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Sample records for traumatic memory inactivation

  1. Mapping the brain pathways of traumatic memory: inactivation of protein kinase M zeta in different brain regions disrupts traumatic memory processes and attenuates traumatic stress responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagit; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Matar, Michael A; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    Protein kinase M zeta (PKMzeta), a constitutively active isoform of protein kinase C, has been implicated in protein synthesis-dependent maintenance of long-term potentiation and memory storage in the brain. Recent studies reported that local application of ZIP, a membrane-permeant PKMzeta inhibitor, into the insular cortex (IC) of behaving rats abolished long-term memory of taste associations. This study assessed the long-term effects of local applications of ZIP microinjected immediately (1 h) or 10 days after predator scent stress exposure, in a controlled prospectively designed animal model for PTSD. Four brain structures known to be involved in memory processes and in anxiety were investigated: lateral ventricle (LV), dorsal hippocampus (DH), basolateral amygdala and IC. The outcome measures included behavior in an elevated plus maze and acoustic startle response 7 days after microinjection, and freezing behavior upon exposure to trauma-related cue 8 days after microinjection. Previously acquired/encoded memories associated with the IC were also assessed. Inactivation of PKMzeta in the LV or DH within 1h of exposure effectively reduced PTSD-like behavioral disruption and trauma cue response 8 days later. Inactivation of PKMzeta 10 days after exposure had equivalent effects only when administered in the IC. The effect was demonstrated to be specific for trauma memories, whereas previously acquired data were unaffected by the procedure. Predator scent related memories are located in different brain areas at different times beginning with an initial hippocampus-dependent consolidation process, and are eventually stored in the IC. These bring the IC to the forefront as a potential region of significance in processes related to traumatic stress-induced disorders. 2010 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  3. Destination memory in traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wili Wilu, Amina; Coello, Yann; El Haj, Mohamad

    2018-06-01

    Destination memory, which is socially driven, refers to the ability to remember to whom one has sent information. Our study investigated destination memory in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Patients and control participants were invited to tell proverbs (e.g., "the pen is mightier than the sword") to pictures of celebrities (e.g., Barack Obama). Then they were asked to indicate to which celebrity they had previously told the proverbs. Besides the assessment of destination memory, participants performed a binding task in which they were required to associate letters with their corresponding location. Analysis demonstrated less destination memory and binding in patients with TBIs than in controls. In both populations, significant correlations were observed between destination memory and performances on the binding task. These findings demonstrate difficulty in the ability to attribute information to its appropriate destination in TBI patients, perhaps owing to difficulties in binding separate information together to form a coherent representation of an event in memory.

  4. Nucleus incertus inactivation impairs spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nategh, Mohsen; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-02-01

    Nucleus incertus (NI) is a pontine nucleus which releases mainly GABA and relaxin-3 in rats. Its suggested functions include response to stress, arousal, and modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. Since the role of NI in learning and memory has not been well characterized, therefore the involvement of this nucleus in spatial learning and memory and the aftermath hippocampal levels of c-fos and pCREB were evaluated. NI was targeted by implanting cannula in male rats. For reference memory, NI was inactivated by lidocaine (0.4 μl, 4%) at three stages of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in Morris water maze paradigm. For working memory, NI was inactivated in acquisition and retrieval phases. Injection of lidocaine prior to the first training session of reference memory significantly increased the distance moved, suggesting that inactivation of NI delays acquisition in this spatial task. Inactivation also interfered with the retrieval phase of spatial reference memory, as the time in target quadrant for lidocaine group was less, and the escape latency was higher compared to the control group. However, no difference was observed in the consolidation phase. In the working memory task, with inter-trial intervals of 75 min, the escape latency was higher when NI was inactivated in the retrieval phase. In addition, c-fos and pCREB/CREB levels decreased in NI-inhibited rats. This study suggests that nucleus incertus might participate in acquisition of spatial reference, and retrieval of both spatial reference and working memory. Further studies should investigate possible roles of NI in the hippocampal plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Imagery Rescripting of Early Traumatic Memories in Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Negative self-images appear to play a role in the maintenance of social phobia and research suggests they are often linked to earlier memories of socially traumatic events. Imagery rescripting is a clinical intervention that aims to update such unpleasant or traumatic memories, and is increasingly being incorporated in cognitive behavioral therapy…

  6. A comparison of three types of autobiographical memories in old-old age: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Shmotkin, Dov; Eyal, Nitza; Reichental, Yael; Hazan, Haim

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory enables us to construct a personal narrative through which we identify ourselves. Especially important are memories of formative events. This study describes autobiographical memories of people who have reached old-old age (85 years and above), studying 3 types of memories of particular impact on identity and adaptation: first memories, pivotal memories and traumatic memories. In this paper, we examine the content, characteristic themes and environments, and structural characteristics of each of the 3 types of memory. The participants were 26 persons from a larger longitudinal study with an average age of 91 years; half were men and the other half women. The study integrated qualitative and quantitative tools. An open-ended questionnaire included questions about the participants' life story as well as questions about the 3 types of memories. The responses were rated by 3 independent judges on dimensions of central themes and structural characteristics. First memories had a more positive emotional tone, more references to characters from the participant's social circle, a stronger sense of group belonging, and a more narrative style than the other types of memories. Pivotal and traumatic memories were described as more personal than first memories. The 3 types of memories reflect different stages in life development, which together form a sense of identity. They present experiences from the past on select themes, which may assist in the complex task of coping with the difficulties and limitations that advanced old age presents. Future research should examine the functional role of those memories and whether they enable the old-old to support selfhood in the challenging period of last changes and losses. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Why autobiographical memories for traumatic and emotional events might differ: theoretical arguments and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgiu, Igor; Rusconi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The authors review five arguments supporting the hypothesis that memories for traumatic and nontraumatic emotional events should be considered as qualitatively different recollections. The first argument considers the objective features of traumatic and emotional events and their possible influence on the formation of memories for these events. The second argument assumes that traumatic memories distinguish from emotional ones as trauma exposure is often associated with the development of psychological disorders involving memory disturbances. The third argument is that traumatic experiences are more likely than emotional experiences to be forgotten and recovered. The fourth argument concerns the possibility that emotional memories are socially shared more frequently than traumatic memories. A fifth argument suggests that trauma exposure may impair selected brain systems implicated in memory functions. Theoretical and empirical evidence supporting these claims is reviewed. In the conclusions, the authors illustrate future research directions and discuss some conceptual issues related to the definitions of traumatic event currently employed by memory researchers.

  8. Are memories for sexually traumatic events "special"? A within-subjects investigation of trauma and memory in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Kristine A; Porter, Stephen; ten Brinke, Leanne

    2008-01-01

    According to a long-standing clinical tradition, sexually traumatic experiences are processed and recalled differently from other experiences, often leading to memory impairment. In this study, we compared the characteristics of traumatic memories for sexual violence and two other types of emotional experiences. N=44 women recruited from a local sexual trauma agency were asked to recall and describe three autobiographical events: sexual abuse/assault, a non-sexual trauma, and a positive emotional event. The characteristics of the three memory types were compared on both subjective and objective measures. Further, the potential influences of level of traumatic impact and dissociation were assessed. Results indicated that memories for sexual trauma were not impaired or fragmented relative to other memories. Instead, memories for sexual trauma were associated with a remarkably high level of vividness, detail, and sensory components. Further, high levels of traumatic impact were not associated with memory impairment. Implications for the ongoing traumatic memory debate are discussed.

  9. Unilateral lateral entorhinal inactivation impairs memory expression in trace eyeblink conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Tanninen

    Full Text Available Memory in trace eyeblink conditioning is mediated by an inter-connected network that involves the hippocampus (HPC, several neocortical regions, and the cerebellum. This network reorganizes after learning as the center of the network shifts from the HPC to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Despite the network reorganization, the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC plays a stable role in expressing recently acquired HPC-dependent memory as well as remotely acquired mPFC-dependent memory. Entorhinal involvement in recent memory expression may be attributed to its previously proposed interactions with the HPC. In contrast, it remains unknown how the LEC participates in memory expression after the network disengages from the HPC. The present study tested the possibility that the LEC and mPFC functionally interact during remote memory expression by examining the impact of pharmacological inactivation of the LEC in one hemisphere and the mPFC in the contralateral hemisphere on memory expression in rats. Memory expression one day and one month after learning was significantly impaired after LEC-mPFC inactivation; however, the degree of impairment was comparable to that after unilateral LEC inactivation. Unilateral mPFC inactivation had no effect on recent or remote memory expression. These results suggest that the integrity of the LEC in both hemispheres is necessary for memory expression. Functional interactions between the LEC and mPFC should therefore be tested with an alternative design.

  10. The scars of memory: a prospective, longitudinal investigation of the consistency of traumatic and positive emotional memories in adulthood.

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    Porter, Stephen; Peace, Kristine A

    2007-05-01

    We conducted a prospective study with individuals who first described their memories of both a recent traumatic and a highly positive emotional experience in 2001-2002. Of the 49 subjects interviewed after 3 months, 29 were re-interviewed after 3.45 to 5.0 years. Subjects answered questions from a 12-item consistency questionnaire (maximum possible score of 36), rated the qualities of their memories, and completed questionnaires concerning the impact of the trauma. Results indicated that traumatic memories (including memories for violence) were highly consistent (M= 28.04) over time relative to positive memories (M= 17.75). Ratings of vividness, overall quality, and sensory components declined markedly for positive memories but remained virtually unchanged for traumatic memories. The severity of traumatic symptoms diminished over time and was unrelated to memory consistency. These findings contribute to understanding of the impact of trauma on memory over long periods.

  11. Working memory and new learning following pediatric traumatic brain injury.

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    Mandalis, Anna; Kinsella, Glynda; Ong, Ben; Anderson, Vicki

    2007-01-01

    Working memory (WM), the ability to monitor, process and maintain task relevant information on-line to respond to immediate environmental demands, is controlled by frontal systems (D'Esposito et al., 2006), which are particularly vulnerable to damage from a traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study employed the adult-based Working Memory model of Baddeley and Hitch (1974) to examine the relationship between working memory function and new verbal learning in children with TBI. A cross-sectional sample of 36 school-aged children with a moderate to severe TBI was compared to age-matched healthy Controls on a series of tasks assessing working memory subsystems: the Phonological Loop (PL) and Central Executive (CE). The TBI group performed significantly more poorly than Controls on the PL measure and the majority of CE tasks. On new learning tasks, the TBI group consistently produced fewer words than Controls across the learning and delayed recall phases. Results revealed impaired PL function related to poor encoding and acquisition on a new verbal learning task in the TBI group. CE retrieval deficits in the TBI group contributed to general memory dysfunction in acquisition, retrieval and recognition memory. These results suggest that the nature of learning and memory deficits in children with TBI is related to working memory impairment.

  12. Activating attachment representations during memory retrieval modulates intrusive traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Chan, Iris

    2017-10-01

    Although priming mental representations of attachment security reduces arousal, research has not examined the effect of attachment on the retrieval of emotionally arousing memories. This study investigated the effect of priming attachment security on the retrieval of emotional memories. Seventy-five participants viewed negative and neutral images, and two days later received either an attachment prime or a control prime immediately prior to free recall of the images. Two days later, participants reported how frequently they experienced intrusions of the negative images. The attachment group had less distress, and reported fewer subsequent intrusions than the control group. Attachment style moderated these effects such that individuals with an avoidant attachment style were not impacted by the attachment prime. These findings suggest that priming attachment security decreases distress during memory reactivation, and this may reduce subsequent intrusive memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Unilateral hippocampal inactivation or lesion selectively impairs remote contextual fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heng; Zhou, Qixin; Xu, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Contextual fear memory depends on the hippocampus, but the role of unilateral hippocampus in this type of memory remains unclear. Herein, pharmacological inactivation or excitotoxic lesions were used to study the role of unilateral hippocampus in the stages of contextual fear memory. The pharmacological experiments revealed that compared with the control groups, unilateral hippocampal blockade did not impair 1-day recent memory following learning, whereas bilateral hippocampal blockade significantly impaired this memory. The lesion experiments showed that compared with the control groups, the formed contextual fear memory was retained for 7 days and that 30-day remote memory was markedly reduced in unilateral hippocampal lesion groups. These results indicate that an intact bilateral hippocampus is required for the formation of remote memory and that unilateral hippocampus is sufficient for recent contextual fear memory.

  14. A Psychophysiologic Study of Weakening Traumatic Combat Memories With Post-Reactivation Propranolol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pitman, Roger K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to test whether the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol, given following combat memory reactivation, results in a significantly greater weakening of traumatic memories...

  15. Autobiographical and episodic memory deficits in mild traumatic brain injury.

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    Wammes, Jeffrey D; Good, Tyler J; Fernandes, Myra A

    2017-02-01

    Those who have suffered a concussion, otherwise known as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), often complain of lingering memory problems. However, there is little evidence in the behavioral literature reliably demonstrating memory deficits. Thus, in the present study, cognitive profiles including measures of general executive functioning and processing speed, as well as episodic and semantic memory were collected in younger and older adult participants with or without a remote (>1year prior to testing) mTBI. We first investigated whether there were observable episodic and autobiographical memory impairments associated with mTBI within an otherwise healthy young group. Next, because previous work had demonstrated some overlap in patterns of behavioral impairment in normally aging adults and younger adults with a history of mTBI (e.g. Ozen, Fernandes, Clark, & Roy, 2015), we sought to determine whether these groups displayed similar cognitive profiles. Lastly, we conducted an exploratory analysis to test whether having suffered an mTBI might exacerbate age-related cognitive decline. Results showed the expected age-related decline in episodic memory performance, coupled with a relative preservation of semantic memory in older adults. Importantly, this pattern was also present in younger adults with a history of remote mTBI. No differences were observed across older adult groups based on mTBI status. Logistic regression analyses, using each measure in our battery as a predictor, successfully classified mTBI status in younger participants with a high degree of specificity (79.5%). These results indicate that those who have had an mTBI demonstrate a distinct cognitive signature, characterized by impairment in episodic and autobiographical memory, coupled with a relative preservation of semantic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inactivation of Primate Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Auditory and Audiovisual Working Memory.

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    Plakke, Bethany; Hwang, Jaewon; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2015-07-01

    The prefrontal cortex is associated with cognitive functions that include planning, reasoning, decision-making, working memory, and communication. Neurophysiology and neuropsychology studies have established that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is essential in spatial working memory while the ventral frontal lobe processes language and communication signals. Single-unit recordings in nonhuman primates has shown that ventral prefrontal (VLPFC) neurons integrate face and vocal information and are active during audiovisual working memory. However, whether VLPFC is essential in remembering face and voice information is unknown. We therefore trained nonhuman primates in an audiovisual working memory paradigm using naturalistic face-vocalization movies as memoranda. We inactivated VLPFC, with reversible cortical cooling, and examined performance when faces, vocalizations or both faces and vocalization had to be remembered. We found that VLPFC inactivation impaired subjects' performance in audiovisual and auditory-alone versions of the task. In contrast, VLPFC inactivation did not disrupt visual working memory. Our studies demonstrate the importance of VLPFC in auditory and audiovisual working memory for social stimuli but suggest a different role for VLPFC in unimodal visual processing. The ventral frontal lobe, or inferior frontal gyrus, plays an important role in audiovisual communication in the human brain. Studies with nonhuman primates have found that neurons within ventral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) encode both faces and vocalizations and that VLPFC is active when animals need to remember these social stimuli. In the present study, we temporarily inactivated VLPFC by cooling the cortex while nonhuman primates performed a working memory task. This impaired the ability of subjects to remember a face and vocalization pair or just the vocalization alone. Our work highlights the importance of the primate VLPFC in the processing of faces and vocalizations in a manner that

  17. Brain functional network changes following Prelimbic area inactivation in a spatial memory extinction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Couz, Marta; Conejo, Nélida M; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Several studies suggest a prefrontal cortex involvement during the acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory, suggesting an active modulating role at late stages of acquisition processes. Recently, we have reported that the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the prefrontal cortex, among other structures, are also specifically involved in the late phases of spatial memory extinction. This study aimed to evaluate whether the inactivation of the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex impaired spatial memory extinction. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were implanted bilaterally with cannulae into the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex. Animals were trained during 5 consecutive days in a hidden platform task and tested for reference spatial memory immediately after the last training session. One day after completing the training task, bilateral infusion of the GABAA receptor agonist Muscimol was performed before the extinction protocol was carried out. Additionally, cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied to map the metabolic brain activity related to the spatial memory extinction under prelimbic cortex inactivation. Results show that animals acquired the reference memory task in the water maze, and the extinction task was successfully completed without significant impairment. However, analysis of the functional brain networks involved by cytochrome oxidase activity interregional correlations showed changes in brain networks between the group treated with Muscimol as compared to the saline-treated group, supporting the involvement of the mammillary bodies at a the late stage in the memory extinction process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Disrupted rapid eye movement sleep predicts poor declarative memory performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2014-06-01

    Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Substance abuse, memory, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipps, Megan E; Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-07-01

    A large body of literature demonstrates the effects of abused substances on memory. These effects differ depending on the drug, the pattern of delivery (acute or chronic), and the drug state at the time of learning or assessment. Substance use disorders involving these drugs are often comorbid with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When the cognitive effects of these drugs are considered in the context of the treatment of these disorders, it becomes clear that these drugs may play a deleterious role in the development, maintenance, and treatment of PTSD. In this review, we examine the literature evaluating the cognitive effects of three commonly abused drugs: nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol. These three drugs operate through both common and distinct neurobiological mechanisms and alter learning and memory in multiple ways. We consider how the cognitive and affective effects of these drugs interact with the acquisition, consolidation, and extinction of learned fear, and we discuss the potential impediments that substance abuse creates for the treatment of PTSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Degrading traumatic memories with eye movements : a pilot functional MRI study in PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, Kathleen; Engelhard, Iris M; Sijbrandij, Marit; Cath, Danielle C; Van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs). Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder and head injury as a dual diagnosis: "islands" of memory as a mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N S

    1997-01-01

    This case study describes post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and head injury after a road traffic accident involving a pedestrian. Previous studies have proposed two mechanisms by which this dual diagnosis may occur: (1) when post-traumatic amnesia and retrograde amnesia are small or non-existent and (2) when non-declarative memory systems for the traumatic event are in operation. This case study demonstrates a third mechanism--"islands" of memory within post-traumatic amnesia.

  2. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predicts Responsiveness to Memory Rehabilitation After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandry, Joshua; Chiou, Kathy S; DeLuca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D

    2016-06-01

    To explore how individual differences affect rehabilitation outcomes by specifically investigating whether working memory capacity (WMC) can be used as a cognitive marker to identify who will and will not improve from memory rehabilitation. Post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to treat learning and memory impairment after traumatic brain injury (TBI): 2 × 2 between-subjects quasiexperimental design (2 [group: treatment vs control] × 2 [WMC: high vs low]). Nonprofit medical rehabilitation research center. Participants (N=65) with moderate to severe TBI with pre- and posttreatment data. The treatment group completed 10 cognitive rehabilitation sessions in which subjects were taught a memory strategy focusing on learning to use context and imagery to remember information. The placebo control group engaged in active therapy sessions that did not involve learning the memory strategy. Long-term memory percent retention change scores for an unorganized list of words from the California Verbal Learning Test-II. Group and WMC interacted (P=.008, ηp(2)=.12). High WMC participants showed a benefit from treatment compared with low WMC participants. Individual differences in WMC accounted for 45% of the variance in whether participants with TBI in the treatment group benefited from applying the compensatory treatment strategy to learn unorganized information. Individuals with higher WMC showed a significantly greater rehabilitation benefit when applying the compensatory strategy to learn unorganized information. WMC is a useful cognitive marker for identifying participants with TBI who respond to memory rehabilitation with the modified Story Memory Technique. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reversible Inactivation of the Higher Order Auditory Cortex during Fear Memory Consolidation Prevents Memory-Related Activity in the Basolateral Amygdala during Remote Memory Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Renna, Annamaria; Milano, Luisella; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that the auditory cortex, and specifically the higher order Te2 area, is necessary for the consolidation of long-term fearful memories and that it interacts with the amygdala during the retrieval of long-term fearful memories. Here, we tested whether the reversible blockade of Te2 during memory consolidation may affect the activity changes occurring in the amygdala during the retrieval of fearful memories. To address this issue, we blocked Te2 in a reversible manner during memory consolidation processes. After 4 weeks, we assessed the activity of Te2 and individual nuclei of the amygdala during the retrieval of long-term memories. Rats in which Te2 was inactivated upon memory encoding showed a decreased freezing and failed to show Te2-to-basolateral amygdala (BLA) synchrony during memory retrieval. In addition, the expression of the immediate early gene zif268 in the lateral, basal and central amygdala nuclei did not show memory-related enhancement. As all sites were intact upon memory retrieval, we propose that the auditory cortex represents a key node in the consolidation of fear memories and it is essential for amygdala nuclei to support memory retrieval process.

  4. Implicit Memory Influences on Metamemory during Verbal Learning after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Pradeep; Kennedy, Mary R. T.; Marsolek, Chad J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Prior research has shown that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be overconfident in their judgments of learning (JOLs; online measures of self-monitoring of learning and memory). JOLs had been presumed to be driven by explicit processes, but recent research has also revealed implicit memory involvement. Given that implicit…

  5. Prepartum autobiographical memory specificity predicts post-traumatic stress symptoms following complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, Beatrijs J. A.; Wessel, Ineke; Engelhard, Iris M.; Peeters, Louis L.; Dalgleish, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has shown that reduced autobiographical memory specificity predicts an increase in post-traumatic stress severity in traumatised individuals. Studies have also demonstrated that reduced memory specificity predicts later symptoms of depression after pregnancy-related life stress. So

  6. Traumatic memories, post-traumatic stress disorder and serum cortisol levels in long-term survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, Daniela; Weis, Florian; Krauseneck, Till; Vogeser, Michael; Schelling, Gustav; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often report traumatic memories from the intensive care unit (ICU) and display a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As it is known that subjects with PTSD often show sustained reductions in circulating cortisol

  7. Inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or the medial prefrontal cortex impairs retrieval but has differential effect on spatial memory reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Janine I; Köhler, Cristiano A; Radiske, Andressa; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Cammarota, Martín

    2015-11-01

    Active memories can incorporate new information through reconsolidation. However, the notion that memory retrieval is necessary for reconsolidation has been recently challenged. Non-reinforced retrieval induces hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-dependent reconsolidation of spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM). We found that the effect of protein synthesis inhibition on this process is abolished when retrieval of the learned spatial preference is hindered through mPFC inactivation but not when it is blocked by deactivation of dorsal CA1. Our results do not fully agree with the hypothesis that retrieval is unneeded for reconsolidation. Instead, they support the idea that a hierarchic interaction between the hippocampus and the mPFC controls spatial memory in the MWM, and indicate that this cortex is sufficient to retrieve the information essential to reconsolidate the spatial memory trace, even when the hippocampus is inactivated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of the 3-item memory test in the assessment of post traumatic amnesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Jong, B. de; Jacobs, B.; Werf, S.P. van der; Vos, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the type of stimulus (pictures or words) and the method of reproduction (free recall or recognition after a short or a long delay) affect the sensitivity and specificity of a 3-item memory test in the assessment of post traumatic amnesia (PTA). METHODS: Daily

  9. Abreacting and Assimilating Traumatic, Dissociated Memories of MPD Patients through Art Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mindy

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, when used to treat patients diagnosed with multiple personality disorder, art therapy aids in translating unspeakable memories into visual format. Discusses "stepping in," drawing process that may promote "cross-alter associations" to imagery drawn by other personalities. Addresses recovery of traumatic material…

  10. How Communities Deal with Traumatic Memory: Lessons from Aceh ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This comparative research analyzes reparation processes underway in Aceh and Timor-Leste. It aims to foster a deeper understanding of how communities and individual victims of massive human rights abuses can deal with their traumatic past, while seeking justice on issues such as population displacement and political ...

  11. The relationship between frontal and temporal lobe lesions in traumatic brain injury and procedural memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Noriaki; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    We examined the correlation between the location of chronic phase brain damage identified by a head MRI and the procedural memory test results in patients who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Subjects were 27 patients with TBI, who completed all of three procedural memory tasks (mirror-reading, mirror-drawing, and Tower of Toronto). Using a head MRI, the presence or absence of lesions in the frontal lobe and the temporal lobe were determined. To evaluate declarative memory, we implemented the Wechsler Memory Scale-Rivesed (WMS-R), Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT), and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (3-minute delayed recall). All three of procedural memory tasks were repeated 3 times a day for 3 consecutive days. The rate of improvement (%) of the procedural memory task was determined as {average of the results on the first day- average of the results on the third day)/average of the results on the first day} x 100. We obtained the rate of improvement for each of the three tasks. The patients were divided according to the existence of frontal and temporal lobe lesions in brain MRI, and then rates of improvement were compared by the existence of frontal or temporal lesion using the Mann-Whitney test. In result, the average value of the declarative memory test results was within the range of disorders for all items. On the procedural memory tasks, the rate of improvement did not significantly decrease by the presence of frontal or temporal lobe lesion. It is believed that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are significantly involved in procedural memory. Also in TBI patients, the procedural memory tends to be retained. Our results suggest that frontal and temporal lobe lesions, which are frequently found in traumatic brain injury, are not likely to be related to procedural memory. (author)

  12. Predicting impaired extinction of traumatic memory and elevated startle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Nalloor

    Full Text Available Emotionally traumatic experiences can lead to debilitating anxiety disorders, such as phobias and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Exposure to such experiences, however, is not sufficient to induce pathology, as only up to one quarter of people exposed to such events develop PTSD. These statistics, combined with findings that smaller hippocampal size prior to the trauma is associated with higher risk of developing PTSD, suggest that there are pre-disposing factors for such pathology. Because prospective studies in humans are limited and costly, investigating such pre-dispositions, and thus advancing understanding of the genesis of such pathologies, requires the use of animal models where predispositions are identified before the emotional trauma. Most existing animal models are retrospective: they classify subjects as those with or without a PTSD-like phenotype long after experiencing a traumatic event. Attempts to create prospective animal models have been largely unsuccessful.Here we report that individual predispositions to a PTSD-like phenotype, consisting of impaired rate and magnitude of extinction of an emotionally traumatic event coupled with long-lasting elevation of acoustic startle responses, can be revealed following exposure to a mild stressor, but before experiencing emotional trauma. We compare, in rats, the utility of several classification criteria and report that a combination of criteria based on acoustic startle responses and behavior in an anxiogenic environment is a reliable predictor of a PTSD-like phenotype.There are individual predispositions to developing impaired extinction and elevated acoustic startle that can be identified after exposure to a mildly stressful event, which by itself does not induce such a behavioral phenotype. The model presented here is a valuable tool for studying the etiology and pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and provides a platform for testing behavioral and pharmacological

  13. Influence of early stress on memory reconsolidation: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, Hélène; Benkahoul, Aïcha; Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara; Roullet, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the "city-like" test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans.

  14. Effects of reducing attentional resources on implicit and explicit memory after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, S; Shores, E A; Kinoshita, S

    1999-07-01

    Implicit and explicit memory were examined in individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) under conditions of full and divided attention. Participants included 12 individuals with severe TBI and 12 matched controls. In Experiment 1, participants carried out an implicit test of word-stem completion and an explicit test of cued recall. Results demonstrated that TBI participants exhibited impaired explicit memory but preserved implicit memory. In Experiment 2, a significant reduction in the explicit memory performance of both TBI and control participants, as well as a significant decrease in the implicit memory performance of TBI participants, was achieved by reducing attentional resources at encoding. These results indicated that performance on an implicit task of word-stem completion may require the availability of additional attentional resources that are not preserved after severe TBI.

  15. Working memory and proverb comprehension in adolescents with traumatic brain injury: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Catherine A; Nippold, Marilyn A; Gillon, Gail T

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between working memory and comprehension of low-familiarity proverbs in adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten adolescents, aged 12-21 years who had suffered a TBI prior to the age of 10 years and 10 individually age-matched peers with typical development participated in the study. The participants listened to short paragraphs containing a proverb and interpreted the meaning of the proverb using a forced-choice task. In addition, participants engaged in a task that evaluated working memory ability. Analysis revealed that individuals with TBI differed from their non-injured peers in their understanding of proverbs. In addition, working memory capacity influenced performance for all participants. The importance of considering working memory when evaluating figurative language comprehension in adolescents with TBI is highlighted. Implications for future research, particularly with regard to varying working memory and task demands, are considered.

  16. Inactivation of basolateral amygdala prevents chronic immobilization stress-induced memory impairment and associated changes in corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sunil Jamuna; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Srikumar, B N; Raju, T R; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S

    2017-07-01

    Chronic stress causes detrimental effects on various forms of learning and memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) not only plays a crucial role in mediating certain forms of memory, but also in the modulation of the effects of stress. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in hypertrophy of the BLA, which is believed to be one of the underlying causes for stress' effects on learning. Thus, it is plausible that preventing the effects of CIS on amygdala would preclude its deleterious cognitive effects. Accordingly, in the first part, we evaluated the effect of excitotoxic lesion of the BLA on chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning using a partially baited radial arm maze task. The BLA was ablated bilaterally using ibotenic acid prior to CIS. Chronically stressed rats showed impairment in spatial learning with decreased percentage correct choice and increased reference memory errors. Excitotoxic lesion of the BLA prevented the impairment in spatial learning and reference memory. In the retention test, lesion of the BLA was able to rescue the chronic stress-induced impairment. Interestingly, stress-induced enhanced plasma corticosterone levels were partially prevented by the lesion of BLA. These results motivated us to evaluate if the same effects can be observed with temporary inactivation of BLA, only during stress. We found that chronic stress-induced spatial learning deficits were also prevented by temporary inactivation of the BLA. Additionally, temporary inactivation of BLA partially precluded the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Thus, inactivation of BLA precludes stress-induced spatial learning deficits, and enhanced plasma corticosterone levels. It is speculated that BLA inactivation-induced reduction in corticosterone levels during stress, might be crucial in restoring spatial learning impairments. Our study provides evidence that amygdalar modulation during stress might be beneficial for strategic

  17. Deficits in episodic memory and mental time travel in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Woud, Marcella L; Machulska, Alla; Kleimt, Katharina; Dietrich, Lisa; Wolf, Oliver T; Assion, Hans-Joerg; Huston, Joseph P; De Souza Silva, Maria A; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-04-20

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by impairments in mnestic functions, especially in the domain of episodic memory. These alterations might affect different aspects of episodic memory functioning. Here we tested PTSD patients and healthy controls (matched for age, sex and education) in a newly developed virtual reality episodic memory test (VR-EMT), a test for mental time travel, episodic future thinking, and prospective memory (M3xT). In a cross-validation experiment, their performance was further evaluated in the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT). PTSD patients demonstrated impairments in episodic memory formation and mental time travel and showed difficulties in utilizing information from episodic memory to solve problems. Diminished attention and concentration in PTSD did not account for performance deficits in these tasks but higher levels of negative arousal were found in PTSD patients. Furthermore, performance in the VR-EMT and RBMT in PTSD patients correlated negatively with self-reported measures of stress and depression. Our results suggest that deficits in episodic memory formation and mental time travel in PTSD lead to difficulties in utilizing the content of episodic memories for solving problems in the present or to plan future behavior. Clinical implications of these findings and suggestions for cognitive-behavioral treatment of PTSD are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Traumatic Memories of the Second World War and After

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This co-edited and introduced collection of essays investigates the social and cultural history of trauma to offer a comparative analysis of its individual, communal, and political effects in the twentieth century. Particular attention is given to witness testimony, to procedures of personal memory...

  19. A Memory of Shadows and of Stone. Traumatic Ruins, Conservation, Social Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Sulfaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scars caused by many terrible traumatic events, such as the atomic bomb, the Holocaust, genocides, massacres, and also deep socio-economic transformations, the notion of memory in the contemporary age is nearly always the result of a conflict between the conservation of some elements of the past and the oblivion of others. The ruin or the place of a tragedy is no longer merely a trace of a terrible past but, through a resemantization process, it becomes a sign, which is transmittable to the future. This introduces some questions to the issue of traumatic ruin: what are the social implications of ‘memorializing’ the trauma? Who decides what kind of traces of the past to deliver to the future? What is the role of conservation and architectural restoration in these processes? The present paper focuses on the possible practices in the processes of the representation of the past, with special regard to the relationship between places/buildings, memory and social processes. In particular, the paper deals with the consequences of practices involving a reinterpretation of the past and, practices aimed at leaving the signs of traumatic events visible on a building, a monument or a place: practices which, as they involve oblivion and remembrance, describe the contemporary condition of memory.

  20. Psychedelics and reconsolidation of traumatic and appetitive maladaptive memories: focus on cannabinoids and ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Piva, Alessandro; Zanda, Mary Tresa; Fumagalli, Guido; Chiamulera, Cristiano

    2018-02-01

    Clinical data with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients recently stimulated interest on the potential therapeutic use of psychedelics in disorders characterized by maladaptive memories, including substance use disorders (SUD). The rationale for the use of MDMA in PTSD and SUD is being extended to a broader beneficial "psychedelic effect," which is supporting further clinical investigations, in spite of the lack of mechanistic hypothesis. Considering that the retrieval of emotional memories reactivates specific brain mechanisms vulnerable to inhibition, interference, or strengthening (i.e., the reconsolidation process), it was proposed that the ability to retrieve and change these maladaptive memories might be a novel intervention for PTSD and SUD. The mechanisms underlying MDMA effects indicate memory reconsolidation modulation as a hypothetical process underlying its efficacy. Mechanistic and clinical studies with other two classes of psychedelic substances, namely cannabinoids and ketamine, are providing data in support of a potential use in PTSD and SUD based on the modulation of traumatic and appetitive memory reconsolidation, respectively. Here, we review preclinical and clinical data on cannabinoids and ketamine effects on biobehavioral processes related to the reconsolidation of maladaptive memories. We report the findings supporting (or not) the working hypothesis linking the potential therapeutic effect of these substances to the underlying reconsolidation process. We also proposed possible approaches for testing the use of these two classes of drugs within the current paradigm of reconsolidation memory inhibition. Metaplasticity may be the process in common between cannabinoids and ketamine/ketamine-like substance effects on the mediation and potential manipulation of maladaptive memories.

  1. A comparison of IQ and memory cluster solutions in moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Terranova, Jennifer; Turner, Alisa; Mayfield, Joan; Allen, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have examined heterogeneous neuropsychological outcomes in childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) using cluster analysis. These studies have identified homogeneous subgroups based on tests of IQ, memory, and other cognitive abilities that show some degree of association with specific cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes, and have demonstrated that the clusters derived for children with TBI are different from those observed in normal populations. However, the extent to which these subgroups are stable across abilities has not been examined, and this has significant implications for the generalizability and clinical utility of TBI clusters. The current study addressed this by comparing IQ and memory profiles of 137 children who sustained moderate-to-severe TBI. Cluster analysis of IQ and memory scores indicated that a four-cluster solution was optimal for the IQ scores and a five-cluster solution was optimal for the memory scores. Three clusters on each battery differed primarily by level of performance, while the others had pattern variations. Cross-plotting the clusters across respective IQ and memory test scores indicated that clusters defined by level were generally stable, while clusters defined by pattern differed. Notably, children with slower processing speed exhibited low-average to below-average performance on memory indexes. These results provide some support for the stability of previously identified memory and IQ clusters and provide information about the relationship between IQ and memory in children with TBI.

  2. Overgeneral memory and suppression of trauma memories in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke; Böllinghaus, Inga; Rief, Winfried

    2007-04-01

    The study investigated the relationship between the suppression of trauma memories and overgeneral memory in 42 assault survivors with and without PTSD. Overgeneral memory (OGM) was assessed with a standard autobiographical memory test (AMT). Participants completed two further AMTs under the instructions to either suppress or not suppress assault memories, in counterbalanced order. Participants with PTSD retrieved fewer and more general memories when following the suppression instruction than participants without PTSD, but not under the control instruction. OGM correlated with PTSD symptom severity, and measures of cognitive avoidance. The results are discussed with reference to current theories of overgeneral memory and its possible relationship with PTSD.

  3. Reducing intrusive traumatic memories after emergency caesarean section: A proof-of-principle randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Antje; Vial, Yvan; Favrod, Céline; Harari, Mathilde Morisod; Blackwell, Simon E; Watson, Peter; Iyadurai, Lalitha; Bonsall, Michael B; Holmes, Emily A

    2017-07-01

    Preventative psychological interventions to aid women after traumatic childbirth are needed. This proof-of-principle randomized controlled study evaluated whether the number of intrusive traumatic memories mothers experience after emergency caesarean section (ECS) could be reduced by a brief cognitive intervention. 56 women after ECS were randomized to one of two parallel groups in a 1:1 ratio: intervention (usual care plus cognitive task procedure) or control (usual care). The intervention group engaged in a visuospatial task (computer-game 'Tetris' via a handheld gaming device) for 15 min within six hours following their ECS. The primary outcome was the number of intrusive traumatic memories related to the ECS recorded in a diary for the week post-ECS. As predicted, compared with controls, the intervention group reported fewer intrusive traumatic memories (M = 4.77, SD = 10.71 vs. M = 9.22, SD = 10.69, d = 0.647 [95% CI: 0.106, 1.182]) over 1 week (intention-to-treat analyses, primary outcome). There was a trend towards reduced acute stress re-experiencing symptoms (d = 0.503 [95% CI: -0.032, 1.033]) after 1 week (intention-to-treat analyses). Times series analysis on daily intrusions data confirmed the predicted difference between groups. 72% of women rated the intervention "rather" to "extremely" acceptable. This represents a first step in the development of an early (and potentially universal) intervention to prevent postnatal posttraumatic stress symptoms that may benefit both mother and child. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02502513. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurophysiological correlates of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing sessions: preliminary evidence for traumatic memories integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Imperatori, Claudio; Quintiliani, Maria I; Castelli Gattinara, Paola; Onofri, Antonio; Lepore, Marta; Brunetti, Riccardo; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated the potential role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in enhancing the integration of traumatic memories by measuring EEG coherence, power spectra and autonomic variables before (pre-EMDR) and after (post-EMDR) EMDR sessions during the recall of patient's traumatic memory. Thirteen EMDR sessions of six patients with post-traumatic stress disorder were recorded. EEG analyses were conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. Power spectra, EEG coherence and heart rate variability (HRV) were compared between pre- and post-EMDR sessions. After EMDR, we observed a significant increase of alpha power in the left inferior temporal gyrus (T = 3.879; P = 0.041) and an increased EEG coherence in beta band between C3 and T5 electrodes (T = 6.358; P < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant increase of HRV in the post-EMDR sessions was also observed (pre-EMDR: 6.38 ± 6.83; post-EMDR: 2.46 ± 2.95; U-Test = 45, P = 0.043). Finally, the values of lagged coherence were negatively associated with subjective units of disturbance (r(24) = -0.44, P < 0.05) and positively associated with parasympathetic activity (r(24) = 0.40, P < 0.05). Our results suggest that EMDR leads to an integration of dissociated aspects of traumatic memories and, consequently, a decrease of hyperarousal symptoms [Correction made here after initial publication]. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Brief Report: The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…

  6. Posttraining Epinephrine Reverses Memory Deficits Produced by Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lorón-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate whether posttraining systemic epinephrine is able to improve object recognition memory in rats with memory deficits produced by traumatic brain injury. Forty-nine two-month-old naïve male Wistar rats were submitted to surgical procedures to induce traumatic brain injury (TBI or were sham-operated. Rats were trained in an object recognition task and, immediately after training, received an intraperitoneal injection of distilled water (Sham-Veh and TBI-Veh group or 0.01 mg/kg epinephrine (TBI-Epi group or no injection (TBI-0 and Sham-0 groups. Retention was tested 3 h and 24 h after acquisition. The results showed that brain injury produced severe memory deficits and that posttraining administration of epinephrine was able to reverse them. Systemic administration of distilled water also had an enhancing effect, but of a lower magnitude. These data indicate that posttraining epinephrine and, to a lesser extent, vehicle injection reduce memory deficits associated with TBI, probably through induction of a low-to-moderate emotional arousal.

  7. Posttraining Epinephrine Reverses Memory Deficits Produced by Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorón-Sánchez, Alejandro; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Costa-Miserachs, David; Portell-Cortés, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate whether posttraining systemic epinephrine is able to improve object recognition memory in rats with memory deficits produced by traumatic brain injury. Forty-nine two-month-old naïve male Wistar rats were submitted to surgical procedures to induce traumatic brain injury (TBI) or were sham-operated. Rats were trained in an object recognition task and, immediately after training, received an intraperitoneal injection of distilled water (Sham-Veh and TBI-Veh group) or 0.01 mg/kg epinephrine (TBI-Epi group) or no injection (TBI-0 and Sham-0 groups). Retention was tested 3 h and 24 h after acquisition. The results showed that brain injury produced severe memory deficits and that posttraining administration of epinephrine was able to reverse them. Systemic administration of distilled water also had an enhancing effect, but of a lower magnitude. These data indicate that posttraining epinephrine and, to a lesser extent, vehicle injection reduce memory deficits associated with TBI, probably through induction of a low-to-moderate emotional arousal. PMID:27127685

  8. Pivotal role of anterior cingulate cortex in working memory after traumatic brain injury in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne eCazalis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fMRI study, the functions of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex were studied in a group of adolescents who had sustained a moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury. A spatial working memory task with varying working memory loads, representing experimental conditions of increasing difficulty, was administered.In a cross-sectional comparison between the patients and a matched control group, patients performed worse than Controls, showing longer reaction times and lower response accuracy on the spatial working memory task. Brain imaging findings suggest a possible double-dissociation: activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in the Traumatic Brain Injury group, but not in the Control group, was associated with task difficulty; conversely, activity of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in the Control group, but not in the TBI group, was correlated with task difficulty.In addition to the main cross-sectional study, a longitudinal study of a group of adolescent patients with moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury was done using fMRI and the same spatial working memory task. The patient group was studied at two time points: one time point during the post-acute phase and one time point 12 months later, during the chronic phase. Results indicated that patients' behavioral performance improved over time, suggesting cognitive recovery. Brain imaging findings suggest that, over this 12 month period, patients recruited less of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and more of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in response to increasing task difficulty.The role of Anterior Cingulate Cortex in executive functions following a moderate to severe brain injury in adolescence is discussed within the context of conflicting models of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex functions in the existing literature.

  9. Functional Neuroimaging of Emotionally Intense Autobiographical Memories in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jacques, Peggy L.; Botzung, Anne; Miles, Amanda; Rubin, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects regions that support autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval, such as the hippocampus, amygdala and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, it is not well understood how PTSD may impact the neural mechanisms of memory retrieval for the personal past. We used a generic cue method combined with parametric modulation analysis and functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms affected by PTSD symptoms during the retrieval of a large sample of emotionally intense AMs. There were three main results. First, the PTSD group showed greater recruitment of the amygdala/hippocampus during the construction of negative versus positive emotionally intense AMs, when compared to controls. Second, across both the construction and elaboration phases of retrieval the PTSD group showed greater recruitment of the ventral medial PFC for negatively intense memories, but less recruitment for positively intense memories. Third, the PTSD group showed greater functional coupling between the ventral medial PFC and the amygdala for negatively intense memories, but less coupling for positively intense memories. In sum, the fMRI data suggest that there was greater recruitment and coupling of emotional brain regions during the retrieval of negatively intense AMs in the PTSD group when compared to controls. PMID:21109253

  10. Self-awareness of prospective memory failure in adults with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nadine L; Fleming, Jennifer M; Shum, David H K

    2002-11-01

    The frequency of prospective memory failure in individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) was investigated by comparison with a non-brain-injured control group. Self-awareness of prospective memory function was also assessed by comparing self-ratings with ratings by significant others. Study participants included 33 individuals with severe TBI and 29 non-brain-injured persons. Each participant nominated a close friend or relative who completed the informant's version of the questionnaire. Participants and their significant others both rated the participants' frequency of prospective memory lapses using the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM). An independent groups design was adopted to compare the TBI and control groups. No significant difference was found between the TBI and control participants' self-ratings of frequency of prospective memory failure, but ratings by significant others were significantly different. The TBI group demonstrated less self-awareness (i.e. underestimated the frequency of prospective memory failure compared to significant others) than the control group.

  11. Predictors of Memory and Processing Speed Dysfunctions after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Winardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive value of admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores, duration of unconsciousness, neurosurgical intervention, and countercoup lesion on the impairment of memory and processing speed functions six months after a traumatic brain injury (TBI based on a structural equation modeling. Methods. Thirty TBI patients recruited from Neurosurgical Department at the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III processing speed index to evaluate the memory and processing speed functions. Results. The study showed that GCS scores accounted for 40% of the variance in memory/processing speed. No significant predictive effects were found for the other three variables. GCS classification at the time of TBI seems to correspond moderately to the severity of memory/processing speed dysfunctions. Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that admission GCS score is a robust predictor of memory/processing speed dysfunctions after TBI. The results should be replicated with a large sample of patients with TBI, or be extended by examining other potential clinical predictors.

  12. Ventral, but not dorsal, hippocampus inactivation impairs reward memory expression and retrieval in contexts defined by proximal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Sadia; Schumacher, Anett; Sivagurunathan, Seyon; Van Der Meer, Matthijs; Ito, Rutsuko

    2017-07-01

    The hippocampus (HPC) has been widely implicated in the contextual control of appetitive and aversive conditioning. However, whole hippocampal lesions do not invariably impair all forms of contextual processing, as in the case of complex biconditional context discrimination, leading to contention over the exact nature of the contribution of the HPC in contextual processing. Moreover, the increasingly well-established functional dissociation between the dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) subregions of the HPC has been largely overlooked in the existing literature on hippocampal-based contextual memory processing in appetitively motivated tasks. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the individual roles of the dHPC and the vHPC in contextual biconditional discrimination (CBD) performance and memory retrieval. To this end, we examined the effects of transient post-acquisition pharmacological inactivation (using a combination of GABA A and GABA B receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen) of functionally distinct subregions of the HPC (CA1/CA3 subfields of the dHPC and vHPC) on CBD memory retrieval. Additional behavioral assays including novelty preference, light-dark box and locomotor activity test were also performed to confirm that the respective sites of inactivation were functionally silent. We observed robust deficits in CBD performance and memory retrieval following inactivation of the vHPC, but not the dHPC. Our data provides novel insight into the differential roles of the ventral and dorsal HPC in reward contextual processing, under conditions in which the context is defined by proximal cues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Affective psychotherapy in post-traumatic reactions guided by affective neuroscience: memory reconsolidation and play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Göran Högberg1,2, Davide Nardo3, Tore Hällström4,5, Marco Pagani6,71Department of Women's and Children's Health, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2BUP Huddinge Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section for Psychiatry/Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Unit for Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 6Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 7Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome, ItalyAbstract: This paper reviews the affective neuroscience dealing with the effects of traumatic events. We give an overview of the normal fear reactions, the pathological fear reaction, and the character of emotional episodic memories. We find that both emotions and emotional memories are a tripartite unit of sensory information, autonomic reaction, and motor impulse (the PRM complex. We propose that emotions and movements are part and parcel of the same complex. This is our main finding from the review of affective neuroscience, and from here we focus on psychotherapy with post-trauma reactions. The finding of the process of memory reconsolidation opens up a new treatment approach: affective psychotherapy focused on reconsolidation. The meaning of reconsolidation is that an emotional memory, when retrieved and being active, will rest in a labile form, amenable to change, for a brief period of time, until it reconsolidates in the memory. This leads us to the conclusion that emotions, affects, must be evoked during the treatment session and that positive emotion must come first, because safety must be part of the new memories. In the proposed protocol of affective

  14. Dissociation-focused Victim Support and Coping with Traumatic Memory: an empirical search for evidence sustaining the potential of downward comparison based interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, F.W.; Blaauw, E.; Wisman, F.

    1999-01-01

    Some victims are highly susceptible to develop traumatic memories. A basic model of traumatic memory and its theoretical implications for coping assistance offered by victim support is outlined. The main focus of victim support from this perspective is to initiate and facilitate a process of

  15. Regional brain morphometry predicts memory rehabilitation outcome after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI commonly include difficulties with memory, attention, and executive dysfunction. These deficits are amenable to cognitive rehabilitation, but optimally selecting rehabilitation programs for individual patients remains a challenge. Recent methods for quantifying regional brain morphometry allow for automated quantification of tissue volumes in numerous distinct brain structures. We hypothesized that such quantitative structural information could help identify individuals more or less likely to benefit from memory rehabilitation. Fifty individuals with TBI of all severities who reported having memory difficulties first underwent structural MRI scanning. They then participated in a 12 session memory rehabilitation program emphasizing internal memory strategies (I-MEMS. Primary outcome measures (HVLT, RBMT were collected at the time of the MRI scan, immediately following therapy, and again at one month post-therapy. Regional brain volumes were used to predict outcome, adjusting for standard predictors (e.g., injury severity, age, education, pretest scores. We identified several brain regions that provided significant predictions of rehabilitation outcome, including the volume of the hippocampus, the lateral prefrontal cortex, the thalamus, and several subregions of the cingulate cortex. The prediction range of regional brain volumes were in some cases nearly equal in magnitude to prediction ranges provided by pretest scores on the outcome variable. We conclude that specific cerebral networks including these regions may contribute to learning during I-MEMS rehabilitation, and suggest that morphometric measures may provide substantial predictive value for rehabilitation outcome in other cognitive interventions as well.

  16. Dissociation between working memory performance and proactive interference control in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Diane; Cayton, Julien; Ashley, Victoria; Turken, And U

    2017-02-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and cognitive control processes have been reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in addition to clinical symptoms such as hypervigilance, re-experiencing, and avoidance of trauma reminders. Given the uncontrollable nature of intrusive memories, an important question is whether PTSD is associated with altered control of interference in WM. Some studies also suggest that episodic memory shows a material-specific dissociation in PTSD, with greater impairments in verbal memory and relative sparing of nonverbal memory. It is unclear whether this dissociation applies to WM, as no studies have used identical task parameters across material. Here we tested 29 combat Veterans with PTSD and 29 age-matched control Veterans on a recent probes WM task with words and visual patterns in separate blocks. Participants studied four-item sets, followed by a probe stimulus that had been presented in the previous set (recent probe) or not (nonrecent probe). Participants with PTSD made more errors than controls, and this decrement was similar for verbal and visual stimuli. Proactive interference from items recently presented, but no longer relevant, was not significantly different in the PTSD group and showed no relationship to re-experiencing symptom severity. These results demonstrate that PTSD is not reliably associated with increased intrusions of irrelevant representations into WM when non-emotional stimuli are used. Future studies that use trauma-related material may provide insight into the flashbacks and intrusive thoughts that plague those with PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Insular cortex involvement in declarative memory deficits in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

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    Li Lingjiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroimaging studies have proved that hippocampus relate to the deficient of memory in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Many studies in healthy subjects also shown that insular cortex (IC be involved in the declarative memory. This study was designed to investigate whether insular cortex is involved in declarative memory deficits in patients with PTSD. Methods Twelve subjects with PTSD and 12 subjects without PTSD victims underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects performed encoding and retrieval memory tasks during the fMRI session. Voxel-based morphometry method was used to analyze gray-matter volume, and the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2 was used to analyze activated brain areas when performing tasks. Results Grey matter volume was significantly reduced bilaterally in the insular cortex of PTSD subjects than non-PTSD. PTSD group also had lower level of activation in insular cortex when performing word encoding and retrieval tasks than non-PTSD group. Conclusion The study provides evidence on structural and function abnormalities of the insular cortex in patients with PTSD. Reduced grey-matter volume in insular cortex may be associated with declarative memory deficits in patients with PTSD.

