De Venter, Maud; Smets, Jorien; Raes, Filip; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik; Hanssens, Myriam; Jacquemyn, Yves; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip
Studies on the impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression show inconsistencies and methodological limitations. The present study examines the effect of childhood trauma on depression 12 and 24 weeks after childbirth, while controlling for history of depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. During the third trimester of pregnancy, 210 women completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression (current and/or past episodes), childhood trauma and type D personality, of whom 187 participated in the postpartum follow-up, with depression symptoms being reassessed at 12 and 24 weeks after delivery with three depression outcome measures. Eventually, 183 participants were retained for analysis. Results indicated no predictive value of childhood trauma on postpartum depression in the univariate analyses, nor after controlling for previous depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. However, past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy did independently and convincingly predict postpartum depression, especially at 12 weeks and to a lesser extent at 24 weeks following childbirth. Overall, we found no significant association between childhood trauma and postpartum depression. Past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy are more relevant factors to assess before childbirth.
Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.
Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…
Rogers, Rebecca G.; Borders, Noelle; Leeman, Lawrence M.; Albers, Leah L.
Changes in sexual function are common in postpartum women. In this comparative, descriptive study, a prospective cohort of midwifery patients consented to documentation of genital trauma at birth and assessment of sexual function three months postpartum. The impact of spontaneous genital trauma on postpartum sexual function was the focus of the study. Trauma was categorized into minor trauma (no trauma or 1st degree perineal or other trauma that was not sutured) or major trauma (2nd, 3rd, or ...
Paloma Pegolo de Albuquerque
Full Text Available AbstractThe literature indicates damage to students' mental health in cases of school violence. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the psychological impact of school victimization in university students, and to analyze the association between PTSD symptoms and variables related to school victimization. 691 University students responded to the Portuguese version of the Student Alienation and Trauma Survey (SATS. Clinically significant scores in the subscales ranged from 4.7% (somatic symptoms to 20% (hypervigilance, with frequent symptoms described in the literature resulting from school victimization, such as depression, hopelessness, cognitive difficulties, and traumatic event recollection. Additionally, 7.8% of participants presented PTSD symptoms after suffering their "worst school experience". Associations were found between PTSD symptoms and the level of distress after the experience, as well as the perceived benefits after the event, and duration. The results confirm the potential detrimental effects of school victimization, and may be useful to further investigations on this topic.
Hien, Denise A; Campbell, Aimee N C; Killeen, Therese; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hansen, Cheri; Jiang, Huiping; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Miele, Gloria M; Cohen, Lisa R; Gan, Weijin; Resko, Stella M; DiBono, Michele; Wells, Elizabeth A; Nunes, Edward V
Women in drug treatment struggle with co-occurring problems, including trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can heighten HIV risk. This study examines the impact of two group therapy interventions on reduction of unprotected sexual occasions (USO) among women with substance use disorders (SUD) and PTSD. Participants were 346 women recruited from and receiving treatment at six community-based drug treatment programs participating in NIDA's Clinical Trials Network. Participants were randomized to receive 12-sessions of either seeking safety (SS), a cognitive behavioral intervention for women with PTSD and SUD, or women's health education (WHE), an attention control psychoeducational group. Participants receiving SS who were at higher sexual risk (i.e., at least 12 USO per month) significantly reduced the number of USO over 12-month follow up compared to WHE. High risk women with co-occurring PTSD and addiction may benefit from treatment addressing coping skills and trauma to reduce HIV risk.
Magnone, Stefano; Allegri, Andrea; Belotti, Eugenia; Castelli, Claudio Carlo; Ceresoli, Marco; Coccolini, Federico; Manfredi, Roberto; Merli, Cecilia; Palamara, Fabrizio; Piazzalunga, Dario; Valetti, Tino Martino; Ansaloni, Luca
Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines are widely accepted for use in initial management of trauma patients. The application of ATLS guidelines and introduction of management by means of trauma team (TT) both took place in April 2011. The aim of the present study was to evaluate related effects on mortality in the shock room (SR) and at 24 hours after admission. Data were retrieved by administrative software based on patient admission for trauma of at least 48 hours. Study period was from April 2011 to December 2012, and control period was from January 2007 to March 2011. All admitted patients were identified by first diagnosis (ICD 9-CM), excluding traumatic brain injuries, and only patients admitted to the general intensive care, general surgery, and orthopedics units were included. The control group (CG) included 198 patients; the study group (SG) included 141. Differences were determined in patient age, which was mean 45.2 years (SD: 19.2) in the CG and mean 49.3 years (SD±18.3) in the SG (p=0.03). Differences were not found regarding gender, length of hospital stay, or Injury Severity Score (ISS). Among the patients who died, no differences were found in terms of systolic blood pressure, metabolic acidosis, or packed red blood cell consumption. Mortality was significantly higher in the CG, compared to the SG (14.1% vs 7.1%, respectively; p=0.033; confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-0.95). Mortality in the shock room was significantly lower in the SG, compared to the CG (0.7% vs 7.1%, respectively; p=0.002; CI: 0.004-0.592). The introduction of ATLS guidelines and TT had a positive impact on mortality in the first 24 hours, both in the SR and after admission.
