somes of caffeine, pentoxifylline, cyclophosphamide, galaxolide, and tonalide were significantly reduced (over 75%). One might be cautious comparing both studies because the relative efficiency of the WWTP's removal of PPCP was not evaluated. However, the significantly lower concentrations of most compounds after the upgrade of the WWTP Cluj-Napoca allow one to infer that the technical measures at the source substantially reduced inputs of contaminants to the receiving river. Dej loads of the poorly biodegradable substance carbamazepine increased by a factor of 2-3 as a result of wastewater discharges into the river. The disproportionate increase in caffeine loads by a factor of 4 below Cluj-Napoca indicates inputs of untreated wastewater from the Somes Mare due to the discharge of untreated wastewater derived from Bistrita, Nasaud, and Beclean (115,000 inhabitants). The relative contribution of treated and untreated wastewater in surface water might be assessed by measuring chemical markers. Recalcitrant pharmaceuticals like carbamazepine are

  20. EFFECT OF STARCH ADDITION ON THE PERFORMANCE AND SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION OF UASB PROCESS TREATING METHANOLIC WASTEWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Kobayashi, Takuro; Takahashi, Shintaro; Li, Yu-You; Omura, Tatsuo

    A mesophilic(35℃) UASB reactor treating synthetic wastewater containing methanol with addition of starch was continuously operated for over 430 days by changing the organic loading rate from 2.5 to 120kg-COD/m3.d. The microbial community structure of the granules was analyzed with the molecular tools and its metabolic characteristics were evaluated using specific methanogenic activity tests. The process was successfully operated with over 98% soluble COD removal efficiency at VLR 30kg-COD/m3.d for approximately 300 days, and granulation satisfactory proceeded. The results of cloning and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis suggest that groups related the genus Methanomethylovorans and the genus Methanosaeta were predominant in the reactor although only the genus Methanomethylovorans was predominant in the reactor treating methanolic wastewater in the previous study. Abundance of the granules over 0.5 mm in diameter in the reactor treating methanolic wastewater with addition of starch was 3 times larger than that in the reactor treating methanolic wastewater. Specific methanogenic activity tests in this study indicate that the methanol-methane pathway and the methanol-H2/CO2-methane pathway were predominant, and however, there was a certain level of activity for acetate-methane pathway unlike the reactor treating methanolic wastewater. These results suggest addition of starch might be responsible for diversifying the microbial community and encouraging the granulation.

  1. A social choice-based methodology for treated wastewater reuse in urban and suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjouri, Najmeh; Pourmand, Ehsan

    2017-07-01

    Reusing treated wastewater for supplying water demands such as landscape and agricultural irrigation in urban and suburban areas has become a major water supply approach especially in regions struggling with water shortage. Due to limited available treated wastewater to satisfy all water demands, conflicts may arise in allocating treated wastewater to water users. Since there is usually more than one decision maker and more than one criterion to measure the impact of each water allocation scenario, effective tools are needed to combine individual preferences to reach a collective decision. In this paper, a new social choice (SC) method, which can consider some indifference thresholds for decision makers, is proposed for evaluating and ranking treated wastewater and urban runoff allocation scenarios to water users in urban and suburban areas. Some SC methods, namely plurality voting, Borda count, pairwise comparisons, Hare system, dictatorship, and approval voting, are applied for comparing and evaluating the results. Different scenarios are proposed for allocating treated wastewater and urban runoff to landscape irrigation, agricultural lands as well as artificial recharge of aquifer in the Tehran metropolitan Area, Iran. The main stakeholders rank the proposed scenarios based on their utilities using two different approaches. The proposed method suggests ranking of the scenarios based on the stakeholders' utilities and considering the scores they assigned to each scenario. Comparing the results of the proposed method with those of six different SC methods shows that the obtained ranks are mostly in compliance with the social welfare.

  2. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Theregowda, Ranjani B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Arastoopour, Hamid [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Tamkang Univ., Taipei (Taiwan). Waer Resources Management and Policy Research Center; Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  3. Crossflow ultrafiltration of raw municipal wastewater : Investigations using PVDF tubular membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravazzini, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the usual wastewater treatment schemes the application of membranes follows a biological process. However, ultrafiltration of untreated wastewater produces permeate free of particles and bacteria in one single step and could represent the starting point for new water-reuse concepts. This thesis

  4. Inter-Municipal Cooperation For Wastewater Treatment: Case studies from Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon; Kliot, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, local authorities in Israel have been engaged in promoting advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) projects throughout the country, resulting in the “wastewater treatment revolution” of the 1990s. These achievements are extremely important in the water-scarce

  5. A study on the migration and transformation law of nitrogen in urine in municipal wastewater transportation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Ren; Pengkang, Jin; Chenggang, Liang; Xiaochang, Wang; Lei, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that the total nitrogen (TN) in urine is around 9,000 mg/L and about 80% of nitrogen in municipal wastewater comes from urine, because nitrogen mainly occurs in the form of urea in fresh human urine. Based on this fact, the study on the migration and transformation law of nitrogen in urine and its influencing factors was carried out. It can be seen from the experimental results that the transformation rate of urea in urine into ammonia nitrogen after standing for 20 days is only about 18.2%, but the urea in urine can be hydrolyzed into ammonia nitrogen rapidly after it is catalyzed directly with free urease or indirectly with microorganism. Adding respectively a certain amount of urease, activated sludge and septic-tank sludge to urine samples can make the maximum transformation rate achieve 85% after 1 day, 2 days and 6 days, respectively. In combination with some corresponding treatment methods, recycling of nitrogen in urine can be achieved. The results are of great significance in guiding denitrification in municipal wastewater treatment.

  6. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2014-08-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50mg/L for general reuse was 6gCOD/L/d and 0.63gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m2/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Pecan shell-based granular activated carbon for treatment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, R R; Losso, J N; Marshall, W E; Rao, R M; Portier, R J

    2004-09-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to compare the adsorption efficiency of pecan shell-based granular activated carbon with the adsorption efficiency of the commercial carbon Filtrasorb 200 with respect to uptake of the organic components responsible for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of municipal wastewater. Adsorption efficiencies for these two sets of carbons (experimental and commercial) were analyzed by the Freundlich adsorption model. The results indicate that steam-activated and acid-activated pecan shell-based carbons had higher adsorption for organic matter measured as COD, than carbon dioxide-activated pecan shell-based carbon or Filtrasorb 200 at all the carbon dosages used during the experiment. The higher adsorption may be related to surface area as the two carbons with the highest surface area also had the highest organic matter adsorption. These results show that granular activated carbons made from agricultural waste (pecan shells) can be used with greater effectiveness for organic matter removal from municipal wastewater than a coal-based commercial carbon. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai; Harb, Moustapha; Amy, Gary L.; Hong, Pei-Ying; Leiknes, TorOve

    2014-01-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50mg/L for general reuse was 6gCOD/L/d and 0.63gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m2/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Advanced tertiary treatment of municipal wastewater using raw and modified diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinlu; Yang, Y S; Lin, Jinhua

    2005-12-09

    Advanced technology for more efficient and effective wastewater treatment is always timely needed. The feasibility of using raw and modified diatomite for advanced treatment of secondary sewage effluents (SSE) was investigated in this study. Raw diatomite at a dosing rate of 300 mg/l showed a similar potential as activated carbon for removing most organic pollutants and toxic metals from SSE. Its performance was found poor in removal of arsenic and crop nutrient constituents (e.g. ammoniacal nitrogen and phosphate) and remained unsatisfactory even when the dosing rate increased up to 500 mg/l. Where modified diatomite was in lieu of raw diatomite, the removal efficiency for all target constituents was improved by 20-50%. At the dosing rate of 150 mg/l, modified diatomite enabled the post-treated effluents to satisfy the discharge consents, with the levels of all target constituents below the regulatory limits. Modified diatomite has advantages over raw diatomite in improving removal efficiency and reducing the dosing rate required for satisfactory treatment of SSE. It is concluded that modified diatomite is much more effective and efficient than raw diatomite, as an alternative to activated carbon, for economic treatment of SSE.

  10. Construction and operation costs of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2014-01-01

    Design data from nine constructed wetlands (CW) facilities of various capacities (population equivalent (PE)) are used to estimate construction and operation costs, and then to derive empirical equations relating the required facility land area and the construction cost to PE. In addition, comparisons between the costs of CW facilities based on various alternative construction materials, i.e., reinforced concrete and earth structures (covered with either high density polyethylene or clay), are presented in relation to the required area. The results show that earth structures are economically advantageous. The derived equations can be used for providing a preliminary cost estimate of CW facilities for domestic wastewater treatment.

  11. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L. and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L. versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L. and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at the beginning of each irrigation period. The results obtained in this study showed that irrigation with effluent did not result in significant changes in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and dehydrogenase activity, whereas soil available P was found to increase in the upper soil layer. Soil salinity varied slightly throughout the experiment in effluent irrigated pots but no change was detected at the end of the experiment compared to the initial value, suggesting sufficient salt leaching. Pots irrigated with effluent had higher soil salinity, P, and dehydrogenase activity but lower SOM and TKN than freshwater irrigated pots. Sunflower showed greater SOM and TKN values than castor bean suggesting differences between plant species in the microorganisms carrying out C and N mineralization in the soil. Plant species irrigated with freshwater achieved higher seed yield compared to those irrigated with effluent probably reflecting the lower level of soil salinity in freshwater irrigated pots. Castor bean achieved greater seed yield than sunflower. Biodiesel production followed the pattern of seed yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastewater effluent can constitute an important source of irrigation water and nutrients for bioenergy crop cultivations with minor adverse impacts on soil properties and seed yield. Plant species play an important role with regard to the changes in soil properties and to the related factors of

  12. THE IMPACT OF FOOD WASTE DISCHARGE INTO THE MUNICIPAL SEWERAGE ON COD CONCENTRATION IN URBAN WASTEWATER IN OLSZTYN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Janczukowicz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The operators of wastewater treatment plants in Poland have been observing an increase in the concentration of raw sewage for several years. In particular for organic substances. This is the effect of water consumption reduction, restoration of the sewerage networks, growing wealth, widespread waste of food. The most serious adverse, influencing on the municipal wastewater composition is colloid mills application in gastronomical objects and the discharge of shredded food waste to sewer. That widespread behavior has been noticed and negated, in 2010 year, by the common position of GIS and the ME. Far too late, which confirms the situation observed at the Olsztyn wastewater treatment plant, where the biggest increase of COD values ​​was observed in 2008–2010. The average concentration of COD of sewage in the period 2011–2014 was almost twice higher than in 1996, real PE is close to the design value, despite the fact that the hydraulic load of the object slightly exceeded 50% of design value. Removing such large organic pollutant loads generates high costs, that could be avoided by reasonable food waste management.

  13. Palm oil mill effluent and municipal wastewater co-treatment by zeolite augmented sequencing batch reactors: Turbidity removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farraji, Hossein; Zaman, Nastaein Qamaruz; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Sa'at, Siti Kamariah Md

    2017-10-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the largest wastewater in Malaysia. Of the 60 million tons of POME produced annually, 2.4-3 million tons are total solids. Turbidity is caused by suspended solids, and 75% of total suspended solids are organic matter. Coagulation and flocculation are popular treatments for turbidity removal. Traditional commercial treatments do not meet discharge standards. This study evaluated natural zeolite and municipal wastewater (MWW)-augmented sequencing batch reactor as a microbiological digestion method for the decontamination of POME in response surface methodology. Aeration, contact time, and MWW/POME ratio were selected as response factors for turbidity removal. Results indicated that turbidity removal varied from 96.7% (MWW/POME ratio=50 %, aeration flow=0.5 L/min, and contact time=12) to 99.31% (MWW/POME ratio=80%, aeration flow 4L/min, and contact time 12 h). This study is the first to present MWW augmentation as a suitable microorganism supplier for turbidity biodegradation in high-strength agroindustrial wastewater.

  14. Investigation of the environmental impacts of municipal wastewater treatment plants through a Life Cycle Assessment software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, G; Ferrara, C

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the total and per capita environmental impacts of municipal wastewater treatment in the function of the population equivalent (PE) with a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach using the processes of the Ecoinvent 2.2 database available in the software tool SimaPro v.7.3. Besides the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), the study also considers the sewerage system. The obtained results confirm that there is a 'scale factor' for the wastewater collection and treatment even in environmental terms, in addition to the well-known scale factor in terms of management costs. Thus, the more the treatment plant size is, the less the per capita environmental impacts are. However, the Ecoinvent 2.2 database does not contain information about treatment systems with a capacity lower than 30 PE. Nevertheless, worldwide there are many sparsely populated areas, where it is not convenient to realize a unique centralized WWTP. Therefore, it would be very important to conduct an LCA study in order to compare alternative on-site small-scale systems with treatment capacity of few PE.

  15. Comparative Inactivation of Murine Norovirus and MS2 Bacteriophage by Peracetic Acid and Monochloramine in Municipal Secondary Wastewater Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, Nathan; Weng, ShihChi; Schwab, Kellogg J; McQuarrie, James; Bell, Kati; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2017-03-07

    Chlorination has long been used for disinfection of municipal wastewater (MWW) effluent while the use peracetic acid (PAA) has been proposed more recently in the United States. Previous work has demonstrated the bactericidal effectiveness of PAA and monochloramine in wastewater, but limited information is available for viruses, especially ones of mammalian origin (e.g., norovirus). Therefore, a comparative assessment was performed of the virucidal efficacy of PAA and monochloramine against murine norovirus (MNV) and MS2 bacteriophage in secondary effluent MWW and phosphate buffer (PB). A suite of inactivation kinetic models was fit to the viral inactivation data. Predicted concentration-time (CT) values for 1-log 10 MS2 reduction by PAA and monochloramine in MWW were 1254 and 1228 mg-min/L, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-log 10 model predicted CT values for MNV viral reduction in MWW were 32, 47, and 69 mg-min/L for PAA and 6, 13, and 28 mg-min/L for monochloramine, respectively. Wastewater treatment plant disinfection practices informed by MS2 inactivation data will likely be protective for public health but may overestimate CT values for reduction of MNV. Additionally, equivalent CT values in PB resulted in greater viral reduction which indicate that viral inactivation data in laboratory grade water may not be generalizable to MWW applications.

  16. Nondeterministic computational fluid dynamics modeling of Escherichia coli inactivation by peracetic acid in municipal wastewater contact tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Domenico; Crapulli, Ferdinando; Raisee, Mehrdad; Raspa, Giuseppe; Haas, Charles N

    2015-06-16

    Wastewater disinfection processes are typically designed according to heuristics derived from batch experiments in which the interaction among wastewater quality, reactor hydraulics, and inactivation kinetics is often neglected. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was conducted in a nondeterministic (ND) modeling framework to predict the Escherichia coli inactivation by peracetic acid (PAA) in municipal contact tanks fed by secondary settled wastewater effluent. The extent and variability associated with the observed inactivation kinetics were both satisfactorily predicted by the stochastic inactivation model at a 95% confidence level. Moreover, it was found that (a) the process variability induced by reactor hydraulics is negligible when compared to the one caused by inactivation kinetics, (b) the PAA dose required for meeting regulations is dictated equally by the fixed limit of the microbial concentration as well as its probability of occurrence, and (c) neglecting the probability of occurrence during process sizing could lead to an underestimation of the PAA dose required by as much as 100%. Finally, the ND-CFD model was used to generate sizing information in the form of probabilistic disinfection curves relating E. coli inactivation and probability of occurrence with the average PAA dose and PAA residual concentration at the outlet of the contact tank.

  17. Research on sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) for synthetic and municipal wastewater treatment in biological aerated filter (BAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqin; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Renbo; Yue, Min; Han, Shuxin; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Yu, Hui

    2009-11-01

    Sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) and clay ceramic particles (CCP) were employed in two lab-scale up-flow biological aerated filters (BAF) for wastewater treatment to investigate the availability of SFCP used as biofilm support compared with CCP. For synthetic wastewater, under the selected hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1.5, 0.75 and 0.37 h, respectively, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) in SFCP reactor were all higher than those of CCP reactor all through the media height. Moreover, better capabilities responding to loading shock and faster recovery after short intermittence were observed in the SFCP reactor compared with the CCP reactor. For municipal wastewater treatment, which was carried out under HRT of 0.75 h, air-liquid ratio of 7.5 and backwashing period of 48 h, the SFCP reactor also performed better than the CCP reactor, especially for the removal of NH(4)(+)-N.

  18. Microbial community composition and dynamics of moving bed biofilm reactor systems treating municipal sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kristi; Turner, Susan J

    2012-02-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems are increasingly used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, yet in contrast to activated sludge (AS) systems, little is known about their constituent microbial communities. This study investigated the community composition of two municipal MBBR wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Wellington, New Zealand. Monthly samples comprising biofilm and suspended biomass were collected over a 12-month period. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was determined using a full-cycle community approach, including analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Differences in microbial community structure and abundance were observed between the two WWTPs and between biofilm and suspended biomass. Biofilms from both plants were dominated by Clostridia and sulfate-reducing members of the Deltaproteobacteria (SRBs). FISH analyses indicated morphological differences in the Deltaproteobacteria detected at the two plants and also revealed distinctive clustering between SRBs and members of the Methanosarcinales, which were the only Archaea detected and were present in low abundance (<5%). Biovolume estimates of the SRBs were higher in biofilm samples from one of the WWTPs which receives both domestic and industrial waste and is influenced by seawater infiltration. The suspended communities from both plants were diverse and dominated by aerobic members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. This study represents the first detailed analysis of microbial communities in full-scale MBBR systems and indicates that this process selects for distinctive biofilm and planktonic communities, both of which differ from those found in conventional AS systems.

  19. Effects of different irrigation practices using treated wastewater on tomato yields, quality, water productivity, and soil and fruit mineral contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Azize Dogan; Sahin, Ustun

    2017-11-01

    Wastewater use in agricultural irrigation is becoming a common practice in order to meet the rising water demands in arid and semi-arid regions. The study was conducted to determine the effects of the full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation practices using treated municipal wastewater (TWW) and freshwater (FW) on tomato yield, water use, fruit quality, and soil and fruit heavy metal concentrations. The TWW significantly increased marketable yield compared to the FW, as well as decreased water consumption. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE) in the TWW was significantly higher than in the FW. Although the DI and the PRD practices caused less yields, these practices significantly increased WUE values due to less irrigation water applied. The water-yield linear relationships were statistically significant. TWW significantly increased titratable acidity and vitamin C contents. Reduced irrigation provided significantly lower titratable acidity, vitamin C, and lycopene contents. TWW increased the surface soil and fruit mineral contents in response to FW. Greater increases were observed under FI, and mineral contents declined with reduction in irrigation water. Heavy metal accumulation in soils was within safe limits. However, Cd and Pb contents in fruits exceeded standard limits given by FAO/WHO. Higher metal pollution index values determined for fruits also indicated that TWW application, especially under FI, might cause health risks in long term.

  20. Full-scale Applications of Membrane Filtration in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holba, Marek; Plotěný, K.; Dvořák, L.; Gómez, M.; Růžičková, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 5 (2012), s. 479-486 ISSN 1863-0650 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : membrane bioreactors * wastewater treatment * full-scale application Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2012

  1. Use of hydroponics culture to assess nutrient supply by treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrover, Maria; Moyà, Gabriel; Vadell, Jaume

    2013-09-30

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation is increasing, especially in those areas where water resources are limited. Treated wastewaters contain nutrients that are useful for plant growth and help to reduce fertilizers needs. Nutrient content of these waters depends on the treatment system. Nutrient supply by a treated wastewater from a conventional treatment plant (CWW) and a lagooned wastewater from the campus of the University of Balearic Islands (LWW) was tested in an experiment in hydroponics conditions. Half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (HNS) was used as a control. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings were grown in 4 L containers filled with the three types of water. Four weeks after planting, barley was harvested and root and shoot biomass was measured. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe contents were determined in both tissues and heavy metal concentrations were analysed in shoots. N, P and K concentrations were lower in LWW than in CWW, while HNS had the highest nutrient concentration. Dry weight barley production was reduced in CWW and LWW treatments to 49% and 17%, respectively, comparing to HNS. However, to a lesser extent, reduction was found in shoot and root N content. Treated wastewater increased Na content in shoots and roots of barley and Ca and Cr content in shoots. However, heavy metals content was lower than toxic levels in all the cases. Although treated wastewater is an interesting water resource, additional fertilization is needed to maintain a high productivity in barley seedlings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between degradation of pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds and microbial communities along a treated wastewater effluent gradient in Lake Mead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, Susanna M.; Sackett, Joshua D.; Rosen, Michael R.; Benotti, Mark J.; Trenholm, Rebecca A.; Vanderford, Brett J.; Hedlund, Brian P.; Moser, Duane P.

    2018-01-01

    The role of microbial communities in the degradation of trace organic contaminants in the environment is little understood. In this study, the biotransformation potential of 27 pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds was examined in parallel with a characterization of the native microbial community in water samples from four sites variously impacted by urban run-off and wastewater discharge in Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona, USA. Samples included relatively pristine Colorado River water at the upper end of the lake, nearly pure tertiary-treated municipal wastewater entering via the Las Vegas Wash, and waters of mixed influence (Las Vegas Bay and Boulder Basin), which represented a gradient of treated wastewater effluent impact. Microbial diversity analysis based on 16S rRNA gene censuses revealed the community at this site to be distinct from the less urban-impacted locations, although all sites were similar in overall diversity and richness. Similarly, Biolog EcoPlate assays demonstrated that the microbial community at Las Vegas Wash was the most metabolically versatile and active. Organic contaminants added as a mixture to laboratory microcosms were more rapidly and completely degraded in the most wastewater-impacted sites (Las Vegas Wash and Las Vegas Bay), with the majority exhibiting shorter half-lives than at the other sites or in a bacteriostatic control. Although the reasons for enhanced degradation capacity in the wastewater-impacted sites remain to be established, these data are consistent with the acclimatization of native microorganisms (either through changes in community structure or metabolic regulation) to effluent-derived trace contaminants. This study suggests that in urban, wastewater-impacted watersheds, prior exposure to organic contaminants fundamentally alters the structure and function of microbial communities, which in turn translates into greater potential for the natural attenuation of these compounds compared to more pristine

  3. EPA Method 614: The Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 614 describes procedures for preparation and analysis of samples for determination of organophosphate pesticides in industrial and municipal discharges using a GC with a phosphorus-specific flame photometric detector (FPD).

  4. Phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater: An integrated comparative technological, environmental and economic assessment of P recovery technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, L; Rechberger, H; Krampe, J; Zessner, M

    2016-11-15

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential and limited resource. Municipal wastewater is a promising source of P via reuse and could be used to replace P derived from phosphate rocks. The agricultural use of sewage sludge is restricted by legislation or is not practiced in several European countries due to environmental risks posed by organic micropollutants and pathogens. Several technologies have been developed in recent years to recover wastewater P. However, these technologies target different P-containing flows in wastewater treatment plants (effluent, digester supernatant, sewage sludge, and sewage sludge ash), use diverse engineering approaches and differ greatly with respect to P recycling rate, potential of removing or destroying pollutants, product quality, environmental impact and cost. This work compares 19 relevant P recovery technologies by considering their relationships with existing wastewater and sludge treatment systems. A combination of different methods, such as material flow analysis, damage units, reference soil method, annuity method, integrated cost calculation and a literature study on solubility, fertilizing effects and handling of recovered materials, is used to evaluate the different technologies with respect to technical, ecological and economic aspects. With regard to the manifold origins of data an uncertainty concept considering validity of data sources is applied. This analysis revealed that recovery from flows with dissolved P produces clean and plant-available materials. These techniques may even be beneficial from economic and technical perspectives under specific circumstances. However, the recovery rates (a maximum of 25%) relative to the wastewater treatment plant influent are relatively low. The approaches that recover P from sewage sludge apply complex technologies and generally achieve effective removal of heavy metals at moderate recovery rates (~40-50% relative to the WWTP input) and comparatively high costs. Sewage sludge ash is

  5. Preparation, Characterization of Coal Ash Adsorbent and Orthogonal Experimental Rsearch on Treating Printing and Dyeing Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyu; He, Lingfeng; Shi, Liang; Chen, Xiaogang; Chen, Xin; Xu, Zizhen; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    Using high temperature activated sodium flying ash and carboxymethyl chitosan as raw material to prepare carboxymethylchitosan wrapping fly-ash adsorbent (CWF), combined with iron-carbon micro-electrolysis treatment of simulated and actual printing and dyeing wastewater. The conditions for obtaining are from the literature: the best condition for CWF to treat simulated printing and dyeing wastewater pretreated with iron-carbon micro-electrolysis is that the mixing time is 10min, the resting time is 30 min, pH=6, and the adsorbent dosage is 0.75 g/L. The results showed that COD removal efficiency and decoloration rate were above 97 %, and turbidity removal rate was over 90 %. The optimum dyeing conditions were used to treat the dyeing wastewater. The decolorization rate was 97.30 %, the removal efficiency of COD was 92.44 %, and the turbidity removal rate was 90.37 %.

