WorldWideScience

Sample records for traverse band renewable

  1. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurkan, G.; Langestraat, R.

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of

  2. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürkan, Gül; Langestraat, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of certificates. We analyze these two different renewable obligation policies in a mathematical representation of an electricity market with random availabilities of renewable generation outputs and random electricity demand. We also present another, alternative, banding policy. We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three obligation policies. We carry out a simulation study via sampling. A key finding is that the UK banding policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met, hence potentially resulting in more pollution. Our alternative provides a way to make sure that the target is met while supporting less established technologies, but it comes with a significantly higher consumer price. Furthermore, as an undesirable side effect, we observe that a cost reduction in a technology with a high banding (namely offshore wind) leads to more CO 2 emissions under the UK banding policy and to higher consumer prices under the alternative banding policy. - Highlights: • We model and analyze three renewable obligation policies in a mathematical framework. • We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three policies. • We carry out a simulation study via sampling. • The UK policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met. • Cost reductions can lead to more pollution or higher prices under banding policies

  3. Diving into traversable wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldacena, Juan; Stanford, Douglas; Yang, Zhenbin

    2017-05-01

    We study various aspects of wormholes that are made traversable by an interaction beween the two asymptotic boundaries. We concentrate on the case of nearly-$AdS_2$ gravity and discuss a very simple mechanical picture for the gravitational dynamics. We derive a formula for the two sided correlators that includes the effect of gravitational backreaction, which limits the amount of information we can send through the wormhole. We emphasize that the process can be viewed as a teleportation protocol where the teleportee feels nothing special as he/she goes through the wormhole. We discuss some applications to the cloning paradox for old black holes. We point out that the same formula we derived for $AdS_2$ gravity is also valid for the simple SYK quantum mechanical theory, around the thermofield double state. We present a heuristic picture for this phenomenon in terms of an operator growth model. Finally, we show that a similar effect is present in a completely classical chaotic system with a large number of degrees of freedom.

  4. Generalising tree traversals to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resulting graph traversals avoid...

  5. Traversable Wormholes and Black Hole Complementarity

    OpenAIRE

    Gottesman, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Black hole complementarity is incompatible with the existence of traversable wormholes. In fact, traversable wormholes cause problems for any theory where information comes out in the Hawking radiation.

  6. Traversing Humboldt's transareal landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa; Braae, Ellen Marie; Lee, Gini

    2017-01-01

    Die Besonderheit der wissenschaftlichen Arbeit und des Schreibens Alexander von Humboldts wird häufig anhand einer den Raum erschließenden Bewegung beschrieben. Konzepte zur Repräsentation räumlicher Verhältnisse, wie Landschaftsdarstellungen und Karten, sind für Humboldts Vorgehen daher...... zweitägige Veranstaltung bildete den offiziellen Abschluss der Arbeit des Teilprojekts „Genealogie, Chronologie, Epistemologie“, das im Rahmen des BMBF-Verbundprojekts „Alexander von Humboldts Amerikanische Reisetagebücher“ der Universität Potsdam und der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin-PK drei Jahre lang die...... Tagebücher des preußischen Kultur- und Naturwissenschaftlers erforschte. Gleichzeitig bildete sie den dritten und letzten Teil der jährlich stattfindenden Potsdamer Alexander von Humboldt-Symposien, welche die Arbeit des Projekts 2014–2016 begleiteten. Der vorliegende Band kann daher auch als Fortsetzung des...

  7. Chaotic Traversal (CHAT): Very Large Graphs Traversal Using Chaotic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changaival, Boonyarit; Rosalie, Martin; Danoy, Grégoire; Lavangnananda, Kittichai; Bouvry, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    Graph Traversal algorithms can find their applications in various fields such as routing problems, natural language processing or even database querying. The exploration can be considered as a first stepping stone into knowledge extraction from the graph which is now a popular topic. Classical solutions such as Breadth First Search (BFS) and Depth First Search (DFS) require huge amounts of memory for exploring very large graphs. In this research, we present a novel memoryless graph traversal algorithm, Chaotic Traversal (CHAT) which integrates chaotic dynamics to traverse large unknown graphs via the Lozi map and the Rössler system. To compare various dynamics effects on our algorithm, we present an original way to perform the exploration of a parameter space using a bifurcation diagram with respect to the topological structure of attractors. The resulting algorithm is an efficient and nonresource demanding algorithm, and is therefore very suitable for partial traversal of very large and/or unknown environment graphs. CHAT performance using Lozi map is proven superior than the, commonly known, Random Walk, in terms of number of nodes visited (coverage percentage) and computation time where the environment is unknown and memory usage is restricted.

  8. Five dimensional cosmological traversable wormhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, S.; Rostami, T., E-mail: t_rostami@sbu.ac.ir; Jalalzadeh, S., E-mail: s-jalalzadeh@sbu.ac.ir

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, a traversable wormhole in the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model with one extra spacelike compact dimension is studied. We have chosen dynamical compactification as the evolution of the fifth dimension. In this respect, we study how the existence of the extra dimension affects the behavior of the energy density, the shape function and the scale factor. It is shown that the total matter can be non-exotic and the violation of the weak energy condition can be avoided.

  9. Traversable Schwarzschild-like wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Grupo de Cosmologia y Gravitacion-UBB, Concepcion (Chile); Liempi, Luis [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Universidad San Sebastian, Facultad de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Concepcion (Chile); Rodriguez, Pablo [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)

    2017-11-15

    In this paper we study relativistic static traversable wormhole solutions which are a slight generalization of Schwarzschild wormholes. In order to do this we assume a shape function with a linear dependence on the radial coordinate r. This linear shape function generates wormholes whose asymptotic spacetime is not flat: they are asymptotically locally flat, since in the asymptotic limit r → ∞ spacetimes exhibiting a solid angle deficit (or excess) are obtained. In particular, there exist wormholes which connect two asymptotically non-flat regions with a solid angle deficit. For these wormholes the size of their embeddings in a three-dimensional Euclidean space extends from the throat to infinity. A new phantom zero-tidal-force wormhole exhibiting such asymptotic is obtained. On the other hand, if a solid angle excess is present, the size of the wormhole embeddings depends on the amount of this angle excess, and the energy density is negative everywhere. We discuss the traversability conditions and study the impact of the β-parameter on the motion of a traveler when the wormhole throat is crossed. A description of the geodesic behavior for the wormholes obtained is also presented. (orig.)

  10. Traversable Schwarzschild-like wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Liempi, Luis; Rodríguez, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we study relativistic static traversable wormhole solutions which are a slight generalization of Schwarzschild wormholes. In order to do this we assume a shape function with a linear dependence on the radial coordinate r. This linear shape function generates wormholes whose asymptotic spacetime is not flat: they are asymptotically locally flat, since in the asymptotic limit r → ∞ spacetimes exhibiting a solid angle deficit (or excess) are obtained. In particular, there exist wormholes which connect two asymptotically non-flat regions with a solid angle deficit. For these wormholes the size of their embeddings in a three-dimensional Euclidean space extends from the throat to infinity. A new phantom zero-tidal-force wormhole exhibiting such asymptotic is obtained. On the other hand, if a solid angle excess is present, the size of the wormhole embeddings depends on the amount of this angle excess, and the energy density is negative everywhere. We discuss the traversability conditions and study the impact of the β -parameter on the motion of a traveler when the wormhole throat is crossed. A description of the geodesic behavior for the wormholes obtained is also presented.

  11. Traversable Schwarzschild-like wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Liempi, Luis; Rodriguez, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study relativistic static traversable wormhole solutions which are a slight generalization of Schwarzschild wormholes. In order to do this we assume a shape function with a linear dependence on the radial coordinate r. This linear shape function generates wormholes whose asymptotic spacetime is not flat: they are asymptotically locally flat, since in the asymptotic limit r → ∞ spacetimes exhibiting a solid angle deficit (or excess) are obtained. In particular, there exist wormholes which connect two asymptotically non-flat regions with a solid angle deficit. For these wormholes the size of their embeddings in a three-dimensional Euclidean space extends from the throat to infinity. A new phantom zero-tidal-force wormhole exhibiting such asymptotic is obtained. On the other hand, if a solid angle excess is present, the size of the wormhole embeddings depends on the amount of this angle excess, and the energy density is negative everywhere. We discuss the traversability conditions and study the impact of the β-parameter on the motion of a traveler when the wormhole throat is crossed. A description of the geodesic behavior for the wormholes obtained is also presented. (orig.)

  12. Cultural Resources Investigations at the Lake Traverse-Bois de Sioux Project, Roberts County, South Dakota, Traverse County, Minnesota,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    crowned Kinglet - Bombycilla garrulus Bohemian Waxwing S- Carduelis pinus Pine Siskin Pica pica Black-billed Magpie * Podiceps auritus Horned Grebe Anas...Inkpaduta and his small band of Wahpekute for the murders of over 30 people in 1857 in the Lake Okoboji area of Iowa and the government’s subsequent...area? 17. P. 54 para 1: "Two shorter northerly routes and righteously outraged Indains with murderous impulses near Lake Traverse undoubtedly hurt the

  13. Black holes and traversible wormholes: a synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2002-01-01

    A unified framework for black holes and traversible wormholes is described, where both are locally defined by outer trapping horizons, two-way traversible for wormholes and one-way traversible for black or white holes. In a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model, examples are given of: construction of wormholes from black holes; operation of wormholes for transport, including back-reaction; maintenance of an operating wormhole; and collapse of wormholes to black holes. In spherically symmetric...

  14. Levelised costs of Wave and Tidal energy in the UK: Cost competitiveness and the importance of 'banded' Renewables Obligation Certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, Grant; Gilmartin, Michelle; McGregor, Peter; Swales, Kim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, publicly available cost data are used to calculate the private levelised costs of two marine energy technologies for UK electricity generation: Wave and Tidal Stream power. These estimates are compared to those for ten other electricity generation technologies whose costs were identified by the UK Government (). Under plausible assumptions for costs and performance, point estimates of the levelised costs of Wave and Tidal Stream generation are Pounds 190 and Pounds 81/MWh, respectively. Sensitivity analysis shows how these relative private levelised costs calculations are affected by variation in key parameters, specifically the assumed capital costs, fuel costs and the discount rate. We also consider the impact of the introduction of technology-differentiated financial support for renewable energy on the cost competitiveness of Wave and Tidal Stream power. Further, we compare the impact of the current UK government support level to the more generous degree of assistance for marine technologies that is proposed by the Scottish government. - Research highlights: → Levelised costs of electricity generation from wave and tidal stream in UK calculated. → Comparison to ten renewable and non-renewable technologies demonstrated. → Sensitivity of levelised costs to key assumptions is demonstrated. → Technology-specific financial support revealed to be insufficient at current costs.

  15. Static traversable wormholes in Lyra manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, A. Sayahian; Moradpour, H.

    At first, considering the Einstein framework, we introduce some new static traversable wormholes and study the effects of a dark energy-like source on them. Thereinafter, a brief review on Einstein field equations in Lyra manifold is presented, and we address some static traversable wormholes in the Lyra manifold which satisfy the energy conditions. It is also shown that solutions introduced in the Einstein framework may also meet the energy conditions in the Lyra manifold. Finally, we focus on vacuum Lyra manifold and find some traversable asymptotically flat wormholes. In summary, our study shows that it is theoretically possible to find a Lyra displacement vector field in a manner in which traversable wormholes satisfy the energy conditions in a Lyra manifold.

  16. RTSAH Traversal Order for Occlusion Rays

    KAUST Repository

    Ize, Thiago

    2011-04-01

    We accelerate the finding of occluders in tree based acceleration structures, such as a packetized BVH and a single ray kd-tree, by deriving the ray termination surface area heuristic (RTSAH) cost model for traversing an occlusion ray through a tree and then using the RTSAH to determine which child node a ray should traverse first instead of the traditional choice of traversing the near node before the far node. We further extend RTSAH to handle materials that attenuate light instead of fully occluding it, so that we can avoid superfluous intersections with partially transparent objects. For scenes with high occlusion, we substantially lower the number of traversal steps and intersection tests and achieve up to 2× speedups. © 2010 The Author(s).

  17. Induced vibrations facilitate traversal of cluttered obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, George; Yu, Siyuan; Kang, Yucheng; Li, Chen

    When negotiating cluttered terrains such as grass-like beams, cockroaches and legged robots with rounded body shapes most often rolled their bodies to traverse narrow gaps between beams. Recent locomotion energy landscape modeling suggests that this locomotor pathway overcomes the lowest potential energy barriers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that body vibrations induced by intermittent leg-ground contact facilitate obstacle traversal by allowing exploration of locomotion energy landscape to find this lowest barrier pathway. To mimic a cockroach / legged robot pushing against two adjacent blades of grass, we developed an automated robotic system to move an ellipsoidal body into two adjacent beams, and varied body vibrations by controlling an oscillation actuator. A novel gyroscope mechanism allowed the body to freely rotate in response to interaction with the beams, and an IMU and cameras recorded the motion of the body and beams. We discovered that body vibrations facilitated body rolling, significantly increasing traversal probability and reducing traversal time (P <0.0001, ANOVA). Traversal probability increased with and traversal time decreased with beam separation. These results confirmed our hypothesis and support the plausibility of locomotion energy landscapes for understanding the formation of locomotor pathways in complex 3-D terrains.

  18. Traversable wormholes via a double trace deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ping; Jafferis, Daniel Louis; Wall, Aron C.

    2017-12-01

    After turning on an interaction that couples the two boundaries of an eternal BTZ black hole, we find a quantum matter stress tensor with negative average null energy, whose gravitational backreaction renders the Einstein-Rosen bridge traversable. Such a traversable wormhole has an interesting interpretation in the context of ER=EPR, which we suggest might be related to quantum teleportation. However, it cannot be used to violate causality. We also discuss the implications for the energy and holographic entropy in the dual CFT description.

  19. Traversable asymptotically flat wormholes in Rastall gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradpour, H.; Sadeghnezhad, N.; Hendi, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    There are some gravitational theories in which the ordinary energy-momentum conservation law is not valid in the curved spacetime. Rastall gravity is one of the known theories in this regard which includes a non-minimal coupling between geometry and matter fields. Equipped with the basis of such theory, we study the properties of traversable wormholes with flat asymptotes. We investigate the possibility of exact solutions by a source with the baryonic matter state parameter. Our survey indicates that Rastall theory has considerable effects on the wormhole characteristics. In addition, we study various case studies and show that the weak energy condition may be met for some solutions. We also give a discussion regarding to traversability of such wormhole geometry with phantom sources.

  20. Traversing the Fantasy of the Heroic Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garmann Johnsen, Christian; Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: While considerable critical energy has been devoted to unmasking the figure of the heroic entrepreneur, the idea that entrepreneurs are unique individuals with special abilities continues to be widespread in scholarly research, social media and popular culture. The purpose of this paper...... is to traverse the fantasy of the heroic entrepreneur by offering a reading of Richard Branson’s autobiography, Losing My Virginity. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical approach of this paper is informed by Slavoj Žižek’s concept of fantasy and his critical analytical strategy of “traversing the fantasy......”. Žižek offers a theoretical framework that allows us to understand how narratives of famous entrepreneurs create paradoxical fantasies that produce desire. Findings: By offering a reading of Richard Branson’s autobiography, Losing My Virginity, this paper serves to illustrate how the fantasy...

  1. Ice Velocities Around the 2000 Meter Traverse in Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains traverse measurements used to infer the mass balance of central parts of the ice sheet upslope from the traverse, and results from this work...

  2. NAT Traversing Solutions for SIP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ya-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Session Initiation Protocol (SIP has been proposed for multimedia services and wide-area connectivity in smart home environments (SHEs. An important issue for SIP deployment in SHEs is network address translator (NAT traversing. SIP and Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP packets are delivered between an SHE (i.e., private IP network and Internet (i.e., a public IP network through an NAT function of a home gateway, and the NAT translates the IP/transport layer address and port number but leaves the application layer content unchanged. This results in inconsistency between the IP addresses/port numbers in the IP/transport layers and those in the SIP layer. To resolve this issue, we describe six solutions including static route, UPnP, STUN, ICE, ALG, and SBC. Then we compare these solutions in terms of smart home appliance (SHA modification, scope of NATs supported, multilayer NAT traversal, ease of configuration, security issue, and time complexities.

  3. Trajectories and traversal times in quantum tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhi Hong.

    1989-01-01

    The classical concepts of trajectories and traversal times applied to quantum tunneling are discussed. By using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, it is found that in a forbidden region of a multidimensional space the wave function can be described by two sets of trajectories, or equivalently by two sets of wave fronts. The trajectories belonging to different sets are mutually orthogonal. An extended Huygens construction is proposed to determine these wave fronts and trajectories. In contrast to the classical results in the allowed region, these trajectories couple to each other. However, if the incident wave is normal to the turning surface, the trajectories are found to be independent and can be determined by Newton's equations of motion with inverted potential and energy. The multidimensional tunneling theory is then applied to the scanning tunneling microscope to calculate the current density distribution and to derive the expressions for the lateral resolution and the surface corrugation amplitude. The traversal time in quantum tunneling, i.e. tunneling time, is found to depend on model calculations and simulations. Computer simulation of a wave packet tunneling through a square barrier is performed. Several approaches, including the phase method, Larmor clock, and time-dependent barrier model, are investigated. For a square barrier, two characteristic times are found: One is equal to the barrier width divided by the magnitude of the imaginary velocity; the other is equal to the decay length divided by the incident velocity. It is believed that the tunneling time can only be defined operationally

  4. Traversable braneworld wormholes supported by astrophysical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deng; Meng, Xin-He

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the characteristics and properties of a traversable wormhole constrained by the current astrophysical observations in the framework of modified theories of gravity (MOG). As a concrete case, we study traversable wormhole space-time configurations in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) braneworld scenario, which are supported by the effects of the gravity leakage of extra dimensions. We find that the wormhole space-time structure will open in terms of the 2 σ confidence level when we utilize the joint constraints supernovae (SNe) Ia + observational Hubble parameter data (OHD) + Planck + gravitational wave (GW) and z wormholes can be divided into four classes during the evolutionary processes of the universe based on various energy conditions; (ii) we can offer a strict restriction to the local wormhole space-time structure by using the current astrophysical observations; and (iii) we can clearly identify a physical gravitational resource for the wormholes supported by astrophysical observations, namely the dark energy components of the universe or equivalent space-time curvature effects from MOG. Moreover, we find that the strong energy condition is always violated at low redshifts.

  5. Dissipation and traversal time in Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, Ilaria; Ranfagni, Anedio; Moretti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The various ways of evaluating dissipative effects in macroscopic quantum tunneling are re-examined. The results obtained by using functional integration, while confirming those of previously given treatments, enable a comparison with available experimental results relative to Josephson junctions. A criterion based on the shortening of the semiclassical traversal time τ of the barrier with regard to dissipation can be established, according to which Δτ/τ > or approx. N/Q, where Q is the quality factor of the junction and N is a numerical constant of order unity. The best agreement with the experiments is obtained for N=1.11, as it results from a semiempirical analysis based on an increase in the potential barrier caused by dissipative effects.

  6. P-CSCF's Algorithm for Solving NAT Traversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Jae-Oh

    Many ways for efficient use of limited IP address of IPv4 are existed. The one of these ways is to construct the private network using Network Address Translator (NAT). NAT filtering rule makes network management easier. However, NAT Filtering rule makes NAT Traversal. Many solutions like Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT (STUN), Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) and Media Relay method exist. But these solutions require additional servers or devices. So, we suggest that P-CSCFs in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) change the packet's header and solve the NAT Traversal without any additional equipment.

  7. Mars Rover Curiosity Traverses of Sand Ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, N.; Arvidson, R. E.; Zhou, F.; Heverly, M.; Maimone, M.; Hartman, F.; Bellutta, P.; Iagnemma, K.; Senatore, C.

    2014-12-01

    Martian sand ripples present a challenge for rover mobility, with drives over ripples often characterized by high wheel sinkage and slippage that can lead to incipient embedding. Since landing in Gale Crater, Curiosity has traversed multiple sand ripples, including the transverse aeolian ridge (TAR) straddling Dingo Gap on sols 533 and 535. On sol 672, Curiosity crossed backward over a series of sand ripples before ending its drive after high motor currents initiated visual odometry (VO) processing, which detected 77% slip, well in excess of the imposed 60% slip limit. At the end of the drive, the right front wheel was deeply embedded at the base of a ripple flank with >20 cm sinkage and the rear wheels were near a ripple crest. As Curiosity continues its approach to Mount Sharp it will have to cross multiple ripples, and thus it is important to understand Curiosity's performance on sol 672 and over similar ripples. To this end the sol 672 drive was simulated in ARTEMIS (Adams-Based Rover Terramechanics Interaction Simulator), a software tool consisting of realistic rover mechanical models, a wheel-terrain interaction module for deformable and non-deformable surfaces, and realistic terrain models. ARTEMIS results, Dumont Dunes tests performed in the Mojave Desert using the Scarecrow test rover, and single wheel tests performed at MIT indicate that the high slip encountered on sol 672 likely occurred due to a combination of rover attack angle, ripple geometry, and soil properties. When ripple wavelength approaches vehicle length, the rover can reach orientations in which the leading wheels carry minimal normal loads and the trailing wheels sink deeply, resulting in high slippage and insufficient thrust to propel the rover over ripples. Even on relatively benign (i.e. low tilt) terrains, local morphology can impose high sinkage, thus impeding rover motion. Work is underway to quantify Curiosity's drive performance over various ripple geometries to retrieve soil

  8. Levelised costs of Wave and Tidal energy in the UK: Cost competitiveness and the importance of 'banded' Renewables Obligation Certificates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Grant, E-mail: grant.j.allan@strath.ac.u [Fraser of Allander Institute, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom); Gilmartin, Michelle; McGregor, Peter [Fraser of Allander Institute, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom); Swales, Kim [Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, publicly available cost data are used to calculate the private levelised costs of two marine energy technologies for UK electricity generation: Wave and Tidal Stream power. These estimates are compared to those for ten other electricity generation technologies whose costs were identified by the UK Government (). Under plausible assumptions for costs and performance, point estimates of the levelised costs of Wave and Tidal Stream generation are Pounds 190 and Pounds 81/MWh, respectively. Sensitivity analysis shows how these relative private levelised costs calculations are affected by variation in key parameters, specifically the assumed capital costs, fuel costs and the discount rate. We also consider the impact of the introduction of technology-differentiated financial support for renewable energy on the cost competitiveness of Wave and Tidal Stream power. Further, we compare the impact of the current UK government support level to the more generous degree of assistance for marine technologies that is proposed by the Scottish government. - Research highlights: {yields} Levelised costs of electricity generation from wave and tidal stream in UK calculated. {yields} Comparison to ten renewable and non-renewable technologies demonstrated. {yields} Sensitivity of levelised costs to key assumptions is demonstrated. {yields} Technology-specific financial support revealed to be insufficient at current costs.

  9. Machine learning challenges in Mars rover traverse science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, R.; Judd, M.; Anderson, R. C.; Estlin, T.

    2003-01-01

    The successful implementation of machine learning in autonomous rover traverse science requires addressing challenges that range from the analytical technical realm, to the fuzzy, philosophical domain of entrenched belief systems within scientists and mission managers.

  10. Traversability analysis for a mine safety inspection robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Senekal, F

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available to determine potentially drivable surfaces. Connectivity between neighbouring drivable surfaces is used to determine obstacle, drivable, unsafe, unreachable and frontier cells. The algorithm is successfully applied to determine a traversability map for a Mine...

  11. APOLLO 17 TRAVERSE GRAVIMETER DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a table of readings from the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment performed during the Apollo 17 mission. The gravimeter, which recorded relative...

  12. Traversable wormholes with arbitrarily small energy condition violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt; Kar, Sayan; Dadhich, Naresh

    2003-05-23

    Traversable wormholes necessarily require violations of the averaged null energy condition, this being the definition of "exotic matter." However, the theorems which guarantee the energy condition violation are remarkably silent when it comes to making quantitative statements regarding the "total amount" of energy condition violating matter in the spacetime. We develop a suitable measure for quantifying this notion and demonstrate the existence of spacetime geometries containing traversable wormholes that are supported by arbitrarily small quantities of exotic matter.

  13. Levelised costs of Wave and Tidal energy in the UK. Cost competitiveness and the importance of 'banded' Renewables Obligation Certificates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Grant; Gilmartin, Michelle; McGregor, Peter [Fraser of Allander Institute, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom); Swales, Kim [Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, publicly available cost data are used to calculate the private levelised costs of two marine energy technologies for UK electricity generation: Wave and Tidal Stream power. These estimates are compared to those for ten other electricity generation technologies whose costs were identified by the UK Government (DTI, 2006). Under plausible assumptions for costs and performance, point estimates of the levelised costs of Wave and Tidal Stream generation are pound 190 and pound 81/MWh, respectively. Sensitivity analysis shows how these relative private levelised costs calculations are affected by variation in key parameters, specifically the assumed capital costs, fuel costs and the discount rate. We also consider the impact of the introduction of technology-differentiated financial support for renewable energy on the cost competitiveness of Wave and Tidal Stream power. Further, we compare the impact of the current UK government support level to the more generous degree of assistance for marine technologies that is proposed by the Scottish government. (author)

  14. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  15. Economic Analysis of the Greenland Inland Traverse (GrIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Traverse (GrIT) Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry James H. Lever, Geoff Phillips, and Jay Burnside June...Inland Traverse (GrIT) James H. Lever U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory...14,000 lb roller- packer while the other rear sled carried food and tools inside a tent enclosure. As with its bladder sleds, GrIT towed the assembly of

  16. Renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...

  17. Generalising tree traversals and tree transformations to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2017-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead...

  18. Social renewal

    OpenAIRE

    A.W. van der Pennen; V. Veldheer; E. ter Borg; M. Kunst; J. Boelhouwer; F.A. Knol

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Sociale vernieuwing. Social renewal began in Rotterdam in 1989, as a response to the presence of stubborn social disadvantage. The Idenburg Committee produced recommendations in that year suggesting how these social problems could best be tackled at local level. Central government adopted these ideas in 1990, since when social renewal policy has really taken off. Most municipalities have joined in, developing social renewal policy and creating an administrative apparatus for i...

  19. Renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Cheon Seok

    2009-09-01

    This book tells of renewable energy giving description of environment problem, market of renewable energy and vision and economics of renewable energy. It also deals with solar light like solar cell, materials performance, system and merit of solar cell, solar thermal power such as solar cooker and solar collector, wind energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy like tidal power and ocean thermal energy conversion, fuel cell and biomass.

  20. Malaria Sporozoites Traverse Host Cells within Transient Vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco-Castillo, Veronica; Topçu, Selma; Marinach, Carine; Manzoni, Giulia; Bigorgne, Amélie E; Briquet, Sylvie; Baudin, Xavier; Lebrun, Maryse; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Silvie, Olivier

    2015-11-11

    Plasmodium sporozoites are deposited in the host skin by Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites migrate from the dermis to the liver, where they invade hepatocytes through a moving junction (MJ) to form a replicative parasitophorous vacuole (PV). Malaria sporozoites need to traverse cells during progression through host tissues, a process requiring parasite perforin-like protein 1 (PLP1). We find that sporozoites traverse cells inside transient vacuoles that precede PV formation. Sporozoites initially invade cells inside transient vacuoles by an active MJ-independent process that does not require vacuole membrane remodeling or release of parasite secretory organelles typically involved in invasion. Sporozoites use pH sensing and PLP1 to exit these vacuoles and avoid degradation by host lysosomes. Next, parasites enter the MJ-dependent PV, which has a different membrane composition, precluding lysosome fusion. The malaria parasite has thus evolved different strategies to evade host cell defense and establish an intracellular niche for replication.

  1. Absorbed dose from traversing spherically symmetric, Gaussian radioactive clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.; Poston, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    If a large radioactive cloud is produced, sampling may require that an airplane traverse the cloud. A method to predict the absorbed dose to the aircrew from penetrating the radioactive cloud is needed. Dose rates throughout spherically symmetric Gaussian clouds of various sizes, and the absorbed doses from traversing the clouds, were calculated. Cloud size is a dominant parameter causing dose to vary by orders of magnitude for a given dose rate measured at some distance. A method to determine cloud size, based on dose rate readings at two or more distances from the cloud center, was developed. This method, however, failed to resolve the smallest cloud sizes from measurements made at 1,000 m to 2,000 m from the cloud center

  2. CT-FC: more Comprehensive Traversal Focused Crawler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NFN Kuspriyanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In todays world, people depend more on the WWW information, including professionals who have to analyze the data according their domain to maintain and improve their business. A data analysis would require information that is comprehensive and relevant to their domain. Focused crawler as a topical based Web indexer agent is used to meet this applications information need. In order to increase the precision, focused crawler face the problem of low recall. The study on WWW hyperlink structure characteristics indicates that many Web documents are not strong connected but through co-citation & co-reference. Conventional focused crawler that uses forward crawling strategy could not visit the documents in these characteristics. This study proposes a more comprehensive traversal framework. As a proof, CT-FC (a focused crawler with the new traversal framework ran on DMOZ data that is representative to WWW characteristics. The results show that this strategy can increase the recall significantly.

  3. Twists of fate: Can we make traversable wormholes in spacetime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, James F.

    1997-04-01

    The scientific reasons for trying to make traversable wormholes are briefly reviewed. Methods for making wormholes employing a Machian transient mass fluctuation are examined. Several problems one might encounter are mentioned. They, however, may just be engineering difficulties. The use of “quantum inequalities” to constrain the existence of negative mass-energy required in wormhole formation is briefly examined. It is argued that quantum inequalities do not prohibit the formation of artificial concentrations of negative mass-energy.

  4. Traversable geometric dark energy wormholes constrained by astrophysical observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-he [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, State Key Lab of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, we introduce the astrophysical observations into the wormhole research. We investigate the evolution behavior of the dark energy equation of state parameter ω by constraining the dark energy model, so that we can determine in which stage of the universe wormholes can exist by using the condition ω < -1. As a concrete instance, we study the Ricci dark energy (RDE) traversable wormholes constrained by astrophysical observations. Particularly, we find from Fig. 5 of this work, when the effective equation of state parameter ω{sub X} < -1 (or z < 0.109), i.e., the null energy condition (NEC) is violated clearly, the wormholes will exist (open). Subsequently, six specific solutions of statically and spherically symmetric traversable wormhole supported by the RDE fluids are obtained. Except for the case of a constant redshift function, where the solution is not only asymptotically flat but also traversable, the five remaining solutions are all non-asymptotically flat, therefore, the exotic matter from the RDE fluids is spatially distributed in the vicinity of the throat. Furthermore, we analyze the physical characteristics and properties of the RDE traversable wormholes. It is worth noting that, using the astrophysical observations, we obtain the constraints on the parameters of the RDE model, explore the types of exotic RDE fluids in different stages of the universe, limit the number of available models for wormhole research, reduce theoretically the number of the wormholes corresponding to different parameters for the RDE model, and provide a clearer picture for wormhole investigations from the new perspective of observational cosmology. (orig.)

  5. Evaporation induced traversability of the Einstein--Rosen wormhole

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnikov, S.

    2005-01-01

    Suppose, the Universe comes into existence (as classical spacetime) already with an empty spherically symmetric macroscopic wormhole present in it. Classically the wormhole would evolve into a part of the Schwarzschild space and thus would not allow any signal to traverse it. I consider semiclassical corrections to that picture and build a model of an evaporating wormhole. The model is based on the assumption that the vacuum polarization and its backreaction on the geometry of the wormhole ar...

  6. Traversing the interior landscape: five dialogues in existential space

    OpenAIRE

    Roes, Remco

    2016-01-01

    Traversing the interior landscape: five dialogues in existential space” examines how existing spaces can be used as a basis for their rearrangement into meaningful, exitential (‘wezenlijke’) places. The research consists of a textual part and an artistic part (a series of works and exhibitions, including a retrospective on show in CIAP (Hasselt) from december 2015 – march 2016). One of the innovative aspects of this research is the unique methodology that was used. Through the point of vi...

  7. Rapid Separation of Disconnected Triangle Meshes Based on Graph Traversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, S J; Wang, Y

    2006-01-01

    In recent year, The STL file become a de facto standard on the file presentation in CAD/CAM, computer graph and reverse engineering. When point cloud which is obtained by scanning object body using optical instrument is used to reconstruct an original model, the points cloud is presented by the STL file. Usually, datum of several separated and relative objects are stored in a single STL file, when such a file is operated by a computer, the datum in the file is firstly separated and then each element of every triangle pitch on the triangle mesh is traversed and visited and is calculated. The problem is analyzed and studied by many experts, but there is still a lack of a simple and quick algorithm. An algorithm which uses graph traversal to traverse each element of the triangle meshes and separate several disconnected triangle meshes is presented by the paper, the searching and calculating speed of the data on the triangle meshes is enhanced, memory size of the computer is reduced, complexity of the data structure is simplified and powerful guarantee is made for the next process by using this algorithm

  8. License renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the process of license renewal for nuclear power plants. It explains what is meant by license renewal, the significance of license renewal, and goes over key elements involved in the process of license renewal. Those key elements are NRC requirements embodied in 10 CFR Part 54 (Reactor Safety) and 10 CFR Part 51 (Environmental Issues). In addition Industry Reports must be developed and reviewed. License renewal is essentially the process of applying for a 20 year extension to the original 40 year operating license granted for the plant. This is a very long term process, which involves a lot of preparation, and compliance with regulatory rules and guidelines. In general it is a process which is expected to begin when plants reach an operating lifetime of 20 years. It has provisions for allowing the public to become involved in the review process

  9. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  10. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  11. Training Revising Based Traversability Analysis of Complex Terrains for Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traversability analysis is one of the core issues in the autonomous navigation for mobile robots to identify the accessible area by the information of sensors on mobile robots. This paper proposed a model to analyze the traversability of complex terrains based on rough sets and training revising. The model described the traversability for mobile robots by traversability cost. Through the experiment, the paper gets the conclusion that traversability analysis model based on rough sets and training revising can be used where terrain features are rich and complex, can effectively handle the unstructured environment, and can provide reliable and effective decision rules in the autonomous navigation for mobile robots.

  12. ArcGIS Digitization of Apollo Surface Traverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Gladdis, L. R.; Garry, W. B.; Lam, F.; Mest, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo surface activities were documented in extraordinary detail, with every action performed by the astronauts while on the surface recorded either in photo, audio, film, or by written testimony [1]. The samples and in situ measurements the astronauts collected while on the lunar surface have shaped our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, and the earliest history and evolution of the inner Solar System. As part of an ongoing LASERfunded effort, we are digitizing and georeferencing data from astronaut traverses and spatially associating them to available, co-registered remote sensing data. Here we introduce the products produced so far for Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions.

  13. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasr Esfahani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available   Replacing the wormhole geometry with an equivalent medium using the perturbation theory of scattering and the Born approximation, we have calculated the differential scattering cross section of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole. It is shown that scattering at long wavelenghts can essentially distinguish wormhole from ordinary scattering object. Some of the zeros of the scattering cross section are determined which can be used for estimating the radius of the throat of wormholes. The known result that in this kind of scattering the linear polarization remains unchanged is verified here.

  14. Gravito-magnetic monopoles in traversable wormholes from WIMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Jesús Martín; Bellini, Mauricio

    2017-03-01

    Using Weitzenböck Induced Matter Theory (WIMT), we study Schwarzschild wormholes performing different foliations on an extended (non-vacuum) 5D manifold. We explore the geodesic equations for observers which are in the interior of a traversable wormhole and how these observers can detect gravito-magnetic monopoles which are dual to gravito-electric sources observed in the outer zone of some Schwarzschild Black-Hole (BH). The densities of these monopoles are calculated and quantized in the Dirac sense. This kind of duality on the extended Einstein-Maxwell equations, relates electric and magnetic charges on causally disconnected space regions.

  15. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  16. Renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...... installations in the local landscape. A number of countries have introduced financial incentives to promote community acceptance. The tool box of incentives is still limited but in recent years it has been expanded to address local concerns. Certain general characteristics can be identified, suggesting...... that there are at least three distinct categories of incentives: individual compensation, community benefits and ownership measures. Local opposition must be approached with caution, as financial incentives to promote local acceptance can be seen as buying consent or even ‘bribery’, stirring up further opposition....