Vanaja Ratnakumari Billa
Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the recent times there has been increased incidence of abdominal trauma cases due to several causes. Quick and prompt intervention is needed to decrease the mortality of the patients. So we conducted a study to assess the cause and the management of abdominal trauma cases in our institution. The aim of this study was to know the incidence of blunt and penetrating injuries and their causes, age and sex incidence, importance of various investigations, mode of treatment offered and post-operative complications. To study the cause of death and evolve better management. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study comprises of patients admitted to and operated in various surgical units in the Department of Surgery at Government General Hospital, attached to Guntur Medical College Guntur, from August 2014 to October 2016. RESULTS Increase incidence seen in age group 20-29 years (30%. Male predominance 77.5%. Mechanism of injury–road traffic accidents 65%. Isolated organ injury–colon and rectum 40%. Other associated injuries–chest injuries with rib fractures 7.5%. Complications–wound infection 17.5%. Duration of hospital stay 8–14 days. Bowel injury management–closure of perforation 84.6%. Resection anastomosis 15.38%. CONCLUSION Thorough clinical examination, diagnostic paracentesis, plain X-ray erect abdomen and ultrasound proved to be very helpful in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries. Spleen is the commonest organ involved in blunt trauma and colon is the commonly injured organ in penetrating abdominal trauma, many patients have associated extremity and axial skeleton injuries. With advances in diagnosis and intensive care technologies, most patients of solid visceral injuries with hemodynamic stability can be managed conservatively. Surgical site infection is the most common complication following surgery. The mortality is high; reason might be patient reaching the hospital late, high incidence of postoperative septic
Rich, S. Lynne; Wilson, Janet K.; Robertson, Angela A.
This study examines the impact of abuse trauma (physical and sexual) on alcohol and drug use of high-risk girls (12–18 years of age) who were surveyed within the first two weeks of their incarceration. One-way ANOVA analyses and Tukey post-hoc tests indicate physical abuse with a weapon was associated with higher marijuana use and number of drugs used. Sexual abuse, especially within the past year increased marijuana use, alcohol use, number of drugs used, and alcohol and other drug (AOD) pro...
Ciesla, David J; Pracht, Etienne E; Leitz, Pablo T; Spain, David A; Staudenmayer, Kristan L; Tepas, Joseph J
Florida serves as a model for the study of trauma system performance. Between 2010 and 2104, 5 new trauma centers were opened alongside 20 existing centers. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of trauma system expansion on system triage performance and trauma center patients' profiles. A statewide data set was queried for all injury-related discharges from adult acute care hospitals using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for 2010 and 2014. The data set, inclusion criteria, and definitions of high-risk injury were chosen to match those used by the Florida Department of Health in its trauma registry. Hospitals were classified as existing Level I (E1) or Level II (E2) trauma centers and new E2 (N2) centers. Five N2 centers were established 11.6 to 85.3 miles from existing centers. Field and overall trauma system triage of high-risk patients was less accurate with increased overtriage and no change in undertriage. Annual volume at N2 centers increased but did not change at E1 and E2 centers. In 2014, Patients at E1 and E2 centers were slightly older and less severely injured, while those at N2 centers were substantially younger and more severely injured than in 2010. The injured patient-payer mix changed with a decrease in self-pay and commercial patients and an increase in government-sponsored patients at E1 and E2 centers and an increase in self-pay and commercial patients with a decrease in government-sponsored patients at N2 centers. Designation of new trauma centers in a mature system was associated with a change in established trauma center demographics and economics without an improvement in trauma system triage performance. These findings suggest that the health of an entire trauma system network must be considered in the design and implementation of a regional trauma system. Therapeutic/care management study, level IV; epidemiological, level IV.
Curtis, Kate; McCarthy, Amy; Mitchell, Rebecca; Black, Deborah; Foster, Kim; Jan, Stephen; Burns, Brian; Tall, Gary; Rigby, Oran; Gruen, Russell; Kennedy, Belinda; Holland, Andrew J A
Injury is a leading cause of death and disability for children. Regionalised trauma systems have improved outcomes for severely injured adults, however the impact of adult orientated trauma systems on the outcomes of severely injured children remains unclear. The objective of this study is to review the processes of care and describe the impacts of a regionalised trauma system on the outcomes of severely injured children. This article describes the design of a mixed methods cohort study evaluating the paediatric trauma system in New South Wales (NSW), the most populous state in Australia. Recommendations and an implementation strategy will be developed for aspects of the paediatric trauma care system that require change. All injured children (aged Health service and cost outcomes will be calculated using activity based funding data provided by the Ministry of Health. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) proxy measures will occur at baseline, 6 and 12 months to measure child HRQoL and functional outcomes. This will be the first comprehensive analysis undertaken in Australia of the processes and systems of care for severe paediatric injury. The collaborative research method will encourage clinician, consumer and clinical networks to lead the clinical reform process and will ultimately enable policy makers and service providers to ensure that children seriously injured in Australia have the best opportunity for survival, improved functional outcome and long-term quality of life.
VanDeusen, Karen M.; Way, Ineke
This study examined vicarious trauma effects in male and female clinicians who treat sexual abuse survivors (n = 111) and sexual offenders (n = 272). The national survey was conducted using a random sample of clinical members of two professional organizations. Analyses tested the relationships between demographic variables, maltreatment history,…
Mabry, Charles D; Kalkwarf, Kyle J; Betzold, Richard D; Spencer, Horace J; Robertson, Ronald D; Sutherland, Michael J; Maxson, Robert T
There have been no comprehensive studies across an organized statewide trauma system using a standardized method to determine cost. Trauma financial impact includes the following costs: verification, response, and patient care cost (PCC). We conducted a survey of participating trauma centers (TCs) for federal fiscal year 2012, including separate accounting for verification and response costs. Patient care cost was merged with their trauma registry data. Seventy-five percent of the 2012 state trauma registry had data submitted. Each TC's reasonable cost from the Medicare Cost Report was adjusted to remove embedded costs for response and verification. Cost-to-charge ratios were used to give uniform PCC across the state. Median (mean ± SD) costs per patient for TC response and verification for Level I and II centers were $1,689 ($1,492 ± $647) and $450 ($636 ± $431) for Level III and IV centers. Patient care cost-median (mean ± SD) costs for patients with a length of stay >2 days rose with increasing Injury Severity Score (ISS): ISS 2 days and ISS 9+. Level I centers had the highest mean ISS, length of stay, ICU days, and ventilator days, along with the highest PCC. Lesser trauma accounted for lower charges, payments, and PCC for Level II, III, and IV TCs, and the margin was variable. Verification and response costs per patient were highest for Level I and II TCs. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article starts from the DSM definition of psychic trauma. A central source in this field is the 1992 book by Judith Herman. One line of investigation is the sexual abuse of women and children. In an early phase, both Janet and Freud described dissociation as a reaction to trauma. In 1897, Freud disputed the reality of sexual trauma, a position countered later by Ferenczi. In a later phase, this subject was investigated by the American feminist movement. Studies of physical abuse are then described, followed by mental abuse and neglect. Another line of investigation is combat neurosis. The two lines converged in the definition of PTSD and its incorporation into the DSM in 1980. The views on trauma of John Bowlby and Alice Miller are also discussed. The integration of the relational model in psychoanalysis with the trauma literature is presented. The most recent advances are located in neurobiology. The discussion makes a preliminary investigation of the remote causes of war and sexual violence.