  6. Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Municipal Wastewater Sludge by Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal K.C.A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and phosphorus in wastewater contribute to health and environmental threats as they are linked to illnesses as well as ecosystem disruption via algal blooms in contaminated water bodies. Based on above perspectives a comparative study was conducted on three local freshwater microalgae:Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda to evaluate their effects on nitrate and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Algae performance in removing nitrate and phosphorus was evaluated by measuring nitrate and phosphorus content of MWS incubated with the strains for 7 days. Instantaneous readings were taken every 48 hours to determine periodic levels of the nutrients phosphate and nitrate. BOD5 was also evaluated to identify the strain with the most robust growth that would demand for oxygen the most in the dark. Spirulina platensis was shown as the most efficient microalgae to reduce nitrate in MWS and the best-growing among the three strains, while Chlorella vulgaris removed phosphorus the most effectively. Thus Spirulina and Chlorella could be potential candidates by showing their intrinsic merit for the reduction of phosphate and nitrate in wastewater treatment.ABSTRAK: Nitrat dan fosforus dalam air sisa menggugat kesihatan dan mengancam alam sekitar memandangkan ia berkait dengan penyakit-penyakit serta gangguan terhadap ekosistem melalui pembiakan alga dalam air yang tercemar. Berdasarkan perspektif di atas, satu kajian perbandingan telah dijalankan terhadap tiga mikro alga air tawar tempatan : Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis dan Scenedesmus quadricauda untuk dinilai kesannya terhadap penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dari enap cemar air sisa bandaran (municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Kebolehan alga dalam penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dikaji dengan menyukat kandungan nitrat dan fosforus dalam MWS yang dieramkan dengan strain ini selama 7 hari. Bacaan serta-merta diambil setiap 48 jam untuk

  7. Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella; Masserdotti, Alice; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Papa, Matteo; Caimi, Luigi; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Trace concentration of EDs (endocrine disrupting compounds) in water bodies caused by wastewater treatment plant effluents is a recognized problem for the health of aquatic organisms and their potential to affect human health. In this paper we show that continuous exposure of male mice from early development to the adult life (140 days) to unrestricted drinking of wastewater collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant, is associated with an increased adipose deposition and weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. In parallel, bisphenol A (BPA) at the administration dose of 5 μg/kg/body weight, shows an increasing effect on total body weight and fat mass. In vitro, a solid phase extract (SPE) of the wastewater (eTW), caused stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at dilutions of 0.4 and 1 % in the final culture medium which contained a concentration of BPA of 40 nM and 90 nM respectively. Pure BPA also promoted adipocytes differentiation at the concentration of 50 and 80 μM. BPA effect in 3T3-L1 cells was associated to the specific activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in undifferentiated cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in differentiated cells. BPA also activated the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) upregulating a minimal 3XPPARE luciferase reporter and the PPARγ-target promoter of the aP2 gene in adipose cells, while it was not effective in preadipocytes. The pure estrogen receptor agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) played an opposite action to that of BPA inhibiting PPARγ activity in adipocytes, preventing cell differentiation, activating ERα in preadipocytes and inhibiting ERα and ERβ regulation in adipocytes. The results of this work show that the drinking of chemically-contaminated wastewater promotes fat deposition in male mice and that EDs present in sewage are likely responsible for this effect through a nuclear receptor-mediated mechanism. - Highlights: • Sewage

  8. Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Masserdotti, Alice [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Pedrazzani, Roberta [DIMI Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia (Italy); Papa, Matteo [DICATAM Department of Civil, Environmental, Architectural Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brescia, via Branze 43, I-25123 Brescia (Italy); Caimi, Luigi [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Di Lorenzo, Diego, E-mail: diego.dilorenzo@yahoo.it [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Civic Hospital of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Trace concentration of EDs (endocrine disrupting compounds) in water bodies caused by wastewater treatment plant effluents is a recognized problem for the health of aquatic organisms and their potential to affect human health. In this paper we show that continuous exposure of male mice from early development to the adult life (140 days) to unrestricted drinking of wastewater collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant, is associated with an increased adipose deposition and weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. In parallel, bisphenol A (BPA) at the administration dose of 5 μg/kg/body weight, shows an increasing effect on total body weight and fat mass. In vitro, a solid phase extract (SPE) of the wastewater (eTW), caused stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at dilutions of 0.4 and 1 % in the final culture medium which contained a concentration of BPA of 40 nM and 90 nM respectively. Pure BPA also promoted adipocytes differentiation at the concentration of 50 and 80 μM. BPA effect in 3T3-L1 cells was associated to the specific activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in undifferentiated cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in differentiated cells. BPA also activated the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) upregulating a minimal 3XPPARE luciferase reporter and the PPARγ-target promoter of the aP2 gene in adipose cells, while it was not effective in preadipocytes. The pure estrogen receptor agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) played an opposite action to that of BPA inhibiting PPARγ activity in adipocytes, preventing cell differentiation, activating ERα in preadipocytes and inhibiting ERα and ERβ regulation in adipocytes. The results of this work show that the drinking of chemically-contaminated wastewater promotes fat deposition in male mice and that EDs present in sewage are likely responsible for this effect through a nuclear receptor-mediated mechanism. - Highlights: • Sewage

  9. Contribution of domestic wastewater to the total pollutant loading influent to a municipal wastewater treatment plant; Contribuciond e las aguas residuales domesticas a la carga total que accede a una EDAr municipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.; Perez de Siles, L. A.; Rojas Moreno, F. J.; Gonzalez Jimenez, M. M.

    2004-07-01

    A study on the purely domestic wastewater from Cordoba city (Abril to july 2003) has found a pollutant loading very high on these domestic wastewaters, by showing mean values of suspended solid, BOD{sub 5} and COD equal to respectively 452 mg/l, 505 mg/1 and 793 mg/l. This pollutants power probably emanates from the products for domestic cleaning used in our homes and must be associated to chemicals as citrates, oxalates, surfactants, polialcohols, organics complexing, ammonium compounds..., which show high value of pollutant loading up to 200 mg/l of BOD{sub 5} per ml of product have been measured on a commercial domestic dishwasher, and 9.000 mg/l of DQO for a domestic smoothing. Furthermore, the increasing use of pre-cooked foods can add to domestic wastewater fats, oils, and flours which can also increase the BOD:5 and COD values of these effluents. On the other hand, the measured pollutant loading or domestic wastewater from monofamily homes has been lower than those from multifamily buildings. Finally, due to the fact that the Golondrina's WWTP (Cordoba, 1991) was designed for treat values of suspended solids, BOD, and COD lower than those actually detected, its treatment processes should be probably modified in a near future. (Author) 24 refs.

  10. The effect of food waste disposers on municipal waste and wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashlian, Natasha; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2005-02-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of introducing food waste disposers as a waste minimization option within urban waste management schemes, taking the Greater Beirut Area (GBA) as a case study. For this purpose, the operational and economic impacts of food disposers on the solid waste and wastewater streams are assessed. The integration of food waste disposers can reduce the total solid waste to be managed by 12 to 43% under market penetration ranging between 25 and 75%, respectively. While the increase in domestic water consumption (for food grinding) and corresponding increase in wastewater flow rates are relatively insignificant, wastewater loadings increased by 17 to 62% (BOD) and 1.9 to 7.1% (SS). The net economic benefit of introducing food disposers into the waste and wastewater management systems constitutes 7.2 to 44.0% of the existing solid waste management cost under the various scenarios examined. Concerns about increased sludge generation persist and its potential environmental and economic implications may differ with location and therefore area-specific characteristics must be taken into consideration when contemplating the adoption of a strategy to integrate food waste disposers in the waste-wastewater management system.

  11. Evaluation of Diverse Microalgal Species as Potential Biofuel Feedstocks Grown Using Municipal Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiibel, Sage R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Lemos, Mark S.; Kelly, Brian P.; Cushman, John C., E-mail: jcushman@unr.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-05-11

    Microalgae offer great potential as a third-generation biofuel feedstock, especially when grown on wastewater, as they have the dual application for wastewater treatment and as a biomass feedstock for biofuel production. The potential for growth on wastewater centrate was evaluated for forty microalgae strains from fresh (11), brackish (11), or saltwater (18) genera. Generally, freshwater strains were able to grow at high concentrations of centrate, with two strains, Neochloris pseudostigmata and Neochloris conjuncta, demonstrating growth at up to 40% v/v centrate. Fourteen of 18 salt water Dunaliella strains also demonstrated growth in centrate concentrations at or above 40% v/v. Lipid profiles of freshwater strains with high-centrate tolerance were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and compared against those obtained on cells grown on defined maintenance media. The major lipid compounds were found to be palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1), and linoleic (18:2) acids for all freshwater strains grown on either centrate or their respective maintenance medium. These results demonstrate the highly concentrated wastewater can be used to grow microalgae, which limits the need to dilute wastewater prior to algal production. In addition, the algae produced generate lipids suitable for biodiesel or green diesel production.

  12. Evaluation of diverse microalgal species as potential biofuel feedstocks grown using municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage R Hiibel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae offer great potential as a third-generation biofuel feedstock, especially when grown on wastewater, as they have the dual application for wastewater treatment and as a biomass feedstock for biofuel production. The potential for growth on wastewater centrate was evaluated for forty microalgae strains from fresh (11, brackish (11, or saltwater (18 genera. Generally, freshwater strains were able to grow at high concentrations of centrate, with two strains, Neochloris pseudostigmata and N. conjuncta, demonstrating growth at up to 40% v/v centrate. Fourteen of eighteen salt water Dunaliella strains also demonstrated growth in centrate concentrations at or above 40% v/v. Lipid profiles of freshwater strains with high-centrate tolerance were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and compared against those obtained on cells grown on defined maintenance media. The major lipid compounds were found to be palmitic (16:0, oleic (18:1, and linoleic (18:2 acids for all freshwater strains grown on either centrate or their respective maintenance medium. These results demonstrate the highly concentrated wastewater can be used to grow microalgae, which limits the need to dilute wastewater prior to algal production. In addition, the algae produced generate lipids suitable for biodiesel or green diesel production.

  13. Assessment of Chlorella vulgaris and indigenous microalgae biomass with treated wastewater as growth culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Linares, Luis C; Guerrero Barajas, Claudia; Durán Páramo, Enrique; Badillo Corona, Jesús A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of microalgae cultivation using secondary treated domestic wastewater. Two Chlorella vulgaris strains (CICESE and UTEX) and an indigenous consortium, were cultivated on treated wastewater enriched with and without the fertilizer Bayfolan®. Biomass production for C. vulgaris UTEX, CICESE and the indigenous consortium grown in treated wastewater was 1.167±0.057, 1.575±0.434 and 1.125±0.250g/L, with a total lipid content of 25.70±1.24, 23.35±3.01and 20.54±1.23% dw, respectively. The fatty acids profiles were mainly composed of C16 and C18. Regardless of the media used, in all three strains unsaturated fatty acids were the main FAME (fatty acids methyl esters) accumulated in a range of 45-62%. An enrichment of treated wastewater with Bayfolan® significantly increased the production of biomass along with an increase in pigments and proteins of ten and threefold, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbial aspects of synthesis gas fed bioreactors treating sulfate and metal rich wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van B.H.G.W.

    2006-01-01

    The use of synthesis gas fed sulfate-reducing bioreactors to simultaneously remove both oxidized sulfur compounds and metals shows great potential to treat wastewaters generated as a result of flue gas scrubbing, mining activities and galvanic processes. Detailed information about the phylogenetic

  15. Treating ammonium-rich wastewater with sludge from water treatment plant to produce ammonium alum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Po Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a process to treat ammonium-rich wastewater using alum-generated sludge form water purification plant, and gain economic benefit by producing ammonium alum (Al(NH4(SO42·12H2O. The factors affecting production of ammonium alum include molar ratio of ammonium to aluminum concentration, sulfuric acid concentration, mixing speed, mixing time, standing time, and temperature. According to the equation for the ammonium removal reaction, the theoretical quantity of ammonium alum was calculated based on initial and final concentrations of ammonium. Then, the weight of ammonium alum crystal was divided by the theoretical weight to derive the recovery ratio. The optimum sludge and sulfuric acid dosage to treat about 17 g L−1 ammonium wastewater are 300 g L−1 and 100 mL L−1, respectively. The optimal dosage for wastewater is molar ratio of ammonium to aluminum of about 1 due to the aluminum dissolving in acidified wastewater. The ammonium removal efficiency is roughly 70% and the maximum recovery ratio for ammonium alum is 93% when the wastewater is mixed for 10 min at the mixing velocity gradient of 100 s−1. Ammonium alum production or ammonium removal can be enhanced by controlling the reaction at low temperatures.

  16. A new nanocomposite forward osmosis membrane custom-designed for treating shale gas wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Delai Sun, Darren; Song, Xiaoxiao; Bai, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Managing the wastewater discharged from oil and shale gas fields is a big challenge, because this kind of wastewater is normally polluted by high contents of both oils and salts. Conventional pressure-driven membranes experience little success for treating this wastewater because of either severe membrane fouling or incapability of desalination. In this study, we designed a new nanocomposite forward osmosis (FO) membrane for accomplishing simultaneous oil/water separation and desalination. This nanocomposite FO membrane is composed of an oil-repelling and salt-rejecting hydrogel selective layer on top of a graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets infused polymeric support layer. The hydrogel selective layer demonstrates strong underwater oleophobicity that leads to superior anti-fouling capability under various oil/water emulsions, and the infused GO in support layer can significantly mitigate internal concentration polarization (ICP) through reducing FO membrane structural parameter by as much as 20%. Compared with commercial FO membrane, this new FO membrane demonstrates more than three times higher water flux, higher removals for oil and salts (>99.9% for oil and >99.7% for multivalent ions) and significantly lower fouling tendency when investigated with simulated shale gas wastewater. These combined merits will endorse this new FO membrane with wide applications in treating highly saline and oily wastewaters. PMID:26416014

  17. The microbial aspects of constructed wetlands treating simulated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, A.; Firdus, S.

    2005-01-01

    The microbial populations (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) in six different types of 68 dm/sup 3/ experimental constructed wetlands with or with reed were quantified using standard counts of colony forming units grown on different types of medias. The wetlands were supplied with a simulated wastewater and number of environmental variables were measured, including COD, temperature, pH, Oxygen concentration, suspended solids, NH/sub 4//sup +/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and HPO/sub 4//sup 2-/. Mean number of colony forming units of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi differed significantly between each system, sample dates and depths. Correlation coefficient for variables were calculated to determine whether a relationship between biological and physico-chemical factors at all samples depths could be detected. Not surprisingly the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes were strongly positively correlated with temperature and oxygen concentration. However, fungal populations were partially correlated with temperature. No correlation was found between the number of any microorganisms and the levels of HPO/sub 4//sup 2-/ in the effluent. (author)

  18. Bioremediation: Technology for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towprayoon, S.; Kuntrangwattana, S. [King Mongkut`s Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1996-12-31

    Cutting oil wastewater from an iron and steel factory was applied to the soil windrow. Self-remediation was then compared with remediation with acclimatized indigenous microbes. The incremental reduction rate of the microorganisms and hydrocarbon-degradable microbes was slower in self-remediation than in the latter treatment. Within 30 days, when the acclimatized indigenous microbes were used, there was a significant reduction of the contaminated hydrocarbons, while self-remediation took longer to reduce to the same concentration. Various nitrogen sources were applied to the soil pile, namely, organic compost, chemical fertilizer, ammonium sulfate, and urea. The organic compost induced a high yield of hydrocarbon-degradable microorganisms, but the rate at which the cutting oil in the soil decreased was slower than when other nitrogen sources were used. The results of cutting oil degradation studied by gas chromatography showed the absence of some important hydrocarbons. The increment of the hydrocarbon-degradable microbes in the land treatment ecosystem does not necessarily correspond to the hydrocarbon reduction efficiency. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  19. New insights into comparison between synthetic and practical municipal wastewater in cake layer characteristic analysis of membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijie; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Wang, Xin; Yu, Ke; Yang, Shufang; Xia, Siqing

    2017-11-01

    In previous studies, cake layer analysis in membrane bioreactor (MBR) was both carried out with synthetic and practical municipal wastewater (SMW and PMW), leading to different results. This study aimed to identify the comparison between SMW and PMW in cake layer characteristic analysis of MBR. Two laboratory-scale anoxic/oxic MBRs were operated for over 90days with SMW and PMW, respectively. Results showed that PMW led to rough cake layer surface with particles, and the aggravation of cake layer formation with thinner and denser cake layer. Additionally, inorganic components, especially Si and Al, in PMW accumulated into cake layer and strengthened the cake layer structure, inducing severer biofouling. However, SMW promoted bacterial metabolism during cake layer formation, thus aggravated the accumulation of organic components into cake layer. Therefore, SMW highlighted the organic components in cake layer, but weakened the inorganic functions in practical MBR operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetic rates and mass balance of COD, TKN, and TP using SBR treating domestic and industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warodomrungsimun, Chaowalit; Fongsatitkul, Prayoon

    2009-12-01

    To assess the performance of SBR to treat three different types of wastewater from domestic, hospital, slaughterhouse and investigate the kinetic rates of active biomass. Mass balance calculation of COD, TKN and TP was further performed to explain the mechanisms of the biological nutrient removals processed in the SBR system. The measured kinetic rates were in turn used to evaluate the process performances under different types of wastewater. Experimental research involving 3 similar SBR lab-scales were installed and operated at the Sanitary Engineering Laboratory. The reactors were seeded with sludge biomass obtained from the Sri-Phraya Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in Bangkok. The slaughterhouse, hospital and domestic wastewaters were treated by SBR system for biological organic carbon (COD), nitrogen (TKN) and phosphorus removals. Biological methods for kinetic rates evaluation were conducted in five replicated batch tests. The removal efficiencies of COD and TKN were greater than 90% for all three types of wastewater while the biological phosphorus removal for domestic and hospital wastewaters were less than 60% and phosphorus removal for slaughterhouse exceeded 95%. The kinetic rates of nitrification and denitrification of hospital wastewater was lower than those the domestic and slaughterhouse wastewaters. Phosphorus release and uptake rates of slaughterhouse wastewater were high but domestic and hospital wastewaters were very low. The result of system removal efficiency and batch test for kinetic rates confirmed that the domestic and hospital wastewaters were in deficiency of organic carbon with respect to its ability to support successful biological phosphorus removal.

  1. Comparison of two anaerobic systems for hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and synthetic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana M. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, 29010 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Perez-Hernandez, Antonino [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico); Eapen, D. [Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, 29010 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Two laboratory scale anaerobic digestion systems for hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and synthetic wastewater were compared in this study. One of them was formed by a coupled packed bed reactor (PBR) containing 19.4 L of OFMSW and the other an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) of 3.85 L. The reactors were inoculated with a mixture of non-anaerobic inocula. In the UASB the percentage of hydrogen yield reached 51% v/v and 127NmLH{sub 2}/gvs removed with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. The concentration of synthetic wastewater in the affluent was 7 g COD/L. For the PBR the percentage yield was 47% v/v and 99NmLH{sub 2}/gvs removed with a mass retention time (MRT) of 50 days and the organic load rate of 16 gvs (Grams Volatile Solids)/(kg-day). The UASB and PBR systems presented maximum hydrogen yields of 30% and 23%, respectively, which correspond to 4molH{sub 2}/mol glucose. These values are similar to those reported in the literature for the hydrogen yield (37%) in mesophilic range. The acetic and butyric acids were present in the effluent as by-products in watery phase. In this work we used non-anaerobic inocula made up of microorganism consortium unlike other works where pure inocula or that from anaerobic sludge was used. (author)

  2. Selective elimination of chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Zhou, Zhongbo; Raju, Maddela Naga; Cai, Xiaoxuan; Meng, Fangang

    2017-07-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) from municipal wastewater treatment plants potentially has a detrimental effect on both aquatic organisms and humans. This study evaluated the removal and transformation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant under different seasons. The results showed that bio-treatment was found to be more efficient in removing bulk DOM (in term of dissolved organic carbon, DOC) than CDOM and FDOM, which was contrary to the disinfection process. CDOM and FDOM were selectively removed at various stages during the treatment. Typically, the low molecular weight fractions of CDOM and protein-like FDOM were more efficiently removed during bio-treatment process, whereas the humic-like FDOM exhibited comparable decreases in both bio-treatment and disinfection processes. Overall, the performance of the WWTP was weak in terms of CDOM and FDOM removal, resulting in enrichment of CDOM and FDOM in effluent. Moreover, the total removal of the bulk DOM (PCDOM and the humic-like FDOM showed little differences between summer and winter. In all, the results provide useful information for understanding the fate and transformation of DOM, illustrating that sub-fractions of DOM could be selectively removed depending on treatment processes and seasonality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Feasibility of geothermal heat use in the San Bernardino Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, September 1980-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racine, W.C.; Larson, T.C.; Stewart, C.A.; Wessel, H.B.

    1981-06-01

    A system was developed for utilizing nearby low temperature geothermal energy to heat two high-rate primary anaerobic digesters at the San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant. The geothermal fluid would replace the methane currently burned to fuel the digesters. A summary of the work accomplished on the feasibility study is presented. The design and operation of the facility are examined and potentially viable applications selected for additional study. Results of these investigations and system descriptions and equipment specifications for utilizing geothermal energy in the selected processes are presented. The economic analyses conducted on the six engineering design cases are discussed. The environmental setting of the project and an analysis of the environmental impacts that will result from construction and operation of the geothermal heating system are discussed. A Resource Development Plan describes the steps that the San Bernardino Municipal Water Department could follow in order to utilize the resource. A preliminary well program and rough cost estimates for the production and injection wells also are included. The Water Department is provided with a program and schedule for implementing a geothermal system to serve the wastewater treatment plant. Regulatory, financial, and legal issues that will impact the project are presented in the Appendix. An outline of a Public Awareness Program is included.

  4. Investigation of relationships between removals of tetracycline and degradation products and physicochemical parameters in municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Murat; Uslu Şenel, Gülşad; Öbek, Erdal; Arslan Topal, E Işıl

    2016-05-15

    Determination of the effect of physicochemical parameters on the removal of tetracycline (TC) and degradation products is important because of the importance of the removal of antibiotics in Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between removals of TC and degradation products and physicochemical parameters in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWWTP). For this aim, (i) the removals of physicochemical parameters in a MWWTP located in Elazığ city (Turkey) were determined (ii) the removals of TC and degradation products in MWWTP were determined (iii) the relationships between removals of TC and degradation products and physicochemical parameters were investigated. TC, 4-epitetracycline (ETC), 4-epianhydrotetracycline (EATC), anhydrotetracycline (ATC), and physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), suspended solids (SS), BOD5, COD, total organic carbon (TOC), NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N, NO3(-)-N and O-PO4(-3)) were determined. The calculation of the correlation coefficients of relationships between the physicochemical parameters and TC, EATC, ATC showed that, among the investigated parameters, EATC and SS most correlated. The removals of other physicochemical parameters were not correlated with TC, EATC and ATC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic resistance genes in four municipal wastewater treatment plants in Harbin, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Duan, Ruan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms is of great concern for public health. In this study, the distribution and removal efficiency of intI1 and eight subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for tetracycline, sulfonamides, beta-lactams resistance in four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Harbin, which locates in Songhua River basin in cold areas of China, were monitored by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that intI1 and 6 ARGs except for blaTEM and blaSHV were detected in wastewater and sludge samples and 0.3-2.7 orders of magnitude of ARGs removal efficiency in the four WWTPs were observed. The investigation on the removal of ARGs of different treatment units in one WWTP showed that the biological treatment unit played the most important role in ARGs removal (1.2-1.8 orders of magnitude), followed by UV disinfection, while primary physical treatment units can hardly remove any ARGs. Although all the WWTPs can remove ARGs effectively, ARGs concentrations are still relatively high in the effluent, their further attenuation should be investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Superstructure development and optimization under uncertainty for design and retrofit of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    n this contribution, an optimization - based approach is presented for optimal process selec tion and design for domestic wastewater treatment plant s (WWTP s ). In particular, we address the issue of uncertainties by formulating the WWTP design problem as a Stochastic Mixed Integer (Non) Linear ...