  18. Chronic traumatic stress impairs memory in mice: Potential roles of acetylcholine, neuroinflammation and corticotropin releasing factor expression in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Ami; Gavini, Kartheek; Yang, Euitaek; Lyman-Henley, Lani; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran

    2017-09-29

    Chronic stress in humans can result in multiple adverse psychiatric and neurobiological outcomes, including memory deficits. These adverse outcomes can be more severe if each episode of stress is very traumatic. When compared to acute or short term stress relatively little is known about the effects of chronic traumatic stress on memory and molecular changes in hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory processing. Here we studied the effects of chronic traumatic stress in mice by exposing them to adult Long Evan rats for 28 consecutive days and subsequently analyzing behavioral outcomes and the changes in the hippocampus. Results show that stressed mice developed memory deficits when assayed with radial arm maze tasks. However, chronic traumatic stress did not induce anxiety, locomotor hyperactivity or anhedonia. In the hippocampus of stressed mice interleukin-1β protein expression was increased along with decreased corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression. Furthermore, there was a reduction in acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus of stressed mice. There were no changes in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the hippocampus of stressed mice. Gene expression of immediate early genes (Zif268, Arc, C-Fos) as well as glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors were also not affected by chronic stress. These data demonstrate that chronic traumatic stress followed by a recovery period might lead to development of resilience resulting in the development of selected, most vulnerable behavioral alterations and molecular changes in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine Willemoes; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking share a common neurocognitive basis. Although previous research has shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can impair the ability to remember the personal past, episodic future thinking has not previously been...... asked to report a series of events that had happened to them in the past and a series of events that might happen to them in the future. Transcriptions were scored according to a reliable system for categorizing internal (episodic) and external (semantic) information. For each event described......, participants also completed two modified Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire items to assess self-reported phenomenal qualities associated with remembering and imagining. In addition, TBI patients underwent neuropsychological assessment. Results revealed that TBI patients recalled/imagined proportionally...

  20. Perceived importance of prospective memory failures in adults with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Fleming, Jennifer; Pomery, Nadine L; O'Gorman, John G; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to carry out an intended action in the future. Failures in PM are often observed as more frequent in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) than controls. However, it remains unknown how individuals with TBI and their significant others perceive the importance of these PM problems. In the current study, four groups (38 TBI, 34 TBI-other, 34 controls, 31 control-other) were recruited to report on the perceived importance of PM failures using Part B of the Comprehensive Assessments of Prospective Memory (CAPM). Individuals with TBI perceived PM failures as being more important than did their significant others. Controls' ratings did not differ from their significant others. There were no statistically significant differences in rated importance for PM problems involving the basic activities of daily living (BADL) component and those involving the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) component. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of the motivation of people with TBI.

  1. Estimating Memory Deterioration Rates Following Neurodegeneration and Traumatic Brain Injuries in a Hopfield Network Model

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    Melanie Weber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries (TBI are among the main causes of cognitive dysfunction in humans. At a neuronal network level, they both extensively exhibit focal axonal swellings (FAS, which in turn, compromise the information encoded in spike trains and lead to potentially severe functional deficits. There are currently no satisfactory quantitative predictors of decline in memory-encoding neuronal networks based on the impact and statistics of FAS. Some of the challenges of this translational approach include our inability to access small scale injuries with non-invasive methods, the overall complexity of neuronal pathologies, and our limited knowledge of how networks process biological signals. The purpose of this computational study is three-fold: (i to extend Hopfield's model for associative memory to account for the effects of FAS, (ii to calibrate FAS parameters from biophysical observations of their statistical distribution and size, and (iii to systematically evaluate deterioration rates for different memory-recall tasks as a function of FAS injury. We calculate deterioration rates for a face-recognition task to account for highly correlated memories and also for a discrimination task of random, uncorrelated memories with a size at the capacity limit of the Hopfield network. While it is expected that the performance of any injured network should decrease with injury, our results link, for the first time, the memory recall ability to observed FAS statistics. This allows for plausible estimates of cognitive decline for different stages of brain disorders within neuronal networks, bridging experimental observations following neurodegeneration and TBI with compromised memory recall. The work lends new insights to help close the gap between theory and experiment on how biological signals are processed in damaged, high-dimensional functional networks, and towards positing new diagnostic tools to measure cognitive

  2. Estimating Memory Deterioration Rates Following Neurodegeneration and Traumatic Brain Injuries in a Hopfield Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Melanie; Maia, Pedro D.; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are among the main causes of cognitive dysfunction in humans. At a neuronal network level, they both extensively exhibit focal axonal swellings (FAS), which in turn, compromise the information encoded in spike trains and lead to potentially severe functional deficits. There are currently no satisfactory quantitative predictors of decline in memory-encoding neuronal networks based on the impact and statistics of FAS. Some of the challenges of this translational approach include our inability to access small scale injuries with non-invasive methods, the overall complexity of neuronal pathologies, and our limited knowledge of how networks process biological signals. The purpose of this computational study is three-fold: (i) to extend Hopfield's model for associative memory to account for the effects of FAS, (ii) to calibrate FAS parameters from biophysical observations of their statistical distribution and size, and (iii) to systematically evaluate deterioration rates for different memory-recall tasks as a function of FAS injury. We calculate deterioration rates for a face-recognition task to account for highly correlated memories and also for a discrimination task of random, uncorrelated memories with a size at the capacity limit of the Hopfield network. While it is expected that the performance of any injured network should decrease with injury, our results link, for the first time, the memory recall ability to observed FAS statistics. This allows for plausible estimates of cognitive decline for different stages of brain disorders within neuronal networks, bridging experimental observations following neurodegeneration and TBI with compromised memory recall. The work lends new insights to help close the gap between theory and experiment on how biological signals are processed in damaged, high-dimensional functional networks, and towards positing new diagnostic tools to measure cognitive deficits. PMID

  3. Cognitive Deficits and Memory Disturbances in Patients with Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

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    Mohammad-Reza Fayyazi-Bordbar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have demonstrated high cognitive deficits in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Considering the limited available information about this issue, we decided to assess the cognitive deficits and memory disturbances in these patients.Materials and Methods: The present study is a case control research conducted on 50 patients with post-traumatic stress disorder who were admitted to Ibn-e-Sina psychiatric hospital in Mashhad, in north-eastern part of Iran in 2008. The control group included 50 people of first degree relatives of these patients who met the inclusion criteria of the study. Case and control groups were selected by simple sampling method; and for all of them, a questionnaire of demographic information, Wechsler memory scale, and mini mental status examination (MMSE were completed. The gathered data were analyzed using SPSS 14th edition by chi square, t-test, and analyze of variance.Results: The mean score of Wechsler memory scale in patients with PTSD (80.78±18.39 was significantly higher than control group (67.92±7.38 (p=0.001. The mean score of MMSE was significantly lower in patients with PTSD compared to control group (p=0.001. The determined disability level assessed by Iranian veterans’ organization and also comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders with PTSD did not have a significant relationship with cognitive deficits, but the duration of PTSD and age of patients were significantly related to the level of cognitive deficits.Conclusion: Cognitive deficits and memory disturbances are higher in patients with PTSD than general population.

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of the 3-item memory test in the assessment of post traumatic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Teuntje M J C; de Jong, Ben; Jacobs, Bram; van der Werf, Sieberen P; Vos, Pieter E

    2009-04-01

    To investigate how the type of stimulus (pictures or words) and the method of reproduction (free recall or recognition after a short or a long delay) affect the sensitivity and specificity of a 3-item memory test in the assessment of post traumatic amnesia (PTA). Daily testing was performed in 64 consecutively admitted traumatic brain injured patients, 22 orthopedically injured patients and 26 healthy controls until criteria for resolution of PTA were reached. Subjects were randomly assigned to a test with visual or verbal stimuli. Short delay reproduction was tested after an interval of 3-5 minutes, long delay reproduction was tested after 24 hours. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated over the first 4 test days. The 3-word test showed higher sensitivity than the 3-picture test, while specificity of the two tests was equally high. Free recall was a more effortful task than recognition for both patients and controls. In patients, a longer delay between registration and recall resulted in a significant decrease in the number of items reproduced. Presence of PTA is best assessed with a memory test that incorporates the free recall of words after a long delay.

  5. Degrading traumatic memories with eye movements: a pilot functional MRI study in PTSD

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    Kathleen Thomaes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs. Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality of traumatic memories, but the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Recent studies support a “working-memory” (WM theory, which states that the two tasks (recall and EMs compete for limited capacity of WM resources. However, prior research has mainly relied on self-report measures. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether “recall with EMs,” relative to a “recall-only” control condition, was associated with reduced activity of primary visual and emotional processing brain regions, associated with vividness and emotionality respectively, and increased activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, associated with working memory. We used a randomized, controlled, crossover experimental design in eight adult patients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD. A script-driven imagery (SDI procedure was used to measure responsiveness to an audio-script depicting the participant's traumatic memory before and after conditions. Results: SDI activated mainly emotional processing-related brain regions (anterior insula, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, WM-related (DLPFC, and visual (association brain regions before both conditions. Although predicted pre- to post-test decrease in amygdala activation after “recall with EMs” was not significant, SDI activated less right amygdala and rostral ACC activity after “recall with EMs” compared to post-“recall-only.” Furthermore, functional connectivity from the right amygdala to the rostral ACC was decreased after “recall with EMs” compared with after “recall-only.” Conclusions: These preliminary results in a small sample

  6. Working Memory after Traumatic Brain Injury: The Neural Basis of Improved Performance with Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manktelow, Anne E; Menon, David K; Sahakian, Barbara J; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairments for patients. The aim of this proof of concept study was to establish the nature of abnormalities, in terms of activity and connectivity, in the working memory network of TBI patients and how these relate to compromised behavioral outcomes. Further, this study examined the neural correlates of working memory improvement following the administration of methylphenidate. We report behavioral, functional and structural MRI data from a group of 15 Healthy Controls (HC) and a group of 15 TBI patients, acquired during the execution of the N-back task. The patients were studied on two occasions after the administration of either placebo or 30 mg of methylphenidate. Between group tests revealed a significant difference in performance when HCs were compared to TBI patients on placebo [ F (1, 28) = 4.426, p performance demonstrated the most benefit from methylphenidate. Changes in the TBI patient activation levels in the Left Cerebellum significantly and positively correlated with changes in performance ( r = 0.509, df = 13, p = 0.05). Whole-brain connectivity analysis using the Left Cerebellum as a seed revealed widespread negative interactions between the Left Cerebellum and parietal and frontal cortices as well as subcortical areas. Neither the TBI group on methylphenidate nor the HC group demonstrated any significant negative interactions. Our findings indicate that (a) TBI significantly reduces the levels of activation and connectivity strength between key areas of the working memory network and (b) Methylphenidate improves the cognitive outcomes on a working memory task. Therefore, we conclude that methylphenidate may render the working memory network in a TBI group more consistent with that of an intact working memory network.

  7. Hypothesis: The Psychedelic Ayahuasca Heals Traumatic Memories via a Sigma 1 Receptor-Mediated Epigenetic-Mnemonic Process

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    Antonio Inserra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca ingestion modulates brain activity, neurotransmission, gene expression and epigenetic regulation. N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT, one of the alkaloids in Ayahuasca activates sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1 and others. SIGMAR1 is a multi-faceted stress-responsive receptor which promotes cell survival, neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and neuroimmunomodulation. Simultaneously, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs also present in Ayahuasca prevent the degradation of DMT. One peculiarity of SIGMAR1 activation and MAOI activity is the reversal of mnemonic deficits in pre-clinical models. Since traumatic memories in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD are often characterised by “repression” and PTSD patients ingesting Ayahuasca report the retrieval of such memories, it cannot be excluded that DMT-mediated SIGMAR1 activation and the concomitant MAOIs effects during Ayahuasca ingestion might mediate such “anti-amnesic” process. Here I hypothesise that Ayahuasca, via hyperactivation of trauma and emotional memory-related centres, and via its concomitant SIGMAR1- and MAOIs- induced anti-amnesic effects, facilitates the retrieval of traumatic memories, in turn making them labile (destabilised. As Ayahuasca alkaloids enhance synaptic plasticity, increase neurogenesis and boost dopaminergic neurotransmission, and those processes are involved in memory reconsolidation and fear extinction, the fear response triggered by the memory can be reprogramed and/or extinguished. Subsequently, the memory is stored with this updated significance. To date, it is unclear if new memories replace, co-exist with or bypass old ones. Although the mechanisms involved in memory are still debated, they seem to require the involvement of cellular and molecular events, such as reorganisation of homo and heteroreceptor complexes at the synapse, synaptic plasticity, and epigenetic re-modulation of gene expression. Since SIGMAR1 mobilises synaptic receptor, boosts synaptic

  8. Hypothesis: The Psychedelic Ayahuasca Heals Traumatic Memories via a Sigma 1 Receptor-Mediated Epigenetic-Mnemonic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Ayahuasca ingestion modulates brain activity, neurotransmission, gene expression and epigenetic regulation. N,N -Dimethyltryptamine (DMT, one of the alkaloids in Ayahuasca) activates sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) and others. SIGMAR1 is a multi-faceted stress-responsive receptor which promotes cell survival, neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and neuroimmunomodulation. Simultaneously, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) also present in Ayahuasca prevent the degradation of DMT. One peculiarity of SIGMAR1 activation and MAOI activity is the reversal of mnemonic deficits in pre-clinical models. Since traumatic memories in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often characterised by "repression" and PTSD patients ingesting Ayahuasca report the retrieval of such memories, it cannot be excluded that DMT-mediated SIGMAR1 activation and the concomitant MAOIs effects during Ayahuasca ingestion might mediate such "anti-amnesic" process. Here I hypothesise that Ayahuasca, via hyperactivation of trauma and emotional memory-related centres, and via its concomitant SIGMAR1- and MAOIs- induced anti-amnesic effects, facilitates the retrieval of traumatic memories, in turn making them labile (destabilised). As Ayahuasca alkaloids enhance synaptic plasticity, increase neurogenesis and boost dopaminergic neurotransmission, and those processes are involved in memory reconsolidation and fear extinction, the fear response triggered by the memory can be reprogramed and/or extinguished. Subsequently, the memory is stored with this updated significance. To date, it is unclear if new memories replace, co-exist with or bypass old ones. Although the mechanisms involved in memory are still debated, they seem to require the involvement of cellular and molecular events, such as reorganisation of homo and heteroreceptor complexes at the synapse, synaptic plasticity, and epigenetic re-modulation of gene expression. Since SIGMAR1 mobilises synaptic receptor, boosts synaptic plasticity and modulates

  9. The impact of malnutrition and post traumatic stress disorder on the performance of working memory in children

    OpenAIRE

    De Neubourg, Elise; De Neubourg, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition is accepted to have a negative impact on the school performance of children and adolescents. Malnutrition also has a negative impact on cognitive development and a potentially lasting effect on (some) cognitive functions. This paper focuses on the effects of malnutrition and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on short-term-working-memory on children. These effects are important since defective working memory capacities limit the learning ability of young children and thus the ...

  10. Development of the Brief Assessment of Prospective Memory (BAPM) for use with traumatic brain injury populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, David W K; Fleming, Jennifer; Hohaus, Lydia; Shum, David

    2011-12-01

    Impairment of prospective memory (PM) is a common problem following traumatic brain injury (TBI) which can affect functional outcomes. PM failures in everyday life can be assessed using self-report questionnaires; however, existing measures tend to be lengthy, which may be problematic for individuals with fatigue and other cognitive impairments. This study aimed to develop a short form of the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) and examine its psychometric properties. Using theoretical and statistical considerations, the number of items on the CAPM was reduced to 16 including equal numbers representing the basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) subscales. The psychometric properties of the new measure, named the Brief Assessment of Prospective Memory (BAPM), were examined by secondary analysis of data from two samples of community dwelling adults (aged 17 to 91 years, n = 527, and 15 to 60 years, n = 95) with no history of brain injury, and a sample of rehabilitation patients with moderate to severe TBI (n = 45). Results indicate that the BAPM has a robust factor structure, strong agreement with the original CAPM, acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and evidence of criterion-related validity with psychosocial integration as the point of reference for people with TBI.

  11. Context Dependent Effects of Ventral Tegmental Area Inactivation on Spatial Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Martig, Adria K.; Jones, Graham L.; Smith, Kelsey E.; Mizumori, Sheri J.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were tested on a hippocampus dependent win-shift working memory task in familiar or novel environments after receiving bilateral ventral tegmental area infusions of baclofen. Baclofen infusion disrupted working memory performance in both familiar and novel environments. In addition, baclofen infusion selectively disrupted short-term working memory in the novel environment. This experiment confirms selective ventral tegmental area support of accurate performance during a context dependent...

  12. Word Memory Test Performance Across Cognitive Domains, Psychiatric Presentations, and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jared A; Miskey, Holly M; Brearly, Timothy W; Martindale, Sarah L; Shura, Robert D

    2017-05-01

    The current study addressed two aims: (i) determine how Word Memory Test (WMT) performance relates to test performance across numerous cognitive domains and (ii) evaluate how current psychiatric disorders or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history affects performance on the WMT after excluding participants with poor symptom validity. Participants were 235 Iraq and Afghanistan-era veterans (Mage = 35.5) who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were divided into two groups based on WMT performance (Pass = 193, Fail = 42). Tests were grouped into cognitive domains and an average z-score was calculated for each domain. Significant differences were found between those who passed and those who failed the WMT on the memory, attention, executive function, and motor output domain z-scores. WMT failure was associated with a larger performance decrement in the memory domain than the sensation or visuospatial-construction domains. Participants with a current psychiatric diagnosis or mTBI history were significantly more likely to fail the WMT, even after removing participants with poor symptom validity. Results suggest that the WMT is most appropriate for assessing validity in the domains of attention, executive function, motor output and memory, with little relationship to performance in domains of sensation or visuospatial-construction. Comprehensive cognitive batteries would benefit from inclusion of additional performance validity tests in these domains. Additionally, symptom validity did not explain higher rates of WMT failure in individuals with a current psychiatric diagnosis or mTBI history. Further research is needed to better understand how these conditions may affect WMT performance. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

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    Janna eMantua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations. Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-hrs later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 yrs were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n=14, TBI Wake (n=12, non-TBI Sleep (n=15, non-TBI Wake (n=15. Each TBI participant was >1 yr post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-hr intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  14. Dissociation and memory fragmentation in post-traumatic stress disorder: an evaluation of the dissociative encoding hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review we summarise the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus initial evidence points more towards a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation.

  15. Differential Effects of Inactivation of Discrete Regions of Medial Prefrontal Cortex on Memory Consolidation of Moderate and Intense Inhibitory Avoidance Training

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    María E. Torres-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is involved in memory encoding of aversive events, such as inhibitory avoidance (IA training. Dissociable roles have been described for different mPFC subregions regarding various memory processes, wherein the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, prelimbic cortex (PL, and infralimbic cortex (IL are involved in acquisition, retrieval, and extinction of aversive events, respectively. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that intense training impedes the effects on memory of treatments that typically interfere with memory consolidation. The aim of this work was to determine if there are differential effects on memory induced by reversible inactivation of neural activity of ACC, PL, or IL produced by tetrodotoxin (TTX in rats trained in IA using moderate (1.0 mA and intense (3.0 mA foot-shocks. We found that inactivation of ACC has no effects on memory consolidation, regardless of intensity of training. PL inactivation impairs memory consolidation in the 1.0 mA group, while no effect on consolidation was produced in the 3.0 mA group. In the case of IL, a remarkable amnestic effect in LTM was observed in both training conditions. However, state-dependency can explain the amnestic effect of TTX found in the 3.0 mA IL group. In order to circumvent this effect, TTX was injected into IL immediately after training (thus avoiding state-dependency. The behavioral results are equivalent to those found after PL inactivation. Therefore, these findings provide evidence that PL and IL, but not ACC, mediate LTM of IA only in moderate training.

  16. The Recovery of Memory after Traumatic Brain Injury%脑外伤病人记忆功能的康复特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炯炯; 尹岭; 张亚旭; 周晓林

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To explore the time course of memory recovery during post-traumatic amnesia after brain injury.Methods: A patient (WGS, aged 34) with lesions in the left temporal lobe was compared with four matched control subjects on various cognitive tests. These tests included Galveston Orientation and Amnesia test, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Test, Semantic Memory, and Remote Memory Test. WGS was tested at 20th days and 33rd days after the brain injury. Results: During the period of post-traumatic amnesia, marked recovery was observed for orientation, semantic memory and remote memory (especially the recent and the earlier items). While the recovery of learning for new knowledge was slow, learning curve of association of unrelated items was flat.Conclusion: The differential time courses for recovery of cognitive functions should be well considered in rehabilitative training after traumatic brain injury.

  17. Prospective memory after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury: a multinomial modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavawalla, Shital P; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Smith, Rebekah E

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM), which can be understood as the processes involved in realizing a delayed intention, is consistently found to be impaired after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although PM can be empirically dissociated from retrospective memory, it inherently involves both a prospective component (i.e., remembering that an action needs to be carried out) and retrospective components (i.e., remembering what action needs to be executed and when). This study utilized a multinomial processing tree model to disentangle the prospective (that) and retrospective recognition (when) components underlying PM after moderate-to-severe TBI. Seventeen participants with moderate to severe TBI and 17 age- and education-matched control participants completed an event-based PM task that was embedded within an ongoing computer-based color-matching task. The multinomial processing tree modeling approach revealed a significant group difference in the prospective component, indicating that the control participants allocated greater preparatory attentional resources to the PM task compared to the TBI participants. Participants in the TBI group were also found to be significantly more impaired than controls in the when aspect of the retrospective component. These findings indicated that the TBI participants had greater difficulty allocating the necessary preparatory attentional resources to the PM task and greater difficulty discriminating between PM targets and nontargets during task execution, despite demonstrating intact posttest recall and/or recognition of the PM tasks and targets.

  18. The effects of repeat testing, malingering, and traumatic brain injury on visuospatial memory span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial span tests such as the Corsi Block Test (CBT and the spatial span test of the Wechsler Memory Scale are widely used to assess deficits in spatial working memory. We conducted three experiments to evaluate the test-retest reliability and clinical sensitivity of a new computerized spatial span test (C-SST that incorporates psychophysical methods to improve the precision of spatial span measurement. In Experiment 1, we analyzed C-SST test-retest reliability in 49 participants who underwent three test sessions at weekly intervals. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were higher for a psychophysically derived mean span (MnS metric (0.83 than for the maximal span and total correct metrics used in traditional spatial-span tests. Response times (ReTs also showed high ICCs (0.93 that correlated negatively with MnS scores and correlated positively with response-time latencies from other tests of processing speed. Learning effects were insignificant. Experiment 2 examined the performance of Experiment 1 participants when instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury: 57% showed abnormal MnS z-scores. A MnS z-score cutoff of 3.0 correctly classified 36% of simulated malingerers and 91% of the subgroup of 11 control participants with abnormal spans. Malingerers also made more substitution errors than control participants with abnormal spans (sensitivity = 43%, specificity = 91%. In addition, malingerers showed no evidence of ReT slowing, in contrast to significant abnormalities seen on other malingered tests of processing speed. As a result, differences between ReT z-scores and z-scores on other processing speed tests showed very high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing malingering and control participants with either normal or abnormal spans. Experiment 3 examined C-SST performance in a group of patients with predominantly mild traumatic brain injury (TBI: neither MnS nor ReT z-scores showed significant group

  19. Playing the computer game Tetris prior to viewing traumatic film material and subsequent intrusive memories: Examining proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ella L; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Tickle, Hannah; Horsch, Antje; Holmes, Emily A

    2016-12-01

    Visuospatial working memory (WM) tasks performed concurrently or after an experimental trauma (traumatic film viewing) have been shown to reduce subsequent intrusive memories (concurrent or retroactive interference, respectively). This effect is thought to arise because, during the time window of memory consolidation, the film memory is labile and vulnerable to interference by the WM task. However, it is not known whether tasks before an experimental trauma (i.e. proactive interference) would also be effective. Therefore, we tested if a visuospatial WM task given before a traumatic film reduced intrusions. Findings are relevant to the development of preventative strategies to reduce intrusive memories of trauma for groups who are routinely exposed to trauma (e.g. emergency services personnel) and for whom tasks prior to trauma exposure might be beneficial. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions. In the Tetris condition (n = 28), participants engaged in the computer game for 11 min immediately before viewing a 12-min traumatic film, whereas those in the Control condition (n = 28) had no task during this period. Intrusive memory frequency was assessed using an intrusion diary over 1-week and an Intrusion Provocation Task at 1-week follow-up. Recognition memory for the film was also assessed at 1-week. Compared to the Control condition, participants in the Tetris condition did not report statistically significant difference in intrusive memories of the trauma film on either measure. There was also no statistically significant difference in recognition memory scores between conditions. The study used an experimental trauma paradigm and findings may not be generalizable to a clinical population. Compared to control, playing Tetris before viewing a trauma film did not lead to a statistically significant reduction in the frequency of later intrusive memories of the film. It is unlikely that proactive interference, at least with this task

  20. [Magneto-encephalographic (MEG) brain recordings during traumatic memory recall in women with post-traumatic stress disorder: A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottraux, J; Lecaignard, F; Yao, S-N; De Mey-Guillard, C; Haour, F; Delpuech, C; Servan-Schreiber, D

    2015-06-01

    The experiment studied the effects of a short duration exposure to traumatic memories using magneto-encephalography (MEG). Nine right-handed DSM-4 PTSD patients were recruited from a unit for anxiety disorders and an organisation supporting victims of violence. In order to have a homogeneous sample, we included only women who suffered from civilian PTSD. Exclusion criteria were co-morbid major medical illness, metallic dental prostheses that would interfere in the magnetic measurement, and current drug treatment. All participants were free from neurological disease and had normal hearing. They signed a written informed consent form. An ethics committee accepted the study. A tape-recorded voice administered a script-driven imagery. The patients had to imagine, successively, a neutral image, a traumatic memory and rest, while MEG measured brain activities across delta, theta, alpha and beta bands. Each condition lasted three minutes. Heart rate (HR), anxiety and the vividness of mental images were recorded at the end of each phase. MEG power analysis was carried out with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) 8. The signals were averaged for each of the three conditions of threeminutes duration. The dependent variable was a subtracted value: (trauma - rest) - (neutral - rest). The significance threshold was set at Pvisual cortex (BA 18-19) in the delta band, the insula (BA13) in the beta band, the insula (BA13), premotor cortex (BA 6), Broca area (BA 44), and BA 43, in the alpha band. The symptom provocation protocol was successful in eliciting subjective anxiety and HR response in relation to traumatic memories. Our MEG results are in keeping with previous neuro-imagery studies showing decreased activities in the insula and Broca area during PTSD symptom provocation. However, we did not replicate the activation in the amygdala and the cingulate and prefrontal cortex found in some studies. Moreover, the within-group design, the small sample, and the inclusion of only

  1. Administration of raloxifene reduces sensorimotor and working memory deficits following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokiko, Olga N; Murashov, Alexander K; Hoane, Michael R

    2006-06-30

    Hormonal differences between males and females have surfaced as a crucial component in the search for effective treatments after experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent findings have shown that selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) may have therapeutic benefit. The present study examined the effects of raloxifene, a SERM, on functional recovery after bilateral cortical contusion injury (bCCI) or sham procedure. Male rats received injections of raloxifene (3.0mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (1.0 ml/kg, i.p.) 15 min, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after bCCI or sham procedure. Rats were tested on both sensorimotor (bilateral tactile removal and locomotor placing tests) and cognitive tests (reference and working memory in the Morris water maze). Raloxifene-treated animals showed a significant reduction in the initial magnitude of the deficit and facilitated the rate of recovery for the bilateral tactile removal test, compared to vehicle-treated animals. The raloxifene-treated animals also showed a significant improvement in the acquisition of working memory compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, raloxifene did not significantly improve the acquisition of reference memory or locomotor placing ability. Raloxifene treatment also did not result in a significant reduction in the size of the lesion cavity. Thus, the task-dependent improvements seen following raloxifene treatment do not appear to be the result of cortical neuroprotection. However, these results suggest that raloxifene improves functional outcome following bCCI and may present an interesting avenue for future research.

  2. Tau reduction diminishes spatial learning and memory deficits after mild repetitive traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Cheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because reduction of the microtubule-associated protein Tau has beneficial effects in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, we wanted to determine whether this strategy can also improve the outcome of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI. METHODS: We adapted a mild frontal impact model of TBI for wildtype C57Bl/6J mice and characterized the behavioral deficits it causes in these animals. The Barnes maze, Y maze, contextual and cued fear conditioning, elevated plus maze, open field, balance beam, and forced swim test were used to assess different behavioral functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 7 Tesla and histological analysis of brain sections were used to look for neuropathological alterations. We also compared the functional effects of this TBI model and of controlled cortical impact in mice with two, one or no Tau alleles. RESULTS: Repeated (2-hit, but not single (1-hit, mild frontal impact impaired spatial learning and memory in wildtype mice as determined by testing of mice in the Barnes maze one month after the injury. Locomotor activity, anxiety, depression and fear related behaviors did not differ between injured and sham-injured mice. MRI imaging did not reveal focal injury or mass lesions shortly after the injury. Complete ablation or partial reduction of tau prevented deficits in spatial learning and memory after repeated mild frontal impact. Complete tau ablation also showed a trend towards protection after a single controlled cortical impact. Complete or partial reduction of tau also reduced the level of axonopathy in the corpus callosum after repeated mild frontal impact. INTERPRETATION: Tau promotes or enables the development of learning and memory deficits and of axonopathy after mild TBI, and tau reduction counteracts these adverse effects.

  3. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Newsome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes. Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate. Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results

  4. Reconsolidation of Traumatic Memories for PTSD: A randomized controlled trial of 74 male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard; Budden-Potts, Denise; Bourke, Frank

    2017-12-14

    A randomized waitlist-controlled design (n = 74) examined the efficacy of Reconsolidation of Traumatic Memories (RTM) among male veterans with current-month flashbacks and nightmares. Volunteers were randomly assigned to immediate treatment (three 120-minute sessions of RTM), or to a 3-week waiting condition before receiving the RTM treatment. Blinded psychometricians evaluated the symptoms at intake, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks post. Wait-listed participants were re-evaluated and then treated. Sixty-five volunteers completed the treatment. Of those treated, 46 (71%) lost DSM diagnosis for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by one of the following definitions: 42 persons (65%) were in complete remission (PTSD Symptom Scale Interview (PSS-I) ≤ 20 and DSM criteria not met). Four others (6%) lost the DSM diagnosis or were otherwise sub-clinical by dichotomous criteria (PSS-I < 20 and absence of flashbacks and nightmares) but non-ambiguous on the PTSD Checklist Military Version measures. Within-group RTM effect sizes (Hedges' g) for PSS-I score changes ranged from 1.5 to 2.2. The between-group comparison between the treatment group and the untreated controls was significant (p < .001) with an effect size equivalent to two standard deviations (g = -2.121; 95% CI [-4.693-0.453]). Patient satisfaction with the intervention was high. RTM shows promise as a brief, cost-effective intervention for PTSD characterized primarily by intrusive symptoms. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: The article provides evidence to support a fast (5 hours or fewer) robust intervention for PTSD characterized by intrusive symptoms including current-month flashbacks, nightmares, and accompanied by sympathetic arousal in response to trauma narratives. The intervention is well tolerated and has demonstrated efficacy up to one year.

  5. A therapy system for post-traumatic stress disorder using a virtual agent and virtual storytelling to reconstruct traumatic memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielman, M.L.; Neerincx, M.A.; Bidarra, R.; Kybartas, B.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2017-01-01

    Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well treatable, many people do not get the desired treatment due to barriers to care (such as stigma and cost). This paper presents a system that bridges this gap by enabling patients to follow therapy at home. A therapist is only involved remotely,

  6. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  7. Prospective memory in adults with traumatic brain injury: an analysis of perceived reasons for remembering and forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nadine L; Moody, Anna; Szabo, Krisztina; Fleming, Jennifer M; Shum, David H K

    2007-06-01

    Reasons for prospective remembering and forgetting after traumatic brain injury (TBI) were investigated using Ellis' (1996) five phases of prospective memory as a framework. Participants were 38 individuals with severe TBI and 34 controls. Participants self-rated their perceived reasons for prospective remembering and forgetting using section C of the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM). Significant others also rated participants using the same scale. Analyses were conducted to examine the effect of group membership (TBI or control) on reported reasons for prospective remembering and forgetting. Findings highlighted the TBI group's difficulties with encoding, performance interval, and execution phases of prospective remembering.

  8. Post-Training Reversible Inactivation of the Hippocampus Enhances Novel Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Abel, Ted; Havekes, Robbert

    2010-01-01

    Research on the role of the hippocampus in object recognition memory has produced conflicting results. Previous studies have used permanent hippocampal lesions to assess the requirement for the hippocampus in the object recognition task. However, permanent hippocampal lesions may impact performance through effects on processes besides memory…

  9. Effects of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol anesthesia on emotional memory consolidation in rats: Consequences for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morena, Maria; Berardi, Andrea; Peloso, Andrea; Valeri, Daniela; Palmery, Maura; Trezza, Viviana; Schelling, Gustav; Campolongo, Patrizia

    2017-06-30

    Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or emergency care patients, exposed to traumatic events, are at increased risk for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) development. Commonly used sedative/anesthetic agents can interfere with the mechanisms of memory formation, exacerbating or attenuating the memory for the traumatic event, and subsequently promote or reduce the risk of PTSD development. Here, we evaluated the effects of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol on fear memory consolidation and subsequent cognitive and emotional alterations related to traumatic stress exposure. Immediately following an inhibitory avoidance training, rats were intraperitoneally injected with ketamine (100-125mg/kg), dexmedetomidine (0.3-0.4mg/kg) or their vehicle and tested for 48h memory retention. Furthermore, the effects of ketamine (125mg/kg), dexmedetomidine (0.4mg/kg), propofol (300mg/kg) or their vehicle on long-term memory and social interaction were evaluated two weeks after drug injection in a rat PTSD model. Ketamine anesthesia increased memory retention without altering the traumatic memory strength in the PTSD model. However, ketamine induced a long-term reduction of social behavior. Conversely, dexmedetomidine markedly impaired memory retention, without affecting long-lasting cognitive or emotional behaviors in the PTSD model. We have previously shown that propofol anesthesia enhanced 48h memory retention. Here, we found that propofol induced an enduring traumatic memory enhancement and anxiogenic effects in the PTSD model. These findings provide new evidence for clinical studies showing that the use of ketamine or propofol anesthesia in emergency care and ICU might be more likely to promote the development of PTSD, while dexmedetomidine might have prophylactic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Incentive Effects in Prospective Memory after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D.; Chu, Zili; Yallampalli, Ragini; Oni, Margaret B.; Wu, Trevor C.; Ramos, Marco A.; Pedroza, Claudia; Vásquez, Ana C.; Hunter, Jill V.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Few studies exist investigating the brain-behavior relations of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following traumatic brain injury (TBI). To address this, children with moderate-to-severe TBI performed an EB-PM test with two motivational enhancement conditions and underwent concurrent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 months post-injury. Children with orthopedic injuries (OI; n = 37) or moderate-to-severe TBI (n = 40) were contrasted. Significant group differences were found for fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient for orbitofrontal white matter (WM), cingulum bundles, and uncinate fasciculi. The FA of these WM structures in children with TBI significantly correlated with EB-PM performance in the high, but not the low motivation condition. Regression analyses within the TBI group indicated that the FA of the left cingulum bundle (p = 0.003), left orbitofrontal WM (p motivation condition. We infer that the cingulum bundles, orbitofrontal WM, and uncinate fasciculi are important WM structures mediating motivation-based EB-PM responses following moderate-to-severe TBI in children. PMID:21250917

  11. Epigenetics and memory: causes, consequences and treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder and addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzimenti, C. L.; Lattal, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between fear and reward at the circuit and molecular levels has implications for basic scientific approaches to memory and for understanding the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Both stress and exposure to drugs of abuse induce epigenetic changes that result in persistent behavioral changes, some of which may contribute to the formation of a drug addiction or a stress-related psychiatric disorder. Converging evidence suggests that similar behavioral, neurobiological and molecular mechanisms control the extinction of learned fear and drug-seeking responses. This may, in part, account for the fact that individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder have a significantly elevated risk of developing a substance use disorder and have high rates of relapse to drugs of abuse, even after long periods of abstinence. At the behavioral level, a major challenge in treatments is that extinguished behavior is often not persistent, returning with changes in context, the passage of time or exposure to mild stressors. A common goal of treatments is therefore to weaken the ability of stressors to induce relapse. With the discovery of epigenetic mechanisms that create persistent molecular signals, recent work on extinction has focused on how modulating these epigenetic targets can create lasting extinction of fear or drug-seeking behavior. Here, we review recent evidence pointing to common behavioral, systems and epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of fear and drug seeking. We suggest that targeting these mechanisms in combination with behavioral therapy may promote treatment and weaken stress-induced relapse. PMID:25560936

  12. Cerebellar inactivation impairs memory of learned prism gaze-reach calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Scott A; Hathaway, Emily N; Taylor, Jordan A; Thach, W Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Three monkeys performed a visually guided reach-touch task with and without laterally displacing prisms. The prisms offset the normally aligned gaze/reach and subsequent touch. Naive monkeys showed adaptation, such that on repeated prism trials the gaze-reach angle widened and touches hit nearer the target. On the first subsequent no-prism trial the monkeys exhibited an aftereffect, such that the widened gaze-reach angle persisted and touches missed the target in the direction opposite that of initial prism-induced error. After 20-30 days of training, monkeys showed long-term learning and storage of the prism gaze-reach calibration: they switched between prism and no-prism and touched the target on the first trials without adaptation or aftereffect. Injections of lidocaine into posterolateral cerebellar cortex or muscimol or lidocaine into dentate nucleus temporarily inactivated these structures. Immediately after injections into cortex or dentate, reaches were displaced in the direction of prism-displaced gaze, but no-prism reaches were relatively unimpaired. There was little or no adaptation on the day of injection. On days after injection, there was no adaptation and both prism and no-prism reaches were horizontally, and often vertically, displaced. A single permanent lesion (kainic acid) in the lateral dentate nucleus of one monkey immediately impaired only the learned prism gaze-reach calibration and in subsequent days disrupted both learning and performance. This effect persisted for the 18 days of observation, with little or no adaptation.

  13. Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE-ε4) genotype is associated with decreased 6-month verbal memory performance after mild traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Yue (John); Robinson, C.K. (Caitlin K.); J.F. Burke (John F.); E.A. Winkler (Ethan A.); Deng, H. (Hansen); M.C. Cnossen (Maryse); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); A.R. Ferguson (Adam); McAllister, T.W. (Thomas W.); J. Rosand (Jonathan); E.G. Burchard (Esteban); M.D. Sorani (Marco); S. Sharma (Sourabh); J.L. Nielson (Jessica L.); G.G. Satris (Gabriela G.); Talbott, J.F. (Jason F.); P.E. Tarapore (Phiroz E.); F.K. Korley (Frederick K.); Wang, K.K.W. (Kevin K.W.); E.L. Yuh (Esther); P. Mukherjee (Pratik); R. Diaz-Arrastia (Ramon); A.B. Valadka (Alex); D. Okonkwo (David); G. Manley (Geoffrey)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele associates with memory impairment in neurodegenerative diseases. Its association with memory after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is unclear. Methods: mTBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score 13–15, no neurosurgical intervention,

  14. Concurrent and prospective associations of habitual overgeneral memory and prospection with symptoms of depression, general anxiety, obsessive compulsiveness, and post-traumatic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced memory specificity is associated with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and some other forms of psychopathology. Reduced memory specificity is also associated with reduced specificity of envisioned future events. Research in this area has mostly relied on cue-word methods

  15. Differential roles of the infralimbic and prelimbic areas of the prefrontal cortex in reconsolidation of a traumatic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Natali; Kritman, Milly; Maroun, Mouna; Akirav, Irit

    2017-09-01

    Studies about reconsolidation of conditioned fear memories have shown that pharmacological manipulation at memory reactivation can attenuate or enhance the subsequent expression of the conditioned fear response. Here we examined the effects of a single injection of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (Rap) into the infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PL) areas [which compose the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC)] on reconsolidation and extinction of a traumatic fear memory. We found opposite effects of Rap infused into the PL and IL on reconsolidation and extinction: intra-PL Rap and systemic Rap impaired reconsolidation and facilitated extinction whereas intra-IL Rap enhanced reconsolidation and impaired extinction. These effects persisted at least 10 days after reactivation. Shock exposure induced anxiety-like behavior and impaired working memory and intra-IL and -PL Rap normalized these effects. Finally, when measured after fear retrieval, shocked rats exhibited reduced and increased phosphorylated p70s6K levels in the IL and basolateral amygdala, respectively. No effect on phosphorylated p70s6K levels was observed in the PL. The study points to the differential roles of the IL and PL in memory reconsolidation and extinction. Moreover, inhibiting mTOR via rapamycin following reactivation of a fear memory may be a novel approach in attenuating enhanced fear memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Xenon impairs reconsolidation of fear memories in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G Meloni

    Full Text Available Xenon (Xe is a noble gas that has been developed for use in people as an inhalational anesthestic and a diagnostic imaging agent. Xe inhibits glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors involved in learning and memory and can affect synaptic plasticity in the amygdala and hippocampus, two brain areas known to play a role in fear conditioning models of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Because glutamate receptors also have been shown to play a role in fear memory reconsolidation--a state in which recalled memories become susceptible to modification--we examined whether Xe administered after fear memory reactivation could affect subsequent expression of fear-like behavior (freezing in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained for contextual and cued fear conditioning and the effects of inhaled Xe (25%, 1 hr on fear memory reconsolidation were tested using conditioned freezing measured days or weeks after reactivation/Xe administration. Xe administration immediately after fear memory reactivation significantly reduced conditioned freezing when tested 48 h, 96 h or 18 d after reactivation/Xe administration. Xe did not affect freezing when treatment was delayed until 2 h after reactivation or when administered in the absence of fear memory reactivation. These data suggest that Xe substantially and persistently inhibits memory reconsolidation in a reactivation and time-dependent manner, that it could be used as a new research tool to characterize reconsolidation and other memory processes, and that it could be developed to treat people with PTSD and other disorders related to emotional memory.

  17. Differences in visual vs. verbal memory impairments as a result of focal temporal lobe damage in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Mar; Pueyo, Roser; Junqué, Carme; Mataró, María; Poca, María Antonia; Mena, Maria Pau; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of lesion in a sample of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) was related to material-specific memory impairment. Fifty-nine patients with TBI were classified into three groups according to whether the site of the lesion was right temporal, left temporal or diffuse. Six-months post-injury, visual (Warrington's Facial Recognition Memory Test and Rey's Complex Figure Test) and verbal (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test) memories were assessed. Visual memory deficits assessed by facial memory were associated with right temporal lobe lesion, whereas verbal memory performance assessed with a list of words was related to left temporal lobe lesion. The group with diffuse injury showed both verbal and visual memory impairment. These results suggest a material-specific memory impairment in moderate and severe TBI after focal temporal lesions and a non-specific memory impairment after diffuse damage.

  18. Epigenetics and memory: causes, consequences and treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzimenti, C L; Lattal, K M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between fear and reward at the circuit and molecular levels has implications for basic scientific approaches to memory and for understanding the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Both stress and exposure to drugs of abuse induce epigenetic changes that result in persistent behavioral changes, some of which may contribute to the formation of a drug addiction or a stress-related psychiatric disorder. Converging evidence suggests that similar behavioral, neurobiological and molecular mechanisms control the extinction of learned fear and drug-seeking responses. This may, in part, account for the fact that individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder have a significantly elevated risk of developing a substance use disorder and have high rates of relapse to drugs of abuse, even after long periods of abstinence. At the behavioral level, a major challenge in treatments is that extinguished behavior is often not persistent, returning with changes in context, the passage of time or exposure to mild stressors. A common goal of treatments is therefore to weaken the ability of stressors to induce relapse. With the discovery of epigenetic mechanisms that create persistent molecular signals, recent work on extinction has focused on how modulating these epigenetic targets can create lasting extinction of fear or drug-seeking behavior. Here, we review recent evidence pointing to common behavioral, systems and epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of fear and drug seeking. We suggest that targeting these mechanisms in combination with behavioral therapy may promote treatment and weaken stress-induced relapse. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. "Disorganized in time": impact of bottom-up and top-down negative emotion generation on memory formation among healthy and traumatized adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Clochon, Patrice; Giffard, Bénédicte; Viard, Armelle; Egler, Pierre-Jean; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Eustache, Francis; Dayan, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    "Travelling in time," a central feature of episodic memory is severely affected among individuals with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with two opposite effects: vivid traumatic memories are unorganized in temporality (bottom-up processes), non-traumatic personal memories tend to lack spatio-temporal details and false recognitions occur more frequently that in the general population (top-down processes). To test the effect of these two types of processes (i.e. bottom-up and top-down) on emotional memory, we conducted two studies in healthy and traumatized adolescents, a period of life in which vulnerability to emotion is particularly high. Using negative and neutral images selected from the international affective picture system (IAPS), stimuli were divided into perceptual images (emotion generated by perceptual details) and conceptual images (emotion generated by the general meaning of the material). Both categories of stimuli were then used, along with neutral pictures, in a memory task with two phases (encoding and recognition). In both populations, we reported a differential effect of the emotional material on encoding and recognition. Negative perceptual scenes induced an attentional capture effect during encoding and enhanced the recollective distinctiveness. Conversely, the encoding of conceptual scenes was similar to neutral ones, but the conceptual relatedness induced false memories at retrieval. However, among individuals with PTSD, two subgroups of patients were identified. The first subgroup processed the scenes faster than controls, except for the perceptual scenes, and obtained similar performances to controls in the recognition task. The second subgroup group desmonstrated an attentional deficit in the encoding task with no benefit from the distinctiveness associated with negative perceptual scenes on memory performances. These findings provide a new perspective on how negative emotional information may have opposite influences on memory in

  20. Zinc supplementation in rats impairs hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation and dampens post-traumatic recollection of stressful event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contestabile, Antonio; Peña-Altamira, Emiliano; Virgili, Marco; Monti, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a trace element important for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Zinc deficiency, both during pregnancy and after birth, impairs cognitive performance and, in addition to memory deficits, also results in alterations of attention, activity, neuropsychological behavior and motor development. The effects of zinc supplementation on cognition, particularly in the adult, are less clear. We demonstrate here in adult rats, that 4 week-long zinc supplementation given by drinking water, and approximately doubling normal daily intake, strongly impairs consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory, tested through contextual fear conditioning and inhibitory avoidance. Furthermore, the same treatment started after memory consolidation of training for the same behavioral tests, substantially dampens the recall of the stressful event occurred 4 weeks before. A molecular correlate of the amnesic effect of zinc supplementation is represented by a dysregulated function of GSK-3ß in the hippocampus, a kinase that participates in memory processes. The possible relevance of these data for humans, in particular regarding post-traumatic stress disorders, is discussed in view of future investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovery of an injured cingulum concurrent with improvement of short-term memory in a patient with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kim, Seong Ho; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2018-01-01

    We reported on a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) who showed recovery of an injured cingulum concurrent with improvement of short-term memory, which was demonstrated on follow-up diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 55-year-old male patient suffered head trauma resulting from falling from approximately 2 m while working at a construction site. The patient showed mild memory impairment (especially short-term memory impairment) at 3 months after onset: Memory Assessment Scale (global memory: 95 (37%ile), short-term memory: 75 (5%ile), verbal memory: 80 (9%ile) and visual memory: 112 (79%ile)). By contrast, at 2 years after onset, his mild memory impairment had improved to a normal state: Memory Assessment Scale (global memory: 104 (61%ile), short-term memory: 95 (37%ile), verbal memory: 101 (53%ile) and visual memory: 106 (66%ile)). On 3-month DTT, discontinuation of the right anterior cingulum was observed over the genu of the corpus callosum, while on 2-year DTT, the discontinued right anterior cingulum was elongated to the right basal forebrain. In conclusion, recovery of an injured cingulum concurrent with improvement of short-term memory was demonstrated in a patient with mild TBI.

  2. [Sleep disturbances and spatial memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder: the case of L'Aquila (Central Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michele; Mazza, Monica; Curcio, Giuseppe; Iaria, Giuseppe; De Gennaro, Luigi; Tempesta, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Altered sleep is a common and central symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In fact, sleep disturbances are included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for PTSD. However, it has been hypothesized that sleep disturbances are crucially involved in the aetiology of PTSD, rather than being solely a symptom arising secondarily from this disorder. Therefore, knowing the long-term effects of a trauma can be essential to establish the need of specific interventions for the prevention and treatment of mental disorders that may persist years after a traumatic experience. In one study we showed, for the first time, that even after a period of two years people exposed to a catastrophic disaster such as the L'Aquila earthquake continue to suffer from a reduced sleep quality. Moreover, we observed that sleep quality scores decreased as a function of the proximity to the epicentre, suggesting that the psychological effects of an earthquake may be pervasive and long-lasting. It has been widely shown that disruption of sleep by acute stress may lead to deterioration in memory processing. In fact, in a recent study we observed alterations in spatial memory in PTSD subjects. Our findings indicated that PTSD is accompanied by an impressive deficit in forming a cognitive map of the environment, as well as in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. The fact that this deterioration was correlated to the subjective sleep disturbances in our PTSD group demonstrates the existence of an intimate relationship between sleep, memory consolidation, and stress.

  3. Avoidance symptoms and delayed verbal memory are associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms in female victims of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Chung, Young Ki

    2015-09-15

    Victimization by sexual violence is strongly associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While several psychological and cognitive factors are known to be associated with PTSD prognosis, multivariable analysis is scarce. This study examined factors affecting the severity of PTSD symptoms in early stage of traumatic experience of sexual violence, including initial post-traumatic symptoms and cognitive characteristics. Participants were recruited from the center for women and children victims of violence in a university hospital. Thirty-four sexual assault victims were assessed at the baseline and the second visit one to five months after the baseline. At the baseline, an array of posttraumatic symptoms and cognitive functions were measured: at follow-up, PTSD symptoms were determined by Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. Stepwise multiple regression showed that avoidance symptoms (β = 0.551, P PTSD symptoms one to five month later. The regression model, factoring in avoidance and delayed verbal memory, showed a 34.9% explanatory power regarding the PTSD symptom severity. This study suggests that avoidance symptoms and verbal memory at the early stage of trauma are associated with later PTSD symptoms. It is also suggested that early intervention targeting avoidance symptoms may be beneficial in decreasing PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Episodic and semantic components of autobiographical memories and imagined future events in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam D; Addis, Donna Rose; Romano, Tracy A; Marmar, Charles R; Bryant, Richard A; Hirst, William; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tend to retrieve autobiographical memories with less episodic specificity, referred to as overgeneralised autobiographical memory. In line with evidence that autobiographical memory overlaps with one's capacity to imagine the future, recent work has also shown that individuals with PTSD also imagine themselves in the future with less episodic specificity. To date most studies quantify episodic specificity by the presence of a distinct event. However, this method does not distinguish between the numbers of internal (episodic) and external (semantic) details, which can provide additional insights into remembering the past and imagining the future. This study employed the Autobiographical Interview (AI) coding scheme to the autobiographical memory and imagined future event narratives generated by combat veterans with and without PTSD. Responses were coded for the number of internal and external details. Compared to combat veterans without PTSD, those with PTSD generated more external than internal details when recalling past or imagining future events, and fewer internal details were associated with greater symptom severity. The potential mechanisms underlying these bidirectional deficits and clinical implications are discussed.