  17. Social renewal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. van der Pennen; V. Veldheer; E. ter Borg; M. Kunst; J. Boelhouwer; F.A. Knol

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Sociale vernieuwing. Social renewal began in Rotterdam in 1989, as a response to the presence of stubborn social disadvantage. The Idenburg Committee produced recommendations in that year suggesting how these social problems could best be tackled at local level. Central

  18. Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Arent, D.; Bertani, R.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Hand, M.; Krewitt, W.; Larson, E.D.; Lund, J.; Mehos, M.; Merrigan, T.; Mitchell, C.; Moreira, J.R.; Sinke, W.C.; Sonntag-O'Brien, V.; Thresher, B.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Usher, E.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an in-depth examination of major renewable energy technologies, including their installed capacity and energy supply in 2009 , the current state of market and technology development, their economic and financial feasibility in 2009 and in the near future, as well as major

  19. Self-sustained traversable wormholes in noncommutative geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo [Universita degli Studi di Bergamo, Facolta di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Bergamo) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, Milano (Italy)], E-mail: remo.garattini@unibg.it; Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2EG (United Kingdom); Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: flobo@cosmo.fis.fc.ul.pt

    2009-01-12

    In this work, we find exact wormhole solutions in the context of noncommutative geometry, and further explore their physical properties and characteristics. The energy density of these wormhole geometries is a smeared and particle-like gravitational source, where the mass is diffused throughout a region of linear dimension {radical}({alpha}) due to the intrinsic uncertainty encoded in the coordinate commutator. Furthermore, we also analyze these wormhole geometries considering that the equation governing quantum fluctuations behaves as a backreaction equation. In particular, the energy density of the graviton one loop contribution to a classical energy in a traversable wormhole background and the finite one loop energy density is considered as a self-consistent source for these wormhole geometries. Interesting solutions are found for an appropriate range of the parameters, validating the perturbative computation introduced in this semi-classical approach.

  20. Applications of Coherent Radiation from Electrons traversing Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Überall, H.

    2000-04-01

    Historically, the first types of coherent radiation from electrons traversing crystals studied were coherent bremsstrahlung (CB: Dyson and Überall 1955; Überall 1956, 1962) and channeling radiation (CR: Kumakhov, 1976) which produce quasimonochromatic X-rays and γ-rays, as well as parametric X-rays (Baryshevsky and Feranchuk, 1983). Related non-crystal sources are transition radiation and synchrotron radiation. We here present a comparison of radiation types from these sources, and we discuss a series of their possible applications, namely (a) CR: X-ray lithography, angiography, structure analysis of macromolecules, and trace element analysis, and (b) for CB: Radiography, use as a neutron source, elemental analysis, radiation therapy, and radioisotope production for commercial or medical use. CR and CB are very intense sources, needing only low-energy, moderately-priced electron linacs for their generation, hence competing with (or surpassing) more conventional X-ray sources intensity-wise and from a cost standpoint.

  1. Renewable energy: Renewing the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    During the past 20 years, the United States has enacted some of the world`s most comprehensive legislation to protect and preserve its environmental heritage. These regulations have spawned a $115-billion-per-year industry for {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} products and services, with more than 35,000 companies providing jobs for American workers. On the other hand, environmental regulations have placed heavy cost burdens on many U.S. businesses as they struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. How, then, can one reconcile the growing need for environmental protection with the desire for a stronger, healthier economy? Even as Congress debates the value of existing environmental legislation, new threats are appearing on the horizon. For example, extensive storm damage from Hurricane Andrew and other natural disasters has prompted members of the $650-billion insurance industry to begin studying the effects that global warming may have on future property damage claims. More and more people are realizing that the most efficient and economical way to control pollution is to avoid creating it in the first place. And that`s where renewable energy comes in. Technologies based on nonpolluting renewable energy sources such as sunlight and wind can help preserve our environmental heritage without a tangled web of regulations to burden industry. Renewable energy technologies can also help the United States become a world leader in a potential $400-billion-a-year global market for environmentally friendly products.

  2. Brane surgery: energy conditions, traversable wormholes, and voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelo, Carlos; Visser, Matt

    2000-01-01

    Branes are ubiquitous elements of any low-energy limit of string theory. We point out that negative tension branes violate all the standard energy conditions of the higher-dimensional spacetime they are embedded in; this opens the door to very peculiar solutions of the higher-dimensional Einstein equations. Building upon the (3+1)-dimensional implementation of fundamental string theory, we illustrate the possibilities by considering a toy model consisting of a (2+1)-dimensional brane propagating through our observable (3+1)-dimensional universe. Developing a notion of 'brane surgery', based on the Israel-Lanczos-Sen 'thin shell' formalism of general relativity, we analyze the dynamics and find traversable wormholes, closed baby universes, voids (holes in the spacetime manifold), and an evasion (not a violation) of both the singularity theorems and the positive mass theorem. These features appear generic to any brane model that permits negative tension branes: This includes the Randall-Sundrum models and their variants

  3. Radiometric Temperatures of Urban Canyon Walls obtained from Vehicle Traverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, J. A.; Oke, T. R.

    Building walls form an important component of the total surface area in cities, but are not generally considered in most attempts to measure urban surface temperatures. A procedure which allows sampling of the spatial and temporal variation of wall surface temperatures in urban areas is presented. Radiometric surface temperatures are monitored using an array of infrared thermometers mounted on a moving vehicle. It is necessary to remove observations which view sky, or mixed sky and building scenes. Distribution truncation and distribution modelling are investigated as methods to remove the unwanted observations. Use of the traverse method in several urban areas reveals strong temporal variations in wall temperatures due to solar loading. Significant spatial variations in temperatures suggest caution be used in the extrapolation of data from single canyon studies to larger scales. Times of strong surface temperature contrast between different walls are linked to canyon and solar geometry. In the light industrial and residential observation areas, north-south streets show mid-morning and late afternoon peaks of approximately equal magnitude in the difference between wall surface temperatures. East-west streets show a single peak in the hour following solar noon. The downtown study area, with streets oriented northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast, shows a double wave pattern with one peak dominant. These patterns are of interest because they can lead to large biases in remotely-observed surface temperature with view direction.

  4. 33 CFR 110.82a - Little Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, Harbor Springs, Mich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Little Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, Harbor Springs, Mich. 110.82a Section 110.82a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, Harbor Springs, Mich. (a) Area 1. Beginning at latitude 45°25′42.2″ N...

  5. A Distributed Election and Spanning Tree Algorithm Based on Depth First Search Traversals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    The existence of an effective distributed traversal algorithm for a class of graphs has proven useful in connection with election problems for those classes. In this paper we show how a general traversal algorithm, such as depth first search, can be turned into an effective election algorithm using...... modular techniques. The presented method also constructs a spanning tree for the graph....

  6. Terradynamically streamlined shapes in animals and robots enhance traversability through densely cluttered terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Pullin, Andrew O; Haldane, Duncan W; Lam, Han K; Fearing, Ronald S; Full, Robert J

    2015-06-22

    Many animals, modern aircraft, and underwater vehicles use fusiform, streamlined body shapes that reduce fluid dynamic drag to achieve fast and effective locomotion in air and water. Similarly, numerous small terrestrial animals move through cluttered terrain where three-dimensional, multi-component obstacles like grass, shrubs, vines, and leaf litter also resist motion, but it is unknown whether their body shape plays a major role in traversal. Few ground vehicles or terrestrial robots have used body shape to more effectively traverse environments such as cluttered terrain. Here, we challenged forest-floor-dwelling discoid cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) possessing a thin, rounded body to traverse tall, narrowly spaced, vertical, grass-like compliant beams. Animals displayed high traversal performance (79 ± 12% probability and 3.4 ± 0.7 s time). Although we observed diverse obstacle traversal strategies, cockroaches primarily (48 ± 9% probability) used a novel roll maneuver, a form of natural parkour, allowing them to rapidly traverse obstacle gaps narrower than half their body width (2.0 ± 0.5 s traversal time). Reduction of body roundness by addition of artificial shells nearly inhibited roll maneuvers and decreased traversal performance. Inspired by this discovery, we added a thin, rounded exoskeletal shell to a legged robot with a nearly cuboidal body, common to many existing terrestrial robots. Without adding sensory feedback or changing the open-loop control, the rounded shell enabled the robot to traverse beam obstacles with gaps narrower than shell width via body roll. Such terradynamically 'streamlined' shapes can reduce terrain resistance and enhance traversability by assisting effective body reorientation via distributed mechanical feedback. Our findings highlight the need to consider body shape to improve robot mobility in real-world terrain often filled with clutter, and to develop better locomotor-ground contact models to understand

  7. The renewable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses renewable energy sources as an alternative to a fossil fuel based economy. The topics discussed in the chapter include the historic aspects and current status of use of renewable energy, status of the renewable energy industry, market barriers to renewable energy, research and development and commercialization of renewable energy, the environmental and social costs associated with renewable energy, valuing future costs and benefits of energy use, and the potential market of renewable energy

  8. Self-Supervised Learning of Terrain Traversability from Proprioceptive Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Max; Howard, Andrew B.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Robust and reliable autonomous navigation in unstructured, off-road terrain is a critical element in making unmanned ground vehicles a reality. Existing approaches tend to rely on evaluating the traversability of terrain based on fixed parameters obtained via testing in specific environments. This results in a system that handles the terrain well that it trained in, but is unable to process terrain outside its test parameters. An adaptive system does not take the place of training, but supplements it. Whereas training imprints certain environments, an adaptive system would imprint terrain elements and the interactions amongst them, and allow the vehicle to build a map of local elements using proprioceptive sensors. Such sensors can include velocity, wheel slippage, bumper hits, and accelerometers. Data obtained by the sensors can be compared to observations from ranging sensors such as cameras and LADAR (laser detection and ranging) in order to adapt to any kind of terrain. In this way, it could sample its surroundings not only to create a map of clear space, but also of what kind of space it is and its composition. By having a set of building blocks consisting of terrain features, a vehicle can adapt to terrain that it has never seen before, and thus be robust to a changing environment. New observations could be added to its library, enabling it to infer terrain types that it wasn't trained on. This would be very useful in alien environments, where many of the physical features are known, but some are not. For example, a seemingly flat, hard plain could actually be soft sand, and the vehicle would sense the sand and avoid it automatically.

  9. Enhanced Central System of the Traversing Rod for High-Performance Rotor Spinning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtera Jan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the improvement of central traversing system on rotor spinning machines, where rectilinear motion with variable stroke is used. A new system of traversing rod with implemented set of magnetic-mechanical energy accumulators is described. Mathematical model of this system is analysed in the MSC. Software Adams/View and verified by an experimental measurement on a real-length testing rig. Analysis results prove the enhancement of devised traversing system, where the overall dynamic force is reduced considerably. At the same time, the precision of the traversing movement over the machine length is increased. This enables to increase machine operating speed while satisfying both the maximal tensile strength of the traversing rod and also output bobbin size standards. The usage of the developed mathematical model for determination of the optimal number and distribution of accumulators over the traversing rod of optional parameters is proved. The potential of the devised system for high-performance rotor spinning machines with longer traversing rod is also discussed.

  10. Benthic nitrogen cycling traversing the capitalize peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, L.; Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Mosch, T.; Hensen, C.; Noffke, A.; Scholz, F.; Wallmann, K.

    2011-10-01

    Benthic nitrogen (N) cycling was investigated at six stations along a transect traversing the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) at 11°S. An extensive dataset including porewater concentration profiles and in situ benthic fluxes of nitrate (NO 3-), nitrite (NO 2-) and ammonium (NH 4+) was used to constrain a 1-D reaction-transport model designed to simulate and interpret the measured data at each station. Simulated rates of nitrification, denitrification, anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) by filamentous large sulfur bacteria (e.g. Beggiatoa and Thioploca) were highly variable throughout the OMZ yet clear trends were discernible. On the shelf and upper slope (80-260 m water depth) where extensive areas of bacterial mats were present, DNRA dominated total N turnover (⩽2.9 mmol N m -2 d -1) and accounted for ⩾65% of NO 3- + NO 2- uptake by the sediments from the bottom water. Nonetheless, these sediments did not represent a major sink for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = NO 3- + NO 2- + NH 4+) since DNRA reduces NO 3- and, potentially NO 2-, to NH 4+. Consequently, the shelf and upper slope sediments were recycling sites for DIN due to relatively low rates of denitrification and high rates of ammonium release from DNRA and ammonification of organic matter. This finding contrasts with the current opinion that sediments underlying OMZs are a strong sink for DIN. Only at greater water depths (300-1000 m) did the sediments become a net sink for DIN. Here, denitrification was the major process (⩽2 mmol N m -2 d -1) and removed 55-73% of NO 3- and NO 2- taken up by the sediments, with DNRA and anammox accounting for the remaining fraction. Anammox was of minor importance on the shelf and upper slope yet contributed up to 62% to total N 2 production at the 1000 m station. The results indicate that the partitioning of oxidized N (NO 3-, NO 2-) into DNRA or denitrification is a key factor determining the role of marine sediments as DIN

  11. 78 FR 25407 - Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay... National Cherry Festival in Traverse City, MI will host an air show over the West Arm of Grand Traverse Bay. At the conclusion of the National Cherry Festival on July 6, 2013, fireworks will be launched in...

  12. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  13. Effects of an Arctic Ocean Ski Traverse on the Protective Capabilities of Expedition Footwear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endrusick, Thomas; Frykman, Peter; O'Brien, Catherine; Giblo, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A traverse of the Arctic Ocean during a 2000-km unsupported ski expedition provided an opportunity to assess the impact of an extreme cold environment on the protective capabilities of a specialized footwear system (FS...

  14. Effect of traverse speed on abrasive waterjet machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hascalik, Ahmet; Caydas, Ulas; Gueruen, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    In the presented study, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, known as one of the difficult-to-machine materials using conventional machining processes, was machined under varying traverse speeds of 60, 80, 120, 150, 200, and 250 mm/min by abrasive waterjet (AWJ) machining. After machining, the profiles of machined surfaces, kerf geometries and microstructural features of the machined surfaces were examined using surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results indicate that the traverse speed of the jet is a significant parameter on the surface morphology, and the widths and features of different regions formed in the cutting surface change according to the traverse speed. It was also observed that the kerf taper ratio and surface roughness increase with increasing traverse speed in chosen conditions

  15. Effect of traverse speed on abrasive waterjet machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hascalik, Ahmet [University of Firat, Technical Education Faculty, Department of Manufacturing, Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahascalik@firat.edu.tr; Caydas, Ulas [University of Firat, Technical Education Faculty, Department of Manufacturing, Elazig (Turkey); Gueruen, Hakan [University of Gazi, Technical Education Faculty, Department of Manufacturing, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    In the presented study, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, known as one of the difficult-to-machine materials using conventional machining processes, was machined under varying traverse speeds of 60, 80, 120, 150, 200, and 250 mm/min by abrasive waterjet (AWJ) machining. After machining, the profiles of machined surfaces, kerf geometries and microstructural features of the machined surfaces were examined using surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results indicate that the traverse speed of the jet is a significant parameter on the surface morphology, and the widths and features of different regions formed in the cutting surface change according to the traverse speed. It was also observed that the kerf taper ratio and surface roughness increase with increasing traverse speed in chosen conditions.

  16. Self Sustained Traversable Wormholes Induced by Gravity’s Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garattini Remo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare the effects of Noncommutative Geometry and Gravity’s Rainbow on traversable wormholes which are sustained by their own gravitational quantum fluctuations. Fixing the geometry on a well tested model, we find that the final result shows that the wormhole is of the Planckian size. This means that the traversability of the wormhole is in principle, but not in practice.

  17. V79 cell survival after a single lithium ion nuclear traversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, M.; Buonanno, M.; Campajola, L.; Durante, M.; Grossi, G.; Publiese, G.; Scampoli, P.; Gialanella, G.; Manti, L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Biological studies on the effects of low doses of densely ionising radiation are highly influenced by the stochastic character of the energy deposition events. For several end-points, including clonogenic survival, to follow-up individual cells that have undergone an exactly determined number of charged particle traversals is highly desirable. While RBE-LET curves have been measured after conventional 'broad beam' irradiation with several ions of varying energies, the probability of cell survival after a single charged particle traversal has only been determined for accelerated protons and alpha particles, whereas the ability of single particle traversals at higher LET to cause clonogenic death is yet unknown. Recently, low dose studies have also shown phenomena of high interest, such as the hypersensitivity/induced radioresistance(HS/IRR) adaptive responses. However, for particles of high LET, even a single nuclear traversal may deliver an average dose to a single cell that may be beyond the dose region of the HS/IRR response. We ave set up an experimental apparatus for the determination of the inactivation cross section after an exactly known number of accelerated Lithium ions traversals (210 keV/micron when hitting the cell surface). Using a bio-stack approach (Pugliese et al, IJRB Oct;72(4):397-407 1997) LR115 thin nuclear track detectors have been employed for the direct visualisation of Lithium ion traversals in V79 cells nuclei that are labeled with Hoechst 33258. A computer software has been designed and implemented to control micro-meter movements of a motorised Marzhauser stage, mounted on a fluorescent microscope, for the acquisition of individual attached cell coordinates, type of traversal, as well as for re-visiting the registered coordinates for analysis of survivors. The V79 cell survival experiment after exactly known numbers of Lithium ions traversals is in progress, along with a classical 'broad beam' survival assay

  18. Cooperative Three-Robot System for Traversing Steep Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Younse, Paulo; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Teamed Robots for Exploration and Science in Steep Areas (TRESSA) is a system of three autonomous mobile robots that cooperate with each other to enable scientific exploration of steep terrain (slope angles up to 90 ). Originally intended for use in exploring steep slopes on Mars that are not accessible to lone wheeled robots (Mars Exploration Rovers), TRESSA and systems like TRESSA could also be used on Earth for performing rescues on steep slopes and for exploring steep slopes that are too remote or too dangerous to be explored by humans. TRESSA is modeled on safe human climbing of steep slopes, two key features of which are teamwork and safety tethers. Two of the autonomous robots, denoted Anchorbots, remain at the top of a slope; the third robot, denoted the Cliffbot, traverses the slope. The Cliffbot drives over the cliff edge supported by tethers, which are payed out from the Anchorbots (see figure). The Anchorbots autonomously control the tension in the tethers to counter the gravitational force on the Cliffbot. The tethers are payed out and reeled in as needed, keeping the body of the Cliffbot oriented approximately parallel to the local terrain surface and preventing wheel slip by controlling the speed of descent or ascent, thereby enabling the Cliffbot to drive freely up, down, or across the slope. Due to the interactive nature of the three-robot system, the robots must be very tightly coupled. To provide for this tight coupling, the TRESSA software architecture is built on a combination of (1) the multi-robot layered behavior-coordination architecture reported in "An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots" (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 10 (October 2004), page 65, and (2) the real-time control architecture reported in "Robot Electronics Architecture" (NPO-41784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 1 (January 2008), page 28. The combination architecture makes it possible to keep the three robots synchronized and coordinated, to use data

  19. Inferences of Strength of Soil Deposits along MER Rover Traverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L.; Schmitz, N.; Weiss, S.; Mer/Athena Team

    As the two MER Mars Exploration Rovers ,Spirit' and ,Opportunity' traverse terrains within Gusev crater and at Meridiani Planum, respectively, they leave behind wheel tracks that are routinely imaged by the different sets of cameras as part of the Athena instrument suite. Stereo observations of these tracks reveal wheel sinkage depths which are diagnostic of the strength of the soil-like deposits crossed by the vehicles, and observations of track morphology at different imaging scales - including that of the Microscopic Imager - allow estimations of soil grain size distributions. This presentation will discuss results of systematic analyses of MER-A and -B wheel track observations with regard to solutions for soil bearing strength and soil shear strength. Data are analyzed in the context of wheel-soil theory calibrated to the shape of the MER wheel and by consulting comparisons with terrestrial soils. Results are applicable to the top ˜20-30 cm of the soil deposits, the depth primarily affected by the stress distribution under the wheels. The large number of wheel track observations per distance travelled enables investigations of variations of soil physical properties as a function of spatial scale, type of surface feature encountered, and local topography. Exploiting relationships between soil strength and degree of soil consolidation known from lunar regolith and dry terrestrial soils allows one to relate inferred soil strengths to bulk density. This provides a means to ground-truth radar Fresnel reflection coefficients obtained for the landing sites from Earth-based observations. Moreover, bulk density is correlated with soil dielectric constant, a parameter of direct relevance also for Mars-orbiting radars. The obtained estimates for soil bulk density are also used to determine local thermal conductivity of near-surface materials, based on correlations between the two quantities, and to subsequently estimate thermal inertia. This represents an independent

  20. Traversal Caches: A Framework for FPGA Acceleration of Pointer Data Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Coole

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs and other reconfigurable computing (RC devices have been widely shown to have numerous advantages including order of magnitude performance and power improvements compared to microprocessors for some applications. Unfortunately, FPGA usage has largely been limited to applications exhibiting sequential memory access patterns, thereby prohibiting acceleration of important applications with irregular patterns (e.g., pointer-based data structures. In this paper, we present a design pattern for RC application development that serializes irregular data structure traversals online into a traversal cache, which allows the corresponding data to be efficiently streamed to the FPGA. The paper presents a generalized framework that benefits applications with repeated traversals, which we show can achieve between 7x and 29x speedup over pointer-based software. For applications without strictly repeated traversals, we present application-specialized extensions that benefit applications with highly similar traversals by exploiting similarity to improve memory bandwidth and execute multiple traversals in parallel. We show that these extensions can achieve a speedup between 11x and 70x on a Virtex4 LX100 for Barnes-Hut n-body simulation.

  1. Fusion fuel and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  2. Breaking the Game: The traversal of the emergent narrative in video games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardoso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In video games the player’s actions shape the narrative of their personal experience, molding what otherwise would be a linear course. This emergent narrative is in a state of constant transformation, dependent on how the player influences it. This paper explores how the players traverse ergodic media such as video games and how narrative emerges from the interactions between them and the system. In a previous text we have proposed three types of traversal in video games (Cardoso & Carvalhais, 2013: 1 that in which the player has the ability to choose between mutually exclusive paths; 2 that in which the player has the ability to expand the narrative; and 3 that in which the traversal is determined by the disposition of the other actors in the game world towards the player and each other. This paper intends to further contribute by adding another one: 4 a type of traversal that is rooted in the exploitation of any flaws and glitches in the system, allowing the player to traverse the game through an overlooked side of the algorithm, journeying through a world of unpredictable behaviours and events, that may ultimately break the game altogether.  

  3. Autonomous Rover Traverse and Precise Arm Placement on Remotely Designated Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Michael; Nesnas, Issa A.; Pivtoraiko, Mihail; Kelly, Alonzo; Volpe, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Exploring planetary surfaces typically involves traversing challenging and unknown terrain and acquiring in-situ measurements at designated locations using arm-mounted instruments. We present field results for a new implementation of an autonomous capability that enables a rover to traverse and precisely place an arm-mounted instrument on remote targets. Using point-and-click mouse commands, a scientist designates targets in the initial imagery acquired from the rover's mast cameras. The rover then autonomously traverse the rocky terrain for a distance of 10 - 15 m, tracks the target(s) of interest during the traverse, positions itself for approaching the target, and then precisely places an arm-mounted instrument within 2-3 cm from the originally designated target. The rover proceeds to acquire science measurements with the instrument. This work advances what has been previously developed and integrated on the Mars Exploration Rovers by using algorithms that are capable of traversing more rock-dense terrains, enabling tight thread-the-needle maneuvers. We integrated these algorithms on the newly refurbished Athena Mars research rover and fielded them in the JPL Mars Yard. We conducted 43 runs with targets at distances ranging from 5 m to 15 m and achieved a success rate of 93% for placement of the instrument within 2-3 cm.

  4. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  5. Renewable target in sight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Australia's renewable energy industry is expecting several billion dollars of investment over the next 10 years following passage in December last year of the Renewable Energy Electricity) Act 2000 through Federal Parliament. The Act requires an additional 9500GWh of Australia's electricity production to be sourced from renewables by the year 2010. It also establishes a market for the 'green' component of the energy separate from the electricity itself, through a Renewable Energy Certificate (REC), whereby an accredited generator of renewable energy is able to issue one REC for each megawatt-hour of renewable energy generated

  6. Renewable energy annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary

  7. Self-supervised Traversability Assessment in Field Environments with Lidar and Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Kragh; Underwood, James; Karstoft, Henrik

    , the visual classifier detects non-traversable image patches as outliers from a Gaussian Mixture Model that maintains the appearance of only traversable ground. Results Our method is evaluated using a diverse dataset of agricultural fields and orchards gathered with a perception research robot developed......Introduction The application of robotic automation within agriculture is increasing. There is a high demand for fully autonomous robots that are both efficient, reliable and affordable. In order to ensure safety, autonomous agricultural vehicles must perceive the environment and detect potential...... obstacles and threats across a variety of environmental conditions. In this paper, a self-supervised framework is proposed, combining laser range sensing from a lidar with images from a monocular camera to reliably assess terrain traversability/navigability. Methods The method uses a near-to-far approach...

  8. Autonomous Rover Traverse and Precise Arm Placement on Remotely Designated Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesnas, Issa A.; Pivtoraiko, Mihail N.; Kelly, Alonzo; Fleder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This software controls a rover platform to traverse rocky terrain autonomously, plan paths, and avoid obstacles using its stereo hazard and navigation cameras. It does so while continuously tracking a target of interest selected from 10 20 m away. The rover drives and tracks the target until it reaches the vicinity of the target. The rover then positions itself to approach the target, deploys its robotic arm, and places the end effector instrument on the designated target to within 2-3-cm accuracy of the originally selected target. This software features continuous navigation in a fairly rocky field in an outdoor environment and the ability to enable the rover to avoid large rocks and traverse over smaller ones. Using point-and-click mouse commands, a scientist designates targets in the initial imagery acquired from the rover s mast cameras. The navigation software uses stereo imaging, traversability analysis, path planning, trajectory generation, and trajectory execution. It also includes visual target tracking of a designated target selected from 10 m away while continuously navigating the rocky terrain. Improvements in this design include steering while driving, which uses continuous curvature paths. There are also several improvements to the traversability analyzer, including improved data fusion of traversability maps that result from pose estimation uncertainties, dealing with boundary effects to enable tighter maneuvers, and handling a wider range of obstacles. This work advances what has been previously developed and integrated on the Mars Exploration Rovers by using algorithms that are capable of traversing more rock-dense terrains, enabling tight, thread-the-needle maneuvers. These algorithms were integrated on the newly refurbished Athena Mars research rover, and were fielded in the JPL Mars Yard. Forty-three runs were conducted with targets at distances ranging from 5 to 15 m, and a success rate of 93% was achieved for placement of the instrument within

  9. Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about regulations, developed by EPA, in collaboration with refiners, renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders, that ensure that transportation fuel sold in the United States contains a minimum volume of renewable fuel.

  10. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  11. Online driver's license renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  12. GPU accelerated tandem traversal of blocked bounding volume hierarchy collision detection for multibody dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Jesper; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    The performance bottleneck of physics based animation is often the collision detection. It is well known by practitioners that the collision detection may consume more than half of the simulation time. In this work, we will introduce a novel approach for collision detection using bounding volume...... hierarchies. Our approach makes it possible to perform non-convex object versus non-convex object collision on the GPU, using tandem traversals of bounding volume hierarchies. Prior work only supports single traversals on GPUs. We introduce a blocked hierarchy data structure, using imaginary nodes...

  13. Spin, torsion and violation of null energy condition in traversable wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Grezia, Elisabetta; Battista, Emmanuele; Manfredonia, Mattia; Miele, Gennaro

    2017-12-01

    The static spherically symmetric traversable wormholes are analysed in the Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation. In particular, we computed the torsion tensor for matter fields with different spin S=0, 1/2, 1, 3/2. Interestingly, only for certain values of the spin, the torsion contribution to the Einstein-Cartan field equation allows one to satisfy both flaring-out condition and null energy condition. In this scenario, traversable wormholes can be produced by using usual (non-exotic) spinning matter.

  14. Influence of traverse speed on surface irregularities created by the abrasive waterjet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valíček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the calculation of the optimal traverse speed for diff erent types of materials, which is very important for predication, imaginings and dimensioning of technological factors and selection of the materials with the aim to increase of surface quality at abrasive waterjet cutting (AWJ technology. The surface irregularities of the experimental used materials AISI 304, AISI 309 have been measured by non-contact shadow method. New empirically compiled equations of the infl uence of the traverse speed on tensometrical state of cut, deformation resistance of material and surface roughness Ra are at AWJ cutting available.

  15. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  16. Mapping of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2013-01-01

    Germany is the champion of green energy in Europe: the contribution of renewable energies to electricity generation reached about 20% in 2011. This article describes the situation of renewable energies in Germany in 2011 with the help of 2 maps, the first one gives the installed electrical generation capacity for each region and for each renewable energy source (wind power, hydro-electricity, biomass, photovoltaic energy and biogas) and the second one details the total number of jobs (direct and indirect) for each renewable energy source and for each region. In 2011 about 372000 people worked in the renewable energy sector in Germany. (A.C.)

  17. The influence of acoustoelectronic interactions on a traverse acoustic waves propagation in plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlyij, P.V.; Kozachenko, V.V.; Korobkyina, O.O.; Kucherov, Yi.Ya.; Yil'yin, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    The accoustoelectronic interactions influence on a traverse acoustical waves, propagation speed in plates of C 6ν crystals is investigated. It is shown, that in the low frequencies and at small thickness of plates it is much more than for bulk waves

  18. Expanding the Detection of Traversable Area with RealSense for the Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kailun; Wang, Kaiwei; Hu, Weijian; Bai, Jian

    2016-11-21

    The introduction of RGB-Depth (RGB-D) sensors into the visually impaired people (VIP)-assisting area has stirred great interest of many researchers. However, the detection range of RGB-D sensors is limited by narrow depth field angle and sparse depth map in the distance, which hampers broader and longer traversability awareness. This paper proposes an effective approach to expand the detection of traversable area based on a RGB-D sensor, the Intel RealSense R200, which is compatible with both indoor and outdoor environments. The depth image of RealSense is enhanced with IR image large-scale matching and RGB image-guided filtering. Traversable area is obtained with RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) segmentation and surface normal vector estimation, preliminarily. A seeded growing region algorithm, combining the depth image and RGB image, enlarges the preliminary traversable area greatly. This is critical not only for avoiding close obstacles, but also for allowing superior path planning on navigation. The proposed approach has been tested on a score of indoor and outdoor scenarios. Moreover, the approach has been integrated into an assistance system, which consists of a wearable prototype and an audio interface. Furthermore, the presented approach has been proved to be useful and reliable by a field test with eight visually impaired volunteers.

  19. Traverse across the Nelspruit batholith and the geology of the excursion route between Sabie and Witbank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.; Anhaeusser, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic survey was done on the traverse across the Nelspruit batholith and the geology of the excursion route between Sabie and Witbank. Rubidium isotopes, strontium 86 and strontium 87 were used to determine the rock age. The petrogenetic aspects relating to the Nelspruit batholith were also studied

  20. Peano—A Traversal and Storage Scheme for Octree-Like Adaptive Cartesian Multiscale Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Weinzierl, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Almost all approaches to solving partial differential equations (PDEs) are based upon a spatial discretization of the computational domain-a grid. This paper presents an algorithm to generate, store, and traverse a hierarchy of d-dimensional Cartesian grids represented by a (k = 3)- spacetree, a generalization of the well-known octree concept, and it also shows the correctness of the approach. These grids may change their adaptive structure throughout the traversal. The algorithm uses 2d + 4 stacks as data structures for both cells and vertices, and the storage requirements for the pure grid reduce to one bit per vertex for both the complete grid connectivity structure and the multilevel grid relations. Since the traversal algorithm uses only stacks, the algorithm\\'s cache hit rate is continually higher than 99.9 percent, and the runtime per vertex remains almost constant; i.e., it does not depend on the overall number of vertices or the adaptivity pattern. We use the algorithmic approach as the fundamental concept for a mesh management for d-dimensional PDEs and for a matrix-free PDE solver represented by a compact discrete 3 d-point operator. In the latter case, one can implement a Jacobi smoother, a Krylov solver, or a geometric multigrid scheme within the presented traversal scheme which inherits the low memory requirements and the good memory access characteristics directly. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  2. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  3. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  4. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Renewable Energy Professionals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  5. Oxygen Isotope Variability within Nautilus Shell Growth Bands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Linzmeier

    Full Text Available Nautilus is often used as an analogue for the ecology and behavior of extinct externally shelled cephalopods. Nautilus shell grows quickly, has internal growth banding, and is widely believed to precipitate aragonite in oxygen isotope equilibrium with seawater. Pieces of shell from a wild-caught Nautilus macromphalus from New Caledonia and from a Nautilus belauensis reared in an aquarium were cast in epoxy, polished, and then imaged. Growth bands were visible in the outer prismatic layer of both shells. The thicknesses of the bands are consistent with previously reported daily growth rates measured in aquarium reared individuals. In situ analysis of oxygen isotope ratios using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS with 10 μm beam-spot size reveals inter- and intra-band δ18O variation. In the wild-caught sample, a traverse crosscutting 45 growth bands yielded δ18O values ranging 2.5‰, from +0.9 to -1.6 ‰ (VPDB, a range that is larger than that observed in many serial sampling of entire shells by conventional methods. The maximum range within a single band (~32 μm was 1.5‰, and 27 out of 41 bands had a range larger than instrumental precision (±2 SD = 0.6‰. The results from the wild individual suggest depth migration is recorded by the shell, but are not consistent with a simple sinusoidal, diurnal depth change pattern. To create the observed range of δ18O, however, this Nautilus must have traversed a temperature gradient of at least ~12°C, corresponding to approximately 400 m depth change. Isotopic variation was also measured in the aquarium-reared sample, but the pattern within and between bands likely reflects evaporative enrichment arising from a weekly cycle of refill and replacement of the aquarium water. Overall, this work suggests that depth migration behavior in ancient nektonic mollusks could be elucidated by SIMS analysis across individual growth bands.

  6. Oxygen Isotope Variability within Nautilus Shell Growth Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Nautilus is often used as an analogue for the ecology and behavior of extinct externally shelled cephalopods. Nautilus shell grows quickly, has internal growth banding, and is widely believed to precipitate aragonite in oxygen isotope equilibrium with seawater. Pieces of shell from a wild-caught Nautilus macromphalus from New Caledonia and from a Nautilus belauensis reared in an aquarium were cast in epoxy, polished, and then imaged. Growth bands were visible in the outer prismatic layer of both shells. The thicknesses of the bands are consistent with previously reported daily growth rates measured in aquarium reared individuals. In situ analysis of oxygen isotope ratios using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with 10 μm beam-spot size reveals inter- and intra-band δ18O variation. In the wild-caught sample, a traverse crosscutting 45 growth bands yielded δ18O values ranging 2.5‰, from +0.9 to -1.6 ‰ (VPDB), a range that is larger than that observed in many serial sampling of entire shells by conventional methods. The maximum range within a single band (~32 μm) was 1.5‰, and 27 out of 41 bands had a range larger than instrumental precision (±2 SD = 0.6‰). The results from the wild individual suggest depth migration is recorded by the shell, but are not consistent with a simple sinusoidal, diurnal depth change pattern. To create the observed range of δ18O, however, this Nautilus must have traversed a temperature gradient of at least ~12°C, corresponding to approximately 400 m depth change. Isotopic variation was also measured in the aquarium-reared sample, but the pattern within and between bands likely reflects evaporative enrichment arising from a weekly cycle of refill and replacement of the aquarium water. Overall, this work suggests that depth migration behavior in ancient nektonic mollusks could be elucidated by SIMS analysis across individual growth bands. PMID:27100183

  7. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  8. Renewables. The clean advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.