  7. Assessment of toxicological profiles of the municipal wastewater effluents using chemical analyses and bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smital, Tvrtko; Terzic, Senka; Zaja, Roko; Senta, Ivan; Pivcevic, Branka; Popovic, Marta; Mikac, Iva; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Thomas, Kevin V; Ahel, Marijan

    2011-05-01

    The hazardous chemical contamination of untreated wastewater and secondary effluent from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of the city of Zagreb, Croatia was comprehensively characterized using large-volume solid-phase extraction (SPE) and silica gel fractionation, followed by a detailed analysis of the resulting extracts by a combination of chemical and bioassay methods. Over 100 individual contaminants or closely related-contaminant groups were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF). Ecotoxicity profiling of the investigated samples, including cytotoxicity, chronic toxicity and EROD activity; inhibition of the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR), genotoxicity and estrogenic potential, revealed the most significant contribution of toxic compounds to be present in polar fractions. Wastewater treatment using conventional activated sludge process reduced the initial toxicity of raw wastewater to various extents, ranging from 28% for algal toxicity to 73.2% for an estrogenic activity. The most efficient toxicity removal was observed for the polar compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli from municipal wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Čornejová

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions. The results showed that the wastewater is a source of ESBLs, carbapenemases and plasmid fluoroquinolone resistance. Strains with biofilm production, antibiotic resistance of CTX-M group, CMY-2, qnrS genes and virulence factors present a potential environmental health risk.

  9. Performance of a biomass adapted to oncological ward wastewater vs. biomass from municipal WWTP on the removal of pharmaceutical molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, P; Moulin, P; Ercolei, L; Marrot, B

    2018-01-01

    The performance of a biomass adapted to Oncological Ward Wastewater (OWW) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was compared with that of a municipal WWTP, on the removal of pharmaceutical molecules and more specifically on their overall resistance and purifying ability in the presence of pharmaceutical cocktails. Sorption and biotransformation mechanisms on two antineoplastics, one antibiotic and a painkiller were evaluated. Sludge acclimated to OWW allowed for a 34% increase in the removal rate and in the minimum inhibition concentration. The percentage of the amounts of specific pharmaceutical compounds removed by biotransformation or by sorption were measured. These results are positive, as they show that the observed removal of pharmaceutical molecules by biomass acclimated to OWW can mostly be attributed to developed biotransformation, unlike the biomass from the municipal WWTP for which sorption is sometimes the only removal mechanism. The biotransformation kinetic and the solid-water distribution coefficients in this study show good agreement with literature data, even for much higher pharmaceutical concentrations in OWW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison between two full-scale MBR and CAS municipal wastewater treatment plants: techno-economic-environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Canato, Matteo; Laera, Giuseppe; Vaccari, Mentore; Svanström, Magdalena; Heimersson, Sara

    2017-07-01

    A holistic assessment procedure has been used in this study for comparing conventional activated sludge (CAS) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes for the treatment of municipal wastewater. Technical, social, administrative, economic and environmental impacts have been evaluated based on 1 year of operational data from three full-scale lines (one MBR and two CAS) working in parallel in a large municipal treatment plant. The comparative assessment evidences a slight advantage of the conventional process in the studied case, essentially due to lower costs, complexity and energy consumption. On the other hand, the MBR technology has a better social acceptance and similar overall environmental footprint. Although these results are influenced by site-specific parameters and cannot be generalized, the assessment procedure allowed identifying the most important factors affecting the final scores for each technology and the main differences between the compared technologies. Local conditions can affect the relative importance of the assessed impacts, and the use of weighting factors is proposed for better tailoring the comparative assessment to the local needs and circumstances. A sensitivity analysis on the weighted final scores demonstrated how local factors are very important and must be carefully evaluated in the decision making process.

  11. Monitoring and evaluation of antibiotic resistance genes in four municipal wastewater treatment plants in Harbin, Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Duan, Ruan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms is of great concern for public health. In this study, the distribution and removal efficiency of intI1 and eight subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for tetracycline, sulfonamides, beta-lactams resistance in four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Harbin, which locates in Songhua River basin in cold areas of China, were monitored by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that intI1 and 6 ARGs except for bla_T_E_M and bla_S_H_V were detected in wastewater and sludge samples and 0.3–2.7 orders of magnitude of ARGs removal efficiency in the four WWTPs were observed. The investigation on the removal of ARGs of different treatment units in one WWTP showed that the biological treatment unit played the most important role in ARGs removal (1.2–1.8 orders of magnitude), followed by UV disinfection, while primary physical treatment units can hardly remove any ARGs. Although all the WWTPs can remove ARGs effectively, ARGs concentrations are still relatively high in the effluent, their further attenuation should be investigated. - Highlights: • The distribution of 8 ARGs and intI1 in WWTPs in Harbin in winter were monitored. • ARGs removal in 4 WWTPs with different processes were investigated. • Biological treatment process plays the most important role in ARGs removal. • A relatively high level of ARGs is still present in the effluent after wastewater treatment. • Regional uses of antibiotics other than season temperature affects the fate of ARGs in WWTPs.

  12. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, E-E [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei City, Taiwan 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Pan, Shu-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Liuhanzi [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Haidin District, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Yi-Hung [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Sec. 3, Zhongxiao E. Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kim, Hyunook [Department of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiang, Pen-Chi, E-mail: pcchiang@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO{sub 2}, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO{sub 2} per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO{sub 2} emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO{sub 2} captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO{sub 2} concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO{sub 2} fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO{sub 2} reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO{sub 2} fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  13. Characterization of persistent colors and decolorization of effluent from biologically treated cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lili; Liu, Junfeng; Yu, Yanling; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2016-05-01

    The high chroma of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater poses a serious environmental concern; however, color-causing compounds are still not fully clear. The characteristics of the color compounds and decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation were investigated in this study. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), UV-Vis spectra, and ultrafiltration (UF) fractionation were used to analyze color compounds. High chroma of wastewater largely comes from humic materials, which exhibited great fluorescence proportion (67.1 %) in the biologically treated effluent. Additionally, the color compounds were mainly distributed in the molecular weight fractions with 3-10 and 10-30 kDa, which contributed 53.5 and 34.6 % of the wastewater color, respectively. Further decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation was investigated, and 98.3 % of color removal accompanied with 97.3 % reduction of humic acid-like matter was achieved after 180 min. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of a well decolorization for cellulosic ethanol production wastewater and better understanding of the biological fermentation.

  14. Isolation and characterization of NDM-positive Escherichia coli from municipal wastewater in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Mantilla-Calderon, David

    2016-06-20

    The emergence of resistance to last resort antibiotics is a public health concern of global scale. Besides direct person-to-person propagation, environmental pathways might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, we describe the incidence of blaNDM-1, a gene conferring resistance to carbapenems, in the wastewater of Jeddah city over a one-year period. blaNDM-1 was detected at concentrations ranging from 104 to 105 copies per m3 of untreated wastewater during the entire monitoring period. These results indicate the ubiquity and high incidence of blaNDM-1 in the local wastewater. To track the bacteria carrying blaNDM-1, we isolated Escherichia coli PI7, a strain of the sequence type ST101, from wastewater around the Hajj event in October 2013. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed an extensive repertoire of ARGs as well as virulence and invasive traits. These traits were further confirmed by antibiotic resistance profiling and in-vitro cell internalization in HeLa cell cultures. Given that this strain remains viable even after a certain duration in the sewerage, and that Jeddah lacks a robust sanitary infrastructure to fully capture all generated sewage, the presence of this bacterium in the untreated wastewater would represent a potential hazard to the local public health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaNDM-1-positive E. coli isolated from a non-nosocomial environment in Saudi Arabia, and may set a preceding concern for the need to establish an improved surveillance for carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the country and nearby regions.

  15. Isolation and characterization of NDM-positive Escherichia coli from municipal wastewater in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Mantilla-Calderon, David; Jumat, Muhammad; Wang, Tiannyu; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Aljassim, Nada I.; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to last resort antibiotics is a public health concern of global scale. Besides direct person-to-person propagation, environmental pathways might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, we describe the incidence of blaNDM-1, a gene conferring resistance to carbapenems, in the wastewater of Jeddah city over a one-year period. blaNDM-1 was detected at concentrations ranging from 104 to 105 copies per m3 of untreated wastewater during the entire monitoring period. These results indicate the ubiquity and high incidence of blaNDM-1 in the local wastewater. To track the bacteria carrying blaNDM-1, we isolated Escherichia coli PI7, a strain of the sequence type ST101, from wastewater around the Hajj event in October 2013. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed an extensive repertoire of ARGs as well as virulence and invasive traits. These traits were further confirmed by antibiotic resistance profiling and in-vitro cell internalization in HeLa cell cultures. Given that this strain remains viable even after a certain duration in the sewerage, and that Jeddah lacks a robust sanitary infrastructure to fully capture all generated sewage, the presence of this bacterium in the untreated wastewater would represent a potential hazard to the local public health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaNDM-1-positive E. coli isolated from a non-nosocomial environment in Saudi Arabia, and may set a preceding concern for the need to establish an improved surveillance for carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the country and nearby regions.

  16. Cultivation and characterization of Candidatus Nitrosocosmicus exaquare, an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from a municipal wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Laura A; Albertsen, Mads; Engel, Katja; Schwarz, Jasmin; Nielsen, Per H; Wagner, Michael; Neufeld, Josh D

    2017-05-01

    Thaumarchaeota have been detected in several industrial and municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), despite the fact that ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are thought to be adapted to low ammonia environments. However, the activity, physiology and metabolism of WWTP-associated AOA remain poorly understood. We report the cultivation and complete genome sequence of Candidatus Nitrosocosmicus exaquare, a novel AOA representative from a municipal WWTP in Guelph, Ontario (Canada). In enrichment culture, Ca. N. exaquare oxidizes ammonia to nitrite stoichiometrically, is mesophilic, and tolerates at least 15 mm of ammonium chloride or sodium nitrite. Microautoradiography (MAR) for enrichment cultures demonstrates that Ca. N. exaquare assimilates bicarbonate in association with ammonia oxidation. However, despite using inorganic carbon, the ammonia-oxidizing activity of Ca. N. exaquare is greatly stimulated in enrichment culture by the addition of organic compounds, especially malate and succinate. Ca. N. exaquare cells are coccoid with a diameter of ~1-2 μm. Phylogenetically, Ca. N. exaquare belongs to the Nitrososphaera sister cluster within the Group I.1b Thaumarchaeota, a lineage which includes most other reported AOA sequences from municipal and industrial WWTPs. The 2.99 Mbp genome of Ca. N. exaquare encodes pathways for ammonia oxidation, bicarbonate fixation, and urea transport and breakdown. In addition, this genome encodes several key genes for dealing with oxidative stress, including peroxidase and catalase. Incubations of WWTP biofilm demonstrate partial inhibition of ammonia-oxidizing activity by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO), suggesting that Ca. N. exaquare-like AOA may contribute to nitrification in situ. However, CARD-FISH-MAR showed no incorporation of bicarbonate by detected Thaumarchaeaota, suggesting that detected AOA may incorporate non-bicarbonate carbon sources or rely on an alternative and yet unknown

  17. Enhancement of biogas production at the municipal wastewater treatment plant by co-digestion with poultry industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budych-Gorzna, Magdalena; Smoczynski, Marcin; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory and full-scale trials on co-digestion of sludge and poultry waste were performed. • Successful scaling-up of the results from laboratory to full-scale was accomplished. • Incremental addition of poultry waste to the full-scale anaerobic digesters did not cause any inhibition of the process. • WWTP energy dependency can be reduced significantly by co-digestion of sludge and external source of waste. - Abstract: Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are energy-intensive and thus cost-intensive facilities; therefore, it is crucial to increase energy production directly at the WWTP. Enhancement of biogas production by addition of external substrates is one of the solutions to increase energy self-sufficiency of the WWTPs with an additional benefit of cutting down the greenhouse gas emission. The main aim of the work was to investigate full utilization of the capacity of full-scale digesters at the municipal WWTP by addition of poultry industry waste. At first, laboratory trials were conducted in order to identify the most suitable dose for co-digestion with primary and waste activated sludge and finally, based on the achieved laboratory results, full-scale trials were carried out directly at the municipal WWTP. Poultry industrial waste yielded between 0.39 and 0.88 m 3 of methane per kg of volatile solids during laboratory trials, depending on the added concentration. During full-scale investigation yield of 0.81 m 3 /kg VS was achieved. Enhanced biogas production improved WWTP energy self-sufficiency bringing closer to the aim of increasing the share of self-produced energy up to 80%.

  18. 77 FR 1687 - EPA Workshops on Achieving Water Quality Through Integrated Municipal Stormwater and Wastewater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... quality benefits and consider various innovative approaches, such as green infrastructure, that may be... approach, EPA encourages municipalities to pursue more innovative approaches such as green infrastructure technologies and asset management or similar utility-wide planning approaches. EPA has strongly encouraged...

  19. An innovative process for treatment of municipal wastewater with superior charcteristics compared to traditional techologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Fitsios, E.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    An innovative treatment process for municipal sewage, which results in low sludge production, low energy consumption, high COD removal and high energy and nutrients recovery, is described. The organic matter will primarly be removed through anaerobic degradation using high-flow reactors. For nitr...

  20. Physical-chemical effects of irrigation with treated wastewater on Dusky Red Latosol soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ribeiro Urbano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current water crisis underlines the importance of improving water management. The use of effluent from secondary treatment in agriculture can reduce the discharge of effluent into natural bodies and provide nutrients to crops. This study evaluated the physical and chemical properties of a Dusky Red Latosol soil that had been irrigated with treated wastewater. Conducted at the Center of Agricultural Sciences (CCA of Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar, in Araras/São Paulo/Brazil, 18 undisturbed soil samples were collected and deposited on a constant-head permeameter in order to simulate the irrigation of five growth cycles of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., organized in five different treatments and one control group. For each treatment 0.58 L, 1.16 L, 1.74 L, 2.32 L, and 2.90 L of treated wastewater and distilled water were applied . The treated wastewater came from a domestic waste treatment plant. After the water filtered through the soil, samples of treated wastewater were collected for analyses of electrical conductivity (EC, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, turbidity, pH, Na, K, Mg, P and Ca and, in the soil the granulometry, complete fertility, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat. The Ksat decreased, but did not alter the infiltration of water and nutrients in the soil. The concentration of nutrients in the soil increased, including Na, which raises the need for monitoring soil’s salinity. In conclusion, the application of wastewater did not cause damage to the physical properties of the soil, but resulted in a tendency towards salinization.

  1. Sequential use of bentonites and solar photocatalysis to treat winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eva; Márquez, Gracia; Carpintero, Juan Carlos; Beltrán, Fernando J; Alvarez, Pedro

    2008-12-24

    The sequential use of low-cost adsorbent bentonites and solar photocatalysis to treat winery wastewater has been studied. Three commercial sodium-bentonites (MB-M, MB-G, and MB-P) and one calcium-bentonite (Bengel) were characterized and used in this study. These clay materials were useful to totally remove turbidity (90-100%) and, to a lesser extent, color, polyphenols (PPh), and soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODS) from winery wastewater. Both surface area and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite had a positive impact on treatment efficiency. The effect of pH on turbidity removal by bentonites was studied in the 3.5-12 pH range. The bentonites were capable of greatly removing turbidity from winery wastewater at pH 3.5-5.5, but removal efficiency decreased with pH increase beyond this range. Settling characteristics (i.e., sludge volume index (SVI) and settling rate) of bentonites were also studied. Best settling properties were observed for bentonite doses around 0.5 g/L. The reuse of bentonite for winery wastewater treatment was found not to be advisable as the turbidity and PPh removal efficiencies decreased with successive uses. The resulting wastewater after bentonite treatment was exposed to solar radiation at oxic conditions in the presence of Fe(III) and Fe(III)/H2O2 catalysts. Significant reductions of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), and PPh were achieved by these solar photocatalytic processes.

  2. Plant-integrated measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    experiencing operational problems, such as during foaming events in anaerobic digesters and during sub-optimal operation of biological nitrogen removal in the secondary treatment of wastewater. Methane emissions detected during measurement campaigns corresponded to 2.07-32.7% of the methane generated......Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its spatial and temporal variation in emissions, whole plant characterization of GHG emissions from WWTPs face a number of obstacles. In this study, a tracer dispersion method was applied...... in the plant. As high as 4.27% of nitrogen entering the WWTP was emitted as nitrous oxide under the sub-optimal operation of biological treatment processes. The study shows that the unit process configuration, as well as the operation of the WWTP, determines the rate of GHG emission. The applied plant...

  3. Antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment systems and receiving waters in Arctic Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neudorf, Kara D.; Huang, Yan Nan; Ragush, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic wastewater discharges may adversely impact arctic ecosystems and local indigenous people, who rely on being able to hunt and harvest food from their local environment. Therefore, there is a need to develop efficient wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which can be operated in remote...... communities under extreme climatic conditions. WWTPs have been identified as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this work was to quantify the presence of nine different ARG markers (int1, sul1, sul2, tet(O), erm(B), mecA, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and qnr(S)) in two passive systems...... (waste stabilization ponds [WSPs]) and one mechanical filtration plant operating in two smaller and one large community, respectively, in Nunavut, Canada. Measurement of water quality parameters (carbonaceous oxygen demand, ammonia, total suspended solids, Escherichia coli and total coliforms) showed...

  4. Abiotic transformation of estrogens in synthetic municipal wastewater: An alternative for treatment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Suidan, Makram T.; Mills, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The abiotic transformation of estrogens, including estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and ethinylestradiol (EE2), in the presence of model vegetable matter was confirmed in this study. Batch experiments were performed to model the catalytic conversion of E1, E2, E3 and EE2 in synthetic wastewater. Greater than 80% reduction in the parent compounds was achieved for each target chemical after 72 h with the remaining concentration distributed between aqueous and solid phases as follows: 13% and 7% for E1, 10% and 2% for E2, 6% and 2% for E3, and 8% and 3% for EE2, respectively. Testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were also monitored in this study, and their concentrations were found to be in agreement with initially spiked amount. Data collected under laboratory conditions provided the basis for implementing new abiotic wastewater treatment technologies that use inexpensive materials. - Abiotic transformation of estrogens in wastewater matrices can be harnessed for improving their removal from the environment.

  5. Abiotic transformation of estrogens in synthetic municipal wastewater: An alternative for treatment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfil-Vega, Ruth [School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 701 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071 (United States); Suidan, Makram T., E-mail: Makram.Suidan@uc.ed [School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 701 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071 (United States); Mills, Marc A. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The abiotic transformation of estrogens, including estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and ethinylestradiol (EE2), in the presence of model vegetable matter was confirmed in this study. Batch experiments were performed to model the catalytic conversion of E1, E2, E3 and EE2 in synthetic wastewater. Greater than 80% reduction in the parent compounds was achieved for each target chemical after 72 h with the remaining concentration distributed between aqueous and solid phases as follows: 13% and 7% for E1, 10% and 2% for E2, 6% and 2% for E3, and 8% and 3% for EE2, respectively. Testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were also monitored in this study, and their concentrations were found to be in agreement with initially spiked amount. Data collected under laboratory conditions provided the basis for implementing new abiotic wastewater treatment technologies that use inexpensive materials. - Abiotic transformation of estrogens in wastewater matrices can be harnessed for improving their removal from the environment.

  6. A mesocosm approach for detecting stream invertebrate community responses to treated wastewater effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, Theodore E.; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    The discharge of wastewater from sewage treatment plants is one of the most common forms of pollution to river ecosystems, yet the effects on aquatic invertebrate assemblages have not been investigated in a controlled experimental setting. Here, we use a mesocosm approach to evaluate community responses to exposure to different concentrations of treated wastewater effluents over a two week period. Multivariate analysis using Principal Response Curves indicated a clear, dose-effect response to the treatments, with significant changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages after one week when exposed to 30% effluent, and after two weeks in the 15% and 30% effluent treatments. Treatments were associated with an increase in nutrient concentrations (ammonium, sulfate, and phosphate) and reduction of dissolved oxygen. These findings indicate that exposure to wastewater effluent cause significant changes in abundance and composition of macroinvertebrate taxa and that effluent concentration as low as 5% can have detectable ecological effects. - Highlights: ► Stream invertebrate communities are altered by exposure to wastewater effluent. ► Principal Response Curves indicate a dose-effect response to effluent treatment. ► Biotic quality indices decline with increasing effluent concentration and exposure time. ► Effluent concentrations as low as 5% have detectable ecological effects. - Exposure to treated effluent in a stream mesocosm caused a dose-dependent response in the aquatic invertebrate community and led to declines in biological quality indices.

  7. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Santhosh, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m 3 to 10.3 kN/m 3 at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43

  8. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L., E-mail: gls@civil.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmikanthan, P., E-mail: lakshmikanthancp@gmail.com [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Santhosh, L.G., E-mail: lgsanthu2006@gmail.com [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m{sup 3} to 10.3 kN/m{sup 3} at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43.

  9. Effect of Treated Wastewater Irrigation on Heavy Metals Distribution in a Tunisian Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khaskhoussy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater (TWW may contain toxic chemical constituents that pose negative environmental and health impacts. In this study, soil samples under treated wastewater irrigation were studied. For this purpose, six plots were made in an irrigated area in north of Tunisia and treated with two water qualities: fresh water (FW and treated wastewater (TWW. Five soil depths were used: 0-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-120 and 120-150 cm. The TWW irrigation increased significantly (P≤0.05 the soils’ EC, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SAR, Cu, Cd and Ni and had no significant (P ≤0.05 effect on the soils’ pH, Zn, Co and Pb contents. EC, Na, Cl, SAR, Zn and Co increased significantly with soil depth. The results for K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Pb and Ni exhibited similar repartition in different layers of soil. It was also shown that the amount of different elements in soil irrigated with fresh water (FW were less compared with the control soil

  10. Impact of treated urban wastewater for reuse in agriculture on crop response and soil ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Dalel; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Medhioub, Mounir; Zhou, John; Kallel, Monem; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    The scarcity of freshwater resources is a serious problem in arid regions, such as Tunisia, and marginal quality water is gradually being used in agriculture. This study aims to study the impact of treated urban wastewater for reuse in agriculture on the health of soil and food crops. The key findings are that the effluents of Sfax wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) did not meet the relevant guidelines, therefore emitting a range of organic (e.g., up to 90 mg L(-1) COD and 30 mg L(-1) BOD5) and inorganic pollutants (e.g., up to 0.5 mg L(-1) Cu and 0.1 mg L(-1) Cd) in the receiving aquatic environments. Greenhouse experiments examining the effects of wastewater reuse on food plants such as tomato, lettuce, and radish showed that the treated effluent adversely affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant enzyme contents. However, the pollution burden and biological effects on plants were substantially reduced by using a 50 % dilution of treated sewage effluent, suggesting the potential of reusing treated effluent in agriculture so long as appropriate monitoring and control is in place.