  5. Recovery of episodic memory subprocesses in mild and complicated mild traumatic brain injury at 1 and 12 months post injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayim, Fadi M; Flashman, Laura A; Wright, Matthew J; Roth, Robert M; McAllister, Thomas W

    2016-11-01

    Episodic memory complaints are commonly reported after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The contributions of specific memory subprocesses (encoding, consolidation, and retrieval), however, are not well understood in mild TBI (mTBI). In the present study, we evaluated subprocesses of episodic memory in patients with mTBI using the item-specific deficit approach (ISDA), which analyzes responses on list learning tasks at an item level. We also conducted exploratory analyses to evaluate the effects of complicated mTBI (comp-mTBI) on memory. We compared episodic verbal memory performance in mTBI (n = 92) at approximately 1 and 12 months post TBI, as well as in a healthy comparison (HC) group (n = 40) at equivalent time points. Episodic memory was assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test-2nd Edition (CVLT-II), and both standard CVLT-II scores and ISDA indices were evaluated. Compared to the HC group, the mTBI group showed significantly poorer encoding and learning across time, as measured by ISDA and CVLT-II. Further analyses of these mTBI subgroups [(noncomplicated mTBI (NC-mTBI, n = 77) and comp-mTBI (n = 15)], indicated that it was the comp-mTBI group who continued to demonstrate poorer encoding ability than the HC group. When the patient groups were directly compared, the NC-mTBI group improved slightly on the ISDA Encoding Deficit Index. While the comp-mTBI group worsened slightly over time, their poorer encoding ability was not likely clinically meaningful. These findings indicate that, while the NC-mTBI and HC groups' performances were comparable by 12 months, a primary, long-term deficit in encoding of auditory verbal information remained problematic in the comp-mTBI group.

  6. The effect of age-at-testing on verbal memory among children following severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Tamar; Ahonniska-Assa, Jaana; Levav, Miriam; Eliyahu, Roni; Peleg-Pilowsky, Tamar; Brezner, Amichai; Vakil, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Memory deficits are a common sequelae following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI), which often have serious implications on age-related academic skills. The current study examined verbal memory performance using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in a pediatric TBI sample. Verbal memory abilities as well as the effect of age at-testing on performance were examined. A sample of 67 children following severe TBI (age average = 12.3 ± 2.74) and 67 matched controls were evaluated using the RAVLT. Age effect at assessment was examined using two age groups: above and below 12 years of age during evaluation. Differences between groups were examined via the 9 RAVLT learning trials and the 7 composite scores conducted out of them. Children following TBI recalled significantly less words than controls on all RAVLT trials and had significantly lower scores on all composite scores. However, all of these scores fell within the low average range. Further analysis revealed significantly lower than average performance among the older children (above 12 years), while scores of the younger children following TBI fell within average limits. To conclude, verbal memory deficits among children following severe TBI demonstrate an age-at-testing effect with more prominent problems occurring above 12 years at the time of evaluation. Yet, age-appropriate performance among children below 12 years of age may not accurately describe memory abilities at younger ages following TBI. It is therefore recommended that clinicians address child's age at testing and avoid using a single test as an indicator of verbal memory functioning post TBI.

  7. Psychosocial animal model of PTSD produces a long-lasting traumatic memory, an increase in general anxiety and PTSD-like glucocorticoid abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2012-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by a pathologically intense memory for a traumatic experience, persistent anxiety and physiological abnormalities, such as low baseline glucocorticoid levels and increased sensitivity to dexamethasone. We have addressed the hypothesis that rats subjected to chronic psychosocial stress would exhibit PTSD-like sequelae, including traumatic memory expression, increased anxiety and abnormal glucocorticoid responses. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a cat on two occasions separated by 10 days, in conjunction with chronic social instability. Three weeks after the second cat exposure, the rats were tested for glucocorticoid abnormalities, general anxiety and their fear-conditioned memory of the two cat exposures. Stressed rats exhibited reduced basal glucocorticoid levels, increased glucocorticoid suppression following dexamethasone administration, heightened anxiety and a robust fear memory in response to cues that were paired with the two cat exposures. The commonalities in endocrine and behavioral measures between psychosocially stressed rats and traumatized people with PTSD provide the opportunity to explore mechanisms underlying psychological trauma-induced changes in neuroendocrine systems and cognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Perirhinal cortical inactivation impairs object-in-place memory and disrupts task-dependent firing in hippocampal CA1, but not in CA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inah; Park, Seong-Beom

    2013-01-01

    Objects and their locations can associatively define an event and a conjoint representation of object-place can form an event memory. Remembering how to respond to a certain object in a spatial context is dependent on both hippocampus and perirhinal cortex (PER). However, the relative functional contributions of the two regions are largely unknown in object-place associative memory. We investigated the PER influence on hippocampal firing in a goal-directed object-place memory task by comparing the firing patterns of CA1 and CA3 of the dorsal hippocampus between conditions of PER muscimol inactivation and vehicle control infusions. Rats were required to choose one of the two objects in a specific spatial context (regardless of the object positions in the context), which was shown to be dependent on both hippocampus and PER. Inactivation of PER with muscimol (MUS) severely disrupted performance of well-trained rats, resulting in response bias (i.e., choosing any object on a particular side). MUS did not significantly alter the baseline firing rates of hippocampal neurons. We measured the similarity in firing patterns between two trial conditions in which the same target objects were chosen on opposite sides within the same arm [object-in-place (O-P) strategy] and compared the results with the similarity in firing between two trial conditions in which the rat chose any object encountered on a particular side [response-in-place (R-P) strategy]. We found that the similarity in firing patterns for O-P trials was significantly reduced with MUS compared to control conditions (CTs). Importantly, this was largely because MUS injections affected the O-P firing patterns in CA1 neurons, but not in CA3. The results suggest that PER is critical for goal-directed organization of object-place associative memory in the hippocampus presumably by influencing how object information is associated with spatial information in CA1 according to task demand.

  9. Perirhinal cortical inactivation impairs object-in-place memory and disrupts task-dependent firing in hippocampal CA1, but not in CA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inah eLee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objects and their locations can associatively define an event and a conjoint representation of object-place can form an event memory. Remembering how to respond to a certain object in a spatial context is dependent on both hippocampus and perirhinal cortex (PER. However, the relative functional contributions of the two regions are largely unknown in object-place associative memory. We investigated the PER influence on hippocampal firing in a goal-directed object-place memory task by comparing the firing patterns of CA1 and CA3 of the dorsal hippocampus between conditions of PER muscimol inactivation and vehicle control infusions. Rats were required to choose one of the two objects in a specific spatial context (regardless of the object positions in the context, which was shown to be dependent on both hippocampus and PER. Inactivation of PER with muscimol (MUS severely disrupted performance of well-trained rats, resulting in response bias (i.e., choosing any object on a particular side. MUS did not significantly alter the baseline firing rates of hippocampal neurons. We measured the similarity in firing patterns between two trial conditions in which the same target objects were chosen on opposite sides within the same arm (object-in-place strategy and compared the results with the similarity in firing between two trial conditions in which the rat chose any object encountered on a particular side (response-in-place strategy. We found that the similarity in firing patterns for object-in-place trials was significantly reduced with MUS compared to control conditions. Importantly, this was largely because MUS injections affected the object-in-place firing patterns in CA1 neurons, but not in CA3. The results suggest that PER is critical for goal-directed organization of object-place associative memory in the hippocampus presumably by influencing how object information is associated with spatial information in CA1 according to task demand.

  10. White matter integrity of the medial forebrain bundle and attention and working memory deficits following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jacqueline A; Spitz, Gershon; Ponsford, Jennie L; Dymowski, Alicia R; Ferris, Nicholas; Willmott, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    The medial forebrain bundle (MFB) contains ascending catecholamine fibers that project to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Damage to these fibers following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may alter extracellular catecholamine levels in the PFC and impede attention and working memory ability. This study investigated white matter microstructure of the medial MFB, specifically the supero-lateral branch (slMFB), following TBI, and its association with performance on attention and working memory tasks. Neuropsychological measures of attention and working memory were administered to 20 moderate-severe participants with TBI (posttraumatic amnesia M  = 40.05 ± 37.10 days, median time since injury 10.48 months, range 3.72-87.49) and 20 healthy controls. Probabilistic tractography was used to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values for 17 participants with TBI and 20 healthy controls. When compared to controls, participants with TBI were found to have significantly lower FA ( p  attention task, n -back, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test. This study was the first to demonstrate microstructural white matter damage within the slMFB following TBI. However, no evidence was found for an association of alterations to this tract and performance on attentional tasks.

  11. TBI-ROC Part Seven: Traumatic Brain Injury--Technologies to Support Memory and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Marcia; Elias, Eileen; Weider, Katie

    2010-01-01

    This article is the seventh of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). The six earlier articles in this series have discussed the individualized nature of TBI and its consequences, the rehabilitation continuum, and interventions at various points along the continuum. As noted throughout the articles, many individuals with TBI…

  12. Administration of the TrkB receptor agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone prevents traumatic stress-induced spatial memory deficits and changes in synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-García, Ancor; Knafo, Shira; Pereda-Pérez, Inmaculada; Esteban, José A; Venero, César; Armario, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs after exposure to traumatic situations and it is characterized by cognitive deficits that include impaired explicit memory. The neurobiological bases of such PTSD-associated memory alterations are yet to be elucidated and no satisfactory treatment for them exists. To address this issue, we first studied whether a single exposure of young adult rats (60 days) to immobilization on boards (IMO), a putative model of PTSD, produces long-term behavioral effects (2-8 days) similar to those found in PTSD patients. Subsequently, we investigated whether the administration of the TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) 8 h after stress (therapeutic window) ameliorated the PTSD-like effect of IMO and the associated changes in synaptic plasticity. A single IMO exposure induced a spatial memory impairment similar to that found in other animal models of PTSD or in PTSD patients. IMO also increased spine density and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA3-CA1 pathway. Significantly, DHF reverted both spatial memory impairment and the increase in LTP, while it produced no effect in the controls. These data provide novel insights into the possible neurobiological substrate for explicit memory impairment in PTSD patients, supporting the idea that the activation of the BDNF/TrkB pathway fulfils a protective role after severe stress. Administration of DHF in the aftermath of a traumatic experience might be relevant to prevent its long-term consequences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Transcranial low-level laser therapy increases memory, learning, neuroprogenitor cells, BDNF and synaptogenesis in mice with traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weijun; Huang, Liyi; Vatansever, Fatma; Agrawal, Tanupriya; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2015-03-01

    Increasing concern is evident over the epidemic of traumatic brain injury in both civilian and military medicine, and the lack of approved treatments. Transcranial low level laser therapy tLLLT) is a new approach in which near infrared laser is delivered to the head, penetrates the scalp and skull to reach the brain. We asked whether tLLLT at 810-nm could improve memory and learning in mice with controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury. We investigated the mechanism of action by immunofluorescence studies in sections from brains of mice sacrificed at different times. Mice with TBI treated with 1 or 3 daily laser applications performed better on Morris Water Maze test at 28 days. Laser treated mice had increased BrdU incorporation into NeuN positive cells in the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone indicating formation of neuroprogenitor cells at 7 days and less at 28 days. Markers of neuron migration (DCX and Tuj1) were also increased, as was the neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at 7 days. Markers of synaptogenesis (formation of new connections between existing neurons) were increased in the perilesional cortex at 28 days. tLLLT is proposed to be able to induce the brain to repair itself after injury. However its ability to induce neurogenesis and synaptogenesis suggests that tLLLT may have much wider applications to neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.

  14. The relationship between agitation and impairments of orientation and memory during the PTA period after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Adam; Love, Jasmine; Trevena-Peters, Jessica; Gracey, Jacinta; Ponsford, Jennie

    2018-06-03

    Agitation is common during the post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) period after traumatic brain injury (TBI), although our knowledge of what causes or predicts agitation is limited. The current study aimed to examine the association of agitation in PTA with the concurrent impairments in orientation and memory while controlling for covariates of agitation. Participants were 125 patients in PTA following moderate to extremely severe TBI recruited from an inpatient brain injury rehabilitation service who were assessed throughout PTA on the Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS) and the Westmead PTA Scale (WPTAS). Agitation was observed in 42.4% of participants (ABS score > 21), with disinhibited behaviours (e.g., distractibility and impulsivity) most common. Multilevel modelling found daily ABS scores to be associated with daily scores on the WPTAS but in a non-linear pattern. Analysis of covariates found that shorter time post-admission, younger age, presence of infection and higher antipsychotic doses were associated with higher ABS scores. These results support a relationship between agitation and the concurrent cognitive impairment during PTA. While a causal link cannot yet be inferred, management strategies that can potentially interfere with cognition (e.g., sedating medications, environmental changes) should be used cautiously in case they exacerbate agitation.

  15. Comparison of Memory Function and MMPI-2 Profile between Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Adjustment Disorder after a Traffic Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Man; Hyun, Myoung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objective Differential diagnosis between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD) is rather difficult, but very important to the assignment of appropriate treatment and prognosis. This study investigated methods to differentiate PTSD and AD. Methods Twenty-five people with PTSD and 24 people with AD were recruited. Memory tests, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2), and Beck's Depression Inventory were administered. Results There were significant decreases in immediate verbal recall and delayed verbal recognition in the participants with PTSD. The reduced memory functions of participants with PTSD were significantly influenced by depressive symptoms. Hypochondriasis, hysteria, psychopathic deviate, paranoia, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder scale of MMPI-2 classified significantly PTSD and AD group. Conclusion Our results suggest that verbal memory assessments and the MMPI-2 could be useful for discriminating between PTSD and AD. PMID:24851120

  16. Monetary Incentive Effects on Event-Based Prospective Memory Three Months after Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza, Claudia; Chapman, Sandra B.; Cook, Lori G.; Vásquez, Ana C.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2011-01-01

    Information regarding the remediation of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is scarce. Addressing this, two levels of monetary incentives were used to improve EB-PM in children ages 7 to 16 years with orthopedic injuries (OI, n = 51), or moderate (n = 25), and severe (n = 39) TBI at approximately three months postinjury. The EB-PM task consisted of the child giving a specific verbal response to a verbal cue from the examiner while performing a battery of neuropsychological measures (ongoing task). Significant effects were found for Age-at-Test, Motivation Condition, Period, and Group. Within-group analyses indicated OI and moderate TBI groups performed significantly better under the high-versus low-incentive condition, but the severe TBI group demonstrated no significant improvement. These results indicate EB-PM can be significantly improved at three months postinjury in children with moderate, but not severe, TBI. PMID:21347945

  17. Drawing Conclusions: Confusion between Data and Theory in the Traumatic Memory Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Joyanna

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines one of the chief problems in the ongoing debate about the nature and prevalence of the various memory mechanisms that may operate in determining whether a victim/survivor of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) will have delayed recall of the victimization. One of the key problems in the debate about delayed or suppressed memory of…

  18. Influence of mild traumatic brain injury during pediatric stage on short-term memory and hippocampal apoptosis in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Sook; Oh, Hyean-Ae; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of neurological deficit in the brain, which induces short- and long-term brain damage, cognitive impairment with/without structural alteration, motor deficits, emotional problems, and death both in children and adults. In the present study, we evaluated whether mild TBI in childhood causes persisting memory impairment until adulthood. Moreover, we investigated the influence of mild TBI on memory impairment in relation with hippocampal apoptosis. For this, step-down avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 were performed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the experiments. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: sham-operation group and TBI-induction group. The mild TBI model was created with an electromagnetic contusion device activated at a velocity of 3.0 m/sec. The results showed that mild TBI during the pediatric stage significantly decreased memory retention. The numbers of TUNEL-positive and caspase-3-positive cells were increased in the TBI-induction group compared to those in the sham-operation group. Defective memory retention and apoptosis sustained up to the adult stage. The present results shows that mild TBI induces long-lasting cognitive impairment from pediatric to adult stages in rats through the high level of apoptosis. The finding of this study suggests that children with mild TBI may need intensive treatments for the reduction of long-lasting cognitive impairment by secondary neuronal damage.

  19. Consequences of mild traumatic brain injury on information processing assessed with attention and short-term memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malojcic, Branko; Mubrin, Zdenko; Coric, Bojana; Susnic, Mirica; Spilich, George J

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, we explored the impact of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) upon short term or working memory and attention. The performance of 37 individuals with mTBI was compared with that of 53 age, sex and education-matched controls. All participants were staff members or individuals seeking medical care at a University hospital serving a large metropolitan area. A battery of computerized tests measured sustained visual attention, short-term memory (STM), simple reaction time, and decision time. Individuals with mTBI showed a performance deficit at sustained visual attention, STM scanning and a trend towards slowing in choice decision making. These observed changes in the cognitive performance of mTBI individuals are hypothesized to be a consequence of impaired central information processing. Our results suggest that mTBI can elicit meaningful cognitive deficits for several months post-injury. Additionally, we believe that the tasks employed in the current investigation demonstrate their utility for understanding cognitive deficits in mTBI individuals.

  20. Does multitasking mediate the relationships between episodic memory, attention, executive functions and apathetic manifestations in traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Annabelle; Rochat, Lucien; Dromer, Emilie; Azouvi, Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial

    2018-03-01

    Apathy is frequently described in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); its negative consequences particularly affect functional independence. Among apathetic manifestations, lack of initiative and lack of interest have mainly been associated with cognitive impairments. However, few studies have been conducted to precisely identify the underlying cognitive processes. Our aims were (1) to determine the best predictor of apathy from among several cognitive processes, including episodic memory and attention/executive mechanisms and multitasking, and (2) to examine to what extent multitasking could mediate the relationships between specific cognitive processes and lack of initiative/interest. Seventy participants (34 patients with TBI matched with 36 control participants) were given a questionnaire to assess anxio-depressive symptoms, four tasks to assess specific cognitive processes, and one task to assess real-life multitasking. Participants' relatives completed an apathy questionnaire. Multitasking, as assessed by the number of goals not achieved, was the only significant predictor of apathetic manifestations. In addition, the mediation analyses revealed that multitasking performance mediated the relationships between verbal episodic memory and lack of initiative/interest, whereas executive and attentional functions were only indirectly related to lack of initiative/interest due to their significant impacts on multitasking. These results shed new light on the aetiology of apathetic manifestations in patients with TBI, indicating how specific cognitive deficits are expressed in real-life multitasking, and consequently, how they may lead to the development and/or maintenance of apathetic manifestations. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  1. A Psychophysiologic Study of Weakening Traumatic Combat Memories With Post-Reactivation Propranolol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pitman, Roger K

    2008-01-01

    ...) propranolol, will show significantly smaller psychophysiologic responses during script-driven imagery testing a week later, indicative of weakening of the emotional memory, compared to those who receive (non-reactivation...

  2. Making sense of traumatic memories: memory qualities and psychological symptoms in emerging adults with and without abuse histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer Greenhoot, Andrea; Sun, Shengkai; Bunnell, Sarah L; Lindboe, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the connections between multiple measures of meaning making and psychological adjustment in people with and without histories of abuse. Young adults (n =177), recollected their three most stressful memories and rated them on importance and emotional and sensory qualities. We analysed the narratives for lexical markers of meaning making and explicit references to meaning or meaning-making attempts. There was little overlap between self-reported qualities and narrative content, and they were differentially predictive of psychological symptoms and transient emotional reactions. Consistent with the PTSD literature, more salient self-report memory characteristics (e.g., visceral emotions), and negative emotion and sensation terms predicted more symptoms. The narrative indices provided the best prediction to psychological adjustment, with several meaning indices (e.g., references to positive impact) predicting reduced symptoms, particularly for the Abuse group. Contrary to meaning-making models, resolutions predicted more symptoms, suggesting that aversive feelings during memory telling may trigger on-the-spot sense making to cope with distress.

  3. Implicit and explicit memory outcome in children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injury: impact of age at injury (preliminary findings).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lah, Suncica; Epps, Adrienne; Levick, Wayne; Parry, Louise

    2011-01-01

    To examine implicit and explicit memory outcome in children who had sustained severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) through childhood. Opposite patterns of impairments were expected: (i) impaired implicit memory in children with early TBI (TBI-EC, explicit memory in children with late TBI (TBI-LC, ≥ 6 years). Children who had sustained severe TBI more then 1 year ago were assessed. Fourteen children who had sustained severe TBI (TBI-EC, n = 10 and TBI-LC, n = 4) between 8 months and 13 years 7 months of age and 13 non-injured control subjects (NC) participated. Implicit (repetition priming and skill learning) and explicit verbal memory were examined. The TBI group performed worse on implicit (repetition priming) and explicit memory tasks compared to the NC group. Moreover, impairments were found in implicit and explicit memory in the TBI-EC, but not in the TBI-LC group. This study has shown, for the first time, that severe childhood TBI may compromise not only explicit, but also implicit memory. Nevertheless, instead of a selective implicit memory impairment, it was found that children who sustained injuries in early childhood present with impairments in both memory systems.

  4. Olfactory identification and its relationship to executive functions, memory, and disability one year after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Andelic, Nada; Skandsen, Toril; Anke, Audny; Roe, Cecilie; Holthe, Oyvor Oistensen; Wehling, Eike

    2016-01-01

    To explore the frequency of posttraumatic olfactory (dys)function 1 year after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and determine whether there is a relationship between olfactory identification and neuropsychological test performance, injury severity and TBI-related disability. A population-based multicenter study including 129 individuals with severe TBI (99 males; 16 to 85 years of age) that could accomplish neuropsychological examinations. Olfactory (dys)function (anosmia, hyposmia, normosmia) was assessed by the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) or the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT). Three tests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) were used to assess processing speed, verbal fluency, inhibition and set-shifting, and the California Verbal Learning Test-II was used to examine verbal memory. The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) was used to measure disability level. Employing 2 different smell tests in 2 equal-sized subsamples, the UPSIT sample (n = 65) classified 34% with anosmia and 52% with hyposmia, while the B-SIT sample (n = 64) classified 20% with anosmia and 9% with hyposmia. Individuals classified with anosmia by the B-SIT showed significantly lower scores for set-shifting, category switching fluency and delayed verbal memory compared to hyposmia and normosmia groups. Only the B-SIT scores were significantly correlated with neuropsychological performance and GOSE scores. Brain injury severity (Rotterdam CT score) and subarachnoid hemorrhage were related to anosmia. Individuals classified with anosmia demonstrated similar disability as those with hyposmia/normosmia. Different measures of olfaction may yield different estimates of anosmia. Nevertheless, around 1 third of individuals with severe TBI suffered from anosmia, which may also indicate poorer cognitive outcome. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Exploring epigenetic regulation of fear memory and biomarkers associated with Post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Maddox

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This review examines recent work on epigenetic mechanisms underlying animal models of fear learning as well as its translational implications in disorders of fear regulation, such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Specifically, we will examine work outlining roles of differential histone acetylation and DNA methylation associated with consolidation, reconsolidation and extinction in Pavlovian fear paradigms. We then focus on the numerous studies examining the epigenetic modifications of the Brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF pathway and the extension of these findings from animal models to recent work in human clinical populations. We will also review recently published data on FKBP5 regulation of glucocorticoid receptor function, and how this is modulated in animal models of PTSD and in human clinical populations via epigenetic mechanisms. As glucocorticoid regulation of memory consolidation is well established in fear models, we examine how these recent data contribute to our broader understanding of fear memory formation. The combined recent progress in epigenetic modulation of memory with the advances in fear neurobiology suggest that this area may be critical to progress in our understanding of fear-related disorders with implications for new approaches to treatment and prevention.

  6. MEG Working Memory N-Back Task Reveals Functional Deficits in Combat-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Robb-Swan, Ashley; Angeles-Quinto, Annemarie; Harrington, Deborah L; Drake, Angela; Huang, Charles W; Song, Tao; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B; Matthews, Scott; Clifford, Royce; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Huang, Jeffrey W; Sinha, Anusha; Yurgil, Kate A; Ji, Zhengwei; Lerman, Imanuel; Lee, Roland R; Baker, Dewleen G

    2018-04-13

    Combat-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained cognitive impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent cognitive deficits including working memory (WM) dysfunction is not fully understood in mTBI. Few studies of WM deficits in mTBI have taken advantage of the temporal and frequency resolution afforded by electromagnetic measurements. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and an N-back WM task, we investigated functional abnormalities in combat-related mTBI. Study participants included 25 symptomatic active-duty service members or Veterans with combat-related mTBI and 20 healthy controls with similar combat experiences. MEG source-magnitude images were obtained for alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz), gamma (30-90 Hz), and low-frequency (1-7 Hz) bands. Compared with healthy combat controls, mTBI participants showed increased MEG signals across frequency bands in frontal pole (FP), ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), but decreased MEG signals in anterior cingulate cortex. Hyperactivations in FP, OFC, and anterior dlPFC were associated with slower reaction times. MEG activations in lateral FP also negatively correlated with performance on tests of letter sequencing, verbal fluency, and digit symbol coding. The profound hyperactivations from FP suggest that FP is particularly vulnerable to combat-related mTBI.

  7. Alpha desynchronization/synchronization during working memory testing is compromised in acute mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Xianghong; Shoga, Michael; Li, Lianyang; Zouridakis, George; Tran, Thao; Fonteh, Alfred N; Dawlaty, Jessica; Goldweber, Robert; Pogoda, Janice M; Harrington, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosing and monitoring recovery of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is challenging because of the lack of objective, quantitative measures. Diagnosis is based on description of injuries often not witnessed, subtle neurocognitive symptoms, and neuropsychological testing. Since working memory (WM) is at the center of cognitive functions impaired in mTBI, this study was designed to define objective quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) measures of WM processing that may correlate with cognitive changes associated with acute mTBI. First-time mTBI patients and mild peripheral (limb) trauma controls without head injury were recruited from the emergency department. WM was assessed by a continuous performance task (N-back). EEG recordings were obtained during N-back testing on three occasions: within five days, two weeks, and one month after injury. Compared with controls, mTBI patients showed abnormal induced and evoked alpha activity including event-related desynchronization (ERD) and synchronization (ERS). For induced alpha power, TBI patients had excessive frontal ERD on their first and third visit. For evoked alpha, mTBI patients had lower parietal ERD/ERS at the second and third visits. These exploratory qEEG findings offer new and non-invasive candidate measures to characterize the evolution of injury over the first month, with potential to provide much-needed objective measures of brain dysfunction to diagnose and monitor the consequences of mTBI.

  8. Voluntary exercise does not ameliorate context memory and hyperarousal in a mouse model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Vogt, Miriam A; Schmahl, Christian; Flor, Herta; Gass, Peter

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running as model for intervention on the development of contextual fear and hyperarousal in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Physical exercise in general has been associated with improved hippocampus-dependent memory performance both in animals and humans. However, studies that have tried to link physical exercise and contextual conditioning in an animal model of PTSD, revealed mixed findings. Here we tested contextual fear conditioning, generalized fear response, acoustic startle response and emotionality in C57BL/6NCrl mice which had free access to a running wheel for 28 days, compared with control animals which did not run and mice which did not receive a shock during the conditioning phase. We found no significant effects of voluntary running on the above-mentioned variables, except for enhanced anxiety levels in the Dark-Light-Box and O-Maze tests of running mice. Our results suggest that running as a model for intervention does not ameliorate contextual aversive learning but has the potency to change emotional behaviours.

  9. Prefrontal responses to digit span memory phases in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD: A functional near infrared spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD-related memory impairments have consistently implicated abnormal activities in the frontal and parietal lobes. However, most studies have used block designs and could not dissociate the multiple phases of working memory. In this study, the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in working memory phases was assessed among veterans with PTSD and age-/gender-matched healthy controls. Multichannel functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS was utilized to measure prefrontal cortex hemodynamic activations during memory of neutral (i.e., not trauma-related forward and backward digit span tasks. An event-related experimental design was utilized to dissociate the different phases (i.e., encoding, maintenance and retrieval of working memory. The healthy controls showed robust hemodynamic activations during the encoding and retrieval processes. In contrast, the veterans with PTSD were found to have activations during the encoding process, but followed by distinct deactivations during the retrieval process. The PTSD participants, but not the controls, appeared to suppress prefrontal activity during memory retrieval. This deactivation was more pronounced in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the retrieval phase. These deactivations in PTSD patients might implicate an active inhibition of dorsolateral prefrontal neural activity during retrieval of working memory.

  10. Prefrontal responses to digit span memory phases in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a functional near infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fenghua; Yennu, Amarnath; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Gonzalez-Lima, F; North, Carol S; Liu, Hanli

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related memory impairments have consistently implicated abnormal activities in the frontal and parietal lobes. However, most studies have used block designs and could not dissociate the multiple phases of working memory. In this study, the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in working memory phases was assessed among veterans with PTSD and age-/gender-matched healthy controls. Multichannel functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was utilized to measure prefrontal cortex hemodynamic activations during memory of neutral (i.e., not trauma-related) forward and backward digit span tasks. An event-related experimental design was utilized to dissociate the different phases (i.e., encoding, maintenance and retrieval) of working memory. The healthy controls showed robust hemodynamic activations during the encoding and retrieval processes. In contrast, the veterans with PTSD were found to have activations during the encoding process, but followed by distinct deactivations during the retrieval process. The PTSD participants, but not the controls, appeared to suppress prefrontal activity during memory retrieval. This deactivation was more pronounced in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the retrieval phase. These deactivations in PTSD patients might implicate an active inhibition of dorsolateral prefrontal neural activity during retrieval of working memory.

  11. Concurrent and prospective associations of habitual overgeneral memory and prospection with symptoms of depression, general anxiety, obsessive compulsiveness, and post-traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A; Huntjens, Rafaele J C; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2014-01-01

    Reduced memory specificity is associated with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and some other forms of psychopathology. Reduced memory specificity is also associated with reduced specificity of envisioned future events. Research in this area has mostly relied on cue-word methods that include explicit instructions to develop specific memories of future events. These methods are limited in their ability to assess how participants habitually remember the past and imagine the future when the specificity constraints inherent in the cue-word task are removed. Sentence completions tasks have been developed that can be used to assess habitual patterns of memory and prospection. Little is known about the association of habitual memory and prospection with concurrently and prospectively assessed psychopathology. In the current study 142 participants completed sentence completion tasks tapping habitual memory and prospection at baseline and completed measures tapping psychological symptoms at baseline and 1 year later. Among other things, it was found that reduced memory specificity (but not reduced future specificity) was associated with concurrent and later depression, as well as with symptom levels of PTSD tapped 1 year beyond baseline.

  12. The Temporal Dynamics Model of Emotional Memory Processing: A Synthesis on the Neurobiological Basis of Stress-Induced Amnesia, Flashbulb and Traumatic Memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson Law

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, David M.; Campbell, Adam M.; Park, Collin R.; Halonen, Joshua; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2007-01-01

    We have reviewed research on the effects of stress on LTP in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and present new findings which provide insight into how the attention and memory-related functions of these structures are influenced by strong emotionality. We have incorporated the stress-LTP findings into our “temporal dynamics†model, which provides a framework for understanding the neurobiological basis of flashbulb and traumatic memories, as well as stress-induced ...

  13. The temporal dynamics model of emotional memory processing: a synthesis on the neurobiological basis of stress-induced amnesia, flashbulb and traumatic memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, David M; Campbell, Adam M; Park, Collin R; Halonen, Joshua; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2007-01-01

    We have reviewed research on the effects of stress on LTP in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and present new findings which provide insight into how the attention and memory-related functions of these structures are influenced by strong emotionality. We have incorporated the stress-LTP findings into our "temporal dynamics" model, which provides a framework for understanding the neurobiological basis of flashbulb and traumatic memories, as well as stress-induced amnesia. An important feature of the model is the idea that endogenous mechanisms of plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala are rapidly activated for a relatively short period of time by a strong emotional learning experience. Following this activational period, both structures undergo a state in which the induction of new plasticity is suppressed, which facilitates the memory consolidation process. We further propose that with the onset of strong emotionality, the hippocampus rapidly shifts from a "configural/cognitive map" mode to a "flashbulb memory" mode, which underlies the long-lasting, but fragmented, nature of traumatic memories. Finally, we have speculated on the significance of stress-LTP interactions in the context of the Yerkes-Dodson Law, a well-cited, but misunderstood, century-old principle which states that the relationship between arousal and behavioral performance can be linear or curvilinear, depending on the difficulty of the task.

  14. Decoding the Traumatic Memory among Women with PTSD: Implications for Neurocircuitry Models of PTSD and Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh M Cisler

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is characterized by intrusive recall of the traumatic memory. While numerous studies have investigated the neural processing mechanisms engaged during trauma memory recall in PTSD, these analyses have only focused on group-level contrasts that reveal little about the predictive validity of the identified brain regions. By contrast, a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA approach towards identifying the neural mechanisms engaged during trauma memory recall would entail testing whether a multivariate set of brain regions is reliably predictive of (i.e., discriminates whether an individual is engaging in trauma or non-trauma memory recall. Here, we use a MVPA approach to test 1 whether trauma memory vs neutral memory recall can be predicted reliably using a multivariate set of brain regions among women with PTSD related to assaultive violence exposure (N=16, 2 the methodological parameters (e.g., spatial smoothing, number of memory recall repetitions, etc. that optimize classification accuracy and reproducibility of the feature weight spatial maps, and 3 the correspondence between brain regions that discriminate trauma memory recall and the brain regions predicted by neurocircuitry models of PTSD. Cross-validation classification accuracy was significantly above chance for all methodological permutations tested; mean accuracy across participants was 76% for the methodological parameters selected as optimal for both efficiency and accuracy. Classification accuracy was significantly better for a voxel-wise approach relative to voxels within restricted regions-of-interest (ROIs; classification accuracy did not differ when using PTSD-related ROIs compared to randomly generated ROIs. ROI-based analyses suggested the reliable involvement of the left hippocampus in discriminating memory recall across participants and that the contribution of the left amygdala to the decision function was dependent upon PTSD symptom

  15. Decreased sexual motivation and heightened anxiety in male Long-Evans rats are correlated with the memory for a traumatic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Belkin, Mark N; James, Thomas F; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-05-01

    Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently report disturbances in sexual functioning in addition to alterations in their affective behaviors. Notably, maladaptive cognitions and dysfunctional behaviors are perpetuated by the emergence of the intrusive thoughts that characterize the disorder. In rats, reminders of a traumatic event designed to simulate intrusive thoughts are associated with impairments in affective, social, and sexual behaviors. The current study examined the relationship between the memory for a traumatic event and changes in sexual and affective behaviors in male Long-Evans rats (N = 36). The trauma featured a combination stressor consisting of simultaneous exposure to a footshock and the odor of soiled cat litter. Memory for the trauma was reactivated by re-exposures to the context of the trauma in the absence of stressors and confirmed by assessing the percentage of time spent freezing. Following the second and final reminder, traumatized males exhibited reduced sexual motivation and increased anxiety, signified by longer latencies to achieve their first mount on a post-stress test of sexual behavior, and longer latencies to begin feeding in a novel environment, respectively. Correlational analyses revealed that decreased sexual motivation and heightened anxiety were predicted by the memory for the trauma as indicated by the time spent freezing during the re-exposures. The findings from the current study have implications for understanding the relationship between stress and sexual functioning and indicate that the impairments in sexual behavior that often occur in individuals with PTSD may be impacted by their memory for the trauma.

  16. The role of β-arrestin-2 on Fear/anxious-related memory in a rat model of Post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinlan; Han, Fang; Wen, Lili; Xiao, Bing; Shi, Yuxiu

    2017-04-15

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be categorised as a disorder of dysregulated fear processing. In the formation and development of PTSD, whether fear/anxious-related memory is regulated by β-arrestin-2, and happened along the signal transduction pathways remains unknown. We used single prolonged stress (SPS) as the animal model of PTSD. Next, elevated plus maze tests (EPM) was performed to examine fear/anxious memory- related behaviors. Then, we detected β-arrestin-2, PDE-4, and signal transduction pathways with immunofluorescence, co-immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry, Elisa, western blot, RT-PCR, and real-time PCR. Our data indicated that SPS caused fear/anxious memory-related behaviors enhancement. The low expression of β-arrestin-2, PDE-4 and their complex on SPS 7d, and high expression of signal transduction pathways on SPS7d in basolateral amygdala (BLA). That indicating that β-arrestin-2 is critical for the formation of abnormal fear/anxious memory in PTSD; and fear/anxious memory occured through signal transduction pathways. Finally, these results suggest that β-arrestin-2, PDE-4 and signal transduction pathways may be by influencing the fear/anxious memory thereby involved in the formation and development of PTSD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Common chromosomal fragile sites (CFS) may be involved in normal and traumatic cognitive stress memory consolidation and altered nervous system immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, G S

    2010-05-01

    Previous reports of specific patterns of increased fragility at common chromosomal fragile sites (CFS) found in association with certain neurobehavioural disorders did not attract attention at the time due to a shift towards molecular approaches to delineate neuropsychiatric disorder candidate genes. Links with miRNA, altered methylation and the origin of copy number variation indicate that CFS region characteristics may be part of chromatinomic mechanisms that are increasingly linked with neuroplasticity and memory. Current reports of large-scale double-stranded DNA breaks in differentiating neurons and evidence of ongoing DNA demethylation of specific gene promoters in adult hippocampus may shed new light on the dynamic epigenetic changes that are increasingly appreciated as contributing to long-term memory consolidation. The expression of immune recombination activating genes in key stress-induced memory regions suggests the adoption by the brain of this ancient pattern recognition and memory system to establish a structural basis for long-term memory through controlled chromosomal breakage at highly specific genomic regions. It is furthermore considered that these mechanisms for management of epigenetic information related to stress memory could be linked, in some instances, with the transfer of the somatically acquired information to the germline. Here, rearranged sequences can be subjected to further selection and possible eventual retrotranscription to become part of the more stable coding machinery if proven to be crucial for survival and reproduction. While linkage of cognitive memory with stress and fear circuitry and memory establishment through structural DNA modification is proposed as a normal process, inappropriate activation of immune-like genomic rearrangement processes through traumatic stress memory may have the potential to lead to undesirable activation of neuro-inflammatory processes. These theories could have a significant impact on the

  18. Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on behavioral and spatial memory during the early stage of traumatic brain injury in the rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Chae, Seoung Wan; Park, Chae Ri; Kim, Dae Yul

    2016-03-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique to modulate the neural membrane potential. Its effects in the early stage of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have rarely been investigated. This study assessed the effects of anodal tDCS on behavioral and spatial memory in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. Thirty six rats underwent lateral fluid percussion and were then randomly assigned to one of three groups: control (n=12), five-day tDCS over peri-lesional cortex at one (1W, n=12), or two (2W, n=12) weeks post-injury. The Barnes maze (BM) and Rotarod (RR) tests were evaluated in a blind manner on day 1, week 3 and week 5 post-injury. After three weeks, both the 1W and 2W groups showed significant improvements in the BM ratio (PtDCS ameliorated behavioral and spatial memory function in the early phase after TBI when it is delivered two weeks post-injury. Earlier stimulation (one week post-injury) improves spatial memory only. However, the beneficial effects did not persist after cessation of the anodal stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In Silico Affinity Profiling of Neuroactive Polyphenols for Post-Traumatic Calpain Inactivation: A Molecular Docking and Atomistic Simulation Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated nonlysosomal neutral proteases, calpains, are believed to be early mediators of neuronal damage associated with neuron death and axonal degeneration after traumatic neural injuries. In this study, a library of biologically active small molecular weight calpain inhibitors was used for model validation and inhibition site recognition. Subsequently, two natural neuroactive polyphenols, curcumin and quercetin, were tested for their sensitivity and activity towards calpain’s proteolytic sequence and compared with the known calpain inhibitors via detailed molecular mechanics (MM, molecular dynamics (MD, and docking simulations. The MM and MD energy profiles (SJA6017 < AK275 < AK295 < PD151746 < quercetin < leupeptin < PD150606 < curcumin < ALLN < ALLM < MDL-28170 < calpeptin and the docking analysis (AK275 < AK295 < PD151746 < ALLN < PD150606 < curcumin < leupeptin < quercetin < calpeptin < SJA6017 < MDL-28170 < ALLM demonstrated that polyphenols conferred comparable calpain inhibition profiling. The modeling paradigm used in this study provides the first detailed account of corroboration of enzyme inhibition efficacy of calpain inhibitors and the respective calpain–calpain inhibitor molecular complexes’ energetic landscape and in addition stimulates the polyphenol bioactive paradigm for post-SCI intervention with implications reaching to experimental in vitro, in cyto, and in vivo studies.

  20. No evidence for differential dose effects of hydrocortisone on intrusive memories in female patients with complex post-traumatic stress disorder--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludäscher, Petra; Schmahl, Christian; Feldmann, Robert E; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schneider, Miriam; Bohus, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by intrusive traumatic memories. Presently, a controversial debate is ongoing regarding whether reduced cortisol secretion in post-traumatic stress disorder promotes an automatic retrieval of trauma-associated memories. Hence, a pharmacological elevation of cortisol was proposed to decrease post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, particularly intrusions. The present study investigated the impact of two different doses of hydrocortisone on automatic memory retrieval using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 inpatients with post-traumatic stress disorder. All participants were female and received various psychotropic medications. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups within a crossover design: they received either 1 week placebo followed by 1 week hydrocortisone 10/d, followed by 1 week placebo, followed by hydrocortisone 30 mg/d (15 participants) or 1 week hydrocortisone 30 mg/d, followed by 1 week placebo, followed by 1 week hydrocortisone 10 mg/d, followed by 1 week placebo (15 participants). The outcome measures were the frequency and the intensity of intrusions, the overall symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder and the general psychopathology. We did not find any differences in the frequency and the intensity of post-traumatic stress disorder-related intrusions between the 10 mg hydrocortisone, the 30 mg hydrocortisone and the placebo condition. All effect sizes for the hydrocortisone condition vs. placebo were very small. Additionally, the overall symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder and the general psychopathology did not differ between the hydrocortisone therapies and placebo. Our results do not show any effect of the hydrocortisone administration on intrusions in complex post-traumatic stress disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. The Temporal Dynamics Model of Emotional Memory Processing: A Synthesis on the Neurobiological Basis of Stress-Induced Amnesia, Flashbulb and Traumatic Memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip R. Zoladz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed research on the effects of stress on LTP in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC and present new findings which provide insight into how the attention and memory-related functions of these structures are influenced by strong emotionality. We have incorporated the stress-LTP findings into our “temporal dynamics” model, which provides a framework for understanding the neurobiological basis of flashbulb and traumatic memories, as well as stress-induced amnesia. An important feature of the model is the idea that endogenous mechanisms of plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala are rapidly activated for a relatively short period of time by a strong emotional learning experience. Following this activational period, both structures undergo a state in which the induction of new plasticity is suppressed, which facilitates the memory consolidation process. We further propose that with the onset of strong emotionality, the hippocampus rapidly shifts from a “configural/cognitive map” mode to a “flashbulb memory” mode, which underlies the long-lasting, but fragmented, nature of traumatic memories. Finally, we have speculated on the significance of stress-LTP interactions in the context of the Yerkes-Dodson Law, a well-cited, but misunderstood, century-old principle which states that the relationship between arousal and behavioral performance can be linear or curvilinear, depending on the difficulty of the task.

  2. Memories of Holocaust-related traumatic experiences, sense of coherence, and survivors' subjective well-being in late life: some puzzling findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidner, Moshe; Aharoni-David, Eynat

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the nexus of relationships between memories of Holocaust-related early traumatic events, survivors' sense of coherence (SOC), and subjective well-being (SWB) in late life. The basic design of this study, based 106 survivors (54% female), was cross-sectional. Participants underwent an extensive in-depth clinical interview relating to their Holocaust experiences and responded to measures of SOC and SWB. These data provided no evidence for the moderating or "buffering" effect of SOC but showed support for indirect effects of SOC in the relationship between memory traces of specific traumatic experiences and adaptive outcomes. The results of the present study provide support for Antonovsky's salutogenic perspective. It is highly plausible that survivors who underwent severe experiences during the Holocaust period were forced to call upon all their inner strengths and coping resources,and that their success in doing so and also surviving this horrendous period, might have contributed to the development of a stronger sense of meaning and coherence, which, in turn lead to a better sense of mental health as they approach the final season of their lives.

  3. Inhaled nitric oxide improves short term memory and reduces the inflammatory reaction in a mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Yong-Sheng; Quartermain, David; Boutajangout, Allal; Ji, Yong

    2013-07-19

    Although the mechanisms underlying mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are becoming well understood, treatment options are still limited. In the present study, mTBI was induced by a weight drop model to produce a closed head injury to mice and the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (INO) was evaluated by a short term memory task (object recognition task) and immunohistochemical staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD45 for the detection of reactive astrocytes and microglia. Results showed that mTBI model did not produce brain edema, skull fracture or sensorimotor coordination dysfunctions. Mice did however exhibit a significant deficit in short term memory (STM) and strong inflammatory reaction in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus compared to sham-injured controls 24h after mTBI. Additional groups of untreated mice tested 3 and 7 days later, demonstrated that recognition memory had recovered to normal levels by Day 3. Mice treated with 10ppm INO for 4 or 8h, beginning immediately after TBI demonstrated significantly improved STM at 24h when compared with room air controls (pshort durations of INO prevents this memory loss and also attenuates the inflammatory response. These findings may have relevance for the treatment of patients diagnosed with concussion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The clinical utility of MR diffusion tensor imaging and spatially normalized PET to evaluate traumatic brain injury patients with memory and cognitive impairments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Ayumi; Yasokawa, Yuuto; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Shinoda, Jun; Iwama, Toru

    2005-01-01

    We detected and compared abnormal brain areas using both MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET for traumatic brain injury patients with memory and cognitive impairments. Twenty normal subjects and eighteen diffuse axonal injury patients with memory and cognitive impairments were studied with DTI and eZIS of 18 F-FDG-PET. DTI contained fractional anisotorophy (FA) analysis and the tractography for the corpus callosum. After PET imaging was performed, statistical analysis using eZIS was undergone with followed processing steps, including smoothing, normalization and z transformation with respect to normal database. Z score map was superimposed on 3D MRI brain. Group analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). In diffuse axonal injury patients, the decline of FA was observed around the corpus callosum in comparison with normal subjects and the reduction of glucose metabolism was shown in the cingulated association. These results suggest that the reduction of metabolism within the cingulated cortex indicated deprived neuronal activation caused by the impaired neuronal connectivity that was revealed with DTI. Furthermore, the metabolic abnormalities within the cingulated cortex may be responsible for memory and cognitive impairments. DTI and spatially normalized PET have a role in neuroimaging interpretation for patients with memory and cognition impairments be cause its 3D better visualization allows objective and systematic investigation. (author)

  5. Post-traumatic stress is associated with verbal learning, memory, and psychomotor speed in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Pyra, Maria; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) women compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women, and deficits in episodic memory are a common feature of both PTSD and HIV infection. We investigated the association between a probable PTSD diagnosis using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) version and verbal learning and memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test in 1004 HIV+ and 496 at-risk HIV- women. HIV infection was not associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis (17% HIV+, 16% HIV-; p = 0.49) but was associated with lower verbal learning (p memory scores (p memory (p < 0.01) and psychomotor speed (p < 0.001). The particular pattern of cognitive correlates of probable PTSD varied depending on exposure to sexual abuse and/or violence, with exposure to either being associated with a greater number of cognitive domains and a worse cognitive profile. A statistical interaction between HIV serostatus and PTSD was observed on the fine motor skills domain (p = 0.03). Among women with probable PTSD, HIV- women performed worse than HIV+ women on fine motor skills (p = 0.01), but among women without probable PTSD, there was no significant difference in performance between the groups (p = 0.59). These findings underscore the importance of considering mental health factors as correlates to cognitive deficits in women with HIV.

  6. CpG in Combination with an Inhibitor of Notch Signaling Suppresses Formalin-Inactivated Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Enhanced Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation by Inhibiting Th17 Memory Responses and Promoting Tissue-Resident Memory Cells in Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Hongyong; Hai, Yan; Yin, Wei; Li, Wenjian; Zheng, Boyang; Du, Xiaomin; Li, Na; Zhang, Zhengzheng; Deng, Yuqing; Zeng, Ruihong; Wei, Lin

    2017-05-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of childhood hospitalizations. The formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) has been an obstacle to the development of a safe and effective killed RSV vaccine. Agonists of Toll-like receptor (TLR) have been shown to regulate immune responses induced by FI-RSV. Notch signaling plays critical roles during the differentiation and effector function phases of innate and adaptive immune responses. Cross talk between TLR and Notch signaling pathways results in fine-tuning of TLR-triggered innate inflammatory responses. We evaluated the impact of TLR and Notch signaling on ERD in a murine model by administering CpG, an agonist of TLR9, in combination with L685,458, an inhibitor of Notch signaling during FI-RSV immunization. Activation with CpG or deficiency of MyD88-dependent TLR signaling did not alleviate airway inflammation in FI-RSV-immunized mice. Activation or inhibition of Notch signaling with Dll4, one of the Notch ligands, or L685,458 did not suppress FI-RSV-enhanced airway inflammation either. However, the CpG together with L685,458 markedly inhibited FI-RSV-enhanced airway hyperresponsiveness, weight loss, and lung inflammation. Interestingly, CpG plus L685,458 completely inhibited FI-RSV-associated Th17 and Th17-associated proinflammatory chemokine responses in lungs following RSV challenge but not Th1 or Th2, memory responses. In addition, FI-RSV plus CpG plus L685,458 promoted protective CD8 + lung tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells. These results indicate that activation of TLR signaling combined with inhibition of Notch signaling prevent FI-RSV ERD, and the mechanism appears to involve suppressing proinflammatory Th17 memory responses and promoting protective TRM in lungs. IMPORTANCE RSV is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants. The FI-RSV-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) is a major impediment to the development of a safe and

  7. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy with respect to psychological symptoms and recovering autobiographical memory in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, Fatemehsadat; Bajoghli, Hafez; Haghighi, Mohammad; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its major impact on everyday life, it is important to identify effective treatments. In additional to pharmacological treatments, psychotherapeutic treatments are also highly effective. The aim of the present study was to investigate, among a sample of patients suffering from PTSD, the influence of an additional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention on their symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety, and on autobiographical memory. Methods A total of 40 patients suffering from PTSD (mean age: 31.64 years; 78.6% female patients) and under psychopharmacological treatment were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition. The intervention consisted of ten group sessions (one 60–90 minute session per week) of CBT. At baseline and 10 weeks later, a series of self-rating and experts’-rating questionnaires were completed. Results Over time, symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety decreased; however, greater improvement was observed in the experimental than the control condition. Likewise, as a general pattern of results, memory performance improved over time, though again this improvement was greater in the experimental condition. Conclusion Compared to a control condition, additional CBT improves the treatment of PTSD, with respect to both symptoms and autobiographical memory. PMID:25737635

  8. Methylphenidate and Memory and Attention Adaptation Training for Persistent Cognitive Symptoms after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brenna C; Flashman, Laura A; Arciniegas, David B; Ferguson, Robert J; Xing, Li; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Sprehn, Gwen C; Hammond, Flora M; Maerlender, Arthur C; Kruck, Carrie L; Gillock, Karen L; Frey, Kim; Wall, Rachel N; Saykin, Andrew J; McAllister, Thomas W

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacological enhancement (ie, with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least 4 months before study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19), MAAT/placebo (N=17), and ABT/placebo (N=18). Assessments were conducted pre-treatment (baseline) and after 6 weeks of treatment (post treatment). Outcome measures included scores on neuropsychological measures and subjective rating scales. Statistical analyses used linear regression models to predict post-treatment scores for each outcome variable by treatment type, adjusting for relevant covariates. Statistically significant (PABT/placebo), nonverbal learning (MAAT/MPH>MAAT/placebo and MAAT/MPH>ABT/MPH), and auditory working memory and divided attention (MAAT/MPH>ABT/MPH). These results suggest that combined treatment with metacognitive rehabilitation (MAAT) and pharmacotherapy (MPH) can improve aspects of attention, episodic and working memory, and executive functioning after TBI.