    2006-01-01

    Europe's big utilities are increasingly seeing renewable energy as a viable alternative to conventional forms of power generation which at present have disadvantages in terms of cost and/or environment. Europe's biggest 20 utilities aim to double their renewables capacity in the next five years and nearly 20 billion US dollars have been earmarked for such projects. This report by Emerging Energy Research discusses the likely trends for the next five years. The various sources of renewable energy and how they might be developed are discussed. The companies leading exploitation of renewables and their market share are named

  9. Renewable energy action agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    To assist the long-term development of the renewable energy industry, the Commonwealth Government, in partnership with industry, has developed the Renewable Energy Action Agenda. New Era -New Energy, launched in June 2000 by Minister for Industry, Science and Resources, Senator Nick Minchin, Minister for the Environment and Heritage, Senator Robert Hill, and Greg Bourne, Regional President of BP Amoco, sets an ambitious target for growth and identifies the strategies and actions necessary to achieve it. The objective of the Renewable Energy Action Agenda was to develop a policy framework underpinning growth in a commercially viable and internationally competitive Australian renewable energy industry

  10. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  11. The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare

    2008-01-01

    The possibilities for establishing a renewable chemicals industry featuring renewable resources as the dominant feedstock rather than fossil resources are discussed in this Concept. Such use of biomass can potentially be interesting from both an economical and ecological perspective. Simple...... per kilogram of desired product to illustrate in which processes the use of renewable resources lead to the most substantial reduction of CO2 emissions. The steps towards a renewable chemicals industry will most likely involve intimate integration of biocatalytic and conventional catalytic processes...

  12. Adaptation of Escherichia coli traversing from the faecal environment to the urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Stegger, Marc; Godfrey, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections (UTI) are found in the patient’s own gut flora, but only limited knowledge is available on the potential adaptation that may occur in the bacteria in order to traverse the perineum and successfull......, the majority showed no detectable differences with respect to mutations or mobilome when compared to their faecal counterpart. The results show that UPECs are successful in colonizing both the bladder and gut without adaptation....

  13. The Fate of a Normal Human Cell Traversed by a Single Charged Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C.; Zahnreich, S.; Kraft, D.; Friedrich, T.; Voss, K.-O.; Durante, M.; Ritter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term “fate” of normal human cells after single hits of charged particles is one of the oldest unsolved issues in radiation protection and cellular radiobiology. Using a high-precision heavy-ion microbeam we could target normal human fibroblasts with exactly one or five carbon ions and measured the early cytogenetic damage and the late behaviour using single-cell cloning. Around 70% of the first cycle cells presented visible aberrations in mFISH after a single ion traversal, and about 5% of the cells were still able to form colonies. In one third of selected high-proliferative colonies we observed clonal (radiation-induced) aberrations. Terminal differentiation and markers of senescence (PCNA, p16) in the descendants of cells traversed by one carbon ion occurred earlier than in controls, but no evidence of radiation-induced chromosomal instability was found. We conclude that cells surviving single-ion traversal, often carrying clonal chromosome aberrations, undergo accelerated senescence but maintain chromosomal stability. PMID:22966418

  14. The Fate of a Normal Human Cell Traversed by a Single Charged Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C.; Zahnreich, S.; Kraft, D.; Friedrich, T.; Voss, K.-O.; Durante, M.; Ritter, S.

    2012-09-01

    The long-term ``fate'' of normal human cells after single hits of charged particles is one of the oldest unsolved issues in radiation protection and cellular radiobiology. Using a high-precision heavy-ion microbeam we could target normal human fibroblasts with exactly one or five carbon ions and measured the early cytogenetic damage and the late behaviour using single-cell cloning. Around 70% of the first cycle cells presented visible aberrations in mFISH after a single ion traversal, and about 5% of the cells were still able to form colonies. In one third of selected high-proliferative colonies we observed clonal (radiation-induced) aberrations. Terminal differentiation and markers of senescence (PCNA, p16) in the descendants of cells traversed by one carbon ion occurred earlier than in controls, but no evidence of radiation-induced chromosomal instability was found. We conclude that cells surviving single-ion traversal, often carrying clonal chromosome aberrations, undergo accelerated senescence but maintain chromosomal stability.

  15. Renewing Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, John

    This paper describes an approach to urban renewal, called the Multi-Function Polis (MFP), which emphasizes education as a key factor in a renewal process that includes development of 21st century industries such as information technology, telecommunications, and environmental management. Focusing on Adelaide, Australia, as an example, the paper…

  16. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  17. Renewable Resources in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is derived form natural resources that are replenished at a faster rate than they are consumed, and thus cannot be depleted. Solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and some forms of biomass are common sources of renewable energy. Almost 90...

  18. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  19. Renewable energies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosello-Garcia, M.

    2003-04-01

    Dependent upon its energy supplies, the Japan aims to develop its renewable energies production. This evolution will also agrees the engagements of the Kyoto protocol to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. To reach in 2010 7% of the energy consumption by a ''clean energy'', the Japan supports and finances many research projects on the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  20. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  1. HYBASE : HYperspectral BAnd SElection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Seijen, H.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Band selection is essential in the design of multispectral sensor systems. This paper describes the TNO hyperspectral band selection tool HYBASE. It calculates the optimum band positions given the number of bands and the width of the spectral bands. HYBASE is used to assess the minimum number of

  2. Renewable energy export network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as

  3. Replication patterns and no differential banding in Colombian squirrels, Sciurus (rodentia, sciuridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango, Carolina; Bueno, Marta Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Colombian Squirrels cytogenetic showed a great variability which has renewed the interest in evolutionary aspects within the group. Many chromosome banding tools must be analyzed carefully in addition to the classical G-banding G technique. These techniques include other differential bands like Q and R banding and no differential banding (C and NOR). In this article the use of each of these supplements in the cytogenetic analysis of species and cytotypes observations for the Colombian squirrels is explained.

  4. NRC's license renewal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide for the continuity of the current generation of nuclear power plant operating licenses and at the same time ensure the health and safety of the public, and the quality of the environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a goal of developing and issuing regulations and regulatory guidance for license renewal in the early 1990s. This paper will discuss some of those activities underway to achieve this goal. More specifically, this paper will discuss the Commission's regulatory philosophy for license renewal and the two major license renewal rule makings currently underway. The first is the development of a new Part 54 to address procedural and technical requirements for license renewal; the second is a revision to existing Part 51 to exclude environmental issues and impacts from consideration during the license renewal process. (author)

  5. Nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed

  6. New renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  7. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  8. FIREX mission requirements document for renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Dixon, T.

    1982-01-01

    The initial experimental program and mission requirements for a satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system FIREX (Free-Flying Imaging Radar Experiment) for renewable resources is described. The spacecraft SAR is a C-band and L-band VV polarized system operating at two angles of incidence which is designated as a research instrument for crop identification, crop canopy condition assessments, soil moisture condition estimation, forestry type and condition assessments, snow water equivalent and snow wetness assessments, wetland and coastal land type identification and mapping, flood extent mapping, and assessment of drainage characteristics of watersheds for water resources applications. Specific mission design issues such as the preferred incidence angles for vegetation canopy measurements and the utility of a dual frequency (L and C-band) or dual polarization system as compared to the baseline system are addressed.

  9. Renewables in the Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wager, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) has evaluated the potential for using renewable energy for electricity in the Midwest, and has been carrying out a multifaceted effort to expand the use of renewables in the region. The UCS study presents a strategy for developing renewable-electric technologies and resources in 12 midwestern states. UCS analysts used a geographic information system (GIS) to create data-bases of renewable resources, land uses, vegetation cover, terrain elevation and locations of utility transmission lines, and to analyze and present information on a .6 mi x .6 mi (1 km x 1 km) grid scale. In addition, UCS developed a model to calculate the net employment impact of renewable versus conventional electricity technologies on a state-by-state basis. In evaluating the costs and benefits of renewable energy sources, UCS analysts explored a cost assessment that accounted for the impact of pollution from fossil fuels on energy resource cost. Researchers also considered the risks associated with fuel-price volatility, environmental regulation, construction lead times and other uncertainties. Finally, UCS researchers suggested steps to remove the institutional, regulatory and legislative barriers that inhibit renewable energy development, and proposed policies to expand the use of the region's renewable resources. The UCS analysis showed that wind is currently the least expensive renewable resource. UCS also found numerous opportunities to expand biomass-electric generation in the near term, such as converting small coal-fired power plants to wood fuel, making greater use of logging residues and co-firing a small percentage of biomass with fossil fuel at large power plants

  10. Damn renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author describes how renewable energies have been developed in a way he considers as scandalous, whereas they are a technical, financial and ecological dead end. He also explains how ecologists (notably the ADEME) manipulate figures to make believe that these energies could be an answer to the needs of France, of Europe and of humanity. In a first chapter, he criticises the influence of a so-called green ideology on the design of energy transition. In the second one, he denounces twelve tales about energy transition. In the next chapters, he denounces the sham of renewable energies, and finally tells some unfortunate renewable experiments

  11. Ice Core Chemistry from the Norwegian-U.S. Scientific Traverse of East Antarctica, IPY 2007-2009, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of sodium (Na) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations versus depth in seven ice cores that were obtained by the Norwegian-U.S. Scientific Traverse...

  12. Kevin Traverse-Healy: kommunikatsiooni eesmärk on muuta käitumist / intervjueerinud Annela Laaneots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traverse-Healy, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Intervjuu strateegianõuniku ja rahvusvaheliselt tuntud kommunikatsioonieksperdi Kevin Traverse-Healyga, kes peab eduka kommunikatsioonijuhi töös oluliseks luua õige kommunikatsioon, mille eesmärgiks on sihtrühma käitumise muutus

  13. Radar Studies of Internal Stratigraphy and Bed Topography along the US ITASE-II Traverse, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains ice penetrating radar data from the US-International Trans-Antarctic Science Expedition (ITASE) Traverse, from Taylor Dome to South Pole...

  14. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  15. The value of renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The article extols the virtues of renewable energy sources. Based largely on the outcome of an IAE meeting in May 2001, the author has outlined an approach for accelerating the development of renewables. The article quotes several statements made by the IAE with respect to the need for a secure supply of affordable energy, sustainable development, diversification, the value of renewables and challenges confronting developers of renewables. The article is presented under the sub-headings of: (i) harnessing energy market forces; (ii) understanding costs in the context of diversification; (iii) economic performance; (iv) environmental protection; (v) an IAE action plan and (vi) conclusions. The author was once the IAE's director for energy efficiency, technology and R and D

  16. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  17. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.

    2004-06-01

    Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)

  18. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  19. Renewable energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Wang, Eric; Tseng, Kuo-Tung

    2010-01-01

    With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market competition. Consequently, numerous promotional and subsidy programs have recently been proclaimed by the Taiwanese government, focused on the development of various renewables. This study reviews the achievements, polices and future plans in this area. (author)

  20. Renewable resources - future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Martin H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy and Related Greenhouse Gas Abatement Technologies (ACRE), its technologies, commercial relationships and markets. The relevance of ACRE to developing country communities which lack reliable, adequate power supplies, is discussed. The opportunities for mutual collaboration between Australia and the developing countries in the application of renewable energy have never been stronger. Renewable energy promises real advantages to those who deploy it wisely, as well as significant job creation. Education at all level together with operational training, public awareness of what is possible and increased system reliability, are also vital ingredients for acceptance of these new technologies. They underpin successful commercialisation. The author concludes with the hope for a united international cooperative approach to the development of the renewable energy industry. (author)

  1. License renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fable, D.; Prah, M.; Vrankic, K.; Lebegner, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about license renewal process, as defined by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Atomic Energy Act and NRC regulations limit commercial power reactor licenses to an initial 40 years but also permit such licenses to be renewed. This original 40-year term for reactor licenses was based on economic and antitrust considerations not on limitations of nuclear technology. Due to this selected time period; however, some structures and components may have been engineered on the basis of an expected 40-year service life. The NRC has established a timely license renewal process and clear requirements codified in 10 CFR Part 51 and 10 CFR Part 54, that are needed to assure safe plant operation for extended plant life. The timely renewal of licenses for an additional 20 years, where appropriate to renew them, may be important to ensuring an adequate energy supply during the first half of the 21st Century. License renewal rests on the determination that currently operating plants continue to maintain adequate levels of safety, and over the plant's life, this level has been enhanced through maintenance of the licensing bases, with appropriate adjustments to address new information from industry operating experience. Additionally, NRC activities have provided ongoing assurance that the licensing bases will continue to provide an acceptable level of safety. This paper provides additional discussion of license renewal costs, as one of key elements in evaluation of license renewal justifiability. Including structure of costs, approximately value and two different approaches, conservative and typical. Current status and position of Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, related to license renewal process, will be briefly presented in this paper. NPP Krsko is designed based on NRC Regulations, so requirements from 10 CFR 51, and 10 CFR 54, are applicable to NPP Krsko, as well. Finally, this paper will give an overview of current status of

  2. Processes of Strategic Renewal,

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Aadne, John; Mahnke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    We discuss strategic renewal from a competence perspective. We argue that the management of speed and timing in this process is viewed distinctively when perceived through a cognitive lens. Managers need more firmly grounded process-understanding. The key idea of this paper is to dynamically conceptualize key activities of strategic renewal, and possible sources of break-down as they relate to the managment of speed and timing. Based on a case from the media industry, we identi...

  3. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  4. On the propagation of sound waves in a stellar wind traversed by periodic strong shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Pijpers, F. P.

    1994-01-01

    It has been claimed that in stellar winds traversed by strong shocks the mechanism for driving the wind by sound wave pressure cannot operate because sound waves cannot propagate past the shocks. It is shown here that sound waves can propagate through shocks in one direction and that this is a sufficient condition for the sound wave pressure mechanism to work. A strong shock amplifies a sound wave passing through it and can drag the sound wave away from the star. It is immaterial for the soun...

  5. Predicting Long-Range Traversability from Short-Range Stereo-Derived Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmon, Michael; Tang, Benyang; Howard, Andrew; Brjaracharya, Max

    2010-01-01

    Based only on its appearance in imagery, this program uses close-range 3D terrain analysis to produce training data sufficient to estimate the traversability of terrain beyond 3D sensing range. This approach is called learning from stereo (LFS). In effect, the software transfers knowledge from middle distances, where 3D geometry provides training cues, into the far field where only appearance is available. This is a viable approach because the same obstacle classes, and sometimes the same obstacles, are typically present in the mid-field and the farfield. Learning thus extends the effective look-ahead distance of the sensors.

  6. Effects of Majorana physics on the UHE ν{sub τ} flux traversing the Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucia [Universidad de la Republica, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Montevideo (Uruguay); Romero, Ismael; Zapata, Gabriel; Sampayo, Oscar A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), CONICET, UNMDP, Departamento de Fisica, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2017-02-15

    We study the effects produced by sterile Majorana neutrinos on the ν{sub τ} flux traversing the Earth, considering the interaction between the Majorana neutrinos and the standard matter as modeled by an effective theory. The surviving tau-neutrino flux is calculated using transport equations including Majorana neutrino production and decay. We compare our results with the pure Standard Model interactions, computing the surviving flux for different values of the effective lagrangian couplings, considering the detected flux by IceCube for an operation time of 10 years, and Majorana neutrinos with mass m{sub N} ∝ m{sub τ}. (orig.)

  7. Traversable terrain classification for outdoor autonomous robots using single 2D laser scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Christian; Blas, Morten Rufus; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    Interpreting laser data to allow autonomous robot navigation on paved as well as dirt roads using a fixed angle 2D laser scanner is a daunting task. This paper introduces an algorithm for terrain classification that fuses seven distinctly different classifiers: raw height, roughness, step size......, curvature, slope, width and invalid data. These are then used to extract road borders, traversable terrain and identify obstacles. Experimental results are shown and discussed. The results were obtained using a DTU developed mobile robot, and the autonomous tests were conducted in a national park...

  8. 2008 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  9. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  10. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp; Tian, Tian

    2016-11-01

    The 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  11. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2015 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  12. 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-29

    The 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  13. Mars exploration rover geologic traverse by the spirit rover in the plains of Gusev crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; DesMarais, D.J.; Farmer, J.D.; Fergason, R.; Golombek, M.P.; Grant, F.D.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Hahn, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Knudson, A.T.; Landis, G.A.; Li, R.; Maki, J.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Moersch, J.E.; Payne, M.C.; Rice, J.W.; Richter, L.; Ruff, S.W.; Sims, M.; Thompson, S.D.; Tosca, N.; Wang, A.; Whelley, P.; Wright, S.P.; Wyatt, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Spirit rover completed a 2.5 km traverse across gently sloping plains on the floor of Gusev crater from its location on the outer rim of Bonneville crater to the lower slopes of the Columbia Hills, Mars. Using the Athena suite of instruments in a transect approach, a systematic series of overlapping panoramic mosaics, remote sensing observations, surface analyses, and trenching operations documented the lateral variations in landforms, geologic materials, and chemistry of the surface throughout the traverse, demonstrating the ability to apply the techniques of field geology by remote rover operations. Textures and shapes of rocks within the plains are consistent with derivation from impact excavation and mixing of the upper few meters of basaltic lavas. The contact between surrounding plains and crater ejecta is generally abrupt and marked by increases in clast abundance and decimeter-scale steps in relief. Basaltic materials of the plains overlie less indurated and more altered rock types at a time-stratigraphic contact between the plains and Columbia Hills that occurs over a distance of one to two meters. This implies that regional geologic contacts are well preserved and that Earth-like field geologic mapping will be possible on Mars despite eons of overturn by small impacts. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  14. Traversing the Cell: Agrobacterium T-DNA’s Journey to the Host Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelvin, Stanton B.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Agrobacterium is unique in its ability to conduct interkingdom genetic exchange. Virulent Agrobacterium strains transfer single-strand forms of T-DNA (T-strands) and several Virulence effector proteins through a bacterial type IV secretion system into plant host cells. T-strands must traverse the plant wall and plasma membrane, traffic through the cytoplasm, enter the nucleus, and ultimately target host chromatin for stable integration. Because any DNA sequence placed between T-DNA “borders” can be transferred to plants and integrated into the plant genome, the transfer and intracellular trafficking processes must be mediated by bacterial and host proteins that form complexes with T-strands. This review summarizes current knowledge of proteins that interact with T-strands in the plant cell, and discusses several models of T-complex (T-strand and associated proteins) trafficking. A detailed understanding of how these macromolecular complexes enter the host cell and traverse the plant cytoplasm will require development of novel technologies to follow molecules from their bacterial site of synthesis into the plant cell, and how these transferred molecules interact with host proteins and sub-cellular structures within the host cytoplasm and nucleus. PMID:22645590

  15. Coulomb nanoradiator-mediated, site-specific thrombolytic proton treatment with a traversing pristine Bragg peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae-Kun; Han, Sung-Mi; Min, Soon-Ki; Seo, Seung-Jun; Ihm, Kyuwook; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2016-11-01

    Traversing proton beam-irradiated, mid/high-Z nanoparticles produce site-specific enhancement of X-ray photon-electron emission via the Coulomb nanoradiator (CNR) effect, resulting in a nano- to micro-scale therapeutic effect at the nanoparticle-uptake target site. Here, we demonstrate the uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) and nanoradiator-mediated, site-specific thrombolysis without damaging the vascular endothelium in an arterial thrombosis mouse model. The enhancement of low-energy electron (LEE) emission and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from traversing proton beam-irradiated IONs was examined. Flow recovery was only observed in CNR-treated mice, and greater than 50% removal of the thrombus was achieved. A 2.5-fold greater reduction in the thrombus-enabled flow recovery was observed in the CNR group compared with that observed in the untreated ION-only and proton-only control groups (p ROS by the proton-irradiated IONs, which suggests chemical degradation of the thrombus without potent emboli.

  16. Organometallics and renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Michael A.R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Organic Chemistry; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C.A. (eds.) [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Debye Inst. of Nanomaterials Science

    2012-11-01

    USPs - BPF Each volume of Topics in Organometallic Chemistry provides the broad scientific readership with a comprehensive summary and critical overview of a specific topic in organometallic chemistry. Research in this rapidly developing transdisciplinary field is having profound influence on other areas of scientific investigation, ranging from catalytic organic synthesis to biology, medicine and material science. With contributions by international experts. Lucas Montero de Espinosa and Michael A. R. Meier: Olefin Metathesis of Renewable Platform Chemicals.- Pieter C. A. Bruijnincx, Robin Jastrzebski, Peter J. C. Hausoul, Robertus J. M. Klein Gebbink, and Bert M. Weckhuysen: Pd-Catalysed Telomerisation of 1,3-Dienes with Multifunctional Renewable Substrates - Versatile Routes for the Valorisation of Biomass-Derived Platform Molecules.- A Behr, A. J. Vorholt: Hydroformylation and related reactions of renewable resources.- Ties J. Korstanje, Robertus J.M. Klein Gebbink: Catalytic oxidation and deoxygenation of renewables with rhenium complexes.- Antoine Buchard, Clare M. Bakewell, Jonathan Weiner and Charlotte K. Williams: Recent Developments In Catalytic Activation Of Renewable Resources For Polymer Synthesis.

  17. Art : accessible, renewable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of non-governmental organization (NGO) citizen groups in Ontario in the use and production of electricity. NGOs have the potential to act both directly on their own accord, and indirectly by pressuring government and others. Current demand for electricity is divided between industrial, commercial and residential users. Citizens have an important role to play in reducing energy demand. On the supply side, there is a revival of interest in renewable energy based on wind, photovoltaic and local-hydro technologies as a result of the escalating environmental and economic costs of coal and nuclear generation. However, citizen groups have greater interest and enthusiasm than technical expertise, creating a mismatch between technological solutions and human need or use of them. This paper discusses how this mismatch applies to renewable-energy technologies, many of which are not especially user-friendly, or accessible. While alternative technologies are increasingly welcomed by government, industry is developing a large and growing array of technological devices. In between this is the citizen, who, despite keen interest, can be overwhelmed by the complexity of the situation. This paper links the theoretical perspective to the real world with a discussion of the dynamics between people and renewable energy in citizen groups and makes particular reference to one group, Citizens for Renewable Energy, that has been making renewable energy technology more accessible to its members for over a decade

  18. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  19. People and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenvald, Avo

    2002-01-01

    The use of renewable energy is tightly connected to solving social problems in Estonia by creating more new jobs. It is essential that Estonia should increase the use of biofuels. One of the biofuels, firewood, has been used already for centuries. For wider use of renewable energy in Estonia, it is not enough to rely only on enterprices. Rather, before any serious progress can take place, the state should create the appropriate legal environment. Due to its many social and environmental aspects, renewable energy is more important to the state than a sole enterprice. Unfortunately, Estonian government has been delaying its duties. Estonia has two resources that should be taken advantage of, fertile spare land and people still used to the country life. The country people would get work by growing different energy crops on the spare land. (author)

  20. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.

    2004-01-01

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies.......Wind power and combined heat and power (CHP) using biomass (for combustion, gasification or fermentation) are two of the most promising renewable technologies for generation of electricity. Denmark has a long and well-established tradition for these technologies that now account for approx. 25...

  1. Renewable energy sources (promotion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, F.

    1986-01-01

    Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

  2. Proceedings 3rd Workshop on GRAPH Inspection and Traversal Engineering (GRAPHITE 2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    to various computational algorithms in order to analyze them. Just restricting the attention to the analysis of software, graph analysis algorithms are used, for instance, to verify properties using model checking techniques that explore the system's state space graph or static analysis techniques based......These are the proceedings of the Third Workshop on GRAPH Inspection and Traversal Engineering (GRAPHITE 2014), which took place on April 5, 2014 in Grenoble, France, as a satellite event of the 17th European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS 2014). The aim of GRAPHITE...... is to foster the convergence on research interests from several communities dealing with graph analysis in all its forms in computer science, with a particular attention to software development and analysis. Graphs are used to represent data and processes in many application areas, and they are subjected...

  3. Traversing every edge in each direction once, but not at once: Cubic (polyhedral graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir R. Rosenfeld

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A {\\em retracting-free bidirectional circuit} in a graph $G$ is a closed walk which traverses every edge exactly once in each direction and such that no edge is succeeded by the same edge in the opposite direction. Such a circuit revisits each vertex only in a number of steps. Studying the class $\\mathit{\\Omega}$ of all graphs admitting at least one retracting-free bidirectional circuit was proposed by Ore (1951 and is by now of practical use to nanotechnology. The latter needs in various molecular polyhedra that are constructed from a single chain molecule in the retracting-free way. Some earlier results for simple graphs, obtained by Thomassen and, then, by other authors, are specially refined by us for a cubic graph $Q$. Most of such refinements depend only on the number $n$ of vertices of $Q$.

  4. A New MANET wormhole detection algorithm based on traversal time and hop count analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jonny; Dooley, Laurence S; Pulkkis, Göran

    2011-01-01

    As demand increases for ubiquitous network facilities, infrastructure-less and self-configuring systems like Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) are gaining popularity. MANET routing security however, is one of the most significant challenges to wide scale adoption, with wormhole attacks being an especially severe MANET routing threat. This is because wormholes are able to disrupt a major component of network traffic, while concomitantly being extremely difficult to detect. This paper introduces a new wormhole detection paradigm based upon Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA), which in comparison to existing algorithms, consistently affords superior detection performance, allied with low false positive rates for all wormhole variants. Simulation results confirm that the TTHCA model exhibits robust wormhole route detection in various network scenarios, while incurring only a small network overhead. This feature makes TTHCA an attractive choice for MANET environments which generally comprise devices, such as wireless sensors, which possess a limited processing capability.

  5. A New MANET Wormhole Detection Algorithm Based on Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Pulkkis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As demand increases for ubiquitous network facilities, infrastructure-less and self-configuring systems like Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET are gaining popularity. MANET routing security however, is one of the most significant challenges to wide scale adoption, with wormhole attacks being an especially severe MANET routing threat. This is because wormholes are able to disrupt a major component of network traffic, while concomitantly being extremely difficult to detect. This paper introduces a new wormhole detection paradigm based upon Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA, which in comparison to existing algorithms, consistently affords superior detection performance, allied with low false positive rates for all wormhole variants. Simulation results confirm that the TTHCA model exhibits robust wormhole route detection in various network scenarios, while incurring only a small network overhead. This feature makes TTHCA an attractive choice for MANET environments which generally comprise devices, such as wireless sensors, which possess a limited processing capability.

  6. Identifying time measurement tampering in the traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) wormhole detection algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jonny; Dooley, Laurence S; Pulkkis, Göran

    2013-05-17

    Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM) wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  7. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA Wormhole Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Karlsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  8. From the Flamm-Einstein-Rosen bridge to the modern renaissance of traversable wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the possibility of multiply-connected spacetimes, ranging from the Flamm-Einstein-Rosen bridge, geons, and the modern renaissance of traversable wormholes. A fundamental property in wormhole physics is the flaring-out condition of the throat, which through the Einstein field equation entails the violation of the null energy condition (NEC). In the context of modified theories of gravity, it has also been shown that the normal matter can be imposed to satisfy the energy conditions, and it is the higher order curvature terms, interpreted as a gravitational fluid, that sustain these nonstandard wormhole geometries, fundamentally different from their counterparts in general relativity (GR). We explore interesting features of these geometries, in particular, the physical properties and characteristics of these ‘exotic spacetimes’.

  9. Dynamic Rocker-Bogie: A Stability Enhancement for High-Speed Traversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-an Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The rocker-bogie suspension mechanism it’s currently NASA’s favored design for wheeled mobile robots, mainly because it has robust capabilities to deal with obstacles and because it uniformly distributes the payload over its 6 wheels at all times. Even though it has many advantages when dealing with obstacles, there is one major shortcoming which is its low average speed of operation, making the rocker-bogie system not suitable for situations where high-speed traversal over hard-flat surfaces is needed to cover large areas in short periods of time, mainly due to stability problems. This paper proposes to increase the stability of the rocker-bogie system by expanding its support polygon, making it more stable and adaptable while moving at high speed, but keeping its original robustness against obstacles: One rocker-bogie system, two modes of operation.

  10. Data-Driven Surface Traversability Analysis for Mars 2020 Landing Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Rothrock, Brandon; Almeida, Eduardo; Ansar, Adnan; Otero, Richard; Huertas, Andres; Heverly, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is three-fold: 1) to describe the engineering challenges in the surface mobility of the Mars 2020 Rover mission that are considered in the landing site selection processs, 2) to introduce new automated traversability analysis capabilities, and 3) to present the preliminary analysis results for top candidate landing sites. The analysis capabilities presented in this paper include automated terrain classification, automated rock detection, digital elevation model (DEM) generation, and multi-ROI (region of interest) route planning. These analysis capabilities enable to fully utilize the vast volume of high-resolution orbiter imagery, quantitatively evaluate surface mobility requirements for each candidate site, and reject subjectivity in the comparison between sites in terms of engineering considerations. The analysis results supported the discussion in the Second Landing Site Workshop held in August 2015, which resulted in selecting eight candidate sites that will be considered in the third workshop.

  11. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  12. Renewable Energy for Microenterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allderdice, A.; Rogers, J.H.

    2000-11-28

    This guide provides readers with a broad understanding of the potential benefits that current renewable energy technologies can offer rural microenterprises. It also introduces the institutional approaches that have been developed to make RE technologies accessible to microentrepreneurs and the challenges that these entrepreneurs have encountered.

  13. Raw and renewable polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available with enhanced support for global sustainability. High performance plastics are the outcome of continuous research over the last few decades. The real challenge of renewable polymers lies in finding applications, which will result in mass production, and price...

  14. Renewable material resource potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weenen, H.; Wever, R.; Quist, J.; Tukker, A.; Woudstra, J.; Boons, F.A.A.; Beute, N.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable material resources, consist of complex systems and parts. Their sub-systems and sub-sub-systems, have unique, specific, general and common properties. The character of the use that is made of these resources, depends on the availability of knowledge, experience, methods, tools, machines

  15. Learning about Renewable Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

  16. Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

  17. Opportunity Mars Rover mission: Overview and selected results from Purgatory ripple to traverses to Endeavour crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, James W.; Bell, J.F.; Chojnacki, M.; Cohen, J.; Economou, T.E.; Farrand, W. H.; Fergason, R.; Fleischer, I.; Geissler, P.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Guinness, E.A.; Haberle, R.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Herman, J.A.; Iagnemma, K.D.; Jolliff, B.L.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knoll, A.H.; Knudson, A.T.; Li, R.; McLennan, S.M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Parker, T.J.; Rice, M.S.; Schroder, C.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.J.; Wolff, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunity has been traversing the Meridiani plains since 25 January 2004 (sol 1), acquiring numerous observations of the atmosphere, soils, and rocks. This paper provides an overview of key discoveries between sols 511 and 2300, complementing earlier papers covering results from the initial phases of the mission. Key new results include (1) atmospheric argon measurements that demonstrate the importance of atmospheric transport to and from the winter carbon dioxide polar ice caps; (2) observations showing that aeolian ripples covering the plains were generated by easterly winds during an epoch with enhanced Hadley cell circulation; (3) the discovery and characterization of cobbles and boulders that include iron and stony-iron meteorites and Martian impact ejecta; (4) measurements of wall rock strata within Erebus and Victoria craters that provide compelling evidence of formation by aeolian sand deposition, with local reworking within ephemeral lakes; (5) determination that the stratigraphy exposed in the walls of Victoria and Endurance craters show an enrichment of chlorine and depletion of magnesium and sulfur with increasing depth. This result implies that regional-scale aqueous alteration took place before formation of these craters. Most recently, Opportunity has been traversing toward the ancient Endeavour crater. Orbital data show that clay minerals are exposed on its rim. Hydrated sulfate minerals are exposed in plains rocks adjacent to the rim, unlike the surfaces of plains outcrops observed thus far by Opportunity. With continued mechanical health, Opportunity will reach terrains on and around Endeavour's rim that will be markedly different from anything examined to date. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. The role of photogeologic mapping in traverse planning: lessons learned from DRATS 2010 activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, James A.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    We produced a 1:24,000 scale photogeologic map of the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 simulated lunar mission traverse area and surrounding environments located within the northeastern part of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. To mimic an exploratory mission, we approached the region "blindly" by rejecting prior knowledge or preconceived notions of the regional geologic setting and focused instead only on image and topographic base maps that were intended to be equivalent to pre-cursor mission "orbital returns". We used photogeologic mapping techniques equivalent to those employed during the construction of modern planetary geologic maps. Based on image and topographic base maps, we identified 4 surficial units (talus, channel, dissected, and plains units), 5 volcanic units (older cone, younger cone, older flow, younger flow, and block field units), and 5 basement units (grey-toned mottled, red-toned platy, red-toned layered, light-toned slabby, and light-toned layered units). Comparison of our remote-based map units with published field-based map units indicates that the two techniques yield pervasively similar results of contrasting detail, with higher accuracies linked to remote-based units that have high topographic relief and tonal contrast relative to adjacent units. We list key scientific questions that remained after photogeologic mapping and prior to DRATS activities and identify 13 specific observations that the crew and science team would need to make in order to address those questions and refine the interpreted geologic context. We translated potential observations into 62 recommended sites for visitation and observation during the mission traverse. The production and use of a mission-specific photogeologic map for DRATS 2010 activities resulted in strategic and tactical recommendations regarding observational context and hypothesis tracking over the course of an exploratory mission.

  19. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  20. The Renewable Energy Data Explorer: Mapping Our Renewable Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    The Renewable Energy (RE) Data Explorer, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an innovative web-based platform that allows users to visualize and analyze renewable energy potential. The RE Data Explorer informs prospecting, integrated planning, and policymaking to enable low emission development.

  1. Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008 regarding Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands.

  2. Renewable energy and wildlife conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-09-09

    The renewable energy sector is rapidly expanding and diversifying the power supply of the country. Yet, as our Nation works to advance renewable energy and to conserve wildlife, some conflicts arise. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce impacts of renewable energy production on wildlife.

  3. Renewable Energy Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Representatives of state universities, public institutions and Costa Rican private sector, and American experts have exposed projects or experiences about the use and generation of renewable energy in different fields. The thematics presented have been about: development of smart grids and design of electrical energy production systems that allow money saving and reducing emissions to the environment; studies on the use of non-traditional plants and agricultural waste; sustainable energy model in the process of coffee production; experiments from biomass for the fabrication of biodiesel, biogas production and storage; and the use of non-conventional energy. Researches were presented at the Renewable Energy Symposium, organized by the Centro de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas and support of the Vicerrectoria de Investigacion, both from the Universidad de Costa Rica [es

  4. RENEWABLE ENERGY IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA MIHĂILĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports published by the International Energy Agency and U.S. Department of Energy, regarding the global energy outlook for the first three decades of the XXI century, warns of global trends on energy demand, increasing dependence on energy imports, coal use and volume emissions of greenhouse gases, torism industry being one of the biggest energy consumption industry. Uncertainties on different models of regional development and access of the world to traditional energy resources require a change of orientation towards long-term scenarios for assessing energy domain, increasing the share of energy from renewable resources beeing one of the solutions. Intourism the renewable energy is a solution for a positive impact on enviroment , reduced operational costs and even won an extra-profit.

  5. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...... for the production of non-native 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP).3HP can be chemically dehydrated into acrylic acid and thus can serve as a biosustainable building block for acrylate-based products (diapers, acrylic paints, acrylic polymers, etc.)...

  6. Renewable energy project development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

  7. European Schemes for Promoting Renewables in Liberalised Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2003-01-01

    with guaranteed minimum tariffs, tender models for different bands of technologies, and green certificates trading models with obligatory consumer quota. The paper describes the market situation in selected European countries, including Germany, the UK, Holland and Denmark.An EU directive from September 2001 has......The paper describes possibilities and problems for penetration of supply systems based on renewable energy sources in liberalised markets. The analysis is based on recent development in EU with different models for support of installations based on renewable energy. These include feed-in models...

  8. Renewable Energy Development on Tribal Lamds of Viejas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrence Meyer (Black & Veatch); Mike Elenbaas (Black & Veatch)

    2005-09-30

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of Renewable Energy Development on the lands of the Viejas Band of the Kumeyaay Indian Nation. In addition, the study will investigate the feasibility of forming a renewable energy based tribal utility. Viejas contracted with Black & Veatch and Fredericks, Pelcyger & Hester, LLC to assist in the development of a feasibility study to ascertain the economics and operational factors of forming an electric and water utility. This report is the result of the investigation conducted by Black & Veatch, with input from Viejas Tribal Government.

  9. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1997-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  10. Market analysis. Renewable fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) had on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture created a study on the market development of renewable resources in Germany and published this in the year of 2006. The aim of that study was to identify of actual status and market performance of the individual market segments of the material and energetic use as a basis for policy recommendations for accelerated and long term successful market launch and market share expansion of renewable raw materials. On behalf of the FNR, a market analysis of mid-2011 was carried out until the beginning of 2013, the results of which are hereby resubmitted. This market analysis covers all markets of material and energetic use in the global context, taking account of possible competing uses. A market segmentation, which was based on the product classification of the Federal Statistical Office, formed the basis of the analysis. A total of ten markets have been defined, seven material and three energetic use. [de

  11. 78 FR 37966 - Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay... the hazards associated with fireworks displays and aircraft involved in the National Cherry Festival... Festival fireworks display and air show. At the close of the comment period, no comments were received in...