  11. Experimental and modelling studies on a laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sughosh, P; White, James; Sivakumar Babu, G L

    2017-07-01

    The performance of an anaerobic bioreactor in treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste was investigated using experimental and modelling techniques. The key parameters measured during the experimental test period included the gas yield, leachate generation and settlement under applied load. Modelling of the anaerobic bioreactor was carried out using the University of Southampton landfill degradation and transport model. The model was used to simulate the actual gas production and settlement. A sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential model parameters are the monod growth rate and moisture. In this case, pH had no effect on the total gas production and waste settlement, and only a small variation in the gas production was observed when the heat transfer coefficient of waste was varied from 20 to 100 kJ/(m d K) -1 . The anaerobic bioreactor contained 1.9 kg (dry) of mechanically biologically treated waste producing 10 L of landfill gas over 125 days.

  12. Endophytic Phytoaugmentation: Treating Wastewater and Runoff Through Augmented Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Lauren K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Limited options exist for efficiently and effectively treating water runoff from agricultural fields and landfills. Traditional treatments include excavation, transport to landfills, incineration, stabilization, and vitrification. In general, treatment options relying on biological methods such as bioremediation have the ability to be applied in situ and offer a sustainable remedial option with a lower environmental impact and reduced long-term operating expenses. These methods are generally considered ecologically friendly, particularly when compared to traditional physicochemical cleanup options. Phytoremediation, which relies on plants to take up and/or transform the contaminant of interest, is another alternative treatment method which has been developed. However, phytoremediation is not widely used, largely due to its low treatment efficiency. Endophytic phytoaugmentation is a variation on phytoremediation that relies on augmenting the phytoremediating plants with exogenous strains to stimulate associated plant-microbe interactions to facilitate and improve remediation efficiency. In this review, we offer a summary of the current knowledge as well as developments in endophytic phytoaugmentation and present some potential future applications for this technology. There has been a limited number of published endophytic phytoaugmentation case studies and much remains to be done to transition lab-scale results to field applications. Future research needs include large-scale endophytic phytoaugmentation experiments as well as the development of more exhaustive tools for monitoring plant-microbe-pollutant interactions. PMID:27158249

  13. Agroecological Substantiation for the Use of Treated Wastewater for Irrigation of Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Domashenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the agroecological substantiation of the use of treated wastewater for irrigation of agricultural land. As the result of the experimental research, it was established that the soil microfloraplays an essential role in strengthening or weakening the biological activity of soil. Therefore, with an irrigation rate of 250 m 3 /ha of wastewater, a 1.5 times increase in the number of microbiota colonies is observed on average both in hog farms and cattle breeding complexes; with a rate of 350 m 3 /ha – a 2-fold increase; with a rate of 450 m 3 /ha – a 3.5–4-fold increase. An increase in nitrifying soil features has also been observed. Thus, if the value on the control in the soil layer from 0 cm to 60 cm is 27.2 mg of nitrate per 1 kg of arid soil, in the version with wastewater irrigation it reaches 46.7 mg. According to the research results, the use of defecate, the waste of sugar production, in the treatment of wastewater of livestock farms does not have a negative agroecological impact on the soil. Therefore, the method of wastewater treatment of pig-breeding complexes and farms can be recommended for use in irrigation reclamation, which includes treatment of wastewater with burnt defecate in the dose of 50–200 mg/dm 3 , with the pH value varying in the range of 7.5–8.5. After settling-out of the obtained mixture in settlers, it is divided into a transparent liquid fraction and the sediment, i.e. an organomineral fertilizer. Afterwards, the fluidbody is fed to irrigation of agricultural land, and its excess is discharged into waterways and reservoirs. The sediment is fed to the vortex layer equipment with mobile ferromagnetic particles or thermolized, where their complete disinfection takes place.

  14. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shengbing; Xue Gang

    2010-01-01

    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state.

  15. Managed aquifer recharge using quaternary-treated wastewater: an economic perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Zekri, Slim Mohamed

    2013-10-11

    An excess of 31 million m3/y of tertiary-treated wastewater is expected in Muscat, Oman, by 2015. This paper addresses the technical and cost estimation of managed aquifer recharge after reverse-osmosis treatment. The results indicate that the project is appealing from an economic perspective. The total cost varies between USD 0.353 and USD 0.550 per cubic metre, depending on the cost of electricity, the interest rate and the life span of the project. The project may face rejection from domestic users, who may be unwilling to accept mixing treated wastewater with the current water supply due to health risks. An alternative to indirect potable reuse is the installation of a separate network to service industrial users. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  16. Occurrence of illicit drugs and selected pharmaceuticals in Slovak municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodík, Igor; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Fáberová, Milota; Ivanová, Lucia

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed illicit drugs and their metabolites and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from 15 selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. Our results indicate that methamphetamine is one of the most commonly used illegal drugs in all the regions of Slovakia monitored in this study. Compared with the international results, the Slovak cities of Dunajská Streda (479 mg/day/1000inh) and Trnava (354 mg/day/1000inh) are among the cities with the largest numbers of methamphetamine users in Europe. These results indicate an increase in the incidence of drugs in big cities and in the satellite cities (Trnava and Dunajská Streda) near Bratislava. These results also confirm the police statistics about production and use of illicit drugs in Slovakia. The highest specific loads of cocaine were found in Bratislava (112 mg/day/1000inh), followed by Petržalka (74 mg/day/1000inh). Compared with other European cities, Bratislava and the other Slovak cities in this study have a relatively low number of COC consumers. The ecstasy load in wastewater from larger cities also significantly increased over the weekend and during music festivals. The highest 2-year mean concentrations of THC-COOH, a cannabis biomarker, were observed in the sewage from BA-Petržalka and BA-Central (191 and 171 ng/L, respectively). A first complex monitoring of pharmaceuticals in all therapeutic groups was also realized in selected Slovak WWTPs. Occurrence of wide spectrum of pharmaceuticals with very high concentrations as well as consumptions were observed mainly in small Slovak cities. Considering all 120 monitored pharmaceuticals, Valsartan had the highest concentrations: 6000 ng/L, on average.

  17. Inhibition of the nitrification process in municipal wastewater treatment plants by industrial discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Winther-Nielsen, M.; Jorgensen, L.

    1994-01-01

    of inhibitory substances are to be found among the industries, and that nearly all of the industries investigated exhibited some kind of inhibitory effect. Further, is was demonstrated that the toxic unit calculation might be used in the quantification of the sources, and that the observed effects could...... be explained by the chemical substances in the wastewater from the industries. Based on the above described results, a strategy for control of the inhibitory effects at the different levels of the catchment area was suggested....

  18. A comprehensive substance flow analysis of a municipal wastewater and sludge treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Guildal, T.

    2015-01-01

    The fate of total organic carbon, 32 elements (Al, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) and 4 groups of organic pollutants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, polychlorinated biphenyl...... on the assessment, it is evident that both inorganic and organic elements accumulated in the sewage sludge, with the exception of elements that are highly soluble or degradable by wastewater and sludge treatment processes. The majority of metals and metalloids were further accumulated in the incineration ash, while...

  19. Evaluation of an ASM1 Model Calibration Precedure on a Municipal-Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Britta; Gernaey, Krist; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    treatment plant. In the case that was studied it was important to have a detailed description of the process dynamics, since the model was to be used as the basis for optimisation scenarios in a later phase. Therefore, a complete model calibration procedure was applied including: (1) a description......The purpose of the calibrated model determines how to approach a model calibration, e.g. which information is needed and to which level of detail the model should be calibrated. A systematic model calibration procedure was therefore defined and evaluated for a municipal–industrial wastewater...

  20. Investigation of potential genotoxic activity using the SOS Chromotest for real paracetamol wastewater and the wastewater treated by the Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Emel

    2015-01-01

    The potential genotoxic activity associated with high strength real paracetamol (PCT) wastewater (COD = 40,000 mg/L, TOC = 12,000 mg/L, BOD5 = 19,320 mg/L) from a large-scale drug-producing plant in the Marmara Region, was investigated in pre- and post- treated wastewater by the Fenton process (COD = 2,920 mg/L, TOC = 880 mg/L; BOD5 = 870 mg/L). The SOS Chromotest, which is based on Escherichia coli PQ37 activities, was used for the assessment of genotoxicity. The corrected induction factors (CIF) values used as quantitative measurements of the genotoxic activity were obtained from a total of four different dilutions (100, 50, 6.25, and 0.078 % v/v.) for two samples, in triplicate, to detect potentially genotoxic activities with the SOS Chromotest. The results of the SOS Chromotest demonstrated CIFmax value of 1.24, indicating that the PCT effluent (non-treated) is genotoxic. The results of the SOS Chromotest showed an CIFmax value of 1.72, indicating that the wastewater treated by Fenton process is genotoxic. The findings of this study clearly reveal that the PCT wastewater (non-treated) samples have a potentially hazardous impact on the aquatic environment before treatment, and in the wastewater that was treated by the Fenton process, genotoxicity generally increased.

  1. Effect of irrigation with treated wastewater on soil chemical properties and infiltration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedbabis, Saida; Ben Rouina, Béchir; Boukhris, Makki; Ferrara, Giuseppe

    2014-01-15

    In Tunisia, water scarcity is one of the major constraints for agricultural activities. The reuse of treated wastewater (TWW) in agriculture can be a sustainable solution to face water scarcity. The research was conducted for a period of four years in an olive orchard planted on a sandy soil and subjected to irrigation treatments: a) rain-fed conditions (RF), as control b) well water (WW) and c) treated wastewater (TWW). In WW and TWW treatments, an annual amount of 5000 m(3) ha(-1) of water was supplied to the orchard. Soil samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after four years for each treatment. The main soil properties such as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, soluble cations, chloride (Cl(-)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), organic matter (OM) as well as the infiltration rate were investigated. After four years, either a significant decrease of pH and infiltration rate or a significant increase of OM, SAR and EC were observed in the soil subjected to treated wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Biodegradability of pharmaceutical compounds in agricultural soils irrigated with treated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossberger, Amnon; Hadar, Yitzhak; Borch, Thomas; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) are introduced into agricultural soils via irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW). Our data show that carbamazepine, lamotrigine, caffeine, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole and sildenafil are persistent in soils when introduced via TWW. However, other PCs, namely diclofenac, ibuprofen, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and naproxen were not detected in soils when introduced via TWW. This is likely due to rapid degradation as confirmed in our microcosm studies where they exhibited half-lives (t 1/2 ) between 0.2–9.5 days when soils were spiked at 50 ng/g soil and between 3 and 68 days when soils were spiked at 5000 ng/g soil. The degradation rate and extent of PCs observed in microcosm studies were similar in soils that had been previously irrigated with TWW or fresh water. This suggests that pre-exposure of the soils to PCs via irrigation with TWW does not enhance their biodegradation. This suggests that PCs are probably degraded in soils via co-metabolism. Highlights: • Some pharmaceuticals are highly persistent in arable soils. • Weak acid pharmaceuticals are readily degradable in agricultural soils. • Irrigation with treated wastewater does not enhance degradation of pharmaceuticals. • Degradation of pharmaceuticals in soil is probably occurred via co-metabolism. -- Some pharmaceutical compounds are persistent in arable soils when introduced via irrigation with treated wastewater

  3. Ultra high temperature gasification of municipal wastewater primary biosolids in a rotary kiln reactor for the production of synthesis gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Primary Fine-Sieved Solids (PFSS) are produced from wastewater by the use of micro-sieves, in place of primary clarification. Biosolids is considered as a nuisance product, however, it contains significant amounts of energy, which can be utilized by biological (anaerobic digestion) or thermal (combustion or gasification) processes. In the present study, an semi-industrial scale UHT rotary kiln gasifier, operating with electric energy, was employed for the gasification of PFSS (at 17% moisture content), collected from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Two gasification temperatures (950 and 1050 °C) had been tested, with minimal differences, with respect to syngas yield. The system appears to reach steady state after about 30-40 min from start up. The composition of the syngas at near steady state was measured approximately as 62.4% H 2 , 30.0% CO, 2.4% CH 4 and 3.4% CO 2 , plus 1.8% unidentified gases. The potential for electric energy production from the syngas produced is theoretically greater than the electric energy required for gasification. Theoretically, approximately 3.8 MJ/kg PFSS of net electric energy may be produced. However, based on the measured electric energy consumption, and assuming that all the syngas produced is used for electric energy production, addition of excess electric energy (about 0.43 MJ/kg PFSS) is required to break even. The latter is probably due to heat losses to the environment, during the heating process. With the improvement of energy efficiency, the process can be self sustained, form the energy point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioelectricity generation using two chamber microbial fuel cell treating wastewater from food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoorian, Hossein Jafari; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Rajabizadeh, Ahmad; Khanjani, Narges

    2013-05-10

    Electricity generation from microbial fuel cells which treat food processing wastewater was investigated in this study. Anaerobic anode and aerobic cathode chambers were separated by a proton exchange membrane in a two-compartment MFC reactor. Buffer solutions and food industry wastewater were used as electrolytes in the anode and cathode chambers, respectively. The produced voltage and current intensity were measured using a digital multimeter. Effluents from the anode compartment were tested for COD, BOD5, NH3, P, TSS, VSS, SO4 and alkalinity. The maximum current density and power production were measured 527mA/m(2) and 230mW/m(2) in the anode area, respectively, at operation organic loading (OLR) of 0.364g COD/l.d. At OLR of 0.182g COD/l.d, maximum voltage and columbic efficiency production were recorded 0.475V and 21%, respectively. Maximum removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, NH3, P, TSS, VSS, SO4 and alkalinity were 86, 79, 73, 18, 68, 62, 30 and 58%, respectively. The results indicated that catalysts and mediator-less microbial fuel cells (CAML-MFC) can be considered as a better choice for simple and complete energy conversion from the wastewater of such industries and also this could be considered as a new method to offset wastewater treatment plant operating costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sludge accumulation and conversion to methane in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Although the septic tank is the most applied on-site system for wastewater pre-treatment, limited research has been performed to determine sludge accumulation and biogas production in the tank. Therefore a dynamic mathematical model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was developed for anaerobic digestion of the accumulated sludge in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water. The results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the tank mainly control the filling time with sludge, while operational temperature governs characteristics of the accumulated sludge and conversion to methane. For obtaining stable sludge and high conversion, the tank needs to be operated for a period more than a year without sludge wasting. Maximum conversion to methane in the tank is about 50 and 60% for domestic wastewater and black water, respectively. The required period for sludge wasting depends on the influent COD concentration and the HRT, while characteristics of the wasted sludge are affected by operational temperature followed by the influent COD concentration and the HRT. Sludge production from the tank ranges between 0.19 to 0.22 and 0.13 to 0.15 L/(person.d), for the domestic wastewater and black water, respectively.

  6. Biofilm processes in treating mariculture wastewater may be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuai; Zhang, Shenghua; Ye, Chengsong; Lin, Wenfang; Zhang, Menglu; Chen, Lihua; Li, Jinmei; Yu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotics are heavily used in Chinese mariculture, but only a small portion of the added antibiotics are absorbed by living creatures. Biofilm processes are universally used in mariculture wastewater treatment. In this study, removal of antibiotics (norfloxacin, rifampicin, and oxytetracycline) from wastewater by moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and the influence of antibiotics on reactor biofilm were investigated. The results demonstrated that there was no significant effect of sub-μg/L–sub-mg/L concentrations of antibiotics on TOC removal. Moreover, the relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) in MBBR biofilm increased because of selective pressure of antibiotics. In addition, antibiotics decreased the diversity of the biofilm bacterial community and altered bacterial community structure. These findings provide an empirical basis for the development of appropriate practices for mariculture, and suggest that disinfection and advanced oxidation should be applied to eliminate antibiotics, ARGs, and ARB from mariculture wastewater. - Highlights: • The removal of antibiotics by Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR) was investigated. • Biofilm process such as MBBR had little effect on the removal of the antibiotics. • The antibiotics decreased the diversity of biofilm bacterial community and altered bacterial community structure. • Biofilm processes in treating mariculture wastewater may be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes.

  7. Chemical coagulants and Moringa oleifera seed extract for treating concrete wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Martins de Paula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater from concrete plants has a high pH and a high concentration of suspended solids, necessitating treatment before reuse or discharge into the environment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of two chemical coagulants, aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO43 and iron chloride (FeCl3, and a natural coagulant, Moringa oleifera (MO, all in their soluble forms, in the treatment of wastewater from concrete plants. To this end, the efficiencies of the three coagulants, in combinations with different proportions, were tested. The quality parameters of the wastewater obtained after the treatments were compared to the limit values for non-potable water. The use of coagulants in their soluble form potentiates their effect, especially when preparing the MO extract, i.e., greater amounts of the protein responsible for the coagulation is extracted. A mixture with MO and Al2(SO43 in a 20:80 proportion showed the best results, with 97.5% of the turbidity removed at 60 min. of sedimentation, allowing the treated water to be used for washing vehicles and flushing toilets. The FeCl3 treatment produced a high concentration of chlorides, which could cause corrosion problems, and is therefore not recommended for concrete wastewater treatment.

  8. Application of Moringa Oleifera seed extract to treat coffee fermentation wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, William K; Buchberger, Steven G; Wendell, David; Kupferle, Margaret J

    2017-05-05

    Wastewater generated from wet processing of coffee cherries degrades stream water quality downstream of processing mills and impacts human health. The widespread popularity of coffee as an export makes this a global problem, although the immediate impact is local. Approximately 40% of all coffee around the world is wet processed, producing wastewater rich in organic nutrients that can be hazardous to aquatic systems. Moringa Oleifera Seed Extract (MOSE) offers promise as a local and affordable "appropriate" coagulation technology for aiding in the treatment of coffee wastewater. Field research was conducted at the Kauai Coffee Company to investigate the application of MOSE to treat coffee fermentation wastewater (CFW). Coagulation tests were conducted at five pH CFW levels (3-7) and MOSE doses (0-4g/L). After settling, TSS, COD, nitrate, nitrite, total nitrogen, and pH of supernatant from each test were measured. MOSE reduced TSS, COD, nitrate, and nitrite in CFW to varying degrees dependent on pH and dose applied. TSS removal ranged from 8% to 54%. Insoluble COD removal ranged from 26% to 100% and total COD removal ranged from 1% to 25%. Nitrate and nitrite reduction ranged from 20% to 100%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Coles, C.A.; Asapo, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed recent research related to the use of peat in removing contaminants from domestic wastewater, oil-contaminated water, and soil. The review also discussed methods of pretreating peat before its application to polluted area. Pretreatment processes are needed to remove components in peat that interfere with treatment mechanisms. Polymers are added to peat in order to encourage the aggregation of the peat particles into larger colloidal particles that are easy to dewater. Phosphoric acid treatments are also applied to increase the swelling capacity of peat. Hydrogen peroxide is used to break down oil-contaminated peat in order to facilitate its subsequent decomposition. Experiments have demonstrated that peat is an effective adsorbent for many different types of oil. Studies have demonstrated that the removal rate for standard mineral and crude oils from wastewater using peat was 83 and 70 per cent. Applications of commercial peat to the surface of oily contaminated waters resulted in oil removal efficiencies of 99.998 per cent. It was concluded that peat is an effective, low-cost material for removing contaminants from domestic waste water and oil-contaminated water. The peat can also be used as a secondary energy source after the sorption process. While peat is an abundant resource in Canada, the resource is found mainly in wetlands. Effective harvesting strategies should be used to ensure the environmental sustainability of peat filtration systems. 38 refs., 1 tab

  10. Performance evaluation of membrane bioreactor for treating industrial wastewater: A case study in Isfahan Mourchekhurt industrial estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The MBR technology was used to treat the combined industrial wastewater was efficient, and its effluent can be perfectly used for water reuse. The MBR performance was improved by applying an anaerobic pretreatment unit.

  11. Phenotypic properties and microbial diversity of methanogenic granules from a full-scale UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, E.E.; Stams, A.J.M.; Amils, R.; Sanz, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Methanogenic granules from an anaerobic bioreactor that treated wastewater of a beer brewery consisted of different morphological types of granules. In this study, the microbial compositions of the different granules were analyzed by molecular microbiological techniques: cloning, denaturing gradient

  12. Feasibility of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR In Treating Starch Industry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Assadi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR includes a mixed anaerobic culture separated into compartments and a novel process with a series of vertical baffles at each compartment. It dose not require granulation for its operation, resulting in shorter start-up time. In this study, the feasibility of the ABR process was investigated for the treatment of wheat flour starch wastewater. Simple gravity settling was used to remove suspended solids from the starch wastewater and used as feed. Start-up of a reactor (13.5L with five compartments using a diluted feed of approximately 4500 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD was accomplished in about 9 weeks using seed sludge from the anaerobic digester of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The reactor with a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 72 h at 35°C and an initial organic loading rate (OLR of 1.2 kgCOD/m3.d showed a removal efficiency of 61% COD. The best reactor performance was observed with an organic loading rate of 2.5 kgCOD/m3.d (or hydraulic retention time of 2.45 d when a COD conversion of 67% was achieved. The main advantage of using an ABR comes from its compartmentalized structure. The first compartment of an ABR may act as a buffer zone to all toxic and inhibitory materials in the feed and, thus, allows the later compartments to be loaded with a relatively harmless, more uniform, and mostly acidified influent. In this respect, the later compartments would be more likely to support active populations of the relatively sensitive methanogenic bacteria.

  13. Mass flows and removal of antibiotics in two municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2011-05-01

    The mass flows and removal of 20 antibiotics of seven classes in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Hong Kong were investigated in different seasons of a whole year, using bihourly 24h flow proportional composite samples. Antibiotics were detected at concentrations of 3.2-1718, 1.3-1176 and 1.1-233ngL(-1) in influents, secondary and disinfection effluents. Total daily discharges of all the detected antibiotics from effluents of Shatin and Stanley WWTPs were 470-710 and 3.0-5.2gd(-1), respectively. Ampicillin, cefalexin, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and vancomycin were effectively (52-100%) eliminated by activated sludge process while ampicillin and cefalexin were effectively (91-99%) eliminated by disinfection. Bihourly variation analysis showed that concentrations of the major antibiotics in influents varied more significantly in Stanley WWTP which served small communities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plants from different geographical regions-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2018-04-15

    Emerging contaminants, such as antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and artificial sweeteners, are recognized as new classes of water contaminants due to their proven or potential adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. This review provides comprehensive data on the occurrence of 60 emerging contaminants (ECs) in influent, treated effluent, sludge, and biosolids in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In particular, data on the occurrence of ECs in the influents and effluents of WWTPs are systematically summarized and categorized according to geographical regions (Asia, Europe, and North America). The occurrence patterns of ECs in raw influent and treated effluents of WWTPs between geographical regions were compared and evaluated. Concentrations of most ECs in raw influent in Asian region tend to be higher than those in European and North American countries. Many antibiotics were detected in the influents and effluents of WWTPs at concentrations close to or exceeding the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for resistance selection. The efficacy of EC removal by sorption and biodegradation during wastewater treatment processes are discussed in light of kinetics and parameters, such as sorption coefficients (K d ) and biodegradation constants (k biol ), and physicochemical properties (i.e. log K ow and pK a ). Commonly used sampling and monitoring strategies are critically reviewed. Analytical research needs are identified, and novel investigative approaches for future monitoring studies are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Negatively Charged Hyperbranched Polyglycerol Grafted Membranes for Osmotic Power Generation from Municipal Wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xue; Cai, Tao; Chen, Chunyan; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic power holds great promise as a clean, sustainable and largely unexploited energy resource. Recent membrane development for pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is making the osmotic power generation more and more realistic. However, severe performance declines have been observed because the porous layer of PRO membranes is fouled by the feed stream. To overcome it, a negatively charged antifouling PRO hollow fiber membrane has been designed and studied in this work. An antifouling polymer, derived from hyperbranched polyglycerol and functionalized by α-lipoic acid and succinic anhydride, was synthesized and grafted onto the polydopamine (PDA) modified poly(ether sulfone) (PES) hollow fiber membranes. In comparison to unmodified membranes, the charged hyperbranched polyglycerol (CHPG) grafted membrane is much less affected by organic deposition, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, and highly resistant to microbial growths, demonstrated by E. coli adhesion and S. aureus attachment. CHPG-g-TFC was also examined in PRO tests using a concentrated wastewater as the feed. Comparing to the plain PES-TFC and non-charged HPG-g-TFC, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest decline in water flux but also the highest recovery rate. When using 0.81 M NaCl and wastewater as the feed pair in PRO tests at 15 bar, the average power density remains at 5.6 W/m2 in comparison to an average value of 3.6 W/m2 for unmodified membranes after four PRO runs. In summary, osmotic power generation may be sustained by properly designing and anchoring the functional polymers to PRO membranes.