Wong, Carolyn F; Clark, Leslie F; Marlotte, Lauren
This study investigates the relative impact of trauma experiences that occurred prior to and since becoming homeless on depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and self-injurious behaviors among a sample of homeless youth (N = 389). Youth (aged 13 to 25) who had been homeless or precariously housed in the past year completed a survey about housing history, experiences of violence and victimization, mental health, and service utilization. In addition to examining the impact associated with specific trauma types, we also considered the effect of "early-on" poly-victimization (i.e., cumulative number of reported traumas prior to homelessness) and the influence of a compound sexual trauma variable created to represent earlier complex trauma. This created-variable has values ranging from no reported trauma, single trauma, multiple non-sexual traumas, and multiple traumas that co-occurred with sexual abuse. Multivariate analyses revealed that specific traumatic experiences prior to homelessness, including sexual abuse, emotional abuse/neglect, and adverse home environment, predicted greater mental health symptoms. Poly-victimization did not add to the prediction of mental health symptoms after the inclusion of specific traumas. Results with early compound sexual trauma revealed significant differences between lower-order trauma exposures and multiple-trauma exposures. Specifically, experience of multiple traumas that co-occurred with sexual trauma was significantly more detrimental in predicting PTSD symptoms than multiple traumas of non-sexual nature. Findings support the utility of an alternate/novel conceptualization of complex trauma, and support the need to carefully evaluate complex traumatic experiences that occurred prior to homelessness, which can impact the design and implementation of mental health care and services for homeless youth. © The Author(s) 2014.
Usha, M; Ravindran, V; Soumithran, C S; Ravindran Nair, K S
Motorcyclists comprise the majority of road-traffic victims in low and middle income countries,and consequently, the majority of the road-traffic victims globally. Simple measures can be taken to make safer on the roads, which include enforcement of safety measures like seat belt and helmets. The compulsory Helmet law was enforced in Kerala on 18/06/07. Resistance to legislation on motorcycle helmets still coexists world wide with debate on the effectiveness of helmets. In an attempt to analyze the protective effect of helmets on facial injuries a comparative study was conducted in Government Dental College, Calicut, which is a major trauma centre in northern Kerala. Data for the present study was obtained from the patients who have reported to the Emergency Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Calicut, for a period of 6 months immediately after the implementation of strict helmet rule in Kerala. For the study all patients with a history of nonfatal motor cycle accident sustaining facial injuries were included. The results were compared with the study conducted in the same institution in the pre law period. The study demonstrates the protective effect of motorcycle helmets in decreasing the morbidity of maxillofacial trauma.There was a marked decrease in incidence of motorcycle-related injuries, remarkable increase in helmet usage and better outcome in helmeted individuals in the post law period. Road traffic injury control is a public health problem. Health and medical professionals have an ethical responsibility to educate and arrange for the safety of individuals. Helmets are effective in preventing or reducing the severity of motorcycle-related injuries and in a developing country like India, enforced mandatory motor cycle helmet law is potentially one of the most cost effective interventions available.
North, Carol S; Barney, Carissa J; Pollio, David E
Much of the mental health research that has emerged from the September 11 (9/11) attacks has been focused on posttraumatic stress disorder and its symptoms. To better understand the broader experience of individuals following a disaster, focus groups were conducted with individuals from affected companies both at Ground Zero and elsewhere in New York City. Twenty-one focus groups with a total of 140 participants were conducted in the second post-9/11 year. Areas of identified concern were coded into the following themes: Disaster Experience, Emotional Responses, Workplace Issues, Coping, and Issues of Public Concern. Discussions of focus groups included material represented in all five themes in companies both at Ground Zero and elsewhere. The emphasis and the content within these themes varied between the Ground Zero and other companies. Content suggesting symptoms of PTSD represented only a minority of the material, especially in the company groups not at Ground Zero. This study's findings revealed an array of psychosocial concerns following the 9/11 attacks among employees of companies in New York City that extended far beyond PTSD. This study's results provide further evidence that trauma exposure is central to individuals' post-disaster experience and focus, and to individuals' adjustment and experience after disaster.