  9. Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Properties of Voluntary and Involuntary, Traumatic and Nontraumatic Autobiographical Memories in People with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C.; Boals, Adriel; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2008-01-01

    One hundred fifteen undergraduates rated 15 word-cued memories and their 3 most negatively stressful, 3 most positive, and 7 most important events and completed tests of personality and depression. Eighty-nine also recorded involuntary memories online for 1 week. In the first 3-way comparisons needed to test existing theories, comparisons were…

  10. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  11. Trauma memory characteristics and the development of acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, A; Brewer, N; Meiser-Stedman, R; Nixon, R D V

    2017-03-01

    The present study addresses gaps in knowledge regarding the association between trauma memory processes and posttraumatic stress responses in youth. Our primary goal was to explore the relative contribution of perceptions of trauma memory quality versus narrative trauma memory characteristics to explain overall adjustment. Children (N = 67) were interviewed within four weeks (T1) of an injury leading to hospital treatment and then again eight weeks later (T2). In each interview, the child told a trauma narrative (which were later coded), and answered the Trauma Memory Quality Questionnaire (Meiser-Stedman, Smith, Yule, & Dalgleish, 2007a), a self-report measure indexing the sensory, fragmented, and disorganised characteristics of trauma memory. They then completed measures of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T1 and measures of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T2. Self-reported trauma memory characteristics predicted ASD symptoms cross-sectionally at T1 and PTS symptoms prospectively over time. At both time points, self-reported trauma memory characteristics accounted for all of the unique variance in symptoms initially explained by narrative characteristics. A reduction in self-report ratings, but not the hypothesised narrative features (e.g., disorganised or lexical elements of the narrative), significantly predicted a reduction in PTS symptoms over time. The small sample size and the absence of a within-subjects narrative control were the main limitations of the study. These findings underscore the importance of self-reported trauma memory characteristics to the aetiology of PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Catecholamines in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress disorder 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0327 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...emotionally arousing experiences are typically vivid and persistent. The recurrent, intrusive memories of traumatic events in post - traumatic stress disorder ...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0327 TITLE: Catecholamines in post - traumatic stress

  13. Voluntary and involuntary emotional memory following an analogue traumatic stressor: the differential effects of communality in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Oldfield, Lucy; Loewenberger, Alana; Das, Ravi K; Bisby, James; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-12-01

    Men and women show differences in performance on emotional processing tasks. Sex also interacts with personality traits to affect information processing. Here we examine effects of sex, and two personality traits that are differentially expressed in men and women - instrumentality and communality - on voluntary and involuntary memory for distressing video-footage. On session one, participants (n = 39 men; 40 women) completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, which assesses communal and instrumental traits. After viewing film-footage of death/serious injury, participants recorded daily involuntary memories (intrusions) relating to the footage on an online diary for seven days, returning on day eight for a second session to perform a voluntary memory task relating to the film. Communality interacted with sex such that men with higher levels of communality reported more frequent involuntary memories. Alternatively, a communality × sex interaction reflected a tendency for women with high levels of communality to perform more poorly on the voluntary recognition memory task. The study involved healthy volunteers with no history of significant psychological disorder. Future research with clinical populations will help to determine the generalizability of the current findings. Communality has separate effects on voluntary and involuntary emotional memory. We suggest that high levels of communality in men and women may confer vulnerability to the negative effects of stressful events either through the over-encoding of sensory/perceptual-information in men or the reduced encoding of contextualised, verbally-based, voluntarily accessible representations in women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A model for mild traumatic brain injury that induces limited transient memory impairment and increased levels of axon related serum biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham eRostami

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI is one of the most common neuronal insults and can lead to long-term disabilities. mTBI occurs when the head is exposed to a rapid acceleration-deceleration movement triggering axonal injuries. Our limited understanding of the underlying pathological changes makes it difficult to predict the outcome of mTBI. In this study we used a scalable rat model for rotational acceleration TBI, previously characterized for the threshold of axonal pathology. We have analyzed whether a TBI just above the defined threshold would induce any detectable behavioral changes and/or changes in serum biomarkers. The effect of injury on sensory motor functions, memory and anxiety were assessed by beam walking, radial arms maze and elevated plus maze at 3 to 7 days following TBI. The only behavioral deficits found were transient impairments in working and reference memory. Blood serum was analyzed at 1, 3 and 14 days after injury for changes in selected protein biomarkers. Serum levels of neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H and Tau, as well as S100B and myelin basic protein (MBP showed significant increases in the injured animals at all time points. No signs of macroscopic injuries such as intracerebral hematomas or contusions were found. Amyloid precursor protein (APP immunostaining indicated axonal injuries at all time points analyzed. In summary, this model mimics some of the key symptoms of mTBI, such as transient memory impairment, which is paralleled by an increase in serum biomarkers. Our findings suggest that serum biomarkers may be used to detect mTBI. The model provides a suitable foundation for further investigation of the underlying pathology of mTBI.

  15. Long-lasting effects of maternal separation on an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: effects on memory and hippocampal oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Luisa A; Alvares, Lucas O; Noschang, Cristie; Engelke, Douglas; Andreazza, Ana C; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto S; Quillfeldt, Jorge A; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-04-01

    Adverse early life events, such as periodic maternal separation, may alter the normal pattern of brain development and subsequently the vulnerability to a variety of mental disorders in adulthood. Patients with a history of early adversities show higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study was undertaken to verify if repeated long-term separation of pups from dams would affect memory and oxidative stress parameters after exposure to an animal model of PTSD. Nests of Wistar rats were divided into intact and subjected to maternal separation (incubator at 32°C, 3 h/day) during post-natal days 1-10. When adults, the animals were subdivided into exposed or not to a PTSD model consisting of exposure to inescapable footshock, followed by situational reminders. One month after exposure to the shock, the animals were exposed to a memory task (Morris water maze) and another month later animals were sacrificed and DNA breaks and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured in the hippocampus. Rats exposed to shock or maternal separation plus shock showed long-lasting effects on spatial memory, spending more time in the opposite quadrant of the water maze. This effect was higher in animals subjected to both maternal separation and shock. Both shock and maternal separation induced a higher score of DNA breaks in the hippocampus. No differences were observed on antioxidant enzymes activities. In conclusion, periodic maternal separation may increase the susceptibility to the effects of a stressor applied in adulthood on performance in the water maze. Increased DNA breaks in hippocampus was induced by both, maternal separation and exposure to shock.

  16. The Impact of Stress Hormones on Post-traumatic Stress Disorders Symptoms and Memory in Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porhomayon, Jahan; Kolesnikov, Sergei; Nader, Nader D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship and interactions between stress hormones and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well established from both animal and human research studies. This interaction is especially important in the post-operative phase of cardiac surgery where the development of PTSD symptoms will result in increased morbidity and mortality and prolong length of stay for critically ill cardiac surgery patients. Cardiopulmonary bypass itself will independently result in massive inflammation response and release of stress hormones in the perioperative period. Glucocorticoid may reduce this response and result in reduction of PTSD symptom clusters and therefore improve health outcome. In this review, we plan to conduct a systemic review and analysis of the literatures on this topic.

  17. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy with respect to psychological symptoms and recovering autobiographical memory in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarian F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatemehsadat Akbarian,1 Hafez Bajoghli,2,3 Mohammad Haghighi,4 Nadeem Kalak,5 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,5 Serge Brand5,6 1Psychology and Counseling Organization of Iran, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 2Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand; 4Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 5Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Objectives: Given the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and its major impact on everyday life, it is important to identify effective treatments. In additional to pharmacological treatments, psychotherapeutic treatments are also highly effective. The aim of the present study was to investigate, among a sample of patients suffering from PTSD, the influence of an additional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT intervention on their symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety, and on autobiographical memory. Methods: A total of 40 patients suffering from PTSD (mean age: 31.64 years; 78.6% female patients and under psychopharmacological treatment were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition. The intervention consisted of ten group sessions (one 60–90 minute session per week of CBT. At baseline and 10 weeks later, a series of self-rating and experts’-rating questionnaires were completed. Results: Over time, symptoms of PTSD, depression, and anxiety decreased; however, greater improvement was observed in the experimental than the control condition. Likewise, as a general pattern of results, memory

  18. Associations between sedation, delirium and post-traumatic stress disorder and their impact on quality of life and memories following discharge from an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Helle

    2013-04-01

    In the intensive care units (ICUs) sedation strategies have changed in the past decade towards less sedation and daily wake-up calls. Recent studies indicate that no sedation (after intubation) is most beneficial for patients. A smaller number of these patients have been assessed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after ICU discharge, but none of them were assessed for delirium while in the ICU. In other studies, delirium in the ICU is described as distressing for the patients and increasing morbidity, i.e. dementia after discharge and mortality. The associations between sedation, delirium, and PTSD have not previous been described. The aim of this PhD study was to investigate: 1) how sedation is associated with delirium in the ICU, 2) the consequences of delirium in relation to PTSD, anxiety, and depression, 3) the consequences of delirium for the patients' memories from ICU and the health-related quality of life after discharge. In a prospective observation study with patients admitted a minimum of 48 hours to the ICUs in Aarhus or Hillerød, we included all patients aged > 17 years. Non-Danish-speaking, patients transferred from other ICUs and patients with brain injury that made delirium-assessment impossible were excluded. Patients were interviewed face-to-face after 1 week, and at 2 months and 6 months by telephone using six different questionnaires. Among 3,066 patients admitted to the ICUs, 942 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Primarily due to the inability to test for delirium, 302 patients were later excluded. Of the remaining 640 patients, 65% were delirious on 1 or more days. Fluctuations in sedation levels increased the risk of delirium statistically significantly with or without adjustments for age, gender, severity of illness, surgical/medical patient, or ICU site. After 2 months vs. 6 months, 297 patients vs. 248 patients were interviewed. PTSD was found in 7% vs. 5%, anxiety in 6% vs. 4%, and depression in 10% at both interviews. Delirium

  19. Psychosocial predator-based animal model of PTSD produces physiological and behavioral sequelae and a traumatic memory four months following stress onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Park, Collin R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2015-08-01

    We have a well-established animal model of PTSD composed of predator exposure administered in conjunction with social instability that produces PTSD-like behavioral and physiological abnormalities one month after stress initiation. Here, we assessed whether the PTSD-like effects would persist for at least 4months after the initiation of the psychosocial stress regimen. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 2 or 3 predator-based fear conditioning sessions. During each session, rats were placed in a chamber for a 3-min period that terminated with a 30-s tone, followed by 1h of immobilization of the rats during cat exposure (Day 1). All rats in the stress groups received a second fear conditioning session 10days later (Day 11). Half of the stress rats received a third fear conditioning session 3weeks later (Day 32). The two cat-exposed groups were also exposed to daily unstable housing conditions for the entire duration of the psychosocial stress regimen. The control group received stable (conventional) housing conditions and an equivalent amount of chamber exposure on Days 1, 11 and 32, without cat exposure. Behavioral testing commenced for all groups on Day 116. The stress groups demonstrated increased anxiety on the elevated plus maze, impaired object recognition memory and robust contextual and cued fear conditioned memory 3months after the last conditioning session. Combined data from the two stress groups revealed lower post-stress corticosterone levels and greater diastolic blood pressure relative to the control group. These findings indicate that predator-based psychosocial stress produces persistent PTSD-like physiological and behavioral abnormalities that may provide insight into the neurobiological and endocrine sequelae in traumatized people with PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential effectiveness of tianeptine, clonidine and amitriptyline in blocking traumatic memory expression, anxiety and hypertension in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2013-07-01

    Individuals exposed to life-threatening trauma are at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a debilitating condition that involves persistent anxiety, intrusive memories and several physiological disturbances. Current pharmacotherapies for PTSD manage only a subset of these symptoms and typically have adverse side effects which limit their overall effectiveness. We evaluated the effectiveness of three different pharmacological agents to ameliorate a broad range of PTSD-like symptoms in our established predator-based animal model of PTSD. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1-h cat exposures on two occasions that were separated by 10 days, in conjunction with chronic social instability. Beginning 24 h after the first cat exposure, rats received daily injections of amitriptyline, clonidine, tianeptine or vehicle. Three weeks after the second cat exposure, all rats underwent a battery of behavioral and physiological tests. The vehicle-treated, psychosocially stressed rats demonstrated a robust fear memory for the two cat exposures, as well as increased anxiety expressed on the elevated plus maze, an exaggerated startle response, elevated heart rate and blood pressure, reduced growth rate and increased adrenal gland weight, relative to the vehicle-treated, non-stressed (control) rats. Neither amitriptyline nor clonidine was effective at blocking the entire cluster of stress-induced sequelae, and each agent produced adverse side effects in control subjects. Only the antidepressant tianeptine completely blocked the effects of psychosocial stress on all of the physiological and behavioral measures that were examined. These findings illustrate the differential effectiveness of these three treatments to block components of PTSD-like symptoms in rats, and in particular, reveal the profile of tianeptine as the most effective of all three agents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Self-appraisals and episodic memory: Different psychological factors related to patient versus informant reports of apathy in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Annabelle; Rochat, Lucien; Azouvi, Philippe; van der Linden, Martial

    2018-01-09

    Apathy is a core feature in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The psychological processes underlying apathy are still unclear, and the few studies conducted on this subject have essentially focused on cognitive processes and informant reports of apathetic manifestations. The aims of the present study were to examine self-reports versus informant reports of diminished initiative/interest, as well as their relationship with different cognitive factors (attention/executive mechanisms, episodic memory, and multitasking) and personal identity factors (self-esteem and self-efficacy beliefs). To this end, 74 participants (38 patients with severe TBI matched with 36 control participants) were given three questionnaires to assess self-esteem, general self-efficacy beliefs, and anxio-depressive symptoms and five tasks to assess cognitive processes, including real-life multitasking. In addition, a questionnaire that assessed self-awareness of functional competencies and a questionnaire that assessed lack of initiative/interest were administered to each participant and their relatives. The main results showed that patients demonstrated an awareness of their lack of initiative/interest and that self-reported lack of initiative/interest was best predicted by low general self-efficacy beliefs and self-esteem, whereas informant-reported lack of initiative/interest was predicted by episodic memory difficulties. These results shed new light on the psychological processes related to apathetic manifestations, as well as the differing perspectives and lived experiences of patients and external observers in the TBI population, which opens interesting prospects for psychological interventions.

  2. Therapeutic effects of ellagic acid on memory, hippocampus electrophysiology deficits, and elevated TNF-α level in brain due to experimental traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Mashhadizadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Cognitive defects such as learning and memory impairment are amongst the most repetitious sequelae after sever and moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI. It was suggested that ellagic acid (EA, an innate phenol product, display neuroprotective properties against oxidative and inflammatory damages after brain injury. The object of the current study was therapeutic properties of EA on blood-brain barrier (BBB interruption and elevated content of TNF-α in brain tissue followed by neurologic aftereffects, cognitive and brain electrophysiology deficits as outcomes of diffuse TBI in rat. Materials and Methods: TBI was induced by a 200 g weight falling by a 2-m height through a free-falling tube onto the head of anesthetized rat. TBI rats treated immediately after trauma with EA             (100 mg/kg, IP once every 8 hr until 48 hr later. Neurologic outcomes, passive avoidance task (PAT, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP, BBB permeability and content of TNF-α in brain tissue were evaluated. Results: TBI induced significant impairments in neurological score, BBB function, PAT and hippocampal LTP in TBI+Veh group in compare with Sham+Veh (P

  3. Alterations in autobiographical memory for a blast event in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Daniela J; Kapson, Heather S; Lafleche, Ginette; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Marx, Brian P; Franz, Molly; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-07-01

    Although loss of consciousness associated with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to interfere with encoding of the TBI event, little is known about the effects of mild TBI (mTBI), which typically involves only transient disruption in consciousness. Blast-exposed Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans were asked to recall the blast event. Participants were stratified based on whether the blast was associated with probable mTBI (n = 50) or not (n = 25). Narratives were scored for organizational structure (i.e., coherence) using the Narrative Coherence Coding Scheme (Reese et al., 2011) and episodic recollection using the Autobiographical Interview Coding Procedures (Levine et al., 2002). The mTBI group produced narratives that were less coherent but contained more episodic details than those of the no-TBI group. These results suggest that mTBI interferes with the organizational quality of memory in a manner that is independent of episodic detail generation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Effects of neurofeedback on the short-term memory and continuous attention of patients with moderate traumatic brain injury: A preliminary randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rostami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There are some studies which showed neurofeedback therapy (NFT can be effective in clients with traumatic brain injury (TBI history. However, randomized controlled clinical trials are still needed for evaluation of this treatment as a standard option. This preliminary study was aimed to evaluate the effect of NFT on continuous attention (CA and short-term memory (STM of clients with moderate TBI using a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT. Methods: In this preliminary RCT, seventeen eligible patients with moderate TBI were randomly allocated in two intervention and control groups. All the patients were evaluated for CA and STM using the visual continuous attention test and Wechsler memory scale-4th edition (WMS-IV test, respectively, both at the time of inclusion to the project and four weeks later. The intervention group participated in 20 sessions of NFT through the first four weeks. Conversely, the control group participated in the same NF sessions from the fifth week to eighth week of the project. Results: Eight subjects in the intervention group and five subjects in the control group completed the study. The mean and standard deviation of participants' age were (26.75 ± 15.16 years and (27.60 ± 8.17 years in experiment and control groups, respectively. All of the subjects were male. No significant improvement was observed in any variables of the visual continuous attention test and WMS-IV test between two groups (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion: Based on our literature review, it seems that our study is the only study performed on the effect of NFT on TBI patients with control group. NFT has no effect on CA and STM in patients with moderate TBI. More RCTs with large sample sizes, more sessions of treatment, longer time of follow-up and different protocols are recommended. Keywords: Neurofeedback, Brain injuries, Attention, Short-term memory

  5. Inactivation Data.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data set is a spreadsheet that contains results of inactivation experiments that were conducted to to determine the effectiveness of chlorine in inactivating B....

  6. Loss of activity-dependent Arc gene expression in the retrosplenial cortex after hippocampal inactivation: Interaction in a higher-order memory circuit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubík, Štěpán; Miyashita, T.; Kubik-Zahorodna, Agnieszka; Guzowski, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2012), s. 124-131 ISSN 1074-7427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : hippocampus * spatial memory * water maze * immediate-early gene * Arc * retrosplenial cortex Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2012

  7. Effects of neurofeedback on the short-term memory and continuous attention of patients with moderate traumatic brain injury: A preliminary randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Reza; Salamati, Payman; Yarandi, Kourosh Karimi; Khoshnevisan, Alireza; Saadat, Soheil; Kamali, Zeynab Sadat; Ghiasi, Somaie; Zaryabi, Atefeh; Ghazi Mir Saeid, Seyed Shahab; Arjipour, Mehdi; Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2017-10-01

    There are some studies which showed neurofeedback therapy (NFT) can be effective in clients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) history. However, randomized controlled clinical trials are still needed for evaluation of this treatment as a standard option. This preliminary study was aimed to evaluate the effect of NFT on continuous attention (CA) and short-term memory (STM) of clients with moderate TBI using a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT). In this preliminary RCT, seventeen eligible patients with moderate TBI were randomly allocated in two intervention and control groups. All the patients were evaluated for CA and STM using the visual continuous attention test and Wechsler memory scale-4th edition (WMS-IV) test, respectively, both at the time of inclusion to the project and four weeks later. The intervention group participated in 20 sessions of NFT through the first four weeks. Conversely, the control group participated in the same NF sessions from the fifth week to eighth week of the project. Eight subjects in the intervention group and five subjects in the control group completed the study. The mean and standard deviation of participants' age were (26.75 ± 15.16) years and (27.60 ± 8.17) years in experiment and control groups, respectively. All of the subjects were male. No significant improvement was observed in any variables of the visual continuous attention test and WMS-IV test between two groups (p ≥ 0.05). Based on our literature review, it seems that our study is the only study performed on the effect of NFT on TBI patients with control group. NFT has no effect on CA and STM in patients with moderate TBI. More RCTs with large sample sizes, more sessions of treatment, longer time of follow-up and different protocols are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inactivation of Caliciviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Nims

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Caliciviridae family of viruses contains clinically important human and animal pathogens, as well as vesivirus 2117, a known contaminant of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes employing Chinese hamster cells. An extensive literature exists for inactivation of various animal caliciviruses, especially feline calicivirus and murine norovirus. The caliciviruses are susceptible to wet heat inactivation at temperatures in excess of 60 °C with contact times of 30 min or greater, to UV-C inactivation at fluence ≥30 mJ/cm2, to high pressure processing >200 MPa for >5 min at 4 °C, and to certain photodynamic inactivation approaches. The enteric caliciviruses (e.g.; noroviruses display resistance to inactivation by low pH, while the non-enteric species (e.g.; feline calicivirus are much more susceptible. The caliciviruses are inactivated by a variety of chemicals, including alcohols, oxidizing agents, aldehydes, and β-propiolactone. As with inactivation of viruses in general, inactivation of caliciviruses by the various approaches may be matrix-, temperature-, and/or contact time-dependent. The susceptibilities of the caliciviruses to the various physical and chemical inactivation approaches are generally similar to those displayed by other small, non-enveloped viruses, with the exception that the parvoviruses and circoviruses may require higher temperatures for inactivation, while these families appear to be more susceptible to UV-C inactivation than are the caliciviruses.

  9. TRAUMATIC PANCREATITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Clarence J.; Walters, Robert L.

    1953-01-01

    Traumatic pancreatitis should be considered as a diagnostic possibility when trauma to the epigastrium is followed by phenomena suggestive of intra-abdominal injury. The presence or absence of hyperamylasemia should be established immediately. Even when traumatic pancreatitis is believed to exist, any suggestion of injury to other viscera should indicate laparotomy. Retroperitoneal rupture of the duodenum may simulate traumatic pancreatitis in all respects, including hyperamylasemia. X-ray studies may be of value in differentiation. Non-complicated traumatic pancreatitis is best treated conservatively. Gunshot and knife wounds of the pancreas should be drained. PMID:13094537

  10. Post-training reversible inactivation of the rat’s basolateral amygdala interferes with hippocampus-dependent place avoidance memory in a time-dependent manner

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vafaei, A. A.; Ježek, Karel; Bureš, Jan; Fenton, André Antonio; Rashidy-Pour, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2007), s. 87-93 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1231; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/97/0555; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/00/1656 Grant - others:-(XE) QLG3-CT-1999-00192; -(XE) 98-38 CNS-QUA.05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : avoidance * memory * amygdala Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.443, year: 2007

  11. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  12. Birth order and memories of traumatic and family experiences in Greek patients with borderline personality disorder versus patients with other personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanolaki, Hara; Spyropoulou, Areti C; Iliadou, Aggeliki; Vousoura, Eleni; Vondikaki, Stamatia; Pantazis, Nikos; Vaslamatzis, Grigoris

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effect of recalled traumatic experiences, perceived parental rearing styles, and family parameters on the occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) versus other personality disorders (other-PDs). A total of 88 adult outpatients with personality disorders completed the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, which measures perceptions regarding parental rearing. Results indicated that incidence of traumatic childhood experiences was higher among those in the BPD group compared to those in the other-PD group. Firstborns were less likely to carry a diagnosis of BPD over other-PDs. Also, significantly more BPD compared to other-PD patients reported being the father's favorite child over siblings. Results suggest that traumatic experiences, birth order, and family interactions in the presence of siblings seem to differentially affect the formation of borderline diagnosis compared to other-PDs. Limitations and clinical implications of the study are discussed in detail.

  13. Emotion perception after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury: The valence effect and the role of working memory, processing speed, and nonverbal reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, H.; Dethier, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Westbrook, R.F.; McDonald, S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) impairs emotion perception. Perception of negative emotions (sadness, disgust, fear, and anger) is reportedly affected more than positive (happiness and surprise) ones. It has been argued that this reflects a specialized neural network underpinning negative

  14. Emotion perception after moderate–severe traumatic brain injury: The valence effect and the role of working memory, processing speed, and nonverbal reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, H.; Dethier, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Westbrook, R.F.; McDonald, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) impairs emotion perception. Perception of negative emotions (sadness, disgust, fear, and anger) is reportedly affected more than positive (happiness and surprise) ones. It has been argued that this reflects a specialized neural network underpinning negative

  15. The Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing: autobiographical memory performance and problem solving skills in women with post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kh sadeghi

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The result showed that elements of EMDR based on ALP Francis Shapiro, and trough having the influence on integration of traumatic event information and identifying the number of symptoms in patients having PTSD.

  16. Traumatic Pneumatocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ching Yang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic pneumatocele is a rare complication of blunt chest trauma with uncertain pathogenesis. It occurs primarily in pediatric patients and is characterized by single or multiple pulmonary cystic lesions concomitant with other type of injuries of the lung parenchyma. Herein we present a case of traumatic pneumatocele in a 3-year-old boy, together with a brief review of the literature. This rare entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions complicating blunt chest trauma, especially in young adults. The disease generally has a benign and self-limiting course.

  17. [Post-traumatic stress disorder-related to intensive care stay: influence of sedation practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerheim, Nadège; Masseret, Elodie; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Dequin, Pierre-François; El-Hage, Wissam

    2013-03-01

    The stay in intensive care unit can be potentially traumatic at the origin of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms is linked to the intensity and the type of traumatic memories of the intensive care stay. Sedatives and analgesics given to ventilated patients in intensive care influence the traumatic memory. The level, the duration and the type of sedation-analgesia protocol are risk factors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Links between sedation, dissociative symptoms, delirium and post-traumatic stress symptoms are documented. Environmental and pharmacological measures are to be considered to reduce the traumatic potential risk of the intensive care. Intensive care caregivers, liaison-psychiatrist and general practitioner have each a specific role to play in the screening of the post-traumatic stress symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultraviolet inactivation of papain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugher, J.F.; Grossweiner, L.I.

    1975-01-01

    Flash photolysis transient spectra (lambda > 250 nm) of aqueous papain showed that the initial products are the neutral tryptophan radical Trp (lambdasub(max) 510 nm), the tryptophan triplet state 3 Trp (lambdasub(max) 460 nm), the disulfide bridge electron adduct -SS - - (lambdasub(max) 420 nm) and the hydrated electron esub(aq) - . The -SS - - yield was not altered by nitrous oxide or air, indicating that the formation of this product does not involve electrons in the external medium. The original papain preparation was activated by irradiating under nitrogen. The action spectrum supports previous work attributing the low initial activity to blocking of cysteinyl site 25 with a mixed disulfide. Flask lamp irradiation in nitrogen led to activation at low starting activities and inactivation at higher starting activities, while only inactivation at the same quantum yield was observed with air saturation. The results are consistent with photoionization of an essential tryptophyl residue as the key inactivating step. (author)

  19. Cognitive processes in post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırımlı, Gamze; Tosun, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) consists of a pattern of symptoms that include cognitive, affective, sensory and behavioral systems. In PTSD, the individual experiences disturbing emotions and sensations such as anxiety, panic, depression, anger, tension, high startle response and hyper-vigilance as a result of re-experiencing traumatic memories, flashbacks, attention difficulties, memory loss, nightmares and intrusive thoughts. To get rid of these emotions, he avoids all stimuli that r...

  20. Diagnostic efficiency of demographically corrected Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-III indices in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury and lower education levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexandra J; Batchelor, Jennifer; Shores, E Arthur; Jones, Mike

    2009-11-01

    Despite the sensitivity of neuropsychological tests to educational level, improved diagnostic accuracy for demographically corrected scores has yet to be established. Diagnostic efficiency statistics of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) indices that were corrected for education, sex, and age (demographically corrected) were compared with age corrected indices in individuals aged 16 to 75 years with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 12 years or less education. TBI participants (n = 100) were consecutive referrals to an outpatient rehabilitation service and met careful selection criteria. Controls (n = 100) were obtained from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample. Demographically corrected indices did not provide higher diagnostic efficiency than age corrected indices and this result was supported by reanalysis of the TBI group against a larger and unmatched control group. Processing Speed Index provided comparable diagnostic accuracy to that of combined indices. Demographically corrected indices were associated with higher cut-scores to maximize overall classification, reflecting the upward adjustment of those scores in a lower education sample. This suggests that, in clinical practice, the test results of individuals with limited education may be more accurately interpreted with the application of demographic corrections. Diagnostic efficiency statistics are presented, and future research directions are discussed.

  1. The role of early pharmacotherapy in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after traumatic injury: an observational cohort study in consecutive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Goslings, J. Carel; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological intervention during traumatic memory consolidation has been suggested to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to examine the association between prescription of early pharmacotherapy and the risk of developing PTSD symptoms following traumatic

  2. Emotion perception after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury: The valence effect and the role of working memory, processing speed, and nonverbal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Hannah; Dethier, Marie; Kessels, Roy P C; Westbrook, R Frederick; McDonald, Skye

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) impairs emotion perception. Perception of negative emotions (sadness, disgust, fear, and anger) is reportedly affected more than positive (happiness and surprise) ones. It has been argued that this reflects a specialized neural network underpinning negative emotions that is vulnerable to brain injury. However, studies typically do not equate for differential difficulty between emotions. We aimed to examine whether emotion recognition deficits in people with TBI were specific to negative emotions, while equating task difficulty, and to determine whether perception deficits might be accounted for by other cognitive processes. Twenty-seven people with TBI and 28 matched control participants identified 6 basic emotions at 2 levels of intensity (a) the conventional 100% intensity and (b) "equated intensity"-that is, an intensity that yielded comparable accuracy rates across emotions in controls. (a) At 100% intensity, the TBI group was impaired in recognizing anger, fear, and disgust but not happiness, surprise, or sadness and performed worse on negative than positive emotions. (b) At equated intensity, the TBI group was poorer than controls overall but not differentially poorer in recognizing negative emotions. Although processing speed and nonverbal reasoning were associated with emotion accuracy, injury severity by itself was a unique predictor. When task difficulty is taken into account, individuals with TBI show impairment in recognizing all facial emotions. There was no evidence for a specific impairment for negative emotions or any particular emotion. Impairment was accounted for by injury severity rather than being a secondary effect of reduced neuropsychological functioning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Pathogen inactivation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J P R; Transue, S; Snyder, E L

    2006-01-01

    The desire to rid the blood supply of pathogens of all types has led to the development of many technologies aimed at the same goal--eradication of the pathogen(s) without harming the blood cells or generating toxic chemical agents. This is a very ambitious goal, and one that has yet to be achieved. One approach is to shun the 'one size fits all' concept and to target pathogen-reduction agents at the Individual component types. This permits the development of technologies that might be compatible with, for example, plasma products but that would be cytocidal and thus incompatible with platelet concentrates or red blood cell units. The technologies to be discussed include solvent detergent and methylene blue treatments--designed to inactivate plasma components and derivatives; psoralens (S-59--amotosalen) designed to pathogen-reduce units of platelets; and two products aimed at red blood cells, S-303 (a Frale--frangible anchor-linker effector compound) and Inactine (a binary ethyleneimine). A final pathogen-reduction material that might actually allow one material to inactivate all three blood components--riboflavin (vitamin B2)--is also under development. The sites of action of the amotosalen (S-59), the S-303 Frale, Inactine, and riboflavin are all localized in the nucleic acid part of the pathogen. Solvent detergent materials act by dissolving the plasma envelope, thus compromising the integrity of the pathogen membrane and rendering it non-infectious. By disrupting the pathogen's ability to replicate or survive, its infectivity is removed. The degree to which bacteria and viruses are affected by a particular pathogen-reducing technology relates to its Gram-positive or Gram-negative status, to the sporulation characteristics for bacteria, and the presence of lipid or protein envelopes for viruses. Concerns related to photoproducts and other breakdown products of these technologies remain, and the toxicology of pathogen-reduction treatments is a major ongoing area

  4. Free radical inactivation of trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudina, Ivana; Jovanovic, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Reactivities of free radical oxidants, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and Cl 3 COO radical and a reductant, CO2-anion radical, with trypsin and reactive protein components were determined by pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions at pH 7, 20 0 C. Highly reactive free radicals, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical, react with trypsin at diffusion controlled rates. Moderately reactive trichloroperoxy radical, k(Cl 3 COO radical + trypsin) preferentially oxidizes histidine residues. The efficiency of inactivation of trypsin by free radicals is inversely proportional to their reactivity. The yields of inactivation of trypsin by radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical are low, G(inactivation) = 0.6-0.8, which corresponds to ∼ 10% of the initially produced radicals. In contrast, Cl 3 COO radical inactivates trypsin with ∼ 50% efficiency, i.e. G(inactivation) = 3.2. (author)

  5. Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamora, Stella Maris; Guerrero, Sandra N.; Schenk, Marcela; Raffellini, Silvia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    Minimal processing techniques for food preservation allow better retention of product flavor, texture, color, and nutrient content than comparable conventional treatments. A wide range of novel alternative physical factors have been intensely investigated in the last two decades. These physical factors can cause inactivation of microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, and ultraviolet light). These technologies have been reported to reduce microorganism population in foods while avoiding the deleterious effects of severe heating on quality. Among technologies, high-energy ultrasound (i.e., intensities higher than 1 W/cm2, frequencies between 18 and 100 kHz) has attracted considerable interest for food preservation applications (Mason et al., 1996; Povey and Mason, 1998).

  6. Mean inactivation dose (D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Ng, T.C.; Raudkivi, U.; Meaney, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    By predicting treatment outcome to radiotherapy from in vitro radiobiological parameters, not only individual patient treatments can be tailored, but also new promising treatment protocols can be tried in patients in whom unfavorable outcome is predicted. In this respect, choosing the right parameter can be very important. Unlike D 0 and N which provide information of the distal part of the survival curve, mean inactivation dose (D) estimates overall radiosensitivity. However, the parameters reflecting the response at the clinically relevant low-dose region are neglected in the literature. In a literature survey of 98 papers in which survival curves or D 0 /N were used, only in 2 D was used. In 21 papers the D 0 /n values were important in drawing conclusions. By calculating D in 3 of these 21 papers, we show that the conclusion drawn may be altered with the use of D. The importance of ''low-dose-region-parameters'' is reviewed. (orig.)

  7. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Geert E; Kleber, Rolf J; de la Rie, Simone M; Bos, Jannetta B A; Gersons, Berthold P R; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms of) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) following confrontation with a traumatic loss. Trauma survivors, who are frequently from different cultural backgrounds, have often experienced multiple losses and ambiguous loss (missing family members or friends). Current evidence-based treatments for PTSD do not focus on traumatic grief. To develop a treatment for traumatic grief combining treatment interventions for PTSD and PCBD that may accommodate cultural aspects of grief. To provide a rationale for treatment, we propose a cognitive stress model of traumatic grief. Based on this model and on existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD and complicated grief, we developed Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) for the treatment of patients with traumatic grief. The treatment is presented along with a case vignette. Processes contributing to traumatic grief include inadequately integrating the memory of the traumatic loss, negative appraisal of the traumatic loss, sensitivity to matching triggers and new stressors, and attempting to avoid distress. BEP-TG targets these processes. The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual. Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components.

  8. Traumatic events and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over and over again Know the Signs of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Half of the children who survive traumatic events ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Mental Health Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic intracranial hypotension (cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinonaga, Masamichi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2003-01-01

    Patients who complain headache, neck pain, dizziness or vertigo, tinnitus, blurred vision, loss of concentration, memory disturbance and fatigue for over one year after mild head injury and whiplash injury are diagnosed as post-traumatic syndrome. Mechanism and treatment of post-traumatic syndrome are not well established. We studied radioisotope (RI) cisternography and enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the patient of post-traumatic syndrome. Of 175 cases in post-traumatic syndrome 141 cases (120 cases of motor vehicle accident, 21 cases of sports injury) were diagnosed, as intracranial hypotension (cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia). RI cisternography showed 86% positive findings (early accumulation of RI in bladder and leakage). Prominent findings in MRI were dilatation of subdural space and venous dilatation. In every case epidural blood patch was performed and symptoms were improved in almost 70% of patients. This study revealed cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia might be one cause of post-traumatic syndrome. (author)

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic intracranial hypotension (cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinonaga, Masamichi [Hiratsuka Kyousai Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Suzuki, Shinichi [Inadanoborito Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    Patients who complain headache, neck pain, dizziness or vertigo, tinnitus, blurred vision, loss of concentration, memory disturbance and fatigue for over one year after mild head injury and whiplash injury are diagnosed as post-traumatic syndrome. Mechanism and treatment of post-traumatic syndrome are not well established. We studied radioisotope (RI) cisternography and enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the patient of post-traumatic syndrome. Of 175 cases in post-traumatic syndrome 141 cases (120 cases of motor vehicle accident, 21 cases of sports injury) were diagnosed, as intracranial hypotension (cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia). RI cisternography showed 86% positive findings (early accumulation of RI in bladder and leakage). Prominent findings in MRI were dilatation of subdural space and venous dilatation. In every case epidural blood patch was performed and symptoms were improved in almost 70% of patients. This study revealed cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia might be one cause of post-traumatic syndrome. (author)

  11. Clinical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autobiographical memory plays a key role in psychological well-being, and the field has been investigated from multiple perspectives for more than thirty years. One large body of research has examined the basic mechanisms and characteristics of autobiographical memory during general cognition......, and another body has studied what happens to it during psychological disorders, and how psychological therapies targeting memory disturbances can improve psychological well-being. This edited collection reviews and integrates current theories on autobiographical memory when viewed in a clinical perspective....... It presents an overview of basic applied and clinical approaches to autobiographical memory, covering memory specificity, traumatic memories, involuntary and intrusive memories, and the role of self-identity. The book discusses a wide range of psychological disorders, including depression, posttraumatic...

  12. Neuroepigenetic Regulation of Pathogenic Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillivan, Stephanie E; Vaissière, Thomas; Miller, Courtney A

    2015-01-01

    Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain's emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on two neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder (SUD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  13. Neuroepigenetic regulation of pathogenic memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Sillivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain’s emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on 2 neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  14. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  15. Traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Siebenga (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractTraumatic spinal fractures have the lowest functional outcomes and the lowest rates of return to work after injury of all major organ systems.1 This thesis will cover traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures and not osteoporotic spine fractures because of the difference in fracture

  16. Count out your intrusions: Effects of verbal encoding on intrusive memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans, J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Becker, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    Peri-traumatic information processing is thought to affect the development of intrusive trauma memories. This study aimed to replicate and improve the study by Holmes, Brewin, and Hennessy (2004, Exp. 3) on the role of peri-traumatic verbal processing in analogue traumatic intrusion development.

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiuby, Andrea Vannini Santesso; Andreoli, Paola Bruno de Araújo; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter

    2010-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has been detected in patients after treatment in intensive care unit. The main goal of this study is to review the psychological aspects and therapeutic interventions on those patients after their treatment on intensive care unit. Thirty eight articles have been included. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder has varied from 17% up to 30% and the incidence from 14% to 24%. The risk factors were: previous anxiety historic, depression or panic, having delusional traumatic memories (derived from psychic formations as dreams and delirium), belief effects, depressive behavior, stressing experiences and mechanical ventilation. High doses of opiates, symptoms caused by sedation or analgesia reduction and the use of lorazepam were related with the increase of delirium and delusional memory. The disorder sintomatology can be reduced with hydrocortisone administration, with daily sedation interruption. No other effectiveness psychological intervention study was found.

  18. What Are Common Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleep habits Behavior or mood changes Trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking Loss of consciousness lasting a few ... may have caused a TBI should seek medical attention. 4 ... Traumatic brain injury information page . Retrieved May 4, 2018, from https://www. ...

  19. Demographic profile of severe traumatic brain injury admissions to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Paediatric traumatic brain injury (PTBI) is a major public health problem. However, recent epidemiological data for PTBI in South Africa (SA) are lacking. Objectives. To establish a demographic profile of severe PTBI admissions to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCWMCH) over a 5-year ...

  20. Forensic Strategies Against the Traumatic Condition of Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøllhammer, Karl Erik

    2015-01-01

    culture’ and what will be defined as a forensic paradigm of images of memory and death. The ambiguity between images that touch the spectator and images that hurt him is explored in works that establish a critical distance from the traumatic condition, avoiding shortcuts to its aesthetic effects of shock...

  1. Assisting Students with a Traumatic Brain Injury in School Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Erin M.; Obrzut, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents can significantly affect their lives and educational needs. Deficits are often exhibited in areas such as attention, concentration, memory, executive function, emotional regulation, and behavioral functioning, but specific outcomes are not particular to any one child or adolescent with a…

  2. Psychophysiological responding to emotional memories in healthy young men after cortisol and propranolol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Propranolol is found to reduce physiological hyper-responsiveness in post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), possibly by affecting reconsolidation after the reactivation of traumatic memories. Cortisol is found to attenuate declarative memory retrieval, but it is unknown whether it also

  3. Psychophysiological responding to emotional memories in healthy young men after cortisol and propranolol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.T.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Propranolol is found to reduce physiological hyper-responsiveness in post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), possibly by affecting reconsolidation after the reactivation of traumatic memories. Cortisol is found to attenuate declarative memory retrieval, but it is unknown whether it also reduces

  4. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Sarp

    2011-09-01

    post-traumatic stress disorder; and intrusions, ruminations, biases such as negative memory recall and being unable to recall positive memories seen in depression.

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain injury Some traumatic brain injuries have lasting effects, and some do not. You may be left with disabilities. These can be physical, behavioral, communicative, and/or mental. Customized treatment helps you to have as full ...

  6. Primary traumatic patellar dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chun-Hao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute traumatic patellar dislocation is a common injury in the active and young adult populations. MRI of the knee is recommended in all patients who present with acute patellar dislocation. Numerous operative and non-operative methods have been described to treat the injuries; however, the ideal management of the acute traumatic patellar dislocation in young adults is still in debate. This article is intended to review the studies to the subjects of epidemiology, initial examination and management.

  7. The role of Drosophila mushroom body signaling in olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, S E; Le, P T; Davis, R L

    2001-08-17

    The mushroom bodies of the Drosophila brain are important for olfactory learning and memory. To investigate the requirement for mushroom body signaling during the different phases of memory processing, we transiently inactivated neurotransmission through this region of the brain by expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of the shibire dynamin guanosine triphosphatase, which is required for synaptic transmission. Inactivation of mushroom body signaling through alpha/beta neurons during different phases of memory processing revealed a requirement for mushroom body signaling during memory retrieval, but not during acquisition or consolidation.

  8. Predicting Story Goodness Performance from Cognitive Measures Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Karen; Coelho, Carl; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the prediction of performance on measures of the Story Goodness Index (SGI; Le, Coelho, Mozeiko, & Grafman, 2011) from executive function (EF) and memory measures following traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was hypothesized that EF and memory measures would significantly predict SGI outcomes. Method: One hundred…

  9. Effects of pulvinar inactivation on spatial decision-making between equal and asymmetric reward options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Melanie; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    The ability to selectively process visual inputs and to decide between multiple movement options in an adaptive manner is critical for survival. Such decisions are known to be influenced by factors such as reward expectation and visual saliency. The dorsal pulvinar connects to a multitude of cortical areas that are involved in visuospatial memory and integrate information about upcoming eye movements with expected reward values. However, it is unclear whether the dorsal pulvinar is critically involved in spatial memory and reward-based oculomotor decision behavior. To examine this, we reversibly inactivated the dorsal portion of the pulvinar while monkeys performed a delayed memory saccade task that included choices between equally or unequally rewarded options. Pulvinar inactivation resulted in a delay of saccade initiation toward memorized contralesional targets but did not affect spatial memory. Furthermore, pulvinar inactivation caused a pronounced choice bias toward the ipsilesional hemifield when the reward value in the two hemifields was equal. However, this choice bias could be alleviated by placing a high reward target into the contralesional hemifield. The bias was less affected by the manipulation of relative visual saliency between the two competing targets. These results suggest that the dorsal pulvinar is involved in determining the behavioral desirability of movement goals while being less critical for spatial memory and reward processing.

  10. Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury in Amateur Boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahmati

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & objective: Despite of young and adolescence intent to the boxing sport, because of dominant aggression and direct blows contact to head, face and central nervous system, it is continuously criticize by different groups. The groups of sporting and physician conventions are distinguished boxing with physical and neuropsychological disorders and some groups believe that side effects of this sport are not more than other sports. For this base the aim of this study was to determine the chronic traumatic brain injury in a group amateur boxers.Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, three groups of sport men were considered, each group contained 20 randomly selected cases. The first group were amateur boxers with 4 years minimal activity(directly has been presented to the head blows, second group were amateur soccer players with 4 years minimal activity(has been presented to the not very severe head blows, third group were non athlete subjects .The groups were matched in weight, height, age and education .To understand brain disorder interview by medicine method has been used, then Wiskancin, Bonardele, Bender geshtalt, Kim karad visual memory, Benton and wechler memory (Alef type tests has been performed and EEG has got in the same hour and condition.Results: The homogeneity of between group variances was gained by the statistical method. Also between structural–visual abilities neuropsychological aspect in groups, significant difference has been gained (p= 0.000. In Kim karad visual memory test at the mild and long term visual memory deficit, significant differences between three groups was observed (P= 0.000, P=0.009 that least score has been belonged to the boxers. Also in boxers 6 abnormal EEGs is observed.Conclusion: It can be said that of four years amateur boxing can affect on boxers visual and memory perception and their spatial orientation. Additionally our study have showed that amateur boxing has a significant

  11. Education and the Dangerous Memories of Historical Trauma: Narratives of Pain, Narratives of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Bekerman, Zvi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the meanings and implications of dangerous memories in two different sites of past traumatic memories: one in Israel and the other in Cyprus. Dangerous memories are defined as those memories that are disruptive to the status quo, that is, the hegemonic culture of strengthening and perpetuating existing…

  12. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel A.; Eidhof, Marloes B.; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic

  13. [Posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoll, K; Kunert, H J; Sass, H

    2000-10-01

    The development of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with neurogenic amnesia for the traumatic event is recorded in 2 own patients and in 19 cases from the clinical literature. With a single exception, all patients were accident victims with closed head injuries. Only about three quarters of the patients completely fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria of PTSD. Nineteen patients displayed involuntary conscious memories of aspects of the traumatic event (presenting as recurrent intrusive thoughts, images or dreams) co-existent with a complete or partial lack of voluntary conscious memories of the trauma, suggesting that different memory systems and distinct brain mechanisms subserve these phenomena. The said clinical observations are discussed against the background of current neuropsychological models of multiple memory systems. The recorded cases demonstrate that declarative episodic memory is not necessary for symptoms of PTSD to emerge, whereas preserved functions of non-declarative memory systems represent a sufficient condition for the development of PTSD symptoms.

  14. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  15. Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Experts Careers Contracting Contact Search form Search American Institutes for Research About Us Our Topics Client Services News & Events You are here Home 22 Apr 2013 Report Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children Supporting Children and Families After Traumatic ...

  16. Inhibition of Retinoblastoma Protein Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Inhibition of Retinoblastoma Protein Inactivation 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0329 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Seth M...confirmed 108 compounds as giving a dose-response curve with at least 30% inhibition at 10 µM. The flowchart of hit progression is shown on the...Cancer Research Program under Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0329 to S.M.R. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author

  17. Vukovar 1991 Battle and Cultural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cvikić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that Vukovar 1991 Battle traumatic memory wearing away process is a social issue and cannot be simply amputated by modernist narratives from accumulated traces of the past. Instead, those traumatic memories are constantly reconstructed, repressed, or transformed in some way or another under the pressure of manipulative power politics and competing ideologies in contemporary Croatian society.  Therefore, the question this paper asks is whether war crimes and atrocities committed in Vukovar 1991 have its meaningful place in the Croatian cultural memory and whether  social research techniques into contemporary cultural memory in Croatia can afford to avoid testimonial narrations of the Vukovar 1991 Battle and war experiences since they are an integral part of the collective memory?

  18. Brain SPECT in severs traumatic head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, F.; Eder, V.; Pottier, J.M.; Baulieu, J.L.; Fournier, P.; Legros, B.; Chiaroni, P.; Dalonneau, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the results of the early brain scintigraphy in traumatic brain injury to the long term neuropsychological behavior. Twenty four patients had an ECD-Tc99m SPECT, within one month after the trauma; scintigraphic abnormalities were evaluated according to a semi-quantitative analysis. The neuropsychological clinical investigation was interpreted by a synthetic approach to evaluate abnormalities related to residual motor deficit, frontal behavior, memory and language disorders. Fourteen patients (58%) had sequela symptoms. SPECT revealed 80 abnormalities and CT scan only 31. Statistical analysis of uptake values showed significantly lower uptake in left basal ganglia and brain stem in patients with sequela memory disorders. We conclude that the brain perfusion scintigraphy is able to detect more lesions than CT and that it could really help to predict the neuropsychological behavior after severe head injury. Traumatology could become in the future a widely accepted indication of perfusion SPECT. (authors)

  19. Traumatic renal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Naobumi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kokubo, Takashi; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of traumatic renal artery occlusion were described and illustrated. In two cases, direct blows to the abdomen compressed the renal artery against the vertebral column. Clinically, they were severely injured with macroscopic hematuria. Aortograms showed abrupt truncation of renal arteries. In the other two, rapid deceleration caused sudden displacement of the kidney producing an intimal tear with resultant thrombosis. Although they showed little injury without macrohematuria, aortograms revealed tapered occlusion of renal arteries. One of them developed hypertension. ''Rim sign'' of post-contrast CT and hypertension resulted from traumatic renal artery occlusion were reviewed. (author)

  20. Radiobiological inactivation of Epstein-Barr virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, E.; Heston, L.; Grogan, E.; Miller, G.