  16. Negatively charged hyperbranched polyglycerol grafted membranes for osmotic power generation from municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Cai, Tao; Chen, Chunyan; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-02-01

    Osmotic power holds great promise as a clean, sustainable and largely unexploited energy resource. Recent membrane development for pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is making the osmotic power generation more and more realistic. However, severe performance declines have been observed because the porous layer of PRO membranes is fouled by the feed stream. To overcome it, a negatively charged antifouling PRO hollow fiber membrane has been designed and studied in this work. An antifouling polymer, derived from hyperbranched polyglycerol and functionalized by α-lipoic acid and succinic anhydride, was synthesized and grafted onto the polydopamine (PDA) modified poly(ether sulfone) (PES) hollow fiber membranes. In comparison to unmodified membranes, the charged hyperbranched polyglycerol (CHPG) grafted membrane is much less affected by organic deposition, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, and highly resistant to microbial growths, demonstrated by Escherichia coli adhesion and Staphylococcus aureus attachment. CHPG-g-TFC was also examined in PRO tests using a concentrated wastewater as the feed. Comparing to the plain PES-TFC and non-charged HPG-g-TFC, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest decline in water flux but also the highest recovery rate. When using 0.81 M NaCl and wastewater as the feed pair in PRO tests at 15 bar, the average power density remains at 5.6 W/m(2) in comparison to an average value of 3.6 W/m(2) for unmodified membranes after four PRO runs. In summary, osmotic power generation may be sustained by properly designing and anchoring the functional polymers to PRO membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Negatively Charged Hyperbranched Polyglycerol Grafted Membranes for Osmotic Power Generation from Municipal Wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xue

    2015-11-18

    Osmotic power holds great promise as a clean, sustainable and largely unexploited energy resource. Recent membrane development for pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is making the osmotic power generation more and more realistic. However, severe performance declines have been observed because the porous layer of PRO membranes is fouled by the feed stream. To overcome it, a negatively charged antifouling PRO hollow fiber membrane has been designed and studied in this work. An antifouling polymer, derived from hyperbranched polyglycerol and functionalized by α-lipoic acid and succinic anhydride, was synthesized and grafted onto the polydopamine (PDA) modified poly(ether sulfone) (PES) hollow fiber membranes. In comparison to unmodified membranes, the charged hyperbranched polyglycerol (CHPG) grafted membrane is much less affected by organic deposition, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, and highly resistant to microbial growths, demonstrated by E. coli adhesion and S. aureus attachment. CHPG-g-TFC was also examined in PRO tests using a concentrated wastewater as the feed. Comparing to the plain PES-TFC and non-charged HPG-g-TFC, the newly developed membrane exhibits not only the smallest decline in water flux but also the highest recovery rate. When using 0.81 M NaCl and wastewater as the feed pair in PRO tests at 15 bar, the average power density remains at 5.6 W/m2 in comparison to an average value of 3.6 W/m2 for unmodified membranes after four PRO runs. In summary, osmotic power generation may be sustained by properly designing and anchoring the functional polymers to PRO membranes.

  18. Co-composting of hair waste from the tanning industry with de-inking and municipal wastewater sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Raquel; Pagans, Estel la; Artola, Adriana; Vázquez, Felícitas; Sánchez, Antoni

    2007-06-01

    Production of waste hair in the leather manufacturing industry is increasing every year due to the adoption of hair-save unhairing techniques, leaving the tanners with the problem of coping with yet another solid by-product. Numerous potential strategies for hair utilisation have been proposed. However, the use of hair waste as agricultural fertiliser is one of its most promising applications due to the high nitrogen content of hair. Agricultural value of hair can be increased by composting. This paper deals with the composting of hair from the unhairing of bovine hide. Results indicated that hair cannot be either composted on its own or co-composted with de-inking sludge, a chemical complementary co-substrate. However, good results were obtained when co-composted with raw sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant at hair:raw sludge weight ratios 1:1, 1:2 and, 1:4 in lab scale and pilot plant scale composters. In all cases, a more stable product was achieved at the end of the process. Composting in the pilot plant composter was effectively monitored using Static Respiration Indices determined at process temperature at sampling (SRI(T)) and at 37 degrees C (SRI(37)). Notably, SRI(T) values were more sensitive to changes in the biological activity. In contrast, Respiratory Quotient (RQ) values were not adequate to follow the development of the process.

  19. Changes in the components and biotoxicity of dissolved organic matter in a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Hu, Hong-Ying; Shi, Chun-Zhen; Yang, Zhe; Tang, Fang

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the biotoxicity of these components were investigated in a municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) system with a microfiltration (MF) pretreatment unit. The MF pretreatment step had little effect on the levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the secondary effluent, but the addition of chlorine before MF promoted the formation of organics with anti-estrogenic activity. The distribution of excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence constituents exhibited obvious discrepancies between the secondary effluent and the reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. Using size exclusion chromatography, DOM with low molecular weights of approximately 1.2 and 0.98 kDa was newly formed during the mWRRO. The normalized genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate were 32.1 ± 10.2 μg4-NQO/mgDOC and 0.36 ± 0.08 mgTAM/mgDOC, respectively, and these values were clearly higher than those of the secondary effluent and MF permeate. The florescence volume of Regions I and II in the EEM spectrum could be suggested as a surrogate for assessing the genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of the RO concentrate.

  20. Membrane fouling of forward osmosis (FO) membrane for municipal wastewater treatment: A comparison between direct FO and OMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Tian, Jiayu; Zhao, Zhiwei; Shi, Wenxin; Liu, Dongmei; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-11-01

    In this work, membrane fouling behavior in a direct forward osmosis (FO) and an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) for municipal wastewater treatment was systematically investigated and compared. During the long-term operation, much severer flux decline was observed for the direct FO than that for the OMBR. The cake layer was found to be much thicker, together with large amounts of microorganisms growing on the membrane surface in direct FO. Interestingly, no obvious attachment of microorganisms on the membrane surface was observed in the OMBR. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and excitation emission matrices (EEM) analyses showed the polysaccharides and proteins were the dominant organic foulants in the fouling layer, and the quantity of the organic substances was also higher in direct FO than that in OMBR. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) results indicated the main inorganic elements in the fouling layer were Ca, Mg, Fe and P, all of which exhibited higher relative percentages in direct FO than that in OMBR. The occurrence of higher contents of microorganisms, organic foulants and inorganic elements in the cake layer caused a higher filtration resistance for the FO membrane in the direct FO. Although more severe membrane fouling was identified in direct FO, the hydraulic and chemical cleaning was more effective on recovering the water permeability of the membrane in direct FO than that in OMBR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrates from municipal wastewater reclamation by coagulation and granular activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Tao; Shi, Na; Tian, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) contains elevated concentrations of contaminants which pose potential risks to aquatic environment. The treatment of ROC from an mWRRO using granular activated carbon (GAC) combined pretreatment of coagulation was optimized and evaluated. Among the three coagulants tested, ferric chloride (FeCl3) presented relatively higher DOC removal efficiency than polyaluminium chloride and lime at the same dosage and coagulation conditions. The removal efficiency of DOC, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity concentration of the ROC could achieve 16.9, 18.9, and 39.7 %, respectively, by FeCl3 coagulation (with FeCl3 dosage of 180.22 mg/L), which can hardly reduce UV254 and genotoxicity normalized by DOC of the DOM with MW activity were completely eliminated by the GAC adsorption. The results suggest that GAC adsorption combined pretreatment of FeCl3 coagulation as an efficient method to control organics, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity in the ROC from mWRRO system.

  2. Effects of ozone, ultraviolet and peracetic acid disinfection of a primary-treated municipal effluent on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, N; Gagné, F; Cejka, P; Bouchard, B; Hausler, R; Cyr, D G; Blaise, C; Fournier, M

    2008-08-01

    Municipal sewage effluents are complex mixtures that are known to compromise the health condition of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of various wastewater disinfection processes on the immune system of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The trout were exposed to a primary-treated effluent for 28 days before and after one of each of the following treatments: ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozonation and peracetic acid. Immune function was characterized in leucocytes from the anterior head kidney by the following three parameters: phagocytosis activity, natural cytotoxic cells (NCC) function and lymphocyte (B and T) proliferation assays. The results show that the fish mass to length ratio was significantly decreased for the primary-treated and all three disinfection processes. Exposure to the primary-treated effluent led to a significant increase in macrophage-related phagocytosis; the addition of a disinfection step was effective in removing this effect. Both unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated T lymphocyte proliferation in fish decreased dramatically in fish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to fish exposed to either the primary-treated effluent or to aquarium water. Stimulation of T lymphocytes proliferation was observed with the peracetic acid treatment group. In conclusion, the disinfection strategy used can modify the immune system in fish at the level of T lymphocyte proliferation but was effective to remove the effects on phagocytosis activity.

  3. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat grey wastewater in batch mode using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karichappan, Thirugnanasambandham; Venkatachalam, Sivakumar; Jeganathan, Prakash Maran

    2014-01-10

    Discharge of grey wastewater into the ecological system causes the negative impact effect on receiving water bodies. In this present study, electrocoagulation process (EC) was investigated to treat grey wastewater under different operating conditions such as initial pH (4-8), current density (10-30 mA/cm2), electrode distance (4-6 cm) and electrolysis time (5-25 min) by using stainless steel (SS) anode in batch mode. Four factors with five levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize and investigate the effect of process variables on the responses such as total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and fecal coliform (FC) removal. The process variables showed significant effect on the electrocoagulation treatment process. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were developed in order to study the electrocoagulation process statistically. The optimal operating conditions were found to be: initial pH of 7, current density of 20 mA/cm2, electrode distance of 5 cm and electrolysis time of 20 min. These results indicated that EC process can be scale up in large scale level to treat grey wastewater with high removal efficiency of TS, COD and FC.

  4. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat grey wastewater in batch mode using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Discharge of grey wastewater into the ecological system causes the negative impact effect on receiving water bodies. Methods In this present study, electrocoagulation process (EC) was investigated to treat grey wastewater under different operating conditions such as initial pH (4–8), current density (10–30 mA/cm2), electrode distance (4–6 cm) and electrolysis time (5–25 min) by using stainless steel (SS) anode in batch mode. Four factors with five levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize and investigate the effect of process variables on the responses such as total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and fecal coliform (FC) removal. Results The process variables showed significant effect on the electrocoagulation treatment process. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were developed in order to study the electrocoagulation process statistically. The optimal operating conditions were found to be: initial pH of 7, current density of 20 mA/cm2, electrode distance of 5 cm and electrolysis time of 20 min. Conclusion These results indicated that EC process can be scale up in large scale level to treat grey wastewater with high removal efficiency of TS, COD and FC. PMID:24410752

  5. Application of three tailing-based composites in treating comprehensive electroplating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Zhu, Mengling; Gao, Saisai

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are major challenging pollutants for most electroplating wastewater treatment plants. A novel composite material, prepared with a mixture of calcium and sodium compounds and tailings, was simply mixed by ratios and used to treat a comprehensive electroplating wastewater with influent COD, total copper (T-Cu), and total nickel (T-Ni) respectively as 690, 4.01, and 20.60 mg/L on average. Operational parameters, i.e. the contact time, pH, mass ratio of calcium and sodium compounds and tailings, were optimized as 30 min, 10.0, and 4:2:1. Removal rates for COD, T-Cu, and T-Ni could reach 71.8, 90.5, and 98.1%, respectively. No significant effect of initial concentrations on removal of T-Cu and T-Ni was observed for the composite material. The adsorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II) on the material fitted Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms respectively. Weight of waste sludge from the calcium/sodium-tailing system after reaction was 10% less than that from the calcium-tailing system. The tailing-based composite is cost-effective in combating comprehensive electroplating pollution, which shows a possibility of applying the tailings in treating electroplating wastewater.

  6. Inhibition and recovery of nitrification in treating real coal gasification wastewater with moving bed biofilm reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqiang Li; Hongjun Han; Maoan Du; Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used to treat real coal gasification wastewater.Nitrification of the MBBR was inhibited almost completely during start-up period.Sudden increase of influent total NH3 concentration was the main factor inducing nitrification inhibition.Increasing DO concentration in the bulk liquid (from 2 to 3 mg/L) had little effect on nitrification recovery.Nitrification of the MBBR recovered partially by the addition of nitrifying sludge into the reactor and almost ceased within 5 days.Nitrification ratio of the MBBR achieved 65% within 12 days by increasing dilute ratio of the influent wastewater with tap water.The ratio of nitrification decreased to 25% when infiuent COD concentration increased from 650 to 1000 mg/L after nitrification recovery and recovered 70%for another 4 days.

  7. Dynamic modelling of a forward osmosis-nanofiltration integrated process for treating hazardous wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Parimal; Das, Pallabi; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Thakura, Ritwik

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic modelling and simulation of a nanofiltration-forward osmosis integrated complete system was done along with economic evaluation to pave the way for scale up of such a system for treating hazardous pharmaceutical wastes. The system operated in a closed loop not only protects surface water from the onslaught of hazardous industrial wastewater but also saves on cost of fresh water by turning wastewater recyclable at affordable price. The success of dynamic modelling in capturing the relevant transport phenomena is well reflected in high overall correlation coefficient value (R 2  > 0.98), low relative error (osmosis loop at a reasonably high flux of 56-58 l per square meter per hour.

  8. Metal loss from treated wood products in contact with municipal solid waste landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Brajesh [Department of Environmental Health, PO Box 70682, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Townsend, Timothy, E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Solo-Gabriele, Helena [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0630 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The research presented in this paper evaluates the potential impact of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate quality on the loss of metals from discarded treated wood during disposal. The loss of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and boron (B) from several types of pressure-treated wood (CCA: chromated copper arsenate, ACQ: alkaline copper quaternary, CBA: copper boron azole, and DOT: disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) using leachate collected from 26 MSW landfills in Florida was examined. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and California's waste extraction test (WET) were also performed. The results suggested that loss of preservative components was influenced by leachate chemistry. Copper loss from CCA-, ACQ- and CBA-treated wood was similar in magnitude when in contact with landfill leachates compared to synthetic TCLP and SPLP solutions. Ammonia was found as one of the major parameters influencing the leaching of Cu from treated wood when leached with MSW landfill leachates. The results suggest that disposal of ACQ- and CBA-treated wood in substantial quantity in MSW landfills may elevate the Cu concentration in the leachate; this could be of potential concern, especially for a bioreactor MSW landfill in which relatively higher ammonia concentrations in leachate have been reported in recent literature. For the As, Cr and B the concentrations observed with the landfill leachate as the leaching solutions were over a range from some sample showing the concentrations below and some showing above the observed value from corresponding SPLP and TCLP tests. In general the WET test showed the highest concentrations.

  9. Salinity effect of irrigation with treated wastewater in basal soil respiration in SE of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugan, A.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.

    2012-04-01

    The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to utilizing better-quality water, especially in semiarid regions where water shortage is a very serious problem. Wastewater use in agriculture is not a new practice, all over the world this reuse has been common practice for a long time, but the concept is of greater importance currently because of the global water crisis. Replacement of freshwater by treated wastewater is seen as an important conservation strategy contributing to agricultural production, substantial benefits can derive from using this nutrient-rich waste water but there can also be a negative impact. For this reason it is necessary to know precisely the composition of water before applying it to the soil in order to guarantee minimal impact in terms of contamination and salinization. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, different parameters in calcareous soils irrigated with treated wastewater in an agricultural Mediterranean area located at Biar (Alicante, SE Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters were used for the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated wastewater from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type during the study period. A soil sampling was carried out every four months. We show the results of the evolution of basal soil respiration (BSR), and its relationship with other parameters. We observed a similar pattern of behavior for BSR between treatments, a decrease at the first eighteen months of irrigation and an increase at the end of study. In our study case, the variations of BSR obtained for all the treatments seem to be closely related to the dose and frequency of irrigation and the related soil wetting and drying cycles. However, the results showed a negative correlation between BSR and

  10. Study of Kinetic coefficients of a Membrane Bioreactor (MBR for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naghizadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: In order to design membrane bioreactors (MBR properly, it is essential to comprehend the behavior of microorganisms in such wastewater treatment processes. Materials & Methods: In this study, a lab-scale MBR process was operated to determine the biokinetic coefficients of the MBR system under different MLSS concentrations of 6800, 7000, 7400, and 7800 mg/l and organic loading rates of 0.5 kg COD/m3/day. Results: The results of this study showed that the yield of microorganisms (Y, the endogenous decay coefficient (kd, the maximum specific growth rate (μmax and the saturation constant (Ks were in the range of 0.67 g VSS/g COD, 0.56 d−1, 1.86 d−1 and 6.65 mg COD/l, respectively. Conclusions: The kinetic coefficients in this study can be used to improve the operation and design the MBR system in full scale.

  11. Agricultural reuse of municipal wastewater through an integral water reclamation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriago, Juan Carlo; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Vivaldi, Gaetano Alessandro; Camposeo, Salvatore; Nicolás Nicolás, Emilio; Alarcón, Juan José; Pedrero Salcedo, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    The DESERT-prototype, a state-of-the-art compact combination of water treatment technologies based on filtration and solar-based renewable energy, was employed to reclaim water for agricultural irrigation. Water reclaimed through the DESERT-prototype (PW) from a secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, as well as conventional irrigation water (CW) and the secondary effluent (SW) itself, were employed to cultivate baby romaine lettuces in a greenhouse in Murcia (Spain), by means of drip and sprinkler irrigation methods, thus establishing six treatments. Assessments of physicochemical and microbiological quality of irrigation water, as well as agronomic and microbiological quality of crops from all treatments, showed that results associated to PW complied in all cases with relevant standards and guidelines. In contrast, results linked to SW and CW presented certain non-compliance cases of water and crop microbiological quality. These assessments lead to conclude that the DESERT-prototype is an appropriate technology for safe water reclamation oriented to agricultural production, that can be complemented by a proper irrigation method in reaching safety targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Polar pollutants in municipal wastewater and the water cycle: occurrence and removal of benzotriazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; Miehe, Ulf; Duennbier, Uwe; Jekel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    1H-benzo-1,2,3-triazole (BTri) and its methylated analogues (tolyltriazole, TTri) are corrosion inhibitors used in many industrial applications, but also in households in dishwashing agents and in deicing fluids at airports and elsewhere. BTri and one of the TTri-isomers (4-TTri) are typical examples of polar and poorly degradable trace pollutants. Benzotriazole elimination in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Berlin ranged from 20 to 70% for 5-TTRi over 30 to 55% for BTri to insignificant for 4-TTri. WWTP effluent concentrations were in the range of 7-18 microg/L of BTri, 1-5 microg/L of 4-TTri and 0.8-1.2 microg/L of 5-TTri. BTri and 4-TTri proved to be omnipresent in surface waters of the rivers Rhine and Elbe with concentrations increasing from water for drinking water production from surface waters. Even after residence times of several months BTri and 4-TTri were determined in concentrations of a few hundred ng/L in bank filtration water. Isotherm data from batch experiments indicate that activated carbon filtration should be suitable to avoid intrusion of TTri into drinking water in partially closed water cycles. For BTri, however, sorption to activated carbon appears to be too weak and ozonation may be mandatory to remove it from raw waters. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in the municipal wastewater system: effect of hospital effluent and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Suvi; Morris, Carol; Morris, Dearbhaile; Cormican, Martin; Cummins, Enda

    2014-01-15

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria is increasing worldwide and remains a significant medical challenge which may lead to antimicrobial redundancy. The contribution of hospital effluent to the prevalence of resistance in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents is not fully understood. AMR bacteria contained in hospital effluent may be released into the aquatic and soil environments after WWTP processing. Hence, the objective of this study is to identify the extent hospital effluent contributes to contamination of these environments by comparing two WWTPs, one which receives hospital effluent and one which does not. AMR Escherichia coli were monitored in the two WWTPs. A model was developed using these monitored values to predict the effect of hospital effluent within a WWTP. The model predicted levels of AMR E. coli in the aquatic environment and potential bather exposure to AMR E. coli. The model results were highly variable. WWTP influent containing hospital effluent had a higher mean percentage of AMR E. coli; although, there appeared to be no within treatment plant effect on the prevalence of AMR E. coli. Examination of WWTP sludge showed a similar variation. There appeared to be no consistent effect from the presence of hospital effluent. The human exposure assessment model predicted swimmer intake of AMR E. coli between 6 and 193CFU/100ml sea water. It appears that hospital effluent is not the main contributing factor behind the development and persistence of AMR E. coli within WWTPs, although resistance may be too well-developed to identify an influence from hospital effluent. Mitigation needs to focus on the removal of already present resistant bacteria but for new or hospital specific antimicrobials focus needs to be on their limited release within effluents or separate treatment. © 2013.

  14. Disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid, UV and ozone after enhanced primary treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehr, Ronald; Wagner, Monika; Veerasubramanian, Priya; Payment, Pierre

    2003-11-01

    The City of Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant uses enhanced physicochemical processes (ferric and/or alum coagulation) for suspended solids and phosphorus removal. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of peracetic acid (PAA), UV, or ozone to inactivate the indicator organisms fecal coliforms, Enterococci, MS-2 coliphage, or Clostridium perfringens in the effluent from this plant. PAA doses to reach the target fecal coliform level of 9000 CFU/100mL exceeded 6 mg/L; similar results were obtained for enterococci, and no inactivation of Clostridium perfringens was observed. However a 1-log reduction of MS-2 occurred at PAA doses of 1.5 mg/L and higher. It was expected that this effluent would have a high ozone demand, and would require relatively high UV fluences, because of relatively high effluent COD, iron and suspended solids concentrations, and low UV transmittance. This was confirmed herein. For UV, the inactivation curve for fecal coliforms showed the typical two-stage shape, with the target of 1000 CFU/100 mL (to account for photoreactivation) occurring in the asymptote zone at fluences >20 mJ/cm(2). In contrast, inactivation curves for MS-2 and Clostridium perfringens were linear. Clostridium perfringens was the most resistant organism. For ozone, inactivation was already observed before any residuals could be measured. The transferred ozone doses to reach target fecal coliform levels ( approximately 2-log reduction) were 30-50 mg/L. MS-2 was less resistant, but Clostridium perfringens was more resistant than fecal coliforms. The different behaviour of the four indicator organisms studied, depending on the disinfectant, suggests that a single indicator organism might not be appropriate. The required dose of any of the disinfectants is unlikely to be economically viable, and upstream changes to the plant will be needed.