  12. What drives renewable energy development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagappan, L.; Orans, R.; Woo, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint reviews renewable energy development in 14 markets that differ in market structure (restructured vs. not restructured), use of feed-in-tariff (FIT) (yes vs. no), transmission planning (anticipatory vs. reactive), and transmission interconnection cost allocated to a renewable generator (high vs. low). We find that market restructuring is not a primary driver of renewable energy development. Renewable generation has the highest percent of total installed capacity in markets that use a FIT, employ anticipatory transmission planning, and have loads or end-users paying for most, if not all, of the transmission interconnection costs. In contrast, renewable developers have been less successful in markets that do not use a FIT, employ reactive transmission planning, and have generators paying for most, if not all, of the transmission interconnection costs. While these policies can lead to higher penetration of renewable energy in the short run, their high cost to ratepayers can threaten the economic sustainability of renewable energy in the long-run. - Highlights: → Market structure seems to have little effect on renewable energy development. → Renewable energy development is more successful in markets that use a FIT. → Anticipatory transmission planning aids renewable energy development. → Low interconnection costs for developers also aids renewable energy development.

  13. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  14. [Investigation of new classification and repair methods for fingertip traverse amputation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Xu, Yajun; Rui, Yongjun; Yao, Qun

    2008-09-01

    To investigate new classification and repair methods for the traverse amputated fingertip. From March 2000 to October 2006, 20 cases of 20 fingers with traverse amputated fingertip, including 13 males and 7 females aged 17-47 years, were treated. Twenty patients (9 crush injuries, 5 cutting injuries and 6 sawing injuries) were classified into 4 types, namely type I (the distal one third of nail bed), type II (the middle of nail bed), type III (the proximal one third of nail bed), and type IV (the root of nail bed). There were 3 patients (2 index fingers and 1 little finger) of type I, 8 patients (2 thumbs, 3 index fingers and 3 middle fingers) of type II, 5 patients (3 index fingers, 1 ring finger and 1 little finger) of type III, and 4 patients (2 thumbs, 1 middle finger and 1 little finger) of type IV. The soft tissue defect ranged from 1.2 cm x 1.2 cm to 1.5 cm x 1.2 cm. The time from injury to surgery was 3-10 hours. Fingers of type I and type II were treated with forward flow axial flap and modified nail bed lengthening. Fingers of type III and type IV were treated with forward flow axial flap and partial nail bed replantation as well as modified nail bed lengthening. The flaps ranged in size from 1.5 cm x 1.2 cm to 2.0 cm x 1.4 cm. Twenty patients incisions healed by first intention and the flaps, nails and skin grafting survived. All donor sites healed by first intention. All patients were followed up for 2-6 months (4 months on average). The appearances of fingertips were good. The texture of the flap was soft, and the fingers had no tenderness and motor disturbance. The two-point discrimination was 4.5-6.5 mm. The finger nails of type I and type II extended 3-4 mm after operation, while the finger nails of type III and type IV extended 8-10 mm after operation. All finger nails were smooth and flat without pain. Hook nail happened in 1 case 6 months after operation. Classification of the injured fingers according to the condition of the amputation base is

  15. First Gravity Traverse on the Martian Surface from the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K. W.; Peters, S. F.; Gonter, K. A.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Orbital gravity surveys have been a key tool in understanding planetary interiors and shallow crustal structure, exemplified by recent missions such as GRAIL and Juno. However, due to the loss of spatial resolution with altitude, airborne and ground-based survey methods are typically employed on the Earth. Previously, the Lunar Traverse Gravimeter experiment on the Apollo 17 mission has been the only attempt to collect surface gravity measurements on another planetary body. We will describe the results of the first gravity survey on the Martian surface, using data from the Curiosity rover over its >10 km traverse across the floor of Gale crater and lower slopes of Mount Sharp. These results enable us to estimate bulk rock density, and to search for potential subsurface density anomalies. To measure local gravitational acceleration, we use one of the two onboard Rover Inertial Measurement Units (RIMU-A), designed for rover position and fine attitude determination. The IMU contains three-axis micro-electromechanical (MEMS) accelerometers and fiber-optic gyros, and is used for gyrocompassing by integrating data for several minutes on sols with no drive or arm motions (roughly 50% of sols to date). Raw acceleration data are calibrated for biases induced by temperature effects and rover orientation, along with rover elevation over the course of the mission using multiple regression. We use the best fit linear relationship between topographic height and gravitational acceleration to estimate a Bouguer correction for the observed change in magnitude over the mission as the rover has ascended over 100 meters up the lower slopes of Mount Sharp. We find a relatively low best-fit density of 1600 +/- 500 kg/m^3 for the rocks of Mount Sharp, consistent with rover-based measurements of thermal inertial, and potentially indicating pervasive fracturing, high porosity and/or low compaction within the original sediments at least to depths of order 100 meters. Future measurements

  16. Boosting renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Public policy and funding are basically different, but both are needed to develop the renewable energy market. Public policy creates incentives, but also obligations. The setting up of a 'repurchase rate' also called a 'feed-in tariff' or 'clean energy cash back scheme' obliges electric power companies to buy back energy of renewable origin at a fixed, guaranteed rate. The extra-cost generated, although usually low, is passed on to all customers and does not cost the State anything. Funding is characterized by its source, the manner in which it is obtained and who supplies it, whether it be banks, mutual funds, development agencies, electric power companies, local governments or the consumers themselves. Repurchasing yields regular cash flows over a given period at a lower risk and allows banks to provide funding. This is one of the reasons for its success. This solution is also very popular with political leaders because it does not weigh down public funding. Both these reasons explain why repurchasing is so appreciated in Europe and in a growing number of countries, more than seventy having adopted it in 2010. In addition, it is regularly discounted in relation to technological breakthroughs and lower costs. As is the case in Europe, the problem lies in maintaining an acceptable rate while avoiding excessive project profitability. In Europe, for instance, the number of renewable energy projects is such that consumers are starting to complain about seeing their electricity rates rise because of the famous feed-in tariff, even though the cost of renewable energies continues to drop on a regular basis. The United States and a few other countries, including China, prefer the quota system, or RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standards), which requires electric power companies to generate a minimal share of electric power by a renewable energy source. These companies consequently invest in renewable energy projects or purchase this energy from other suppliers. Like the

  17. Wide Band to ''Double Band'' upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, P.; Currier, R.; Garbincius, P.; Butler, J.

    1988-06-01

    The Wide Band beam currently uses electrons obtained from secondary photon conversions to produce the photon beam incident on the experimental targets. By transporting the positrons produced in these conversions as well as the electrons it is possible to almost double the number of photons delivered to the experiments per primary beam proton. 11 figs

  18. Retrieval of Wind Speed Using an L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaldo, Frank M.; Thompson, Donald R.; Badger, Merete

    2007-01-01

    usefulness over the ocean. Most recent wind retrievals from spaceborne SARs have been at C-band for ERS-1/2, Radarsat, and Envisat. With the launch of the sophisticated multi- polarization Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), we renew...

  19. Lunar Surface Electric Potential Changes Associated with Traversals through the Earth's Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Hills, H. Kent; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Delory, Gregory T.; Espley, Jared; Farrell, William M.; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We report an analysis of one year of Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) Total Ion Detector (TID) resonance events observed between January 1972 and January 1973. The study includes only those events during which upstream solar wind conditions were readily available. The analysis shows that these events are associated with lunar traversals through the dawn flank of the terrestrial magnetospheric bow shock. We propose that the events result from an increase in lunar surface electric potential effected by secondary electron emission due to primary electrons in the Earth's foreshock region (although primary ions may play a role as well). This work establishes (1) the lunar surface potential changes as the Moon moves through the terrestrial bow shock, (2) the lunar surface achieves potentials in the upstream foreshock region that differ from those in the downstream magnetosheath region, (3) these differences can be explained by the presence of energetic electron beams in the upstream foreshock region and (4) if this explanation is correct, the location of the Moon with respect to the terrestrial bow shock influences lunar surface potential.

  20. Dune and ripple migration along Curiosity's traverse in Gale Crater on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.; Ewing, R. C.; Fenton, L. K.; Michaels, T. I.; Ayoub, F.; Bridges, N. T.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, has safely landed near a 35-km-long dark dune field in Gale Crater on Mars. This dune field lies along Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp). Here we present new evidence of aeolian activity and further estimate wind directions within the dune field through analysis of ripple migration with the COSI-Corr technique, which provides precise measurements of ripple displacement at the sub-pixel scale.The area analyzed is located ~10 km southwest of rover Curiosity's current position and ~4 km SW of its selected path through Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp) (Fig. 1a). Here barchan dunes with elongated horns and seif dunes coexist with more typical barchan and dome dunes (Fig. 1a, b), with slopes sculpted by two intersecting ripple crestline orientations trending at 45° and 330°. The range of dune types and ripple orientations indicate the dune field morphology is influenced by at least two winds from the NW and the NE. The direction of migration is toward the SW, suggesting the most recent sand transporting winds were from the NE (Fig. 1c). These results match previous predictions and can be used to forecast the wind conditions close to the entry point to Mt. Sharp. Fig. 1: a-b) Study area c) Ripple migration direction computed using the COSI-Corr technique

  1. Pervasive aeolian activity along Curiosity's traverse in Gale Crater on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.; Ewing, R. C.; Rossi, A.; Flahaut, J.; Fenton, L. K.; Geissler, P. E.; Michaels, T. I.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has safely landed in Gale Crater (Mars). This crater has been severely modified by the action of the wind which has led to the development of several dark dune fields. One of these fields crosses the landing ellipse from the NE to the SW, and despite its fresh appearance, no evidence of sand movement has been detected until recently. Here we present evidence of current aeolian activity in the form of ripple and dune migration close to the expected traverse of the MSL rover, Curiosity. We calculate a minimum ripple displacement of 1.16 m and a dune migration rate of 0.4 meters/Earth year. Both ripples and dunes migrated toward the SW, suggesting winds above the saltation threshold from the NE. Such winds are predicted by the MRAMS atmospheric model (Fig. 1). The dunes are undergoing changes on a timescale of weeks to a few years that should be detectable by rover instruments. Using theoretical and experimental considerations, we calculate a wind gust velocity of 35 m/s at 1.5 m of height. In addition, we estimate that saltating grains would reach a distance of ~27 m and extend a maximum height of 2 m above the surface. Our constraints on the wind regime provide a unique opportunity to use ground measurements from MSL to test the accuracy of winds predicted from orbital data.RAMS modeled winds in the MSL landing site

  2. An FMM based on dual tree traversal for many-core architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Yokota, Rio

    2013-09-01

    The present work attempts to integrate the independent efforts in the fast N-body community to create the fastest N-body library for many-core and heterogenous architectures. Focus is placed on low accuracy optimizations, in response to the recent interest to use FMM as a preconditioner for sparse linear solvers. A direct comparison with other state-of-the-art fast N-body codes demonstrates that orders of magnitude increase in performance can be achieved by careful selection of the optimal algorithm and low-level optimization of the code. The current N-body solver uses a fast multipole method with an efficient strategy for finding the list of cell-cell interactions by a dual tree traversal. A task-based threading model is used to maximize thread-level parallelism and intra-node load-balancing. In order to extract the full potential of the SIMD units on the latest CPUs, the inner kernels are optimized using AVX instructions.

  3. Variable-tension lightlike brane as a gravitational source of traversable Misner-Wheeler-type wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guendelman, Eduardo [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, IL-84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel)], E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il; Kaganovich, Alexander [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, IL-84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel)], E-mail: alexk@bgu.ac.il; Nissimov, Emil [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Boul. Tsarigradsko Chausee 72, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: nissimov@inrne.bas.bg; Pacheva, Svetlana [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Boul. Tsarigradsko Chausee 72, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: svetlana@inrne.bas.bg

    2009-03-30

    Consistent Lagrangian description of variable-tension lightlike p-branes (LL-branes) is presented in two equivalent forms - a Polyakov-type formulation and a dual to it Nambu-Goto-type formulation. An important and non-standard characteristic feature of the LL-branes is that the brane tension appears as a non-trivial additional dynamical degree of freedom. We consider properties of p=2LL-brane dynamics (as a test brane) in D=4 Kerr or Kerr-Newman gravitational backgrounds in some detail. It is shown that the LL-brane automatically positions itself on the horizon and rotates along with the same angular velocity. Finally, we construct explicitly a traversable wormhole of Misner-Wheeler type based on a Reissner-Nordstroem geometry. This wormhole is constructed as a self-consistent solution of the electrically sourceless Einstein-Maxwell system in the D=4 bulk interacting with a LL-brane. The pertinent wormhole throat is located precisely at the LL-brane sitting on the outer Reissner-Nordstroem horizon with the Reissner-Nordstroem mass and charge being functions of the dynamical LL-brane tension.

  4. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  5. Renewables 2017 Global Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Seyboth, Kristin; Adib, Rana; Murdock, Hannah E.; Lins, Christine; Edwards, Isobel; Hullin, Martin; Nguyen, Linh H.; Prillianto, Satrio S.; Satzinger, Katharina; Appavou, Fabiani; Brown, Adam; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Logan, Jeffrey; Milligan, Michael; Zinaman, Owen; Epp, Baerbel; Huber, Lon; Lyons, Lorcan; Nowak, Thomas; Otte, Pia; Skeen, Jonathan; Sovacool, Benjamin; Witkamp, Bert; Musolino, Evan; Brown, Adam; Williamson, Laura E.; Ashworth, Lewis; Mastny, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies increase their hold across developing and emerging economies throughout the year The year 2016 saw several developments and ongoing trends that all have a bearing on renewable energy, including the continuation of comparatively low global fossil fuel prices; dramatic price declines of several renewable energy technologies; and a continued increase in attention to energy storage. For the third consecutive year, global energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and industry were nearly flat in 2016, due largely to declining coal use worldwide but also due to improvements in energy efficiency and to increasing use of renewable energy. As of 2015, renewable energy provided an estimated 19.3% of global final energy consumption, and growth in capacity and production continued in 2016. The power sector experienced the greatest increases in renewable energy capacity in 2016, whereas the growth of renewables in the heating and cooling and transport sectors was comparatively slow. Most new renewable energy capacity is installed in developing countries, and largely in China, the single largest developer of renewable power and heat over the past eight years. In 2016, renewable energy spread to a growing number of developing and emerging economies, some of which have become important markets. For the more than 1 billion people without access to electricity, distributed renewable energy projects, especially those in rural areas far from the centralised grid, offer important and often cost-effective options to provide such access. The renewable energy sector employed 9.8 million people in 2016, an increase of 1.1% over 2015. By technology, solar PV and biofuels provided the largest numbers of jobs. Employment shifted further towards Asia, which accounted for 62% of all renewable energy jobs (not including large-scale hydropower), led by China. The development of community renewable energy projects continued in 2016, but the pace of

  6. Band - Weg interactie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Andries; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Schipper, Dirk J.; prof.dr.ir. Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    De huidige infrastructuur van wegen waarover men zich snel en comfortabel kan verplaatsen is niet meer weg te denken uit onze maatschappij. Twee “componenten” die hierbij een belangrijke rol spelen zijn het wegdek en de band. Het contact tussen band en wegdek is mede bepalend voor de veiligheid. De

  7. Photonic band structure computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, D; Frank, M; Busch, K; Wolfle, P

    2001-01-29

    We introduce a novel algorithm for band structure computations based on multigrid methods. In addition, we demonstrate how the results of these band structure calculations may be used to compute group velocities and effective photon masses. The results are of direct relevance to studies of pulse propagation in such materials.

  8. ZEBRAFISH CHROMOSOME-BANDING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1995-01-01

    Banding techniques were carried out on metaphase chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The karyotypes with the longest chromosomes consist of 12 metacentrics, 26 submetacentrics, and 12 subtelocentrics (2n = 50). All centromeres are C-band positive. Eight chromosomes have a pericentric

  9. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  10. Introduction to renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn C

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionEnergy and SocietyTypes of EnergyRenewable EnergyAdvantages/DisadvantagesEconomicsGlobal WarmingOrder of Magnitude EstimatesGrowth (Exponential)SolutionsEnergyIntroductionDefinition of Energy and PowerHeatThermodynamicsEnergy Dilemma in Light of the Laws of ThermodynamicsUse of Fossil FuelsNuclearFinite ResourceSummarySunSolar PowerElectromagnetic SpectrumEnergy Balance of the EarthEarth-Sun MotionInsolationSolar ResourceGreenhouse EffectHeat Transfer and StorageIntroductionConductionConvectionRadiationThermal MassSeasonal Heating or CoolingThermal ComfortSolar Heating and CoolingB

  11. Renewables | Energies renouvelables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available World Energy Generated for Commercial Use by Type*Production mondiale d’énergie destinée à des applications commerciales, par type*­Main ProducersPrincipaux producteurs* Renewables also include biomass, yet most of it is used for energy generation for non-commercial purposes. | Les énergies renouvelables incluent la biomasse, mais celle-ci sert essentiellement à générer de l’énergie qui ne rentre pas dans les circuits commerciaux.Source: British Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of World Energ...

  12. Renewables | Energies renouvelables

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    World Energy Generated for Commercial Use by Type* Production mondiale d’énergie destinée à des applications commerciales, par type* ­ Main Producers Principaux producteurs * Renewables also include biomass, yet most of it is used for energy generation for non-commercial purposes. | Les énergies renouvelables incluent la biomasse, mais celle-ci sert essentiellement à générer de l’énergie qui ne rentre pas dans les circuits commerciaux. Source: British Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of Wor...

  13. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  14. Visions of regulatory renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgeworth, A.

    1998-01-01

    The economic contribution of the CEPA (Canadian Energy Pipeline Association) member companies to Canada's trade balance was discussed. CEPA member companies transport 95 per cent of the crude oil and natural gas produced in Canada to domestic and export markets. This represents a total of 5.6 Tcf of gas annually. Half of Canada's natural gas and oil production is exported to U.S. markets. All of these exports are transported by pipeline. CEPA member companies operate 90,000 km of pipeline from British Columbia to Quebec. Expansions are needed as a result of a significant increase in demand for natural gas and crude oil since 1990. Several issues exist for regulatory renewal. They include the need to create a level playing field, the overseeing of tolls and contract renewal terms, changing risk/reward trade-offs, the right to confidentiality of information and price discovery mechanism. The drivers for regulatory reform at Westcoast Energy are the need for pricing flexibility, customers desire for toll certainty, decontracting and opposition to rolled-in expansions for gathering and processing. An overview of Westcoast Energy's negotiated toll settlement, its implications, and the components of Westcoast Energy's 'light handed regulation' (LHR) was presented

  15. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  16. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  17. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  18. Renewable Energy Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimian, Vachik

    The renewable energy sector is evolving, and today, renewable energy has become a viable alternative for many facilities. Because this sector is in its infancy stage, lack of experience has resulted in failing solar projects. This project involves the design and implementation of a functioning web application that streamlines and automates the planning, risk assessment and financing of a solar development project. The three key stakeholders, the host facility, solar installer and financier are seamlessly integrated into a single marketplace. By designing a project development workflow, projects are vetted early on and terminated if deemed infeasible, saving time and resources. By risk assessing the project using the proposed scoring model, one can inherit more confident investors. The project scoring model also serves as a debt rating system, where investors can measure the risk/rewards. The platform will also serve as a communication medium between the three stakeholders. Besides storing documents like engineering drawings, permits, etc., the platform auto-generates all necessary transactional documents, legal documents and agreements among the three stakeholders.

  19. Renewables 2007 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Mastny, Lisa; Rosbotham, Lyle; Suding, Paul; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; Lempp, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, more than $100 billion was invested in new renewable energy capacity, manufacturing plants, and research and development-a true global milestone. Yet perceptions lag behind the reality of renewable energy because change has been so rapid in recent years. This report captures that reality and provides an overview of the status of renewable energy worldwide in 2007. The report covers trends in markets, investments, industries, policies, and rural (off-grid) renewable energy. (By design, the report does not provide analysis, discuss current issues, or forecast the future.) Many of the trends reflect increasing significance relative to conventional energy

  20. Regulatory guidance for license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, John A.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed 10 CFR Part 54 rule proceduralizes the process for license renewal by identifying both the administrative and technical requirements for a renewal application. To amplify and support this regulation, written guidance has been provided in the form of a draft Regulatory Guide (DG 1009) and a draft Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (NUREG 1299). This guidance is scheduled to be finalized in 1992. Similar guidance will be provided for the proposed revisions to 10 CFR Part 51 concerning the environmental aspects of license renewal. (author)

  1. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory...... are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene....

  2. Obstacle traversal and route choice in flying honeybees: Evidence for individual handedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielle Ong

    Full Text Available Flying insects constantly face the challenge of choosing efficient, safe and collision-free routes while navigating through dense foliage. We examined the route-choice behavior of foraging honeybees when they encountered a barrier which could be traversed by flying through one of two apertures, positioned side by side. When the bees' choice behavior was averaged over the entire tested population, the two apertures were chosen with equal frequency when they were equally wide. When the apertures were of different width, the bees, on average, showed a preference for the wider aperture, which increased sharply with the difference between the aperture widths. Thus, bees are able to discriminate the widths of oncoming gaps and choose the passage which is presumably safer and quicker to transit. Examination of the behavior of individual bees revealed that, when the two apertures were equally wide, ca. 55% of the bees displayed no side bias in their choices. However, the remaining 45% showed varying degrees of bias, with one half of them preferring the left-hand aperture, and the other half the right-hand aperture. The existence of distinct individual biases was confirmed by measuring the times required by biased bees to transit various aperture configurations: The transit time was longer if a bee's intrinsic bias forced it to engage with the narrower aperture. Our results show that, at the population level, bees do not exhibit 'handedness' in choosing routes; however, individual bees display an idiosyncratic bias that can range from a strong left bias, through zero bias, to a strong right bias. In honeybees, previous studies of olfactory and visual learning have demonstrated clear biases at the population level. To our knowledge, our study is the first to uncover the existence of individually distinct biases in honeybees. We also show how a distribution of biases among individual honeybees can be advantageous in facilitating rapid transit of a group of

  3. Thermophysical Properties Along Curiosity's Traverse in Gale Crater, Mars, Derived from the REMS Ground Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Lewis, Kevin W.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Smith, Michael Doyle

    2016-01-01

    The REMS instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, has measured ground temperature nearly continuously at hourly intervals for two Mars years. Coverage of the entire diurnal cycle at 1 Hz is available every few martian days. We compare these measurements with predictions of surface atmosphere thermal models to derive the apparent thermal inertia and thermally derived albedo along the rovers traverse after accounting for the radiative effects of atmospheric water ice during fall and winter, as is necessary to match the measured seasonal trend. The REMS measurements can distinguish between active sand, other loose materials, mudstone, and sandstone based on their thermophysical properties. However, the apparent thermal inertias of bedrock dominated surfaces [approx. 350-550 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1 s(exp. -1/2 )] are lower than expected. We use rover imagery and the detailed shape of the diurnal ground temperature curve to explore whether lateral or vertical heterogeneity in the surface materials within the sensor footprint might explain the low inertias. We find that the bedrock component of the surface can have a thermal inertia as high as 650-1700 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1) s(exp. -1/2) for mudstone sites and approx. 700 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1) s(exp. - 1/2) for sandstone sites in models runs that include lateral and vertical mixing. Although the results of our forward modeling approach may be non-unique, they demonstrate the potential to extract information about lateral and vertical variations in thermophysical properties from temporally resolved measurements of ground temperature.

  4. Benthic Dinitrogen Fixation Traversing the Oxygen Minimum Zone Off Mauritania (NW Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Gier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its potential to provide new nitrogen (N to the environment, knowledge on benthic dinitrogen (N2 fixation remains relatively sparse, and its contribution to the marine N budget is regarded as minor. Benthic N2 fixation is often observed in organic-rich sediments coupled to heterotrophic metabolisms, such as sulfate reduction. In the present study, benthic N2 fixation together with sulfate reduction and other heterotrophic metabolisms were investigated at six station between 47 and 1,108 m water depth along the 18°N transect traversing the highly productive upwelling region known as Mauritanian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. Bottom water oxygen concentrations ranged between 30 and 138 μM. Benthic N2 fixation determined by the acetylene reduction assay was detected at all stations with highest rates (0.15 mmol m−2 d−1 on the shelf (47 and 90 m water depth and lowest rates (0.08 mmol m−2 d−1 below 412 m water depth. The biogeochemical data suggest that part of the N2 fixation could be linked to sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria. Molecular analysis of the key functional marker gene for N2 fixation, nifH, confirmed the presence of sulfate- and iron-reducing diazotrophs. High N2 fixation further coincided with bioirrigation activity caused by burrowing macrofauna, both of which showed high rates at the shelf sites and low rates in deeper waters. However, statistical analyses proved that none of these processes and environmental variables were significantly correlated with benthic diazotrophy, which lead to the conclusion that either the key parameter controlling benthic N2 fixation in Mauritanian sediments remains unidentified or that a more complex interaction of control mechanisms exists. N2 fixation rates in Mauritanian sediments were 2.7 times lower than those from the anoxic Peruvian OMZ.

  5. Carbon monoxide levels in popular passenger commuting modes traversing major commuting routes in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, L.Y.; Liu, Y.M.

    2001-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust is a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities. Commuters are exposed to high traffic-related pollutant concentrations. Public transportation is the most popular commuting mode in Hong Kong and there are about 10.8 million passenger trips every day. Two-thirds of them are road commuters. An extensive survey was conducted to measure carbon monoxide in three popular passenger commuting modes, bus, minibus, and taxi, which served, respectively, 3.91 million, 1.76 million and 1.31 million passenger trips per day in 1998. Three types of commuting microenvironments were selected: urban-urban, urban-suburban and urban-rural. Results indicated that in-vehicle CO level increased in the following order: bus, minibus and taxi. The overall average in-vehicle CO level in air-conditioned bus, minibus and taxi were 1.8, 2.9 and 3.3ppm, respectively. The average concentration level between air-conditioned buses (1.8ppm) and non-air-conditioned buses (1.9ppm) was insignificant. The fluctuation of in-vehicle CO level of non-air-conditioned vehicle followed the variation of out-vehicle CO concentration. Our result also showed that even in air-conditioned vehicles, the in-vehicle CO concentration was affected by the out-vehicle CO concentration although there exists a smoothing out effect. The in-vehicle CO level was the highest in urban-suburban commuting routes and was followed by urban-urban routes. The in-vehicle CO level in urban-rural routes was the lowest. The highest CO level was recorded after the vehicle traversed through tunnel.. The average CO exposure level of public road transportation commuters in Honk Kong was lower than most other cities. Factors governing the CO levels were also discussed. (Author)

  6. An Arduino microcontroller based digitalization of a vertical traversing mechanism used for the analysis of jet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S. M. Rakibur; Roshid, S. M. Al Mamun Or; Nishan, Ishtiaque Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the design of a drive system of traversing mechanism used to position the pitot tube in desired position of the jet flow field. In this system a stepper motor is driven by a `dual H bridge' motor driver and programmed Arduino microcontroller. The stepper motor is made to move in precise steps to obtain desired movement of the traversing mechanism. The jet flow is characterized in three distinct zones - initial zone, transition zone and developed zone. Each zone can be divided into required number of segments based on variation of velocity. By assigning number of segments, step range and number of steps in each segment as inputs, it is possible to collect data in all the flow zones according to our programmed schedule. The system will allow taking a large number of readings automatically.

  7. Comparing Geologic Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping: Desert Rats Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wanda; Evans, Cynthia; Gruener, John; Eppler, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Geologic mapping involves interpreting relationships between identifiable units and landforms to understand the formative history of a region. Traditional field techniques are used to accomplish this on Earth. Mapping proves more challenging for other planets, which are studied primarily by orbital remote sensing and, less frequently, by robotic and human surface exploration. Systematic comparative assessments of geologic maps created by traditional mapping versus photogeology together with data from planned traverses are limited. The objective of this project is to produce a geologic map from data collected on the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 analog mission using Apollo-style traverses in conjunction with remote sensing data. This map is compared with a geologic map produced using standard field techniques.

  8. Detecting Traversable Area and Water Hazards for the Visually Impaired with a pRGB-D Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kailun; Wang, Kaiwei; Cheng, Ruiqi; Hu, Weijian; Huang, Xiao; Bai, Jian

    2017-08-17

    The use of RGB-Depth (RGB-D) sensors for assisting visually impaired people (VIP) has been widely reported as they offer portability, function-diversity and cost-effectiveness. However, polarization cues to assist traversability awareness without precautions against stepping into water areas are weak. In this paper, a polarized RGB-Depth (pRGB-D) framework is proposed to detect traversable area and water hazards simultaneously with polarization-color-depth-attitude information to enhance safety during navigation. The approach has been tested on a pRGB-D dataset, which is built for tuning parameters and evaluating the performance. Moreover, the approach has been integrated into a wearable prototype which generates a stereo sound feedback to guide visually impaired people (VIP) follow the prioritized direction to avoid obstacles and water hazards. Furthermore, a preliminary study with ten blindfolded participants suggests its effectivity and reliability.

  9. Magnetic investigations along selected high-resolution seismic traverses in the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.A.; Sikora, R.F.; Roberts, C.W.; Morin, R.L.; Halvorson, P.F.

    1995-01-01

    Ground magnetic data collected along several traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are interpreted. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Magnetic data and models along traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain reveal anomalies associated with known faults and indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. The central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting. Magnetic modeling of the terrain along the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain indicates that terrain induced magnetic anomalies of about 100 to 150 nT are present along some profiles where steep terrain exists above the magnetometer

  10. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat by making you feel full after eating small amounts of food. After surgery, your doctor can adjust the band ... You will feel full after eating just a small amount of food. The food in the small upper pouch will ...

  11. Decay of superdeformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in 194 Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs

  12. HYBASE - HYperspectral BAnd SElection tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Seijen, H.H. van

    2008-01-01

    Band selection is essential in the design of multispectral sensor systems. This paper describes the TNO hyperspectral band selection tool HYBASE. It calculates the optimum band positions given the number of bands and the width of the spectral bands. HYBASE is used to calculate the minimum number of

  13. Efficient implementation of the 3D-DDA ray traversal algorithm on GPU and its application in radiation dose calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kai; Chen, Danny Z; Hu, X Sharon; Zhou, Bo

    2012-12-01

    The three-dimensional digital differential analyzer (3D-DDA) algorithm is a widely used ray traversal method, which is also at the core of many convolution∕superposition (C∕S) dose calculation approaches. However, porting existing C∕S dose calculation methods onto graphics processing unit (GPU) has brought challenges to retaining the efficiency of this algorithm. In particular, straightforward implementation of the original 3D-DDA algorithm inflicts a lot of branch divergence which conflicts with the GPU programming model and leads to suboptimal performance. In this paper, an efficient GPU implementation of the 3D-DDA algorithm is proposed, which effectively reduces such branch divergence and improves performance of the C∕S dose calculation programs running on GPU. The main idea of the proposed method is to convert a number of conditional statements in the original 3D-DDA algorithm into a set of simple operations (e.g., arithmetic, comparison, and logic) which are better supported by the GPU architecture. To verify and demonstrate the performance improvement, this ray traversal method was integrated into a GPU-based collapsed cone convolution∕superposition (CCCS) dose calculation program. The proposed method has been tested using a water phantom and various clinical cases on an NVIDIA GTX570 GPU. The CCCS dose calculation program based on the efficient 3D-DDA ray traversal implementation runs 1.42 ∼ 2.67× faster than the one based on the original 3D-DDA implementation, without losing any accuracy. The results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce branch divergence in the original 3D-DDA ray traversal algorithm and improve the performance of the CCCS program running on GPU. Considering the wide utilization of the 3D-DDA algorithm, various applications can benefit from this implementation method.

  14. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Renewable energy is now a mainstream concern among businesses and governments across the world, and could be considered a characteristic preoccupation of our time. It is interesting to note that many of the energy technologies currently being developed date back to very different eras, and even predate the industrial revolution. The fuel cell was first invented as long ago as 1838 by the Swiss--German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein [1], and the idea of harnessing solar power dates back to ancient Greece [2]. The enduring fascination with new means of harnessing energy is no doubt linked to man's innate delight in expending it, whether it be to satisfy the drive of curiosity, or from a hunger for entertainment, or to power automated labour-saving devices. But this must be galvanized by the sustained ability to improve device performance, unearthing original science, and asking new questions, for example regarding the durability of photovoltaic devices [3]. As in so many fields, advances in hydrogen storage technology for fuel cells have benefited significantly from nanotechnology. The idea is that the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release may be reduced by decreasing the particle size. An understanding of how effective this may be has been hampered by limited knowledge of the way the thermodynamics are affected by atom or molecule cluster size. Detailed calculations of individual atoms in clusters are limited by computational resources as to the number of atoms that can studied, and other innovative approaches that deal with force fields derived by extrapolating the difference between the properties of clusters and bulk matter require labour-intensive modifications when extending such studies to new materials. In [4], researchers in the US use an alternative approach, considering the nanoparticle as having the same crystal structure as the bulk but relaxing the few layers of atoms near the surface. The favourable features of nanostructures for catalysis

  15. Hurricane Spiral Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Thomas A.; Schubert, Wayne H.

    1993-10-01

    The spiral bands that occur in tropical cyclones can be conveniently divided into two classes-outer bands and inner bands. Evidence is presented here that the outer bands form as the result of nonlinear effects during the breakdown of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) through barotropic instability. In this process a zonal strip of high potential vorticity (the ITCZ shear zone or monsoon trough) begins to distort in a varicose fashion, with the potential vorticity (PV) becoming pooled in local regions that are connected by filaments of high PV. As the pooled regions become more axisymmetric, the filaments become thinner and begin to wrap around the PV centers.It is argued that inner bands form in a different manner. As a tropical cyclone intensifies due to latent heat release, the PV field becomes nearly circular with the highest values of PV in the cyclone center. The radial gradient of PV provides a state on which PV waves (the generalization of Rossby waves) can propagate. The nonlinear breaking of PV waves then leads to an irreversible distortion of the PV contours and a downgradient flux of PV. The continuation of this proem tends to erode the high PV core of the tropical cyclone, to produce a surrounding surf zone, and hence to spread the PV horizontally. In a similar fashion, inner bands can also form by the merger of a vortex with a patch of relatively high PV air. As the merger proem occurs the patch of PV is quickly elongated and wrapped around the vortex. The resulting vortex is generally larger in horizontal extent and exhibits a spiral band of PV.When the formation of outer and inner bands is interpreted in the context of a normal-mode spectral model, they emerge as slow manifold phenomena; that is, they have both rotational and (balanced or slaved) gravitational mode aspects. In this sense, regarding them as simply gravity waves leads to an incomplete dynamical picture.

  16. Mechanical Properties and Wear Behavior of AA5182/WC Nanocomposite Fabricated by Friction Stir Welding at Different Tool Traverse Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paidar, Moslem; Asgari, Ali; Ojo, Olatunji Oladimeji; Saberi, Abbas

    2018-03-01

    Grain growth inhibition at the heat-affected zone, improved weld strength and superior tribological properties of welds are desirable attributes of modern manufacturing. With the focused on these attributes, tungsten carbide (WC) nanoparticles were employed as reinforcements for the friction stir welding of 5-mm-thick AA5182 aluminum alloy by varying tool traverse speeds. The microstructure, microhardness, ultimate tensile strength, fracture and wear behavior of the resultant WC-reinforced welds were investigated, while unreinforced AA5182 welds were employed as controls for the study. The result shows that the addition of WC nanoparticles causes substantial grain refinement within the weld nugget. A decrease in traverse speed caused additional particle fragmentation, improved hardness value and enhanced weld strength in the reinforced welds. Improved wear rate and friction coefficient of welds were attained at a reduced traverse speed of 100 mm/min in the WC-reinforced welds. This improvement is attributed to the effects of reduced grain size/grain fragmentation and homogeneous dispersion of WC nanoparticles within the WC-reinforced weld nugget.