    1978-01-01

    Lymphocyte transforming properties of B95-8 strain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are very sensitive to inactivation by either uv or x irradiation. No dose of irradiation increases the transforming capacity of EBV. The x-ray dose needed for inactivation of EBV transformation (dose that results in 37% survival, 60,000 rads) is similar to the dose required for inactivation of plaque formation by herpes simplex virus type 1 (Fischer strain). Although herpes simplex virus is more sensitive than EBV to uv irradiation, this difference is most likely due to differences in the kinetics or mechanisms of repair of uv damage to the two viruses. The results lead to the hypothesis that a large part, or perhaps all, of the EBV genome is in some way needed to initiate transformation. The abilities of EBV to stimulate host cell DNA synthesis, to induce nuclear antigen, and to immortalize are inactivated in parallel. All clones of marmoset cells transformed by irradiated virus produce extracellular transforming virus. These findings suggest that the abilities of the virus to transform and to replicate complete progeny are inactivated together. The amounts of uv and x irradiation that inactivate transformation by B95-8 virus are less than the dose needed to inactivate early antigen induction by the nontransforming P 3 HR-1 strain of EBV. Based on radiobiological inactivation, 10 to 50% of the genome is needed for early antigen induction

  1. The Importance of Memory Specificity and Memory Coherence for the Self: Linking Two Characteristics of Autobiographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elien Vanderveren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory forms a network of memories about personal experiences that defines and supports well-being and effective functioning of the self in various ways. During the last three decades, there have been two characteristics of autobiographical memory that have received special interest regarding their role in psychological well-being and psychopathology, namely memory specificity and memory coherence. Memory specificity refers to the extent to which retrieved autobiographical memories are specific (i.e., memories about a particular experience that happened on a particular day. Difficulty retrieving specific memories interferes with effective functioning of the self and is related to depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Memory coherence refers to the narrative expression of the overall structure of autobiographical memories. It has likewise been related to psychological well-being and the occurrence of psychopathology. Research on memory specificity and memory coherence has developed as two largely independent research domains, even though they show much overlap. This raises some important theoretical questions. How do these two characteristics of autobiographical memory relate to each other, both theoretically and empirically? Additionally, how can the integration of these two facilitate our understanding of the importance of autobiographical memory for the self? In this article, we give a critical overview of memory specificity and memory coherence and their relation to the self. We link both features of autobiographical memory by describing some important similarities and by formulating hypotheses about how they might relate to each other. By situating both memory specificity and memory coherence within Conway and Pleydell-Pearce’s Self-Memory System, we make a first attempt at a theoretical integration. Finally, we suggest some new and exciting research possibilities and explain how both research fields could benefit

  2. Neuro emotional technique effects on brain physiology in cancer patients with traumatic stress symptoms: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Daniel A; Tobia, Anna; Stoner, Marie; Wintering, Nancy; Matthews, Michael; He, Xiao-Song; Doucet, Gaelle; Chervoneva, Inna; Tracy, Joseph I; Newberg, Andrew B

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the neurophysiological and clinical effects that may result from the neuro emotional technique (NET) in patients with traumatic stress symptoms associated with a cancer-related event. We hypothesized that self-regulatory processing of traumatic memories would be observable as physiological changes in key brain areas after undergoing the NET intervention and that these changes would be associated with improvement of traumatic stress symptoms. We enrolled 23 participants with a prior cancer diagnosis who expressed a distressing cancer-related memory that was associated with traumatic stress symptoms of at least 6 months in duration. Participants were randomized to either the NET intervention or a waitlist control condition. To evaluate the primary outcome of neurophysiological effects, all participants received functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of both a neutral stimulus and a description of the specific traumatic event. Pre/post-comparisons were performed between the traumatic and neutral condition, within and between groups. Psychological measures included the Impact of Event Scale (IES), State Trait Anxiety Index (STAI), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)-18, and Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI). The initial fMRI scans in both groups showed significant increases in the bilateral parahippocampus and brainstem. After NET, reactivity in the parahippocampus, brainstem, anterior cingulate, and insula was significantly decreased during the traumatic stimulus. Likewise, participants receiving the NET intervention had significant reductions (p stress as measured by the IES and PTCI. This study is an initial step towards understanding mechanistic features of the NET intervention. Specifically, brain regions involved with traumatic memories and distress such as the brainstem, insula, anterior cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampus had significantly reduced activity after the NET

  3. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic inactivation (PDI has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.

  4. Episodic memory, perceptual memory, and their interaction: foundations for a theory of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    A number of autobiographical memory theories and clinical theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) make claims that are different from standard views of memory and have been the subject of controversy. These claims include the existence of a long-term perceptual memory system supporting conscious experience separate to episodic memory; greater involvement of perceptual memory in the response to emotion-laden and personally meaningful events; increased perceptual memory intrusions accompanied by impaired episodic memory for the traumatic event among PTSD patients; and a lack of association, or inverse association, between indices of voluntary recall and involuntary images relating to the same traumatic materials. In this article I review current research on perceptual memory, which supports the presence of long-term representations that are selective or incomplete reflections of sensory input. The functional independence of perceptual and episodic memory is illustrated by research on verbal overshadowing but is most clearly exemplified by the strong evidence in favor of enhanced perceptual memory and impaired episodic memory in PTSD. Theoretical predictions concerning the relation between perceptual priming and the development of intrusive images, the effect of verbal versus visuospatial secondary tasks on intrusive trauma images, and the independence of voluntary and involuntary memory for the same materials have garnered widespread support. Reasons for the continuing controversy over traumatic memory are discussed, and some implications of the review for general theories of recall and recognition, clinical theories of PTSD, and "special mechanism" views of memory are set out. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Functional inactivation of dorsal medial striatum alters behavioral flexibility and recognition process in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yanhua; Wang, Xingyue; Ma, Lian; Li, Shengguang; Liang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Deficits in behavioral flexibility and recognition memory are commonly observed in mental illnesses and neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormality of the striatum has been implicated in an association with the pathology of these diseases. However, the exact roles of striatal heterogeneous structures in these cognitive functions are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of suppressing neuronal activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMStr) and nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) on reversal learning and novelty recognition in mice. In addition, the locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior and social interaction were analyzed. Neuronal inactivation was performed by expressing lentivirus-mediated tetanus toxin (TeNT) in the target regions. The results showed that reversal learning was facilitated by neuronal inactivation in the DMStr but not the NAcC, which was attributable to accelerated extinction of acquired strategy but not to impaired memory retention. Furthermore, mice with NAcC inactivation spent more time exploring a novel object than a familiar one, comparable to control mice. In contrast, mice with DMStr inactivation exhibited no preference to a novel environment during the novel object or place recognition test. The DMStr mice also exhibited decreased anxiety level. No phenotypic effect was observed in the locomotion or social interaction in mice with either DMStr or NAcC inactivation. Altogether, these findings suggest that the DMStr but not the ventral area of the striatum plays a crucial role in learning and memory by coordinating spatial exploration as well as mediating information updating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Memory architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A memory architecture is presented. The memory architecture comprises a first memory and a second memory. The first memory has at least a bank with a first width addressable by a single address. The second memory has a plurality of banks of a second width, said banks being addressable by components

  7. Skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Sho; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Ohgane, Jun; Hattori, Naka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Shiota, Kunio

    2004-01-01

    In female mammals, dosage compensation for X-linked genes is accomplished by inactivation of one of two X chromosomes. The X-inactivation ratio (a percentage of the cells with inactivated maternal X chromosomes in the whole cells) is skewed as a consequence of various genetic mutations, and has been observed in a number of X-linked disorders. We previously reported that phenotypically normal full-term cloned mouse fetuses had loci with inappropriate DNA methylation. Thus, cloned mice are excellent models to study abnormal epigenetic events in mammalian development. In the present study, we analyzed X-inactivation ratios in adult female cloned mice (B6C3F1). Kidneys of eight naturally produced controls and 11 cloned mice were analyzed. Although variations in X-inactivation ratio among the mice were observed in both groups, the distributions were significantly different (Ansary-Bradley test, P < 0.01). In particular, 2 of 11 cloned mice showed skewed X-inactivation ratios (19.2% and 86.8%). Similarly, in intestine, 1 of 10 cloned mice had a skewed ratio (75.7%). Skewed X-inactivation was observed to various degrees in different tissues of different individuals, suggesting that skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice is the result of secondary cell selection in combination with stochastic distortion of primary choice. The present study is the first demonstration that skewed X-inactivation occurs in cloned animals. This finding is important for understanding both nuclear transfer technology and etiology of X-linked disorders

  8. Acute traumatic cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titelbaum, D.S.; Grossman, R.I.; Lloyd, W.C.; Cohen, E.J.; Atlas, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports orbital CT scans of 15 patients with clinically diagnoses traumatic cataracts retrospectively reviewed to determine the presence of radiographically detectable lens abnormalities. Definite lens swelling was clinically observed in a lease five cases. Eleven patients, scanned 4 hours of 3 days after injury, revealed visible and measured decreased CT density of the cataractous lens compared with the normal contralateral lens (average mean difference, 28 HU), suggesting acute lens swelling. In one patient, lens morphologic changes but not HU differences were found, probably due to superimposed hemorrhage. Three patients, scanned 3-8 hours after injury, revealed no detectable lens abnormality. The findings suggest that CT is potentially capable of identifying traumatic cataracts

  9. Delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroki

    1984-01-01

    CT was performed serially within 24 hours after head injury in 64 patients having Glasgow Coma Scale of 14 or less or cranial fracture shown on roentgenogram. Delayed traumatic extradural hematoma was observed within 7-12 hours after head injury in 6 cases (9.4%). This was prominent in the frontal and occipital regions (67%). Good recovery was seen in 83.3%. Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma was observed within 6-24 hours after head injury in 17 cases (26.6%). This higher incidence was related to contre coup injury. Conservative treatment was possible in 14 of the 17 patients (82.4%), showing good recovery in 70%. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  11. Traumatic-event headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas David C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic headaches from head trauma and whiplash injury are well-known and common, but chronic headaches from other sorts of physical traumas are not recognized. Methods Specific information was obtained from the medical records of 15 consecutive patients with chronic headaches related to physically injurious traumatic events that did not include either head trauma or whiplash injury. The events and the physical injuries produced by them were noted. The headaches' development, characteristics, duration, frequency, and accompaniments were recorded, as were the patients' use of pain-alleviative drugs. From this latter information, the headaches were classified by the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society as though they were naturally-occurring headaches. The presence of other post-traumatic symptoms and litigation were also recorded. Results The intervals between the events and the onset of the headaches resembled those between head traumas or whiplash injuries and their subsequent headaches. The headaches themselves were, as a group, similar to those after head trauma and whiplash injury. Thirteen of the patients had chronic tension-type headache, two had migraine. The sustained bodily injuries were trivial or unidentifiable in nine patients. Fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration was not evident in these patients of whom seven were not even seeking payments of any kind. Conclusions This study suggests that these hitherto unrecognized post-traumatic headaches constitute a class of headaches characterized by a relation to traumatic events affecting the body but not including head or whiplash traumas. The bodily injuries per se can be discounted as the cause of the headaches. So can fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration. Altered mental states, not systematically evaluated here, were a possible cause of the headaches. The overall resemblance of these headaches to the headaches after

  12. Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 48-year-old male with unknown past medical history presents as a trauma after being hit by a car traveling approximately 25 miles per hour. On initial presentation, the patient is confused, combative, and not answering questions appropriately. The patient is hypotensive with a blood pressure of 68/40 and a heart rate of 50 beats per minute, with oxygen saturation at 96% on room air. FAST scan is positive for fluid in Morrison’s pouch, splenorenal space, and pericardial space. Significant findings: The initial chest x-ray showed an abnormal superior mediastinal contour (blue line, suggestive of a possible aortic injury. The CT angiogram showed extensive circumferential irregularity and outpouching of the distal aortic arch (red arrows compatible with aortic transection. In addition, there was a circumferential intramural hematoma, which extended through the descending aorta to the proximal infrarenal abdominal aorta (green arrow. There was also an extensive surrounding mediastinal hematoma extending around the descending aorta and supraaortic branches (purple arrows. Discussion: Traumatic aortic injury is a life-threatening event. The incidence of blunt thoracic aortic injury is low, between 1 to 2 percent of those patients with blunt thoracic trauma.1 However, approximately 80% of patients with traumatic aortic injury die at the scene.2 Therefore it is imperative to diagnose traumatic aortic injury in a timely fashion. The diagnosis can be difficult due to the non-specific signs and symptoms and other distracting injuries. Clinical suspicion should be based on the mechanism of the injury and the hemodynamic status of the patient. In any patient with blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest that is hemodynamically unstable, traumatic aortic injury should be on the differential. Chest x-ray can be used as a screening tool. A normal chest x-ray has a negative predictive value of approximately 97%. CTA chest is the

  13. The role of early pharmacotherapy in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after traumatic injury : an observational cohort study in consecutive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; Reitsma, Johannes B; Luitse, Jan S K; Goslings, J Carel; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological intervention during traumatic memory consolidation has been suggested to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to examine the association between prescription of early pharmacotherapy and the risk of developing PTSD symptoms following

  14. Autobiographical memory specificity after manipulating retrieval cues in adults reporting childhood sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, Beatrijs J. A.; Wessel, Ineke; Geraerts, Elke; Merckelbach, Harald; Dalgleish, Tim

    Traumatized samples have relative difficulty in generating specific autobiographical memories on a cue word task, compared to nonexposed controls. Simultaneously, trauma is associated with highly specific intrusive trauma memories in day-to-day life. Possibly, day-to-day intrusions and memories

  15. Behavioral and Functional Neuroanatomical Correlates of Anterograde Autobiographical Memory in Isolated Retrograde Amnesic Patient M. L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Brian; Svoboda, Eva; Turner, Gary R.; Mandic, Marina; Mackey, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Patient M. L. [Levine, B., Black, S. E., Cabeza, R., Sinden, M., Mcintosh, A. R., Toth, J. P., et al. (1998). "Episodic memory and the self in a case of isolated retrograde amnesia." "Brain", "121", 1951-1973], lost memory for events occurring before his severe traumatic brain injury, yet his anterograde (post-injury) learning and memory appeared…

  16. Literature review of post-traumatic stress disorder in the critical care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Matthew; Collier, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    To determine which factors relate to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, in adult patients who are admitted to critical care units. Patient survival rates from critical care areas are improving each year and this has led to interest in the long-term outcomes for patients who have been discharged from such environments. Patients typically require invasive and extensive treatment, which places a stress on physical and mental health. Prevalence estimates of post-traumatic stress disorder in the critical care discharge population vary from 5-63%, yet it remains unclear what the predisposing factors are. A systematised review. Subject heading and keyword searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ScienceDirect, with 23 articles identified that examined the relationship between critical care and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Three main themes were identified; Critical Care Factors, Patient Factors and Experience Factors. Eight key and three potential causative factors were found: younger age, female, previous psychiatric history, length of ICU stay, benzodiazepine sedation, use of stress hormones, delusional memory and traumatic memory, delirium, GCS score of ≤9 on admission & use of mechanical restraint. Post-traumatic stress reactions can be strongly related to the development and presence of traumatic and delusional memories. Younger patients may exclude themselves from research to avoid their traumatic thoughts. The role of prior psychiatric illness is unknown. Distinction between 'factual' and 'false' or delusional memory as occurs in the literature maybe unhelpful in understanding trauma reactions. There are around 38,000 occupied critical care beds each year in England. The scale of the issue is therefore substantial. Risk factors can be isolated from available evidence and provide a rudimentary risk assessment tool to inform practice development in this area. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Glucocorticoids for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias: a novel therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Margraf, Jürgen

    2008-04-07

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and phobias belong to the most common anxiety disorders and to the most common psychiatric illnesses in general. In both disorders, aversive memories are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis and symptomatology. Previously, we have reported that elevated glucocorticoid levels inhibit memory retrieval in animals and healthy humans. We therefore hypothesized that the administration of glucocorticoids might also inhibit the retrieval of aversive memory, thereby reducing symptoms in patients with PTSD and phobias. In recent clinical studies, we found first evidence to support this hypothesis. In patients with PTSD, low-dose cortisol treatment for one month reduced symptoms of traumatic memories without causing adverse side effects. Furthermore, we found evidence for a prolonged effect of the cortisol treatment. Persistent retrieval and reconsolidation of traumatic memories is a process that keeps these memories vivid and thereby the disorder alive. By inhibiting memory retrieval, cortisol may weaken the traumatic memory trace, and thus reduce symptoms even beyond the treatment period. In patients with social phobia, we found that a single oral administration of cortisone 1 h before a socio-evaluative stressor significantly reduced self-reported fear during the anticipation-, exposure-, and recovery phase of the stressor. In subjects with spider phobia, repeated oral administration of cortisol 1 h before exposure to a spider photograph induced a progressive reduction of stimulus-induced fear. This effect was maintained when subjects were exposed to the stimulus again two days after the last cortisol administration, indicating that cortisol facilitated the extinction of phobic fear. In conclusion, by a common mechanism of reducing the retrieval of aversive memories, glucocorticoids may be suited for the treatment of PTSD as well as phobias. More studies are needed to further evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of

  18. Towards an exposure-dependent model of post-traumatic stress: longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress symptomatology and functional impairment after the 2011 Oslo bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Ø; Birkeland, M S; Blix, I; Hansen, M B; Heir, T

    2016-11-01

    Our understanding of the dynamics of post-traumatic stress symptomatology and its link to functional impairment over time is limited. Post-traumatic stress symptomatology (Post-traumatic Checklist, PCL) was assessed three times in 1-year increments (T1, T2, T3) following the Oslo bombing of 22 July, 2011, in directly (n = 257) and indirectly exposed (n = 2223) government employees, together with demographics, measures of exposure and work and social adjustment. The dynamics of post-traumatic stress disorder symptom cluster interplay were examined within a structural equation modelling framework using a cross-lagged autoregressive panel model. Intrusions at T1 played a prominent role in predicting all symptom clusters at T2 for the directly exposed group, exhibiting especially strong cross-lagged relationships with avoidance and anxious arousal. For the indirectly exposed group, dysphoric arousal at T1 played the most prominent role in predicting all symptom clusters at T2, exhibiting a strong relationship with emotional numbing. Emotional numbing seemed to be the main driver behind prolonged stress at T3 for both groups. Functional impairment was predominately associated with dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing in both groups. For directly exposed individuals, memories of the traumatic incident and the following intrusions seem to drive their post-traumatic stress symptomatology. However, as these memories lose their potency over time, a sequela of dysphoric arousal and emotional numbing similar to the one reported by the indirectly exposed individuals seems to be the main driver for prolonged post-traumatic stress and functional impairment. Findings are discussed using contemporary models within an exposure-dependent perspective of post-traumatic stress.

  19. Physical inactivation and stabilization of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1979-07-01

    High temperature conditioning of sludge is a stabilization process that insures sterilization. Both thermal pasteurization and irradiation are inactivation processes. Viruses and parasites are inactivated at 70-80 0 C. Total bacterial destruction requires higher temperatures and/or detention time. Radio sensitivity of pathogens and pertinent treatment parameters are examined. If sludge is to be land disposed, disinfection requires irradiation doses ranging 500 Krad; if cattle feeding is considered, the required dose is 1 Mrad

  20. Microbial Inactivation by Ultrasound Assisted Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, Jose; Ortuño, Carmen; Castillo-Zamudio, Rosa Isela; Mulet, Antonio

    A method combining supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and high power ultrasound (HPU) has been developed and tested for microbial/enzyme inactivation purposes, at different process conditions for both liquid and solid matrices. In culture media, using only SC-CO2, the inactivation rate of E. coli and S. cerevisiae increased with pressure and temperature; and the total inactivation (7-8 log-cycles) was attained after 25 and 140 min of SC-CO2 (350 bar, 36 °C) treatment, respectively. Using SC-CO2+HPU, the time for the total inactivation of both microorganisms was reduced to only 1-2 min, at any condition selected. The SC-CO2+HPU inactivation of both microorganisms was slower in juices (avg. 4.9 min) than in culture media (avg. 1.5 min). In solid samples (chicken, turkey ham and dry-cured pork cured ham) treated with SC-CO2 and SC-CO2+HPU, the inactivation rate of E. coli increased with temperature. The application of HPU to the SC-CO2 treatments accelerated the inactivation rate of E. coli and that effect was more pronounced in treatments with isotonic solution surrounding the solid food samples. The application of HPU enhanced the SC-CO2 inactivation mechanisms of microorganisms, generating a vigorous agitation that facilitated the CO2 solubilization and the mass transfer process. The cavitation generated by HPU could damage the cell walls accelerating the extraction of vital constituents and the microbial death. Thus, using the combined technique, reasonable industrial processing times and mild process conditions could be used which could result into a cost reduction and lead to the minimization in the food nutritional and organoleptic changes.

  1. Mycobacteria inactivation using Engineered Water Nanostructures (EWNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; McDevitt, James; Gao, Ya; Branco, Alan; Eleftheriadou, Mary; Lemos, Bernardo; Nardell, Edward; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-08-01

    Airborne transmitted pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cause serious, often fatal infectious disease with enormous global health implications. Due to their unique cell wall and slow growth, mycobacteria are among the most resilient microbial forms. Herein we evaluate the ability of an emerging, chemical-free, nanotechnology-based method to inactivate M. parafortuitum (Mtb surrogate). This method is based on the transformation of atmospheric water vapor into engineered water nano-structures (EWNS) via electrospray. We demonstrate that the EWNS can interact with and inactivate airborne mycobacteria, reducing their concentration levels significantly. Additionally, EWNS can inactivate M. parafortuitum on surfaces eight times faster than the control. The mechanism of mycobacteria inactivation was also investigated in this study. It was demonstrated that the EWNS effectively deliver the reactive oxygen species, encapsulated during the electrospray process, to the bacteria oxidizing their cell membrane resulting into inactivation. Overall, this is a method with the potential to become an effective intervention technology in the battle against airborne infections. This study demonstrates the feasibility of mycobacterium inactivation in airborne form or on contact surfaces using electrospray activated water nano-structures. Given that the method is free of toxic chemicals, this might become an important tool in the prevention of mycobacterial infections, which are notoriously hard to treat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell inactivation by heavy charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, E A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Cell and Molecular Biology Div.

    1992-06-01

    The inactivation of cells resulting in lethal or aberrant effects by charged particles is of growing interest. Charged particles at extremely high LET are capable of completely eliminating cell-type and cell-line differences in repair capacity. It is still not clear however whether the repair systems are inactivated, or merely that heavy-ion lesions are less repairable. Studies correlating the particle inactivation dose of radioresistant cells with intact DNA analyzed with pulse field gel electrophoresis and other techniques may be useful, but more experiments are also needed to assess the fidelity of repair. For particle irradiations between 40-100 keV/{mu}m there is however evidence for particle-induced activation of specific genes in mammalian cells, and certain repair processes in bacteria. New data are available on the inactivation of developmental processes in several systems including seeds, and cells of the nematode C. elegans. Future experimental and theoretical modeling research emphasis should focus on exploring particle-induced inactivation of endpoints assessing functionality and not just lethality, and on analyzing molecular damage and genetic effects arising in damage but non-inactivated survivors. The discrete nature of selective types of particle damage as a function of radiation quality indicates the value of accelerated ions as probes of normal and aberrant biological processes. Information obtained from molecular analyses of damage and repair must however be integrated into the context of cellular and tissue functions of the organism. (orig.).

  3. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM.

  4. A Case of Traumatic Proptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of traumatic proptosis in a competitive football player. This entity can occur with a significant decrease in vision, but in this case it did not. Some other causes of this condition are also discussed. A review of some traumatic conditions that may cause proptosis is provided as well.

  5. Activation of a remote (1-year old) emotional memory interferes with the retrieval of a newly formed hippocampus-dependent memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Woodson, James C; Haynes, Vernon F; Diamond, David M

    2010-01-01

    The persistent intrusion of remote traumatic memories in people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may contribute to the impairment of their ongoing hippocampal and prefrontal cortical functioning. In the current work, we have developed a rodent analogue of the intrusive memory phenomenon. We studied the influence of the activation of a remote traumatic memory in rats on their ability to retrieve a newly formed hippocampus-dependent memory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given inhibitory avoidance (IA) training, and then 24 h or 1, 6 or 12 months later, the same rats were trained to learn, and then remember across a 30-min delay period, the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM). When IA-trained rats spent the 30-min delay period in the IA apparatus, they exhibited intact remote (1-year old) memory of the shock experience. More importantly, activation of the rats' memory of the shock experience profoundly impaired their ability to retrieve the newly formed spatial memory of the hidden platform location in the RAWM. Our finding that reactivation of a remote emotional memory exerted an intrusive effect on new spatial memory processing in rats provides a novel approach toward understanding how intrusive memories of traumatic experiences interfere with ongoing cognitive processing in people with PTSD.

  6. Post-traumatic syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, M.; Sartor, K.; Aschoff, A.; Spahn, B.

    1999-01-01

    The improvement of preclinical emergency medicine, better surgical and conservative therapies, and the development of intensive care units and specialized centers have improved the survival rate for patients with serious spinal cord injuries. Therefore, more sequelae of chronic spinal cord injuries such as post-traumatic spinal cord cavitations also occur. The first such case was described by Bastian in 1867. Generally, these cavitations were diagnosed from 2 months up to 32 years after the trauma. The overall prevalence of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS) is not known; however, with the increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its diagnosis has increased, ranging from 2.3% of paraplegic and tetraplegic patients in 1976 and 3.2% in 1985, to nearly 50% in a selected group of patients in 1991 and 1993. In 1995, a 4.45% incidence was reported. In our clinic we are currently treating 440 cases of syringomyelia, 140 of which are PTS. Several observations suggest more than one potential mechanism for the evolution of a post-traumatic cyst or PTS. Various factors, such as hemorrhage or, in particular, ischemia within the spinal cord, blockage of the cerebrosinal fluid (CSF) pathways around the cord or localized meningeal fibrosis either alone or in combination with other factors, may be involved. Clinically, sensory disturbances, loss of motor function, pain, and modification of the deep tendon reflexes are observed in most patients. On MRI, PTS is seen as a longitudinal, cystic cavity within the spinal cord, giving a hypointense signal on T 1 -weighted images and a hyperintense signal on T 2 -weighted images. For treatment planning it is mandatory to identify the lower and upper end of the PTS on the MRI. (orig.) [de

  7. Post-traumatic pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Richard; Wick, Bruce; Kirschen, David

    2003-02-01

    Many clinicians have noted that patients demonstrate a myopic refractive change following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). This apparent myopic shift disappears with cycloplegia, yet stubbornly reappears as soon as the pharmaceutical effect wears off. We propose that this shift is secondary to an irritative lesion that affects the parasympathetic innervation, resulting in ciliary body contracture. The dilemma for the clinician is whether to provide the immediate relief of clear distance vision by prescribing additional minus lenses, or to work toward attempting to re-establish the baseline refractive error. The natural history of post-traumatic pseudomyopia in our experience involves one of the following three courses: (1) a transient condition that will occasionally resolve; (2) the typical case, a recalcitrant condition that will resolve under cycloplegic intervention, but immediately return as the cycloplegic wears off; or (3) a less-common subgroup of patients who continue to show an increase in myopia over time. Our description of these cases demonstrates management strategies (including atropinization) to relax accommodative spasm, traditional vision therapy techniques aimed at loosening the accommodative system, and refractive corrections. Pseudomyopia is one of many ocular and behavioral sequelae following TBI. By understanding the natural course and potential management options for post-traumatic pseudomyopia, the clinician will be better prepared to deal with these challenging cases. Flexibility is required, since options that work with one patient may prove ineffective with another. Counseling the patient as to potential outcomes given the natural history of this condition helps establish more-realistic expectations by the patients being treated.

  8. Traumatic skeletal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeger, J.; Schofer, O.

    1985-01-01

    Skeleton scintiscanning is indicated in the following cases: (1) Suspected bone injury after clinical examination, the radiograph of the skeletal region in question contributing findings that either do not confirm suspision, or make not clear whether the changes observed are traumatic. (2) Polytrauma. (3) When the accident scenario reported by the persons taking care of the child does not sufficiently explain the skeletal changes observed, or when these persons expressly deny the possibility of a trauma being the cause of findings observed. (4) Suspected or proven battered-child syndrome. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Traumatic olecranon bursitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, M.; Canoso, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The affected elbow of 28 patients with traumatic olecranon bursitis was radiographically compared with the homologous elbow of 28 matched controls. Olecranon spurs, amorphous calcium deposits, or both, were present in 16 patients and 4 controls (p<0.01). Air was injected in the bursa in 12 additional patients. Nodules in the bursal floor were noted in 10, and the bursa was partially septated in 8. Olecranon spurs, present in 6 patients, corresponded to the insertion of the triceps tendon. With elbow flexion the bursa flattened and lengthened while the olecranon process glided distally beneath the bursal floor. (Auth.)

  10. [Traumatic tricuspid insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayre, F; Richard, P; Ollivier, J P

    1996-04-01

    Traumatic tricuspid insufficiency is a rare condition. The diagnosis is difficult because of the slow progression of this pathology and the presence of more clinically acute lesions. Non-penetrating chest trauma is responsible for 90% of cases. Echocardiography is the investigation of choice for assessing the mechanism of the tricuspid regurgitation and for diagnosing associated lesions. It should be performed systematically in patients with multiple trauma. The surgical indications are difficult to determine and depend on the patients' symptoms and the type of anatomical lesions. It should be undertaken before right ventricular myocardial dysfunction. Several techniques may be used from valvuloplasty to valve replacement mainly with bioprostheses in symptomatic patients.

  11. The endocannabinoid system and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): From preclinical findings to innovative therapeutic approaches in clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Andrea; Schelling, Gustav; Campolongo, Patrizia

    2016-09-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric chronic disease developing in individuals after the experience of an intense and life-threatening traumatic event. The post-traumatic symptomatology encompasses alterations in memory processes, mood, anxiety and arousal. There is now consensus in considering the disease as an aberrant adaptation to traumatic stress. Pharmacological research, aimed at the discovery of new potential effective treatments, has lately directed its attention towards the "so-called" cognitive enhancers. This class of substances, by modulating cognitive processes involved in the development and/or persistence of the post-traumatic symptomatology, could be of great help in improving the outcome of psychotherapies and patients' prognosis. In this perspective, drugs acting on the endocannabinoid system are receiving great attention due to their dual ability to modulate memory processes on one hand, and to reduce anxiety and depression on the other. The purpose of the present review is to offer a thorough overview of both animal and human studies investigating the effects of cannabinoids on memory processes. First, we will briefly describe the characteristics of the endocannabinoid system and the most commonly used animal models of learning and memory. Then, studies investigating cannabinoid modulatory influences on memory consolidation, retrieval and extinction will be separately presented, and the potential benefits associated with each approach will be discussed. In the final section, we will review literature data reporting beneficial effects of cannabinoid drugs in PTSD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in food matrices: high pressure processing, photodynamic inactivation and pressure-assisted photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A.; Couceiro, J.; Bonifácio, D.; Martins, C.; Almeida, A.; Neves, M. G. P. M. S.; Faustino, M. A. F.; Saraiva, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Traditional food processing methods frequently depend on the application of high temperature. However, heat may cause undesirable changes in food properties and often has a negative impact on nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics. Therefore, reducing the microbial load without compromising the desirable properties of food products is still a technological challenge. High-pressure processing (HPP) can be classified as a cold pasteurization technique, since it is a non-thermal food preservation method that uses hydrostatic pressure to inactivate spoilage microorganisms. At the same time, it increases shelf life and retains the original features of food. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is also regarded as promising approach for the decontamination of food matrices. In this case, the inactivation of bacterial cells is achieved by the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygens species (ROS) produced from the combined interaction of a photosensitizer molecule, light and oxygen. This short review examines some recent developments on the application of HPP and PDI with food-grade photosensitizers for the inactivation of listeriae, taken as a food pathogen model. The results of a proof-of-concept trial of the use of high-pressure as a coadjutant to increase the efficiency of photodynamic inactivation of bacterial endospores is also addressed.

  13. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  14. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  15. Collective memory: a perspective from (experimental) clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Ineke; Moulds, Michelle L

    2008-04-01

    This paper considers the concept of collective memory from an experimental clinical psychology perspective. Exploration of the term collective reveals a broad distinction between literatures that view collective memories as a property of groups (collectivistic memory) and those that regard these memories as a property of individuals who are, to a greater or lesser extent, an integral part of their social environment (social memory). First, we argue that the understanding of collectivistic memory phenomena may benefit from drawing parallels with current psychological models such as the self-memory system theory of individualistic autobiographical memory. Second, we suggest that the social memory literature may inform the study of trauma-related disorders. We argue that a factual focus induced by collaborative remembering may be beneficial to natural recovery in the immediate aftermath of trauma, and propose that shared remembering techniques may provide a useful addition to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  16. Lateral Habenula determines long-term storage of aversive memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol eTomaiuolo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lateral Habenula (LHb is a small brain structure that codifies negative motivational value and has been related to major depression. It has been shown recently that LHb activation is sufficient to induce aversive associative learning; however the key question about whether LHb activation is required for an aversive memory to be formed has not been addressed. In this article we studied the function of the LHb in memory formation using the Inhibitory Avoidance task (IA. We found that LHb inactivation during IA training does not disrupt memory when assessed 24 hours after, but abolishes it 7 days later, indicating that LHb activity during memory acquisition is not necessary for memory formation, but regulates its temporal stability. These effects suggest that LHb inactivation modifies subjective perception of the training experience.

  17. Cortisol response mediates the effect of post-reactivation stress exposure on contextualization of emotional memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.N.; Jacobs van Goethem, T.H.; Beckers, T.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of traumatic experiences is often accompanied by strong feelings of distress. Here, we examined in healthy participants whether post-reactivation stress experience affects the context-dependency of emotional memory. First, participants studied words from two distinctive emotional

  18. Basolateral amygdala inactivation impairs learning-induced long-term potentiation in the cerebellar cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhu

    Full Text Available Learning to fear dangerous situations requires the participation of basolateral amygdala (BLA. In the present study, we provide evidence that BLA is necessary for the synaptic strengthening occurring during memory formation in the cerebellum in rats. In the cerebellar vermis the parallel fibers (PF to Purkinje cell (PC synapse is potentiated one day following fear learning. Pretraining BLA inactivation impaired such a learning-induced long-term potentiation (LTP. Similarly, cerebellar LTP is affected when BLA is blocked shortly, but not 6 h, after training. The latter result shows that the effects of BLA inactivation on cerebellar plasticity, when present, are specifically related to memory processes and not due to an interference with sensory or motor functions. These data indicate that fear memory induces cerebellar LTP provided that a heterosynaptic input coming from BLA sets the proper local conditions. Therefore, in the cerebellum, learning-induced plasticity is a heterosynaptic phenomenon that requires inputs from other regions. Studies employing the electrically-induced LTP in order to clarify the cellular mechanisms of memory should therefore take into account the inputs arriving from other brain sites, considering them as integrative units. Based on previous and the present findings, we proposed that BLA enables learning-related plasticity to be formed in the cerebellum in order to respond appropriately to new stimuli or situations.

  19. [Post-traumatic tics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, S; Chacón, J; Redondo, L; Navarro-Busto, C; Solana, B

    1996-10-01

    Secondary tics are those in which an aetiology justifying them can be found, as compared to idiopathic tics, which make up the majority, and the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (SGT), which is, at the moment, of unknown origin. Of the possible aetiologies described as causing tics, craneo-encephalic trauma has been mentioned on very few occasions. We present a case of post-traumatic tics (verbal and neck) in a young man of 24, and review the published cases which can be considered to be of post-traumatic tics. We have found six cases of tics secondary to traumas, all craneo-encephalic, like ours (the one under study). The time interval between the blow and the appearance of the tic or tics varied between 2 weeks and 3 months. The absence of significant lesions seen in the complementary investigations make it impossible for us to discover the site of the lesion caused by the trauma. However, the presence in some cases of other tics before the trauma, and of family histories of tics, supports the idea of a genetic basis or predisposition to suffer this disorder.

  20. [Social support after traumatism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, A; Heim, E; Hecker, T; Thoma, M V

    2017-01-01

    The classical concept of social support has recently become of relevance again, particularly in the context of traumatized patient groups, which include refugees and migrants. This article summarizes the evidence from social support research, e. g. different types of positive effects as well as context, gender and cultural aspects. These aspects are highlighted by means of studies stemming from applied healthcare research and thus describe a wide range of health effects, e.g. increased well-being and reduced depressive symptoms, improved functional abilities, better immune status and longevity. Two new trauma-specific differentiations of the social support concept are introduced: societal acknowledgement as a trauma survivor and disclosure of traumatic experiences. Against this background several implications for working with refugees arise: promotion of self-efficacy and posttraumatic maturation as well as the treatment of mental disorders show considerable benefits from focusing on social support. Finally, possibilities emerging from digital communication media are discussed, which are particularly relevant in this context.

  1. Imaging Neuroinflammation in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a complex...several central nervous system conditions including post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Microglia represent over...trials. We have subsequently identified a better agent for interrogating TSPO in post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) subjects, 18-F PBR111, a

  2. Inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, O.E.; Bogdanov, M.V.; Kazantseva, V.A.; Gabrilevskaia, L.N.; Kodkind, G.K.H.

    The study of ozone inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage showed the presence in sewage of suspensions of organic origin and bacterial flora to influence the rate of inactivation. The inactivation rate of poliomyelitis virus in sewage free from organic suspension and bacterial flora was significantly higher than that in sewage containing such suspension and bacterial flora. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses was found not to depend upon the protein and salt composition and pH of sewage or strain appurtenance of viruses. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses directly depended upon the dose of ozone and time of contact with it. Differences in the resistance of different types of poliomyelitis virus, ECHO and Coxsackie viruses to the effect of ozone are likely exist. These differences are manifested within the range of relatively small doses of ozone. E. coli is more resistant to ozone than entero-viruses. The results of laboratory studies were used to choose the regimen of sanitation of urban sewage to be used in technological cycles of industrial enterprises.

  3. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium with free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Mariñas, Benito J

    2007-07-15

    The inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium with free chlorine was characterized by two stages: an initial phase at a relatively fast rate followed by a slower second stage of pseudo first-order kinetics. The inactivation rate of each stage was approximately the same for all experiments performed at a certain condition of pH and temperature; however, variability was observed for the disinfectant exposure at which the transition between the two stages occurred. This variability was not a function of the initial disinfectant concentration, the initial bacterial density, or the bacterial stock. However, the transition to the second stage varied more significantly at high temperatures (30 degrees C), while lower variability was observed at lower temperatures (5 and 20 degrees C). Experiments conducted at pH values in the range of 6-9 revealed that the inactivation of M. avium was primarily due to hypochlorous acid, with little contribution from hypochlorite ion within this pH range. The inactivation kinetics was represented with a two-population model. The activation energies for the resulting pseudo first-order rate constants for the populations with fast and slow kinetics were 100.3 and 96.5 kJ/mol, respectively. The magnitude of these values suggested that for waters of relatively high pH and low temperatures, little inactivation of M. avium would be achieved within treatment plants, providing a seeding source for distribution systems.

  4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Roger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe traumatic stressors such as war, rape, or life-threatening accidents can result in a debilitating psychopathological development conceptualised as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Pathological memory formation during an alarm response may set the precondition for PTSD to occur. If true, a lack of memory formation by extended unconsciousness in the course of the traumatic experience should preclude PTSD. Methods 46 patients from a neurological rehabilitation clinic were examined by means of questionnaires and structured clinical interviews. All patients had suffered a TBI due to an accident, but varied with respect to falling unconscious during the traumatic event. Results 27% of the sub-sample who were not unconscious for an extended period but only 3% (1 of 31 patients who were unconscious for more than 12 hours as a result of the accident were diagnosed as having current PTSD (P Conclusion TBI and PTSD are not mutually exclusive. However, victims of accidents are unlikely to develop a PTSD if the impact to the head had resulted in an extended period of unconsciousness.

  5. Memory reconsolidation in aversive and appetitive settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Claire Reichelt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Memory reconsolidation has been observed across species and in a number of behavioural paradigms. The majority of memory reconsolidation studies have been carried out in pavlovian fear conditioning and other aversive memory settings, with potential implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. However, there is a growing literature on memory reconsolidation in appetitive reward-related memory paradigms, including translational models of drug addiction. While there appears to be substantial similarity in the basic phenomenon and underlying mechanisms of memory reconsolidation across unconditioned stimulus valence, there are also notable discrepancies. These arise both when comparing aversive to appetitive paradigms and also across different paradigms within the same valence of memory. We review the demonstration of memory reconsolidation across different aversive and appetitive memory paradigms, the commonalities and differences in underlying mechanisms and the conditions under which each memory undergoes reconsolidation. We focus particularly on whether principles derived from the aversive literature are applicable to appetitive settings, and also whether the expanding literature in appetitive paradigms is informative for fear memory reconsolidation.

  6. Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury of the diaphragm ranges from 0.6 to 1.2% and rise up to 5%among patients who were victims of blunt trauma and underwent laparotomy.Clinical suspicion associated with radiological assessment contributes to earlydiagnosis. Isolated diaphragmatic injury has a good prognosis. Generallyworse outcomes are associated with other trauma injuries. Bilateral andright diaphragmatic lesions have worse prognosis. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT scan of the chest and abdomen provides better diagnosticaccuracy using the possibility of image multiplanar reconstruction. Surgicalrepair via laparotomy and/ or thoracotomy in the acute phase of the injury hasa better outcome and avoids chronic complications of diaphragmatic hernia.The authors present the case of a young male patient, victim of blunt abdominaltrauma due to motor vehicle accident with rupture of the diaphragm, spleenand kidney injuries. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography of thethorax and abdomen and was confirmed during laparotomy.

  7. Post-traumatic hemobilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Kailidou, E.

    1991-01-01

    Four patients with post-traumatic hemobilia were evaluated with arteriography over a 2-year period. In two patients hemobilia was of iatrogenic origin; in particular, one case appeared after a cholecystectomy, and the other was due to placement of a biliary stent with an endoscope. In the other two patients hemobilia was the result of a gun injury. Arteriography of the hepatic arterial system demonstrated two false aneurysms, extravasation of contrast medium through the biliary system in one patient and arterioportal fistula in another patient. It is concluded that arteriography of the hepatic arterial system is the method of choice for the evaluation and the possible treatment of patients with hemobilia. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs

  8. Post-traumatic hemobilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlahos, L.; Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Kailidou, E. (Athens Univ. (Greece))

    Four patients with post-traumatic hemobilia were evaluated with arteriography over a 2-year period. In two patients hemobilia was of iatrogenic origin; in particular, one case appeared after a cholecystectomy, and the other was due to placement of a biliary stent with an endoscope. In the other two patients hemobilia was the result of a gun injury. Arteriography of the hepatic arterial system demonstrated two false aneurysms, extravasation of contrast medium through the biliary system in one patient and arterioportal fistula in another patient. It is concluded that arteriography of the hepatic arterial system is the method of choice for the evaluation and the possible treatment of patients with hemobilia. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs.

  9. Traumatic lung hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, M. J.; Alcazar, P. P.; Touma, C.

    2001-01-01

    Lung hernia is an uncommon entity that is defined as the protrusion of the lung parenchyma through a defect in the thoracic cavity. It is classified on the basis of its location (cervical, intercostal and diaphragmatic) and etiology (congenital and acquired). Acquired lung hernias can be further grouped as spontaneous, traumatic or pathological, depending on the responsible mechanism. Nearly half of them are secondary to chest trauma, whether penetrating or blunt. We present a case of lung hernia in a patient with penetrating chest trauma. The diagnosis was suspected from the radiographic images and was confirmed by computed tomography. We also review the literature concerning its classification and incidence, diagnostic methods used and treatment. (Author) 9 refs

  10. Expressions of Private Mourning in Public Space : The Evolving Structure of Spontaneous and Permanent Roadside Memorials in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassens, Mirjam; Groote, Peter D.; Vanclay, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    A visual content analysis of photos of 216 roadside memorials in the Netherlands was undertaken together with 24 interviews with the people who constructed them to understand how they deal with traumatic death. Friends urgently need to memorialize the deceased and establish spontaneous memorials.

  11. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Seedat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is among the most prevalentanxiety disorders, both in terms of lifetime and 12-month prevalencerates documented in epidemiological studies worldwide.

  12. Coping with a Traumatic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic events are marked by a sense of horror, helplessness, serious injury, or the threat of serious ... The symptoms of PTSD fall into three broad types: re-living, avoidance and increased arousal. • Symptoms of ...

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury Registry (TBI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As the number of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients has grown, so has the need to track and monitor...

  14. Initial Management of Traumatic Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Nausikaa; de Rooster, Hilde

    2017-11-01

    When traumatic wounds are quickly and accurately treated, morbidity and costs can be significantly decreased. Several factors, such as time delay between injury and treatment, the degree of contamination, extension and depth of the wound, and the mechanism of injury, influence the treatment and prognosis and stress the importance of a patient-specific approach. Although all traumatic wounds are contaminated, antibiotic therapy is seldom required if correct wound management is installed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  16. Inactivation of prion infectivity by ionizing rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gominet, M. [Ionisos, ZI les Chatinieres, F01120 Dagneux (France); Vadrot, C.; Austruy, G. [Paris V University, Central Pharmacy of Hospitals, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75006, Paris (France); Darbord, J.C. [Paris V University, Central Pharmacy of Hospitals, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75006, Paris (France)], E-mail: darbord@pharmacie.univ-paris5.fr

    2007-11-15

    Inactivation of prion deposits on medical devices or prion contamination in pharmaceutical raw materials is considered as impossible by using gamma irradiation. Early, the guideline WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2000 has described irradiation as an ineffective process. But, in 2003, S. Miekka et al. noted radiation inactivation of prions in a particular application to purify human albumin, shown by the physical denaturation of the infectious protein (PrP). The aim of our study was to determine the inactivation of prions with a scrapie model (strain C506M3) by irradiating standardised preparations. Results: Gamma irradiation was partially effective, showing a 4-5 log reduction on exposure to 50 kGy. A characteristic effect-dose curve was not observed (25, 50 and 100 kGy), only an increase in the incubation period of the murine disease (229 days with 25 kGy to 290 days with 100 kGy) compared with 170 days without irradiation. Since the inactivation was not a total one, the observed effect is significant. It is proposed that further work be undertaken with the model to investigate the application of gamma radiation known levels of prion contamination.

  17. Inactivation of prion infectivity by ionizing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gominet, M.; Vadrot, C.; Austruy, G.; Darbord, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Inactivation of prion deposits on medical devices or prion contamination in pharmaceutical raw materials is considered as impossible by using gamma irradiation. Early, the guideline WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2000 has described irradiation as an ineffective process. But, in 2003, S. Miekka et al. noted radiation inactivation of prions in a particular application to purify human albumin, shown by the physical denaturation of the infectious protein (PrP). The aim of our study was to determine the inactivation of prions with a scrapie model (strain C506M3) by irradiating standardised preparations. Results: Gamma irradiation was partially effective, showing a 4-5 log reduction on exposure to 50 kGy. A characteristic effect-dose curve was not observed (25, 50 and 100 kGy), only an increase in the incubation period of the murine disease (229 days with 25 kGy to 290 days with 100 kGy) compared with 170 days without irradiation. Since the inactivation was not a total one, the observed effect is significant. It is proposed that further work be undertaken with the model to investigate the application of gamma radiation known levels of prion contamination

  18. Pulsed electric field inactivation in a microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel, non-thermal pasteurization method which uses short, high electric field pulses to inactivate microorganisms. The advantage of a pasteurization method like PEF compared to regular heat pasteurization is that the taste, flavour, texture and nutritional value

  19. Epigenetic inactivation of CHFR in human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Minoru; Sasaki, Yasushi; Satoh, Ayumi; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mita, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Itoh, Fumio; Issa, Jean-Pierre J; Jair, Kam-Wing; Schuebel, Kornel E; Imai, Kohzoh; Tokino, Takashi

    2003-06-24

    Cell-cycle checkpoints controlling the orderly progression through mitosis are frequently disrupted in human cancers. One such checkpoint, entry into metaphase, is regulated by the CHFR gene encoding a protein possessing forkhead-associated and RING finger domains as well as ubiquitin-ligase activity. Although defects in this checkpoint have been described, the molecular basis and prevalence of CHFR inactivation in human tumors are still not fully understood. To address this question, we analyzed the pattern of CHFR expression in a number of human cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We found CpG methylation-dependent silencing of CHFR expression in 45% of cancer cell lines, 40% of primary colorectal cancers, 53% of colorectal adenomas, and 30% of primary head and neck cancers. Expression of CHFR was precisely correlated with both CpG methylation and deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the CpG-rich regulatory region. Moreover, CpG methylation and thus silencing of CHFR depended on the activities of two DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3b, as their genetic inactivation restored CHFR expression. Finally, cells with CHFR methylation had an intrinsically high mitotic index when treated with microtubule inhibitor. This means that cells in which CHFR was epigenetically inactivated constitute loss-of-function alleles for mitotic checkpoint control. Taken together, these findings shed light on a pathway by which mitotic checkpoint is bypassed in cancer cells and suggest that inactivation of checkpoint genes is much more widespread than previously suspected.

  20. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Evolution of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder following Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Yvette; Gould, Kate Rachel; McKay, Adam; Johnston, Lisa; Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-05-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop following traumatic brain injury (TBI), despite most patients having no conscious memory of their accident. This prospective study examined the frequency, timing of onset, symptom profile, and trajectory of PTSD and its psychiatric comorbidities during the first 4 years following moderate-to-severe TBI. Participants were 85 individuals (78.8% male) with moderate or severe TBI recruited following admission to acute rehabilitation between 2005 and 2010. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders (SCID-I), participants were evaluated for pre- and post-injury PTSD soon after injury and reassessed at 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years post-injury. Over the first 4 years post-injury, 17.6% developed injury-related PTSD, none of whom had PTSD prior to injury. PTSD onset peaked between 6 and 12 months post-injury. The majority of PTSD cases (66.7%) had a delayed-onset, which for a third was preceded by subsyndromal symptoms in the first 6 months post-injury. PTSD frequency increased over the first year post-injury, remained stable during the second year, and gradually declined thereafter. The majority of subjects with PTSD experienced a chronic symptom course and all developed one or more than one comorbid psychiatric disorder, with mood, other anxiety, and substance-use disorders being the most common. Despite event-related amnesia, post-traumatic stress symptoms, including vivid re-experiencing phenomena, may develop following moderate-to-severe TBI. Onset is typically delayed and symptoms may persist for several years post-injury.

  2. Cortical inactivation by cooling in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eCoomber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible inactivation of the cortex by surface cooling is a powerful method for studying the function of a particular area. Implanted cooling cryoloops have been used to study the role of individual cortical areas in auditory processing of awake-behaving cats. Cryoloops have also been used in rodents for reversible inactivation of the cortex, but recently there has been a concern that the cryoloop may also cool non-cortical structures either directly or via the perfusion of blood, cooled as it passed close to the cooling loop. In this study we have confirmed that the loop can inactivate most of the auditory cortex without causing a significant reduction in temperature of the auditory thalamus or other sub-cortical structures. We placed a cryoloop on the surface of the guinea pig cortex, cooled it to 2°C and measured thermal gradients across the neocortical surface. We found that the temperature dropped to 20-24°C among cells within a radius of about 2.5mm away from the loop. This temperature drop was sufficient to reduce activity of most cortical cells and led to the inactivation of almost the entire auditory region. When the temperature of thalamus, midbrain, and middle ear were measured directly during cortical cooling, there was a small drop in temperature (about 4°C but this was not sufficient to directly reduce neural activity. In an effort to visualise the extent of neural inactivation we measured the uptake of thallium ions following an intravenous injection. This confirmed that there was a large reduction of activity across much of the ipsilateral cortex and only a small reduction in subcortical structures.

  3. Auditory and visual memories in PTSD patients targeted with eye movements and counting : The effect of modality-specific loading of working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijssen, Suzy J.M.A.; Verhoeven, Liselotte C.M.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Heitland, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A key element of this therapy is simultaneously recalling an emotionally disturbing memory and performing a dual task that loads working memory.