Kobayashi, Hirohito; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Imaizumi, Kentaro; Mizuno, Taiki; Fujime, Makoto
We analyzed 26 cases of renal trauma, which occurred during the last 7 years and 6 months. Computed tomography was performed in all cases. Four cases were of type Ib, 13 cases of type II, 3 cases of type IIIa, 5 cases of type IIIb and 1 case of type IVa, according to the classification of renal injury by the Japanese association for the surgery of trauma. Conservative treatment was done in 21 cases, selective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in 4 cases, and surgical treatment in 1 case. Conservative treatment was effective for type I and II renal trauma. In the cases of type IIIa and IIIb renal trauma, open surgery could be avoided and the affected kidney preserved by early TAE. (author)
Abstract The plurality and growing number of responses to cultural trauma theory in postcolonial criticism demonstrate the ongoing appeal of trauma theory despite the fact that it is also increasingly critiqued as inadequate to the research agenda of postcolonial studies. In the dialogue between
Brew, Benjamin; Doris, Michael; Shannon, Ciaran; Mulholland, Ciaran
Identification of individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) who are at a heightened risk of developing psychosis allows researchers and clinicians to identify what factors are associated with poorer outcomes and transitions to psychosis. A number of socioenvironmental factors are linked to an increase risk of developing psychosis, of which childhood trauma is widely acknowledged. The current review aims to examine what impact trauma has on the ARMS by reviewing reported relationships between trauma variables and transition to psychosis, ARMS severity, adaptive functioning and comorbid symptomology from both cross sectional and prospective design studies. A literature search was conducted for all relevant original research articles published in the English language up to December 2015 using 3 electronic databases: PsycINFO, Web of Science and PubMed. A total of 6 papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the current review. Trauma was found to have a significant impact on the ARMS observed through reported relationships between trauma variables and transition to psychosis, ARMS severity, adaptive functioning and comorbid symptomology. Sexual trauma demonstrated the most consistent trauma variable to impact the ARMS. Individuals with an ARMS who have experienced sexual trauma are at a heightened risk of poorer outcomes and transitions to psychosis. Further prospective design studies are required to examine this observation further. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Rowbotham, Samantha K; Blau, Soren; Hislop-Jambrich, Jacqueline
The term 'B.A.S.E jump' refers to jumping from a building, antenna, span (i.e., bridge) or earth (i.e., cliff) structure, and parachuting to the ground. There are numerous hazards associated with B.A.S.E jumps which often result in injury and, occasionally, fatality. This case report details the skeletal trauma resulting from a fatal B.A.S.E jump in Australia. In this case, the jumper impacted the ground from a fall of 439m in a feet-first landing position, as a result of a partially deployed parachute, under extreme vertical deceleration. Skeletal trauma was analyzed using full-body post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and contextual information related to the circumstances of the jump as reported by the Coroner. Trauma to 61 skeletal elements indicates the primary impact was to the feet (i.e., feet-first landing), followed by an anterior impact to the body (i.e., fall forwards). Details of the individual fracture morphologies indicate the various forces and biomechanics involved in this fall event. This case presents the types of fractures that result from a B.A.S.E jump, and highlights the value of using PMCT and coronial data as tools to augment skeletal trauma interpretations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Kai H; Chua, Jason
Injuries sustained to the maxillofacial region can result in significant physical trauma and long lasting psychosocial impairment. Maxillofacial trauma has been reported in literature to be a potentially recurrent disease. Patients who suffer maxillofacial trauma can benefit from psychological support. This study aims to identify maxillofacial trauma patient characteristics, investigate maxillofacial re-injury rate after provision of psychological support and report incidence of post traumatic stress disorder symptoms after maxillofacial trauma. A total of 100 patients were identified from the departmental trauma database over two time periods at Royal Darwin Hospital; 50 patients did not have psychosocial intervention and 50 patients received intervention. Data on demographics, trauma pattern and aetiology were collected. A brief counselling session was conducted on second patient group by a trained mental health nurse and a survey using Trauma Screening Questionnaire was completed one month following injury. The most common cause of injuries was assault in both groups followed by falls and the most common site of injuries was in the mandible in both groups. Almost half of all patients were in the15-24 and 25-34 age groups. 17 % of patients in pre-intervention period and 4 % of patients in intervention period had injury recurrence at 3 year follow up. Patient groups at risk of developing post traumatic symptoms included male, non-indigenous population, employed group with no alcohol involvement. Maxillofacial trauma can cause considerable psychological morbidity and expose the patient to high risk of post traumatic disorder symptoms. This type of injury was found to affect particular groups of population and is associated with high rate of recurrence. Psychological support should be provided to these patients as a routine part of trauma aftercare.
Zlotnick, Cheryl; Tam, Tammy; Bradley, Kimberly
Using the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC), we found that among homeless mothers (n = 588), those living without their children were more likely to: be older than 35 years, unmarried, have been incarcerated, have been homeless for at least 1 year, and to have used psychiatric medication. Many homeless mothers had histories of childhood trauma, but it was the accumulation of adulthood traumas that was associated with not living with one's children. Without mental health treatment, younger homeless mothers living with their children today may become the homeless mothers living without their children in the future.
Johansson, Per Ingemar; Sorensen, Anne Marie; Perner, Anders
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: It is debated whether the early trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC) in severely injured patients reflects disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic phenotype, acute coagulopathy of trauma shock (ACoTS) or yet other entities. This study investigated...
Marshall, Emma M; Kuijer, Roeline G
The current paper reviews the recent literature examining the impact of trauma on romantic relationships. We introduce the Dyadic Responses to Trauma (DRT) Model as a framework for organizing existing research and guiding future research. A traumatic event affects romantic relationships for the better or for the worse depending on the diverse trauma-related experiences people can have, influencing the way partners interact with each other and ultimately the quality of the relationship. In addition, recent research demonstrates how romantic partners can demonstrate resiliency in spite of a negative trauma experience depending on how they interpret and cope with the experience individually and as a couple. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Winchell, Robert J; Ball, Jane W; Cooper, Gail F; Sanddal, Nels D; Rotondo, Michael F
Studies have shown that trauma systems decrease morbidity and mortality after injury. Despite these findings, overall progress in system development has been slow and inconsistent. The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (COT) has developed a process to provide expert consultation to facilitate regional trauma system development. This study evaluated the progress that occurred after COT consultation visits in six regional systems. All six trauma systems undergoing COT consultation between January 1, 2004 and September 1, 2006 were included in the study. Using a set of 16 objective indicators, preconsultation status was retrospectively assessed by members of the original consultation team using data from the final consultation reports. Postconsultation status was assessed by directed telephone conference, conducted by members of the original consultation team with current key representatives from each system. Progress was assessed by comparing changes in both aggregate and individual indicator scores. This study showed a statistically significant increase in aggregate indicator scores after consultation. The largest gains were seen in systems with the longest time interval between the two assessments. Individual indicators related to system planning and quality assurance infrastructure showed the most improvement. Little or no change was seen in indicators related to system funding. The COT consultation process appears to be effective in facilitating regional trauma system development. In this short-term followup study, progress was seen primarily in areas related to planning and system design. Consultation was not effective in helping systems secure stable funding.