  17. Rewards of renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Gregory

    2008-09-01

    In 1987 an American-style fridge freezer would use about 950 kWh of electricity and cost about 150 (£80) a year to run. Two decades on, a comparable appliance uses half the electricity and costs less than half as much to run. In 1975 there were about 3780 000 cars on the streets of Los Angeles, whereas today there are more than 5200 000 - yet air-pollution levels have fallen by half and an increasing number of those vehicles are hybrids or rely on renewable fuels like bio-diesel. Last year, half a million homes in Southern California were receiving direct solar power, either from solar electricity plants or from rooftop photovoltaic panels.

  18. Renewable acrylonitrile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Eric M; Eaton, Todd R; Sànchez I Nogué, Violeta; Vorotnikov, Vassili; Biddy, Mary J; Tan, Eric C D; Brandner, David G; Cywar, Robin M; Liu, Rongming; Manker, Lorenz P; Michener, William E; Gilhespy, Michelle; Skoufa, Zinovia; Watson, Michael J; Fruchey, O Stanley; Vardon, Derek R; Gill, Ryan T; Bratis, Adam D; Beckham, Gregg T

    2017-12-08

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a petroleum-derived compound used in resins, polymers, acrylics, and carbon fiber. We present a process for renewable ACN production using 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), which can be produced microbially from sugars. The process achieves ACN molar yields exceeding 90% from ethyl 3-hydroxypropanoate (ethyl 3-HP) via dehydration and nitrilation with ammonia over an inexpensive titanium dioxide solid acid catalyst. We further describe an integrated process modeled at scale that is based on this chemistry and achieves near-quantitative ACN yields (98 ± 2%) from ethyl acrylate. This endothermic approach eliminates runaway reaction hazards and achieves higher yields than the standard propylene ammoxidation process. Avoidance of hydrogen cyanide as a by-product also improves process safety and mitigates product handling requirements. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Participatory urban renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts. The first deals with the theoretical framework of urban rehabilitation. Literature provides the basis for a conclusion, which is that the key issue in rehabilitation projects is legitimate negotiation of various interests between participating individuals and institutions. In the second part this presentation and analyses of events that took place at the urban design workshop organised within the framework of the research project Renewal of housing estates in Ljubljana, provide experiential confirmation of the starting thesis. We established that the directly involved residents were willing to actively participate in rehabilitation procedures, however the process is never triggered, because of insufficient capacities in institutional frameworks. In conclusion several real proposals are shown, namely, how to surmount obstacles in urban rehabilitation and especially in larger housing estates built after World War 2.

  20. Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Electricity is nowadays commonly exchanged through electricity markets, designed in a context where dispatchable generators, with non-negligible marginal costs, were dominating. By depending primarily on conventional (fossil, hydro and nuclear) power generation based on marginal pricing, determin...... coupled day-ahead markets for the member states and co-ordination for balancing, by looking into coupling mechanisms that promote the effective cooperation between the power systems of various countries.......Electricity is nowadays commonly exchanged through electricity markets, designed in a context where dispatchable generators, with non-negligible marginal costs, were dominating. By depending primarily on conventional (fossil, hydro and nuclear) power generation based on marginal pricing......, deterministic market designs were considered adequate with straightforward setups consisting of a forward optimal allocation accompanied by a real-time balancing mechanism. However, as the share of renewable sources of energy (RES) increases, such market designs tend to become inefficient since they were...

  1. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity...... grids should be seen as part of overall smart energy systems and emphasizes the inclusion of flexible combined heat and power (CHP) production in the electricity balancing and grid stabilization. Furthermore, it highlights how to design and model future sustainable smart energy systems.......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...

  2. Renewable Acrylonitrile Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Karp, Eric M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eaton, Todd R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sanchez i Nogue, Violeta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vorotnikov, Vassili [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandner, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Manker, Lorenz [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bratis, Adam D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Rongming [University of Colorado; Gill, Ryan T. [University of Colorado; Gilhespy, Michelle [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Skoufa, Zinovia [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Watson, Michael J. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre; Fruchey, O. Stanley [MATRIC; Cywar, Robin M. [Formerly NREL

    2017-12-08

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a petroleum-derived compound used in resins, polymers, acrylics, and carbon fiber. We present a process for renewable ACN production using 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), which can be produced microbially from sugars. The process achieves ACN molar yields exceeding 90% from ethyl 3-hydroxypropanoate (ethyl 3-HP) via dehydration and nitrilation with ammonia over an inexpensive titanium dioxide solid acid catalyst. We further describe an integrated process modeled at scale that is based on this chemistry and achieves near-quantitative ACN yields (98 +/- 2%) from ethyl acrylate. This endothermic approach eliminates runaway reaction hazards and achieves higher yields than the standard propylene ammoxidation process. Avoidance of hydrogen cyanide as a by-product also improves process safety and mitigates product handling requirements.

  3. Renewable Energy Certificate Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwendolyn S. Andersen

    2012-07-17

    This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

  4. Renewal Processes and Repairable Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss the following topics: 1. Renewal reward processes The marginal distributions of renewal reward processes and its version, which we call in this thesis instantaneous reward processes, are derived. Our approach is based on the theory of point processes, especially Poisson

  5. Renewable Energy Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Kidwai, Naimur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    The issue of renewable energy sources that have great potential to give solutions to the longstanding energy problems of India has been considered. It has been stated that renewable energy sources are an important part of India's plan to increase energy security and provide new generation with ample job opportunities. India's plans to move towards…

  6. Business development in renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Visa, Ion

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses how to foster development of renewable energy business. Factors that impede or enhance renewable energy in the EU 27 member states in the period 1998–2008 are analyzed. Nine factors are considered: population density, production output and energy sector output to indicate market

  7. Renewable Energy in European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    The regional dynamics of energy innovation, in particular the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the EU, is discussed within the framework of neo-Schumpeterian theory. The EU’s 4.2% average annual growth in renewable energy production in the last decade has been accompanied by diverging

  8. Renewable energies: public policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazi, Laure; Souletie, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES) are low-carbon energies available right within our borders, and as such can be of great value in addressing the challenges of climate change and energy security. In 2014, renewable energies accounted for 14.6% of France's gross final energy consumption. The French Energy Transition Act for Green Growth sets renewables targets of 23% and 32% as a share of gross final energy consumption by 2020 and 2030, respectively. However, renewable energies are still more costly than conventional energies. A significant share of this additional cost is borne by energy consumers, particularly in the form of energy taxation and biofuels blending obligations. Public aid is also provided to support heat production from renewable energy sources (RES-H). The two most significant aids available today are the Energy Transition Tax Credit (CITE) and the Heat Fund. Comparing the various types of renewable energies shows sharp disparities in terms of the cost of avoiding one tonne of CO 2 , which ranges from euros 59 to more than euros 500 for electricity production it follows that the cost of the energy transition is likely to vary significantly depending on which renewable energy sources are pushed to the fore. The combustion of biomass for heat production appears to offer an economically efficient way to reduce CO 2 emissions. Of the various renewable technologies available for the production of electricity (with the exception of hydropower, which was excluded from the scope of this study), onshore wind power is the least costly

  9. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  10. Renewable energies for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freris, L.; Infield, D.

    2009-01-01

    Power generation from renewable energy sources is different from power generation from classical energies (nuclear, thermal..). Therefore, the integration into the grid of the electricity supplied by renewable sources requires a deep thinking. The reason is that these power sources are controlled by variable elements, like wind, water and sun, which condition production. This book deals with the following aspects in detail: characteristics of classical and intermittent generators; grid balancing between supply and demand; conversion methods of renewable energies into electricity; power systems; privatizing of power generation and birth of new markets, in particular the 'green' power market; development of renewable energies thanks to technical advances. It gives a comprehensive overview of the present day available renewable energy sources for power generation. (J.S.)

  11. Somerset County Renewable Energy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katula, Denise [County of Somerset, Somervile, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The County of Somerset, New Jersey, through the Somerset County Improvement Authority (SCIA), applied Federal funding through the U.S. Department of Energy to will apply project funds to buy-down the capital costs of equipment associated with the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at two sites owned by the County. This Renewable Energy Initiative allows the County to take advantage of clean renewable energy, without any adverse debt impacts, and at a price that results in operating budget savings beyond what is presently available in the marketplace. This project addressed the objectives of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by making the acquisition of renewable energy more affordable for the County, thereby, encouraging other counties and local units to develop similar programs and increase the deployment of solar energy technologies. The two sites that were funded by the DOE grant are part of a much larger, ambitious, and unique renewable energy project, described in the next section.

  12. New renewables - a business challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, G.

    2004-01-01

    This article takes a look at the increased use of renewable forms of energy and, in particular, the so-called 'new renewables' that are the subject of discussion in Europe and Switzerland. The wide divergence between the political and economical viewpoints concerning renewables is examined and the question is posed on how political desires and economical sense can be brought closer together. Questions concerning the public acceptance of various forms of energy are looked at and the expectations placed on renewable forms of energy are commented on. Criteria for models of promotion are listed including CO 2 emissions, technology and cost efficiency, marketing aspects and flexibility. Also, aspects concerning plausibility, fairness and responsibility are looked at. A model named 'Swiss Renewables Model' is proposed and its efficiency, functionality and financing are discussed

  13. Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2010-01-01

    Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files are solved. A simple file is made of Brownian hard spheres that diffuse stochastically in an effective 1D channel. Generally, Brownian files are heterogeneous: the spheres' diffusion coefficients are distributed and the initial spheres' density is non-uniform. In renewal-anomalous files, the distribution of waiting times for individual jumps is not exponential as in Brownian files, yet obeys: ψ α (t)∼t -1-α , 0 2 >, obeys, 2 >∼ 2 > nrml α , where 2 > nrml is the MSD in the corresponding Brownian file. This scaling is an outcome of an exact relation (derived here) connecting probability density functions of Brownian files and renewal-anomalous files. It is also shown that non-renewal-anomalous files are slower than the corresponding renewal ones.

  14. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  15. Modeling renewable energy company risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2012-01-01

    The renewable energy sector is one of the fastest growing components of the energy industry and along with this increased demand for renewable energy there has been an increase in investing and financing activities. The tradeoff between risk and return in the renewable energy sector is, however, precarious. Renewable energy companies are often among the riskiest types of companies to invest in and for this reason it is necessary to have a good understanding of the risk factors. This paper uses a variable beta model to investigate the determinants of renewable energy company risk. The empirical results show that company sales growth has a negative impact on company risk while oil price increases have a positive impact on company risk. When oil price returns are positive and moderate, increases in sales growth can offset the impact of oil price returns and this leads to lower systematic risk.

  16. DSM renewable opportunities in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennis, M.W.; Nogee, A.J. [Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA (United States); Coakley, S. [Boston Edison DSM Settlement Board, Lexington, MA (United States); Schoengold, D. [MSB Energy Associates, Middleton, WI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), in conjunction with MSB Energy Associates, conducted a study for the Boston Edison Demand-Side Management (DSM) Settlement Board on the potential for DSM renewables in the Boston area. DSM renewables are resources that can be used in a distributed utility approach to avoid transmission and distribution (T and D) costs, as well as costs associated with operating and building power plants. The results show that avoided costs in areas with deferrable T and D investments can be nearly twice as high as system-wide average avoided costs. As a result, renewable technologies that might not be considered cost effective as DSM under system-wide average criteria, can produce large shavings for the utility and its customers. Adopting a deliberate program designed to provide sustained orderly development of these renewables is essential in order for renewable technologies to achieve the maximum level of cost-effectiveness and net savings.

  17. Starr Ranch Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr Ranch Renewable Energy success story is the summary of a renewable energy study by U.S. EPA Region 6. This publication summarizes the analyses to determine appropriate renewable energy options in Starr Ranch.

  18. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  19. Photonic band gap materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassagne, D.

    Photonic band gap materials Photonic band gap materials are periodic dielectric structures that control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. We describe the plane wave method, which allows to calculate the band structures of photonic crystals. By symmetry analysis and a perturbative approach, we predict the appearance of the low energy photonic band gaps of hexagonal structures. We propose new two-dimensional structures called graphite and boron nitride. Using a transfer matrix method, we calculate the transmission of the graphite structure and we show the crucial role of the coupling with external modes. We study the appearance of allowed modes in the photonic band gap by the introduction of localized defects in the periodicity. Finally, we discuss the properties of opals formed by self-organized silica microspheres, which are very promising for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals. Les matériaux à bandes interdites photoniques sont des structures diélectriques périodiques qui contrôlent la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques. Nous décrivons la méthode des ondes planes qui permet de calculer les structures de bandes des cristaux photoniques. Par une analyse de la symétrie et une approche perturbative, nous précisons les conditions d'existence des bandes interdites de basse énergie. Nous proposons de nouvelles structures bidimensionnelles appelées graphite et nitrure de bore. Grâce à une méthode de matrices de transfert, nous calculons la transmission de la structure graphite et nous mettons en évidence le rôle fondamental du couplage avec les modes extérieurs. Nous étudions l'apparition de modes permis dans la bande interdite grâce à l'introduction de défauts dans la périodicité. Enfin, nous discutons les propriétés des opales constituées de micro-billes de silice auto-organisées, qui sont très prometteuses pour la fabrication de cristaux photoniques tridimensionnels.

  20. Restrictive techniques: gastric banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina da Cunha

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery for the treatment of severe obesity has a definite role onthe therapeutic armamentarium all over the world. Initiated 40years ago, bariatric surgery has already a long way thanks tohundred of surgeons, who had constantly searched for the besttechnique for the adequate control of severe obesity. Among theimportant breakthroughs in obesity surgery there is theadjustable gastric band. It is a sylastic band, inflatable andadjustable, which is placed on the top of the stomach in order tocreate a 15-20 cc pouch, with an outlet of 1.3cm. The adjustablegastric band has also a subcutaneous reservoir through whichadjustments can be made, according to the patient evolution.The main feature of the adjustable gastric band is the fact thatis minimal invasive, reversible, adjustable and placedlaparoscopically. Then greatly diminishing the surgical traumato the severe obese patient. Belachew and Favretti’s techniqueof laparoscopic application of the adjustable gastric band isdescribed and the evolution of the technique during this years,as we has been practiced since 1998. The perioperative care ofthe patient is also described, as well as the follow-up and shortand long term controls.

  1. Building a sustainable market for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, N.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding marketing approaches for electricity generation from renewable resources are presented in the paper. The Renewables Portfolio Standard of the California Public Utilities Commission is described. This system is based on renewable energy credits. Other marketing approaches, including surcharges, auctioned renewables credit, green pricing, and green marketing are also assessed. It is concluded that the Renewables Portfolio Standard creates a stable economic environment for the renewable energy industries.

  2. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  3. renewables 2011 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Martinot, Eric; Barnes, Douglas; Martinot, Eric; McCrone, Angus; Roussell, Jodie; Sawin, Janet L.; Sims, Ralph; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; Adib, Rana; Skeen, Jonathan; Musolino, Evan; Riahi, Lily; Mastny, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Changes in renewable energy markets, investments, industries, and policies have been so rapid in recent years that perceptions of the status of renewable energy can lag years behind the reality. This report captures that reality and provides a unique overview of renewable energy worldwide as of early 2011. The report covers both current status and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast the future. Global energy consumption rebounded in 2010 after an overall downturn in 2009. Renewable energy, which experienced no downturn in 2009, continued to grow strongly in all end-use sectors - power, heat and transport - and supplied an estimated 16% of global final energy consumption. Renewable energy accounted for approximately half of the estimated 194 gigawatts (GW) of new electric capacity added globally during the year. Renewables delivered close to 20% of global electricity supply in 2010, and by early 2011 they comprised one quarter of global power capacity from all sources. In several countries, renewables represent a rapidly growing share of total energy supply, including heat and transport

  4. Renewables 2013. Global Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawin, J.L. (ed.) [and others

    2013-07-01

    Renewable energy markets, industries, and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. The Renewables Global Status Report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by many contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecasts. This latest Renewables Global Status Report saw: a shift in investment patterns that led to a global decrease in clean energy investment; continuing growth in installed capacity due to significant technology cost reductions and increased investment in developing countries; renewables progressively supplementing established electricity systems, demonstrating that the implementation of suitable policies can enable the successful integration of higher shares of variable renewables; and the emergence of integrated policy approaches that link energy efficiency measures with the implementation of renewable energy technologies.

  5. Renewable energy potential in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Guzman, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.

  6. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  7. Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigeant, Paul [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); Miller, John [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); Howes, Brian [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Baldwin, Kenneth [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Grilli, Annette [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Terray, Eugene [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2013-10-08

    Project Goals: The funding provided by this contract supported the following activities: A) Test Site Development; B) Seed Grant Funded Technology Development; C) Stakeholder Activities The first year of funding was dedicated to the formation of the NE MREC University Consortium which was comprised of University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (UMD) and Amherst (UMA), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), University of New Hampshire (UNH), and the University of Rhode Island (URI). The consortium worked together to encourage research and promote benefits of obtaining energy from ocean wind, waves, tides and currents. In addition, NE MREC’s goal was to fund projects aimed at potential test sites with the first year funding going to studies of the potential for tidal device testing in Muskeget Channel, at the General Sullivan Bridge in New Hampshire, and for wave device testing at the proposed National Offshore Renewable Energy Innovation Zone (NOREIZ) located off the Massachusetts coast. The project spanned 4.5 years and addressed three specific tasks that are interrelated but also served as independent investigations.

  8. Renewables 2005. Global status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the status of renewable energy worldwide in 2005. It covers markets, investments, industries, policies, and rural (off-grid) renewable energy in developing countries. By design, the report does not provide analysis, recommendations, or conclusions. An extensive research and review process over several months involving more than 100 researchers and contributors has kept inaccuracies to a minimum. REN21 sees this report as the beginning of an active exchange of views and information. This report reveals some surprising facts about renewable energy, many reflecting strong growth trends and increasing significance relative to conventional energy. (au)

  9. Renewables 2005 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the status of renewable energy worldwide in 2005. It covers markets, investments, industries, policies, and rural (off-grid) renewable energy in developing countries. By design, the report does not provide analysis, recommendations, or conclusions. An extensive research and review process over several months involving more than 100 researchers and contributors has kept inaccuracies to a minimum. REN21 sees this report as the beginning of an active exchange of views and information. This report reveals some surprising facts about renewable energy, many reflecting strong growth trends and increasing significance relative to conventional energy

  10. Renewables 2005. Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the status of renewable energy worldwide in 2005. It covers markets, investments, industries, policies, and rural (off-grid) renewable energy in developing countries. By design, the report does not provide analysis, recommendations, or conclusions. An extensive research and review process over several months involving more than 100 researchers and contributors has kept inaccuracies to a minimum. REN21 sees this report as the beginning of an active exchange of views and information. This report reveals some surprising facts about renewable energy, many reflecting strong growth trends and increasing significance relative to conventional energy. (au)

  11. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  12. Renewable, ethical? Assessing the energy justice potential of renewable electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Banerjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy justice is increasingly being used as a framework to conceptualize the impacts of energy decision making in more holistic ways and to consider the social implications in terms of existing ethical values. Similarly, renewable energy technologies are increasingly being promoted for their environmental and social benefits. However, little work has been done to systematically examine the extent to which, in what ways and in what contexts, renewable energy technologies can contribute to achieving energy justice. This paper assesses the potential of renewable electricity technologies to address energy justice in various global contexts via a systematic review of existing studies analyzed in terms of the principles and dimensions of energy justice. Based on publications including peer reviewed academic literature, books, and in some cases reports by government or international organizations, we assess renewable electricity technologies in both grid integrated and off-grid use contexts. We conduct our investigation through the rubric of the affirmative and prohibitive principles of energy justice and in terms of its temporal, geographic, socio-political, economic, and technological dimensions. Renewable electricity technology development has and continue to have different impacts in different social contexts, and by considering the different impacts explicitly across global contexts, including differences between rural and urban contexts, this paper contributes to identifying and understanding how, in what ways, and in what particular conditions and circumstances renewable electricity technologies may correspond with or work to promote energy justice.

  13. Renewables 2010 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Martinot, Eric; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; McCrone, Angus; Roussell, Jodie; Barnes, Douglas; Flavin, Christopher; Mastny, Lisa; Kraft, Diana; Wang, Shannon; Ellenbeck, Saskia; Ilieva, Lili; Griebenow, Christof; Adib, Rana; Lempp, Philippe; Welker, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Changes in renewable energy markets, investments, industries, and policies have been so rapid in recent years that perceptions of the status of renewable energy can lag years behind the reality. This report captures that reality and provides a unique overview of renewable energy worldwide as of early 2010. The report covers both current status and key trends. By design, the report does not provide analysis, discuss current issues, or forecast the future. Many of the trends reflect the increasing significance of renewable energy relative to conventional energy sources (including coal, gas, oil, and nuclear). By 2010, renewable energy had reached a clear tipping point in the context of global energy supply. Renewables comprised fully one quarter of global power capacity from all sources and delivered 18 percent of global electricity supply in 2009. In a number of countries, renewables represent a rapidly growing share of total energy supply-including heat and transport. The share of households worldwide employing solar hot water heating continues to increase and is now estimated at 70 million households. And investment in new renewable power capacity in both 2008 and 2009 represented over half of total global investment in new power generation. Trends reflect strong growth and investment across all market sectors-power generation, heating and cooling, and transport fuels. Grid-connected solar PV has grown by an average of 60 percent every year for the past decade, increasing 100-fold since 2000. During the past five years from 2005 to 2009, consistent high growth year-after-year marked virtually every other renewable technology. During those five years, wind power capacity grew an average of 27 percent annually, solar hot water by 19 percent annually, and ethanol production by 20 percent annually. Biomass and geothermal for power and heat also grew strongly. Much more active policy development during the past several years culminated in a significant policy milestone

  14. Microbial methanogenesis in the sulfate-reducing zone of surface sediments traversing the Peruvian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, J.; Sommer, S.; Dale, A. W.; Treude, T.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the concurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction in surface sediments (0-25 cm below sea floor) at six stations (70, 145, 253, 407, 990 and 1024 m) along the Peruvian margin (12° S). This oceanographic region is characterized by high carbon export to the seafloor creating an extensive oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the shelf, both factors that could favor surface methanogenesis. Sediments sampled along the depth transect traversed areas of anoxic and oxic conditions in the bottom-near water. Net methane production (batch incubations) and sulfate reduction (35S-sulfate radiotracer incubation) were determined in the upper 0-25 cm b.s.f. of multiple cores from all stations, while deep hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (> 30 cm b.s.f., 14C-bicarbonate radiotracer incubation) was determined in two gravity cores at selected sites (78 and 407 m). Furthermore, stimulation (methanol addition) and inhibition (molybdate addition) experiments were carried out to investigate the relationship between sulfate reduction and methanogenesis.Highest rates of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction in the surface sediments, integrated over 0-25 cm b.s.f., were observed on the shelf (70-253 m, 0.06-0.1 and 0.5-4.7 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively), while lowest rates were discovered at the deepest site (1024 m, 0.03 and 0.2 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively). The addition of methanol resulted in significantly higher surface methanogenesis activity, suggesting that the process was mostly based on non-competitive substrates - i.e., substrates not used by sulfate reducers. In the deeper sediment horizons, where competition was probably relieved due to the decrease of sulfate, the usage of competitive substrates was confirmed by the detection of hydrogenotrophic activity in the sulfate-depleted zone at the shallow shelf station (70 m).Surface methanogenesis appeared to be correlated to the availability of labile organic matter (C / N ratio) and organic carbon degradation (DIC production

  15. Renewable energy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.; Van Gerven, B.

    2001-01-01

    In two articles an overview is given of the developments in the Netherlands with respect to renewable energy. The Dutch government aims at wind power and biomass at the expense of solar energy and heat pumps and hydroelectric power [nl

  16. Financing of Renewable Energy Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santizo, Rodolfo; Berganza, Jose

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the role of the Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economica in financing renewable energy projects in Central America. Also decribes the different financing modes to the goverment and private sectors

  17. Renewable energy in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Allan; Myers, Stephen; Trow, Stuart

    1998-05-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of European Renewable Energy; Austria; Belgium; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Luxembourg; The Netherlands; Portugal; Spain; Sweden; The United Kingdom. (Author)

  18. Which leadership for renewable energies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumien, Marielle

    2016-02-01

    This publication first outlines that France is late in deploying renewable energies by 2020. It comments the application of the Energy multi-year plan (PPE), evokes the content of a report by the French Court of Auditors about costs and means of implementation of transition (with notably the issue of maintenance of nuclear plants). It also shows that European Union is not a leader in renewable energies any more, that some European countries are changing sides, that figures and trends must be carefully compared with those in the field of fossil and nuclear energies, that all energies are not all the same, that jobs and system integration are also important, that investments and attractiveness of countries in renewable energies must be assessed, and that a mobilisation on small scale and consumer-based renewable energies is required. Ten recommendations are made for France to support the EU leadership development

  19. Panorama of renewable electricity 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    RTE is the mainspring in enhancing energy transition and developing renewable energy in France. To further knowledge on the subject, we publish a detailed inventory of existing and projected wind and photovoltaic installations. This vast overview was achieved with the help of ERDF, ADEeF (Association of electricity distribution network operators in France) and SER (Association of renewable energy industrialists). 2014's outstanding facts: The wind and photovoltaic industries are the major contributor to the growth of renewable electrical energy (REN), with 14412 MW installed capacity at December 31, 2014. These two industries now represent a third of the generation capacity of REN in France. Renewable electricity generation power in metropolitan France amounts to 41382 MW, 61% of which is of hydroelectric origin

  20. Integrating Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, Antonio J.; Madsen, Henrik

    This addition to the ISOR series addresses the analytics of the operations of electric energy systems with increasing penetration of stochastic renewable production facilities, such as wind- and solar-based generation units. As stochastic renewable production units become ubiquitous throughout...... the variability and unpredictability of stochastic renewable units so that supply security is not at risk. • The trading of the electric energy produced by stochastic renewable producers. • The association of a number of electricity production facilities, stochastic and others, to increase their competitive edge...... electric energy systems, an increasing level of flexible backup provided by non-stochastic units and other system agents is needed if supply security and quality are to be maintained. Within the context above, this book provides up-to-date analytical tools to address challenging operational problems...

  1. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Solar

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  2. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Hydroelectric

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  3. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  4. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Geothermal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  5. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  6. Renewables Global Futures Report: Great debates towards 100% renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teske, Sven; Fattal, Alex; Lins, Christine; Hullin, Martin; Williamson, Laura E.

    2017-01-01

    The first version of REN21's Renewables Global Futures Report (GFR) published in January 2013 identified a panorama of likely future debates related to the renewable energy transition. As a reflection of the wide range of contemporary thinking by the many experts interviewed for the report, it did not present just one vision of the future but rather a 'mosaic' of insights. Given the positive feedback in response to the first edition, a new edition has been prepared, continuing where the last one left off. The objective of this report is to gather opinions about the feasibility of a 100% renewable energy future, and the macro-economic impacts it would entail. In so doing, the report reflects on the debates of 2013, and tracks their evolution to the present time. Some remain, some have changed, some have been overtaken by progress, and new ones have arisen. They are summarised here as the Great Debates in renewable energy. The questionnaire for the survey was developed in close cooperation between the REN21 Secretariat, the Institute for Sustainable Future (ISF) of the University of Technology Sydney/Australia (UTS) and the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam/Germany. It covered the following topics: 1. How much renewables?; 2. Power sector; 3. Heating and cooling; 4. Transport; 5. Storage; 6. Demand-side management and energy efficiency; 7. Integration of sectors; 8. Macro-economic considerations; 9. Technology and costs; 10. Policy; 11. Cities; 12. Distributed renewable energy/energy access; 13. Barriers/challenges/enablers. 114 experts were interviewed in total; the average interview time was approximately one hour. The interviews were conducted between May and October 2016. The questionnaire was also mirrored in an online version and used both by interviewers and interviewees to record the interview process. Interviewees were selected from the following regions: Africa, Australia and Oceania, China, Europe, India, Japan

  7. Panorama 2011: Ocean renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, P.; Vinot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Our society is looking increasingly to renewable energy sources in the face of the energy and environmental challenges with which it is grappling. As far as ocean renewable energies are concerned, a wide range of technologies is currently being experimented with, including wind power and energy derived from waves and tidal currents. They are all at varying levels of maturity, and bring with them very different technical and economic challenges. (author)

  8. The renewable energies: the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P.

    2005-03-01

    If one takes into account the hydroelectric power, the France is the first european country in the renewable energies domain. The position is also honorable concerning the wood energy. Meanwhile, for the solar and wind energy, France is late. To discuss this debate, the authors bring together today data on the renewable energies, offer some proposals for the next 50 years taking into account the reduction of greenhouse gases emission for 2050. (A.L.B.)

  9. Local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Although the vast majority of renewable energies projects are established by commercial developers, some of them are financed by ''ordinary citizens'' pooling together through different schemes. This is particularly frequent in Denmark and Germany, possibly a key reason for the continuous and so successful growth of various renewable energies sources in these countries. This guideline aims to define the term of local investment and provides examples of development and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  10. GRENADA. Renewables Readiness Assessment 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Grenada, like many Caribbean islands, is dependent on costly oil imports for its energy needs, including the generation of electricity. The transition to renewable energy could potentially support price reductions and improve the overall competitiveness of key sectors of the economy, particularly tourism. This report provides facts and analysis to support the country's discussion on ways to move forward with the renewable energy agenda. IRENA is ready to provide support in the implementation of the actions identified in this report.

  11. Regional Integration of Renewable Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Guerra, J.; Dominguez Bravo, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this report is to show how Energetic Planning and Territorial Policy should be working together for a better integration of Renewable Energies into Region. This Integration should to contemplate social, economic and environmental aspects of the territory. The report has been classified into 7 items: planning, energetic scenarios, technology transfer for Renewable Energies dissemination, barriers for this dissemination, environmental aspects, European Union Policy and Decision Support Systems (and specially GIS). (Author) 54 refs

  12. Band-notched spiral antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    2018-03-13

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  13. Exit angle, energy loss and internuclear distance distributions of H2+ ions dissociated when traversing different materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Denton, Cristian D.; Arista, Nestor R.

    2000-01-01

    We have performed computer simulations of the trajectory followed by each proton resulting from the dissociation of H 2 + molecules when traversing a thin solid target. We use the dielectric formalism to describe the forces due to electronic excitations in the medium, and we also consider the Coulomb repulsion between the pair of protons. Nuclear collisions with target nuclei are incorporated through a Monte Carlo code and the effect of the coherent scattering is taken into account by means of an effective force model. The distributions of exit angle, energy loss and internuclear separations of the protons fragments are discussed for the case of amorphous carbon and aluminum targets

  14. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  15. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  16. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  17. Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Zhao, Xiaoli; He, Yongxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's policy approach to renewable energies and assesses how effectively China has met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. First we briefly discuss the interactions between these two policies. Then we outline China's key renewable energy and renewable industrial policies and find that China's government has well recognized the need for this policy interaction. After that, we study the achievements and problems in China's wind and solar PV sector during 2005–2012 and argue that China's policy approach to renewable energies has placed priority first on developing a renewable energy manufacturing industry and only second on renewable energy itself, and it has not effectively met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. Lastly, we make an in-depth analysis of the three ideas underlying this policy approach, that is, the green development idea, the low-carbon leadership idea and indigenous innovation idea. We conclude that Chinas' policy approach to renewable energies needs to enhance the interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of China's policy strategy toward renewable energies. -- Highlights: •Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy are discussed. •China's key renewable energy and renewable energy industrial policies are outlined. •Two empirical cases illustrate China's policy approach to renewable energies. •We argue that China needs to enhance the interactions between the two policies. •Three ideas underlie China's policy approach to renewable energies

  18. 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterly, S.

    2014-12-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2013 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  19. 2009 Renewable Energy Data Book, August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  20. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2012-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  1. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2013-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  2. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  3. Direct space-time observation of pulse tunneling in an electromagnetic band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doiron, Serge; Hache, Alain; Winful, Herbert G.

    2007-01-01

    We present space-time-resolved measurements of electromagnetic pulses tunneling through a coaxial electromagnetic band gap structure. The results show that during the tunneling process the field distribution inside the barrier is an exponentially decaying standing wave whose amplitude increases and decreases as it slowly follows the temporal evolution of the input pulse. At no time is a pulse maximum found inside the barrier, and hence the transmitted peak is not the incident peak that has propagated to the exit. The results support the quasistatic interpretation of tunneling dynamics and confirm that the group delay is not the traversal time of the input pulse peak

  4. Eastern Band of Cherokee Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souther Carolina Institute of energy Studies-Robert Leitner

    2009-01-30

    The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program (TEP) to develop a Tribal Strategic Energy Plan (SEP). The grant, awarded under the “First Steps” phase of the TEP, supported the development of a SEP that integrates with the Tribe’s plans for economic development, preservation of natural resources and the environment, and perpetuation of Tribal heritage and culture. The Tribe formed an Energy Committee consisting of members from various departments within the Tribal government. This committee, together with its consultant, the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies, performed the following activities: • Develop the Tribe’s energy goals and objectives • Establish the Tribe’s current energy usage • Identify available renewable energy and energy efficiency options • Assess the available options versus the goals and objectives • Create an action plan for the selected options

  5. Traversing field of view and AR-PIV for mid-field wake vortex investigation in a towing tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, F.; van Wijk, C.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.

    2002-08-01

    Wake vortex flow experiments are performed in a water tank where a 1:48 scaled model of a large transport aircraft A340-300 is towed at the speed of 3 and 5 ms-1 with values of the angle of attack α={2°, 4°, 8°}. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are performed in a plane perpendicular to the towing direction describing the streamwise component of the wake vorticity. The instantaneous field of view (I-FOV) is traversed vertically with an underwater moving-camera device tracking the vortex core during the downward motion. An adaptive resolution (AR) image-processing technique is introduced that enhances the PIV interrogation in terms of spatial resolution and accuracy. The main objectives of the investigation are to demonstrate the applicability of PIV diagnostics in wake vortex research with towing-tank facilities. The specific implementation of the traversing field-of-view (T-FOV) technique and the AR image processing are driven by the need to characterize the vortex wake global properties as well as the vortex decay phenomenon in the mid- and far-field. Relevant aerodynamic information is obtained in the mid-field where the time evolution of the vortex structure (core radius and tangential velocity) and of the overall vortex wake (vortex trajectory, descent velocity, circulation) are discussed.

  6. Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress '99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Yusof Othman; Baharuddin Yatim

    2000-01-01

    The congress discussed the following subjects, 1. The role of renewable energy in the next millenium; 2. Challenges in the commercialization of renewable energy; 3. The role and agenda for renewable energy towards sustainable development. Topics covered in the technical session were biomass conversion; solar thermal technologies and systems; solar photovoltaic s; renewable energy economics, financing and policy; renewable energy education; climate and the environment; energy and architecture; energy management; wind and hydro technologies and systems; hydrogen and fuel cell

  7. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The promotion of renewable electricity in Romania relies primarily on a renewable quota scheme. Since 2017 the scheme has been closed for new projects. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted through investment subsidies. Renewable energy sources in the transport sector are promoted by a bio-fuels quota scheme and indirectly through a subsidy scheme for the purchase of electric vehicles

  8. Settlement Impact Analysis and Countermeasure Research of the Down Traversing Formed by the Double-Arch Subway Tunnels through the Existing Railways in Loess Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the large-scale construction of city subways, the down traversing formed by subway running tunnels through the existing railways or railway yards are increasing day by day. Down traversing in shield method becomes common; however, the engineering cases which can be referable in the down traversing formed by the shallow-buried excavation of double-arch tunnels through the existing railways are very little. The ability to effectively control the excavation of shallow-buried subway tunnels can directly affect the safety of railway operation. According to the engineering characteristics of the down traversing formed by the shallow-buried excavation of double-arch tunnels in loessial layer, this paper proposed the standards for railway bed and track settlement control, and offers underground water treatment measures with assistant steps implemented on the ground surface during construction, so as to ensure the railway operation safety during the construction of the tunnel. Moreover, this paper applied MIDAS-GTS finite element software to make numerical simulation analysis of the down traversing formed by the double-arch tunnel through the railway and obtained the deformation laws during down traversing. The calculations suggest the railway track deformation caused by the down traversing construction of the double-arch tunnel in this project can meet related control standard requirements. There’s certain reference value contained in the deformation laws for the point locations of monitoring measurement. The research conclusions can provide scientific proof and technical guidance for the design and construction of this running tunnel project in order to offer reference for similar projects in the future.