  4. CONSEQUENCES OF SEVERE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY IN CHILDREN AND THEIR TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Zavadenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury is one of the major causes for invalidization in children. The research purpose is an integrated study of consequences of severe and moderate closed traumatic brain injury in children and evaluation of their dynamics during therapy by means of a no tropic medication — cerebrolysin (Ebewe Pharma, Austria. The total of 283 children aged from 4 to 14 years were examined in the longaterm period of severe and moderate closed traumatic brain injury, from 6 months to 4 years after injury. Their neurological status was characterized by nona specific focal symptoms along with evident motor coordination disturbances, elements of dynamic and staticoloa comotory ataxia, reduction in execution speed of serial movements. Statistically significant differences with ageamatched controls were confirmed for measures of acousticaverbal memory and sustained attention. Posttraumatic epilepsy developed in 16 (5,7% patients with the onset of secondarily generalized seizures in 4–12 months following the injury. Effectiveness of the no tropic medication was evaluated in 60 patients aged from 7 to 12 years, who were distributed into 2 equal groups. The research has confirmed a positive effect of no tropic medication in the treatment of traumatic brain injury consequences manifested in the regression of headaches, fatigue, motor coordination disturbances along with improvements of memory, attention, intellectual performance rates, as well as EEG characteristics.Key words: traumatic brain injury, consequences, children, therapy, nootropic medications.

  5. Are Trauma Memories Disjointed from other Autobiographical Memories in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Birgit; Wallott, Franziska; Ehlers, Anke

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that trauma memories are disjointed from other autobiographical material in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Assault survivors with (n = 25) and without PTSD (n = 49) completed an autobiographical memory retrieval task during script-driven imagery of (a) the assault and (b) an unrelated negative event. When listening to a taped imagery script of the worst moment of their assault, survivors with PTSD took longer to retrieve unrelated non-traumatic autobiographical information than those without PTSD, but not when listening to a taped script of the worst moment of another negative life event. The groups also did not differ in general retrieval latencies, neither at baseline nor after the imagery tasks. The findings are in line with suggestions that traumatic memories are less integrated with other autobiographical information in trauma survivors with PTSD than in those without PTSD. PMID:21241538

  6. Mild traumatic brain injury is associated with reduced cortical thickness in those at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jasmeet P; Logue, Mark W; Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Verfaellie, Mieke; Hayes, Scott M; Reagan, Andrew; Salat, David H; Wolf, Erika J; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A; Miller, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predictors of reduced cortical thickness in brain regions previously associated with early Alzheimer's disease, and their relationship with episodic memory. Participants were 160 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans between the ages of 19 and 58, many of whom carried mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses. Whole-genome polygenic risk scores for the development of Alzheimer's disease were calculated using summary statistics from the largest Alzheimer's disease genome-wide association study to date. Results showed that mild traumatic brain injury moderated the relationship between genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease and cortical thickness, such that individuals with mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk showed reduced cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable regions. Among males with mild traumatic brain injury, high genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease was associated with cortical thinning as a function of time since injury. A moderated mediation analysis showed that mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk indirectly influenced episodic memory performance through cortical thickness, suggesting that cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable brain regions is a mechanism for reduced memory performance. Finally, analyses that examined the apolipoprotein E4 allele, post-traumatic stress disorder, and genetic risk for schizophrenia and depression confirmed the specificity of the Alzheimer's disease polygenic risk finding. These results provide evidence that mild traumatic brain injury is associated with greater neurodegeneration and reduced memory performance

  7. Predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder following critical illness: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Ceri E; James, Karen; Bromfield, Tom; Temblett, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has been reported in survivors of critical illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in survivors of critical illness. Patients attending the intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up clinic completed the UK-Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome 14-Questions Inventory and data was collected from their medical records. Predictors investigated included age, gender, Apache II score, ICU length of stay, pre-illness psychopathology; delirium and benzodiazepine administration during ICU stay and delusional memories of the ICU stay following discharge. A total of 198 patients participated, with 54 (27%) patients suffering with post-traumatic stress disorder. On multivariable logistic regression, the significant predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder were younger age, lower Apache II score, pre-illness psychopathology and delirium during the ICU stay. The predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in this study concur with previous research however a lower Apache II score has not been previously reported.

  8. Memory in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustino, Gabriella

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the author discusses a specific type of dreams encountered in her clinical experience, which in her view provide an opportunity of reconstructing the traumatic emotional events of the patient's past. In 1900, Freud described a category of dreams--which he called 'biographical dreams'--that reflect historical infantile experience without the typical defensive function. Many authors agree that some traumatic dreams perform a function of recovery and working through. Bion contributed to the amplification of dream theory by linking it to the theory of thought and emphasizing the element of communication in dreams as well as their defensive aspect. The central hypothesis of this paper is that the predominant aspect of such dreams is the communication of an experience which the dreamer has in the dream but does not understand. It is often possible to reconstruct, and to help the patient to comprehend and make sense of, the emotional truth of the patient's internal world, which stems from past emotional experience with primary objects. The author includes some clinical examples and references to various psychoanalytic and neuroscientific conceptions of trauma and memory. She discusses a particular clinical approach to such dreams and how the analyst should listen to them.

  9. Relation between traumatic experience and post-traumatic symptomatics in Lithuanian Afghanistan war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Domanskaitė Gota, Vėjūnė; Gailienė, Danutė; Kazlauskas, Evaldas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess what potential traumatic life-events and experiences are related to PTSD in the Lithuanian Afghanistan war veterans (N = 174). [...]. The following variables were investigated: demographics, traumatic life-events or conditions, PTSD and sub-clinical level of PTSD.The Lithuanian Afghanistan war veterans with PTSD and sub-clinical level of PTSD reported significantly more lifetime traumatic events and conditions. The average number of traumatic events per man ...

  10. Crime and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J L

    1995-01-01

    The conflict between knowing and not knowing, speech and silence, remembering and forgetting, is the central dialectic of psychological trauma. This conflict is manifest in the individual disturbances of memory, the amnesias and hypermnesias, of traumatized people. It is manifest also on a social level, in persisting debates over the historical reality of atrocities that have been documented beyond any reasonable doubt. Social controversy becomes particularly acute at moments in history when perpetrators face the prospect of being publicly exposed or held legally accountable for crimes long hidden or condoned. This situation obtains in many countries emerging from dictatorship, with respect to political crimes such as murder and torture. It obtains in this country with regard to the private crimes of sexual and domestic violence. This article examines a current public controversy, regarding the credibility of adult recall of childhood abuse, as a classic example of the dialectic of trauma.

  11. [The consequences of closed traumatic brain injury and piracetam efficacy in their treatment in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadenko, N N; Guzilova, L S

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of the consequences of moderate and severe closed traumatic brain injury was assessed in 42 patients, aged 12-18 years, who suffered traumatic disorders 1,5-5 years before this study. Adolescents from the main group (20 patients) received piracetam in dosage of 40-50 mg/kg (or 1600-2400 mg daily) during one month. 22 patients of the second group were examined as controls. The positive therapeutic effects of piracetam on cognitive (memory, attention, executive functions) and motor (coordination) functions as well as the speed of cognitive and motor performance were demonstrated in this study.

  12. "Slow" Voltage-Dependent Inactivation of CaV2.2 Calcium Channels Is Modulated by the PKC Activator Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    Full Text Available CaV2.2 (N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca2+ channels play key roles in neurons and neuroendocrine cells including the control of cellular excitability, neurotransmitter / hormone secretion, and gene expression. Calcium entry is precisely controlled by channel gating properties including multiple forms of inactivation. "Fast" voltage-dependent inactivation is relatively well-characterized and occurs over the tens-to- hundreds of milliseconds timeframe. Superimposed on this is the molecularly distinct, but poorly understood process of "slow" voltage-dependent inactivation, which develops / recovers over seconds-to-minutes. Protein kinases can modulate "slow" inactivation of sodium channels, but little is known about if/how second messengers control "slow" inactivation of Ca2+ channels. We investigated this using recombinant CaV2.2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells and native CaV2 channels endogenously expressed in adrenal chromaffin cells. The PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA dramatically prolonged recovery from "slow" inactivation, but an inactive control (4α-PMA had no effect. This effect of PMA was prevented by calphostin C, which targets the C1-domain on PKC, but only partially reduced by inhibitors that target the catalytic domain of PKC. The subtype of the channel β-subunit altered the kinetics of inactivation but not the magnitude of slowing produced by PMA. Intracellular GDP-β-S reduced the effect of PMA suggesting a role for G proteins in modulating "slow" inactivation. We postulate that the kinetics of recovery from "slow" inactivation could provide a molecular memory of recent cellular activity and help control CaV2 channel availability, electrical excitability, and neurotransmission in the seconds-to-minutes timeframe.

  13. Trauma and autobiographical memory: contents and determinants of earliest memories among war-affected Palestinian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-11-01

    The contents of earliest memories (EM), as part of autobiographical memory, continue to fascinate scientists and therapists. However, research is scarce on the determinants of EM, especially among children. This study aims, first, to identify contents of EM of children living in war conditions, and, second, to analyse child gender, traumatic events and mental health as determinants of the contents of EM. The participants were 240 Palestinian schoolchildren from the Gaza Strip (10-12 years, M = 11.35, SD = 0.57; 49.4% girls). They responded to an open-ended EM question, and reported their trauma exposures (war trauma, losses and current traumatic events), posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms and psychosocial well-being, indicating mental health. The EM coding involved nature, social orientation, emotional tone and specificity. Results showed, first, that 43% reported playing or visiting a nice place as EM, and about a third (30%) traumatic events or accidents (30%) or miscellaneous events (27%). The individual and social orientation were almost equally common, the emotional tone mainly neutral (45.5%), and 60% remembered a specific event. Second, boys remembered more EM involving traumatic events or accidents, and girls more social events. Third, war trauma was associated with less positive emotional tone and with more specific memories.

  14. Differential learning and memory performance in OEF/OIF veterans for verbal and visual material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozda, Christopher N; Muir, James J; Springer, Utaka S; Partovi, Diana; Cole, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Memory complaints are particularly salient among veterans who experience combat-related mild traumatic brain injuries and/or trauma exposure, and represent a primary barrier to successful societal reintegration and everyday functioning. Anecdotally within clinical practice, verbal learning and memory performance frequently appears differentially reduced versus visual learning and memory scores. We sought to empirically investigate the robustness of a verbal versus visual learning and memory discrepancy and to explore potential mechanisms for a verbal/visual performance split. Participants consisted of 103 veterans with reported history of mild traumatic brain injuries returning home from U.S. military Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom referred for outpatient neuropsychological evaluation. Findings indicate that visual learning and memory abilities were largely intact while verbal learning and memory performance was significantly reduced in comparison, residing at approximately 1.1 SD below the mean for verbal learning and approximately 1.4 SD below the mean for verbal memory. This difference was not observed in verbal versus visual fluency performance, nor was it associated with estimated premorbid verbal abilities or traumatic brain injury history. In our sample, symptoms of depression, but not posttraumatic stress disorder, were significantly associated with reduced composite verbal learning and memory performance. Verbal learning and memory performance may benefit from targeted treatment of depressive symptomatology. Also, because visual learning and memory functions may remain intact, these might be emphasized when applying neurocognitive rehabilitation interventions to compensate for observed verbal learning and memory difficulties.

  15. Cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  16. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  17. Some factors affecting urokinase inactivation. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Hiroo; Iketa, Yoshito

    1985-10-01

    The enzymatic activity of urokinase adsorbed on various polymer surfaces was measured to study the interaction between protein and polymers. The polymer films on which urokinase was adsorbed were exposed to either a high temperature or ..gamma..-radiation. The thermal inactivation rates were higher on hydrophobic polymers such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), nylon 6, and poly(vinylidene fluoride) than hydrophilic polymers like cellulose and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, indicating their substantial dependence on the interfacial free energy between the polymer and water. A similar dependence was also seen for the ..gamma..-radiation inactivation. Urokinase adsorbed on the hydrophobic polymers lost more easily its enzymatic activity by exposure to ..gamma..-radiation. The interfacial free energy seems to be one of the driving forces to denaturate proteins on polymers.

  18. Inactivation of biological substances by local heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1982-09-01

    Mechanism of inactivation of biological substances caused by local heating was investigated. The effect of hot-zone formation by local heating on reaction of radicals was previously evaluated. The thermal increase in a hot zone due to low energy LET x-rays had little effect on reactibility of the radicals, but, in a hot zone caused by high energy LET x-rays, formed radicals seemed immediately react to active biological molecules to inactivate them. Direct thermal effect on biological molecules was analysed. Thermal increase in a hot zone may induce degenaration of biological molecules which seems to occur in a short time judged from the extension of a hot zone and the duration of high temperature.

  19. Immunogenicity of UV-inactivated measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahorska, R.; Mazur, N.; Korbecki, M.

    1978-01-01

    By means of the antigen extinction limit test it was shown that a triple dose vaccination of guinea pigs with UV-inactivated measles virus gave better results, than a single dose vaccination which was proved by the very low immunogenicity index. For both vaccination schemes (single and triple) the immune response was only sligthly influenced by a change of dose from 10 5 to 10 6 HadU 50 /ml or by the addition of aluminum adjuvant. In the antigen extinction limit test the antibody levels were determined by two methods (HIT and NT) the results of which were statistically equivalent. The UV-inactivated measles virus was also found to induce hemolysis-inhibiting antibodies. (orig.) [de

  20. Inactivation of Smad4 in gastric carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Harper, J C; Hamilton, S R; Robinson, C R; Cummings, O W

    1997-10-01

    Allelic loss of chromosome 18q has been noted in intestinal type gastric adenocarcinomas. Smad4 is a gene located at 18q that was recently cloned in humans and found to be significantly altered in pancreatic cancers. We sought to determine whether Smad4 genetic alterations played a significant role in gastric tumorigenesis by studying 35 gastric adenocarcinomas of all histopathological types and pathological stages. Microdissected specimens were used for mutational analysis of Smad4 at the nucleotide level, including the entire coding region and intron/exon boundaries. Allelic imbalance was also analyzed at the Smad4 locus using two nearby microsatellite markers. One case of apparent biallelic inactivation of Smad4 was found in our study of 35 gastric carcinomas. A nonsense point mutation at codon 334 was demonstrated, which, similar to other Smad4 mutations, is predicted to truncate the conserved COOH-terminal domain of this protein. This Smad4 C to T transition mutation was proven to be somatically acquired. Allelic loss was also noted on chromosome 18q at a marker near Smad4 in this mutated gastric cancer, apparently producing complete inactivation of Smad4 in this tumor. Significant 18q allelic loss (56% of 34 informative cases) was noted in our gastric carcinomas using microsatellite markers near the Smad4 locus, regardless of histological subtype or pathological stage. Additionally, three cases of microsatellite instability were observed. Thus, Smad4 inactivation was noted in our gastric carcinomas; however, this event was rare. The frequent loss of chromosomal arm 18q observed in gastric cancers suggests the presence of other tumor suppressor genes in this region that are involved in gastric tumorigenesis. Further studies are needed to identify these other targets of inactivation during gastric cancer development.

  1. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Schoenmakers

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW, whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.

  2. Inactivation of Anandamide Signaling: A Continuing Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael E. Houssen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the first endocannabinoid anandamide was identified in 1992, extensive research has been conducted to characterize the elements of the tightly controlled endocannabinoid signaling system. While it was established that the activity of endocannabinoids are terminated by a two-step process that includes cellular uptake and degradation, there is still a continuing debate about the mechanistic role of these processes in inactivating anandamide signals.

  3. Photodynamic inactivation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paronyan, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays methicillin-resistant strain Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most widespread multiresistant bacteria. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of microorganisms by photosensitizers (PS) may be an effective and alternative therapeutic option against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The effectiveness of new PS cationic porphyrin Zn-TBut4PyP was tested on two strains of S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus). It is shown that Zn-TBut4PyP has high photodynamic activity against both strains

  4. Epigenetic inactivation of CHFR in human tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Toyota, Minoru; Sasaki, Yasushi; Satoh, Ayumi; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mita, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Itoh, Fumio; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.; Jair, Kam-Wing; Schuebel, Kornel E.; Imai, Kohzoh; Tokino, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Cell-cycle checkpoints controlling the orderly progression through mitosis are frequently disrupted in human cancers. One such checkpoint, entry into metaphase, is regulated by the CHFR gene encoding a protein possessing forkhead-associated and RING finger domains as well as ubiquitin–ligase activity. Although defects in this checkpoint have been described, the molecular basis and prevalence of CHFR inactivation in human tumors are still not fully understood. To address this question, w...

  5. Oranges and Sunshine: The Story of a Traumatic Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Herrero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will rely on some well-known theories on trauma, memory and ethics to study how Jim Loach’s debut film Oranges and Sunshine (2010 testifies to the traumatic deportation of up to 150,000 British children to distant parts of the Empire, mainly Australia, until 1970. Oranges and Sunshine was based on Margaret Humphreys’ moving memoir, originally entitled Empty Cradles (1994 but later re-titled Oranges and Sunshine after Loach’s film. What these two texts basically claim is the need to recover historic memory through heart-breaking acts of remembrance, which can alone denounce the atrocities that were concomitant with the colonial enterprise and pave the way for disclosing and working through individual and collective traumas.

  6. The memory unsatisfied in Estrella distante of Roberto Bolaño

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Florinda Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    This article sets up to examine the fictional strategies appointed  to shape the complexity of the memory processes in there composition of a traumatic experience. Estrella distante (1996), discusses the identity of the subject and, consequently, questions the supposed transparency of testimonies. Critical memory opens the past to uninterrupted interpretations in order to prevent the crystallization of a solesense of facts.

  7. Speed matters : relationship between speed of eye movements and modification of aversive autobiographical memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Suzanne; van Schie, Kevin; Wijngaards, Leoniek; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris; van den Hout, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an efficacious treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. In EMDR, patients recall a distressing memory and simultaneously make eye movements (EM). Both tasks are considered to require limited working memory (WM) resources. Because this

  8. Memory, Identity and the Politics of Curriculum Construction in Transition Societies: Rwanda and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Gail

    2009-01-01

    A critical question for societies emerging from conflict is what should be done about the traumatic memories of the past. In post-conflict societies political issues of memory and identity are at the same time issues for curriculum construction. Using the examples of post-conflict Rwanda and South Africa, I raise questions about the competing…

  9. Inactivation of human norovirus using chemical sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, David H; Vincent, Emily M; Meade, Gloria K; Watson, Clytrice L; Fan, Xuetong

    2014-02-03

    The porcine gastric mucin binding magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay was used to evaluate the ability of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and trisodium phosphate to inactivate human norovirus within 10% stool filtrate. One-minute free chlorine treatments at concentrations of 33 and 189 ppm reduced virus binding in the PGM-MB assay by 1.48 and 4.14 log₁₀, respectively, suggesting that chlorine is an efficient sanitizer for inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV). Five minute treatments with 5% trisodium phosphate (pH~12) reduced HuNoV binding by 1.6 log₁₀, suggesting that TSP, or some other high pH buffer, could be used to treat food and food contact surfaces to reduce HuNoV. One minute treatments with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide dissolved in water did not reduce PGM-MB binding, suggesting that the sanitizer may not be suitable for HuNoV inactivation in liquid form. However a 60-min treatment with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide did reduce human norovirus by 2.8 log₁₀, indicating that chlorine dioxide had some, albeit limited, activity against HuNoV. Results also suggest that peroxyacetic acid has limited effectiveness against human norovirus, since 1-min treatments with up to 195 ppm reduced human norovirus binding by chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) as a HuNoV disinfectant wherever possible. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Radical inactivation of a biological sulphydryl molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.S.; Lal, M.; Gaucher, G.M.; Armstrong, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reactive species produced from the free radical-induced chain oxidation of low molecular weight sulphydryl-containing molecules in aerated solutions deactivate the sulphydryl-containing enzyme papain, forming both reparable mixed disulphides and non-reparable products. This inactivation is highly efficient for penicillamine and glutathione, but almost negligible with cysteine, which is a protector of papain for [cysteine] / [papain] >= 5 under all conditions used. In the case of glutathione, superoxide dismutase caused only a small reduction in the inactivation and peroxide yields were small, implying that the deactivating species are not .O 2 - but RSOO. radicals or products from them. For penicillamine, however, dimutase was highly effective and the peroxide yields were relatively large, demonstrating that .O 2 - or a radical with similar capabilities for forming H 2 O 2 and being deactivated by dismutase was involved. Although in the presence of dismutase penicillamine is a better protector of non-reparable papain inactivation than glutathione, it suffers from a deficiency in that the papain-penicillamine mixed disulphide, which is always formed, cannot be repaired by spontaneous reaction with RSH molecules. (author)

  11. Memory Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  12. Traumatic brain injury : from impact to rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliday, J.; Absalom, A. R.

    Traumatic brain injury is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in our society, particularly among the young. This review discusses the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury, and current management from the acute phase through to rehabilitation of the traumatic brain injury patient.

  13. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  14. Durable fear memories require PSD-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Pinard, Courtney R.; Camp, Marguerite C.; Feyder, Michael; Sah, Anupam; Bergstrom, Hadley; Graybeal, Carolyn; Liu, Yan; Schlüter, Oliver; Grant, Seth G.N.; Singewald, Nicolas; Xu, Weifeng; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic fear memories are highly durable but also dynamic, undergoing repeated reactivation and rehearsal over time. While overly persistent fear memories underlie anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, the key neural and molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory durability remain unclear. Post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein regulating glutamate receptor anchoring, synaptic stability and certain types of memory. Employing a loss-of-function mutant mouse lacking the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95GK), we analyzed the contribution of PSD-95 to fear memory formation and retrieval, and sought to identify the neural basis of PSD-95-mediated memory maintenance using ex vivo immediate-early gene mapping, in vivo neuronal recordings and viral-mediated knockdown approaches. We show that PSD-95 is dispensable for the formation and expression of recent fear memories, but essential for the formation of precise and flexible fear memories and for the maintenance of memories at remote time points. The failure of PSD-95GK mice to retrieve remote cued fear memories was associated with hypoactivation of the infralimbic cortex (IL) (not anterior cingulate (ACC) or prelimbic cortex), reduced IL single-unit firing and bursting, and attenuated IL gamma and theta oscillations. Adeno-associated PSD-95 virus-mediated knockdown in the IL, not ACC, was sufficient to impair recent fear extinction and remote fear memory, and remodel IL dendritic spines. Collectively, these data identify PSD-95 in the IL as a critical mechanism supporting the durability of fear memories over time. These preclinical findings have implications for developing novel approaches to treating trauma-based anxiety disorders that target the weakening of overly persistent fear memories. PMID:25510511

  15. Directed Forgetting in Post-Traumatic-Stress-Disorder: A study of refugee immigrants in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela eBaumann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available People with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD often suffer from memory disturbances. In particular, previous studies suggest that PTSD patients perform atypically on tests of directed forgetting, which may be mediated by an altered emotional appraisal of the presented material. Also, a special role of dissociative symptoms in traumatized individuals’ memory performance has been suggested. Here, we investigate these issues in traumatized immigrants in Germany. In an item-method directed forgetting task, pictures were presented individually, each followed by an instruction to either remember or forget it. Later, recognition memory was tested for all pictures, regardless of initial instruction. Overall, the PTSD group’s discrimination accuracy was lower than the control group’s, as PTSD participants produced fewer hits and more false alarms, but the groups did not differ in directed forgetting itself. Moreover, the more negatively participants evaluated the stimuli, the less they were able to discriminate old from new items. Participants with higher dissociation scores were particularly poor at recognizing to-be-forgotten items. Results confirm PTSD patients’ general discrimination deficits, but provide no evidence for a distinct directed forgetting pattern in PTSD. Furthermore, data indicate that, in general, more negatively perceived items are discriminated with less accuracy than more positively appraised ones. Results are discussed in the larger context of emotion and stress-related modulations of episodic memory, with particular focus on the role of dissociative symptoms.

  16. Silencios. Visual memory of the Holocaust in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Cardona González

    2017-01-01

    complexity to produce an image in a context of pain; the second, taking into account the work of Michael Pollak, focuses on how memory becomes an essential component of identity, and although this is traumatic, their times, enunciations and hearings suffer postponements, suppression and concealments. These components enable a regard toward the memory of the Holocaust in Colombia

  17. Thyroid abscess following traumatic intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Polacco, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid abscess is a rare condition, and consequently diagnosis is often delayed. Causes include 3rd and 4th branchial cleft anomalies, hematogenous spread of infection, trauma from esophageal foreign body, and fine needle aspiration. Thyroid abscesses carry potential morbidity with thyroid and parathyroid gland destruction, tracheal compression, tracheal or esophageal fistula, internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis, and sepsis. The authors report a case of a 33-year old woman with a thyroid abscess following traumatic intubation. Thyroid abscess should be considered in patients presenting with anterior neck pain and swelling with a recent history of traumatic intubation, ultrasound or CT with contrast being the ideal diagnostic modalities.

  18. Traumatic primary brain stem haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrioli, G.C.; Zuccarello, M.; Trincia, G.; Fiore, D.L.; De Caro, R.

    1983-01-01

    We report 36 cases of post-traumatic 'primary brain stem haemorrhage' visualized by the CT scan and confirmed at autopsy. Clinical experience shows that many technical factors influence the inability to visualize brain stem haemorrhages. Experimental injection of fresh blood into the pons and midbrain of cadavers shows that lesions as small as 0.25 ml in volume may be visualized. The volume and the anatomical configuration of traumatic lesions of the brain stem extended over a rostro-caudal direction, and their proximity to bony structures at the base of the skull are obstacles to the visualization of brain stem haemorrhages. (Author)

  19. Declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Wim J; Blokland, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Declarative Memory consists of memory for events (episodic memory) and facts (semantic memory). Methods to test declarative memory are key in investigating effects of potential cognition-enhancing substances--medicinal drugs or nutrients. A number of cognitive performance tests assessing declarative episodic memory tapping verbal learning, logical memory, pattern recognition memory, and paired associates learning are described. These tests have been used as outcome variables in 34 studies in humans that have been described in the literature in the past 10 years. Also, the use of episodic tests in animal research is discussed also in relation to the drug effects in these tasks. The results show that nutritional supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids has been investigated most abundantly and, in a number of cases, but not all, show indications of positive effects on declarative memory, more so in elderly than in young subjects. Studies investigating effects of registered anti-Alzheimer drugs, cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment, show positive and negative effects on declarative memory. Studies mainly carried out in healthy volunteers investigating the effects of acute dopamine stimulation indicate enhanced memory consolidation as manifested specifically by better delayed recall, especially at time points long after learning and more so when drug is administered after learning and if word lists are longer. The animal studies reveal a different picture with respect to the effects of different drugs on memory performance. This suggests that at least for episodic memory tasks, the translational value is rather poor. For the human studies, detailed parameters of the compositions of word lists for declarative memory tests are discussed and it is concluded that tailored adaptations of tests to fit the hypothesis under study, rather than "off-the-shelf" use of existing tests, are recommended.

  20. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  1. Low emotional response to traumatic footage is associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks: an individual participant data meta-analysis of 16 trauma film paradigm experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Holmes, Emily A

    2015-01-01

    Most people will experience or witness a traumatic event. A common occurrence after trauma is the experience of involuntary emotional memories of the traumatic event, herewith "flashbacks". Some individuals, however, report no flashbacks. Prospective work investigating psychological factors associated with an absence of flashbacks is lacking. We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis on 16 experiments (n = 458) using the trauma film paradigm to investigate the association of emotional response to traumatic film footage and commonly collected baseline characteristics (trait anxiety, current depression, trauma history) with an absence of analogue flashbacks. An absence of analogue flashbacks was associated with low emotional response to the traumatic film footage and, to a lesser extent, low trait anxiety and low current depression levels. Trauma history and recognition memory for the film were not significantly associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks. Understanding why some individuals report an absence of flashbacks may aid preventative treatments against flashback development.

  2. Overgeneral memory in asylum seekers and refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Belinda; Herlihy, Jane; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-09-01

    Studies in western samples have shown that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are associated with overgeneral autobiographical memory retrieval. This study assesses whether this association extends to asylum seekers and refugees from diverse cultural backgrounds. We discuss implications for those providing testimony of their experiences when seeking asylum. 38 asylum seekers and refugees were recruited through clinics and community groups. Clinical interviews assessed PTSD and depression and participants completed a test of autobiographical memory specificity. When accounting for omissions, participants with PTSD and depression recalled a lower proportion of specific memories. Those with PTSD also failed more frequently to report any memory. The sample did not permit separate evaluation of the effects of PTSD and depression on specificity. Lower memory specificity observed in people experiencing PTSD and depression in western populations extends to asylum seekers and refugees from diverse cultural backgrounds. This study adds to the literature suggesting that being recognised as a refugee fleeing persecution is more difficult for those with post-traumatic symptoms and depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Second language acquisition after traumatic brain injury: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska-Fiszer, M; Mazaux, J M

    2008-01-01

    Post-traumatic language and memory impairment, as well as a subsequent recovery in monolinguals have been widely documented in the literature, yet little is known about learning the second language after a severe head trauma followed by coma, as well as the relationship of this process with cognitive recovery, psychological status and quality of life. The present study investigates the relationship of learning the second language (English) in the process of rehabilitation, with quality of life in a Polish female university student who, as a result of a car accident, suffered a major closed-head injury and was comatose for a month. The subject was enrolled in an English learning program nine months after the trauma. The experiment lasted six months and comprised monthly meetings. The patient improved the major components of the second language, including vocabulary. Within the 6 months, the subject was gradually capable of learning additional and more complex lexical items. Learning the second language after traumatic brain injury may positively influence emotional well-being, self-esteem, and, perhaps, recovery of quality of life. A long-term beneficial effect of learning L2 was a consequential improvement of the patient's memory.

  4. Cognitive abnormalities and neural mechanisms in post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting HU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that develops usually in response to an overwhelmingly terrifying or a life-threatening event. The symptoms including intrusion, flashback, re-experiencing, hyperarousal and avoidance can seriously impair the cognitive functions. At present, the researches have found PTSD patients had the difficulty in retrieving autobiographical memory and narrative disorder, attention bias toward traumatic stimulus and intellectual decline. Decrease in hippocampus and amygdala's volumes, excess endoplasmic reticulum stress, medial prefrontal cortex's low activation and highly excited response of the amygdala to the traumatic stimulus may be the neural mechanisms of cognitive abnormalities. In- depth research on cognitive abnormalities provides directions for PTSD prevention and treatment, and the cognitive treatment by prolonged exposure and attention control may be the effective method. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.09.14

  5. Incidental Retrieval of Emotional Contexts in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Matthew G.; Rugg, Michael D.; Smith, Adam P. R.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Brewin, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we used fMRI to assess patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression, and trauma-exposed controls, during an episodic memory retrieval task that included non-trauma-related emotional information. In the study phase of the task neutral pictures were presented in emotional or neutral contexts.…

  6. Chlorine inactivation of Tubifex tubifex in drinking water and the synergistic effect of sequential inactivation with UV irradiation and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Bao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Long, Yuan-Nan; He, Pan-Pan; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    The inactivation of Tubifex tubifex is important to prevent contamination of drinking water. Chlorine is a widely-used disinfectant and the key factor in the inactivation of T. tubifex. This study investigated the inactivation kinetics of chlorine on T. tubifex and the synergistic effect of the sequential use of chlorine and UV irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the Ct (concentration × time reaction ) concept could be used to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex with chlorine, thus allowing for the use of a simpler Ct approach for the assessment of T. tubifex chlorine inactivation requirements. The inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be well-fitted to a delayed pseudo first-order Chick-Watson expression. Sequential experiments revealed that UV irradiation and chlorine worked synergistically to effectively inactivate T. tubifex as a result of the decreased activation energy, E a , induced by primary UV irradiation. Furthermore, the inactivation effectiveness of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be affected by several drinking water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand with potassium permanganate (COD Mn ) concentration. High pH exhibited pronounced inactivation effectiveness and the decrease in turbidity and COD Mn concentrations contributed to the inactivation of T. tubifex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trauma Films, Information Processing, and Intrusive Memory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily A.; Brewin, Chris R.; Hennessy, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments indexed the effect of various concurrent tasks, while watching a traumatic film, on intrusive memory development. Hypotheses were based on the dual-representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder (C. R. Brewin, T. Dalgleish, & S. Joseph, 1996). Nonclinical participants viewed a trauma film under various encoding conditions…

  8. Subthreshold Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Ozten

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder is a very broad category among mental disorders. Since its inclusion in DSM-III, the diagnostic criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder has undergone a number of changes. The diagnosis and treatment of people who have some symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder without meeting full criteria still remains controversial. Although subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder has been debated since it was first defined, the presence of subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms has found to raise the risk for suicidal ideation significantly. This article overviews the definitions of trauma related disorders in history of psychiatry and highlights the need to define subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms that were reported to be associated with impairment, comorbidity, and suicidal ideation. Clinical differences between subthreshold and full post-traumatic stress disorder will also be discussed.

  9. The endocannabinoid system as a possible target to treat both the cognitive and emotional features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Trezza, Viviana; Campolongo, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder of significant prevalence and morbidity, whose pathogenesis relies on paradoxical changes of emotional memory processing. An ideal treatment would be a drug able to block the pathological over-consolidation and continuous retrieval of the traumatic event, while enhancing its extinction and reducing the anxiety symptoms. While the latter benefit from antidepressant medications, no drug is available to control the cognitive symptom...

  10. Evaluation after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Tina M.; Halper, James; Pines, Hayley; Cancro, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine if a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has occurred when an individual is assessed in a hospital emergency room after a car accident, fall, or other injury that affects the head. This determination influences decisions about treatment. It is essential to screen for the injury, because the sooner they begin appropriate…

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Brian; Schrer, Marcia J.; Gaeta, Raphael; Elias, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause multiple medical and functional problems. As the brain is involved in regulating nearly every bodily function, a TBI can affect any part of the body and aspect of cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning. However, TBI affects each individual differently. Optimal management requires understanding the…

  12. Hypopituitarism in Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Marianne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    While hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) was previously considered rare, it is now thought to be a major cause of treatable morbidity among TBI survivors. Consequently, recommendations for assessment of pituitary function and replacement in TBI were recently introduced. Given...

  13. Gastric traumatic injuries: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassandro, Francesco; Romano, Stefania; Rossi, Giovanni; Muto, Roberto; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Grassi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Gastric blunt traumatic injuries are uncommon and their radiological appearance has been infrequently reported in medical literature. These injuries are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, though they require immediate recognition to minimize their otherwise high mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study is to describe the radiological appearance of blunt gastric traumatic injuries. Materials and methods: Retrospective evaluation of a 25 patients series observed between January 1997 and May 2005. Results: We observed rupture of the stomach in 20% of cases, in 44% of cases a partial lesion of the stomach, in one case a necrotic post-traumatic volvulus, five patients (20%) had benign portal pneumatosis, in three patients the stomach was secondarily involved because of a diaphragmatic hernia. The fundus resulted to be the most frequently damaged part of the stomach (80%). Conclusions: Blunt traumatic injuries need a careful and systematic approach given their economical and social relevance. For these reasons uncommon lesions require attention and may be important to search for specific findings of gastric lesions

  14. Gastric traumatic injuries: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassandro, Francesco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.lassandro@fastwebnet.it; Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, V. Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Muto, Roberto [Department of Radiology, V. Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Cappabianca, Salvatore [Magrassi-Lanzara Department, Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Magrassi-Lanzara Department, Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Objective: Gastric blunt traumatic injuries are uncommon and their radiological appearance has been infrequently reported in medical literature. These injuries are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, though they require immediate recognition to minimize their otherwise high mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study is to describe the radiological appearance of blunt gastric traumatic injuries. Materials and methods: Retrospective evaluation of a 25 patients series observed between January 1997 and May 2005. Results: We observed rupture of the stomach in 20% of cases, in 44% of cases a partial lesion of the stomach, in one case a necrotic post-traumatic volvulus, five patients (20%) had benign portal pneumatosis, in three patients the stomach was secondarily involved because of a diaphragmatic hernia. The fundus resulted to be the most frequently damaged part of the stomach (80%). Conclusions: Blunt traumatic injuries need a careful and systematic approach given their economical and social relevance. For these reasons uncommon lesions require attention and may be important to search for specific findings of gastric lesions.

  15. The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C.; Stein, Thor D.; Kiernan, Patrick T.; Alvarez, Victor E.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive brain trauma is associated with a progressive neurological deterioration, now termed as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Most instances of CTE occur in association with the play of sports, but CTE has also been reported in association with blast injuries and other neurotrauma. Symptoms of CTE include behavioral and mood changes, memory loss, cognitive impairment and dementia. Like many other neurodegenerative diseases, CTE is diagnosed with certainty only by neuropathological examination of brain tissue. CTE is a tauopathy characterized by the deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) protein as neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic tangles and neurites in striking clusters around small blood vessels of the cortex, typically at the sulcal depths. Severely affected cases show p-tau pathology throughout the brain. Abnormalities in phosphorylated 43 kDa TAR DNA-binding protein are found in most cases of CTE; beta-amyloid is identified in 43%, associated with age. Given the importance of sports participation and physical exercise to physical and psychological health as well as disease resilience, it is critical to identify the genetic risk factors for CTE as well as to understand how other variables, such as stress, age at exposure, gender, substance abuse and other exposures, contribute to the development of CTE. PMID:25904048

  16. Patient-reported outcomes in post-traumatic stress disorder Part II: Focus on pharmacological treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with long-lasting psychological suffering, distressing psychosocial disability, markedly reduced health-related quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality in a subgroup of individuals in the aftermath of serious traumatic events. Both etiopathogenesis and treatment modalities of PTSD are best conceptualized within a biopsychosotial model. Pharmacotherapy may lay claim to a major role in the multimodal treatment approaches. Here we outline two different pharmacotherapeutic trends that aim to modify the encoding, consolidation, and rehearsal of traumatic memory in order to reduce the risk of PTSD immediately after trauma exposure on the one hand, and that endeavor to treat the clinical state of PTSD on the other. The theoretical rationales of both pharmacological strategies are the complex neurobiological underpinnings that characterize traumatic memory organization and clinical PTSD. Meanwhile, promising data from randomized controlled trials have been obtained for both approaches. Empirical evidence may inform clinicians in their clinical efforts for this special group of patients. The efficacy of several classes of drugs that have been investigated within a context of research should be evaluated critically and still have to stand the test of effectiveness in daily clinical practice. From a patient perspective, empirical results may serve as a psychoeducative guideline to what pharmacotherapeutic approaches may realistically achieve, what their risks and benefits are, and what their limits are in contributing to reducing the often major chronic suffering caused by serious traumatic events. Ethical issues have to be considered, particularly in the context of pharmacological strategies projected to prevent PTSD in the aftermath of traumatic exposure. PMID:25152660

  17. Open-label study of donepezil in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanic, C A; Bayley, M T; VanReekum, R; Simard, M

    2001-07-01

    To determine preliminarily whether donepezil will improve memory, behavior, and global function after chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixteen-week open-label study. Outpatient TBI rehabilitation program. Four patients with chronic, severe TBI. Donepezil 5mg daily for 8 weeks followed by 10mg daily for 4 weeks. Memory measures included the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), the Complex Figure Test (CFT), items from the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT), and a semantic fluency task. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) evaluated behavior and affect. Function was assessed by using the FIM instrument and a clinical global impression of change. On the RAVLT, the mean scores for learning and short- and long-term recall improved by 0.4, 1.04, and.83 standard deviations (SDs) above baseline, respectively. On the CFT, the mean scores for short-term recall and long-term recall improved by 1.56 and 1.38 SDs above baseline, respectively. A positive trend was observed on the RBMT and on the NPI subscales. Donepezil may improve some aspects of memory and behavior in persons with chronic TBI. Randomized clinical trials are required to support these preliminary findings. Copyright 2001 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  18. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds......Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  19. Disputed Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , individual and political discourse and electronic social media. Analyzing memory disputes in various local, national and transnational contexts, the chapters demonstrate the political power and social impact of painful and disputed memories. The book brings new insights into current memory disputes...... in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. It contributes to the understanding of processes of memory transmission and negotiation across borders and cultures in Europe, emphasizing the interconnectedness of memory with emotions, mediation and politics....... century in the region. Written by an international group of scholars from a diversity of disciplines, the chapters approach memory disputes in methodologically innovative ways, studying representations and negotiations of disputed pasts in different media, including monuments, museum exhibitions...

  20. Chilled to the bone: embodied countertransference and unspoken traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, Luisa

    2017-11-01

    Starting from a deeply challenging experience of early embodied countertransference in a first encounter with a new patient, the author explores the issues it raised. Such moments highlight projective identification as well as what Stone (2006) has described as 'embodied resonance in the countertransference'. In these powerful experiences linear time and subject boundaries are altered, and this leads to central questions about analytic work. As well as discussing the uncanny experience at the very beginning of an analytic encounter and its challenges for the analytic field, the author considers 'the time horizon of analytic process' (Hogenson ), the relationship between 'moments of complexity and analytic boundaries' (Cambray ) and the role of mirror neurons in intersubjective experience. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  1. Adult eyewitness memory for single versus repeated traumatic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, T.P.M.; Meyer, T.; Memon, A.; Weinsheimer, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    Reports from individuals who have witnessed multiple, similar emotional events may differ from reports from witnesses of only a single event. To test this, we had participants (N = 65) view a video of a road traffic accident. Half of the participants saw two additional (similar) aversive films.

  2. Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other per...

  3. X Inactivation and Progenitor Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Agrelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes is necessary to achieve dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding RNA called Xist triggers X inactivation. Gene silencing by Xist can only be achieved in certain contexts such as in cells of the early embryo and in certain hematopoietic progenitors where silencing factors are present. Moreover, these epigenetic contexts are maintained in cancer progenitors in which SATB1 has been identified as a factor related to Xist-mediated chromosome silencing.

  4. Pharmacotherapy as prophylactic treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Autumn Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has a lifetime prevalence of almost 9% in the United States. The diagnosis is associated with increased rates of comorbid substance abuse and increased rates of depression. Providers are taught how to diagnose and treat PTSD, but little discussion is devoted to how to prevent the disorder. Behavioral research in animal studies has provided some evidence for the use of medications in decreasing the fear response and the reconsolidation of memories. A heightened fear response and the re-experience of traumatic memory are key components for diagnosis. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the evidence for pharmacotherapy as prophylactic treatment in acute stress/trauma in order to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. The body of the review includes discussions on medications, medications as adjunct to script-driven imagery, and special considerations for military, first responders, and women. This article concludes with implications for practice and recommendations for future research. The key words used for the literature search were "prophylactic treatment of PTSD," "pharmacotherapy and trauma," "pharmacological prevention of PTSD," "beta blockers and the prevention of PTSD," "acute stress and prevention of PTSD," "propranolol and PTSD," "secondary prevention of PTSD," and "medications used to prevent PTSD." Findings were categorized by medications and medications as adjunct to script-driven imagery. The literature suggests that hydrocortisone, propranolol, and morphine may decrease symptoms and diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  5. Memory deficit in patients with schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder: relational vs item-specific memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wookyoung Jung,1 Seung-Hwan Lee1,2 1Clinical Emotions and Cognition Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea Abstract: It has been well established that patients with schizophrenia have impairments in cognitive functioning and also that patients who experienced traumatic events suffer from cognitive deficits. Of the cognitive deficits revealed in schizophrenia or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients, the current article provides a brief review of deficit in episodic memory, which is highly predictive of patients’ quality of life and global functioning. In particular, we have focused on studies that compared relational and item-specific memory performance in schizophrenia and PTSD, because measures of relational and item-specific memory are considered the most promising constructs for immediate tangible development of clinical trial paradigm. The behavioral findings of schizophrenia are based on the tasks developed by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS initiative and the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia (CNTRACS Consortium. The findings we reviewed consistently showed that schizophrenia and PTSD are closely associated with more severe impairments in relational memory compared to item-specific memory. Candidate brain regions involved in relational memory impairment in schizophrenia and PTSD are also discussed. Keywords: schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, episodic memory deficit, relational memory, item-specific memory, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus

  6. Extinction after retrieval: effects on the associative and nonassociative components of remote contextual fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzi, Marco; Cannas, Sara; Saraulli, Daniele; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Cestari, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Long-lasting memories of adverse experiences are essential for individuals' survival but are also involved, in the form of recurrent recollections of the traumatic experience, in the aetiology of anxiety diseases (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]). Extinction-based erasure of fear memories has long been pursued as a behavioral way to treat anxiety disorders; yet, such a procedure turns out to be transient, context-dependent, and ineffective unless it is applied immediately after trauma. Recent evidence indicates that, in both rats and humans, extinction training can prevent the return of fear if administered within the reconsolidation window, when memories become temporarily labile and susceptible of being updated. Here, we show that the reconsolidation-extinction procedure fails to prevent the spontaneous recovery of a remote contextual fear memory in a mouse model of PTSD, as well as the long-lasting behavioral abnormalities induced by traumatic experience on anxiety and in both social and cognitive domains (i.e., social withdrawal and spatial learning deficits). Such a failure appears to be related to the ineffectiveness of the reconsolidation-extinction procedure in targeting the pathogenic process of fear sensitization, a nonassociative component of traumatic memory that causes animals to react aberrantly to harmless stimuli. This indicates fear sensitization as a major target for treatments aimed at mitigating anxiety and the behavioral outcomes of traumatic experiences.

  7. Hormonal regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking and memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen J Krugers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans and rodents retain memories for stressful events very well. The facilitated retention of these memories is normally very useful. However, in susceptible individuals a variety of pathological conditions may develop in which memories related to stressful events remain inappropriately present, such as in post-traumatic stress disorder. The memory enhancing effects of stress are mediated by hormones, such as norepinephrine and glucocorticoids which are released during stressful experiences. Here we review recently identified molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of stress hormones on synaptic efficacy and learning and memory. We discuss AMPA receptors as major target for stress hormones and describe a model in which norepinephrine and glucocorticoids are able to strengthen and prolong different phases of stressful memories.

  8. Neurobiology and neurodevelopmental impact of childhood traumatic stress and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-04-01

    Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic experience alone. Although the harmful effects of both have been well documented individually, there is no research documenting the concurrent effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal trauma on a child's developmental process. Transdisciplinary assessment of the children included the core disciplines of medicine, speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, social work, and psychology. Medical examination, standardized developmental and intelligence testing, projective tools, parent questionnaires, and psychosocial interviews provided information in the primary developmental areas. Findings indicated that children who had been exposed prenatally to alcohol along with postnatal traumatic experience had lower intelligence scores and more severe neurodevelopmental deficits in language, memory, visual processing, motor skills, and attention than did traumatized children without prenatal alcohol exposure, as well as greater oppositional/defiant behavior, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and social problems. Successful teacher and speech-language pathologist interventions with traumatized children with prenatal alcohol exposure demand a paradigm shift that requires the development of new perspectives and ongoing training.

  9. Traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and Internet addiction symptoms among late adolescents: A moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Caretti, Vincenzo; La Marca, Luana; Granieri, Antonella; Iacolino, Calogero; Gervasi, Alessia M; Maganuco, Noemi R; Billieux, Joël

    2017-01-01

    The association between traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and substance abuse is well established. Less is known about the role of traumatic experiences and alexithymia in the onset and maintenance of Internet-related disorders. In the present study, self-report measures on traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and problematic Internet use were administered to 358 high school students (57% females) aged 18-19years old, to test whether alexithymic traits mediated the relationship between traumatic experiences and Internet addiction symptoms, and whether gender moderated the proposed mediation in the sample. While partial mediation occurred in the entire sample, gender directly affected the relationship between the investigated constructs: Internet addiction symptoms were independently related to traumatic experiences among males, and to alexithymic traits among females. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that trauma memories among males, and problems with affect regulation among females, may increase the risk of problematic Internet use during late adolescence. Such findings might have relevant implications to inform any treatment plan for late adolescent students who are overinvolved with online activities, pointing out that tailored approaches to their problems and difficulties are particularly needed in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impaired cognitive functions in mild traumatic brain injury patients with normal and pathologic magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurca, E.; Sivak, S.; Kucera, P.

    2006-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common neurological (neurotraumatological) diagnosis. As well as different subjective symptoms, many patients develop neuropsychological dysfunction with objective impairment of attention, memory and certain executive functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not routinely used in MTBI patients despite its proven greater sensitivity and specificity in comparison with computed tomography (CT). The patient group consisted of 30 persons with MTBI and the control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Both groups underwent neurological examination, neuropsychological testing (including the Postconcussion Symptoms Scale questionnaire, PCSS) and brain MRI (the patient group within 96 h after injury). The analyzed groups did not differ significantly in terms of sex, age, or level or duration of education. MRI pathological findings (traumatic and nonspecific) were present in nine patients. Traumatic lesions were found in seven patients. Nonspecific white matter lesions were found in five healthy controls. There were significant differences between MTBI patients and controls in terms of subjective symptoms (PCSS) and selected neuropsychological tests. Statistically significant neuropsychological differences were found between MTBI patients with true traumatic lesions and MTBI patients with nonspecific lesions. There is evidence that MTBI patients with true traumatic MRI lesions are neuropsychologically different from MTBI patients with nonspecific MRI lesions or normal brain MRI. These results support the hypothesis that some acute MTBI signs and symptoms have a real organic basis which can be detected by selected new MRI modalities. (orig.)

  11. Impaired cognitive functions in mild traumatic brain injury patients with normal and pathologic magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurca, E.; Sivak, S. [Comenius University, Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Kucera, P. [Comenius University, 1st Clinic of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-09-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common neurological (neurotraumatological) diagnosis. As well as different subjective symptoms, many patients develop neuropsychological dysfunction with objective impairment of attention, memory and certain executive functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not routinely used in MTBI patients despite its proven greater sensitivity and specificity in comparison with computed tomography (CT). The patient group consisted of 30 persons with MTBI and the control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Both groups underwent neurological examination, neuropsychological testing (including the Postconcussion Symptoms Scale questionnaire, PCSS) and brain MRI (the patient group within 96 h after injury). The analyzed groups did not differ significantly in terms of sex, age, or level or duration of education. MRI pathological findings (traumatic and nonspecific) were present in nine patients. Traumatic lesions were found in seven patients. Nonspecific white matter lesions were found in five healthy controls. There were significant differences between MTBI patients and controls in terms of subjective symptoms (PCSS) and selected neuropsychological tests. Statistically significant neuropsychological differences were found between MTBI patients with true traumatic lesions and MTBI patients with nonspecific lesions. There is evidence that MTBI patients with true traumatic MRI lesions are neuropsychologically different from MTBI patients with nonspecific MRI lesions or normal brain MRI. These results support the hypothesis that some acute MTBI signs and symptoms have a real organic basis which can be detected by selected new MRI modalities. (orig.)

  12. Music-Based Cognitive Remediation Therapy for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hegde, Shantala

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the common causes of disability in physical, psychological, and social domains of functioning leading to poor quality of life. TBI leads to impairment in sensory, motor, language, and emotional processing, and also in cognitive functions such as attention, information processing, executive functions, and memory. Cognitive impairment plays a central role in functional recovery in TBI. Innovative methods such as music therapy to alleviate cognitive impairm...

  13. Traumatic childhood sexual events and secondary sexual health complaints in neurotic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Katarzyna Klasa,; Dembińska, Edyta; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Cyranka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Assessment of the association between self-reported sexual complaints and recalled childhood sexual adversities in a sample of psychotherapy patients.Material and methods. Coexistence of memories concerning traumatic events and minor sexual adversities and the currently present symptoms were analyzed on the basis of KO”0” Symptom Checklist andLife Inventory completed prior to treatment in the day hospital for neurotic disorders. Questionnaires from 3929 psychotherapy patients were analyz...