  15. Two-stage soil infiltration treatment system for treating ammonium wastewaters of low COD/TN ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhongfang; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Soil infiltration treatment (SIT) is ineffective to treat ammonium wastewaters of total nitrogen (TN) > 100 mg l(-1). This study applied a novel two-stage SIT process for effective TN removal from wastewaters of TN>100 mg l(-1) and of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/TN ratio of 3.2-8.6. The wastewater was first fed into the soil column (stage 1) at hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.06 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) for COD removal and total phosphorus (TP) immobilization. Then the effluent from stage 1 was fed individually into four soil columns (stage 2) at 0.02 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) of HLR with different proportions of raw wastewater as additional carbon source. Over the one-year field test, balanced nitrification and denitrification in the two-stage SIT revealed excellent TN removal (>90%) from the tested wastewaters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term Effects of Different Irrigation Methods with Treated Wastewater on Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Najafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation is increasing due to an increased demand for water resources in different parts of the world. Almost 70% of deviated water from rivers and pumped groundwater is used for agriculture. If wastewater is used for irrigation in agriculture, then the amount of discharged water from natural sources will be decreased and the flow of wastewater to the environment and its ensuing pollution will be prevented. Using wastewater in applications such as irrigation of agricultural lands has caused an increase of some exchangeable ions, salts and suspended solids (organic and mineral in the soil and has significantly affected physical, chemical and biological features. Therefore, paying attention to the soil health is important during use of wastewater when it is the source of irrigation water. In such cases, there will be some worries about pollution of harvested products, contact of farm workers with pathogenes and environmental issues in the farm. In these conditions, attention to irrigation methods along with consideration of environmental protection standards is important. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of treated wastewater (TW irrigation were tested on some chemical properties of soil for three years under five different irrigation treatments. The treatments were as follows: surface furrow irrigation (FI, surface drip irrigation (SDI, subsurface drip irrigation in 30 cm depth (SDI30, subsurface drip irrigation in 60 cm depth (SDI60 and bubbler irrigation (BI. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected from a depth of 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm in order to measure the electrical conductivity (EC, pH, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, organic matter (OM and calcium carbonate equivalent (CaCO3. Results and Discussion: According to the results of soil analysis, the soil became more saline than the beginning by applying the treatments. Generally, in two plots of urban and

  17. Photodegradation kinetics and transformation products of ketoprofen, diclofenac and atenolol in pure water and treated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, R.; Pereira, V.J.; Carvalho, G.; Soeiro, R.; Gaffney, V.; Almeida, C.; Cardoso, V. Vale; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Direct UV photolysis of 3 pharmaceuticals in pure and waste water was investigated. ► Ketoprofen has higher photodegradion kinetics, followed by diclofenac and atenolol. ► MP/UV photodegradation products were identified for the 3 compounds. ► Photodegradation pathways were proposed to explain the obtained products. ► The persistent photoproducts were identified for each compound. -- Abstract: Pharmaceutical compounds such as ketoprofen, diclofenac and atenolol are frequently detected at relatively high concentrations in secondary effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, it is important to assess their transformation kinetics and intermediates in subsequent disinfection processes, such as direct ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The photodegradation kinetics of these compounds using a medium pressure (MP) lamp was assessed in pure water, as well as in filtered and unfiltered treated wastewater. Ketoprofen had the highest time- and fluence-based rate constants in all experiments, whereas atenolol had the lowest values, which is consistent with the corresponding decadic molar absorption coefficient and quantum yield. The fluence-based rate constants of all compounds were evaluated in filtered and unfiltered wastewater matrices as well as in pure water. Furthermore, transformation products of ketoprofen, diclofenac and atenolol were identified and monitored throughout the irradiation experiments, and photodegradation pathways were proposed for each compound. This enabled the identification of persistent transformation products, which are potentially discharged from WWTP disinfection works employing UV photolysis

  18. Photodegradation kinetics and transformation products of ketoprofen, diclofenac and atenolol in pure water and treated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, R. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); ESTS-IPS, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal do Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Rua Vale de Chaves, Campus do IPS, Estefanilha, 2910-761 Setúbal (Portugal); Pereira, V.J. [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (IBET), Av. da República (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB) – Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da República, Estação Agronómica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras, 5 Portugal (Portugal); Carvalho, G., E-mail: gs.carvalho@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (IBET), Av. da República (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Soeiro, R. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Gaffney, V.; Almeida, C. [Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences (iMed.UL), Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade de Lisboa (FFUL), Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1600-049 Lisboa (Portugal); Cardoso, V. Vale; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J. [Empresa Portuguesa das Águas Livres, S.A., Direcção de Controlo de Qualidade da Água, Laboratório Central, Avenida de Berlim, 15, 1800-031 Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Direct UV photolysis of 3 pharmaceuticals in pure and waste water was investigated. ► Ketoprofen has higher photodegradion kinetics, followed by diclofenac and atenolol. ► MP/UV photodegradation products were identified for the 3 compounds. ► Photodegradation pathways were proposed to explain the obtained products. ► The persistent photoproducts were identified for each compound. -- Abstract: Pharmaceutical compounds such as ketoprofen, diclofenac and atenolol are frequently detected at relatively high concentrations in secondary effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, it is important to assess their transformation kinetics and intermediates in subsequent disinfection processes, such as direct ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The photodegradation kinetics of these compounds using a medium pressure (MP) lamp was assessed in pure water, as well as in filtered and unfiltered treated wastewater. Ketoprofen had the highest time- and fluence-based rate constants in all experiments, whereas atenolol had the lowest values, which is consistent with the corresponding decadic molar absorption coefficient and quantum yield. The fluence-based rate constants of all compounds were evaluated in filtered and unfiltered wastewater matrices as well as in pure water. Furthermore, transformation products of ketoprofen, diclofenac and atenolol were identified and monitored throughout the irradiation experiments, and photodegradation pathways were proposed for each compound. This enabled the identification of persistent transformation products, which are potentially discharged from WWTP disinfection works employing UV photolysis.

  19. Metagenomic insights into ultraviolet disinfection effects on antibiotic resistome in biologically treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Jia, Shuyu; Huang, Kailong; Tang, Junying; Shi, Peng; Ye, Lin; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-09-15

    High-throughput sequencing-based metagenomic approaches were used to comprehensively investigate ultraviolet effects on the microbial community structure, and diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in biologically treated wastewater. After ultraviolet radiation, some dominant genera, like Aeromonas and Halomonas, in the wastewater almost disappeared, while the relative abundance of some minor genera including Pseudomonas and Bacillus increased dozens of times. Metagenomic analysis showed that 159 ARGs within 14 types were detectable in the samples, and the radiation at 500 mJ/cm(2) obviously increased their total relative abundance from 31.68 ppm to 190.78 ppm, which was supported by quantitative real time PCR. As the dominant persistent ARGs, multidrug resistance genes carried by Pseudomonas and bacitracin resistance gene bacA carried by Bacillus mainly contributed to the ARGs abundance increase. Bacterial community shift and MGEs replication induced by the radiation might drive the resistome alteration. The findings may shed new light on the mechanism behind the ultraviolet radiation effects on antibiotic resistance in wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fate of heavy metals in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary treated petroleum refinery wastewater in Kaduna, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Hassana Ibrahim; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L

    2018-01-02

    This study examined the performance of pilot-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (VSF-CWs) planted with three indigenous plants, i.e. Typha latifolia, Cyperus alternifolius, and Cynodon dactylon, in removing heavy metals from secondary treated refinery wastewater under tropical conditions. The T. latifolia-planted VSF-CW had the best heavy metal removal performance, followed by the Cyperus alternifolius-planted VSF-CW and then the Cynodon dactylon-planted VSF-CW. The data indicated that Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Fe were accumulated in the plants at all the three VSF-CWs. However, the accumulation of the heavy metals in the plants accounted for only a rather small fraction (0.09-16%) of the overall heavy metal removal by the wetlands. The plant roots accumulated the highest amount of heavy metals, followed by the leaves, and then the stem. Cr and Fe were mainly retained in the roots of T. latifolia, Cyperus alternifolius, and Cynodon dactylon (TF < 1), meaning that Cr and Fe were only partially transported to the leaves of these plants. This study showed that VSF-CWs planted with T. latifolia, Cyperus Alternifolius, and Cynodon dactylon can be used for the large-scale removal of heavy metals from secondary refinery wastewater.

  1. Removal of chlortetracycline from spiked municipal wastewater using a photoelectrocatalytic process operated under sunlight irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghrir, Rimeh, E-mail: rimeh.daghrir@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc G1K 9A9 (Canada); Drogui, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.drogui@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc G1K 9A9 (Canada); Delegan, Nazar, E-mail: delegan@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc J3X 1S2 (Canada); El Khakani, My Ali, E-mail: elkhakani@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of chlortetracycline in synthetic solution and in municipal effluent was investigated using a photoelectrocatalytic oxidation process under visible irradiation. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} used as photoanode with 3.4 at.% of nitrogen content was prepared by means of a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) process. Under visible irradiation, higher photoelectrocatalytic removal efficiency of CTC was recorded using N-doped TiO{sub 2} compared to the conventional electrochemical oxidation, direct photolysis and photocatalysis processes. The photoelectrocatalytic process operated at 0.6 A of current intensity during 180 min of treatment time promotes the degradation of 99.1 ± 0.1% of CTC. Under these conditions, removal rates of 85.4 ± 3.6%, 87.4 ± 3.1% and 55.7 ± 2.9% of TOC, TN and NH{sub 4}{sup +} have been recorded. During the treatment, CTC was mainly transformed into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The process was also found to be effective in removing indicator of pathogens such as fecal coliform (log-inactivation was higher than 1.2 units). - Highlights: •PECO process is a feasible technology for the treatment of MWW contaminated by CTC. •99.1% ± 0.1% of CTC was degraded by PECO using N-doped TiO{sub 2}. •85.4% ± 3.6% of TOC removal and 97.5% ± 1.2% of COD removal were achieved. •87.4% ± 3.1% of TN removal and 55.7% ± 2.9% of NH{sub 4}{sup +} removal were recorded. •More than 94% of fecal coliform was removed (abatement > 1.2-log units)

  2. Evaluating two infiltration gallery designs for managed aquifer recharge using secondary treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Elise; Toze, Simon; Patterson, Bradley; Fegg, Wolfgang; Shackleton, Mark; Higginson, Simon

    2013-03-15

    As managed aquifer recharge (MAR) becomes increasingly considered for augmenting water-sensitive urban areas, fundamental knowledge of the achievable scale, longevity and maintenance requirements of different options will become paramount. This paper reports on a 39 month pilot scale MAR scheme that infiltrated secondary treated wastewater through unsaturated sand into a limestone and sand aquifer. Two types of infiltration gallery were constructed to compare their hydraulic performance, one using crushed, graded gravel, the other using an engineered leach drain system (Atlantis Leach System(®)). Both galleries received 25 kL of nutrient-rich, secondary treated wastewater per day. The Atlantis gallery successfully infiltrated 17 ML of treated wastewater over three years. The slotted distribution pipe in the gravel gallery became clogged with plant roots after operating for one year. The infiltration capacity of the gravel gallery could not be restored despite high pressure cleaning, thus it was replaced with an Atlantis system. Reduction in the infiltration capacity of the Atlantis system was only observed when inflow was increased by about 3 fold for two months. The performance of the Atlantis system suggests it is superior to the gravel gallery, requiring less maintenance within at least the time frame of this study. The results from a bromide tracer test revealed a minimum transport time of 3.7 days for the recharged water to reach the water table below 9 m of sand and limestone. This set a limit on the time available for attenuation by natural treatment within the unsaturated zone before it recharged groundwater. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous remediation of nutrients from liquid anaerobic digestate and municipal wastewater by the microalga Scenedesmus sp. AMDD grown in continuous chemostats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, K E; Bjornsson, W J; Garrison, L L; Whitney, C G; Park, K C; Banskota, A H; McGinn, P J

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of a microalga, Scenedesmus sp. AMDD, to remediate nutrients from municipal wastewater, either as the sole nutrient source or after blending with wastewater obtained from the anaerobic digestion of swine manure. A complimentary aim was to study and define the effects of these wastewaters on microalgal growth, biomass productivity and composition which have important implications for a commercial biofuels production system. A microalga, Scenedesmus sp. AMDD, was grown in continuous chemostats in municipal wastewater or wastewater supplemented with 1·6× or 2·4× higher levels of nitrogen (N) obtained through supplementation with anaerobic digestates. Biomass productivity increased with increasing nutrient supplementation, but was limited by light at high cell densities. Cellular quotas of carbon (C), nitrogen and phosphorus (P) all increased in direct proportion to their concentrations in the combined wastewaters. At higher cell densities, total carbohydrate decreased while protein increased. Fatty acid content remained relatively constant. Under high nutrient levels, the fatty acid profiles contained a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids. Chlorophyll a was 2·5 times greater in the treatment of greatest nutrient supplementation compared to the treatment with the least. Ammonium (NH4(+)) and phosphate (PO4(3-)) were completely removed by algal growth in all treatments and with maximal removal rates of 41·2 mg N l(-1) d(-1) and 6·7 mg P l(-1) d(-1) observed in wastewater amended with 2·4× higher N level. The study is the first to report stable, long-term continuous algal growth and productivity obtained by combining wastewaters of different sources. The study is supported by detailed analyses of the composition of the cultivated biomass and links composition to the nutrient and light availabilities in the cultures. Simultaneous remediation

  4. On The Relationship between Suspended Solids of Different Size, the Observed Boundary Flux and Rejection Values for Membranes Treating a Civil Wastewater Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Stoller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling is one of the main issues in membrane processes, leading to a progressive decrease of permeability. High fouling rates strongly reduce the productivity of the membrane plant, and negatively affect the surviving rate of the membrane modules, especially when real wastewater is treated. On the other hand, since selectivity must meet certain target requirements, fouling may lead to unexpected selectivity improvements due to the formation of an additional superficial layer formed of foulants and that act like a selective secondary membrane layer. In this case, a certain amount of fouling may be profitable to the point where selectivity targets were reached and productivity is not significantly affected. In this work, the secondary clarifier of a step sludge recirculation bioreactor treating municipal wastewater was replaced by a membrane unit, aiming at recovering return sludge and producing purified water. Fouling issues of such a system were checked by boundary flux measurements. A simple model for the description of the observed productivity and selectivity values as a function of membrane fouling is proposed.

  5. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Class 1 Integrons and the Antiseptic Resistance Gene (qacEΔ1) in Municipal and Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Plants and Wastewater—Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min Tao; Chou, Chin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs) containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants. This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M) and swine slaughterhouse (S) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wastewater samples. The abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 96 wastewater samples were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR), and 113 MRSA isolates recovered from the wastewater samples were detected class 1 integrons and linked antiseptic resistance genes (qacEΔ1), and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for QAC antiseptics. The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples. A higher percentage of MRSA isolates carried qacEΔ1 in MRSA from swine wastewater samples (62.8%) than in municipal MRSA (3.7%). All the MRSA isolates showed high MICs for antiseptic agents. This study provides important evidence regarding the abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in municipal and swine slaughterhouse wastewater, and antiseptic-resistant MRSA strains were detected in swine slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:26042365

  7. Effects of domestic wastewater treated by anaerobic stabilization on soil pollution, plant nutrition, and cotton crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzen, Nese; Cetin, Oner; Unlu, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    This study has aimed to determine the effects of treated wastewater on cotton yield and soil pollution in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey during 2011 and 2012. The treated wastewater was provided from the reservoir operated as anaerobic stabilization. After treatment, suspended solids (28-60 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (29-30 mg/l), and chemical oxygen demand (71-112 mg/l) decreased significantly compared to those in the wastewater. There was no heavy metal pollution in the water used. There were no significant amounts of coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli compared to untreated wastewater. The cottonseed yield (31.8 g/plant) in the tanks where no commercial fertilizers were applied was considerably higher compared to the yield (17.2 g/plant) in the fertilized tanks where a common nitrogenous fertilizer was utilized. There were no significant differences between the values of soil pH. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) after the experiment increased from 0.8-1.0 to 0.9-1.8 dS/m. Heavy metal pollution did not occur in the soil and plants, because there were no heavy metals in the treated wastewater. It can be concluded that treated domestic wastewater could be used to grow in a controlled manner crops, such as cotton, that would not be used directly as human nutrients.

  8. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sakar, Suleyman

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 (±0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 (±910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2 deg. C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m 3 day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H 2 O 2 and Fe 2+ dosages, and the ratio of H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ . Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe 2+ /L and 200 mg H 2 O 2 /L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe 2+ /L and 200 mg H 2 O 2 /L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe 2+ /L and 1200 mg H 2 O 2 /L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a UASB process followed by Fenton's oxidation technology used as a post-treatment unit

  9. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sakar, Suleyman

    2008-03-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 (+/-0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 (+/-910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32+/-2 degrees C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m3day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe2+ and H2O2 solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H2O2 and Fe2+ dosages, and the ratio of H2O2/Fe2+. Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe2+/L and 200 mg H2O2/L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe2+ and H2O2 were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe2+/L and 200 mg H2O2/L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe2+/L and 1200 mg H2O2/L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a UASB process followed by Fenton's oxidation technology used as a post-treatment unit.

  10. One-year Surveillance of Human Enteric Viruses in Raw and Treated Wastewaters, Downstream River Waters, and Drinking Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, M; Muscillo, M; Della Libera, S; Fratini, M; Meucci, L; De Ceglia, M; Giacosa, D; La Rosa, G

    2017-03-01

    Human enteric viruses are a major cause of waterborne diseases, and can be transmitted by contaminated water of all kinds, including drinking and recreational water. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A and E virus) in raw and treated wastewaters, in rivers receiving wastewater discharges, and in drinking waters. Wastewater treatment plants' (WWTP) pathogen removal efficiencies by adenovirus quantitative real-time PCR and the presence of infectious enterovirus, by cell culture assays, in treated wastewaters and in surface waters were also evaluated. A total of 90 water samples were collected: raw and treated wastewaters (treated effluents and ultrafiltered water reused for industrial purposes), water from two rivers receiving treated discharges, and drinking water. Nested PCR assays were used for the identification of viral DNA/RNA, followed by direct amplicon sequencing. All raw sewage samples (21/21), 61.9 % of treated wastewater samples (13/21), and 25 % of ultrafiltered water samples (3/12) were contaminated with at least one viral family. Multiple virus families and genera were frequently detected. Mean positive PCRs per sample decreased significantly from raw to treated sewage and to ultrafiltered waters. Moreover, quantitative adenovirus data showed a reduction in excess of 99 % in viral genome copies following wastewater treatment. In surface waters, 78.6 % (22/28) of samples tested positive for one or more viruses by molecular methods, but enterovirus-specific infectivity assays did not reveal infectious particles in these samples. All drinking water samples tested negative for all viruses, demonstrating the effectiveness of treatment in removing viral pathogens from drinking water. Integrated strategies to manage water from all sources are crucial to ensure water quality.

  11. Prevalence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes in two municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Daqing; Yu, Shuai; Rysz, Michal; Luo, Yi; Yang, Fengxia; Li, Fengxiang; Hou, Jie; Mu, Quanhua; Alvarez, P J J

    2015-11-15

    The propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is an emerging health concern worldwide. Thus, it is important to understand and mitigate their occurrence in different systems. In this study, 30 ARGs that confer resistance to tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinolones or macrolides were detected in two activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in northern China. Bacteria harboring ARGs persisted through all treatment units, and survived disinfection by chlorination in greater percentages than total Bacteria (assessed by 16S rRNA genes). Although the absolute abundances of ARGs were reduced from the raw influent to the effluent by 89.0%-99.8%, considerable ARG levels [(1.0 ± 0.2) × 10(3) to (9.5 ± 1.8) × 10(5) copies/mL)] were found in WWTP effluent samples. ARGs were concentrated in the waste sludge (through settling of bacteria and sludge dewatering) at (1.5 ± 2.3) × 10(9) to (2.2 ± 2.8) × 10(11) copies/g dry weight. Twelve ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetE, tetG, tetH, tetS, tetT, tetX, sul1, sul2, qnrB, ermC) were discharged through the dewatered sludge and plant effluent at higher rates than influent values, indicating overall proliferation of resistant bacteria. Significant antibiotic concentrations (2%-50% of raw influent concentrations) remained throughout all treatment units. This apparently contributed selective pressure for ARG replication since the relative abundance of resistant bacteria (assessed by ARG/16S rRNA gene ratios) was significantly correlated to the corresponding effluent antibiotic concentrations. Similarly, the concentrations of various heavy metals (which induce a similar bacterial resistance mechanism as antibiotics - efflux pumps) were also correlated to the enrichment of some ARGs. Thus, curtailing the release of antibiotics and heavy metals to sewage systems (or enhancing their removal in pre-treatment units) may alleviate their selective pressure and mitigate ARG proliferation in WWTPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant; Analisis de Ciclo de Vida de una Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales Municipales. Caso: PTARM de Yautepec (Morelos, Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J s; Herrera, I; Rodriguez, A

    2011-05-13

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  13. Nitrification in Saline Industrial Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal is widely and successfully applied for municipal wastewater. However, these experiences are not directly applicable to industrial wastewater, due to its specific composition. High salt levels in many industrial wastewaters affect nitrification negatively and improved

  14. Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge: A Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis, Rev.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billing, Justin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Samuel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maupin, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A preliminary process model and techno-economic analysis (TEA) was completed for fuel produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of sludge waste from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequent biocrude upgrading. The model is adapted from previous work by Jones et al. (2014) for algae HTL, using experimental data generated in fiscal year 2015 (FY15) bench-scale HTL testing of sludge waste streams. Testing was performed on sludge samples received from Metro Vancouver’s Annacis Island WWTP (Vancouver, B.C.) as part of a collaborative project with the Water Environment and Reuse Foundation (WERF). The full set of sludge HTL testing data from this effort will be documented in a separate report to be issued by WERF. This analysis is based on limited testing data and therefore should be considered preliminary. In addition, the testing was conducted with the goal of successful operation, and therefore does not represent an optimized process. Future refinements are necessary to improve the robustness of the model, including a cross-check of modeled biocrude components with the experimental GCMS data and investigation of equipment costs most appropriate at the relatively small scales used here. Environmental sustainability metrics analysis is also needed to understand the broader impact of this technology pathway. The base case scenario for the analysis consists of 10 HTL plants, each processing 100 dry U.S. ton/day (92.4 ton/day on a dry, ash-free basis) of sludge waste and producing 234 barrel per stream day (BPSD) biocrude, feeding into a centralized biocrude upgrading facility that produces 2,020 barrel per standard day of final fuel. This scale was chosen based upon initial wastewater treatment plant data collected by PNNL’s resource assessment team from the EPA’s Clean Watersheds Needs Survey database (EPA 2015a) and a rough estimate of what the potential sludge availability might be within a 100-mile radius. In addition, we received

  15. Application of anaerobic digestion products of municipal solid food wastes in treating wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is the breakdown of biodegradable organic material by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen or in an oxygen-starved environment.This technology is superior to the landfilling and also the aerobic composting. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the effluent Volatile Fatty Acids from the anaerobic acidogenesis of the food waste can be used du to its high value in organic elements, as an external carbon source for the denitrificationin in waste water treatment plants . The results showed that Volatile Fatty Acids concentration in mg COD/L in the fermentation was in the range between 3,300 mg COD/L and 6,560 mgCOD/L.The n-butiric acid had the highest concentration in mgCOD/L followed by the propionic and acetic acid, while the valeric acid had the lowest concentration. As well as the concentration of the acetic and valeric acid were stable over the time. Opposite to these, the propionic and n-butyric acid showed high variability in the concentration, especially the n-butyric acid. The specific denitrification rate tests tests showed that the ethanol cultivated biomass was more successful in using the effluent of the food waste digestion as carbon source than methanol cultivated biomass.The specific denitrification reta tests results of our experiment, showed that the average of 0.15 an 0.51 mg N/mg for methanol and ethanol cultivated biomass respectively.

  16. Effect of upflow velocity on the performance of an inclined plate membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanos, P M; Yamamoto, K; Nakajima, F

    2011-01-01

    An inclined plate membrane bioreactor (iPMBR) was introduced to meet the challenge of handling high mixed liquor suspended solids when operating at long sludge retention times. During the first 407 days of operation, the iPMBR was able to rezone more sludge (1.5-10.5 times greater) in its upstream, anoxic tank compared to its downstream, aerobic tank. This could extend membrane filtration by diverting most of the sludge from the aerobic zone. During this period, the upflow velocities through the inclined plates of the anoxic tank ranged from 2.3 x 10(-4) to 7.7 x 10(-4) m/s. After Day 407, the operating conditions were changed to determine whether the iPMBR would fail to create a sludge concentration difference between its two tanks. When the upflow velocity was increased to 1.8 x 10(-3) m/s, the sludge concentration difference between the two zones was removed. This indicated that the upflow velocity had increased sufficiently to overcome the settling velocities of most flocs, resulting in more solids being carried from the anoxic to the aerobic tank. For the configuration of this iPMBR, operating at flow rates where the upflow velocity through the inclined plates was less than 1.0 x 10(-3) m/s would be necessary to keep a significant sludge concentration difference between its two zones.