  9. Theoretical band alignment in an intermediate band chalcopyrite based material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Águila, J. E.; Palacios, P.; Conesa, J. C.; Arriaga, J.; Wahnón, P.

    2017-12-01

    Band alignment is key to enhance the performance of heterojunction for chalcopyrite thin film solar cells. In this paper we report ab initio calculations of the electronic structures of CuGaS2:Cr with various Cr compositions, CuAlSe2 and ZnSe and the band alignment between their interfaces. We use density functional theory and the more accurate self-consistent GW scheme to obtain improved bulk band-gaps and band offsets. Band alignments of the interfacial region for CuGaS2:Cr/CuAlSe2 and CuGaS2:Cr/ZnSe systems were aligned with respect of an average electrostatic potential. Our results are in good agreement with experimental values for the bulk band-gaps. These theoretical band alignments show a characteristic staggered band alignment for the design of heterojunction devices in photovoltaic applications.

  10. European Schemes for Promoting Renewables in Liberalised Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes possibilities and problems for penetration of supply systems based on renewable energy sources in liberalised markets. The analysis is based on recent development in EU with different models for support of installations based on renewable energy. These include feed-in models...... with guaranteed minimum tariffs, tender models for different bands of technologies, and green certificates trading models with obligatory consumer quota. The paper describes the market situation in selected European countries, including Germany, the UK, Holland and Denmark.An EU directive from September 2001 has...... postponed the decision on a possible harmonisation of promotional models until at least 2005 in order to obtain more practical experience with the different support schemes. A critical evaluation is given in this paper of the different models with proposals for a balanced development between environmental...

  11. Marketing of renewable energies. Foundations, business models, case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbes, Carsten; Friege, Christian

    2015-01-01

    How to market green electricity or biomethane? What is the right price for renewable energy and how do you design the optimal use of social media? What impact have the EEG or electromobility to the Green Power Marketing? Does direct marketing works or is online marketing the guarantee of success? Answers to these and many other basic questions provides the band with contributions from leading scientists and renowned practitioners. For the first time they describe in a structured form the basics of marketing of renewable energies, provide an introduction to the legal and market-based features and present new business models. The book is based on the latest research results, treats all questions of marketing issues important for practitioners, provides case studies and specific recommendations. [de

  12. MENA Renewables Status Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The MENA Renewables Status Report is an outcome of ADIREC, the Abu Dhabi International Renewable Energy Conference. The report provides a status overview of renewable energy markets, industry, policy and investment trends in the region, drawing on the most recent data available. It is produced in cooperation with over 50 contributors and researchers in the region and reveals massive growth in the renewable energy markets of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Regional investment topped US$2.9 billion in 2012, up 40% from 2011 and 650% from 2004. With over 100 projects under development, the region could see a 450% increase in non-hydro renewable energy generating capacity in the next few years. For the report, the 21 MENA countries were clustered into two sub-groups: Net Oil-Exporting Countries (NOEC) -- Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen; and Net Oil-Importing Countries (NOIC) -- Djibouti, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, and Tunisia.

  13. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandler, A.

    1993-01-01

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  14. Urban architecture in urban renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Svensson, Ole

    2001-01-01

    In Denmark new issues in urban renewal are being introduced. Legislation on urban renewal now demands that residents be invited to take an active part in the development of their urban area. And urban renewal is increasingly taking place in inner suburbs which are recently built, complex...... and without obvious architectural value. These issues raise pertinent questions: what urban architectural problems and qualities exist in the complex, inner suburbs? What differences exist between professionals' and residents' perceptions and assessments of urban architecture? How can a shared language...... of urban architecture be developed? This research project attempts to answer these questions through a discourse on theories and methods and the development of "dialogue methods" by which professionals can learn about residents' perception of the urban architecture of their area, thus achieving a better...

  15. Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the state-of-the-arts developments of renewable energy are reviewed in respect to the installed power and market share, where wind power and photovoltaic power generation are the main focuses due to the fast growing speed and large share of installed capacity. Some basic principles...... of operation, mission profiles, as well as power electronics solutions and corresponding controls are discussed respectively in the case of wind power and photovoltaic power systems. Finally a few development trends for renewable energy conversions are also given from a power electronics point of view....... It is concluded that as the quick development of renewable energy, wind power and PV power both show great potential to be largely integrated into the power grid. Power electronics is playing essential role in both of the systems to achieve more controllable, efficient, and reliable energy production...

  16. China's renewable energy policy: Commitments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Yin Haitao; Li Shoude

    2010-01-01

    The passing of the Renewable Energy Law (REL) in 2005 demonstrated China's commitment to renewable energy development. In the 3 years after the REL, China's renewable electricity capacity grew rapidly. From 2006 to 2008, China's wind capacity installation more than doubled every year for 3 years in a row. However, three facts prevent us from being optimistic about China's renewable electricity future. First, considered as a share of total capacity, renewable electricity capacity is decreasing instead of increasing. This is due simply to the rapid growth of fossil fuel capacity. Second, a significant amount of renewable generation capacity is wasted because it is not connected to the electricity grid. Finally, renewable electricity plants are running at a low level of efficiency. Based on an in-depth analysis of China's existing renewable energy policy, we suggest that these challenges should be dealt with by introducing a market-based mandatory renewable portfolio requirement coupled with strong regulatory monitoring of grid enterprises.

  17. Renewable energy technology acceptance in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardooni, Roozbeh; Yusoff, Sumiani Binti; Kari, Fatimah Binti

    2016-01-01

    Despite various policies, renewable energy resources have not been developed in Malaysia. This study investigates the factors that influence renewable energy technology acceptance in Peninsular Malaysia and attempts to show the impact of cost and knowledge on the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of renewable energy technology. The results show that cost of renewable energy has an indirect effect on attitudes towards using renewable energy through the associated impact on the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. The results also indicate that public knowledge in Peninsular Malaysia does not affect perceived ease of use, although the positive impact of knowledge on perceived usefulness is supported. Furthermore, our results show that the current business environment in Peninsular Malaysia does not support the adoption of renewable energy technology, and thus, renewable energy technology is not commercially viable in Peninsular Malaysia. Additionally, the population of Peninsular Malaysia associates the use of renewable energy with a high level of effort and therefore has a negative attitude towards the use of renewable energy technology. There is, therefore, a definite need to pay more attention to the role of public perception and awareness in the successes and failures of renewable energy policy. - Highlights: • Public acceptance is an essential element in the diffusion of renewable energy. • Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness affect intention to use renewables. • It is important to reduce the cost of renewable energy, particularly for end users. • Renewable energy policies should address issues of public perception and awareness.

  18. Semiconductors bonds and bands

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David K

    2013-01-01

    As we settle into this second decade of the twenty-first century, it is evident that the advances in micro-electronics have truly revolutionized our day-to-day lifestyle. The technology is built upon semiconductors, materials in which the band gap has been engineered for special values suitable to the particular application. This book, written specifically for a one semester course for graduate students, provides a thorough understanding of the key solid state physics of semiconductors. It describes how quantum mechanics gives semiconductors unique properties that enabled the micro-electronics revolution, and sustain the ever-growing importance of this revolution.

  19. Comment: The Economics of Interdependent Renewable and Non-renewable Resources revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoria Kahui; Claire W. Armstrong

    2009-01-01

    This work expands upon Swallow's theoretical analysis of interactions between renewable and non-renewable resources. In this comment the interaction is such that the renewable resource prefers the non-renewable environment, as opposed to SwallowÕs (op cit) case of the non-renewable environment being essential to the renewable resource. We find that this difference strongly affects the results, and makes the resources change from being complements to being substitutes, i.e. in the essential ca...

  20. Equilibrium transitions from non-renewable energy to renewable energy under capacity constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Moreaux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We study the transition between non renewable and renewable energy sources with adjustment costs over the production capacity of renewable energy. Assuming constant variable marginal costs for both energy sources, convex adjustment costs and a more expensive renewable energy, we show the following. With sufficiently abundant non renewable energy endowments, the dynamic equilibrium path is composed of a first time phase of only non renewable energy use followed by a transition phase substituti...

  1. World potential of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B.; Devin, B.; Pharabod, F.

    1991-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon, is presented. The same methodology as the one employed to derive ``proven fossil energy reserves`` from ``energy resources`` is adopted, in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, while reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility. As renewable resources are fluctuating with time and are diluted in space and not readily transportable or storeable, it is necessary to consider the presence of populations or activities near enough to be able to profit by these diluted and volatile energies.

  2. Renewable energy prospects for implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Renewable Energy: Prospects for Implementation contains papers that were originally commissioned by the journal Energy Policy for a series on renewable energy appearing between January 1991 to September 1992. In view of the fast-changing demands on conventional energy supply to meet environmental imperatives, it seemed timely to reproduce here a selection of those papers with a new introduction and a revised concluding chapter by the Editor of the series, Dr Tim Jackson, a research fellow with the Stockholm Environment Institute. The book is organized into four parts. The papers in Part I

  3. Renewable energy sources. Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    To judge future trends in work on the exploitation of renewable energy sources for overall energy supply, it is necessary to know the following: the rules that nature abides by, the principles of technical exploitation of these energies, and the basic data for the current state of development. The above information is compiled in this publication for those renewable energy sources on which topical discussion centres: solar radiation and wind. For the remaining renowable energy sources (e.g. biomass, tidal power, geothermal energy), some examples of use are mentioned and advanced literature is indicated. (orig./HSCH).

  4. Renewable energies - Situation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, Claude; Vaillant, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The world has to face increasing energy needs while it is today dependent of fossil fuels at 80%. Getting out of the fossil fuels dependence model requires an important effort to promote the energy saving and the carbon-free energies as well, and in particular the renewable energy sources. Taking all this information into account, the authors evaluate the global share that renewable energies could represent in the energy mix, in France and in the entire world. This share represents today only 10% of the energy consumed, but will it remain marginal or will it become important and eventually prominent? (J.S.)

  5. Renewables 2012. Global Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawin, J.L. (ed.) [and others

    2012-08-15

    Renewable energy markets and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. This report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by a network of more than 400 contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast the future.

  6. Renewable energies: the Spanish assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit-Pez, Ch.; Molenat, G.

    2009-01-01

    Even though Spain is far away from the Kyoto protocol objectives, this country possesses numerous assets in terms of renewable energies. This report presents overviews of the present situation and of innovation and research activities in the different fields of renewable energies: wind energy, solar energy (thermal, thermoelectric and photovoltaic), hydraulic energy (dams, tide and wave energy), biomass (wood, bio-fuels, biogas). Along with these presentations, the authors propose tables and graphs of quantitative data concerning these different energy productions, at the national as well as at the regional level, with comparison with data for other European countries

  7. Inventor networks in renewable energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Technological change and gains in efficiency of renewable power generation technologies are to a large extent driven by governmental support. Various policy instruments that can broadly be categorized as technology push, demand pull or systemic constitute part of the policy mix for renewable...... energies. Our goal is to gain insights into the influence of this policy mix on the intensity and organization of inventive activities for wind power and photovoltaics in Germany since the 1980s. We examine the effect of different instruments on the size and structure of co-inventor networks based...

  8. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave band gap structures exhibit certain stop band characteristics based on the periodicity, impedance contrast and effective refractive index contrast. These structures though formed in one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity, are huge in size. In this paper, microstrip-based microwave band gap structures are ...

  9. Log curve amplitude slicing: Visualization of well log amplitudes for paleogeographic reconstruction of the Middle Devonian Traverse Group, Michigan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Albert Sidney, Jr.

    Well log curve shapes and amplitude trends are routinely used to correlate and map formations and reservoirs across petroleum basins or fields. The methods typically employed for correlation and mapping fail, however, to make full use of the vertical resolution of well log curves. A new technique, log curve amplitude slicing (LCAS) facilitates correlation by generating a series of subhorizontal slices through the log curves using sample-by-sample analysis of log curve amplitudes in all wells between two correlative time-surfaces. The slices represent approximate time lines and are relative chronostratigraphic surfaces that can be gridded and contoured to show trends and patterns in log curve amplitudes in map view. When appropriate logs are used (e.g. gamma ray, photoelectric effect, resistivity), the slices show the inferred distribution of lithofacies at the time of deposition. Animation allows visualization of changes in the distribution of lithofacies between successive slices. The log curves can be sliced through the interval of interest from the top-down, from the bottom-up, or proportionally depending upon the sequence stratigraphic interpretation. Application of the LCAS technique facilitates correlation because it highlights trends in log curve amplitudes that are not apparent using traditional methods to display and compare log curves. Gamma ray log data from 199 wells are used in this dissertation to identify the location, relative timing, and extent of significant fine-grained clastic influx into the carbonate/evaporite-dominated Michigan Basin during deposition of the Middle Devonian Traverse Group. LCAS maps are combined with outcrop stratigraphy to reconstruct the depositional history of the Traverse Group and to develop a relative water depth curve for the Michigan Basin during the Middle Devonian. Comparison of the relative water depth curve to a eustatic sea level curve suggests that although sea level fall may have resulted in formation of

  10. Mapping and monitoring renewable resources with space SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Brisco, B.; Dobson, M. C.; Moezzi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The SEASAT-A SAR and SIR-A imagery was examined to evaluate the quality and type of information that can be extracted and used to monitor renewable resources on Earth. Two tasks were carried out: (1) a land cover classification study which utilized two sets of imagery acquired by the SEASAT-A SAR, one set by SIR-A, and one LANDSAT set (4 bands); and (2) a change detection to examine differences between pairs of SEASAT-A SAR images and relates them to hydrologic and/or agronomic variations in the scene.

  11. Renewable energy policy. Into the mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Renewable energy today is at a critical stage of development: renewable technologies are maturing, and costs for some technologies are in the competitive range. Beyond the energy they produce, renewable energy technologies offer a variety of other benefits towards the achievement of sustainable development goals. This promise has led to all IEA governments to support their greater development. But, while renewables markets are growing strongly, additional steps must be taken to accelerate the achievement of sustainable, large-scale markets. This report by the IEA's Renewable Energy Working Party outlines those steps, and the benefits of moving renewable energy into the mainstream

  12. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae show low levels of traversal across human endothelial barrier in vitro [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pérez-Torrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally considered safe, and is involved in the production of many types of foods and dietary supplements. However, some isolates, which are genetically related to strains used in brewing and baking, have shown virulent traits, being able to produce infections in humans, mainly in immunodeficient patients. This can lead to systemic infections in humans. Methods: In this work, we studied S. cerevisiae isolates in an in vitro human endothelial barrier model, comparing their behaviour with that of several strains of the related pathogens Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. Results: The results showed that this food related yeast is able to cross the endothelial barrier in vitro. However, in contrast to C. glabrata and C. albicans, S. cerevisiae showed very low levels of traversal. Conclusions: We conclude that using an in vitro human endothelial barrier model with S. cerevisiae can be useful to evaluate the safety of S. cerevisiae strains isolated from foods.

  14. Sustainable rural learning ecologies- a prolegomenon traversing transcendence of discursive notions of sustainability, social justice, development and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipane Hlalele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes, through traversing contested notions of sustainability, social justice, development and food sovereignty, to discourses around creation of sustainable rural learning ecologies. There has always been at least in the realm of scientific discourse, an attempt to dissociate the natural or physical environment from the social and human environment. This trend did not only affect the two spheres of existence only. It is further imbued and spawned fragmented and pervasive terminology, practices and human thought. Drawing from the ‘creating sustainable rural learning ecologies’ research project that commenced in 2011, I challenge and contest the use of such discourses and argue for the transcendence of such. This would, in my opinion, create space for harmonious and fluid co-existence between nature and humanity, such that the contribution of learning practices exudes and expedites sustainability in rural ecologies.

  15. A case study of the intraseasonal oscillation traversing the TOGA-COARE LSD. [large-scale domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Dayton G.; Schrage, Jon M.; Sliwinski, L. D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents examination of tree intraseasonal (30-60 day) oscillations (ISOs) that occurred during the southern summer season (December 1, 1985 - February 28, 1986) traversing the Large-Scale Domain (LSD) TOGA-COARE, the region which also plays an important role in ENSO, Australian monsoon, and extratropical circulations. Data presented include Hovmoeller diagrams of 5-day running means of 250-mb velocity potential anomalies and OLR anomalies; graphs of five-day running means of OLR in precipitable water (W) per sq m, averaged over 10 x 10 deg boxes centered on 5 S and (1) 145 E, (2) 155 E, (3) 165 E, and (4) 165 D, indicating the midpoint of each ISO; and vertical profiles of zonal wind in m/s averaged over the time period that each ISO spends in the 10 x 10 deg box centered at 5 S, and 175 E and 145 E.

  16. Morphologies of omega band auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Natsuo; Yukimatu, Akira Sessai; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Hori, Tomoaki

    2017-08-01

    We examined the morphological signatures of 315 omega band aurora events observed using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm ground-based all-sky imager network over a period of 8 years. We find that omega bands can be classified into the following three subtypes: (1) classical (O-type) omega bands, (2) torch or tongue (T-type) omega bands, and (3) combinations of classical and torch or tongue (O/T-type) omega bands. The statistical results show that T-type bands occur the most frequently (45%), followed by O/T-type bands (35%) and O-type bands (18%). We also examined the morphologies of the omega bands during their formation, from the growth period to the declining period through the maximum period. Interestingly, the omega bands are not stable, but rather exhibit dynamic changes in shape, intensity, and motion. They grow from small-scale bumps (seeds) at the poleward boundary of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, rather than via the rotation or shear motion of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, and do not exhibit any shear motion during the periods of auroral activity growth. Furthermore, the auroral luminosity is observed to increase during the declining period, and the total time from the start of the growth period to the end of the declining period is found to be about 20 min. Such dynamical signatures may be important in determining the mechanism responsible for omega band formation.

  17. Renewable energies and public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.; Pierret, Ch.; Lienemann, M.N.

    2002-04-01

    This document presents the interventions of political personalities on the topic of the renewable energies development policies and the necessity of financial incentives which have been discussed during the colloquium of thursday 4 april 2002 at Paris. (A.L.B.)

  18. Renewables exceed even optimistic expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas [Energy Watch Group, Berlin (Germany). Projektmanagement

    2010-07-01

    The growth of renewables has outpaced even the most optimistic forecasts. However, even the expansion rate we've seen so far won't be enough to close the energy gap threatening to open up within conventional energy sources. (orig.)

  19. The USNCR license renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Pao-Tsin

    2002-01-01

    The US Congress promulgated a law in 1954, entitled 'Atomic Energy Act'. This Act states that operating licenses for commercial nuclear power plants are limited to a fixed term of 40 years, but they may be renewed for a period not to exceed 20 years. The terms were established mainly for economic considerations, not based on technical limitations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the license renewal rule, Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 54 (10 CFR Part 54), in December, 1991. The rule has since been amended in May, 1995. The underlying principle of the rule is that the regulatory process is adequate for ensuring safety of operating plants. The regulatory process includes NRC's issuance of Orders, Bulletins, Generic Letters, and Information Notices, as well as a number of special inspections in addition to the continuous oversight and routine inspection activities performed by on-site inspectors. Because of this comprehensive regulatory process, compilation of the current license basis or re-verification of the current licensing basis is not considered necessary for a license renewal review. The USNRC also determined on the basis of the findings of its research programs that active structures and components are well maintained by the existing programs. Therefore, the focus of the license renewal review is on passive, long-lived structures and components and on time-limited ageing analyses. The time-limited ageing analyses are for those structures and components which were originally designed to a 40 year service life

  20. Innovative biofibers from renewable resources

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    This book will be a one-stop-shop for readers seeking information on biofibers that are sustainable and environmentally friendly and those that can replace the non-renewable synthetic polymer based fibers. Emphasis will be on fibers that are derived from agricultural byproducts and coproducts without the need for additional natural resources.

  1. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  2. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    This bibliography lists reports and selected papers published under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conservation and Renewable Energy Program from 1986 through February 1991. Information on documents published prior to 1986 can be obtained from ORNL. Most of the documents in the bibliography are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. Renewable energy from urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing biomass from urban landscapes could significantly contribute to the nation’s renewable energy needs. In 2007, an experiment was begun to evaluate the biomass potential from a bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon (L.) Pers., lawn in Woodward, OK and to estimate the potential biomas...

  4. Renewables 2012 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Bhattacharya, Sribas Chandra; Galan, Ernesto Macias; McCrone, Angus; Moomaw, William R.; Sims, Ralph; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; Sverrisson, Freyr; Chawla, Kanika; Adib, Rana; Musolino, Evan; Mastny, Lisa; Skeen, Jonathan; Martinot, Eric; Hinrichs-Rahlwes, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy markets and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. This report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by a network of more than 400 contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast the future. As such, this report and subsequent editions will serve as a benchmark for measuring global progress in the deployment of renewable energy, which is of particular interest in this International Year of Sustainable Energy for All. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has marked the occasion with a new global initiative, Sustainable Energy for All, which seeks to mobilise global action on three inter-linked objectives to be achieved by 2030: universal access to modern energy services, improved rates of energy efficiency, and expanded use of renewable energy sources

  5. Production of Renewable Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Vegetable oils have been investigated as a way to provide a renewable source for diesel fuel. A successful approach to using : vegetable oils in diesel engines has been transesterification of the oils with simple alcohols to produce mono-alkyl esters...

  6. Legal framework: Renewables in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matute, Leonardo

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the framework (organic structure and legislation) in promotion of renewables in Honduras, the policies for promotion of the free market of energy, laws on environmental protection and law of electricity. Also describes treties and agreements suscribed by Honduras in these matters

  7. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  8. The potential of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  9. Heliodromus : Renewable energy from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change and the related running out of fossil fuel reserves drive the development of renewable energy sources. To contribute to a solution of these problems, we present the results of a BSc student design synthesis exercise project on Space Based Solar Power (SBSP). A SBSP system generates

  10. Power marketing and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Power marketing refers to wholesale and retail transactions of electric power made by companies other than public power entities and the regulated utilities that own the generation and distribution lines. The growth in power marketing has been a major development in the electric power industry during the last few years, and power marketers are expected to realize even more market opportunities as electric industry deregulation proceeds from wholesale competition to retail competition. This Topical Issues Brief examines the nature of the power marketing business and its relationship with renewable power. The information presented is based on interviews conducted with nine power marketing companies, which accounted for almost 54% of total power sales by power marketers in 1995. These interviews provided information on various viewpoints of power marketers, their experience with renewables, and their respective outlooks for including renewables in their resource portfolios. Some basic differences exist between wholesale and retail competition that should be recognized when discussing power marketing and renewable power. At the wholesale level, the majority of power marketers stress the commodity nature of electricity. The primary criteria for developing resource portfolios are the same as those of their wholesale customers: the cost and reliability of power supplies. At the retail level, electricity may be viewed as a product that includes value-added characteristics or services determined by customer preferences

  11. New Quebec renewable energy organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1998-04-01

    The recent formation of the Quebec Association for the Production of Renewable Energy (l`Association quebecoise de la production d`energie renouvelable - AQPER) was announced. The Association is becoming the centre of the Quebec private electricity generation industry. By communicating the industry`s message to the public the organization gives much needed visibility to renewable resources, new forms of energy and sustainable development. The new group is an outgrowth of the former Quebec Association of Private Hydroelectricity Producers. In its new reincarnation, the organization represents all forms of renewables, small and medium hydro, wind, solar, forest and agricultural biomass and urban waste. With deregulation of the electricity market, specifically the creation of the Regie de l`energie` in Quebec, the wider role is a welcome boost for renewable energy development in the province. In one of its first actions the AQPER recommended that all hydroelectric sites up to 50 MW be reserved for development exclusively by the private sector, in conformity with the Quebec energy policy announced in 1996.

  12. The renewable energies in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report is about the energetic politc and its strong commitment with the incorporation of autochthonous sources and renewable energy. The objective and the main lines of action in Uruguay are: provide electric power, wind, biomass, bioethanol, biodiesel, solar and hydroelectric power

  13. EPRI support of license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, Jeff; Carey, John J.

    1991-01-01

    During the early 1980's, the US utility industry recognized that Light Water Reactors (LWRs) could have a useful life substantially in excess of the current licensed term of 40 years service. These observations were confirmed by two plant specific studies and have led to a major initiative undertaken by EPRI and DOE to demonstrate the technical and institutional basis for a predictable, rational, and stable life extension option. The primary objective of the lead plants project is to establish and demonstrate, by the end of 1993, nuclear plant license renewal as a viable option. As part of this initiative, the lead plants project will result in a complete license renewal application to the NRC and will document the license renewal process for use by other utilities. A number of EPRI and DOE sponsored projects are providing technical support for the license renewal process. These projects are identifying deteriorating service environments for key components, systems, and structures and are establishing methods of assessing consequences and remedial actions. Other projects include economic evaluations and life cycle management assessment tools to address deterioration mechanisms. However, the principal means for providing technical support for license renewal is the generic Industry Reports (IRs), which as of October 1990, have all been submitted to the NRC for review. The IRs discussed in this paper are intended to identify and resolve key technical issues associated with extended operation of major LWR components, structures, and systems. The principle means of providing technical support for license renewal is the IRs whose objective is to document results of generic component, structure, or system evaluations to support life extension by addressing potential impacts of aging on components, structures, or systems as it relates to the plant's performance for extended service. Ten IRs on major components or systems have been completed and submitted to the NRC. The

  14. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  15. Renewable energy in Indian country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    On June 25--27, 1995, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, the Center for Resource Management (CRM), organized and sponsored a conference in conjunction with the Navajo Nation, EPA, and Bechtel Group, Inc., to deal with issues associated with developing renewable energy resources on Indian lands. Due to the remoteness of many reservation homes and the cost of traditional power line extensions, a large percentage of the Indian population is today without electricity or other energy services. In addition, while they continue to develop energy resources for export, seeing only minimal gain in their own economies, Indian people are also subject to the health and environmental consequences associated with proximity to traditional energy resource development. Renewable energy technologies, on the other hand, are often ideally suited to decentralized, low-density demand. These technologies--especially solar and wind power--have no adverse health impacts associated with generation, are relatively low cost, and can be used in applications as small as a single home, meeting power needs right at a site. Their minimal impact on the environment make them particularly compatible with American Indian philosophies and lifestyles. Unfortunately, the match between renewable energy and Indian tribes has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, coordinated effort to identify renewable energy resources located on Indian lands, to develop practical links between Indian people`s needs and energy producers, and to provide the necessary training for tribal leaders and members to plan, implement, and maintain renewable energy systems. Summaries of the presentations are presented.

  16. Renewables for sustainable village power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, L.

    1997-03-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL's RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal

  17. Wide band ENDOR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca Filho, C.

    1973-01-01

    The construction of an ENDOR spectrometer operating from 0,5 to 75 MHz within a single band, with ore Klystron and homodine detection, and no fundamental changes on the electron spin resonance spectrometer was described. The ENDOR signal can be detected both by amplitude modulation of the frequency field, or direct detection of the ESR output, which is taken to a signal analyser. The signal-to-noise ratio is raised by averaging rather than filtering avoiding the use of long time constants, providing natural line widths. The experimental apparatus and the spectra obtained are described. A discussion, relating the ENDOR line amplitudes with the experimental conditions is done and ENDOR mechanism, in which there is a relevant presence of cross relaxation is proposed

  18. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  19. Strategies and best practices for staff renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottingham, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategies and best practices for staff renewal in the electricity sector. Strategic initiatives for staff renewal include strategic recruiting, succession planning, employee relations, knowledge management and strategic partnerships

  20. Renewable Energy: Ready to Meet Its Promise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Stanley R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Billman, Lynn L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This paper will briefly review the technical status, cost, and applications of major renewable energy technologies in 1998, and also discuss some of the socioeconomic impacts of wide-scale adoption of renewables.

  1. Renewable Energy Potential for New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    RE-Powering America's Land: Renewable Energy on Contaminated Land and Mining Sites was presented by Penelope McDaniel, during the 2008 Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop.

  2. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  3. New narratives on Russian renewable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, A.V.; Overland, I.

    2010-01-01

    The article points out the renewable energy potential in Russia in light of the new policy targets development, technical and economic potential as well as limits related to a lack of effectiveness of renewable energy promoting policies. Moreover, the article links the renewable energy development to the liberalization of Russian power sector which actually provides a possibility for market-support mechanisms, such as the green certificates. Renewable energy in Russia also has an important regional dimension, particularly for remote regions. (authors)

  4. Renewables 2014. Global status report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Chawla, Kanika; Lins, Christine; Adib, Rana; Hullin, Martin; Leitner, Sarah; Mazzaccaro, Stefano; Murdock, Hannah; Williamson, Laura E.; Wright, Glen; McCrone, Angus; Musolino, Evan; Mastny, Lisa; Lily Riahi; Sims, Ralph; Jonathan Skeen; Sverrisson, Freyr; Martinot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Renewables Global Status Report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It enables policy-makers, industry, investors, and civil society to make informed decisions. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast. The Renewables Global Status Report relies on up-to-date renewable energy data, provided by an international network of more than 500 contributors, researchers, and authors

  5. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support instruments for incentivising electricity from renewable energy sources are feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. A subsidy instrument is used as well. Households operating small solar installations are entitled to tax benefits. Renewable heat production is promoted through four subsidy instruments. Renewable transport fuels are promoted by way of a bio-fuels blending quota scheme

  6. Renewable sources of energy in Austria 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1993-07-01

    Present contribution of renewable sources of energy to the overall energy requirements in Austria. Estimated potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria: firewood and biogeneous fuels, environmental energy, combustible wastes. Ecological aspects of utilising renewable sources of energy. Market barriers and strategies for overcoming them

  7. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...

  8. Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Hayal Ayca; Simsek, Nevzat

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

  9. Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 4: Atmospheric Renewable Energy Field Study Number 2 (ARE2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    ARL-TR-8198 ● Oct 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 4: Atmospheric Renewable Energy ...originator. ARL-TR-8198 ● Oct 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 4: Atmospheric Renewable... Energy Field Study #2 (ARE2) by Gail Vaucher and Sean D’Arcy Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Jenna Forrester Advanced

  10. Photon Science for Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Zahid; Tamura, Lori; Padmore, Howard; Schoenlein, Bob; Bailey, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.

  11. Are renewable energies too expensive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As hydroelectricity is known to be profitable, and as biomass displayed good results when used for heating buildings, the issue of the cost of electricity produced by wind and photovoltaic energies is still a matter of debate. This article outlines how to take different factors into account to assess a discount rate. These factors are location which determines wind and sun resource, the future prices of fossil energies, rates of interest, and so on. It indicates that ground based wind and solar farms now have a kWh cost which is close to that of fossil energies, and lower than that of nuclear energy when taking investment and operation cost into account. The production cost of renewable energies has been dramatically reduced during the last years and this trend will probably continue during the years to come. Thus, the article states that a 100 per cent renewable mix seems possible for France by 2050 without significant over-costs

  12. Renewable Energy Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are firstly discussed. A state of the art review section covers fundamentals of wind turbines and PV systems. Included are schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system topologies...... and the fundamental and increasing role of power electronics as an enabler for renewable energy integration, and for the future power system and smart grid. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants, as well for as residential and commercial...... applications are provided. Fuel cells, solar thermal, wave generators, and energy storage systems are also briefly presented and illustrated. Challenges and future trends for 2025 are summarized in a table for on-shore and off-shore wind energy, solar power, including photovoltaic and concentering, wave energy...

  13. Renewable gas French panorama 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Singly, Bertrand; Pinel, Julie; Garret, Mathilde; Schmit, Julien; Apolit, Robin; Bock, Roger; Pisani, Olivier; Marron, Didier

    2017-01-01

    This publication first describes how biomethane is a gaseous renewable source of energy, by outlining how biogas production and biomethane injection into the network represent a solution for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and by describing the different types of biomethane injection sites and the different types of inputs used to supply these sites. Then, after a presentation and a brief discussion of some key data regarding production and consumption, this publication presents the economic context, the regulatory framework, and a map of biomethane injection in Europe. The third part presents the fleet of biomethane injection installations in France, the characteristics of the connected sites, the regional distribution of the biomethane injection sector, and the production of biomethane injection installations. The fourth part discusses the growth perspectives of this sector by proposing an overview of planned injection projects, by assessing the potential production of methanization, and by addressing prospective issues on other ways of production of renewable gas

  14. Renewables for Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This timely report examines the technologies, current markets and relative costs for heat and cold production using biomass, geothermal and solar-assisted systems. It evaluates a range of national case studies and relevant policies. Should the successful and more cost-effective policies be implemented by other countries, then the relatively untapped economic potential of renewable energy heating and cooling systems could be better realised, resulting in potential doubling of the present market within the next few years.

  15. Local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Quantin, J.; Twele, J.

    2003-01-01

    This document presents european examples on the interest of the local investment, illustrated by cases studies in Germany, Denmark and Switzerland. Two main points were discussed: the financial tools and the french strategy. The colloquium provided many discussions and analyzes on the possibility of significant contribution to the collective efforts in favor of the public involvement in the renewable energies development in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  16. Renewable Energy Development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, K.M.

    2007-07-01

    India has done a significant progress in the power generation in the country. The installed generation capacity was 1300 megawatt (MW) at the time of Independence i.e. about 60 years back. The total generating capacity anticipated at the end of the Tenth Plan on 31-03-2007, is 1, 44,520 MW which includes the generation through various sectors like Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear. Emphasis is given to the renewable energy programme towards gradual commercialization. This programme is looked after by the Ministry of Non-Conventional Sources of energy. Since the availability of fossil fuel is on the decline therefore, in this backdrop the norms for conventional or renewable sources of energy (RSE) is given importance not only in India but has attracted the global attention. The main items under RSE are as follows: (i) Hydro Power (ii) Solar Power (iii) Wind Power (iv) Bio-mass Power (v) Energy from waste (vi) Ocean energy, and (vii) Alternative fuel for surface transportation. Evolution of power transformer technology in the country during the past five decades is quite impressive. There are manufacturers in the country with full access to the latest technology at the global level. Some of the manufacturers have impressive R&D set up to support the technology. Renewable energy is very much promoted by the Chinese Government. At the same time as the law was passed, the Chinese Government set a target for renewable energy to contribute 10% of the country's gross energy consumption by 2020, a huge increase from the current 1%. It has been felt that there is rising demand for energy, food and raw materials by a population of 2.5 billion Chinese and Indians. Both these countries have large coal dominated energy systems in the world and the use of fossil fuels such as coal and oil releases carbon dioxide (CO2) into the air which adds to the greenhouse gases which lead to global warming. (auth)

  17. Renewable energy policies in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Netto, Carlos Pinto Coelho Amaral

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Economia da Empresa e da Concorrência / JEL Codes: Q42; N74 Policies chosen to promote renewables can vary significantly and determine different levels of deployment, efficiency and technological innovation. Instruments in this sector have been mostly directed towards electricity generation and are usually divided into two main types: feed-in tariffs and quota obligations. The former is more frequent in the European Union and is associated with higher levels of deployment, as w...

  18. Customer choice and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on political and social factors affecting the U.S. market for wind power are presented in this paper. The position of and activities taken by U.S. Congressman Dan Schaefer as Chairman of the House Energy and Power Subcommittee are outlined. Background information used as input to subcommittee hearings is summarized. The formation and activities of the House Renewable Energy Caucus are very briefly described.