  14. Seeking a Spotless Mind: Extinction, Deconsolidation, and Erasure of Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Learning to contend with threats in the environment is essential to survival, but dysregulation of memories for traumatic events can lead to disabling psychopathology. Recent years have witnessed an impressive growth in our understanding of the neural systems and synaptic mechanisms underlying emotional memory formation. As a consequence, interest has emerged in developing strategies for suppressing, if not eliminating, fear memories. Here I review recent work employing sophisticated behavioral, pharmacological, and molecular tools to target fear memories, placing these memories firmly behind the crosshairs of neurobiologically informed interventions. PMID:21658578

  15. Paradoxical mineralocorticoid receptor-mediated effect in fear memory encoding and expression of rats submitted to an olfactory fear conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, R.R.; Dal Bó, S.; de Kloet, E.R.; Oitzl, M.S.; Carobrez, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    There is general agreement that the substantial modification in memory and motivational states exerted by corticosteroids after a traumatic experience is mediated in complementary manner by the mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors. Here we tested the hypothesis that

  16. Radiation inactivation of T7 phage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.; Redpath, J.L.; Grossweiner, L.I.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation inactivation of T7 phage by 25-MeV electron pulses has been measured in various media containing a wide concentration range of radical scavenging solutes and in the presence of protective and sensitizing agents. The dependence of sensitivity on pulse dose, from 1 mrad to 3.6 krad, is attributed to radical depletion via bimolecular processes. The survival data are analyzed by extending target theory to include diffusive reactions of primary and secondary radicals generated in the medium. It is concluded that OH radicals are the principal primary inactivating species and that secondary radicals from Br - , CNS - , uracil, glucose, ribose, sucrose, tyrosine, and histidine are lethal to some extent. In nutrient broth or 100 mM histidine, psoralen derivatives, Actinomycin D, and Mitomycin C are anoxic sensitizers. It is proposed that the psoralens promote the formation of non-strand break lesions as the sensitization mechanism. The target theory based on diffusional kinetics is applicable to other systems including single cells

  17. Instrument for Study of Microbial Thermal Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, R. W.; Read, R. B.

    1968-01-01

    An instrument was designed for the study of thermal inactivation of microorganisms using heating times of less than 1 sec. The instrument operates on the principle of rapid automatic displacement of the microorganism to and from a saturated steam atmosphere, and the operating temperature range is 50 to 90 C. At a temperature of 70 C, thermometric lag (time required to respond to 63.2% of a step change) of the fluid sample containing microorganisms was 0.12 sec. Heating time required to heat the sample to within 0.1 C of the exposure temperature was less than 1 sec, permitting exposure periods as brief as 1 sec, provided the proper corrections are made for the lethal effect of heating. The instrument is most useful for heat exposure periods of less than 5 min, and, typically, more than 500 samples can be processed for microbial inactivation determinations within an 8-hr period. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:4874466

  18. Influvac, a trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Fabiano, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Influenza represents a major sanitary and socio-economic burden and vaccination is universally considered the most effective strategy for preventing the disease and its complications. Traditional influenza vaccines have been on the market since the late 1940s, with million of doses administered annually worldwide, and demonstrated a substantial efficacy and safety. The trivalent inactivated subunit vaccine has been available for more than 25 years and has been studied in healthy children, adults and the elderly and in people affected by underlying chronic medical conditions. We describe vaccine technology focusing on subunit vaccine production procedures and mode of action and provide updated information on efficacy and safety available data. A review of efficacy and safety data in healthy subjects and in high risk populations from major sponsor- and investigator-driven studies. The vaccine showed a good immunogenicity and a favorable safety profile in all target groups. In the panorama of actually available influenza vaccines, trivalent inactivated subunit vaccine represents a well-established tool for preventing flu and the associated complications.

  19. Photodynamic inactivation of pathogens causing infectious keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carole; Wolf, G.; Walther, M.; Winkler, K.; Finke, M.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bischoff, Markus; Seitz, B.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance requires new approaches also for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was investigated as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. An in-vitro cornea model was established using porcine eyes. The uptake of Ce6 by bacteria and the diffusion of the PS in the individual layers of corneal tissue were investigated by fluorescence. After removal of the cornea's epithelium Ce6-concentrations tested in liquid culture against different concentrations of Ce6 (1 - 512 μM) using 10 minutes irradiation (E = 18 J/cm2 ). This demonstrated that a complete inactivation of the pathogen strains were feasible whereby SA was slightly more susceptible than PA. 3909 mutants of the Keio collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) were screened for potential resistance factors. The sensitive mutants can be grouped into three categories: transport mutants, mutants in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and mutants in the bacterial SOS-response. In conclusion PDI is seen as a promising therapy concept for infectious keratitis.

  20. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. Defense Health Care: Research on Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury and Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder Why GAO Did This Study TBI and PTSD are signature...injury (TBI) and post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), most of which were focused solely on TBI (29 articles). The 32 articles consisted of 7 case...Case Report Articles on Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy to Treat Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) or Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ),

  2. Collaging Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  3. Memory Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas G.; Nowak, Norman

    This paper outlines several "tricks" that aid students in improving their memories. The distinctions between operational and figural thought processes are noted. Operational memory is described as something that allows adults to make generalizations about numbers and the rules by which they may be combined, thus leading to easier memorization.…

  4. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...

  5. Episodic Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  6. Flavor Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Jos; Köster, Ep

    2016-01-01

    Odor, taste, texture, temperature, and pain all contribute to the perception and memory of food flavor. Flavor memory is also strongly linked to the situational aspects of previous encounters with the flavor, but does not depend on the precise recollection of its sensory features as in vision and

  7. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  8. Children's memories of removal: a test of attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinder, Annika; Baugerud, Gunn Astrid; Ovenstad, Kristianne Stigsdatter; Goodman, Gail S

    2013-02-01

    We report a study of parents' attachment orientations and children's autobiographical memory for an experience that according to Bowlby's (1982) attachment theory should be particularly threatening-children's forced separation from their parents. It was hypothesized that individual differences in parents' attachment orientations would be associated with children's distress and memory for this highly traumatic event. Children (n = 28) were observed during forced removal from home or school by Child Protective Services due to allegations of child maltreatment. Children's memory for the removal was tested 1 week later, and biological parents (n = 28) completed an adult attachment measure. Parental attachment anxiety significantly predicted children's distress during less stressful phases of the removal, R(2) = .25, and parents' attachment-related avoidance predicted fewer correct memory reports from the children (i.e., fewer hits to open-ended questions, R(2) = .16, and fewer hits to direct questions, R(2) = .27). The findings indicate that attachment theory provides important guidance for understanding children's autobiographical memory for traumatic events. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Accessing memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Doe Hyun; Muralimanohar, Naveen; Chang, Jichuan; Ranganthan, Parthasarathy

    2017-09-26

    A disclosed example method involves performing simultaneous data accesses on at least first and second independently selectable logical sub-ranks to access first data via a wide internal data bus in a memory device. The memory device includes a translation buffer chip, memory chips in independently selectable logical sub-ranks, a narrow external data bus to connect the translation buffer chip to a memory controller, and the wide internal data bus between the translation buffer chip and the memory chips. A data access is performed on only the first independently selectable logical sub-rank to access second data via the wide internal data bus. The example method also involves locating a first portion of the first data, a second portion of the first data, and the second data on the narrow external data bus during separate data transfers.

  10. [Support psychotherapy in traumatic situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sales, Pau; Vázquez Valverde, Carmelo

    2003-12-01

    It seems that a certain consensus exists to speak about a traumatic situation as an experience which is made up of a threat on the physical or psychological integrity of a person and against which one responds with fear, desperation and intensive horror. Different psychological phenomena are involved with the manner through which a human being confronts his/her past. In particular, the response to traumatic situations, mourning, and blame share their characteristic of being an irreversible living reality related to facts, loss or past impacts and it is necessary to integrate these in one's life in order to advance; these comprise a triangle frequently coexisting and interconnected. Aid for these three situations has, therefore, as common elements, two premises: an active task is required by the person who suffers this situation; this person must, in some form, desire to move ahead. One can not toil in mourning, in a traumatic experience, or in a life of blame if these have a positive symbolic value for this person; for example, mourning as a manner not to treason the dead person by forgetting that person, the reliving a trauma as an attempt to provide some sense to the actions which occurred, or blame as a desire to not forget an error or as a final punishment of this active task; the final objective of this active task is not usually to forget but to integrate in order to live. If a person does not perceive this clearly, this person may not become actively involved in the task to overcome a traumatic situation and to move ahead, nor will that person accept that a person who tries to help questions this person's realities or experiences.

  11. Scale down of the inactivated polio vaccine production process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Y.E.; Oever, van 't R.; Vinke, C.M.; Spiekstra, A.; Wijffels, R.H.; Pol, van der L.A.; Bakker, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The anticipated increase in the demand for inactivated polio vaccines resulting from the success in the polio eradication program requires an increase in production capacity and cost price reduction of the current inactivated polio vaccine production processes. Improvement of existing production

  12. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during

  13. Quantum chromodynamics as the sequential fragmenting with inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the modified leading log approximation of the perturbative QCD and the sequential binary fragmentation process. We will show that in the absence of inactivation, this process is equivalent to the QCD gluodynamics. The inactivation term yields a precise prescription of how to include the hadronization in the QCD equations. (authors)

  14. Quantum chromodynamics as the sequential fragmenting with inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botet, R. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1996-12-31

    We investigate the relation between the modified leading log approximation of the perturbative QCD and the sequential binary fragmentation process. We will show that in the absence of inactivation, this process is equivalent to the QCD gluodynamics. The inactivation term yields a precise prescription of how to include the hadronization in the QCD equations. (authors). 15 refs.

  15. Mutual inactivation of Notch receptors and ligands facilitates developmental patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sprinzak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression perturbations. For lateral inhibition, we find that mutual inactivation speeds up patterning dynamics, relieves the need for cooperative regulatory interactions, and expands the range of parameter values that permit pattern formation, compared to canonical models. Furthermore, mutual inactivation enables a simple lateral inhibition circuit architecture which requires only a single downstream regulatory step. Both model systems show how mutual inactivation can facilitate robust fine-grained patterning processes that would be difficult to implement without it, by encoding a difference-promoting feedback within the signaling system itself. Together, these results provide a framework for analysis of more complex Notch-dependent developmental systems.

  16. The pulsed light inactivation of veterinary relevant microbial biofilms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that both Cryptosporidium and Giardia attach to biofilms in large numbers (100-1000 oo/cysts) in as little as 72 hours. Pulsed light successfully inactivated all test species (Listeria, Salmonella, Bacillus, Escherichia) in planktonic and biofilm form with an increase in inactivation for every increase in UV dose.

  17. Ebola Virus Inactivation by Detergents Is Annulled in Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; Tintu, Andrei; Russcher, Henk; Fraaij, Pieter L. A.; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.; Rijken, Mikel; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Koelewijn, Rob; de Jong, Menno D.; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Robert J.; Munster, Vincent J.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of blood samples from hemorrhagic fever virus (HFV)-infected patients with 0.1% detergents has been recommended for virus inactivation and subsequent safe laboratory testing. However, data on virus inactivation by this procedure are lacking. Here we show the effect of this procedure on

  18. Method of inactivating reproducible forms of mycoplasma in biological preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veber, P.; Jurmanova, K.; Lesko, J.; Hana, L.; Veber, V.

    1978-01-01

    Inactivation of mycoplasms in biological materials was achieved using gamma radiation with a dose rate of 1x10 4 to 5x10 6 rads/h for 1 to 250 hours. The technique is advantageous for allowing the inactivation of the final form of products (tablets, vaccines, etc.). (J.P.)

  19. Traumatic brain lesions in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nícollas Nunes Rabelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant. The high neonatal morbidity and mortality rates attest to the fragility of life during this period. The incidence of birth trauma is 0.8%, varying from 0.2-2 per 1,000 births. The aim of this study is to describe brain traumas, and their mechanism, anatomy considerations, and physiopathology of the newborn traumatic brain injury. Methods A literature review using the PubMed data base, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, The Cochrane Database, Google Scholar, and clinical trials. Selected papers from 1922 to 2016 were studied. We selected 109 papers, through key-words, with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Discussion This paper discusses the risk factors for birth trauma, the anatomy of the occipito-anterior and vertex presentation, and traumatic brain lesions. Conclusion Birth-related traumatic brain injury may cause serious complications in newborn infants. Its successful management includes special training, teamwork, and an individual approach.

  20. Traumatic hip dislocations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minhas, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate clinical features, treatment and relationship to the time period between dislocation, reduction and early complications of traumatic dislocation of hip in children. Methods: Case series conducted at Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre Karachi from July 2005 to August 2009. Children with traumatic hip dislocation up to fifteen years of age who presented in last four years were included in this study. Their clinical information, etiology, associated injuries, duration, method of reduction and early complications are evaluated through emergency room proforma and indoor record. Follow up of patient was updated in outpatient department. Results: We had eight patients, six boys and two girls. Youngest 2.4 years and eldest was 12 years with mean age of 6.2 +- 3.8 years. All presented with posterior hip dislocation. Etiology was road traffic accident in two and history of fall in remaining six patients. Average duration of time between dislocation and reduction was 19 hours range 3-72 hours. Dislocated hips were reduced under General Anaesthesia in two patients and under sedation analgesia in six patients. No complications were noted in eight cases with mean 18.75 +- 13.23 months follows up. Conclusion: Traumatic hip dislocation in children is not rare. Slight trauma causes dislocation in younger age and immediate closed reduction and Immobilization reduces complications. (author

  1. Therapeutic Sleep for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0166 TITLE: Therapeutic Sleep for Traumatic Brain Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ravi Allada CONTRACTING...1. REPORT DATE June 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1June2016 - 31May2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Therapeutic Sleep for Traumatic Brain ...proposal will test the hypothesis that correcting sleep disorders can have a therapeutic effect onTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI) The majority of TBI

  2. Traumatic hemipelvectomy (amputae: Report of one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol U. Hutagalung

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic hemipelvectomy (amputae is a catastrophic injury resulting front violent shearing forces which avulsed the lower limb at the level sacroiliac joint and symphisis pubis. Patients surviving traumatic hemipelvectomy are rare. One case of a 25 months old girl surviving traumatic hemipelvectomy, is presented. This is the first case reported from Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 169-73Keywords: Colostomy, skin graft, traffic accident

  3. An audit of traumatic nerve injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, G

    2009-07-01

    The impact of trauma in the Irish healthcare setting is considerable. We present the results of a retrospective assessment of referrals to a Neurophysiology department for suspected traumatic nerve injury. A broad range of traumatic neuropathies was demonstrated on testing, from numerous causes. We demonstrate an increased liklihood of traumatic nerve injury after fracture \\/ dislocation (p = 0.007). Our series demonstrates the need for clinicians to be aware of the possibility of nerve injury post trauma, especially after bony injury.

  4. Traumatic bone cyst resembling apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D

    1997-10-01

    Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.

  5. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well.

  6. The Effects of β-Adrenergic Blockade on the Degrading Effects of Eye Movements on Negative Autobiographical Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, Marianne; Kenemans, J. Leon; Baas, Johanna M.P.; Logemann, H. N.Alexander; Rijken, Nellie; Remijn, Malou; Hassink, Rutger J.; Engelhard, Iris M.; van den Hout, Marcel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During EMDR, patients make horizontal eye movements (EMs) while simultaneously recalling a traumatic memory, which renders the memory less vivid and emotional when it is later

  7. The Influence of Thought Suppression and Cognitive Load on Intrusions and Memory Processes following an Analogue Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Reginald D. V.; Cain, Neralie; Nehmy, Thomas; Seymour, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Ironic Process Theory and the role of thought suppression have been used in part to explain the phenomenon of intrusive memories in various disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. How thought suppression interacts with other cognitive processes believed to be instrumental in the development of traumatic intrusive memory is unclear. In…

  8. Chronic issues related to traumatic brain injury : traumatic brain injury is not an incident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauwmeijer, Erik; van der Naalt, Joukje; ribbers, gerard

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increased awareness of the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury, health care professionals often consider traumatic brain injury as an incident. However, patients with traumatic brain injury may experience long-term neurological, cognitive and behavioural problems. Due to the

  9. The influence of occupational debriefing on post-traumatic stress symptomatology in traumatized police officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlier, I. V.; Voerman, A. E.; Gersons, B. P.

    2000-01-01

    Certain individuals, such as police officers, are exposed to traumatic events as part of their occupational roles. In an effort to prevent psychological illnesses, notably the post-traumatic stress disorder, from arising out of work-related traumatic incidents, psychological interventions have been

  10. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  11. Modelling and application of the inactivation of microorganism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oğuzhan, P.; Yangılar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of consuming contaminated food with toxic microorganisms causing infections and consideration of food protection and new microbial inactivation methods are obligatory situations. Food microbiology is mainly related with unwanted microorganisms spoiling foods during processing and transporting stages and causing diseases. Determination of pathogen microorganisms is important for human health to define and prevent dangers and elongate shelf life. Inactivation of pathogen microorganisms can provide food security and reduce nutrient losses. Microbial inactivation which is using methods of food protection such as food safety and fresh. With this aim, various methods are used such as classical thermal processes (pasteurisation, sterilisation), pressured electrical field (PEF), ionised radiation, high pressure, ultrasonic waves and plasma sterilisation. Microbial inactivation modelling is a secure and effective method in food production. A new microbiological application can give useful results for risk assessment in food, inactivation of microorganisms and improvement of shelf life. Application and control methods should be developed and supported by scientific research and industrial applications

  12. Laser ignition of traumatically embedded firework debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C R

    1998-01-01

    The Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) has a good track record for traumatic tattoo removal. An unusual case of QSRL-treatment of a traumatic tattoo composed of firework debris is presented. A young man's traumatic tattoo, composed of firework debris, underwent QSRL ablation at 4-7 J/cm2 (pulse width 5 mm; duration 20 ns). Each test pulse produced visible sparks and focal projectile ejection of skin with pox-like scar formation. Caution is advised when using the QSRL for the treatment of traumatic tattoos composed of potentially combustible debris.

  13. Inactivation of Parietal Reach Region Affects Reaching But Not Saccade Choices in Internally Guided Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Vassilios N; Bonaiuto, James; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A

    2015-08-19

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has traditionally been considered important for awareness, spatial perception, and attention. However, recent findings provide evidence that the PPC also encodes information important for making decisions. These findings have initiated a running argument of whether the PPC is critically involved in decision making. To examine this issue, we reversibly inactivated the parietal reach region (PRR), the area of the PPC that is specialized for reaching movements, while two monkeys performed a memory-guided reaching or saccade task. The task included choices between two equally rewarded targets presented simultaneously in opposite visual fields. Free-choice trials were interleaved with instructed trials, in which a single cue presented in the peripheral visual field defined the reach and saccade target unequivocally. We found that PRR inactivation led to a strong reduction of contralesional choices, but only for reaches. On the other hand, saccade choices were not affected by PRR inactivation. Importantly, reaching and saccade movements to single instructed targets remained largely intact. These results cannot be explained as an effector-nonspecific deficit in spatial attention or awareness, since the temporary "lesion" had an impact only on reach choices. Hence, the PPR is a part of a network for reach decisions and not just reach planning. There has been an ongoing debate on whether the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) represents only spatial awareness, perception, and attention or whether it is also involved in decision making for actions. In this study we explore whether the parietal reach region (PRR), the region of the PPC that is specialized for reaches, is involved in the decision process. We inactivated the PRR while two monkeys performed reach and saccade choices between two targets presented simultaneously in both hemifields. We found that inactivation affected only the reach choices, while leaving saccade choices intact

  14. Pharmacological effects of cannabinoids on learning and memory in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Hatakeyama, Dai; Lee, Sangmin; Forest, Jeremy; Sakakibara, Manabu; Ito, Etsuro; Lukowiak, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Cannabinoids are hypothesized to play an important role in modulating learning and memory formation. Here, we identified mRNAs expressed in Lymnaea stagnalis central nervous system that encode two G-protein-coupled receptors ( Lymnaea CBr-like 1 and 2) that structurally resemble mammalian cannabinoid receptors (CBrs). We found that injection of a mammalian CBr agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN 55) into the snail before operant conditioning obstructed learning and memory formation. This effect of WIN 55 injection persisted for at least 4 days following its injection. A similar obstruction of learning and memory occurred when a severe traumatic stimulus was delivered to L. stagnalis In contrast, injection of a mammalian CBr antagonist AM 251 enhanced long-term memory formation in snails and reduced the duration of the effects of the severe traumatic stressor on learning and memory. Neither WIN 55 nor AM 251 altered normal homeostatic aerial respiratory behaviour elicited in hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that putative cannabinoid receptors mediate stressful stimuli that alter learning and memory formation in Lymnaea This is also the first demonstration that putative CBrs are present in Lymnaea and play a key role in learning and memory formation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetti by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F.; Williams, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79 C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0-64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of hte micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing C. burnetti was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes.

  16. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetii by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F. (Army Medical Research Inst. of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD (USA)); Williams, J.C. (National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79{sup 0}C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0.64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of the micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing 10{sup 11} C. burnetii ml{sup -1} was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes. (author).

  17. Inactivation of mitochondrial ATPase by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, E.; Cuellar, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present work describes experiments that show that far-ultraviolet irradiation induce the inhibition of ATPase activity in both membrane-bound and soluble F1. It was also found that ultraviolet light promotes the release of tightly bound adenine nucleotides from F1-ATPase. Experiments carried out with submitochondrial particles indicate that succinate partially protects against these effects of ultraviolet light. Titration of sulfhydryl groups in both irradiated submitochondrial particles and soluble F1-ATPase indicates that a conformational change induced by photochemical modifications of amino acid residues appears involved in the inactivation of the enzyme. Finally, experiments are described which show that the tyrosine residue located in the active site of F1-ATPase is modified by ultraviolet irradiation

  18. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetii by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F.; Williams, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79 0 C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0.64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of the micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing 10 11 C. burnetii ml -1 was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes. (author)

  19. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  20. Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme and Inactivation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Yılmaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase enzyme is found in vegetables and fruits, as well as in some animal organs and microorganisms. Polyphenol oxidase enzyme responsible for enzymatic browning is a group of copper proteins that catalyses the oxidation of phenolic compounds to quinones, which produce brown pigments, commonly found in fruits and vegetables. During the industrial preparation of fruits and vegetables, results of catalytic effect of polyphenol oxidase causes enzymatic browning. Enzymatic browning impairs the appearance of products containing phenolic compounds along with undesirable colour, odor and taste formation and significant loss of nutritional value of the products. This affects the acceptability of the products by the consumers and causes economic losses. In this review, some characteristics of polyphenol oxidase enzyme in different fruits and vegetables have been reviewed and information about chemical antibrowning agents, thermal applications, irradiation applications and alternative methods such as high pressure processing, pulse electric field, supercritical carbon dioxide and ultrasound applications to inactivate this enzyme has been presented.

  1. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts

  2. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  3. Memory Reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubrich, Josue; Nader, Karim

    2018-01-01

    Scientific advances in the last decades uncovered that memory is not a stable, fixed entity. Apparently stable memories may become transiently labile and susceptible to modifications when retrieved due to the process of reconsolidation. Here, we review the initial evidence and the logic on which reconsolidation theory is based, the wide range of conditions in which it has been reported and recent findings further revealing the fascinating nature of this process. Special focus is given to conceptual issues of when and why reconsolidation happen and its possible outcomes. Last, we discuss the potential clinical implications of memory modifications by reconsolidation.

  4. Olfactory Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbaum, Howard; Robitsek, R. Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Odor-recognition memory in rodents may provide a valuable model of cognitive aging. In a recent study we used signal detection analyses to distinguish odor recognition based on recollection versus that based on familiarity. Aged rats were selectively impaired in recollection, with relative sparing of familiarity, and the deficits in recollection were correlated with spatial memory impairments. These results complement electro-physiological findings indicating age-associated deficits in the ability of hippocampal neurons to differentiate contextual information, and this information-processing impairment may underlie the common age-associated decline in olfactory and spatial memory. PMID:19686208

  5. Change of Rin1 and Stathmin in the Animal Model of Traumatic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiu Shi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of fear memory is poorly understood. Therefore, the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, whose symptom presentation can enhance fear memory, remains largely unclear. Recent studies with knockout animals have reported that Rin1 and stathmin regulate fear memory. Rin1 inhibits acquisition and promotes memory extinction, whereas stathmin regulates innate and basal fear. The aim of our study was to examine changes in the expression of Rin1 and stathmin in different animal models of stress, particluarly traumatic stress. We used three animal traumatic stresses: single prolonged stress (SPS, which is a rodent model of PTSD, an immobilization-stress (IM and a Loud sound stress (LSS, to examine the change and uniqueness in Rin1/stathmin expression. Behavioral tests of SPS rats demonstrated increased anxiety and contextual fear-conditioning. They showed decreased long-term potentiation (LTP, as well as decreased stathmin and increased Rin1 expression in the hippocampus and the amygdala. Expression of the stathmin effector, tubulin, and downstream molecules Rin1, Rab5, and Abl, appeared to increase. Rin1 and EphA4 were endogenously coexpressed in primary neurons after SPS stimulation. IM rats exhibited increased anxiety behavior and enhanced fear-conditioning to contextual and auditory stimuli. Similar changes in expression of Rin1/stathmin were observed in IM rats whereas no changes were observed in rats exposed to a loud sound. These data suggest that changes in expression of the Rin1 and stathmin genes may be involved in rodents with SPS and IM stresses, which provide valuable insight into fear memories under abnormal conditions, particularly in PTSD.

  6. X-chromosome inactivation and escape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-06

    Nov 6, 2015 ... tion and cancer in mice after a long period of time (Yildirim et al. 2013). ... chromosome of man has a short pairing seg- ment, that is not normally ..... Lyon M. F. 1988 The William Allan memorial award address: X-chromosome ...

  7. Coping with Traumatic Stress Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accountability & Whistleblower Protection Transparency Media Room Inside the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival ...

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury and Dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, a change in sleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, and trouble with memory, concentration, attention, or thinking. • A person with a moderate ...

  9. Key steps in developing a cognitive vaccine against traumatic flashbacks: visuospatial Tetris versus verbal Pub Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily A; James, Ella L; Kilford, Emma J; Deeprose, Catherine

    2010-11-10

    Flashbacks (intrusive memories of a traumatic event) are the hallmark feature of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, however preventative interventions are lacking. Tetris may offer a 'cognitive vaccine' [1] against flashback development after trauma exposure. We previously reported that playing the computer game Tetris soon after viewing traumatic material reduced flashbacks compared to no-task [1]. However, two criticisms need to be addressed for clinical translation: (1) Would all games have this effect via distraction/enjoyment, or might some games even be harmful? (2) Would effects be found if administered several hours post-trauma? Accordingly, we tested Tetris versus an alternative computer game--Pub Quiz--which we hypothesized not to be helpful (Experiments 1 and 2), and extended the intervention interval to 4 hours (Experiment 2). The trauma film paradigm was used as an experimental analog for flashback development in healthy volunteers. In both experiments, participants viewed traumatic film footage of death and injury before completing one of the following: (1) no-task control condition (2) Tetris or (3) Pub Quiz. Flashbacks were monitored for 1 week. Experiment 1: 30 min after the traumatic film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz led to a significant increase in flashbacks. Experiment 2: 4 hours post-film, playing Tetris led to a significant reduction in flashbacks compared to no-task control, whereas Pub Quiz did not. First, computer games can have differential effects post-trauma, as predicted by a cognitive science formulation of trauma memory. In both Experiments, playing Tetris post-trauma film reduced flashbacks. Pub Quiz did not have this effect, even increasing flashbacks in Experiment 1. Thus not all computer games are beneficial or merely distracting post-trauma - some may be harmful. Second, the beneficial effects of Tetris are retained at 4 hours post-trauma. Clinically

  10. Multiferroic Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritendu Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroism implies simultaneous presence of more than one ferroic characteristics such as coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. This phenomenon has led to the development of various kinds of materials and conceptions of many novel applications such as development of a memory device utilizing the multifunctionality of the multiferroic materials leading to a multistate memory device with electrical writing and nondestructive magnetic reading operations. Though, interdependence of electrical- and magnetic-order parameters makes it difficult to accomplish the above and thus rendering the device to only two switchable states, recent research has shown that such problems can be circumvented by novel device designs such as formation of tunnel junction or by use of exchange bias. In this paper, we review the operational aspects of multiferroic memories as well as the materials used for these applications along with the designs that hold promise for the future memory devices.

  11. Exposure to war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth among nurses in Gaza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamia, N A; Thabet, A A M; Vostanis, P

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? This study builds on existing research on war-related factors that may affect health-care staff by particularly focusing on trauma exposure in both professional and everyday life, as well as on correlates of later positive psychological changes. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? It shows that one in five nursing staff working in Gaza experienced post-traumatic stress symptoms within the clinical range, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza and after being exposed to substantial trauma during this period. Participants appeared to develop a variety of post-traumatic growth responses following trauma exposure. Although nurses experienced traumatic events both as civilians and in their health-care capacity, personal exposure was strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. What are the implications for practice? Support to nursing and other health-care professionals in war situations should entail different levels, remain available well after an acute conflict, and take into consideration both personal and practice-related traumatic events. Mental health nursing practitioners can play a pivotal role in this. To establish the association between war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and post-traumatic growth among nurses in the Gaza Strip, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza, and during a period of ongoing trauma exposure. This study builds on existing evidence by considering exposure to personal and work-related traumatic events, and on factors associated with later positive psychological adaptation. The sample consisted of 274 randomly selected nurses in Gaza who completed the Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, PTSD Checklist, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Of the nurses, 19.7% reported full PTSD. There was a significant relationship between traumatic events and PTSD scores; as well as between community-related traumatic events and post-traumatic growth. Participants reported a range of traumatic

  12. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  13. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, L.H.; McCormick, J.B.; Johnson, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of the cumbersome conditions experienced in a maximum containment laboratory, methods for inactivating highly pathogenic viruses were investigated. The infectivity of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses was inactivated without altering the immunological activity after radiation with 60 CO gamma rays. At 4 degrees C, Lassa virus was the most difficult to inactivate with a rate of 5.3 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad of 60 CO radiation, as compared with 6.8 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Ebola virus and 8.4 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Marburg virus. Experimental inactivation curves, as well as curves giving the total radiation needed to inactivate a given concentration of any of the three viruses, are presented. The authors found this method of inactivation to be superior to UV light or beta-propiolactone inactivation and now routinely use it for preparation of material for protein-chemistry studies or for preparation of immunological reagents

  14. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, L.H.; McCormick, J.B.; Johnson, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of the cumbersome conditions experienced in a maximum containment laboratory, methods for inactivating highly pathogenic viruses were investigated. The infectivity of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses was inactivated without altering the immunological activity after radiation with 60 Co gamma rays. At 4 degrees C, Lassa virus was the most difficult to inactivate with a rate of 5.3 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad of 60 Co radiation, as compared with 6.8 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Ebola virus and 8.4 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Marburg virus. Experimental inactivation curves, as well as curves giving the total radiation needed to inactivate a given concentration of any of the three viruses, are presented. We found this method of inactivation to be superior to UV light or beta-propiolactone inactivation and now routinely use it for preparation of material for protein-chemistry studies or for preparation of immunological reagents

  15. Cationic antimicrobial peptides inactivate Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cogliano, Manuel E.; Hollmann, Axel; Martinez, Melina; Semorile, Liliana; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D.; Maffía, Paulo C.; Bentancor, Leticia V.

    2017-12-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: 1) direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, 2) cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and 3) inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure) specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  16. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Inactivate Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Del Cogliano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non-alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: (1 direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, (2 cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and (3 inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  17. Differential Recruitment of Auditory Cortices in the Consolidation of Recent Auditory Fearful Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Grosso, Anna; Renna, Annamaria; Sacchetti, Benedetto

    2016-08-17

    Memories of frightening events require a protracted consolidation process. Sensory cortex, such as the auditory cortex, is involved in the formation of fearful memories with a more complex sensory stimulus pattern. It remains controversial, however, whether the auditory cortex is also required for fearful memories related to simple sensory stimuli. In the present study, we found that, 1 d after training, the temporary inactivation of either the most anterior region of the auditory cortex, including the primary (Te1) cortex, or the most posterior region, which included the secondary (Te2) component, did not affect the retention of recent memories, which is consistent with the current literature. However, at this time point, the inactivation of the entire auditory cortices completely prevented the formation of new memories. Amnesia was site specific and was not due to auditory stimuli perception or processing and strictly related to the interference with memory consolidation processes. Strikingly, at a late time interval 4 d after training, blocking the posterior part (encompassing the Te2) alone impaired memory retention, whereas the inactivation of the anterior part (encompassing the Te1) left memory unaffected. Together, these data show that the auditory cortex is necessary for the consolidation of auditory fearful memories related to simple tones in rats. Moreover, these results suggest that, at early time intervals, memory information is processed in a distributed network composed of both the anterior and the posterior auditory cortical regions, whereas, at late time intervals, memory processing is concentrated in the most posterior part containing the Te2 region. Memories of threatening experiences undergo a prolonged process of "consolidation" to be maintained for a long time. The dynamic of fearful memory consolidation is poorly understood. Here, we show that 1 d after learning, memory is processed in a distributed network composed of both primary Te1 and

  18. Luciferase inactivation in the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, C A; Baldwin, T O

    1981-06-01

    Luciferase was rapidly inactivated in stationary-phase cultures of the wild type of the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, but was stable in stationary-phase cultures of mutants of V. harveyi that are nonluminous without exogenous aldehyde, termed the aldehyde-deficient mutants. The inactivation in the wild type was halted by cell lysis and was slowed or stopped by O2 deprivation or by addition of KCN and NaF or of chloramphenicol. If KCN and NaF or chloramphenicol were added to a culture before the onset of luciferase inactivation, then luciferase inactivation did not occur. However, if these inhibitors were added after the onset of luciferase inactivation, then luciferase inactivation continued for about 2 to 3 h before the inactivation process stopped. The onset of luciferase inactivation in early stationary-phase cultures of wild-type cell coincided with a slight drop in the intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) level from a relatively constant log-phase value of 20 pmol of ATP per microgram of soluble cell protein. Addition of KCN and NaF to a culture shortly after this drop in ATP caused a rapid decrease in the ATP level to about 4 pmol of ATP per microgram whereas chloramphenicol added at this same time caused a transient increase in ATP level to about 25 pmol/microgram. The aldehyde-deficient mutant (M17) showed a relatively constant log-phase ATP level identical with that of the wild-type cells, but rather than decreasing in early stationary phase, the ATP level increased to a value twice that in log-phase cells. We suggest that the inactivation of luciferase is dependent on the synthesis of some factor which is produced during stationary phase and is itself unstable, and whose synthesis is blocked by chloramphenicol or cyanide plus fluoride.

  19. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javidi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected extreme sudden traumatic stressor may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Important traumatic events include war, violent personal assault (e.g., sexual assault, and physical attack, being taken hostage or kidnapped, confinement as a prisoner of war, torture, terrorist attack, severe car accidents, and natural disasters. In childhood age sexual abuse or witnessing serious injuries or unexpected death of a beloved one are among important traumatic events. PTSD can be categorized into two types of acute and chronic PTSD: if symptoms persist for less than three months, it is termed “acute PTSD,” otherwise, it is called “chronic PTSD.” 60.7% of men and 51.2% of women would experience at least one potentially traumatic event in their lifetime. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is significantly higher in women than men. Lifetime prevalence of PTSD varies from 0.3% in China to 6.1% in New Zealand. The prevalence of PTSD in crime victims are between 19% and 75%; rates as high as 80% have been reported following rape. The prevalence of PTSD among direct victims of disasters was reported to be 30%–40%; the rate in rescue workers was 10%–20%. The prevalence of PTSD among police, fire, and emergency service workers ranged from 6%–32%. An overall prevalence rate of 4% for the general population, the rate in rescue/recovery occupations ranged from 5% to 32%, with the highest rate reported in search and rescue personnel (25%, firefighters (21%, and workers with no prior training for facing disaster. War is one of the most intense stressors known to man. Armed forces have a higher prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse and PTSD. High-risk children who have been abused or experienced natural disasters may have an even higher prevalence of PTSD than adults. Female gender, previous psychiatric problem, intensity and nature of exposure to the traumatic event, and lack of social support are known risk factors for

  20. Intracranial Monitoring after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Intracranial monitoring after severe traumatic brain injury offers the possibility for early detection and amelioration of physiological insults. In this thesis, I explore cerebral insults due raised intracranial pressure, decreased cerebral perfusion pressure and impaired cerebral pressure reactivity after traumatic brain injury. In chapter 2, the importance of intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure and pressure reactivity in regulating the cerebral circulation is elucidated ...

  1. Molecular mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kendall R.; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in significant disability due to cognitive deficits particularly in attention, learning and memory, and higher-order executive functions. The role of TBI in chronic neurodegeneration and the development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and most recently chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is of particular importance. However, despite significant effort very few therapeutic options exist to prevent or reverse cognitive impairment following TBI. In this review, we present experimental evidence of the known secondary injury mechanisms which contribute to neuronal cell loss, axonal injury, and synaptic dysfunction and hence cognitive impairment both acutely and chronically following TBI. In particular we focus on the mechanisms linking TBI to the development of two forms of dementia: AD and CTE. We provide evidence of potential molecular mechanisms involved in modulating Aβ and Tau following TBI and provide evidence of the role of these mechanisms in AD pathology. Additionally we propose a mechanism by which Aβ generated as a direct result of TBI is capable of exacerbating secondary injury mechanisms thereby establishing a neurotoxic cascade that leads to chronic neurodegeneration. PMID:23847533

  2. Molecular mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kendall R; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in significant disability due to cognitive deficits particularly in attention, learning and memory, and higher-order executive functions. The role of TBI in chronic neurodegeneration and the development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and most recently chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is of particular importance. However, despite significant effort very few therapeutic options exist to prevent or reverse cognitive impairment following TBI. In this review, we present experimental evidence of the known secondary injury mechanisms which contribute to neuronal cell loss, axonal injury, and synaptic dysfunction and hence cognitive impairment both acutely and chronically following TBI. In particular we focus on the mechanisms linking TBI to the development of two forms of dementia: AD and CTE. We provide evidence of potential molecular mechanisms involved in modulating Aβ and Tau following TBI and provide evidence of the role of these mechanisms in AD pathology. Additionally we propose a mechanism by which Aβ generated as a direct result of TBI is capable of exacerbating secondary injury mechanisms thereby establishing a neurotoxic cascade that leads to chronic neurodegeneration.

  3. Inactivation of viruses in municipal effluent by chlorine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hajenian, H. G.; Butler, M.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of pH and temperature on the efficiency of chlorine inactivation of two unrelated picornaviruses in a typical urban wastewater effluent was examined. Temperature, unlike pH, had relatively little effect on the rate of inactivation. The pH effect was complex and the two viruses differed. The f2 coliphage was more sensitive to chlorine at low pH, but at all values there was a threshold above which additional chlorine resulted in very rapid inactivation. The amount of chlorine requ...

  4. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Chen, Y.S.; Lindburg, K.; Morales, D.

    1987-09-01

    The inactivation of simian rotavirus Sa-11 and human rotavirus type 2 (Wa) by ozone was compared at 4/sup 0/C by using single-particle virus stocks. Although the human strain was clearly more sensitive, both virus types were rapidly inactivated by ozone concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater at all pH levels tested. Comparison of the virucidal activity of ozone with that of chlorine in identical experiments indicated little significant difference in rotavirus-inactivating efficiencies when the disinfectants were used at concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater.

  5. Expressive writing in people with traumatic brain injury and learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lisa; Nickerson, Sherry; Long, Kayla; Silver, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of systematic studies of expressive writing disorder (EWD) in persons with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). It is unclear if TBI survivors' written expression differs significantly from that experienced by persons with learning disabilities. It is also unclear which cognitive or neuropsychological variables predict problems with expressive writing (EW) or the EWD. This study investigated the EW skill, and the EWD in adults with mild traumatic brain injuries (TBI) relative to those with learning disabilities (LD). It also determined which of several cognitive variables predicted EW and EWD. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of writing samples from 28 LD participants and 28 TBI survivors revealed four components of expressive writing skills: Reading Ease, Sentence Fluency, Grammar and Spelling, and Paragraph Fluency. There were no significant differences between the LD and TBI groups on any of the expressive writing components. Several neuropsychological variables predicted skills of written expression. The best predictors included measures of spatial perception, verbal IQ, working memory, and visual memory. TBI survivors and persons with LD do not differ markedly in terms of expressive writing skill. Measures of spatial perception, visual memory, verbal intelligence, and working memory predict writing skill in both groups. Several therapeutic interventions are suggested that are specifically designed to improve deficits in expressive writing skills in individuals with TBI and LD.

  6. Gastrointestinal Traumatic Injuries: Gastrointestinal Perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Maria A; Pugh, Marcia A; McGhee, Melanie

    2018-03-01

    The abdomen is a big place even in a small person. Gastrointestinal trauma can result in injury to the stomach, small bowel, colon, or rectum. Traumatic causes include blunt or penetrating trauma, such as gunshot wounds, stabbings, motor vehicle collisions, and crush injuries. Nontraumatic causes include appendicitis, Crohn disease, cancer, diverticulitis, ulcerative colitis, blockage of the bowel, and chemotherapy. The mechanism of injury will affect both the nature and severity of any resulting injuries. Treatment must address the critical and emergent nature of these injuries as well as issues that affect all trauma situations, which include management of hemodynamic instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.H.; Stothert, J.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistulas are rare. The authors found nine cases reported since 1959. Seven have been secondary to trauma and two following thoracotomy. One patient's death is thought to be directly related to the fistula. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with a pleural effusion and associated vertebral trauma. The diagnosis can usually be confirmed with contrast or radioisotopic myelography. Successful closure of the fistula will usually occur spontaneously with closed tube drainage and antibiotics; occasionally, thoracotomy is necessary to close the rent in the dura

  8. Traumatic injuries of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Nina

    2009-11-01

    Traumatic lesions of the hip in athletes may be clinically challenging because of the overlap in clinical presentation due to differing pathologies and the presence of multiple injuries. Imaging of the hip in the athlete has undergone a recent resurgence of interest and understanding related to the increasing accessibility and use of hip arthroscopy, which expands the treatment options available for intra-articular pathology. MR imaging and MR arthrography have a unique role in diagnosis of these pathologies, guiding the surgeon, arthroscopist, and referring clinician in their management of bony and soft tissue injury.

  9. Hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rodriguez, Eva; Bernabeu, Ignacio; Castro, Ana I; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of hypopituitarism after traumatic brain (TBI) injury is widely variable in the literature; a meta-analysis determined a pooled prevalence of anterior hypopituitarism of 27.5%. Growth hormone deficiency is the most prevalent hormone insufficiency after TBI; however, the prevalence of each type of pituitary deficiency is influenced by the assays used for diagnosis, severity of head trauma, and time of evaluation. Recent studies have demonstrated improvement in cognitive function and cognitive quality of life with substitution therapy in GH-deficient patients after TBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of traumatized maxillary central incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kuo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury to the upper anterior teeth is not uncommon in young children. Dental ankylosis frequently occurs when teeth are traumatically luxated or replanted after being avulsed. Orthodontic movement of a traumatized tooth is difficult, especially when treating an ankylosed tooth without surgical luxation and distraction osteogenesis. This report describes a case of a patient with class I crowded malocclusion and labially displaced and intruded traumatized maxillary incisors. The protruded traumatized incisors were successfully brought to an acceptable position with acceptable gingival esthetics through the use of simple orthodontic traction combined with first-premolar extraction. An acceptable overbite and overjet were achieved within 14 months after completion of orthodontic treatment.

  11. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: The unknown disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, R; Paredes, I; Munarriz, P M; Paredes, B; Alén, J F

    2017-04-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a neurodegenerative disease produced by accumulated minor traumatic brain injuries; no definitive premortem diagnosis and no treatments are available for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Risk factors associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy include playing contact sports, presence of the apolipoprotein E4, and old age. Although it shares certain histopathological findings with Alzheimer disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy has a more specific presentation (hyperphosphorylated tau protein deposited as neurofibrillary tangles, associated with neuropil threads and sometimes with beta-amyloid plaques). Its clinical presentation is insidious; patients show mild cognitive and emotional symptoms before progressing to parkinsonian motor signs and finally dementia. Results from new experimental diagnostic tools are promising, but these tools are not yet available. The mainstay of managing this disease is prevention and early detection of its first symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial patterns of progressive brain volume loss after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Amy; de Simoni, Sara; Bourke, Niall; Patel, Maneesh C; Scott, Gregory; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury leads to significant loss of brain volume, which continues into the chronic stage. This can be sensitively measured using volumetric analysis of MRI. Here we: (i) investigated longitudinal patterns of brain atrophy; (ii) tested whether atrophy is greatest in sulcal cortical regions; and (iii) showed how atrophy could be used to power intervention trials aimed at slowing neurodegeneration. In 61 patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (mean age = 41.55 years ± 12.77) and 32 healthy controls (mean age = 34.22 years ± 10.29), cross-sectional and longitudinal (1-year follow-up) brain structure was assessed using voxel-based morphometry on T1-weighted scans. Longitudinal brain volume changes were characterized using a novel neuroimaging analysis pipeline that generates a Jacobian determinant metric, reflecting spatial warping between baseline and follow-up scans. Jacobian determinant values were summarized regionally and compared with clinical and neuropsychological measures. Patients with traumatic brain injury showed lower grey and white matter volume in multiple brain regions compared to controls at baseline. Atrophy over 1 year was pronounced following traumatic brain injury. Patients with traumatic brain injury lost a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.55% ± 2.19 of grey matter volume per year, 1.49% ± 2.20 of white matter volume or 1.51% ± 1.60 of whole brain volume. Healthy controls lost 0.55% ± 1.13 of grey matter volume and gained 0.26% ± 1.11 of white matter volume; equating to a 0.22% ± 0.83 reduction in whole brain volume. Atrophy was greatest in white matter, where the majority (84%) of regions were affected. This effect was independent of and substantially greater than that of ageing. Increased atrophy was also seen in cortical sulci compared to gyri. There was no relationship between atrophy and time since injury or age at baseline. Atrophy rates were related to memory performance at the end of the

  13. Interventional management of traumatic epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Jiang Xu; Yang Jijin; Yang Caoai; Zhang Huojun; Wang Weixing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical application of transcatheter arterial embolization in the treatment of traumatic epistaxis. Methods: Transcatheter arterial embolization was performed in 15 patients with traumatic epistaxis, caused by injury or surgery, after they failed to respond to medication and nasal packing. Seldinger technique was adopted via the femoral access and the bleeding site was determined with carotid angiography, super-selective catheterization was then carried out to embolize the ruptured artery with gelfoam particles or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles. The clinical data and the therapeutic results were analyzed. Results: Of 15 patients, the epistaxis was caused by injury in 9 and by surgery of nasal or paranasal sinus in 6. Gelfoam particle was used in 14 cases and PVA particle in one case. The procedure was accomplished in one manipulation in all patients. The nasal tampon was removed in 2-3 days after the treatment with no recurrence of bleeding. No serious complications occurred. Conclusions: Transcatheter arterial embolization is a safe and effective therapy for profuse epistaxis on which the conservative management exerts no effect, and the gelfoam particle is the embolization material of first choice. (authors)

  14. Brain-derived neurotropic factor polymorphisms, traumatic stress, mild traumatic brain injury, and combat exposure contribute to postdeployment traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Williams, Kathy; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-01-01

    In addition to experiencing traumatic events while deployed in a combat environment, there are other factors that contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military service members. This study explored the contribution of genetics, childhood environment, prior trauma, psychological, cognitive, and deployment factors to the development of traumatic stress following deployment. Both pre- and postdeployment data on 231 of 458 soldiers were analyzed. Postdeployment assessments occurred within 30 days from returning stateside and included a battery of psychological health, medical history, and demographic questionnaires; neurocognitive tests; and blood serum for the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) genes. Soldiers who screened positive for traumatic stress at postdeployment had significantly higher scores in depression (d = 1.91), anxiety (d = 1.61), poor sleep quality (d = 0.92), postconcussion symptoms (d = 2.21), alcohol use (d = 0.63), traumatic life events (d = 0.42), and combat exposure (d = 0.91). BDNF Val66 Met genotype was significantly associated with risk for sustaining a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and screening positive for traumatic stress. Predeployment traumatic stress, greater combat exposure and sustaining an mTBI while deployed, and the BDNF Met/Met genotype accounted for 22% of the variance of postdeployment PTSD scores (R (2)  = 0.22, P PTSD scores. These findings suggest predeployment traumatic stress, genetic, and environmental factors have unique contributions to the development of combat-related traumatic stress in military service members.

  15. Synapsin determines memory strength after punishment- and relief-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-05-13

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: "negative" memories for stimuli preceding them and "positive" memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of "relief." Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training ("forward conditioning" of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training ("backward conditioning" of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2015 Niewalda et al.

  16. Synapsin Determines Memory Strength after Punishment- and Relief-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: “negative” memories for stimuli preceding them and “positive” memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of “relief.” Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training (“forward conditioning” of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training (“backward conditioning” of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences. PMID:25972175

  17. Comparison of two different methods for inactivation of viruses in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preuss, T.; Kamstrup, Søren; Kyvsgaard, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    enterovirus (PEV) was inactivated within 3 h, The inactivation with electron-beam irradiation resulted in almost linear curves in a semilogarithmic plot of virus titer versus irradiation dose, reflecting a first-order inactivation, The rate of inactivation was almost twice as fast in the liquid samples...

  18. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF CATEGORY "A" BIO-TERRORISM AGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster presents information on the inactivation of select bioterrorist agents. Information will be presented on chlorine disinfection of vegetative cells of Brucella suis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis and endos...

  19. Fullerene C60 and graphene photosensibiles for photodynamic virus inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, I.; Hvorostovsky, A.; Kiselev, V.; Zarubaev, V.; Kiselev, O.; Piotrovsky, L.; Anfimov, P.; Krisko, T.; Muraviova, T.; Rylkov, V.; Starodubzev, A.; Sirotkin, A.; Grishkanich, A.; Kudashev, I.; Kancer, A.; Kustikova, M.; Bykovskaya, E.; Mayurova, A.; Stupnikov, A.; Ruzankina, J.; Afanasyev, M.; Lukyanov, N.; Redka, D.; Paklinov, N.

    2018-02-01

    A solid-phase photosensitizer based on aggregated C60 fullerene and graphene oxide for photodynamic inactivation of pathogens in biological fluids was studied. The most promising technologies of inactivation include the photodynamic effect, which consists in the inactivation of infectious agents by active oxygen forms (including singlet oxygen), formed when light is activated by the photosensitizer introduced into the plasma. Research shows features of solid-phase systems based on graphene and fullerene C60 oxide, which is a combination of an effective inactivating pathogens (for example, influenza viruses) reactive oxygen species formed upon irradiation of the photosensitizer in aqueous and biological fluids, a high photostability fullerene coatings and the possibility of full recovery photosensitizer from the biological environment after the photodynamic action.