  17. Evaluation of performance in a combined UASB and aerobic contact oxidation process treating acrylic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anfeng; Dong, Na; He, Manni; Pan, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The lab-scale and full-scale performance of a combined mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and aerobic contact oxidation (ACO) process for treating acrylic wastewater was studied. During lab-scale experiment, the overwhelmed volumetric load for UASB was above 6 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) ·(m(-3)·d(-1)) since COD removal efficiency dropped dramatically from 73% at 6 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)) to 61% at 7 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)) and 53% at 8 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)). Further results showed that an up-flow fluid velocity of 0.5 m h(-1) for UASB obtained a highest COD removal efficiency of 75%, and the optimum COD volumetric load for the corresponding ACO was 1.00 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)). Based on the configuration of the lab-scale experiment, a full-scale application with an acrylic wastewater treatment capacity of 8 m3 h(-1) was constructed and operated at a volumetric load of 5.5 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)), an up-flow fluid velocity of 0.5 m h(-1) for UASB and a volumetric load of 0.9 kg COD·(m(-3)·d(-1)) for ACO; and the final effluent COD was around 740 mg L(-1). The results suggest that a combined UASB-ACO process is promising for treating acrylic wastewater.

  18. Modeling of membrane bioreactor treating hypersaline oily wastewater by artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendashteh, Ali Reza; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.; Chaibakhsh, Naz; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash; Abidin, Zurina Zainal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hypersaline oily wastewater was treated in a membrane bioreactor. → The effects of salinity and organic loading rate were evaluated. → The system was modeled by neural network and optimized by genetic algorithm. → The model prediction agrees well with experimental values. → The model can be used to obtain effluent characteristics less than discharge limits. - Abstract: A membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) treating hypersaline oily wastewater was modeled by artificial neural network (ANN). The MSBR operated at different total dissolved solids (TDSs) (35,000; 50,000; 100,000; 150,000; 200,000; 250,000 mg/L), various organic loading rates (OLRs) (0.281, 0.563, 1.124, 2.248, and 3.372 kg COD/(m 3 day)) and cyclic time (12, 24, and 48 h). A feed-forward neural network trained by batch back propagation algorithm was employed to model the MSBR. A set of 193 operational data from the wastewater treatment with the MSBR was used to train the network. The training, validating and testing procedures for the effluent COD, total organic carbon (TOC) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations were successful and a good correlation was observed between the measured and predicted values. The results showed that at OLR of 2.44 kg COD/(m 3 day), TDS of 78,000 mg/L and reaction time (RT) of 40 h, the average removal rate of COD was 98%. In these conditions, the average effluent COD concentration was less than 100 mg/L and met the discharge limits.

  19. Modeling of membrane bioreactor treating hypersaline oily wastewater by artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendashteh, Ali Reza [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Environmental Research Institute, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fakhru' l-Razi, A., E-mail: fakhrul@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Chaibakhsh, Naz [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Abdullah, Luqman Chuah [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Madaeni, Sayed Siavash [Chemical Engineering Department, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abidin, Zurina Zainal [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Hypersaline oily wastewater was treated in a membrane bioreactor. {yields} The effects of salinity and organic loading rate were evaluated. {yields} The system was modeled by neural network and optimized by genetic algorithm. {yields} The model prediction agrees well with experimental values. {yields} The model can be used to obtain effluent characteristics less than discharge limits. - Abstract: A membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) treating hypersaline oily wastewater was modeled by artificial neural network (ANN). The MSBR operated at different total dissolved solids (TDSs) (35,000; 50,000; 100,000; 150,000; 200,000; 250,000 mg/L), various organic loading rates (OLRs) (0.281, 0.563, 1.124, 2.248, and 3.372 kg COD/(m{sup 3} day)) and cyclic time (12, 24, and 48 h). A feed-forward neural network trained by batch back propagation algorithm was employed to model the MSBR. A set of 193 operational data from the wastewater treatment with the MSBR was used to train the network. The training, validating and testing procedures for the effluent COD, total organic carbon (TOC) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations were successful and a good correlation was observed between the measured and predicted values. The results showed that at OLR of 2.44 kg COD/(m{sup 3} day), TDS of 78,000 mg/L and reaction time (RT) of 40 h, the average removal rate of COD was 98%. In these conditions, the average effluent COD concentration was less than 100 mg/L and met the discharge limits.

  20. Optimizing electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton process for treating car wash wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedali Mirshahghassemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Car wash wastewater contains several contaminants such as organic matter, oil, grease, detergents and phosphates, all of which are harmful for the environment. In this study, the application of electrocoagulation (EC to treat car wash wastewater has been studied, and the operating parameters optimized. The electro-Fenton (EF for further contaminant removal was also investigated. Methods: In EC process, the effect of pH, current density, and the reaction time of the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, phosphate, and turbidity were investigated using the response surface methodology (RSM. The electrochemical cell consisted of four iron electrodes that were connected to a power supply using a monopolar arrangement. In the EF process, the effect of pH, reaction time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on COD removal efficiency were probed. Results: The optimum pH, current density, and the reaction time for the EC process were 7.3, 4.2 mA cm-2 and 20.3 minutes, respectively. Under these conditions, the COD, phosphate, and turbidity removal percentages were 80.8%, 94.9% and 85.5%, respectively, and the specific energy consumption was 1.5 kWh m-3. For the EF process, the optimum pH, reaction time, current and hydrogen peroxide dosage were 3, 10 minutes, 2 A and 500 mg L-1, respectively. The EF showed higher COD removal efficiency (85.6% with a lower specific energy consumption (0.5 kWh m-3 and reaction time compared to the EC. Conclusion: This study shows that both EC and EF can effectively treat car wash wastewater with high removal efficiency within a short reaction time.

  1. Survival, reproduction, growth, and parasite resistance of aquatic organisms exposed on-site to wastewater treated by advanced treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter-Vorberg, Lisa; Knopp, Gregor; Cornel, Peter; Ternes, Thomas; Coors, Anja

    2017-05-01

    Advanced wastewater treatment technologies are generally known to be an effective tool for reducing micropollutant discharge into the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, some processes such as ozonation result in stable transformation products with often unknown toxicity. In the present study, whole effluents originating from nine different steps of advanced treatment combinations were compared for their aquatic toxicity. Assessed endpoints were survival, growth and reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus, Daphnia magna and Lemna minor chronically exposed in on-site flow-through tests based on standard guidelines. The treatment combinations were activated sludge treatment followed by ozonation with subsequent filtration by granular activated carbon or biofilters and membrane bioreactor treatment of raw wastewater followed by ozonation. Additionally, the impact of treated wastewater on the immune response of invertebrates was investigated by challenging D. magna with a bacterial endoparasite. Conventionally treated wastewater reduced reproduction of L. variegatus by up to 46%, but did not affect D. magna and L. minor with regard to survival, growth, reproduction and parasite resistance. Instead, parasite susceptibility was significantly reduced in D. magna exposed to conventionally treated as well as ozonated wastewater in comparison to D. magna exposed to the medium control. None of the three test organisms provided clear evidence that wastewater ozonation leads to increased aquatic toxicity. Rather than to the presence of toxic transformation products, the affected performance of L. variegatus could be linked to elevated concentrations of ammonium and nitrite that likely resulted from treatment failures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Managed aquifer recharge of treated wastewater: water quality changes resulting from infiltration through the vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Elise; Toze, Simon; Patterson, Bradley; Higginson, Simon

    2011-11-01

    Secondary treated wastewater was infiltrated through a 9 m-thick calcareous vadose zone during a 39 month managed aquifer recharge (MAR) field trial to determine potential improvements in the recycled water quality. The water quality improvements of the recycled water were based on changes in the chemistry and microbiology of (i) the recycled water prior to infiltration relative to (ii) groundwater immediately down-gradient from the infiltration gallery. Changes in the average concentrations of several constituents in the recycled water were identified with reductions of 30% for phosphorous, 66% for fluoride, 62% for iron and 51% for total organic carbon when the secondary treated wastewater was infiltrated at an applied rate of 17.5 L per minute with a residence time of approximately four days in the vadose zone and less than two days in the aquifer. Reductions were also noted for oxazepam and temazepam among the pharmaceuticals tested and for a range of microbial pathogens, but reductions were harder to quantify as their magnitudes varied over time. Total nitrogen and carbamazepine persisted in groundwater down-gradient from the infiltration galleries. Infiltration does potentially offer a range of water quality improvements over direct injection to the water table without passage through the unsaturated zone; however, additional treatment options for the non-potable water may still need to be considered, depending on the receiving environment or the end use of the recovered water. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treating domestic effluent wastewater treatment by aerobic biofilter with bioballs medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, R.; Rinanti, A.; Ratnaningsih, R.

    2018-01-01

    This laboratory scale research aimed to treat wastewater effluent with advanced treatment utilizing aerobic biofilter with bio-balls medium to obtain effluent quality in accordance with DKI Jakarta Governor Regulation No. 122 of 2005. The seeding and acclimatization were conducted in 4 weeks. The effluent were accommodated in a 150 L water barrel supported by a submersible pump. The effluent were treated in two boxes shaped reactors made of glasses with 36 L of each capacity. These reactors were equipped with aquarium aerators, sampling tap is 10 cm from the base of reactors, and bio-balls with 3 cm diameter are made of PVC. Reactors operated continuously with variations of retention time of 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours, and 24 hours and also variations of Carbon: Nitrogen: Phosphor = C: N: P ratio were, 100:5:1, 100:8:1, 100:10:1, 100:12:1, 100:15:1. The results showed that the optimum variance of retention time was 24 hours and the ratio of C:N:P was 100:10:1 yielded the largest removal efficiency for 83,33% of COD, 87,33% of BOD, 82,5% of Ammonia, 79,1% of Nitrate, 92% of Nitrite, 84,82% of Oil and Grease. The concentration parameter resulted from outlet biofilter has met the domestic wastewater quality standard of DKI Jakarta.

  4. Reuse of spent granular activated carbon for organic micro-pollutant removal from treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingyi; Shang, Ran; Heijman, Bas; Rietveld, Luuk

    2015-09-01

    Spent granular activated carbons (sGACs) for drinking water treatments were reused via pulverizing as low-cost adsorbents for micro-pollutant adsorption from a secondary treated wastewater effluent. The changes of physicochemical characteristics of the spent carbons in relation to the fresh carbons were determined and were correlated to the molecular properties of the respective GAC influents (i.e. a surface water and a groundwater). Pore size distribution analysis showed that the carbon pore volume decreased over a wider size range due to preloading by surface water, which contains a broader molecular weight distribution of organic matter in contrast to the groundwater. However, there was still considerable capacity available on the pulverized sGACs for atrazine adsorption in demineralized water and secondary effluent, and this was particularly the case for the groundwater spent GAC. However, as compared to the fresh counterparts, the decreased surface area and the induced surface acidic groups on the pulverized sGACs contributed both to the lower uptake and the more impeded adsorption kinetic of atrazine in the demineralized water. Nonetheless, the pulverized sGACs, especially the one preloaded by surface water, was less susceptible to adsorption competition in the secondary effluent, due to its negatively charged surface which can repulse the accessibility of the co-present organic matter. This suggests the reusability of the drinking water spent GACs for micro-pollutant adsorption in the treated wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating synthetic wastewater containing pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Stuckey, David C; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the behaviour and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) in two anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs): MBRcontrol and MBRpharma, for treating municipal wastewater. Both protein and polysaccharides measured exhibited higher concentrations in the MBRpharma than the MBRcontrol. Molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis revealed that the presence of pharmaceuticals enhanced the accumulation of SMPs with macro- (13,091 kDa and 1587 kDa) and intermediate-MW (189 kDa) compounds in the anoxic MBRpharma, while a substantial decrease was observed in both MBR effluents. Excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence contours indicated that the exposure to pharmaceuticals seemed to stimulate the production of aromatic proteins containing tyrosine (10.1-32.6%) and tryptophan (14.7-43.1%), compared to MBRcontrol (9.9-29.1% for tyrosine; 11.8-42.5% for tryptophan). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed aromatics, long-chain alkanes and esters were the predominant SMPs in the MBRs. More peaks were present in the aerobic MBRpharma (196) than anoxic MBRpharma (133). The SMPs identified exhibited both biodegradability and recalcitrance in the MBR treatment processes. Only 8 compounds in the MBRpharma were the same as in the MBRcontrol. Alkanes were the most dominant SMPs (51%) in the MBRcontrol, while aromatics were dominant (40%) in the MBRpharma. A significant decrease in aromatics (from 16 to 7) in the MBRpharma permeate was observed, compared to the aerobic MBRpharma. Approximately 21% of compounds in the aerobic MBRcontrol were rejected by membrane filtration, while this increased to 28% in the MBRpharma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Colour and organic removal of biologically treated coffee curing wastewater by electrochemical oxidation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejankiwar, Rajesh S; Lokesh, K S; Gowda, T P Halappa

    2003-05-01

    The treatment of biologically treated wastewater of coffee-curing industry by the electrochemical oxidation using steel anode was investigated. Bench-scale experiments were conducted for activated sludge process on raw wastewater and the treated effluents were further treated by electrochemical oxidation method for its colour and organic content removal. The efficiency of the process was determined in terms of removal percentage of COD, BOD and colour during the course of reaction. Several operating parameters like time, pH and current density were examined to ascertain their effects on the treatment efficiency. Steel anode was found to be effective for the COD and colour removal with anode efficiency of 0.118 kgCOD x h(-1) x A(-1) x m(-2) and energy consumption 20.61 kWh x kg(-1) of COD at pH 9. The decrease in pH from 9 to 3 found to increase the anode efficiency from 0.118 kgCOD x h(-1) x A(-1) x m(-2) to 0.144 kWh x kg(-1) of COD while decrease the energy consumption from 20.61 kWh x kg(-1) of COD to 12.86 kWh x kg(-1) of COD. The pH of 5 was considered an ideal from the present treatment process as it avoids the addition of chemicals for neutralization of treated effluents and also economical with respect to energy consumption. An empirical relation developed for relationship between applied current density and COD removal efficiency showed strong predictive capability with coefficient of determination of 96.5%.

  7. Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from alkaline fermentation liquid of waste activated sludge and application of the fermentation liquid to promote biological municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Chen, Yinguang

    2009-07-01

    In previous publications we reported that by controlling the pH at 10.0 the accumulation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) during waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation was remarkably improved [Yuan, H., Chen, Y., Zhang, H., Jiang, S., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2006. Improved bioproduction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from excess sludge under alkaline conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 2025-2029], but significant ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and soluble ortho-phosphorus (SOP) were released [Chen, Y., Jiang, S., Yuan, H., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2007. Hydrolysis and acidification of waste activated sludge at different pHs. Water Res. 41, 683-689]. This paper investigated the simultaneous recovery of NH(4)-N and SOP from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid and the application of the fermentation liquid as an additional carbon source for municipal wastewater biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The central composite design (CCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize and model the simultaneous NH(4)-N and SOP recovery from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid. Under the optimum conditions, the predicted and experimental recovery efficiency was respectively 73.4 and 75.7% with NH(4)-N, and 82.0 and 83.2% with SOP, which suggested that the developed models described the experiments well. After NH(4)-N and SOP recovery, the alkaline fermentation liquid was added to municipal wastewater, and the influence of volume ratio of fermentation liquid to municipal wastewater (FL/MW) on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal was investigated. The addition of fermentation liquid didn't significantly affect nitrification. Both SOP and total nitrogen (TN) removal were increased with fermentation liquid, but there was no significant increase at FL/MW greater than 1/35. Compared to the blank test, the removal efficiency of SOP and TN at FL/MW=1/35 was improved from 44.0 to 92.9%, and 63.3 to 83.2%, respectively. The enhancement of phosphorus and nitrogen

  8. Can constructed wetlands treat wastewater for reuse in agriculture? Review of guidelines and examples in South Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrnić, Stevo; Mancini, Maurizio L

    2016-01-01

    South Europe is one of the areas negatively affected by climate change. Issues with water shortage are already visible, and are likely to increase. Since agriculture is the biggest freshwater consumer, it is important to find new water sources that could mitigate the climate change impact. In order to overcome problems and protect the environment, a better approach towards wastewater management is needed. That includes an increase in the volume of wastewater that is treated and a paradigm shift towards a more sustainable system where wastewater is actually considered as a resource. This study evaluates the potential of constructed wetlands (CWs) to treat domestic wastewater and produce effluent that will be suitable for reuse in agriculture. In South Europe, four countries (Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) have national standards that regulate wastewater reuse in agriculture. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that are based on CWs in these four countries were analysed and their effluents compared with the quality needed for reuse. In general, it was found that CWs have trouble reaching the strictest standards, especially regarding microbiological parameters. However, their effluents are found to be suitable for reuse in areas that do not require water of the highest quality.

  9. Effect of the presence of Actinomycetes in the activated sludge on the quality of the treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezak-Mazur Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the Actinomycetes proliferation in the activated sludge on the quality of the treated wastewater and the sewage receiver. The river which is the sewage receiver flows near the wastewater treatment plant. The study was performed on the wastewater (raw and treated and on the river water samples (collected before and after wastewater discharge. The analysis of the research results, such as the content of total organic carbon (TOC, total phosphorus and oxygen consumption in the examined samples, permit the conclusion that the presence of relatively large population of the Actinomycetes in sewage sludge has a negative impact on the quality of the sewage receiver. Determining the effect of the Actinomycetes in the activated sludge on the wastewater treatment process involved the application of specific analyses, such as Sludge Biotic Index (SBI and the identification of filamentous bacteria in the activated sludge. The analysis of studies indicates that the presence of the Actinomycetes in the activated sludge adversely affects the efficiency of the wastewater treatment process.

  10. Effluent quality of a conventional activated sludge and a membrane bioreactor system treating hospital wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, B.; Ngwa, F.; Deconinck, S.; Verstraete, W.

    2005-01-01

    Two lab scale wastewater treatment plants treating hospital wastewater in parallel were compared in terms of performance characteristics. One plant consisted of a conventional activated sludge system (CAS) and comprised In anoxic and aerobic compartment followed by a settling tank with recycle loop. The second pilot plant was a -late membrane bioreactor (MBR). The wastewater as obtained from the hospital had a variable COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) ranging from 250 to 2300 mg/L. Both systems were operated at a similar hydraulic residence time of 12 hours. The reference conventional activated sludge system did not meet the regulatory standard for effluent COD of 125 mg /L most of the time. Its COD removal efficiency was 88%. The plate MBR delivered an effluent with a COD value of 50 mg/L or less, and attained an efficiency of 93%. The effluent contained no suspended particles. In addition, the MBR resulted in consistent operational parameters with a flux remaining around 8 -10 L/m/sup 2/.h and a trans membrane pressure <0.1 bar without the need for backwash or chemical cleaning. The CAS and the MBR system performed equally good in terms of TAN removal and EE2 removal. The CAS system typically decreased bacterial groups for about 1 log unit, whereas the MBR decreased these groups for about 3 log units. Enterococci were decreased below the detection limit in the MBR and indicator organisms such as fecal coliforms were decreased for 1.4 log units in the CAS system compared to a 3.6 log removal in the MBR. (author)

  11. Bacterial nitrogen fixation in sand bioreactors treating winery wastewater with a high carbon to nitrogen ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, Pamela J; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Braun, Lorenz; Vikram, Surendra; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize

    2018-02-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria proliferate in organic-rich environments and systems containing sufficient essential nutrients. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the nutrients required in the highest concentrations. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen is an important consideration for wastewater bioremediation because insufficient nitrogen may result in decreased treatment efficiency. It has been shown that during the treatment of effluent from the pulp and paper industry, bacterial nitrogen fixation can supplement the nitrogen requirements of suspended growth systems. This study was conducted using physicochemical analyses and culture-dependent and -independent techniques to ascertain whether nitrogen-fixing bacteria were selected in biological sand filters used to treat synthetic winery wastewater with a high carbon to nitrogen ratio (193:1). The systems performed well, with the influent COD of 1351 mg/L being reduced by 84-89%. It was shown that the nitrogen fixing bacterial population was influenced by the presence of synthetic winery effluent in the surface layers of the biological sand filters, but not in the deeper layers. It was hypothesised that this was due to the greater availability of atmospheric nitrogen at the surface. The numbers of culture-able nitrogen-fixing bacteria, including presumptive Azotobacter spp. exhibited 1-2 log increases at the surface. The results of this study confirm that nitrogen fixation is an important mechanism to be considered during treatment of high carbon to nitrogen wastewater. If biological treatment systems can be operated to stimulate this phenomenon, it may obviate the need for nitrogen addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  13. Impact assessment of mine drainage water and municipal wastewater on the surface water in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardić Vojka R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining and copper production in Bor, in the past hundred years, had a huge impact on the environment of town, but also in a wide region. In the area of Bor, in the zone of Mining and Smelting Company (RTB activity, over 29,000 ha of land under forests and fields is degraded. The area of degraded agricultural land in the Bor municipality is over 60% of total agricultural land. Wastewater, generated in the sites of RTB Bor, pollute the Bor River and Krivelj River, which still flow into the Timok River and Danube River. These pollutions are often presented by low pH value, increased content of heavy metal ions, suspended particles and fine particles of flotation tailings, which is deposited in the valleys of these rivers on the area of over 2000 hectares. During the decades of exploitation of ore from the open pit Bor at different locations ("Visoki Planir" - also called “Oštreljski planir”, "Severni planir" dump of ore body "H" (RTH gangue and tailings were delayed. The largest amount of tailings, about 150 million tons, was postponed on location Visoki planir. The effect of the mining waste and the impact of the whole process of processing copper ore to the final products on the environment, was conducted during the 4th study period of the project "Management of mining waste-tailing dump in the Bor region," supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion Science (Eng. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Japan international cooperation Agency and the Ministry of environment, Mining and Spatial planning of the Republic of Serbia. Influence of season on the level of pollutants in soil and water, the impact on water quality in the river Timok and the River Danube, was conducted during first three periods of project. This paper presents the results of the third study period. The third period of research, which was conducted over a period of 17. 10. 2012 to 17. 01.2013 year, included a review of pollution sources and define their

  14. From municipal/industrial wastewater sludge and FOG to fertilizer: A proposal for economic sustainable sludge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratina, Božidar; Šorgo, Andrej; Kramberger, Janez; Ajdnik, Urban; Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Ekart, Janez; Šafarič, Riko

    2016-12-01

    After a ban on the depositing of untreated sludge in landfills, the sludge from municipal and industrial water-treatment plants can be regarded as a problem. Waste products of the water treatment process can be a problem or an opportunity - a source for obtaining raw materials. In the European Union, raw sludge and fats, oil and grease (FOG) from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) cannot be deposited in any natural or controlled environment. For this reason, it must be processed (stabilized, dried) to be used later as a fertilizer, building material, or alternative fuel source suitable for co-incineration in high temperature furnaces (power plants or concrete plants). The processes of drying sludge, where heat and electricity are used, are energy consuming and economically unattractive. Beside energy efficiency, the main problem of sludge drying is in its variability of quality as a raw material. In addition to this, sludge can be contaminated by a number of organic and inorganic pollutants and organisms. Due to the presence or absence of pollutants, different end products can be economically interesting. For example, if the dried sludge contains coliform bacteria, viruses, helminths eggs or smaller quantities of heavy metals, it cannot be used as a fertilizer but can still be used as a fuel. The objectives of the current article is to present a batch-processing pilot device of sludge or digestate that allows the following: (1) low pressure and low temperature energy effective drying of from 10 to 40% remaining water content, (2) disinfection of pathogen (micro)organisms, (3) heavy metal reduction, (4) production of products of predetermined quality (e.g. containing different quantities of water; it can be used as a fertilizer, or if the percentage of water in the dry sludge is decreased to 10%, then the dried sludge can be used as a fuel with a calorific value similar to coal). An important feature is also the utilization of low

  15. Bioproducts for Sludge Reduction in Activated Sludge Systems Treating Oil Refinery Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre V.M.F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioproducts that change the cellular metabolism and reduce microbial growth without affecting the organic matter removal is very promising for reducing the amount of sludge in wastewater treatment systems. In this study, two bioproducts were evaluated and compared with a well-known chemical (2,4-DiNitroPhenol – DNP in activated sludge treating petroleum refinery wastewater. In batch experiments, 10 mg/L of DNP, 0.8 mg/L of a bioproduct based on Folic Acid (FA and 10 mg/L of a bioproduct based on Stress Proteins (SP led to 30.6%, 43.2% and 29.8% lower disposal of total solids, respectively. Operating on a continuous regimen, the addition of 10 mg/L of the bioproduct based on SP led to 45.7% lower disposal for 50 days. In all cases, no loss of efficiency in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal was observed.