Full Text Available Abstract Background While there are many published studies on HIV and functional limitations, there are few in the context of early abuse and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL in HIV. Methods The present study focused on HIV in the context of childhood trauma and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL by evaluating 85 HIV-positive (48 with childhood trauma and 37 without and 52 HIV-negative (21 with childhood trauma and 31 without South African women infected with Clade C HIV. QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q, the Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI, the Activities of Daily Living (ADL scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS. Furthermore, participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results Subjects had a mean age of 30.1 years. After controlling for age, level of education and CES-D scores, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA demonstrated significant individual effects of HIV status and childhood trauma on self-reported QoL. No significant interactional effects were evident. Functional limitation was, however, negatively correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count. Conclusions In assessing QoL in HIV-infected women, we were able to demonstrate the impact of childhood trauma on functional limitations in HIV.
Chen, Wei; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xing-Li; Shi, Jian-Nong
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of trauma exposure on the posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) of children who resided near the epicenter of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The mechanisms of this impact were explored via structural equation models with self-esteem and coping strategies included as mediators. The…
Increasing temperatures are associated with increased attendances. Soccer matches and their outcomes have no significant effect on IPV-related attendances. Conclusion: Temporal and weather factors can help predict which trauma unit shifts will be busiest. Keywords: trauma unit, assault, motor vehicle collision, weather, ...
Full Text Available Background : Head injury, severe acidosis, hypothermia, massive transfusion and hypoxia often complicate traumatic coagulopathy. First line investigations such as prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen level, platelet count and D-dimer levels help in the initial assessment of coagulopathy in a trauma victim. Aim : To study the coagulation profile in patients of orthopedic trauma. Settings and Design : Prospective study. Patients and Methods : Patients with head injury, severe acidosis, massive transfusion and severe hypoxia were excluded from the study. Coagulation parameters were evaluated at three intervals, at the time of admission, intra operatively and in the postoperative period. Statistical Analysis : Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. For comparison between groups, two- way ANOVA was used. Results and Conclusions : Of the 48 patients studied, 38 (80% had normal DIC scores upon admission and only 10 (20% had mild DIC scores at the time of admission. The median Injury Severity Score was 34 and they did not correlate with DIC scores. Fibrinogen levels alone were significantly different, increased progressively (mean pre op, intra op and post op levels 518 ± 31,582 ± 35 and 643 ± 27 respectively; P ≤ 0.02 since the time of admission in these patients. All the other parameters remained unchanged. Further large scale prospective studies would be required to correlate elevated fibrinogen levels with the type of trauma or surgery.
Johansson, Per Ingemar; Sorensen, Anne Marie; Perner, Anders
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: It is debated whether the early trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC) in severely injured patients reflects disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic phenotype, acute coagulopathy of trauma shock (ACoTS) or yet other entities. This study investigated the...
Jessica K. Miller
Full Text Available The influence of genes and the environment on the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD continues to motivate neuropsychological research, with one consistent focus being the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene, given its impact on the integrity of the hippocampal memory system. Research into human navigation also considers the BDNF gene in relation to hippocampal dependent spatial processing. This speculative paper brings together trauma and spatial processing for the first time and presents exploratory research into their interactions with BDNF. We propose that quantifying the impact of BDNF on trauma and spatial processing is critical and may well explain individual differences in clinical trauma treatment outcomes and in navigation performance. Research has already shown that the BDNF gene influences PTSD severity and prevalence as well as navigation behaviour. However, more data are required to demonstrate the precise hippocampal dependent processing mechanisms behind these influences in different populations and environmental conditions. This paper provides insight from recent studies and calls for further research into the relationship between allocentric processing, trauma processing and BDNF. We argue that research into these neural mechanisms could transform PTSD clinical practice and professional support for individuals in trauma-exposing occupations such as emergency response, law enforcement and the military.
Blunt trauma. (n = 17). 3 (17.6%). 2. 14 (82.4%). 0. Table 2. Types of complications according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Clavien-Dindo Grading. Postoperative Complications (number). I. Wound Sepsis (3), Ileus (1). II. Pneumonia (2). III a. Nil. III b. Empyema of chest (1)*. IV a. Acute Kidney Injury (1), Respiratory Failure ...
Nov 4, 2017 ... and via a password protected mobile application program within 6 hours. The alcohol levels were reported in grams. TRAUMA. Serum alcohol levels ..... restricts advertising on alcohol consumption.22 In addition, the South African Department of Health has published the. MiniDrug MasterPlan 23 which ...
This book includes a discussion of the anatomy of the spinal cord and descriptions of methods for tailored radiologic investigation of spine trauma. Most of the text is devoted to the analysis and classification of spinal injury by radiologic signs and mode of injury. The author addresses injury to the entire spine but emphasizes the cervical spine. Plain radiography and conventional tomography are the only imaging methods discussed. The author stresses the active role of the attending radiologist in directing every phase of the x-ray study. Many subtle variations in patient positioning plus beam direction and angulation are described
Sharma, Deepak; Garg, Shalini; Singh, Gundeep; Swami, Shveta
There have been only a small number of studies on the association of dentigerous cysts with supernumerary teeth. The purpose of this article was to report the case of a dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted inverted mesiodens that developed secondary to trauma to its predecessor, a non-vital permanent maxillary central incisor. As a consequence of trauma, the central incisor's root development was prematurely arrested and the open apex lay close to the follicle of the underlying inverted mesiodens. The negligent attitude of both the child and parent in seeking dental treatment was a contributing factor. The case was further complicated by impaction of the adjacent permanent central incisor due to the presence of another unerupted but normally oriented mesiodens. Occlusal and Intraoral periapical radiographs revealed a well-defined radiolucent area surrounding the inverted mesiodens. Microscopic examination revealed a cystic cavity that was lined by 2-3 cell thick non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium resembling reduced enamel epithelium. Dentigerous cysts associated with impacted permanent teeth are not uncommon but the cysts which are induced by trauma are uncommon. Development of trauma-induced dentigerous cyst around an inverted impacted mesiodens associated with the periapical area of a traumatized, non-vital, immature permanent central incisor is a rare occurrence.