  19. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  20. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  1. The economic impact of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

  2. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Sweden surpassed its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy in 2013. Main support measures to promote renewable energy in Sweden consists of a quota system, various tax regulation mechanisms and subsidy schemes. Sweden has a joint support scheme with Norway, thus being the first EU Member State to implement a cooperation mechanism, as defined under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The Swedish coalition government has agreed on a target of 100% renewable electricity production by 2040

  3. Liposomes and lipid disks traverse the BBB and BBTB as intact forms as revealed by two-step Förster resonance energy transfer imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongcheng Dai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The blood–brain barrier (BBB and the blood–brain tumor barrier (BBTB prevent drug and nano-drug delivery systems from entering the brain. However, ligand-mediated nano-drug delivery systems have significantly enhanced the therapeutic treatment of glioma. In this study we investigated the mechanism especially the integrity of liposomes and lipid disks while traversing the BBB and BBTB both in vitro and in vivo. Fluorophores (DiO, DiI and DiD were loaded into liposomes and lipid disks to form Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET nano-drug delivery systems. Using brain capillary endothelial cells as a BBB model, we show that liposomes and disks are present in the cytoplasm as their intact forms and traverse the BBB with a ratio of 0.68‰ and 1.67‰, respectively. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells as BBTB model, liposomes and disks remained intact and traversed the BBTB with a ratio of 2.31‰ and 8.32‰ at 3 h. Ex vivo imaging and immunohistochemical results revealed that liposomes and disks could traverse the BBB and BBTB in vivo as intact forms. In conclusion, these observations explain in part the mechanism by which nano-drug delivery systems increase the therapeutic treatment of glioma. KEY WORDS: Liposomes, Disks, Intact form, BBB, BBTB, FRET

  4. Proposing an International Collaboration on Lightweight Autonomous Vehicles to Conduct Scientific Traverses and Surveys over Antarctica and the Surrounding Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, Frank; Behar, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    We have continued to develop a concept for use of autonomous rovers, originally developed for use in planetary exploration, in polar science on Earth; the concept was the subject of a workshop, and this report summarizes and extends that workshop. The workshop on Antarctic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society on February 14 and 15, 2001 to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of autonomous rovers. The participants enthusiastically viewed rovers as being uniquely valuable for such tasks as data taking on tedious or repetitive routes, traverses in polar night, difficult or hazardous routes, extremely remote regions, routes requiring only simple instrumentation, traverses that must be conducted at low speed, augments of manned traverses, and scientific procedures not compatible with human presence or combustion engines. The workshop has concluded that instrumented autonomous vehicles, of the type being developed for planetary exploration, have the potential to contribute significantly to the way science in conducted in Antarctica while also aiding planetary technology development, and engaging the public's interest. Specific objectives can be supported in understanding ice sheet mass balance, sea ice heat and momentum exchange, and surface air chemistry processes. In the interval since the workshop, we have concluded that organized program to employ such rovers to perform scientific tasks in the Fourth International Polar Year would serve the objectives of that program well.

  5. Effects of Traverse Scanning Speed of Spray Nozzle on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cold-Sprayed Ti6Al4V Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Adrian Wei-Yee; Sun, Wen; Phang, Yun Peng; Dai, Minghui; Marinescu, Iulian; Dong, Zhili; Liu, Erjia

    2017-10-01

    Cold spray has the potential to restore damaged aerospace components made from titanium alloy, Ti6Al4V at low temperature (200-400 °C). Traverse scanning speed during deposition is one of the key factors that affect the quality of the Ti6Al4V coatings as it influences the thermal build-up and coating thickness per pass. As there are fewer reported studies on this, this work investigated the effects of different traverse scanning speeds (100, 300 and 500 mm/s) of cold spray nozzle on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-sprayed Ti6Al4V coatings. The cross-sectional analysis showed coating porosities reduces with slower traverse speed, from 3.2 to 0.5%. In addition, the microhardness of the coatings increased from about 361-385 HV due to strain hardening. However, the adhesion strength of the coatings to the substrates significantly decreased with reduced traverse speed from about 60 MPa (glue failure) at 500 mm/s to 2.5 MPa (interface failure) at 100 mm/s. Therefore, this study revealed that the control of heat build-up and thickness per pass during the cold spray deposition of the Ti6Al4V coatings is crucial to attain the desirable properties of the coatings.

  6. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D. [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  7. The marine renewable energies file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A set of articles addresses several aspects and issues related to the development of renewable marine energies: the objectives defined by the French government and the European Union in terms of share of renewable energies in energy consumption, some existing projects, the definition and assessment of the different renewable marine energies (offshore wind energy, sea thermal energy, sea current energy, sea tide energy, sea wave energy, marine biomass, osmotic energy), the need for a national strategy according to two researchers belonging to IFREMER, the implementation of the first offshore test platform by the Ecole Centrale de Nantes, the role of the ADEME (financial support, marketing studies, legislation, definition of a national programme), the recommendation by the European Commission of a large scale offshore wind energy development, the activities of EDF and Total in the field of marine energy, the problems faced by the first French offshore wind generator project, the actions undertaken in La Reunion in the field of sea thermal energy, and the opportunities in the use of micro-algae for hydrogen, bio-fuel or biogas production

  8. Financing renewable energies. Windows for new opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontenagel, I.

    1999-01-01

    Renewable Energies are recognized as indispensable for a sustainable energy economy. Their progressive market introduction, however, depend very much on their economic competitiveness. A wide range of Renewable Energies are already cost competitive today. But still a shortage of information as well as mental and structural barriers are hindering their rapid market penetration. This volume publishes the results of two conferences, held by EUROSOLAR and dealing with the problems of Financing Renewable Energies. In five chapters - Banking Concepts for Financing Renewable Energies - Public Frameworks for Renewable Energy Market Introduction - Financing Renewable Energies in Developing Countries - Green Power - Market Structures and Players - Renewable Energy Financing Applications a variety of new concepts and fresh ideas are presented. (orig.)

  9. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. With Ireland's current 'trajectory' of renewable energy growth, it is likely to slightly fall short of its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy target. Ireland initiated a 'moratorium' on its REFIT (Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff) support scheme in December 2015, with the aim of introducing a revised scheme in 2017 in line with market developments. Grants and tax relief remain in place for renewable heat promotion. An Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) was introduced in 2014, which sets out Government policy in relation to the sustainable development of Ireland's abundant offshore renewable energy resource

  10. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Fischedick, Manfred; Moomaw, William; Weir, Tony; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  11. Renewable energy - an attractive marketing proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    The Global Utilities arm of international business consultants PriceWaterhouseCoopers (PWC) has provided a unique insight into the investment plans of Australian utilities regarding renewable energy. PWC has released the findings of a survey of electricity generators and retailers that neatly illustrates the risks and opportunities facing corporations liable under the mandatory renewable energy targets (MRET). Probably the most revealing finding of the PWC report- 'The Future of Australian Renewable Energy' was that the majority of respondents have not yet formulated a comprehensive renewable energy strategy aimed at meeting their obligations under MRET, or maximising the benefit of renewable energy certificates (RECs) produced. Notably, the majority of those surveyed believed that the strongest incentives for investing in new renewable energy generation was the company's 'green image'. In contrast investment characteristics such as low risk returns, the achievement of cost efficiencies or attractive revenue streams were not critical reasons for investing in renewable generation

  12. Streamlining the license renewal review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, J.; Lee, S.; Kuo, P.T.

    2001-01-01

    The staff of the NRC has been developing three regulatory guidance documents for license renewal: the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report, Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (SRP-LR), and Regulatory Guide (RG) for Standard Format and Content for Applications to Renew Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses. These documents are designed to streamline the license renewal review process by providing clear guidance for license renewal applicants and the NRC staff in preparing and reviewing license renewal applications. The GALL report systematically catalogs aging effects on structures and components; identifies the relevant existing plant programs; and evaluates the existing programs against the attributes considered necessary for an aging management program to be acceptable for license renewal. The GALL report also provides guidance for the augmentation of existing plant programs for license renewal. The revised SRP-LR allows an applicant to reference the GALL report to preclude further NRC staff evaluation if the plant's existing programs meet the criteria described in the GALL report. During the review process, the NRC staff will focus primarily on existing programs that should be augmented or new programs developed specifically for license renewal. The Regulatory Guide is expected to endorse the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) guideline, NEI 95-10, Revision 2, entitled 'Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10 CFR Part 54 - The License Renewal Rule', which provides guidance for preparing a license renewal application. This paper will provide an introduction to the GALL report, SRP-LR, Regulatory Guide, and NEI 95-10 to show how these documents are interrelated and how they will be used to streamline the license renewal review process. This topic will be of interest to domestic power utilities considering license renewal and international ICONE participants seeking state-of-the-art information about license renewal in the United States

  13. The renewable energy market in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia is committed to an 8 per cent reduction in its emissions of greenhouse gases above 1990 levels as a result of the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2008-2012. At present, the emissions stand at 17.4 per cent above 1990 levels. Total electrical power in Australia resulting from renewable energy is in the order of 10.5 per cent. A mandatory renewable energy target of 9500 gigawatt hour (GWh) of extra renewable energy is to be produced annually by 2010, under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act. An emissions trading system has been implemented, involving one renewable energy certificate (REC) created for each megawatt hour of renewable energy generated. A significant expansion of the demand for renewable energy is expected in Australia over the next ten years, according to the Australian Greenhouse Office. Increased opportunities for local and international firms operating in the field of renewable energy are being created by the Australian government through initiatives such as the Renewable Energy Commercialization Program, and the Renewable Remote Power Generation Program. Solar, biomass, and wind power are comprised in the wealth of renewable energy resources in Australia. The market remains largely undeveloped. Firms from the United States and the European Union are the leading exporters of renewable energy technology to Australia. Public utilities and independent power producers having entered the deregulated electricity market are the consumers of renewable energy technology and services. A country with minimal duties in most cases, Australia has much in common with Canada, including similar regulatory and legal systems. Australia applies a 10 per cent goods and services tax, which would apply to Canadian exports. It was advised to consult the Australian Customs Service for additional information concerning duties that might be applicable to the renewable energy industry. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Renewable resources and renewable energy a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasiero, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands continue to surge worldwide, the need for efficient and environmentally neutral energy production becomes increasingly apparent. In its first edition, this book presented a well-rounded perspective on the development of bio-based feedstocks, biodegradable plastics, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and other aspects related to renewable resources and sustainable energy production. The new second edition builds upon this foundation to explore new trends and technologies. The authors pay particular attention to hydrogen-based and fuel cell-based technologies and provide real-world c

  15. Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Dean A.

    1980-01-01

    Increasing motivation and job satisfaction for physical education teachers, and other teachers as well, is discussed as an end result of taking advantage of inservice education and personal development opportunities. (JMF)

  16. Dual-band infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H.; Schlemmer, H.

    2005-10-01

    Every year, numerous accidents happen on European roads due to bad visibility (fog, night, heavy rain). Similarly, the dramatic aviation accidents of year 2001 in Milan and Zurich have reminded us that aviation safety is equally affected by reduced visibility. A dual-band thermal imager was developed in order to raise human situation awareness under conditions of reduced visibility especially in the automotive and aeronautical context but also for all transportation or surveillance tasks. The chosen wavelength bands are the Short Wave Infrared SWIR and the Long Wave Infrared LWIR band which are less obscured by reduced visibility conditions than the visible band. Furthermore, our field tests clearly show that the two different spectral bands very often contain complementary information. Pyramidal fusion is used to integrate complementary and redundant features of the multi-spectral images into a fused image which can be displayed on a monitor to provide more and better information for the driver or pilot.

  17. Effects of X-irradiation and sodium butyrate on cell-cycle traverse on normal and radiosensitive lymphoblastoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.J.; Anderson, C.O.; Watson, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    We have used a multi-parameter flow-cytometric technique to analyse changes in cell-cycle phase distribution (early and late G1, S and G2+M phases) for normal and X-ray-sensitive (ataxia-telangiectasia, A-T) lymphoblastoid cells exposed to X-irradiation and sodium butyrate (either alone or in combination). Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, is a useful pharmacological tool for determining the proposed role of a histone acetylation-based chromatin surveillance system in controlling cell-cycle responses to DNA damage. We report that X-irradiated A-T cells (acute doses up to 1.5 Gy) demonstrate deficiencies in the capacity to traverse G1 and G2+M phases, although we can find no evidence of the specific involvement of a sodium butyrate-sensitive process in normal cells or abnormalities in the responses of A-T cells to the drug. We conclude that abnormal cellular control of G1 transition in A-T may be the basis of disturbed cellular differentiation in vivo, particularly in non-proliferating tissues under conditions of accumulated environmental or spontaneous DNA damage

  18. SAGE 2014: Grain size variability across the Sunlight Absorption on the Greenland ice sheet Experiment (SAGE) traverse route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Z.; Polashenski, C.; Domine, F.; Bergin, M. H.; Chen, J.; Farnsworth, L.; Stwertka, C.; Stewart, M. C.; Dibb, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, researchers from the US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Region Research and Engineering Laboratory, Dartmouth College, the University of New Hampshire, Georgia Tech, University of Wisconsin, University of Michigan, and NASA-Langley completed the second year of a ground-based traverse of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Samples from 67 locations were extracted from shallow snow pits and analyzed for trace elements, black carbon (see Polashenski et al. and Dibb et al. in session C004: Aerosols and the Cryosphere), and snow grain size (in terms of specific surface area) at depths comprising at least the previous year's worth of snow accumulation at each site. In addition, surface characteristics of the snow including albedo, surface roughness and meteorological forcing were determined. Here, we present the spatial distribution of grain size reported as specific surface area determined from field measurements using the Takuvik International Laboratory DUal Frequency Integrating Sphere for Snow Specific area measurement (DUFISSS) instrument and from laboratory-based stereology and micro-CT measurements from snow samples that were preserved and shipped back to the lab. Grain sizes from 2014 are compared to 2013 results at coincident locations and comparable depths, and compared to the intervening year's worth of meteorological data from Automated Weather Stations (AWSs) assembled by the SAGE field team at four locations along the 2013 and 2014 routes.

  19. Analysis of Double Meridian Distance for a Closed Traverse Area towards Developing a Contour Map and Land Title

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. U. Ganiron Jr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze double meridian distance for a closed traverse area in developing a land title for a propose gymnasium in Qassim University. Theodolite, leveling rod and steel tape plays an important role in measuring elevations, bearings and distances of the boundaries of a lot. Contour map is necessary to determine the traces of level surfaces of successive elevation. This will enable to identify the type of contour map and type of contour lines necessary for this project. Corel draw software is used to draw contour map and guide to interpret the significance of the variables. It is essential to check the error of closure for interior angles and for both latitude and departure before applying the Double Meridian Distance (DMD method to obtain the total area of the lot. Technical descriptions of the land such as distance, bearing, boundaries and area are necessary to visualize the shape & exact location of the land. Developing a land title will be obtained using the technical descriptions of the lot in preparation for the type of gymnasium necessary for Qassim University.

  20. SO 2 flux from Stromboli during the 2007 eruption: Results from the FLAME network and traverse measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, M. R.; Caltabiano, T.; Murè, F.; Salerno, G.; Randazzo, D.

    2009-05-01

    SO 2 fluxes emitted by Stromboli during the 27th February-2nd April 2007 effusive eruption were regularly measured both by an automatic network of scanning ultraviolet spectrometers and by traverse measurements conducted by boat and helicopter. The results from both methodologies agree reasonably well, providing a validation for the automatic flux calculations produced by the network. Approximately 22,000 t of SO 2 were degassed during the course of the 35 day eruption at an average rate of 620 t per day. Such a degassing rate is much higher than that normally observed (150-200 t/d), because the cross-sectional area occupied by ascending degassed magma is much greater than normal during the effusion, as descending, degassed magma that would normally occupy a large volume of the conduit is absent. We propose that the hydrostatically controlled magma level within Stromboli's conduit is the main control on eruptive activity, and that a high effusion rate led to the depressurisation of an intermediate magma reservoir, creating a decrease in the magma level until it dropped beneath the eruptive fissure, causing the rapid end of the eruption. A significant decrease in SO 2 flux was observed prior to a paroxysm on 15th March 2007, suggesting that choking of the gas flowing in the conduit may have induced a coalescence event, and consequent rapid ascent of gas and magma that produced the explosion.

  1. A rare giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach traversing the upper abdomen: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the case of a 66-year-old woman with a huge gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach that traversed her upper abdomen. The predominant abdominal sign was a huge, palpable mass, but there were no other distinctive findings in her physical examination or her routine blood workup, including biochemical markers. It was difficult to judge the origin of the mass upon imaging. Furthermore, radiological findings revealed that the mass had a complex relationship with many major blood vessels. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a huge tumor protruding from the anterior wall of the stomach fundus, on the lesser curvature of the stomach, measuring approximately 21 × 34 × 11 cm in diameter and weighing 5.5 kg. A complete resection was performed and the tumor was characterized on immunohistochemistry as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. Preoperative diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors can be difficult, and we hope that the presentation of this rare case and literature review will benefit other diagnosing clinicians having similar problems.

  2. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  3. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them

  4. PEI's perspective on renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 7 per cent of Prince Edward Island's (PEI) energy supply is from renewable sources, acquired mainly from biomass. Wind power accounts for 0.5 per cent of electricity production. This paper discussed issues concerning renewable energy developments in PEI, with particular reference to the PEI Renewable Energy Act as well as the PEI energy framework and renewable energy strategy, which was the result of public consultation sessions held in 2003. The results of these sessions indicated that greater development of indigenous renewable energy resources was desired, particularly in wind power. It was also stated that the government should help to advance renewable energy development in the province. Several development opportunities were highlighted, including: wind; biodiesel; ethanol; biomass; bio-gas; and small-scale hydro. The advantages of wind power were reviewed and wind data was presented. The economic and community benefits of renewable energy include local price stability, development opportunities, diversity of fuel type and security of supply. It was noted that renewable energy fully complemented the energy goals of the PEI government. Several strategies were discussed towards the development of renewable energy, including feasibility studies in biogas and biomass generation. The PEI government's commitment towards developing a regulatory framework acknowledging environmental sustainability was re-stated. Objectives include the promotion of renewable energy sources through the establishment of a Renewable Portfolio Standard for electricity; improvements in the economics of small-scale electricity production from renewable resources through the introduction of net metering; decreases in peak demand; enablement of green credits; the designation of areas for large-scale wind developments; and provision of guaranteed prices paid to producers for medium and large-scale renewable energy generators through feed-in tariffs. tabs, figs

  5. SINGLE-BAND, TRIPLE-BAND, OR MULTIPLE-BAND HUBBARD MODELS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ESKES, H; SAWATZKY, GA

    1991-01-01

    The relevance of different models, such as the one-band t-J model and the three-band Emery model, as a realistic description of the electronic structure of high-T(c) materials is discussed. Starting from a multiband approach using cluster calculations and an impurity approach, the following

  6. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  7. Renewable energy and climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Quaschning, Volker

    2010-01-01

    This dazzling introductory textbook encompasses the full range of today's important renewable energy technologies. Solar thermal, photovoltaic, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal energy receive balanced treatment with one exciting and informative chapter devoted to each. As well as a complete overview of these state-of-the-art technologies, the chapters provide: clear analysis on their development potentials; an evaluation of the economic aspects involved; concrete guidance for practical implementation; how to reduce your own energy waste. If we do not act now to stop climate change, the cons.

  8. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2016-12-14

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  9. Regulating renewable resources under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn

    Renewable natural resources (like water, fish and wildlife stocks, forests and grazing lands) are critical for the livelihood of millions of people and understanding how they can be managed efficiently is an important economic problem. I show how regulator uncertainty about different economic......) that a pro-quota result under uncertainty about prices and marginal costs is unlikely, requiring that the resource growth function is highly concave locally around the optimum and, 3) that quotas are always preferred if uncertainly about underlying structural economic parameters dominates. These results...

  10. Band-notched ultrawide band antenna loaded with ferrite slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zong, Weihua; Sun, Nian X.; Lin, Hwaider; Li, Shandong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a novel technique to design a band-notched UWB antenna by using Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) ferrite is proposed. A printed slot UWB antenna with size of 21mm×26 mm×0.8 mm is adopted as a basic antenna. A piece of ferrite slab with size of 5 mm×10 mm×2 mm is attached on the feeding layer of the antenna to achieve band-notched characteristics. The measured -10 dB bandwidth of the antenna without ferrite slab is 2.91-10.98 GHz. With loading of ferrite slab, the bandwidth turns to 2.73-5.12 and 5.87-10.78 GHz. A band notch of 5.12- 5.87 GHz is achieved to filter WLAN 5 GHz (5.15-5.825 GHz) band. The proposed technique has virtue of easy fabrication and keeping antenna miniaturization.

  11. Band-to-Band Tunneling Transistors: Scalability and Circuit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    55* MEDICI ...3.2.1 Tunneling Theory 3.3 Simulation Methods 3.3.1 MEDICI 3.3.2 Sentaurus Local Tunneling 3.3.3 Sentaurus Nonlocal Tunneling 3.4 Sentaurus...tunneling current. 3.3.1 MEDICI MEDICI is a one and two-dimensional simulator created by Synopsys, Inc. [18]. It contains a band-to-band

  12. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources of energy is stimulated by a feed-in tariff scheme which includes elements of a renewable quota scheme and tendering. Since 2011 this scheme only applies to pre-existing RES-E installations and is closed for new RES-E projects. Moreover, the present main RES-E support scheme is being evaluated which may result in reforms within short. Small-scale renewable generation, notably PV, is stimulated by net metering. On the other hand, since January 2014 a tax for subsidised electricity generators is in place. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted by fiscal instruments. To date, renewable transport fuels are promoted through a tax mechanism as well

  13. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  14. Planning for renewable energy in Devon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The aim of the Study was to examine the technical, planning and environmental factors, and the resource availability, which may affect the development of renewable energy schemes in Devon, with particular reference to West Devon. The study was undertaken to draw up a specimen planning policy framework for the development of renewable energy in Devon, looking at each major renewable energy source and at the relevant environmental and planning constraints; using this framework, to amplify the draft Structure Plan policy for renewable energy; to draw up draft guidance and specimen policies for a Local Plan covering renewable energy for a District Council, in this case, West Devon Borough; and to provide a pilot study for implementing the draft Planning Policy Guidance (PPG) on renewable energy. (author)

  15. The market for tradable renewable energy credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, David

    2002-01-01

    As states seek to foster the development of renewable energy resources, some have introduced renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) which require retailers of electricity to derive a specified amount of their energy supply from renewable energy resources. RPSs in Texas, Arizona, Wisconsin and Nevada allow for or require the use of tradable renewable energy credits. The price of such credits is expected to reflect the cost premium for generating electricity from renewable resources relative to the market price of conventionally generated electricity. Using the market to trade renewable energy credits exposes buyers and sellers to risks of imperfect information, poor performance, and opportunism. These risks can be managed through contractual arrangements and regulatory requirements pertaining to property rights in credits, pricing, term of the contract, and assurance of performance

  16. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a premium tariff (and a guaranteed feed-in tariff for installations of less than 30 kW), allocated through tenders. Soft loans and subsidies for renewable energy projects are also provided. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes only are not promoted through a national support scheme. A training programme for RES installers aims at promoting the development, installation and usage of power generating and heating installations based on renewables. The main promotion scheme in the field of renewable transport fuels is a bio-fuels quota scheme. Additionally, the state provides bio-fuels incentives taking the form of a tax credits mechanism

  17. Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy...... production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must include strategies of how to integrate the renewable sources in coherent energy systems influenced by energy savings and efficiency measures. Based...... on the case of Denmark, this paper discusses the problems and perspectives of converting present energy systems into a 100 percent renewable energy system. The conclusion is that such development will be possible. The necessary renewable energy sources are present, if further technological improvements...

  18. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    , the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously....... In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish...... system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy...

  19. Traversing Knowledge Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2017-01-01

    Research on the Internet of Things (IoT) has been booming for the past 6 years due to technological advances and potential for application. Nonetheless, the rapid growth of IoT articles and the heterogeneous nature of IoT pose challenges to conducting a systematic review of IoT literature...

  20. Investment in Renewable Energies in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Recalde

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes how the enabling conditions of the energy policy of a developing country such as Argentina, are crucial for the deployment of renewable energy investments. The conclusions highlights that the low institutional quality of the country shapes enabling conditions and reduce effect of the instruments of the energy policy, dropping incentives for investment in renewable technologies in the country. Therefore, in order to promote renewable technologies investments efficiently, ...

  1. Investment in Renewable Energies in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Recalde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the enabling conditions of the energy policy of a developing country such as Argentina, are crucial for the deployment of renewable energy investments. The conclusions highlights that the low institutional quality of the country shapes enabling conditions and reduce effect of the instruments of the energy policy, dropping incentives for investment in renewable technologies in the country. Therefore, in order to promote renewable technologies investments efficiently, the institutional framework of countries must be seriously improved.

  2. Renewable and efficient electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Gilbert M

    2013-01-01

    A solid, quantitative, practical introduction to a wide range of renewable energy systems-in a completely updated, new edition The second edition of Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems provides a solid, quantitative, practical introduction to a wide range of renewable energy systems. For each topic, essential theoretical background is introduced, practical engineering considerations associated with designing systems and predicting their performance are provided, and methods for evaluating the economics of these systems are presented. While the book focuses on

  3. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted through investment subsidies in combination with a net metering scheme. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted by investment subsidies to enterprises and households respectively. To date, no incentives for production and use of bio-fuels in the transport sector are in place

  4. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. By 2014 Finland already surpassed its 2020 target for renewable energy use under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The current feed-in premium system will be discontinued and is expected to be replaced with a competitive technology-neutral tendering scheme, in line with the requirements set in the 2014 State Aid guidelines

  5. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

    2008-06-30

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  6. Renewable energies in France 1970-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The energy observatory presents in this 2004 edition today data concerning the thermal renewable energies and the new energetic accounting method for the electric renewable energies. The following energy sources are concerned: hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy, biomass, wood fuels, domestic wastes, heat pumps, biogas, the thermal solar and biofuels. The energy production by renewable sources from 1970 to 2002, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. Renewable energy education: a worldwide status review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandpal, Tara C.; Broman, Lars

    2015-02-15

    The need for renewable energy education and training at all levels is globally recognized. During the last three decades, a large number of countries across the globe have initiated academic programmes on renewable energy technologies and related aspects. A review of published literature on renewable energy education initiatives across the globe, challenges faced, and potential approaches towards efficient and effective solutions are presented in the paper.

  8. Renewable energy progress and biofuels sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; De Lovinfosse, I.; Koper, M.; Beestermoeller, C.; Nabe, C.; Kimmel, M.; Van den Bos, A.; Yildiz, I.; Harteveld, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Steinhilber, S. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Nysten, J.; Fouquet, D. [Becker Buettner Held BBH, Munich (Germany); Resch, G.; Liebmann, L.; Ortner, A.; Panzer, C. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Walden, D.; Diaz Chavez, R.; Byers, B.; Petrova, S.; Kunen, E. [Winrock International, Brussels (Belgium); Fischer, G.

    2013-03-15

    On 27 March 2013, the European Commission published its first Renewable Energy Progress Report under the framework of the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. Since the adoption of this directive and the introduction of legally binding renewable energy targets, most Member States experienced significant growth in renewable energy consumption. 2010 figures indicate that the EU as a whole is on its trajectory towards the 2020 targets with a renewable energy share of 12.7%. Moreover, in 2010 the majority of Member States already reached their 2011/2012 interim targets set in the Directive. However, as the trajectory grows steeper towards the end, more efforts will still be needed from the Member States in order to reach the 2020 targets. With regard to the EU biofuels and bioliquids sustainability criteria, Member States' implementation of the biofuels scheme is considered too slow. In accordance with the reporting requirements set out in the 2009 Directive on Renewable Energy, every two years the European Commission publishes a Renewable Energy Progress Report. The report assesses Member States' progress in the promotion and use of renewable energy along the trajectory towards the 2020 renewable energy targets. The report also describes the overall renewable energy policy developments in each Member State and their compliance with the measures outlined in the Directive and the National Renewable Energy Action Plans. Moreover, in accordance with the Directive, it reports on the sustainability of biofuels and bioliquids consumed in the EU and the impacts of this consumption. A consortium led by Ecofys was contracted by the European Commission to perform support activities concerning the assessment of progress in renewable energy and sustainability of biofuels.

  9. Which renewable energy for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argillier, Christine; Roy, Romain; Granier, Jacques; Fournaison, Laurence; Bouchez, Theodore; Chapleur, Olivier; Mazeas, Laurent; Richard, Charlotte; Lacour, Stephanie; Bau, Frederique; Drouineau, Hilaire; Amblard, Laurence; Guerra, Fabien; Taverne, Marie; Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Girault, Romain; Chauvin, Christophe; Dupire, Sylvain; Evette, Andre; Monnet, Jean-Matthieu; Tabourdeau, Antoine; Berlandis, Maryse; Grandhaye, Maud; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique; Roger, Jean-Michel; Deshayes, Michel; Durrieu, Sylvie; Ose, Kenji; Bouget, Christophe; Ginisty, Christian; Gosselin, Frederic; Vallet, Patrick; Aissani, Lynda; Beline, Fabrice; Bioteau, Thierry; Dabert, Patrick; Peu, Pascal; Tremier, Anne; Bournigal, Jean-Marc; Casademont, Sylvane; Aissani, Lucinda; Sardat, Nicole; Sialino, Catherine; Givone, Pierrick; Chastan, Bernard; Duchene, Philippe; Guerin, Marc; Arbeille, Sabine; Francillette, Elodie; Saboulin Bollena, Pauline de

    2012-09-01

    This report describes and discusses the perspectives of evolution and innovation for three great issues related to renewable energies. The first one is waste methanization, and the report addresses the following topics: practice in France, characterization of organic wastes, quick prediction of the potential associated with solid wastes, integration of methanization within an existing sector, local implantation of methanization, towards the methanization of sewage sludges, for a better management of digestates, the issue of renewability of our wastes, the optimization of microbial processes of waste degradation, analysis of methanization life cycle). The second issue is the use of wood as energy source: quantities, cartography of forest biomass by remote sensing, cartography of exploitability in mountain forests, organisation of a wood-energy supply, cartography of clear cuts, impacts of wood crops on insects, producing more wood while better preserving biodiversity, wood-energy governance. Thirdly, the report addresses issues of energy savings and impacts: energy optimization for agricultural machinery, relationship between irrigation and energy saving, energy saving by energy storage, nebulisation applied to refrigeration equipment, high thermal inertia applied to domestic refrigerators, works and downstream migration of eel, dam hydraulic management and fish population dynamics, reduction of environmental print at work

  10. Biogas: A renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imiere, E.E.; Ojih, V.B.; Esiekpe, L.E.; Okafor, M.C.; Attoh, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

  11. Smart grids and renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, I.H. [Waterloo Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Environment and Resource Studies

    2010-07-01

    Smart grids serve to integrate advanced information and communication technologies (ICTs) into power systems. Increased use of ICTs enable a range of information sources to be deployed in the management of the power system. Therefore, the particular advantages that renewable electricity can offer can be more easily accessed. This presentation discussed the ways in which smart grids could promote increased use of renewable electricity in grid-connected systems. The presentation provided both a general review of global activity in this area, and focused on a project underway in Ontario. The energy hub management system project is based out of the University of Waterloo and represents a partnership among universities, utilities, government and the private sector. The purpose of the project is to provide energy managers increased information and control on their energy producing, consuming and storing devices by developing pilot projects across Ontario to deploy the energy hub management system in residential, commercial/institutional, industrial and agricultural settings. Perspectives on how smart grids could continue to develop around the world were provided. figs.

  12. Satellite Cell Self-Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Lorenzo; Parisi, Alice; Le Grand, Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is endowed with regenerative potential through partially recapitulating the embryonic developmental program. Upon acute injury or in pathological conditions, quiescent muscle-resident stem cells, called satellite cells, become activated and give rise to myogenic progenitors that massively proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to form new myofibers and restore tissue functionality. In addition, a proportion of activated cells returns back to quiescence and replenish the pool of satellite cells in order to maintain the ability of skeletal muscle tissue to repair. Self-renewal is the process by which stem cells divide to make more stem cells to maintain the stem cell population throughout life. This process is controlled by cell-intrinsic transcription factors regulated by cell-extrinsic signals from the niche and the microenvironment. This chapter provides an overview about the general aspects of satellite cell biology and focuses on the cellular and molecular aspects of satellite cell self-renewal. To date, we are still far from understanding how a very small proportion of the satellite cell progeny maintain their stem cell identity when most of their siblings progress through the myogenic program to construct myofibers. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Renewable energy sources in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Balducchi, R.; Bernardini, A.; Dondi, F.; Di Carlo, F.; Genovese, A.; Scoccianti, M.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions. [it

  14. Dynamic Server-Based KML Code Generator Method for Level-of-Detail Traversal of Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxes, Gregory; Mixon, Brian; Linger, TIm

    2013-01-01

    Web-based geospatial client applications such as Google Earth and NASA World Wind must listen to data requests, access appropriate stored data, and compile a data response to the requesting client application. This process occurs repeatedly to support multiple client requests and application instances. Newer Web-based geospatial clients also provide user-interactive functionality that is dependent on fast and efficient server responses. With massively large datasets, server-client interaction can become severely impeded because the server must determine the best way to assemble data to meet the client applications request. In client applications such as Google Earth, the user interactively wanders through the data using visually guided panning and zooming actions. With these actions, the client application is continually issuing data requests to the server without knowledge of the server s data structure or extraction/assembly paradigm. A method for efficiently controlling the networked access of a Web-based geospatial browser to server-based datasets in particular, massively sized datasets has been developed. The method specifically uses the Keyhole Markup Language (KML), an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGS) standard used by Google Earth and other KML-compliant geospatial client applications. The innovation is based on establishing a dynamic cascading KML strategy that is initiated by a KML launch file provided by a data server host to a Google Earth or similar KMLcompliant geospatial client application user. Upon execution, the launch KML code issues a request for image data covering an initial geographic region. The server responds with the requested data along with subsequent dynamically generated KML code that directs the client application to make follow-on requests for higher level of detail (LOD) imagery to replace the initial imagery as the user navigates into the dataset. The approach provides an efficient data traversal path and mechanism that can be

  15. Igneous composition vaiations determined by ChemCam along Curiosity's traverse from Bradbury to Rocknest area at Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Violaine; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    Since landing in Gale Crater (-4.59, 137,44°) the rover Curiosity, has driven during the first 90 sols, 420 meter east descending ∼ 20m from the Bradbury Landing site towards Glenelg. From sols 13 on, the ChemCam instrument suite performed compositional and imaging analyses of rocks and soils along the route. Each Chem- Cam LIBS observations covers a spot between 350 and 550 μm dia thus individual observations generally do not represent the whole rock composition but rather represent individual grains or a mixture thereof. Most of observations consist of a linear 5-point raster or a 3 x 3 grid. All major elements were regularly reported together with minor and trace elements. During the traverse, two distinct zones have been characterized: Zone I, from sol 0 to sol 47 (i.e. 280 meter traverse), belongs to the Humocky terrains supposed to be a part of the alluvial fan below Peace Vallis, which descends from the crater rim to the Northwest. It is defined by abundant gravels and igneous float rocks and isolated conglomerate outcrops. Rock textures indicate a high ratio of intrusive over extrusive: plutonic rocks vary from homogenous grain size either coarse (1-3mm grains Mara) or fine grained (less than 300 m Coronation) to variable grain size within a given rock (Jake-M). Some contain abundant laths of whitish minerals. ChemCam analyses are Si-rich (up to 60% wt.% or more) together with high Al (more than 15%) and high alkali (Na > K) in a range expected for alkali feldspar compositions. The lowest Si content correlates with low Al and high Fe consistent with ferromagnesian composition. The highest Si content (Stark a white vesicular rock) could indicate the presence of quartz. Clasts analyzed in one conglomerate (Link) had a range of compositions dominated by feldspathic material consistent with loose pebbles in the area and igneous porphyroblast. Beyond Anton soil (sol48), Curiosity entered zone II, transitional to a more distal unit with respect to the fan

  16. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Slovenia, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff (so called 'guaranteed purchase') and a premium tariff (so called 'operating premium'), both granted through a tender procedure. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes are promoted mainly through loans on concessional terms and subsidies. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport are tax exemptions and subsidies

  17. Promotion of renewable energy supply in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the utilization of the various non-renewable energy resources and the associated environmental problems deriving from the different stages and uses of these resources. Some of the most important of these problems are loss of vegetation and environmental pollution. The need for a conscious shift to the exploitation of renewable energy sources are highlighted and a presentation of renewable energy resources of Nigeria is made. A review of national efforts in the development and utilization of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and the achievements so far are presented

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  19. Review process for license renewal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, John W.; Kuo, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    In preparation for license renewal reviews, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently published for public review and comment a proposed rule for license renewal and a draft Standard Review Plan as well as a draft Regulatory Guide relating to the implementation of the proposed rule. In support of future license renewal applications, the nuclear industry has also submitted 11 industry reports for NRC review and approval. This paper briefly describe how these parallel regulatory and industry activities will be factored into the NRC review process for license renewal. (author)

  20. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Zhang, Xiliang

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO 2 emitting country in the world. In this case, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously. In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy system. The conclusion is that China's domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system in China is not unreasonable. (author)

  1. A renewable energy strategy for Lao PDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milattanapheng, Chantho; Sysoulath, Hatsady; Green, Joanta; Kurukulasuriya, Mahinda

    2010-09-15

    The Government of Lao PDR (GoL) has set up the vision to 2020 ''to secure an adequate power supply throughout the country to facilitate national socio-economic development objectives in an environmentally sustainable manner''. To ensure achieving this goal, the government institutions have introduced various policies and strategies for supporting energy sector development. Lao PDR is in the process of developing a renewable energy strategy. A renewable energy strategy would facilitate the increase in the overall use and more effective use of renewable energy. This paper will discuss the salient points of the new renewable energy strategy.