  16. OPTIMISATION OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA AS A NATURAL COAGULANT TO TREAT CONGO RED IN WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUN Y. YONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of coagulation is commonly practiced in water and wastewater treatment to reduce level of dissolved chemical, turbidity and so on with the usage of coagulant. Aluminium sulphate (alum is the most commonly used coagulant, however, recent studies show that residual aluminium in drinking water and sludge may induce Alzheimer’s disease and environmental issues. Natural coagulant which is environmental friendly and non-toxic is developed as an alternative to overcome these issues. In this work, Hibiscus Sabdariffa was studied as natural coagulant to treat dye wastewater containing Congo red. The seeds were extracted with different solvent such as distilled water, 0.5 M NaCl and 0.05 M NaOH to extract the coagulation agent. The working parameters were optimised using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. 0.5 M NaCl was found to have highest colour removal of 95.1 % among the solvents. In addition, Hibiscus Sabdariffa seed was found to be an effective coagulant that has 91.2 % colour removal at the optimal working condition of pH 2, 190 mg/L coagulant dosage at 400 ppm of dye concentration. It was also been identified that the performance of natural coagulant is comparable with conventional coagulant, aluminium sulphate with colour removal of 91.2 % and 92.3 % respectively.

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions from high rate algal ponds treating domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Cynthia; Muñoz, Raúl; Norvill, Zane; Plouviez, Maxence; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the generation of N2O by microcosms withdrawn from 7-L high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) inoculated with Chlorella vulgaris and treating synthetic wastewater. Although HRAPs microcosms demonstrated the ability to generate algal-mediated N2O when nitrite was externally supplied under darkness in batch assays, negligible N2O emissions rates were consistently recorded in the absence of nitrite during 3.5-month monitoring under 'normal' operation. Thereafter, HRAP A and HRAP B were overloaded with nitrate and ammonium, respectively, in an attempt to stimulate N2O emissions via nitrite in situ accumulation. Significant N2O production (up to 5685±363 nmol N2O/g TSS h) was only recorded from HRAP B microcosms externally supplied with nitrite in darkness. Although confirmation under full-scale outdoors conditions is needed, this study provides the first evidence that the ability of microalgae to synthesize N2O does not affect the environmental performance of wastewater treatment in HRAPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Obstruction and uniformity in drip irrigation systems by applying treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ferreira da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of wastewater in agriculture is an alternative to control surface water pollution, and helps to promote the rational use of water. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the obstruction and uniformity of application of treated wastewater in drip irrigation systems. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. The treatments were composed by the factorial combination of two factors: three types of water (supply water-ABAST, effluent of a constructed wetland system -WETLAND and upflow of anaerobic reactor effluent followed by constructed wetland system -UASB + WETLAND, and two drip irrigation systems (surface and subsurface, set in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The results indicated that the pH, suspended solids, total iron and coliforms of the WETLAND and UASB + WETLAND treatments represented a severe risk of clogging of drippers; the flow of the emitters increased as the service pressure was increased; values of CUC and CUD in surface and subsurface drip were classified as excellent in ABAST and WETLAND treatments. The degree of clogging reduced as pressure under surface and subsurface drip was increased.

  19. Start-up of a free water surface constructed wetland for treating olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michailides Michail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An olive mill's existing evaporation pond was separated into five cells and transformed into a free water surface constructed wetland. The constructed wetland was used as a post-treatment stage for olive mill wastewater (OMW. Wastewater was previously treated by an aerobic trickling filter. The influent concentrations in the constructed wetland were 27400 mg.L-1, 4800 mg.L-1, 105 mg.L-1 and 770 mg.L-1 for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. Despite the rather high influent concentrations, the performance of the constructed wetland was very good since after the 60-day start-up operation period it achieved removal rates of about 94%, 95%, 95% and 98% for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. The major pollutant removal processes can be attributed to both biological processes occurring in the wetland and photo-oxidation. Laboratory-scale experiments with OMW from fifth cell of the wetland revealed that the net contribution of photo-oxidation after 112 hours of simulated solar radiation at 765 W/m2 (i.e. about 38 days of sunlight irradiation was 18% and 31% removal for COD and phenols, respectively. In the constructed wetland, the total removal reached 81% and 86% for COD and phenols, respectively, for the same time period (38 days.

  20. Metagenomic exploration reveals a marked change in the river resistome and mobilome after treated wastewater discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekunberri, Itziar; Balcázar, José Luis; Borrego, Carles M

    2018-03-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are key agents in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) across environments. Here we used metagenomics to compare the river resistome (collection of all ARGs) and mobilome (e.g., integrases, transposases, integron integrases and insertion sequence common region "ISCR" elements) between samples collected upstream (n = 6) and downstream (n = 6) of an urban wastewater treatment plant (UWWTP). In comparison to upstream metagenomes, downstream metagenomes showed a drastic increase in the abundance of ARGs, as well as markers of MGEs, particularly integron integrases and ISCR elements. These changes were accompanied by a concomitant prevalence of 16S rRNA gene signatures of bacteria affiliated to families encompassing well-known human and animal pathogens. Our results confirm that chronic discharges of treated wastewater severely impact the river resistome affecting not only the abundance and diversity of ARGs but also their potential spread by enriching the river mobilome in a wide variety of MGEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance of suspended and attached growth MBR systems in treating high strength synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal Khan, S; Ilyas, Shazia; Javid, Sadaf; Visvanathan, C; Jegatheesan, V

    2011-05-01

    The performance of laboratory-scale attached growth (AG) and suspended growth (SG) membrane bioreactors (MBRs) was evaluated in treating synthetic wastewater simulating high strength domestic wastewater. This study investigated the influence of sponge suspended carriers in AG-MBR system, occupying 15% reactor volume, on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), and compared it to that of SG-MBR. Results showed that the removal efficiencies of COD, TN and TP in AG-MBR were 98%, 89% and 58%, respectively as compared to 98%, 74% and 38%, respectively in SG-MBR. Improved TN removal in AG-MBR systems was primarily based on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process. These results infer that the presence of small bio-particles having higher microbial activity and the growth of complex biomass captured within the suspended sponge carriers resulted in improved TN and TP removal in AG-MBR. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of cattails in treating wastewater from a Pb/Zn mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chongyu; Chen, Guizhu; Li, Liuchun; Wong, M. H.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the use of a combined treatment system, which includes an aquatic treatment pond with Typha latifolia Linn. (Typhaceae) as the dominant species and a stabilization pond, to treat the wastewater from a Pn/Zn mine at Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, China. In 1983, it was noted that T. latifolia bloomed in areas affected by the wastewater emitted from the mine, hence a combined purification system was subsequently built. The influent contained high levels of total suspended solids (4635 mg/liter), chemical oxygen demand (14.5 mg/liter) as well as Pb (1.6 mg/liter) and Zn (1.9 mg/liter). The results of the effluent after treatment showed that the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, Pb, and Zn had been reduced by 99%, 55%, 95%, and 80% respectively. The results of plant tissue analysis indicled that T. latifolia assimilated significant amounts of Pb and Zn, especially in the root portion. During 1986 several species of algae and fish were present in the pond, usually with a higher density in areas containing lower metal concentrations in the water.

  3. Inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by chlorination and sequential UV/chlorination disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.cn; Ren, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqren@nju.edu.cn; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2015-04-15

    This study investigated disinfection methods including chlorination, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and sequential UV/chlorination treatment on the inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). ARGs including sul1, tetX, tetG, intI1, and 16S rRNA genes in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluent were examined. The results indicated a positive correlation between the removal of ARGs and chlorine dosage (p = 0.007–0.014, n = 6),as well as contact time (p = 0.0001, n = 10). Greater free chlorine (FC) dosage leads to higher removal for all the genes and the maximum removal (1.30–1.49 logs) could be achieved at FC dosage of 30 mg L{sup −1}. The transformation kinetic data for ARGs removal (log C{sub 0} / C) followed the second-order reaction kinetic model with FC dosage (R{sup 2} = 0.6829–0.9999) and contact time (R{sup 2} = 0.7353–8634), respectively. Higher ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}–N) concentration was found to lead to lower removal of ARGs at the same chlorine dosage. When the applied Cl{sub 2}:NH{sub 3}–N ratio was over 7.6:1, a significant reduction of ARGs (1.20–1.49 logs) was achieved. By using single UV irradiation, the log removal values of tetX and 16Ss rRNA genes were 0.58 and 0.60, respectively, while other genes were 0.36–0.40 at a fluence of 249.5 mJ cm{sup −2}, which was observed to be less effective than chlorination. With sequential UV/chlorination treatment, 0.006 to 0.31 log synergy values of target genes were observed under different operation parameters. - Highlights: • Chlorine is more effective than UV irradiation in removing ARGs from MWTP effluent. • The chlorination reaction followed the second-order reaction kinetic model. • Higher NH{sub 3}–N contents result in lower ARGs removal in the chlorination process. • FC is more effective than CC on the inactivation of ARGs. • UV irradiation followed by chlorination shows high efficiency in removing ARGs.

  4. Prevention of PCDD/Fs emission from a municipal wastewater sludge incinerator through enhanced control of copper aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater sludge incineration (MWSI leads to products of incomplete combustion, including chlorinated species such as dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs. Other pollutants, such as heavy metals (HM, are released too as a consequence of feed traces, which depend on the specific activities of each area. The main aim of this work is to determine whether the early separation of the potential catalysts on the PCDD/Fs formation –HM as copper or zinc– offers a promising way to prevent the emission of these trace pollutants, considering that the current end-of-pipe measures don’t ensure their stable emission. Experimental results cover the size distributed target metal contents along the incineration line. These results show a high concentration of copper in the most penetrating aerosol size range of the electrostatic precipitator (0.6 μm - 1.0 μm, and how low emission values of both, total and metallic aerosol (mass basis, are compatible with irregular and unexplained outliers of PCDD/Fs emission.

    La incineración de lodos de aguas residuales urbanas acarrea la formación de compuestos derivados de combustiones incompletas, incluyendo especies cloradas como dioxinas y furanos (PCDD/Fs. Otros contaminantes, como metales pesados, se emiten como consecuencia de las trazas del lodo, las cuales dependen de las actividades del entorno. El objetivo principal es determinar si la separación de catalizadores potenciales en reacciones de formación de PCDD/Fs (cobre o zinc puede abrir vías para prevenir la emisión de contaminantes traza, considerando que ninguna de las técnicas de prevención actuales aseguran emisiones estables de metales pesados o PCDD/Fs. Se determinan concentraciones de metales pesados segregados por tamaño de partícula a lo largo de la línea de incineración. Los resultados muestran concentraciones elevadas de cobre en el aerosol de máxima penetración del electrofiltro (0,6 μm - 1,0 μm, y cómo concentraciones

  5. Solidification and Biotoxicity Assessment of Thermally Treated Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bing; Deng, Yi; Yang, Yuanyi; Tan, Swee Ngin; Liu, Qianni; Yang, Weizhong

    2017-06-10

    In the present work, thermal treatment was used to stabilize municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, which was considered hazardous waste. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that, after the thermal process, the leaching concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn decreased from 8.08 to 0.16 mg/L, 0.12 to 0.017 mg/L and 0.39 to 0.1 mg/L, respectively, which well met the limits in GB5085.3-2007 and GB16689-2008. Thermal treatment showed a negative effect on the leachability of Cr with concentrations increasing from 0.1 to 1.28 mg/L; nevertheless, it was still under the limitations. XRD analysis suggested that, after thermal treatments, CaO was newly generated. CaO was a main contribution to higher Cr leaching concentrations owing to the formation of Cr (VI)-compounds such as CaCrO₄. SEM/EDS tests revealed that particle adhesion, agglomeration, and grain growth happened during the thermal process and thus diminished the leachability of Pb, Cu, and Zn, but these processes had no significant influence on the leaching of Cr. A microbial assay demonstrated that all thermally treated samples yet possessed strong bactericidal activity according to optical density (OD) test results. Among all samples, the OD value of raw fly ash (RFA) was lowest followed by FA700-10, FA900-10, and FA1100-10 in an increasing order, which indicated that the sequence of the biotoxicity for these samples was RFA > FA700-10 > FA900-10 > FA1100-10. This preliminary study indicated that, apart from TCLP criteria, the biotoxicity assessment was indispensable for evaluating the effect of thermal treatment for MSWI fly ash.

  6. Effect of Treated Wastewater Combined with Various Amounts of Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Nutrient Content and Yield in Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazal Tavassoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of treated wastewater combined with manure and chemical fertilizers on the nutrients content and forage yield in corn, field experiments were conducted in 2007. The experiments were conducted in a split plot design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of two levels of irrigation water (W1= well water and W2= wastewater in the main plot and five levels of fertilizer (F1= unfertilized, F2 = 100% manure, F3= 50% manure, F4= 100% fertilizer, and F5= 50% fertilizer in the subplot. Results showed that, compared to ordinary water, irrigation with treated wastewater significantly increased fresh and dry forage yield of corn. The treatment using treated wastewater also had a significant effect on N, P, and K contents in corn forage. However, wastewater had no significant effect on plant Fe, Mn, and Zn contents. Among the fertilizer treatments, the highest fresh and dry forage yields and the highest N, P and K contents belonged to the treatments using 100% fertilizer. The highest Fe, Mn, and Zn contents were observed in plants in the treatment with 100% manure.

  7. Governing the reuse of treated wastewater in irrigation : the case study of Jericho, Palestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Khatib, Nasser; Shoqeir, Jawad A.H.; Özerol, Gül; Majaj, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater reuse in irrigation provides additional water supply for agriculture and saves freshwater resources for human consumption. Through these benefits, wastewater reuse can significantly alleviate the water scarcity in Palestine and fit to the complexity of the geopolitical context. However,

  8. CFD Simulation of an Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (AnMBR to Treat Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Zuluaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation has been developed for an Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (AnMBR to treat industrial wastewater. As the process consists of a side-stream MBR, two separate simulations were created: (i reactor and (ii membrane. Different cases were conducted for each one, so the surrounding temperature and the total suspended solids (TSS concentration were checked. For the reactor, the most important aspects to consider were the dead zones and the mixing, whereas for the ceramic membrane, it was the shear stress over the membrane surface. Results show that the reactor's mixing process was adequate and that the membrane presented higher shear stress in the 'triangular' channel.

  9. Treated wastewater irrigation effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and aggregate stability of loamy soils in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schacht Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of treated wastewater (TWW for agricultural irrigation becomes increasingly important in water stressed regions like the Middle East for substituting fresh water (FW resources. Due to elevated salt concentrations and organic compounds in TWW this practice has potential adverse effects on soil quality, such as the reduction of hydraulic conductivity (HC and soil aggregate stability (SAS. To assess the impact of TWW irrigation in comparison to FW irrigation on HC, in-situ infiltration measurements using mini disk infiltrometer were deployed in four different long-term experimental orchard test sites in Israel. Topsoil samples (0-10 cm were collected for analyzing SAS and determination of selected soil chemical and physical characteristics.

  10. Peat as Substrate for Small-Scale Constructed Wetlands Polishing Secondary Effluents from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Jin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the recent development of constructed wetland technology, it has become a mainstream treatment technology for the mitigation of a variety of wastewaters. This study reports on the treatment performance and pH attenuation capacity of three different configurations of small-scale on-site surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW: T1 (Peat + Typha latifolia, T2 (T. latifolia alone, and T3 (Peat alone treating secondary effluent from the Amherstview Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP for two treatment periods (start-up period and operational period. The aim of this study was to compare the nutrients removal efficiencies between the different treatments, as well as to evaluate the effects of substrate and vegetation on the wetland system. For a hydraulic retention time of 2.5 days, the results showed that all treatment systems could attenuate the pH level during both the start-up and operational periods, while significant nutrient removal performance could only be observed during the operational period. Peat was noted to be a better SFCW substrate in promoting the removal of nitrate (NO3-N, total nitrogen (TN, and phosphorus. The addition of T. latifolia further enhanced NO3-N and TN removal efficiencies, but employing T. latifolia alone did not yield effluents that could meet the regulatory discharge limit (1.0 mg/L for phosphorus.

  11. Impact of treated wastewater on organismic biosensors at various levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topić Popović, Natalija; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Klobučar, Roberta Sauerborn; Barišić, Josip; Babić, Sanja; Jadan, Margita; Kepec, Slavko; Kazazić, Snježana P.; Matijatko, Vesna; Beer Ljubić, Blanka; Car, Ivan; Repec, Siniša; Stipaničev, Draženka

    2015-01-01

    Relating the treated wastewater quality and its impact on organismic biosensors (Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and earthworm, Eisenia fetida) was the main objective of the study. The impact on health status of fish living downstream, microbiological contamination and antimicrobial resistance, fish tissue structure, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress, genotoxic effects, as well as multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) was assessed. Treated wastewater discharged from the WWTP modified the environmental parameters and xenobiotic concentrations of the receiving surface waters. Potential bacterial pathogens from fish and respective waters were found in relatively low numbers, although they comprised aeromonads with a zoonotic potential. High resistance profiles were determined towards the tested antimicrobial compounds, mostly sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Histopathology primarily revealed gill lamellar fusion and reduction of interlamellar spaces of effluent fish. A significant increase in plasma values of urea, total proteins, albumins and triglycerides and a significant decrease in the activity of plasma superoxide dismutase were noted in carp from the effluent-receiving canal. Micronucleus test did not reveal significant differences between the examined groups, but a higher frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities was found in fish sampled from the effluent-receiving canal. Earthworms indicated to the presence of MXR inhibitors in water and sludge samples, thus proving as a sensitive sentinel organism for environmental pollutants. The integrative approach of this study could serve as a guiding principle in conducting evaluations of the aquatic habitat health in complex bio-monitoring studies. - Highlights: • Bacteria from fish and water have a zoonotic potential and might pose a health risk • High antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined; particularly to SMX • The sediment total antibiotic concentrations decreased with distance

  12. Impact of treated wastewater on organismic biosensors at various levels of biological organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topić Popović, Natalija, E-mail: ntopic@irb.hr [Laboratory for Ichthyopathology-Biological Materials, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Klobučar, Roberta Sauerborn; Barišić, Josip; Babić, Sanja; Jadan, Margita [Laboratory for Ichthyopathology-Biological Materials, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Kepec, Slavko [Virkom d.o.o, Public Water Supply and Wastewater Services, Kralja Petra Krešimira IV 30, Virovitica. Croatia (Croatia); Kazazić, Snježana P. [Laboratory for Chemical Kinetics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Matijatko, Vesna; Beer Ljubić, Blanka [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, Zagreb (Croatia); Car, Ivan [Laboratory for Ichthyopathology-Biological Materials, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Repec, Siniša; Stipaničev, Draženka [Croatian Waters, Main Water Management Laboratory, Ul. grada Vukovara 220, Zagreb (Croatia); and others

    2015-12-15

    Relating the treated wastewater quality and its impact on organismic biosensors (Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and earthworm, Eisenia fetida) was the main objective of the study. The impact on health status of fish living downstream, microbiological contamination and antimicrobial resistance, fish tissue structure, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress, genotoxic effects, as well as multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) was assessed. Treated wastewater discharged from the WWTP modified the environmental parameters and xenobiotic concentrations of the receiving surface waters. Potential bacterial pathogens from fish and respective waters were found in relatively low numbers, although they comprised aeromonads with a zoonotic potential. High resistance profiles were determined towards the tested antimicrobial compounds, mostly sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Histopathology primarily revealed gill lamellar fusion and reduction of interlamellar spaces of effluent fish. A significant increase in plasma values of urea, total proteins, albumins and triglycerides and a significant decrease in the activity of plasma superoxide dismutase were noted in carp from the effluent-receiving canal. Micronucleus test did not reveal significant differences between the examined groups, but a higher frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities was found in fish sampled from the effluent-receiving canal. Earthworms indicated to the presence of MXR inhibitors in water and sludge samples, thus proving as a sensitive sentinel organism for environmental pollutants. The integrative approach of this study could serve as a guiding principle in conducting evaluations of the aquatic habitat health in complex bio-monitoring studies. - Highlights: • Bacteria from fish and water have a zoonotic potential and might pose a health risk • High antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined; particularly to SMX • The sediment total antibiotic concentrations decreased with distance

  13. ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE PASSIVE CO-TREATMENT AT CERRO RICO DE POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide environmental problem. The passive co-treatment of AMD with municipal waste water (MWW is a cost effective approach that uses nutrients in MWW in order to treat high concentrations of metals and sulfate found in AMD. Cerro Rico de Potosí in Bolivia is one of the biggest mining cities in the world, and it is constantly facing problems with AMD. The goal of this study was to determine the reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and other metals found in an AMD discharge from Cerro Rico by a three-stage reactor system. The AMD had a pH of 3.58 and acidity of 1080 mg/L as CaCO3 equivalent containing 12, 68, 17 and 550 mg/L of dissolved Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn respectively. The reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn were 1.43, 2.09, 0.01, and 0.10 d-1, respectively.

  14. Comprehensive monitoring and management of a long-term thermophilic CSTR treating coffee grounds, coffee liquid, milk waste, and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofie, Mohammad; Qiao, Wei; Li, Qian; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-01

    The CSTR process has previously not been successfully applied to treat coffee residues under thermophilic temperature and long term operation. In this experiment, the CSTR was fed with mixture substrate (TS ∼ 70 g/L) of coffee grounds, coffee wastewater, milk waste and municipal sludge and it was operated under 55 °C for 225 days. A steady state was achieved under HRT 30 days and OLR 4.0 kg-COD/m(3)/d. However, there was an 35 days inhibition with VFA accumulation (propionic acid 700-1900 mg/L) when doubling the OLR by shortening HRT to 15 days. But, an addition of microelements and sulfate (0.5 g/L) in feedstock increased reactor resilience and stability under high loading rate and propionic acid stress. Continuous monitoring of hydrogen in biogas indicated the imbalance of acetogenesis. The effectiveness of comprehensive parameters (total VFA, propionic acid, IA/PA, IA/TA and CH4 content) was proved to manage the thermophilic system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transfer of pollution from municipal wastewater to bio solids: their chemical characterization; Transferencia de contaminacion desde el agua residual urbana a los lodos de depuracion: caracterizacion de biosolidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.

    2007-07-01

    Production of bio solids depends on the amount of wastewater treated according the expression y=ax''2,5575, being y the log of TM/year of bio solids produced, and X the log then m''3/year of wastewater treated. Quality of bio solids generated by three WWTP does not seem function either of the amount of treated water and neither of the treatment process applied (active sludges or bio discs). The bio solids exhibited values of 20-25% in dehidradation, and those of organic matter, nitrogen and phosp hour being equal to 60-75%, 7% and 4%, respectively. Moreover, the total of metals there present were 11-19 g/kg over dried matter, supposing Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn the 97% of all metals, and being Hg the minority metal. Bio solids can be used in agricultural practices (they agree with the Spanish normative here applied) and they concentrated the organic matter and metals found in wastewater up to 417 and 869 times, respectively. At the same time, we have estimated that each 4841 of wastewater produced 1 kg of bio solid. (Author)

  16. Biomethane Production as an Alternative Bioenergy Source from Codigesters Treating Municipal</