  20. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents

  1. Biocontrol interventions for inactivation of foodborne pathogens on produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-harvest interventions for control of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed foods are crucial for food safety. Biocontrol interventions have the primary objective of developing novel antagonists in combinations with physical and chemical interventions to inactivate pathogenic microbes. Ther...

  2. Use of genetic algorithms for high hydrostatic pressure inactivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) for high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores, Bacillus subtilis spores and cells, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, all in milk buffer, were used to demonstrate the utility of genetic algorithms ...

  3. The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C.; Stein, Thor D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Lee, Hyo-Soon; Hall, Garth; Wojtowicz, Sydney M.; Baugh, Christine M.; Riley, David O.; Kubilus, Caroline A.; Cormier, Kerry A.; Jacobs, Matthew A.; Martin, Brett R.; Abraham, Carmela R.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Reichard, Robert Ross; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Goldstein, Lee E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive tauopathy that occurs as a consequence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. We analysed post-mortem brains obtained from a cohort of 85 subjects with histories of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in 68 subjects: all males, ranging…

  4. Inactivation of bacterial cells by cyclotron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatagai, F [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Takahashi, T; Matsuyama, A

    1975-06-01

    B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r were bombarded with ..cap alpha..-particles and heavy ions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen accelerated in the IPCR Cyclotron. The RBE versus LETsub(infinity) curve for B. subtilis spores showed a maximum peak at 120 keV/..mu..m, while those for E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r declined without any maximum as LETsub(infinity) values increased. In the region of ..cap alpha..-particles, the effective inactivation cross section (Ssub(eff)) for these three strains increased with increasing LETsub(infinity), and the rates of increase in Ssub(eff) in the LET region from --30 to --150 keV/..mu..m were 15.0, 1.5 and 2.5 times for B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r, respectively. In the case of B. subtilis spores, Ssub(eff) values for heavy ions were almost independent of their energies, but the other two strains showed a considerable dependence upon beam energy. The characteristic LET dependence of Ssub(eff) observed in this study was fairly well explained by the target theory based on microdose concept.

  5. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Morimoto, Akinori; Iwatsuki, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Takamasa; Ito, Hitoshi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1992-01-01

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD·MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D 10 values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author)

  6. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Morimoto, Akinori; Iwatsuki, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and fisheries, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Animal Quarantine Service); Ito, Hitoshi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Ishigaki, Isao

    1992-09-01

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD[center dot]MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D[sub 10] values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author).

  7. Inactivation of bacterial cells by cyclotron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Fumio; Takahashi, Tadashi; Matsuyama, Akira.

    1975-01-01

    B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r were bombarded with α-particles and heavy ions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen accelerated in the IPCR Cyclotron. The RBE versus LETsub(infinity) curve for B. subtilis spores showed a maximum peak at 120 keV/μm, while those for E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r declined without any maximum as LETsub(infinity) values increased. In the region of α-particles, the effective inactivation cross section (Ssub(eff)) for these three strains increased with increasing LETsub(infinity), and the rates of increase in Ssub(eff) in the LET region from --30 to --150 keV/μm were 15.0, 1.5 and 2.5 times for B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r, respectively. In the case of B. subtilis spores, Ssub(eff) values for heavy ions were almost independent of their energies, but the other two strains showed a considerable dependence upon beam energy. The characteristic LET dependence of Ssub(eff) observed in this study was fairly well explained by the target theory based on microdose concept. (auth.)

  8. Dry-heat inactivation of "Mycobacterium canettii".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Garnotel, Eric; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-06-09

    "Mycobacterium canettii" is responsible for non-transmissible lymph node and pulmonary tuberculosis in persons exposed in the Horn of Africa. In the absence of direct human transmission, contaminated water and foodstuffs could be sources of contamination. We investigated the dry-heat inactivation of "M. canettii" alone and mixed into mock-infected foodstuffs by inoculating agar cylinders and milk with 10 4 colony-forming units of "M. canettii" CIPT140010059 and two "M. canettii" clinical strains with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv as a control. Exposed to 35 °C, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, "M canettii" CIPT140010059 and "M. canettii" 157 exhibited a survival rate of 108, 95 and 81%, which is significantly higher than that of "M. canettii" 173. However, all tested mycobacteria tolerated a 90-min exposure at 45 °C. In the foodstuff models set at 70 °C, no growing mycobacteria were visualized. This study supports the premise that "M. canettii" may survive up to 45 °C; and suggests that contaminated raw drinks and foodstuffs but not cooked ones may be sources of infection for populations.

  9. Multimodal psychoanalytically informed aid work with children traumatized by the Chechen war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerfolio, Nina E

    2009-01-01

    As demonstrated in three cases, this paper illustrates how psychoanalytically informed multimodal care was an essential element of effective medical treatment of children traumatized by the Chechen war. Multimodal psychoanalytically informed aid work involves holding a variety of psychoanalytic viewpoints, including but not restricted to those represented by the Freudian, Interpersonal, and Relational orientations; its purpose is to allow for greater clarity in conceptualizing the traumatized child's response to war in order to provide the necessary care during the therapeutic process. Among the issues addressed are how traumatic memory can initially be expressed nonverbally, and therefore the use of embodied life-metaphors and witnessing are central to the survivors' ability to remember and symbolize. In addition, the significance of cultural awareness and sensitivity are explored as key components to the children's care. In the first case, the author illustrates how a traumatic life-metaphor can be resolved at an embodied, rather than an exclusively verbal, level. In the second case, cultural tradition and relativism have a significant impact on addressing medical and quality of life issues for the child. The third case illustrates how the analyst functions as recognizing witness to a parent's trauma; the "being with" of the relationship becomes the agent of the parent's change.

  10. Cognitive contributions to theory of mind ability in children with a traumatic head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Naomi Kahana; Milgram, Noach

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to examine the contribution of intellectual abilities, executive functions (EF), and facial emotion recognition to difficulties in Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities in children with a traumatic head injury. Israeli children with a traumatic head injury were compared with their non-injured counterparts. Each group included 18 children (12 males) ages 7-13. Measurements included reading the mind in the eyes, facial emotion recognition, reasoning the other's characteristics based on motive and outcome, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, similarities and digit span (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised 95 subscales), verbal fluency, and the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functions. Non-injured children performed significantly better on ToM, abstract reasoning, and EF measures compared with children with a traumatic head injury. However, differences in ToM abilities between the groups were no longer significant after controlling for abstract reasoning, working memory, verbal fluency, or facial emotion recognition. Impaired ToM recognition and reasoning abilities after a head injury may result from other cognitive impairments. In children with mild and moderate head injury, poorer performance on ToM tasks may reflect poorer abstract reasoning, a general tendency to concretize stimuli, working memory and verbal fluency deficits, and difficulties in facial emotion recognition, rather than deficits in the ability to understand the other's thoughts and emotions. ToM impairments may be secondary to a range of cognitive deficits in determining social outcomes in this population.

  11. Executive dysfunction, severity of traumatic brain injury, and IQ in workers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    To study whether severity of traumatic brain injury and the intelligence quotient are related to executive dysfunction. Sixty-two adults with brain injury who were referred for a work capacity evaluation. Retrospective review of severity of traumatic brain injury, intelligence quotient from a previously-conducted neuropsychological evaluation, determination of executive function status from the neuropsychological evaluation, and both self-report and informant-report executive dysfunction scores from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Executive dysfunction and the intelligence quotient are related to severity of traumatic brain injury, but executive dysfunction and the intelligence quotient are not related to each other. Executive dysfunction as determined by a neuropsychological evaluation was not consistent with clients' self-reports but was consistent with informant-reported executive dysfunction. Five types of executive dysfunction were reported by knowledgeable informants, with significant elevations on the Shift, Plan/Organize, Task Monitor, Organization of Materials, and Working Memory BRIEF clinical scales. The intelligence quotient is not a useful indicator of executive dysfunction. Informant-report executive dysfunction is a reliable and potentially useful adjunct to a neuropsychological evaluation. Working memory is the most severe type of executive dysfunction and may not be adequately measured by current neuropsychological evaluation methods.

  12. High pressure inactivation of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Sanelle; Silva, Filipa V M

    2017-05-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis ("Brett") is a major spoilage concern for the wine industry worldwide, leading to undesirable sensory properties. Sulphur dioxide, is currently the preferred method for wine preservation. However, due to its negative effects on consumers, the use of new alternative non-thermal technologies are increasingly being investigated. The aim of this study was to determine and model the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) conditions and yeast strain on the inactivation of "Brett" in Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Processing at 200 MPa for 3 min resulted in 5.8 log reductions. However higher pressure is recommended to achieve high throughput in the wine industry, for example >6.0 log reductions were achieved after 400 MPa for 5 s. The inactivation of B. bruxellensis is pressure and time dependent, with increased treatment time and pressure leading to increased yeast inactivation. It was also found that yeast strain had a significant effect on HPP inactivation, with AWRI 1499 being the most resistant strain. The Weibull model successfully described the HPP "Brett" inactivation. HPP is a viable alternative for the inactivation of B. bruxellensis in wine, with the potential to reduce the industry's reliance on sulphur dioxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, Remko M; Schutyser, Maarten A I

    2017-06-15

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during baking at 175 or 205°C. In the wheat flour/water system, the thermostability of β-galactosidase increased with decreased moisture content, and a kinetic model was accurately fitted to the corresponding inactivation data (R 2 =0.99). Interestingly, the residual enzyme activity in the bread crust (about 30%) was hundredfold higher than that in the crumb (about 0.3%) after baking, despite the higher temperature in the crust throughout baking. This result suggested that the reduced moisture content in the crust increased the thermostability of the enzyme. Subsequently, the kinetic model reasonably predicted the enzyme inactivation in the crumb using the same parameters derived from the wheat flour/water system. However, the model predicted a lower residual enzyme activity in the crust compared with the experimental result, which indicated that the structure of the crust may influence the enzyme inactivation mechanism during baking. The results reported can provide a quantitative understanding of the thermal inactivation kinetics of enzyme during baking, which is essential to better retain enzymatic activity in bakery products supplemented with heat-sensitive enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Photodynamic inactivation of foodborne bacteria by eosin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, E; Dos Santos, A R; Fiori da Silva, A; Ribeiro, L H; Favero, M E; Campanerut-Sá, P A Z; de Freitas, C F; Caetano, W; Hioka, N; Mikcha, J M G

    2018-03-25

    The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of photodynamic inactivation mediated by eosin Y in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Bacteria (10 7 CFU per ml) were incubated with eosin Y at concentrations ranging from 0·1 to 10 μmol l -1 , irradiated by green LED (λ max 490-570 nm) for 5, 10 and 15 min and the cellular viability was determined. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was completely inactivated when treated with 10 μmol l -1 eosin Y for 10 min. Treatments reduced B. cereus and Salm. Typhimurium counts to 2·7 log CFU per ml and 1·7 log CFU per ml, respectively. Escherichia coli counts were slightly reduced. Staphylococcus aureus presented the highest sensitivity, being completely inactivated by eosin Y at 5 μmol l -1 and 5 min of illumination. The reduction of cellular viability of photoinactivated Staph. aureus was also demonstrated by flow cytometry and morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Eosin Y in combination with LED produced bacterial inactivation, being a potential candidate for photodynamic inactivation. This study evidenced the efficacy of photodynamic inactivation as a novel and promising alternative to bacterial control. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Invasive Fungal Infections Secondary to Traumatic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kronen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infection (IFI is a rare but serious complication of traumatic injury. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology, natural history, mycology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic IFI in military and civilian populations. The epidemiology of post-traumatic IFI is poorly characterized, but incidence appears to be rising. Patients often suffer from severe injuries and require extensive medical interventions. Fungi belonging to the order Mucorales are responsible for most post-traumatic IFI in both civilian and military populations. Risk factors differ between these cohorts but include specific injury patterns and comorbidities. Diagnosis of post-traumatic IFI typically follows positive laboratory results in the appropriate clinical context. The gold standard of treatment is surgical debridement in addition to systemic antifungal therapy. Patients with post-traumatic IFI may be at greater risk of amputation, delays in wound healing, hospital complications, and death as compared to trauma patients who do not develop IFI. More research is needed to understand the factors surrounding the development and management of post-traumatic IFI to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  16. The Basolateral Amygdala Is Necessary for the Encoding and the Expression of Odor Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevelinges, Yannick; Desgranges, Bertrand; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Conditioned odor avoidance (COA) results from the association between a novel odor and a delayed visceral illness. The present experiments investigated the role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in acquisition and retrieval of COA memory. To address this, we used the GABAA agonist muscimol to temporarily inactivate the BLA during COA acquisition…

  17. The AIP Model of EMDR Therapy and Pathogenic Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hase

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR therapy has been widely recognized as an efficacious treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In the last years more insight has been gained regarding the efficacy of EMDR therapy in a broad field of mental disorders beyond PTSD. The cornerstone of EMDR therapy is its unique model of pathogenesis and change: the adaptive information processing (AIP model. The AIP model developed by F. Shapiro has found support and differentiation in recent studies on the importance of memories in the pathogenesis of a range of mental disorders beside PTSD. However, theoretical publications or research on the application of the AIP model are still rare. The increasing acceptance of ideas that relate the origin of many mental disorders to the formation and consolidation of implicit dysfunctional memory lead to formation of the theory of pathogenic memories. Within the theory of pathogenic memories these implicit dysfunctional memories are considered to form basis of a variety of mental disorders. The theory of pathogenic memories seems compatible to the AIP model of EMDR therapy, which offers strategies to effectively access and transmute these memories leading to amelioration or resolution of symptoms. Merging the AIP model with the theory of pathogenic memories may initiate research. In consequence, patients suffering from such memory-based disorders may be earlier diagnosed and treated more effectively.

  18. Viral inactivation in hemotherapy: systematic review on inactivators with action on nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marial Sobral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the photoinactivators used in hemotherapy, with action on viral genomes. The SciELO, Science Direct, PubMed and Lilacs databases were searched for articles. The inclusion criterion was that these should be articles on inactivators with action on genetic material that had been published between 2000 and 2010. The key words used in identifying such articles were "hemovigilance", "viral inactivation", "photodynamics", "chemoprevention" and "transfusion safety". Twenty-four articles on viral photoinactivation were found with the main photoinactivators covered being: methylene blue, amotosalen HCl, S-303 frangible anchor linker effector (FRALE, riboflavin and inactin. The results showed that methylene blue has currently been studied least, because it diminishes coagulation factors and fibrinogen. Riboflavin has been studied most because it is a photoinactivator of endogenous origin and has few collateral effects. Amotosalen HCl is effective for platelets and is also used on plasma, but may cause changes both to plasma and to platelets, although these are not significant for hemostasis. S-303 FRALE may lead to neoantigens in erythrocytes and is less indicated for red-cell treatment; in such cases, PEN 110 is recommended. Thus, none of the methods for pathogen reduction is effective for all classes of agents and for all blood components, but despite the high cost, these photoinactivators may diminish the risk of blood-transmitted diseases.

  19. Stress, glucocorticoids and memory: implications for treating fear-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique; Schwabe, Lars; Roozendaal, Benno

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid stress hormones are crucially involved in modulating mnemonic processing of emotionally arousing experiences. They enhance the consolidation of new memories, including those that extinguish older memories, but impair the retrieval of information stored in long-term memory. As strong aversive memories lie at the core of several fear-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias, the memory-modulating properties of glucocorticoids have recently become of considerable translational interest. Clinical trials have provided the first evidence that glucocorticoid-based pharmacotherapies aimed at attenuating aversive memories might be helpful in the treatment of fear-related disorders. Here, we review important advances in the understanding of how glucocorticoids mediate stress effects on memory processes, and discuss the translational potential of these new conceptual insights.

  20. [Episodic autobiographical memory in depression: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, C; Piolino, P; Jouvent, R; Allilaire, J-F; Fossati, P

    2006-10-01

    Autobiographical memory and personal identity (self) are linked by a reciprocal relationship. Autobiographical memory is critical for both grounding and changing the self. Individuals' current self-views, beliefs, and goals influence their recollections of the past. According to Tulving, episodic memory is characterized by autonoetic consciousness, which is associated with a sense of the self in the past (emotions and goals) and mental reliving of an experience. Its close relationship with self and emotion strongly involves episodic autobiographical memory in the psychopathology of depression. However, due to methodological and conceptual issues, little attention has been paid to episodic autobiographical memory in depression. Since the seminal work of Williams et al. 15 years ago, there is now growing interest around this issue. We reviewed the evidence for three major features of autobiographical memory functioning in depression: an increase in general memory retrieval (overgenerality), a mood-congruent memory effect and the high occurrence of intrusive memories of stressful events. Although it was first observed among suicidal patients, overgenerality is actually associated with both depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overgenerality is not associated with anxious disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or borderline personality disorder. Most of controlled studies carried out on autobiographical memory in depression rely on the Williams' Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). When presented with positive and negative cue words and asked to retrieve specific personal events, depressed patients (unlike matched controls) are less specific in their memories. They tend to recall repeated events (categorical overgeneral memories) rather than single episodes (specific memories). Overgenerality in depression is: 1) more evident with positive than with negative events (mood-congruent memory effect); 2) related to

  1. Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth: the phenomenon of traumatic birth

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J L

    1997-01-01

    CHILDBIRTH CAN BE A VERY PAINFUL EXPERIENCE, often associated with feelings of being out of control. It should not, therefore, be surprising that childbirth may be traumatic for some women. Most women recover quickly post partum; others appear to have a more difficult time. The author asserts that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may occur after childbirth. He calls this variant of PTSD a "traumatic birth experience." There is very little literature on this topic. The evidence available ...

  2. Holographic memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Berg, R.H.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    A Two-dimensional holographic memory for archival storage is described. Assuming a coherent transfer function, an A4 page can be stored at high resolution in an area of 1 mm(2). Recently developed side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyesters are found to be suitable media for holographic...

  3. Sharing Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Nielsen, Emil Byskov; Nielsen, Jonathan Bernstorff

    2018-01-01

    in which it was to be contextualized and through a close partnership between aphasics and their caretakers. The underlying design methodology for the MemoryBook is Participatory Design manifested through the collaboration and creations by two aphasic residents and one member of the support staff. The idea...

  4. Memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takashima, A.; Bakker, I.; Schmid, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to make use of novel experiences and knowledge to guide our future behavior, we must keep large amounts of information accessible for retrieval. The memory system that stores this information needs to be flexible in order to rapidly incorporate incoming information, but also requires that

  5. Skilled Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-06

    Woodworth, R. S. Experimental Psychology. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1938. Yates, F. A. The art of memory. London: Rutledge and Kegan Paul, 1966. 50...Group 1 Psychologist (TAEG) ON! Branch Office Dept. of the Navy 1030 East Green Street Orlando, FL 32813 Pasadena, CA 91101 1 Dr. Richard Sorensen I

  6. Inactivation of an enterovirus by airborne disinfectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The activity of airborne disinfectants on bacteria, fungi and spores has been reported. However, the issue of the virucidal effect of disinfectants spread by fogging has not been studied thoroughly. Methods A procedure has been developed to determine the virucidal activity of peracetic acid-based airborne disinfectants on a resistant non-enveloped virus poliovirus type 1. This virus was laid on a stainless carrier. The products were spread into the room by hot fogging at 55°C for 30 minutes at a concentration of 7.5 mL.m-3. Poliovirus inoculum, supplemented with 5%, heat inactivated non fat dry organic milk, were applied into the middle of the stainless steel disc and were dried under the air flow of a class II biological safety cabinet at room temperature. The Viral preparations were recovered by using flocked swabs and were titered on Vero cells using the classical Spearman-Kärber CPE reading method, the results were expressed as TCID50.ml-1. Results The infectious titer of dried poliovirus inocula was kept at 105 TCID50.mL-1 up to 150 minutes at room temperature. Dried inocula exposed to airborne peracetic acid containing disinfectants were recovered at 60 and 120 minutes post-exposition and suspended in culture medium again. The cytotoxicity of disinfectant containing medium was eliminated through gel filtration columns. A 4 log reduction of infectious titer of dried poliovirus inocula exposed to peracetic-based airborne disinfectant was obtained. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the virucidal activity of airborne disinfectants can be tested on dried poliovirus. PMID:23587047

  7. Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gu, Ying; Dai, Tianhong

    2018-02-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a human-adapted, gram-negative diplococcus that infects human reproductive tracts and causes gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease, resulting in discharge and inflammation at the urethra, cervix, pharynx, or rectum. Over the years, N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to nearly every drug ever used to treat it, including sulfonamides, penicillin, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones. Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae is now considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an urgent threat. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial blue light (aBL) at 405 and 470 nm for inactivating N. gonorrhoeae and reveal the mechanism of action. Our results showed that an exposure of 45 J/cm2 aBL at 405 nm reduced the bacterial CFU by 7.16-log10. When the aBL exposure was increased to 54 J/cm2, eradication of bacterial CFU was achieved. When the bacteria were exposed to aBL at 470 nm, 3-log10 reduction of CFU was observed at an aBL exposure of higher than 126 J/cm2. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic analyses revealed the presence of endogenous porphyrins and flavins in N. gonorrhoeae cells. The present study indicated that aBL is a potential strategy to control N. gonorrhoeae infections. Endogenous porphyrins play a vital role in the killing effects of aBL. In vivo experiments are ongoing in our laboratory to treat genital tract infections in mice using aBL and explore the potential clinical applications.

  8. Thermal inactivation of Phytophthora capsici oospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Aitzol; Mendarte, Sorkunde; Larregla, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a major fungal plant pathogen that causes root and crown rot of pepper crops and its oospores are the most resistant propagules. To evaluate the effect of different temperature regimes and exposure times on the survival of P. capsici oospores. Thermal inactivation treatments simulated field conditions, through the use of different constant and cycling temperature regimes, in moistened sterilized soil (15-53 °C) and sterilized water (45-53 °C). The plasmolysis method evaluated oospore viability. Relationships between oospores viability and exposure time were statistically determined by linear regression. Interpolation was used to calculate the estimated times required to kill a determined percentage of the population. The required time to reduce P. capsici oospores viability decreased with increasing temperatures. Times required to kill 100% of oospores were 199-22-6.6-4.7-1.0 hours at 40-45-47.5-50-53°C respectively in moistened soil and 31-1.0-0.2 hours at 45-50-53 °C in water. Oospores were scarcely affected at temperatures ≤ 35 °C. With 1,680 hours at 15-35 °C, oospores survival in soil ranged from 88 to 36%. The 4 hours-40 °C regime killed 100% of oospores after 28days, while the 5 hours-35°C regime after 70 days killed only 75%. Time required to achieve total oospores death was remarkably shortened in water when compared with moistened soil. The developed models can be used to predict survival values at any exposure time with constant temperatures ranging from 40 to 53 °C in moistened soil and from 45 to 53 °C in water. The weakening of P. capsici oospores under sublethal heating, is a useful observation that can be applied for pathogen control with solarization. Copyright © 2010 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Working Memory From the Psychological and Neurosciences Perspectives: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wen Jia; Abd Hamid, Aini Ismafairus; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2018-01-01

    pattern has been consistently reported in these disadvantaged groups. Working memory of patients with traumatic brain injury was similarly affected and shown to have unusual neural activity (hyper- or hypoactivation) as a general observation. Decoding the underlying neural mechanisms of working memory helps support the current theoretical understandings concerning working memory, and at the same time provides insights into rehabilitation programs that target working memory impairments from neurophysiological or psychological aspects.

  10. Neurocognitive Models of Medical Decision-Making Capacity in Traumatic Brain Injury Across Injury Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, Kristen L; Novack, Thomas A; Kennedy, Richard; Martin, Roy C; Dreer, Laura E; Raman, Rema; Marson, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    To identify neurocognitive predictors of medical decision-making capacity (MDC) in participants with mild and moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Academic medical center. Sixty adult controls and 104 adults with TBI (49 mild, 55 moderate/severe) evaluated within 6 weeks of injury. Prospective cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument to assess MDC and a neuropsychological test battery. We used factor analysis to reduce the battery test measures into 4 cognitive composite scores (verbal memory, verbal fluency, academic skills, and processing speed/executive function). We identified cognitive predictors of the 3 most clinically relevant Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument consent standards (appreciation, reasoning, and understanding). In controls, academic skills (word reading, arithmetic) and verbal memory predicted understanding; verbal fluency predicted reasoning; and no predictors emerged for appreciation. In the mild TBI group, verbal memory predicted understanding and reasoning, whereas academic skills predicted appreciation. In the moderate/severe TBI group, verbal memory and academic skills predicted understanding; academic skills predicted reasoning; and academic skills and verbal fluency predicted appreciation. Verbal memory was a predictor of MDC in controls and persons with mild and moderate/severe TBI. In clinical practice, impaired verbal memory could serve as a "red flag" for diminished consent capacity in persons with recent TBI.

  11. Traumatic rupture of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfman, G.S.; Paolella, L.P.; Haas, R.A.; Lambiase, R.E.; Cronan, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the acceptability of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the evaluation of traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA), the authors obtained 56 thoracic aortograms in 55 consecutive trauma patients, using both DSA and cut-film angiography (CFA). Both studies were ranked blindly and assigned scores for quality and diagnosis. Interobserver variance for DSA and CFA quality rankings was insignificant. CFA achieved significantly higher ranking for quality. In the 56 examinations, CFA demonstrated seven abnormalities that demanded intervention for follow-up angiography. DSA demonstrated only five of these and found no additional abnormalities. While this evaluation applies only to the particular digital system that the authors tested, they found that DSA, as compared with CFA, failed to demonstrate significant aortic injury. The confidence of diagnosis was significantly greater with CFA. Similar double-blind evaluation is mandatory at any trauma center prior to converting from CFA to DSA in the diagnosis of this life-threatening condition

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Kinyanjui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenya has a disproportionately high rate of road traffic accidents each year, many of them resulting in traumatic brain injuries (TBIs. A review of articles written on issues pertaining to the medical treatment of people with TBI in the past 15 years in Kenya indicates a significantly high incidence of TBIs and a high mortality rate. This article reviews the available literature as a first step in exploring the status of rehabilitation of Kenyans with cognitive impairments and other disabilities resulting from TBIs. From this preliminary review, it is apparent that despite TBI being a pervasive public health problem in Kenya, it has not received due attention in the public and private sectors as evidenced by a serious lack of post-acute rehabilitation services for people with TBIs. Implications for this lack of services are discussed and recommendations are made for potential approaches to this problem.

  13. Challenges in treating post-traumatic stress disorder and attachment trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jon G

    2003-06-01

    Treating women suffering from trauma poses significant challenges. The diagnostic prototype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is based on single-event trauma, such as sexual assault in adulthood. Several effective cognitive- behavioral treatments for such traumas have been developed, although many treated patients continue to experience residual symptoms. Even more problematic is the complex developmental psychopathology stemming from a lifetime history of multiple traumas, often beginning with maltreatment in early attachment relationships. A history of attachment trauma undermines the development of capacities to regulate emotional distress and thereby complicates the treatment of acute trauma in adulthood. Such complex trauma requires a multifaceted treatment approach that must balance processing of traumatic memories with strategies to contain the intense emotions this processing evokes. Moreover, conducting such treatment places therapists at risk for secondary trauma such that trauma therapists also must process this stressful experience and implement strategies to regulate their own distress.

  14. Imagining the future in children with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lah, Suncica; Gott, Chloe; Epps, Adrienne; Parry, Louise

    2018-03-22

    Imagining the future events is thought to rely on re-combination and integration of past episodic memory traces into future events. Future and past events contain episodic and non-episodic details. Children with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were found to have impaired recall of past episodic (but not semantic) event details. Here we examined whether severe TBI impairs construction of future events. Cross-sectional. Children with severe TBI (n = 14) and healthy controls (NC; n = 33) (i) completed tests of anterograde (narrative and relational) memory and executive skills, (ii) recalled past events and generated future events, and (iii) rated events' phenomenological qualities. Events were scored for episodic (internal) and non-episodic (external) details. The groups did not differ in generating details of future events although children with TBI recalled significantly fewer past internal (but not external) events' details relative to NCs. Moreover, the number of past internal details relative to future internal details was significantly higher in the NC group, but not in the TBI groups. Significant correlations between past and future were found for (i) episodic details in both groups, and (ii) semantic details in the NC group. The TBI group rated their events as being less significant than did the NC group. The groups did not differ on ratings of visual intensity and rehearsal. Children who have sustained severe TBI had impoverished recall of past, but not generation of future events. This unexpected dissociation between past and future event construction requires further research.

  15. Deficits in analogical reasoning in adolescents with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Daniel C; Hanten, Gerri; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Li, Xiaoqi; Schnelle, Kathleen P; Merkley, Tricia L; Vasquez, Ana C; Cook, Lori G; McClelland, Michelle; Chapman, Sandra B; Levin, Harvey S

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) exhibit deficits in executive control, which may impact their reasoning abilities. Analogical reasoning requires working memory and inhibitory abilities. In this study, we tested adolescents with moderate to severe TBI and typically developing (TD) controls on a set of picture analogy problems. Three factors were varied: complexity (number of relations in the problems), distraction (distractor item present or absent), and animacy (living or non-living items in the problems). We found that TD adolescents performed significantly better overall than TBI adolescents. There was also an age effect present in the TBI group where older participants performed better than younger ones. This age effect was not observed in the TD group. Performance was affected by complexity and distraction. Further, TBI participants exhibited lower performance with distractors present than TD participants. The reasoning deficits exhibited by the TBI participants were correlated with measures of executive function that required working memory updating, attention, and attentional screening. Using MRI-derived measures of cortical thickness, correlations were carried out between task accuracy and cortical thickness. The TD adolescents showed negative correlations between thickness and task accuracy in frontal and temporal regions consistent with cortical maturation in these regions. This study demonstrates that adolescent TBI results in impairments in analogical reasoning ability. Further, TBI youth have difficulty effectively screening out distraction, which may lead to failures in comprehension of the relations among items in visual scenes. Lastly, TBI youth fail to show robust cortical-behavior correlations as observed in TD individuals.

  16. Neuropsychology of traumatic brain injury: An expert overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouvi, P; Arnould, A; Dromer, E; Vallat-Azouvi, C

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious healthcare problem, and this report is a selective review of recent findings on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and neuropsychological impairments following TBI. Patients who survive moderate-to-severe TBI frequently suffer from a wide range of cognitive deficits and behavioral changes due to diffuse axonal injury. These deficits include slowed information-processing and impaired long-term memory, attention, working memory, executive function, social cognition and self-awareness. Mental fatigue is frequently also associated and can exacerbate the consequences of neuropsychological deficits. Personality and behavioral changes can include combinations of impulsivity and apathy. Even mild TBI raises specific problems: while most patients recover within a few weeks or months, a minority of patients may suffer from long-lasting symptoms (post-concussion syndrome). The pathophysiology of such persistent problems remains a subject of debate, but seems to be due to both injury-related and non-injury-related factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Traumatic brain injury–Modeling neuropsychiatric symptoms in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oz eMalkesman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Each year in the United States, approximately 1.5 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI. Victims of TBI can suffer from chronic post-TBI symptoms, such as sensory and motor deficits, cognitive impairments including problems with memory, learning, and attention, and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, irritability, aggression, and suicidal rumination. Although partially associated with the site and severity of injury, the biological mechanisms associated with many of these symptoms—and why some patients experience differing assortments of persistent maladies—are largely unknown. The use of animal models is a promising strategy for elucidation of the mechanisms of impairment and treatment, and learning, memory, sensory and motor tests have widespread utility in rodent models of TBI and psychopharmacology. Comparatively, behavioral tests for the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptomatology are rarely employed in animal models of TBI and, as determined in this review, the results have been inconsistent. Animal behavioral studies contribute to the understanding of the biological mechanisms by which TBI is associated with neurobehavioral symptoms and offer a powerful means for pre-clinical treatment validation. Therefore, further exploration of the utility of animal behavioral tests for the study of injury mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for the alleviation of emotional symptoms are relevant and essential.

  18. The memory unsatisfied in Estrella distante of Roberto Bolaño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Florinda Ramírez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sets up to examine the fictional strategies appointed  to shape the complexity of the memory processes in there composition of a traumatic experience. Estrella distante (1996, discusses the identity of the subject and, consequently, questions the supposed transparency of testimonies. Critical memory opens the past to uninterrupted interpretations in order to prevent the crystallization of a solesense of facts.

  19. Comparison of glycerolisation with cryopreservation methods on HIV-1 inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baare, J.; Pagnon, J.; Cameron, P.; Vardaxis, N.; Middlekoop, E.; Crowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Cryopreservation and glycerolisation are two successful long-term preservation methods for human cadaveric donor skin, which is used in the treatment of bum patients. High concentrations of glycerol has been shown to be antibacterial and virucidal. Because fear of possible transmission of HIV-1 following allograft transplantation, this study was undertaken to investigate whether HIV can be effectively eliminated from skin explants. HIV-1 Ba-L, which has been shown to infect monocytes in skin explants and also dendritic cells, was. For the experiments we used cell-free virus, exogenously HIV infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and exogenously HIV infected cadaver split skin. Different concentrations of glycerol at various temperatures and the glycerolisation procedure as used by the Euro Skin Bank were used to determine the effects on HIV-1 Ba-L infectivity. For the cryopreservation technique we used 10% DMSO and a controlled rate freezer. HIV-1 Ba-L transfer was determined by adding uninfected PBMCs to the infected material and reverse transcriptase was measured. Cell-free HIV-1 Ba-L was not inactivated by 50% glycerol but was effectively inactivated within 30 minutes by 70% and 85% glycerol at 4 degree C, room temperature and 37 degree C. In contrast, cell-free HIV-1 Ba-L was not inactivated by cryopreservation. Most importantly, we have shown that HIV-1 Ba-L present in split skin is inactivated by incubating skin in 70% glycerol for three hours at 37-C. HIV in exogenously infected skin was not inactivated by cryopreservation. High concentrations of glycerol effectively inactivates free HIV-1 Ba-L and intracellular HIV-1 Ba-L. Also the current glycerolisation procedure carried out by the Euro Skin Bank effectively inactivates infectious virus. However, the cryopreservation technique did not show any reduction in HIV-1 Ba-L infectivity

  20. Changing the Air Force Disqualification Policy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Trauma-Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-21

    injury, or sexual violence directly or indirectly occurred. It is characterized by intrusive symptoms, typically flashbacks, intrusive memories/dreams...of functioning. Symptoms must last at least 1 month to meet criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD. Traumatic events can include sexual abuse, violence...psychology, neuropsychology , and psychiatry believe that misdiagnosis can have a potentially negative outcome for aviators as well as their perception of

  1. Potential of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, Tracy M; Lee, Christopher W; Drummond, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Tracy M McGuire, Christopher W Lee, Peter D Drummond School of Psychology, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) continues to attract both empirical and clinical interest due to its complex symptom profile and the underlying processes involved. Recently, research attention has been focused on the types of memory processes involved in PTSD and hypothesized neurobiological processes. Complicating this exploration, and the treatment of PTSD, ar...

  2. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stress (PTS) is a lot like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but not as severe. Patients have a ... PTS) are a lot like symptoms of other stress-related disorders. PTS has many of the same symptoms as ...

  3. Traumatic intracranial aneurysm: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Si Won; Chun, Kyung Ah; Baik, Joon Hyun; Shin, Kyung Sub

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence of traumatic aneurysm is rare in head injury, but this complication is important as it is a potentially treatable cause delayed onset of intracranial hemorrhage. Authors report one case of traumatic aneurysm involving A1 and A2 junction of anterior cerebral artery. A-28-year-old man with traffic accident was examined with brain CT and cerebral angiography. 1) Brain CT: Initial scan shows multiple skull fractures involving right frontal bones with subarachnoid hemorrhage and pneumocephalus. Follow-up scan shows intracerebral hemorrhage at bilateral frontal lobes. 2) Cerebral angiography: A traumatic aneurysm which is slowly filling and delayed emptying is noted at the junctional portion of A1 and A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. This report demonstrates radiologic findings of traumatic aneurysm at anterior cerebral artery with the brief review of the literatures

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Condition Information What is TBI? TBI ... external force that affects the functioning of the brain. It can be caused by a bump or ...

  5. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CHILDREN: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denismar Borges de Miranda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the scientific literature on head injury in children. Method: this study is an integrative review of published articles in the database SciELO the period 2000-2010. Results: 10 articles were analyzed, from which emerged four categories: causes of traumatic brain child infant prognosis of traumatic brain child, treating children victims of child head injury and complications of therapy used for child victims of traumatic brain injury in children. Conclusions: there is consensus among the authors investigated the factors associated with better prognosis of traumatic brain child, remain vague and uncertain. They add that the success of this customer service related to the control of complications arising from cerebral trauma and mostly are treatable and / or preventable.

  6. Context-dependent modulation of hippocampal and cortical recruitment during remote spatial memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joëlle; Herbeaux, Karin; Cosquer, Brigitte; Engeln, Michel; Muller, Christophe; Lazarus, Christine; Kelche, Christian; Bontempi, Bruno; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; de Vasconcelos, Anne Pereira

    2012-04-01

    According to systems consolidation, as hippocampal-dependent memories mature over time, they become additionally (or exclusively) dependent on extra-hippocampal structures. We assessed the recruitment of hippocampal and cortical structures on remote memory retrieval in a performance-degradation resistant (PDR; no performance degradation with time) versus performance-degradation prone (PDP; performance degraded with time) context. Using a water-maze task in two contexts with a hidden platform and three control conditions (home cage, visible platform with or without access to distal cues), we compared neuronal activation (c-Fos imaging) patterns in the dorsal hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after the retrieval of recent (5 days) versus remote (25 days) spatial memory. In the PDR context, the hippocampus exhibited greater c-Fos protein expression on remote than recent memory retrieval, be it in the visible or hidden platform group. In the PDP context, hippocampal activation increased at the remote time point and only in the hidden platform group. In the anterior cingulate cortex, c-Fos expression was greater for remote than for recent memory retrieval and only in the PDR context. The necessity of the mPFC for remote memory retrieval in the PDR context was confirmed using region-specific lidocaine inactivation, which had no impact on recent memory. Conversely, inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus impaired both recent and remote memory in the PDR context, and only recent memory in the PDP context, in which remote memory performance was degraded. While confirming that neuronal circuits supporting spatial memory consolidation are reorganized in a time-dependent manner, our findings further indicate that mPFC and hippocampus recruitment (i) depends on the content and perhaps the strength of the memory and (ii) may be influenced by the environmental conditions (e.g., cue saliency, complexity) in which memories are initially formed and subsequently

  7. Developing Memory Reconsolidation Blockers as Novel PTSD Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    poster at the 2013 Society of Biological Annual Meeting and are currently being prepared for publications. A copy of the poster is attached...in the drug effect between genders. Although the Study Three samples were stratified by gender, no information on menstrual cycle was collected. Given...the effects of mifepristone on the progesterone system and the possible interactions among menstrual cycle, progesterone, and traumatic memories

  8. Cognitive sequelae in survivors of traumatic frontal lobe injury: comparison between mild and moderate injury effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, A.; Ahmad, W.; Tahir, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of cognitive deficits in the survivors of traumatic frontal lobe injury of mild to moderate severity. Study Design: Mix method study. Place and Duration of Study: Nishter Hospital Multan, Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur and Sheikh Zaid Hospital Rahim Yar Khan, from Sep 2010 to Jun 2011. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 55 participants. Fifteen of these were taken from healthy population with the age range of 20-30 years (Mean = 25.7 ± SD = 4.6) and 40 participants were medically documented patients of frontal lobe injury of mild (20) to moderate (20) severity. The age range of mild traumatic frontal lobe injury patients was 20-32 years (Mean= 26.5 ± SD = 4.9). The age range of moderate severity patients was also 20-32 years (Mean= 26.4 ± SD = 5.0). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale revised and case history interview were administered to determine cognitive deficits following traumatic frontal lobe injury. Results: Statistical test, one way analysis was used to compare the performance of all these three (control, mild and moderate) groups. Results of present study reflected that cognitive deficits like memory deficits, language problems, trouble in concentrating and difficulty in planning are the major consequences of traumatic frontal lobe injury. Conclusion: To conclude, frontal lobe injury patients not only showed poor performance in clinically-driven structured and comprehensive memory tests when they were compared with healthy people but their performance also varied according to the severity of injury. (author)

  9. Traumatic Floating Clavicle: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo CY

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder girdle injuries after high energy traumatic impacts to the shoulder have been well documented. Based on the series of 1603 injuries of the shoulder girdle reported by Cave and colleagues, 85% of the dislocations were glenohumeral, 12% acromioclavicular and 3% sternoclavicular. Less frequently described are injuries involving both the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints simultaneously in one extremity. The present case report discusses a case of traumatic floating clavicle associated with ipsilateral forearm and wrist injury which was treated surgically.

  10. Aversive olfactory associative memory loses odor specificity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Christian; Antwi-Adjei, Emmanuel; Ganesan, Mathangi; Kilonzo, Kasyoka; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Durairaja, Archana; Voigt, Anne; Yarali, Ayse

    2017-05-01

    Avoiding associatively learned predictors of danger is crucial for survival. Aversive memories can, however, become counter-adaptive when they are overly generalized to harmless cues and contexts. In a fruit fly odor-electric shock associative memory paradigm, we found that learned avoidance lost its specificity for the trained odor and became general to novel odors within a day of training. We discuss the possible neural circuit mechanisms of this effect and highlight the parallelism to over-generalization of learned fear behavior after an incubation period in rodents and humans, with due relevance for post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Lasting consequences of traumatic events on behavioral and skeletal parameters in a mouse model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongrun; Watt, Heather; Kesavan, Chandrasekhar; Johnson, Patrick J; Wergedal, Jon E; Mohan, Subburaman

    2012-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that not only affects mental health, but may also affect bone health. However, there have been no studies to examine the direct relationship between PTSD and bone. We employed electric shocks in mice to simulate traumatic events that cause PTSD. We also injected the anxiogenic drug FG-7142 prior to electric shocks. Electric shocks created lasting conditioned fear memory in all mice. In young mice, electric shocks elicited not only behavioral response but also skeletal response, and injection of FG-7142 appeared to increase both types of response. For example in behavioral response within the first week, mice shocked alone froze an average of 6.2 sec in 10 sec tests, and mice injected with FG-7142 froze 7.6 sec, both significantly different (PPTSD-like behavior was associated with reduced bone mass acquisition. This is the first study to document evidence that traumatic events induce lasting consequences on both behavior and skeletal growth, and electric shocks coupled with injection of anxiogenic FG-7142 in young mice can be used as a model to study the effect of PTSD-like symptoms on bone development.

  12. Prospective memory rehabilitation using smartphones in patients with TBI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evald, Lars

    2015-01-01

    with the use of low-cost, off-the-shelf, unmodified smartphones combined with Internet calendars as a compensatory memory strategy. Thirteen community-dwelling patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) received a 6-week group-based instruction in the systematic use of a smartphone as a memory compensatory aid...... followed by a brief structured open-ended interview regarding satisfaction with and advantages and disadvantages of the compensatory strategy. Ten of 13 participants continued to use a smartphone as their primary compensatory strategy. Audible and visual reminders were the most frequently mentioned...... advantages of the smartphone, and, second, the capability as an all-in-one memory device. In contrast, battery life was the most often mentioned disadvantage, followed by concerns about loss or failure of the device. Use of a smartphone seems to be a satisfactory compensatory memory strategy to many patients...

  13. Memories of attachment hamper EEG cortical connectivity in dissociative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Dittoni, Serena; Gnoni, Valentina; Trentini, Cristina; Vergano, Carola Maggiora; Liotti, Giovanni; Brunetti, Riccardo; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated cortical connectivity modifications by electroencephalography (EEG) lagged coherence analysis, in subjects with dissociative disorders and in controls, after retrieval of attachment memories. We asked thirteen patients with dissociative disorders and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls to retrieve personal attachment-related autobiographical memories through adult attachment interviews (AAI). EEG was recorded in the closed eyes resting state before and after the AAI. EEG lagged coherence before and after AAI was compared in all subjects. In the control group, memories of attachment promoted a widespread increase in EEG connectivity, in particular in the high-frequency EEG bands. Compared to controls, dissociative patients did not show an increase in EEG connectivity after the AAI. Conclusions: These results shed light on the neurophysiology of the disintegrative effect of retrieval of traumatic attachment memories in dissociative patients.

  14. Working Memory From the Psychological and Neurosciences Perspectives: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wen Jia; Abd Hamid, Aini Ismafairus; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2018-01-01

    neural pattern has been consistently reported in these disadvantaged groups. Working memory of patients with traumatic brain injury was similarly affected and shown to have unusual neural activity (hyper- or hypoactivation) as a general observation. Decoding the underlying neural mechanisms of working memory helps support the current theoretical understandings concerning working memory, and at the same time provides insights into rehabilitation programs that target working memory impairments from neurophysiological or psychological aspects. PMID:29636715

  15. Working Memory From the Psychological and Neurosciences Perspectives: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jia Chai

    2018-03-01

    and organized neural pattern has been consistently reported in these disadvantaged groups. Working memory of patients with traumatic brain injury was similarly affected and shown to have unusual neural activity (hyper- or hypoactivation as a general observation. Decoding the underlying neural mechanisms of working memory helps support the current theoretical understandings concerning working memory, and at the same time provides insights into rehabilitation programs that target working memory impairments from neurophysiological or psychological aspects.

  16. Successful Endoscopic Therapy of Traumatic Bile Leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Spinn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic bile leaks often result in high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay that requires multimodality management. Data on endoscopic management of traumatic bile leaks are scarce. Our study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the endoscopic management of a traumatic bile leak. We performed a retrospective case review of patients who were referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP after traumatic bile duct injury secondary to blunt (motor vehicle accident or penetrating (gunshot trauma for management of bile leaks at our tertiary academic referral center. Fourteen patients underwent ERCP for the management of a traumatic bile leak over a 5-year period. The etiology included blunt trauma from motor vehicle accident in 8 patients, motorcycle accident in 3 patients and penetrating injury from a gunshot wound in 3 patients. Liver injuries were grade III in 1 patient, grade IV in 10 patients, and grade V in 3 patients. All patients were treated by biliary stent placement, and the outcome was successful in 14 of 14 cases (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 85.6 days (range 54-175 days. There were no ERCP-related complications. In our case review, endoscopic management with endobiliary stent placement was found to be successful and resulted in resolution of the bile leak in all 14 patients. Based on our study results, ERCP should be considered as first-line therapy in the management of traumatic bile leaks.

  17. The mental health consequences of student "Holocaust memorial journeys".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Walter, Garry; Ross, Sharon; Bloch, Yuval

    2013-08-01

    Our aim was to study the mental health consequences of Israeli adolescents' 8-day "Holocaust memorial journey" to Poland. A survey to ascertain the experience of Israeli child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents in the specialty was conducted. Participants were asked about referrals regarding the memorial journey, and to compare these cases with referrals for other potentially traumatic events, including school "sleep-out" trips. Fifty child and adolescent psychiatrists and residents participated. According to their collective experience, the adolescents' memorial journey triggered a variety of mental health problems, including psychosis, but only one case of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Judging by the number of referrals, there was a higher rate of mental health problems following the memorial journey than after the annual sleep-out school trip. Although it may seldom lead to PTSD, the Holocaust memorial journey can be a major stressor for some participating teenagers. Evaluating "high risk" adolescents prior to their planned exposure to likely stressors and conducting large, prospective studies that examine the impact of pre-planned stressors on the lives of adolescents are warranted. Providing support to all adolescents before, during and after exposure to anticipated stressors is important.

  18. Encoding and retrieval of artificial visuoauditory memory traces in the auditory cortex requires the entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Guo, Yiping; Feng, Jingyu; Liao, Zhengli; Li, Xinjian; Wang, Haitao; Li, Xiao; He, Jufang

    2013-06-12

    Damage to the medial temporal lobe impairs the encoding of new memories and the retrieval of memories acquired immediately before the damage in human. In this study, we demonstrated that artificial visuoauditory memory traces can be established in the rat auditory cortex and that their encoding and retrieval depend on the entorhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe in the rat. We trained rats to associate a visual stimulus with electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex using a classical conditioning protocol. After conditioning, we examined the associative memory traces electrophysiologically (i.e., visual stimulus-evoked responses of auditory cortical neurons) and behaviorally (i.e., visual stimulus-induced freezing and visual stimulus-guided reward retrieval). The establishment of a visuoauditory memory trace in the auditory cortex, which was detectable by electrophysiological recordings, was achieved over 20-30 conditioning trials and was blocked by unilateral, temporary inactivation of the entorhinal cortex. Retrieval of a previously established visuoauditory memory was also affected by unilateral entorhinal cortex inactivation. These findings suggest that the entorhinal cortex is necessary for the encoding and involved in the retrieval of artificial visuoauditory memory in the auditory cortex, at least during the early stages of memory consolidation.

  19. Beneficial effects of chronic oxytocin administration and social co-housing in a rodent model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janezic, Eric M; Uppalapati, Swetha; Nagl, Stephanie; Contreras, Marco; French, Edward D; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2016-12-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is in part due to a deficit in memory consolidation and extinction. Oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic effects and promotes prosocial behaviors in both rodents and humans, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in memory consolidation. We studied the effects of administered OXT and social co-housing in a rodent model of PTSD. Acute OXT yielded a short-term increase in the recall of the traumatic memory if administered immediately after trauma. Low doses of OXT delivered chronically had a cumulating anxiolytic effect that became apparent after 4 days and persisted. Repeated injections of OXT after short re-exposures to the trauma apparatus yielded a long-term reduction in anxiety. Co-housing with naive nonshocked animals decreased the memory of the traumatic context compared with single-housed animals. In the long term, these animals showed less thigmotaxis and increased interest in novel objects, and a low OXT plasma level. Co-housed PTSD animals showed an increase in risk-taking behavior. These results suggest beneficial effects of OXT if administered chronically through increases in memory consolidation after re-exposure to a safe trauma context. We also show differences between the benefits of social co-housing with naive rats and co-housing with other shocked animals on trauma-induced long-term anxiety.

  20. Altered caudate connectivity is associated with executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simoni, Sara; Jenkins, Peter O; Bourke, Niall J; Fleminger, Jessica J; Hellyer, Peter J; Jolly, Amy E; Patel, Maneesh C; Cole, James H; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury often produces executive dysfunction. This characteristic cognitive impairment often causes long-term problems with behaviour and personality. Frontal lobe injuries are associated with executive dysfunction, but it is unclear how these injuries relate to corticostriatal interactions that are known to play an important role in behavioural control. We hypothesized that executive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury would be associated with abnormal corticostriatal interactions, a question that has not previously been investigated. We used structural and functional MRI measures of connectivity to investigate this. Corticostriatal functional connectivity in healthy individuals was initially defined using a data-driven approach. A constrained independent component analysis approach was applied in 100 healthy adult dataset from the Human Connectome Project. Diffusion tractography was also performed to generate white matter tracts. The output of this analysis was used to compare corticostriatal functional connectivity and structural integrity between groups of 42 patients with traumatic brain injury and 21 age-matched controls. Subdivisions of the caudate and putamen had distinct patterns of functional connectivity. Traumatic brain injury patients showed disruption to functional connectivity between the caudate and a distributed set of cortical regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex. Cognitive impairments in the patients were mainly seen in processing speed and executive function, as well as increased levels of apathy and fatigue. Abnormalities of caudate functional connectivity correlated with these cognitive impairments, with reductions in right caudate connectivity associated with increased executive dysfunction, information processing speed and memory impairment. Structural connectivity, measured using diffusion tensor imaging between the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex was impaired and this also correlated with measures of