Kirouac, Samantha; McBride, Dawn Lorraine
This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on the brain and how trauma impacts brain development, structures, and functioning. A basic exploration of childhood trauma is outlined in this project, as it is essential in making associations and connections to brain development. Childhood trauma is processed in the…
Lech, L; Jerkku, T; Kanz, K-G; Wierer, M; Mutschler, W; Koeppel, T A; Lefering, R; Banafsche, R
There is a lack of evidence as to the relevance of vascular trauma (VT) in patients with severe injuries. Therefore, we reviewed registry data in the present study in order to systematically objectify the effect of VT in these patients. This study aimed to provide an adequate picture of the relevance of vascular trauma and to identify adverse prognostic factors. In a retrospective analysis of records from the TraumaRegister DGU® (TR-DGU) in two subgroups with moderate and severe VT, we examined the records for differences in terms of morbidity, mortality, follow-up and prognostic parameters compared to patients without VT with the same ISS. From a total of 42,326 patients, 2,961 (7 %) had a VT, and in 2,437 cases a severe VT (AIS ≥ 3) was diagnosed (5.8 %). In addition to a higher incidence of shock and a 2 to 3-fold increase in fluid replacement and erythrocyte transfusion, patients with severe VT had a 60 % higher rate of multiple organ failure, and in-hospital mortality was twice as high (33.8 %). The massively increased early mortality (8.0 vs. 25.2 %) clearly illustrates how severely injured patients are placed at risk by the presence of a relevant VT with a comparable ISS. In our opinion, due to an unexpected poor prognosis in the TR-DGU data for vascular injuries, increased attention is required in the care of severely injured patients. Based on our comprehensive analysis of negative prognostic factors, a further adjustment to the standards of vascular medicine could be advisable. The influence of the level of care provided by the admitting hospital and the relevance of a further hospital transfer to prognosis and clinical outcome is currently being analysed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Pareja, Jennifer C Munoz; Keeley, Kristen; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Dodge, Carter P
The brain has different responses to traumatic injury as a function of its developmental stage. As a model of injury to the immature brain, the piglet shares numerous similarities in regards to morphology and neurodevelopmental sequence compared to humans. This chapter describes a piglet scaled focal contusion model of traumatic brain injury that accounts for the changes in mass and morphology of the brain as it matures, facilitating the study of age-dependent differences in response to a comparable mechanical trauma.
De Venter, M; Van Den Eede, F; Pattyn, T; Wouters, K; Veltman, D J; Penninx, B W J H; Sabbe, B G
To investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of panic disorder and possible contributing factors. Longitudinal data of 539 participants with a current panic disorder were collected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Childhood trauma was assessed with a structured interview and clinical course after 2 years with a DSM-IV-based diagnostic interview and the Life Chart Interview. At baseline, 54.5% reported childhood trauma, but this was not predictive of persistence of panic disorder. Emotional neglect and psychological abuse were associated with higher occurrence of anxiety disorders other than panic disorder (social phobia) and with higher chronicity of general anxiety symptoms (anxiety attacks or episodes and avoidance). Baseline clinical features (duration and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms) and personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) accounted for roughly 30-60% of the total effect of childhood trauma on chronicity of anxiety symptoms and on occurrence of other anxiety disorders. After two years, childhood trauma is associated with chronicity of anxiety symptoms and occurrence of social phobia, rather than persistence of panic disorder. These relationships are partially accounted for by duration and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and neuroticism and extraversion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Joosse, P.; Soedarmo, S.; Luitse, J. S.; Ponsen, K. J.