  2. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through feed-in premiums, granted through tenders (as from 2017), feed-in tariffs for limited cases, a preferential tax regime (since 2016) and a net metering scheme. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is incentivised by way of a preferential tax regime and an investment subsidy scheme. The main instrument for renewable energy use in transport is a bio-fuels quota scheme

  3. Local investment in renewable energies - European experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantin, J.; Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Smith, M.

    2004-01-01

    This booklet is realized within the framework of the european commission called PREDAC. This document have been conceived by a working group specialized on the local investment into renewable energies thematic. The objectives of this project are: to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe; to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development; to examine more especially three renewable energy sources: biomass, photovoltaic and wind in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and United Kingdom. (author)

  4. Renewable energies: search for a community strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    During the Energy Council of December 8, 1997, the European Commission has presented a white book entitled 'Energy for the future: renewable energy sources'. This white book aims to increase from 6 to 12% the share of renewable energies in the European energy consumption thanks to a global action plan of rational use of energy in association with renewable energies and to a campaign of four key-actions: 1000000 of photovoltaic systems (50% in the European Union, 50% exported); 10000 MW of wind energy; 10000 MWth of biomass energy and the integration of renewable energies in 100 communities. Short paper. (J.S.)

  5. Deploying Renewables -- principles for effective policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-29

    Renewable energy can play a fundamental role in tackling climate change, environmental degradation and energy security. As these challenges have become ever more pressing, governments and markets are seeking innovative solutions. Yet, what are the key factors that will determine the success of renewable energy policies? How can current policies be improved to encourage greater deployment of renewables? What impact can more effective policies have on renewables' share in the future global energy mix and how soon? This publication addresses these questions. Responding to the Gleneagles G8 call for a clean and secure energy future, it highlights key policy tools to fast-track renewables into the mainstream. This analysis illustrates good practices by applying the combined metrics of effectiveness and efficiency to renewable energy policies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors. It highlights significant barriers to accelerating renewables penetration, and argues that the great potential of renewables can be exploited much more rapidly and to a much larger extent if good practices are adopted. Carefully designed policy frameworks, customised to support technologies at differing stages of maturity, will deliver a strong portfolio of renewable energy technologies. The document provides recommendations on key principles for policy design as a template for decision makers.

  6. NUMARC view of license renewal criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act and the implementing regulations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) permit the renewal of nuclear plant operating licenses upon expiration of their 40-year license term. However, the regulatory process by which license renewal may be accomplished and the requirements for the scope and content of renewal applications are yet to be established. On August 29, 1988, the NRC published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding the subject of license renewal. This Advanced Notice and the NUREG which it references, NUREG-1317, Regulatory Options for Nuclear Plant License Renewal, provide the most recent regulatory thought on this issue. The basic issue addressed by NUREG-1317 is the definition of an adequate licensing basis for the renewal of a plant license. The report contemplates three alternatives in this regard. This paper discusses each of these three proposals. The NUMARC NUPLEX Working Group endorses a license renewal process based on a plant's current licensing basis along with an evaluation of the pertinent components, systems, and structures affected by age-related degradation. The NUMARC NUPLEX Working group believes that an appropriate scope for NRC review of the license renewal application should focus on those safety-significant structures systems, and components subject to significant age-related degradation that are not subject to existing recognized effective replacement, refurbishment, or inspection programs. The paper also briefly discusses NUMARC's view of the role of the Backfit Rule in the license renewal process

  7. Key figures of renewable energies - Release 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, Thelma; Collet, Isabelle; Louati, Sami; Reynaud, Didier; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    This publication gathers numerous graphs and tables of data and statistics on renewable energies. After a presentation of various data which characterize and illustrate the share of renewable energies in the French energy mix, production and consumption, the production of renewable energies in metropolitan France and in overseas territories, data are presented regarding renewable hydraulics, wind energy, photovoltaic and thermal solar energy, heat pumps, solid biomass, waste-based energy production, biogas and bio-fuels. The next chapters propose an overview of the present situation and of objectives for 2020, and European and international comparisons

  8. The renewable energies: a topical issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This document analyzes the situation of the renewable energies in the french energy sector. The first part presents the part of the renewable energies in the energy production and consumption, their interest in the fight against the climatic change and in the employment creation. The second part details for each renewable energy source the government policy in favor their development and the legislative framework. The third part provides data on cost, CO 2 emissions, life cycle and employments to illustrate the analysis. The last part presents the government objectives of the renewable energies development for 2010. (A.L.B.)

  9. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  10. Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, U. M.; Lee, K. B.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources are increased because of the depletion of natural resources and the increasing pollution level from energy production. The wind energy and the solar energy are most widely used among the renewable energy sources. Power electronics is needed in almost all kinds...... of renewable energy system. It controls the renewable source and interfaces with the load effectively, which can be grid-connected or van work in stand-alone mode. In this presentation, overview of wind and photovoltaic energy systems are introduced. Next, the power electronic circuits behind the most common...

  11. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Hungary, electricity from renewable energy sources is supported by a feed-in-tariff or a market ('green') premium, depending on the capacity and energy source. Household-sized power plants up to 50 kVA can benefit from net metering. In general, subsidy programmes also promote the use of renewable energy sources in the electricity and heating sector. The main support scheme for the use of renewable energy in the transportation sector is a quota system supplemented by a reimbursement of excise duty

  12. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. For electricity from renewable sources of energy main support instruments are feed-in tariffs (FIPs) and feed-in premiums (FiPs). Operators of renewable energy installation have to make a choice for either the applicable FiT or the corresponding FiP. Except for hydro installations with a capacity of 10 MW, the FiT/FiP scheme has been closed for new installations generating electricity from renewables. Hydro power installations with a size ≤ 10 MW are also eligible for subsidies. Installations for production of renewable heat can apply for subsidies granted by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and are exempt from real estate tax. A renewable heating obligation for buildings is in place and a regulation on the use of renewable heating by public authorities. The main support scheme for renewable transport fuels is a renewable transport quota scheme. This scheme obliges companies importing or producing gasoline or automotive diesel to ensure that bio-fuels make up a defined percentage of their overall annual sales volume of automotive fuels. Besides, bio-fuels are exempt from a consumption tax

  13. The renewable energy development framework - II. The foundations of renewable energy development: Economic foundations of renewable energies; International foundations of renewable energies; European foundations of renewable energy development; Foundations of renewable energy development in internal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes Motel, Pascale; Thebaut, Matthieu; Loic Grard; Michallet, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    A first article analysis the reasons for the development of renewable energies (economic and environmental reasons, European commitments in terms of production objectives), how these renewable energies can be developed (acceptation by the population, administrative, technological, and financial constraints, political instruments related to market, taxes and purchase prices). A second article proposes a discussion about the way international law deals with renewable energies as far as texts as well as actors are concerned. The third article describes the European ambitions regarding renewable energies as a product of national perspectives (national action plans and projects) as well as of European perspectives (financing, integrated actions). The last article presents and comments various legal texts dealing with the development of renewable energies in France (texts concerning the right to energy, the environment law, planning tools, incentive measures)

  14. Aqueous processes at Gusev crater inferred from physical properties of rocks and soils along the Spirit traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N.A.; Farmer, J.D.; Grin, E.A.; Ritcher, L.; Soderblom, L.; Li, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Landis, G.A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    Gusev crater was selected as the landing site for Spirit on the basis of morphological evidence of long-lasting water activity, including possibly fluvial and lacustrine episodes. From the Columbia Memorial Station to the Columbia Hills, Spirit's traverse provides a journey back in time, from relatively recent volcanic plains showing little evidence for aqueous processes up to the older hills, where rock and soil composition are drastically different. For the first 156 sols, the only evidence of water action was weathering rinds, vein fillings, and soil crust cementation by salts. The trenches of Sols 112-145 marked the first significant findings of increased concentrations of sulfur and magnesium varying in parallel, suggesting that they be paired as magnesium-sulfate. Spirit's arrival at West Spur coincided with a shift in rock and soil composition with observations hinting at substantial amounts of water in Gusev's past. We used the Microscopic Imager data up to Sol 431 to analyze rock and soil properties and infer plausible types and magnitude of aqueous processes through time. We show the role played early by topography and structure. The morphology, texture, and deep alteration shown by the rocks in West Spur and the Columbia Hills Formation (CHF) suggest conditions that are not met in present-day Mars and required a wetter environment, which could have included transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water, vapor in volcanic gases, hydrothermal circulation, or saturation in a briny fluid containing the same elements. Changing conditions that might have affected flow circulation are suggested by different textural and morphological characteristics between the rocks in the CHF and those of the plains, with higher porosity proxy, higher void ratio, and higher water storage potential in the CHF. Soils were used to assess aqueous processes and water pathways in the top layers of modern soils. We conclude that infiltration might have become more difficult

  15. Renewable Electricity: How Do You Know You Have It?; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    When electricity is generated - either from a renewable or non-renewable power plant - the electrons added to the grid are indistinguishable. So, on what basis can a consumer of electricity claim to be using renewables? In the United States, renewable energy certificates (RECs) were developed as states passed renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and were requiring fuel mix disclosure labels. RECs are also used in the voluntary market, where customers are buying renewables to meet sustainability goals. The concept of RECs is used most widely in the United States, but international markets also have tradable renewable electricity certificates. This fact sheet reviews how to ensure that RECs are not double-counted, roles of electricity regulators, renewable generators and purchasers. It concludes with a discussion of the international use of RECs.

  16. Intensity formulas for triplet bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budo, A.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work in this area is surveyed and the mathematics involved in determining the quantitative intensity measurements in triplet bands is presented. Explicit expressions for the intensity distribution in the branches of the 3 Sigma-3 Pi and 1 Sigma-3Pi bands valid for all values of the coupling constant Y of the 3 Pi terms are given. The intensity distribution calculated according to the formulas given is compared with measurements of PH, 3 Pi-3 Sigma. Good quantitative agreement is obtained.

  17. Spontaneous development of bilateral subdural hematomas in an infant with benign infantile hydrocephalus: color Doppler assessment of vessels traversing extra-axial spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amodio, John; Spektor, Vadim; Pramanik, Bidyut; Rivera, Rafael; Pinkney, Lynne; Fefferman, Nancy [New York University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2005-11-01

    We present an infant with macrocrania, who initially demonstrated prominent extra-axial fluid collections on sonography of the brain, compatible with benign infantile hydrocephalus (BIH). Because of increasing macrocrania, a follow-up sonogram of the brain was performed; it revealed progressive enlargement of the extra-axial spaces, which now had echogenic debris. Color Doppler US showed bridging veins traversing these extra-axial spaces, so it was initially thought that these spaces were subarachnoid in nature (positive cortical vein sign). However, an arachnoid membrane was identified superior to the cortex, and there was compression of true cortical vessels beneath this dural membrane. An MRI of the brain showed the extra-axial spaces to represent bilateral subdural hematomas. The pathogenesis of spontaneous development of the subdural hematomas, in the setting of BIH, is discussed. We also emphasize that visualizing traversing bridging veins through extra-axial spaces does not necessarily imply that these spaces are subarachnoid in origin. (orig.)

  18. Energy Systems With Renewable Hydrogen Compared to Direct Use of Renewable Energy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerfried Jungmeier; Kurt Konighofer; Josef Spitzer; R Haas; A Ajanovic

    2006-01-01

    The current Austrian energy system has a renewable energy share of 20% - 11% hydropower and 9 % biomass - of total primary energy consumption. Whereas a possible future introduction of renewable hydrogen must be seen in the context of current energy policies in Austria e.g. increase of energy efficiency and use of renewable energy, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of the research project is a life cycle based comparison of energy systems with renewable hydrogen from hydropower, wind, photovoltaic and biomass compared to the direct use of renewable energy for combined heat and power applications and transportation services. In particular this paper focuses on the main question, if renewable energy should be used directly or indirectly via renewable hydrogen. The assessment is based on a life cycle approach to analyse the energy efficiency, the material demand, the greenhouse gas emissions and economic aspects e.g. energy costs and some qualitative aspects e.g. energy service. The overall comparison of the considered energy systems for transportation service and combined heat and electricity application shows, that renewable hydrogen might be beneficial mainly for transportation services, if the electric vehicle will not be further developed to a feasibly wide-spread application for transportation service in future. For combined heat and electricity production there is no advantage of renewable hydrogen versus the direct use of renewable energy. Conclusions for Austria are therefore: 1) renewable hydrogen is an interesting energy carrier and might play an important role in a future sustainable Austrian energy system; 2) renewable hydrogen applications look most promising in the transportation sector; 3) renewable hydrogen applications will be of low importance for combined heat and electricity applications, as existing technologies for direct use of renewable energy for heat and electricity are well developed and very efficient; 4) In a future '100

  19. Contribution of Renewable Cooling to the Renewable Energy Target of the EU. Policy report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkmann, T.; Buerger, V. [The Oeko-Institut, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Renewable cooling technologies do not play a major role in the climate protection discussion in the European Union today. At the same time the cooling demand is expected to increase significantly in the coming decades. Renewable cooling technologies could contribute to the EU renewable energy target if an appropriate political framework for a further spread of the technologies is created. This renewable cooling policy report intends to support the dissemination of renewable cooling technologies. It provides an overview of the situation, technologies and potential for cool-ing from renewable sources and identifies key areas in which further investigation is required. The report shows that there is a great need for the creation of a political framework supporting the market diffusion of renewable cooling technologies. Firstly the question of a commonly accepted definition on renewable cooling is being addressed. Secondly renewable cooling technologies are described and the today's role of cooling in European statistics and policies is analysed. In the next step existing studies are evaluated to compare the expected development of the cooling demand in Europe to the market potential of renewable cooling. At the end of the paper a long-term vision for renewable cooling is described and first steps towards a European roadmap for renewable cooling are given.

  20. 77 FR 462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... as cellulosic biofuel. Renewable gasoline and renewable gasoline blendstock (new fuel types) Produced... proposing that all processes producing renewable gasoline or renewable gasoline blendstock from corn stover... RINs for renewable gasoline or renewable gasoline blendstock produced by catalytic pyrolysis and...

  1. Integrated Renewable Hydrogen Utility System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proton Energy Systems

    2003-04-01

    Products based on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) technology offer a unique solution to today's energy conversion storage needs. PEM products have undergone continual development since the late 1950's for many diverse applications. Rooted in rigorous aerospace applications, this technology is now ''breaking away'' to provide commercial solutions to common power, energy, and industrial gas feedstock problems. Important developments in PEM electrolyzers and various energy conversion devices (e.g. engines and fuel cells) can now be combined to form the basis for a revolutionary energy storage system that provides a much needed link to renewable resources, and offers a credible alternative for off-grid power applications. This technology operates by converting electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen as part of a water electrolysis process when excess power is available. When the primary source of power is unavailable, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy through an external combustion heat engine or other energy conversion device. The Phase II portion of this program began in May of 2000. The goal of Phase II of the project was to cost reduce the hydrogen generator as a critical link to having a fully sustainable hydrogen energy system. The overall goal is to enable the link to sustainability by converting excess renewable power into hydrogen and having that hydrogen available for conversion back to power, on demand. Furthermore, the cost of the capability must be less the $1,000 per kW (electrical power into the generator) and allow for a variety of renewable technology inputs. This cost target is based on a production volume of 10,000 units per year. To that end, Proton undertook an aggressive approach to cost reduction activities surrounding the 6kW, 40 standard cubic foot per hour (scfh) HOGEN hydrogen generator. The electrical side of the system targeted a number of areas that included approaches

  2. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  3. Kokhanok Renewable Energy Retrofit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, Edward I. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jimenez, Antonio [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Daniel R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-21

    In 2010, the community of Kokhanok, Alaska, installed two 90-kW wind turbines, battery storage, a converter, and equipment for integration. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performed an analysis and modeling using the HOMER and REopt software modeling packages.The analysis was designed to answer the following questions: 1) What is required to achieve a 50 percent reduction in power plant diesel fuel consumption in a diesel microgrid? 2) What is required to achieve a 50 percent reduction in 'total' (diesel and heating oil) consumption in a remote community? 3) What is the impact and role of energy efficiency? This presentation provides an introduction to the community of Kokhanok, Alaska; a summary of energy data; and an overview of analysis results and conceptual design.

  4. Renewables. Global futures report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to show the range of credible possibilities for the future of renewable energy. It does not present just one vision of the future, but rather a full and objective range of visions, based on the collective and contemporary thinking of many. This report combines a unique array of interviews with 170 experts from around the world, along with over 50 recently published scenarios. These interviews and scenarios are blended into a 'mosaic' of thinking about the future. Persons interviewed included industry and finance experts, CEOs and business managers, researchers and academics, policy-makers and parliamentarians, and public advocates and visionaries, among many others. Views of existing energy companies are also included

  5. Biodegradable polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Amy; Wright, Zachary C; Frank, Curtis W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental concerns have led to the development of biorenewable polymers with the ambition to utilize them at an industrial scale. Poly(lactic acid) and poly(hydroxyalkanoates) are semicrystalline, biorenewable polymers that have been identified as the most promising alternatives to conventional plastics. However, both are inherently susceptible to brittleness and degradation during thermal processing; we discuss several approaches to overcome these problems to create a balance between durability and biodegradability. For example, copolymers and blends can increase ductility and the thermal-processing window. Furthermore, chain modifications (e.g., branching/crosslinking), processing techniques (fiber drawing/annealing), or additives (plasticizers/nucleating agents) can improve mechanical properties and prevent thermal degradation during processing. Finally, we examine the impacts of morphology on end-of-life degradation to complete the picture for the most common renewable polymers.

  6. Peat - a slowly renewable biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The international investigation group of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry suggest that peat should be classified as a slowly renewable energy source. Regeneration of peat can take up to thousands of years. Hence peat differs from wood energy, classified as renewable energy, and on the other hand from fossil fuels, such as coal. The report of the investigation group includes all the present research information on greenhouse gas balances of Finnish peatlands, i.e. how much greenhouse gases are liberated from Finnish mires, and on the other hand how much greenhouse gases they absorb. The net emissions of greenhouse gases of Finnish mires are over 10 million tons per year, and those of combustion of peat, mainly CO 2 , are over 8 million tons. The total greenhouse gas emissions of peat combustion and Finnish mire are estimated to be 19 (+- 9) % per year. This corresponds to about 25% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Finland. The objective of the report was also to study the effects of the utilization of cutaway peat production areas (reforestation, returning the areas back to mires, agricultural utilization) on the greenhouse gas emission balances. The precise investigation of the effects of the greenhouse gas balances and the utilization of cutaway areas require further investigation and measurements at Finnish mires. The group consisted of Patrick Crill (USA), Ken Hargraves (GB) and Atte Korhola (FIN). The report of the group will be published in the Studies and Reports Serie of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry both in English and in Finnish

  7. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  8. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; Silva, Cristina G. da; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Fernando de; Santos, Rachel P. O. [Macromolecular Materials and Lignocellulosic Fibers Group, Center for Research on Science and Technology of BioResources, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, CP 780, 13560-970 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-05-18

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called “biopolyethylene” (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  9. RENEW. Renewable Fuels for Advanced Powertrains. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfried, Frank (Volkswagen AG (DE)) (ed.)

    2008-07-15

    The Integrated European Project 'Renewable Fuels for Advanced Powertrains (RENEW)' has brought together 32 European partners, among them automotive manufacturers, mineral oil industry, plant developers and RandD institutes to cooperate in a four year project to develop/improve several production routes for renewable biomass-to-liquid (BTL) fuels and to undertake a technical, economic and environmental assessment. The whole chain from biomass potential assessment up to fuel application in today's and future combustion engines has been investigated. The common interface was a synthesis gas (H{sub 2}+CO) which was produced from ligno-cellulosic biomass (wood, straw, energy plants and black liquor) via gasification. Fischer-Tropsch-diesel, HCCI-fuel and Ethanol have been synthesised. Engine tests proved the suitability and sustainability of BTL FT-diesel, naphtha and DME as motor fuels. All RENEW fuels showed considerably improved emission behaviour. This is particularly pronounced and important for FT-diesel and DME. They exhibit less or equal fuel consumption than conventional fuels when compared on an energy base. Together with future engine concepts the improved combustion process can also lead to better efficiency and thus reduced fuel consumption. A first fuel specification has been derived. Investigations into the biomass potential in EU-25 revealed: in 2005 the biomass potential available for the production of biofuels without affecting that of food, fodder and fibre production was approximately 4 EJ, or 95 million tons oil equivalent (MtOE) per year. In 2020 the potential will be between 4.7 EJ/a (112 MtOE) and 7.2 EJ/a (172 MtOE). The RENEW approach was to show the energy density (bioenergy potential divided by land surface) on a resolution of NUTS 2 provinces. The total straw energy in provinces of the highest category amounts to 380 PJ. In Europe's most promising provinces, technically sufficient residue biomass is available today to

  10. Polygonal deformation bands in sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonellini, Marco; Nella Mollema, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are dm-wide zones of shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions in the lower portion of the Jurassic Entrada Fm (Utah, USA). The edges of the polygons are 1 to 5 meters long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. Density inversion, that takes place where under-compacted and over-pressurized layers (Carmel Fm) lay below normally compacted sediments (Entrada Sandstone), may be an important process for polygonal deformation bands formation. The gravitational sliding and soft sediment structures typically observed within the Carmel Fm support this hypothesis. Soft sediment deformation may induce polygonal faulting in the section of the Entrada Sandstone just above the Carmel Fm. The permeability of the polygonal deformation bands is approximately 10-14 to 10-13 m2, which is less than the permeability of the host, Entrada Sandstone (range 10-12 to 10-11 m2). The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  11. Renewables for Power Generation: Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Producing electricity from renewable energy sources has undeniable appeal, both for environmental reasons and for reducing our dependence on fossil fuels. Renewable energy technologies are maturing at different rates. Some have already found their place in the market; others are just beginning to demonstrate their potential. All are at a critical moment in their evolution

  12. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T. [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L. [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P. [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  13. Renewable energy 1998: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the following five papers: Renewable electricity purchases: History and recent developments; Transmission pricing issues for electricity generation from renewable resources; Analysis of geothermal heat pump manufacturers survey data; A view of the forest products industry from a wood energy perspective; and Wind energy developments: Incentives in selected countries. A glossary is included. 19 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IDAE.

    1994-01-01

    IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects

  15. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through feed-in premiums (FiP). In addition, investment subsidies are available for biogas/biomass-based RES-E and wind power installations. Renewable heat is stimulated through investment subsidies to CHP plants generating renewable heat and electricity, as well as subsidies for private heat consumers. Renewable transport fuels are currently mainly incentivised by way of a support scheme to promote the purchase of electric cars that use power produced from renewable energy sources. Recently, a measure for supporting bio-methane in the transport sector has been adopted. Generally, a number of investment subsidy schemes are in place to promote the development, installation and use of renewable energy production installations. However, certain subsidy conditions still have to be announced and implemented. The total amount of financial support to be allocated to renewable energy and energy efficiency related projects during period 2014-2020 will be over euro 490 million. The current administratively determined FiP scheme is set to be replaced by an auction-based scheme within short

  16. Renewables in Europe: The Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puente, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the experience of Europe in the economical aspects of renewable energy sources including generation costs and the evolution of costs per kW installed. Also describes how to apply this experience in Central America considering aspects of demand and supply of energy and diagnoses the potential of projects with renewable energy

  17. Availability of a Renewable, Checked System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platz, O.

    1976-01-01

    Recurrent expressions are given for point and interval unavailability of a renewable system subjected to periodic checking/repair. The expressions are generalizations of the basic relations in the theory of discrete renewal processes. The asymptotic limits for long times follow simply from a gene...

  18. Power electronics for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources...

  19. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Anthony [Madison, NJ; Jaffe, Michael [Maplewood, NJ; Zhang, Yi [Harrison, NJ; Catalani, Luiz H [Carapicuiba, BR

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  20. Local renewable energy cooperatives : Revolution in disguise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M. Hufen (Hans); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: The Eurostat statistics on the 28 EU member states’ performance in relation to renewable energy show that the Netherlands comes 25th in the EU-28. Yet, 500 initiatives were started by citizens and social groups over the last years to produce and consume renewable energy.

  1. Renewable energy policy: Enumerating costs reduces support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Darrick

    2017-08-01

    Renewable energy policies enjoy greater support compared to policies focused explicitly on climate change, and thus present a politically plausible path toward carbon emission reduction. However, new research shows that renewable energy policy support declines when people are informed about the policy costs for home energy bills.

  2. Renewable Energy. The Power to Choose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    This book, consisting of 13 chapters, charts the progress made in renewable energy in recent years and outlines renewable energy's prospects. Areas addressed include: energy at the crossroads (discussing oil, gas, coal, nuclear power, and the conservation revolution); solar building design; solar collection; sunlight to electricity; wood; energy…

  3. Renewable energies for decentralized electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with the influence of laws and tariffs on the production and on the transport of electricity by auto producers. Most of all, it analyzes their consequence on the development of renewable energy. This study shows that some important modifications of the laws and of the tariffs may be necessary to develop renewable energy. (TEC). 18 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Renewable energies it is time to go

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    After the presentation of the allocutions, offered by ministries and specialists, the questions and answers of the conference are detailed. It concerns the political aspects of the renewable energies part in the energy policy, the energy consumption and the energy efficiency, the local policies and the renewable energies in the life, architecture and urban areas. (A.L.B.)

  5. Sustaining with efficiency the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, L.; Lorenzoni, A.

    2008-01-01

    European energy policy requires actions, in favour of a more widespread diffusion of renewable energy sources. Is essential to have an efficient financial support to reduce costs. Are presented an estimated of electric power from renewable energy sources and some criticism. Is proposed a modification of green certificates market based on bilateral tradable agreements [it

  6. Renewable energies in France: main 2003 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    This document makes a synthesis of the power and thermal productions linked with renewable energy sources (of primary or secondary origin) for 2003. It details the uses (electrical or thermal) of the different renewable energy sources and their contribution to the different users' needs (residential, industry, agriculture..). A comparison with the previous years (2001 and 2002) is presented in tables. (J.S.)

  7. Contribution of Renewables to Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The environmental benefits of renewable energy are well known. But the contribution that they can make to energy security is less widely recognised. This report aims to redress the balance, showing how in electricity generation, heat supply, and transport, renewables can enhance energy security and suggesting policies that can optimise this contribution.

  8. Powering Nigeria through renewable electricity investments: legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy has a prominent role in promoting energy access and addressing environmental concerns with energy use in Nigeria. However, there are legal barriers that have not allowed renewable energy to be used in the Nigerian electricity sector. The absence of an effective legal framework to encourage and ...

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures) provides an analysis of the grid integration opportunities, challenges, and implications of high levels of renewable electricity generation for the U.S. electric system. The study is not a market or policy assessment. Rather, RE Futures examines renewable energy resources and many technical issues related to the operability of the U.S. electricity grid, and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. RE Futures results indicate that a future U.S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and that further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway.

  10. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Mid-2016 Poland revamped its national support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources, started to phase out a certificates-backed renewable electricity quota scheme, and put in place a feed-in tariff/feed-in premium (FiT/FiP) system in place with the support levels being determined by approved tender bids. Furthermore, a fiscal and soft loan instrument is used for supplementary support. Three subsidy instruments and a soft loan instrument are deployed for the promotion of renewable heat. Renewable energy in transport is promoted through a bio-fuels quota scheme

  11. Renewal and change for health care executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, G C; Bice, M O

    1991-01-01

    Health care executives must consider renewal and change within their own lives if they are to breathe life into their own institutions. Yet numerous barriers to executive renewal exist, including time pressures, fatigue, cultural factors, and trustee attitudes. This essay discusses such barriers and suggests approaches that health care executives may consider for programming renewal into their careers. These include self-assessment for professional and personal goals, career or job change, process vs. outcome considerations, solitude, networking, lifelong education, surrounding oneself with change agents, business travel and sabbaticals, reading outside the field, physical exercise, mentoring, learning from failures, a sense of humor, spiritual reflection, and family and friends. Renewal is a continuous, lifelong process requiring constant learning. Individual executives would do well to develop a framework for renewal in their careers and organizations.

  12. Renewable energy in India: Status and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, Indu R.; Banerjee, Rangan [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2009-08-15

    A majority of the Indian population does not have access to convenient energy services (LPG, electricity). Though India has made significant progress in renewable energy, the share of modern renewables in the energy mix is marginal. This paper reviews the status and potential of different renewables (except biomass) in India. This paper documents the trends in the growth of renewables in India and establishes diffusion model as a basis for setting targets. The diffusion model is fitted tot the past trends for wind, small hydro and solar water heating and is used to establish future targets. The economic viability and green house gas (GHG) saving potential is estimated for each option. Several renewables have high growth rates, for example wind, Photovoltaic (PV) module manufacture and solar water heaters. New technologies like Tidal, OTEC, Solar thermal power plants and geothermal power plants are at the demonstration stage and future dissemination will depend on the experience of these projects. (author)

  13. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support policy: Renewable electricity in Bulgaria is promoted primarily through a feed-in tariff scheme. For new projects this scheme is only open for installations up to 30 kW. The grid operator is mandated to the purchase and dispatch electricity at a guaranteed price for eligible generators. The use of renewable energy for heating and cooling is promoted through a subsidy from the European Regional Development Fund and through an exemption for building owners from property tax. Main Bulgarian support scheme for renewable energy in transport is a quota system. There is a professional training programme for RES-installers as well as a building obligation for the use of renewable heating and for the exemplary role of public authorities

  14. Key figures on renewable energies - Release 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louati, Sami; Reynaud, Didier; Thienard, Helene

    2013-06-01

    This publication presents and briefly discusses figures (tables and graphs giving data and their evolution over the past years until 2011) for France and its overseas territories about the energy mix, the shares of the different renewable energies (wood, wind, heat pumps, biofuels, hydraulic, solar and others), the production of renewable electricity, the primary consumption of thermal renewable energies per sector (household and office building, industry, agriculture, transport) and per energy sector. A second part addresses the different renewable energies (hydraulic, wind, photovoltaic and thermal solar, heat pumps, wood, biogas, biofuels), indicates installed powers per district or region, their production level and the corresponding evolutions over the past years. A third part addresses the objectives for 2020, compares them with the current situation and outlines the possible biases in 2011 in terms of production and consumption. A fourth part presents graphs comparing data between countries in Europe and in the world in terms of production and consumption (share of renewable energies, electricity production)

  15. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The main support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources is a feed-in tariff scheme. For operators of photovoltaics (PV) and onshore wind installations an investment subsidy instrument is available as well. Besides, the sale of generated renewable electricity is incentivized by an exemption from excise duty. Also renewable heat production installations are eligible for an investment subsidy instrument. For renewable transport fuels a bio-fuels quota scheme is on place. Moreover, producers/suppliers of bio-fuels and petroleum fuels blended with bio-fuels benefit from a fiscal incentive

  16. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Belgium consists of three regions: Brussels, Flanders and Wallonia, each with much autonomy in determining renewable support policies, except for support to offshore wind and hydro power which fall under the competence of the federal government. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted at regional and federal levels mainly through a quota system based on the trade of certificates, complemented by regional support measures. In the three regions small PV installations benefit from net metering. The federal government supports renewable heating and cooling by way of a tax deduction on investment costs. The main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system under the competence of the federal government

  17. William Band at Yenching University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Danian

    2008-04-01

    William Band (1906-1993) has been widely remembered by his American colleagues and students as ``a fine physicist and teacher,'' who taught at Washington State University in Pullman between 1949 and 1971 and authored Introduction to Quantum Statistics (1954) and Introduction to Mathematical Physics (1959). Not many, however, knew much about Band's early career, which was very ``uncommon and eventful.'' Born in England, Band graduated from University of Liverpool in 1927 with an MsSc degree in physics. Instead of pursuing his Ph.D. at Cambridge, he chose to teach physics at Yenching University, a prestigious Christian university in Beijing, China. Arriving in 1929, Band established his career at Yenching, where he taught and researched the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, pioneered the study on low-temperature superconductivity in China, founded the country's first graduate program in physics, and chaired the Physics Department for 10 years until he fled from Yenching upon hearing of the attack on Pearl Harbor. It took him two years to cross Japanese occupied areas under the escort of the Communist force; he left China in early 1945. This presentation will explore Band's motivation to work in China and his contributions to the Chinese physics research and education.

  18. European schemes for promoting renewables in liberalised markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes possibilities and problems for penetration of supply systems based on renewable energy sources in liberalised markets. The analysis is based on recent development in EU with different models for support of installations based on renewable energy. These include feed-in models with guaranteed minimum tariffs, tender models for different bands of technologies, and green certificates trading models with obligatory consumer quota. The paper describes the market situation in selected European countries, including Germany, the UK, Holland and Denmark. An EU directive from September 2001 has postponed the decision on a possible harmonisation of promotional models until at least 2005 in order to obtain more practical experience with the different support schemes. A critical evaluation is given in this paper of the different models with proposals for a balanced development between environmental and trading concerns. It is argued that too much emphasis is presently given to the side of free trade at the expense of long range planning for a sustainable energy development

  19. UNECE renewable energy status report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uherova Hasbani, Katarina; Burlui, Ludmila; Hullin, Martin; Akande, Dennis; Koshy, Shweta; Sambucini, Gianluca; Townsend, David; Dobrotkova, Zuzana; Repikova, Martina; Mitsay, Andriy

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) covers a large and diverse region comprising 56 member states. These countries have different energy situations and vary in their potential for and progress in renewable energy and energy efficiency. The present report covers 17 UNECE countries, with the aim of establishing a data baseline and providing a general overview of their renewable energy situations. Over the past decade, the national governments of the selected countries have been working actively to leverage this renewable energy potential. Energy security and access to reliable, affordable, sustainable and modern energy are the key concerns driving renewable energy deployment. These countries require more substantial investment to fully realise its renewable potential and to bring innovative solutions to tackle their energy challenges, such as heating in urban and rural areas. A reliable data baseline is a pre-requisite and an enabler for more investment activity. The UNECE has contributed actively to fulfilling the 17 countries' aspirations in renewable energy by providing them with a platform for collaboration among UNECE member states. In 2014, a UNECE Group of Experts on Renewable Energy was established to step up these efforts. Its mandate is to carry out action-oriented, practical activities to significantly increase the uptake of renewable energy, in line with the United Nations Secretary-General's Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative. This UNECE Renewable Energy Status Report strives to present analysis of up-to-date data and information on the status of renewable energy and energy efficiency in the selected countries of the UNECE region

  20. Renewable energy sources and Estonian national interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    2002-01-01

    There is only one national level document, The Long-term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy sector, regulating the development of renewable energy for Estonia. It was approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in 1998. This document planned a 2/3 (66,7%) increase in the share of renewable (according to the document: peat, biofuels and other renewables) to the year 2010 against 1996. At the same time a decrease of the share of domestic oil shale was planned 1/5 to the year 2010 against 1995. That means the use of domestic energy sources, both renewable and non-renewable, will decrease by 16,8% altogether. In reality the rapid projected growth of renewables in Estonia (+66,7% between 1996 and 2010) was changed with decrease of 20% by 2000. So the security of supply must shift to the first place in Estonia. It is also an issue of national sovereignty. Estonia is rich in renewable energy sources, mainly in wood, peat and wind, to achieve the goals set in the National Development Plan. Forest resources amount 352,7, total felling 6,44, allowed felling 7,81 million cubic meters solid volume in 2000. The future of fuel peat usage in Estonia is uncertain, as most of the EU member states, which have burned up their peat resources and/or drained their mires do not consider peat as a renewable fuel. Obviously Estonia has to explain its opinion about the renewability of its resources. Although progress is needed in all directions of additional use of all renewable energy sources in tactical consideration finance must be directed first to guarantee better use of wastes of woodworking and timber industry