In this prospective study, the TRISS methodology is used to compare trauma care at a University Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, with the standards reported in the Major Trauma Outcome Study (MTOS). Between February 24, 1999, and July 1, 1999, all consecutive patients with multiple and severe trauma
Li, Zongchang; He, Ying; Wang, Dong; Tang, Jingsong; Chen, Xiaogang
Childhood trauma has long-term sequelae on health status and contributes to numbers of somatic and mental disorders in later life. Findings from experimental studies in animals suggest that telomere erosion may be a mediator of this relationship. However, results from human studies are heterogeneous. To address these inconsistencies, we performed a meta-analysis regarding the association between childhood trauma and telomere length in adulthood. Articles were identified by systematically searching the Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science databases. Twenty four studies, which include twenty six sample sets and 30,919 participants, met the inclusion criteria for meta-analyses. This meta-analyses revealed that individuals experienced childhood trauma have accelerated telomere erosion in adulthood, with a small effect size (r = -0.05, 95% CI = -0.08-0.03, p childhood trauma revealed a trend in difference between groups (Q = 5.24, p = 0.07). Analyses for individual trauma types revealed a significant association between childhood separation and telomere erosion (r = -0.09, p childhood trauma and accelerated telomere erosion in adulthood, and further revealed that different trauma types have various impacts on telomere. Additional research on the mechanism that links the individual types of childhood trauma with telomere is needed in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sara E Moore
Full Text Available Improving the treatment of trauma, a leading cause of death worldwide, is of great clinical and public health interest. This analysis introduces flexible statistical methods for estimating center-level effects on individual outcomes in the context of highly variable patient populations, such as those of the PRospective, Observational, Multi-center Major Trauma Transfusion study. Ten US level I trauma centers enrolled a total of 1,245 trauma patients who survived at least 30 minutes after admission and received at least one unit of red blood cells. Outcomes included death, multiple organ failure, substantial bleeding, and transfusion of blood products. The centers involved were classified as either large or small-volume based on the number of massive transfusion patients enrolled during the study period. We focused on estimation of parameters inspired by causal inference, specifically estimated impacts on patient outcomes related to the volume of the trauma hospital that treated them. We defined this association as the change in mean outcomes of interest that would be observed if, contrary to fact, subjects from large-volume sites were treated at small-volume sites (the effect of treatment among the treated. We estimated this parameter using three different methods, some of which use data-adaptive machine learning tools to derive the outcome models, minimizing residual confounding by reducing model misspecification. Differences between unadjusted and adjusted estimators sometimes differed dramatically, demonstrating the need to account for differences in patient characteristics in clinic comparisons. In addition, the estimators based on robust adjustment methods showed potential impacts of hospital volume. For instance, we estimated a survival benefit for patients who were treated at large-volume sites, which was not apparent in simpler, unadjusted comparisons. By removing arbitrary modeling decisions from the estimation process and concentrating
An estimated 20% of children who present to hospital emergency departments following potentially traumatic events (e.g., serious injuries, road traffic accidents, assaults) will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence. The development of PTSD can have a substantial impact on a child's developmental trajectory, including their emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Despite this, only a small proportion will access mental health services, with the majority relying on informal sources of support. Parents, in particular, are often the primary source of support. However, it remains unclear what types of parental responses may be effective, and parents themselves report experiencing uncertainty about the best approach. To address this gap in knowledge, we examined the capacity for specific aspects of parental responding in the aftermath of child trauma to facilitate or hinder children's psychological recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study of 132 parent-child pairs, recruited following the child's experience of trauma and subsequent attendance at one of four regional emergency departments. At an initial assessment, within 1 month post-trauma, we examined how parents appraised and responded to their child following the event, using both questionnaires and direct observations. Child-report questionnaires were used to assess PTSD symptom severity at 1 month, and at a follow up 6 months later. Children also reported on their own appraisals of the trauma and their coping behaviours, which were considered as potential mediators between parental support and later child symptoms. Controlling for relevant covariates and initial PTSD symptoms, parent negative appraisals of the trauma and encouragement of avoidant coping in children were associated with higher child-reported PTSD symptoms at 6 month follow-up. There was some evidence that children's own trauma related appraisals and coping styles mediated these effects. Findings indicate that
Full Text Available Background: Drug abuse has been known as a growing contributing factor to all types of trauma in the world. The goal of this article is to provide insight into demographic and substance use factors associated with trauma and to determine the prevalence of drug abuse in trauma patients. Methods: Evidence of substance abuse was assessed in trauma patients presenting to Sina trauma hospital over a 3-month period. They were interviewed and provided urine samples to detect the presence of drug/metabolites of opium, morphine, cannabis and heroin by “Morphine Check” kits. Demographic data, mechanisms of injury, history of smoking and drug abuse were recorded. Results: A total of 358 patients with a mean age of 28.4 years were studied. The Patients were predominantly male (94.7%. There was a history of smoking in 136 cases (38%. 58 cases (16.2% reported to abuse drugs (91.5% opium. The commonest route of administration was smoke inhalation (37.2%. Screening by Morphine Check test revealed 95 samples to be positive (26.5%. The preponderance of test-positive cases was among young people (of 20-30 years of age with a history of smoking. Victims of violence and those with penetrating injuries also showed a higher percentage of positive screens (P=0.038 and P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that drug abuse is a contributing factor to trauma especially in violent injuries and among the young. Regarding the considerable prevalence of drug abuse among trauma patients, it’s highly recommended that all trauma patients be screened for illicit drugs
Santana, Maria Jose; Straus, Sharon; Gruen, Russell; Stelfox, Henry T
Quality improvement (QI) is a central tenant of trauma center accreditation in most countries, but its effectiveness is largely unknown. We sought to explore opportunities for improving trauma QI. We performed a qualitative research study using grounded theory analyses of interviews with medical directors and program managers from 75 verified trauma centers sampled from the United States (n = 51), Canada (n = 14), and Australasia (Australia and New Zealand [n = 10]) to explore experiences with trauma QI activities and identify opportunities for improvement. Most trauma centers indicated that they perceived trauma QI to be important and devoted personnel for QI (data entry, data analyst, educator, nurse practitioner). Programs identified 5 principal opportunities to improve trauma QI: (1) ensure resource adequacy (human resources, registry maintenance, financial support, institutional support), (2) encourage stakeholder participation (engagement, communication, coordination), (3) ensure clinical relevance, (4) incorporate evidence-based tools, and (5) require provider and QI program accountability. Quality improvement programs exist as accreditation requirements in most centers. However, trauma QI practices depend on a range of local and regional factors, and concrete opportunities for improvement that address impact and sustainability exist. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blix, Ines; Brennen, Tim
Following exposure to a trauma, people tend to experience intrusive thoughts and memories about the event. In order to investigate whether intrusive memories in the aftermath of trauma might be accounted for by an impaired ability to intentionally forget disturbing material, the present study used a modified Directed Forgetting task to examine intentional forgetting and intrusive recall of words in sexual assault victims and controls. By including words related to the trauma in addition to neutral, positive, and threat-related stimuli it was possible to test for trauma-specific effects. No difference between the Trauma and the Control group was found for correct recall of to-be-forgotten (F) words or to-be-remembered (R) words. However, when recalling words from R-list, the Trauma group mistakenly recalled significantly more trauma-specific words from F-list. "Intrusive" recall of F-trauma words when asked to recall R-words was related to symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder reported on the Impact of Event Scale and the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale. The results are discussed in term of a source-monitoring account.
Objectives: to determine the pattern of extremity injuries presenting in a major trauma centre in Midwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study performed at the trauma unit of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, involving individuals who sustained upper and lower extremity injuries between ...
Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Bradford, Ray K; Dias, Mark S; Moore, Gregory J; Boal, Danielle K B
To compare the relative incidence, distribution, and radiologic characteristics of spinal subdural hemorrhage after abusive head trauma versus that after accidental trauma in children. This study received prior approval from the Human Subjects Protection Office. Informed consent was waived. This study was HIPAA compliant. Two hundred fifty-two children aged 0-2 years treated for abusive head trauma at our institute between 1997 and 2009 were identified through retrospective chart review. A second group of 70 children aged 0-2 years treated at our institute for well-documented accidental trauma between 2003 and 2010 were also identified through retrospective chart review. All clinical data and cross-sectional imaging results, including computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, spine, chest, abdomen, and pelvis, were reviewed for both of these groups. A Fisher exact test was performed to assess the statistical significance of the proportion of the spinal canal subdural hemorrhage in abusive head trauma versus that in accidental trauma. In the abusive head trauma cohort, 67 (26.5%) of 252 children had evaluable spinal imaging results. Of these, 38 (56%) of 67 children had undergone thoracolumbar imaging, and 24 (63%) of 38 had thoracolumbar subdural hemorrhage. Spinal imaging was performed in this cohort 0.3-141 hours after injury (mean, 23 hours ± 27 [standard deviation]), with 65 (97%) of 67 cases having undergone imaging within 52 hours of injury. In the second cohort with accidental injury, only one (1%) of 70 children had spinal subdural hemorrhage at presentation; this patient had displaced occipital fracture. The comparison of incidences of spinal subdural hemorrhage in abusive head trauma versus those in accidental trauma was statistically significant (P head trauma who underwent thoracolumbar imaging in this series but was rare in those with accidental trauma. © RSNA, 2011.
Weile, Jesper; Nielsen, Klaus; Primdahl, Stine C.
and the organisation of trauma care in Denmark, the aim of this study was to identify all Danish facilities that care for traumatized patients and to investigate the diversity in organization of trauma management. Methods: We conducted a systematic observational cross-sectional study. First, all hospitals in Denmark...... participate in trauma care. Training was heterogeneous and, beyond the major trauma centers, databases were only maintained in a few facilities. Conclusion: The study established an inventory of the existing Danish facilities that receive traumatized patients. The trauma team activation criteria...
Tee, J. W.; Chan, C. H. P.; Fitzgerald, M. C. B.; Liew, S. M.; Rosenfeld, J. V.
Knowledge of current epidemiology and spine trauma trends assists in public resource allocation, fine-tuning of primary prevention methods, and benchmarking purposes. Data on all patients with traumatic spine injuries admitted to the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne between May 1, 2009, and January 1, 2011, were collected from the Alfred Trauma Registry, Alfred Health medical database, and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry. Epidemiological trends were analyzed as a general cohort, with comparison cohorts of nonsurvivors versus survivors and elderly versus nonelderly. Linear regression analysis was utilized to demonstrate trends with statistical significance. There were 965 patients with traumatic spine injuries with 2,333 spine trauma levels. The general cohort showed a trimodal age distribution, male-to-female ratio of 2:2, motor vehicle accidents as the primary spine trauma mechanism, 47.7% patients with severe polytrauma as graded using the Injury Severity Score (ISS), 17.3% with traumatic brain injury (TBI), the majority of patients with one spine injury level, 7% neurological deficit rate, 12.8% spine trauma operative rate, and 5.2% mortality rate. Variables with statistical significance trending toward mortality were the elderly, motor vehicle occupants, severe ISS, TBI, C1–2 dissociations, and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A, B, and C neurological grades. Variables with statistical significance trending toward the elderly were females; low falls; one spine injury level; type 2 odontoid fractures; subaxial cervical spine distraction injuries; ASIA A, B, and C neurological grades; and patients without neurological deficits. Of the general cohort, 50.3% of spine trauma survivors were discharged home, and 48.1% were discharged to rehabilitation facilities. This study provides baseline spine trauma epidemiological data. The trimodal age distribution of patients with traumatic spine injuries calls for further studies and intervention targeted
Husum, Hans; Heger, Tove; Sundet, Mads
The pattern of host defense against plasmodium is comparable to the immune response to bacterial infection. Posttraumatic immunosuppression may therefore cause relapses of malaria secondary to trauma and trauma surgery in asymptomatic carriers of the parasites in endemic areas. To our knowledge this has not been validated in epidemiologic studies. Postinjury malaria was registered retrospectively in 342 land mine and war victims from malaria-endemic areas in Cambodia. The incidence rate was analyzed in terms of age, gender, preinjury endemicity, evacuation times, anatomic injury severity, systolic blood pressure at admission, blood transfusion, and duration of the first surgical intervention as independent variables. The rate of postinjury malaria in the study patients was 33.3% (95% CI, 28.3-38.3%). Injury Severity Score (ISS) and surgical operation time were risk factors (area under the curve in receiver operating characteristic plots were 0.73 and 0.79, respectively). The impact of the other risk factors was nonsignificant. Despite difficulties in diagnosing postoperative malaria in endemic areas, the study demonstrates that the rate of postinjury malaria is high. The results legitimate controlled trials of immediate postinjury chemoprophylaxis to severely injured in endemic areas. The authors recommend staged surgical operations with brief primary interventions in victims with severe injuries.
Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Priebe, Kathlen; Petri, Mirja; Hecht, Amélie; Santangelo, Philip; Bohus, Martin; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Olaf
Background : Ambulatory assessment (AA) is increasingly recommended for assessing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous AA studies provided new insights into the phenomenology of trauma-related memories, but also divergent findings. Notably, the range of trauma-related memories (a major target of psychotherapeutic interventions) reported in AA studies was as wide as 7.3 to 74.5 per week which might result from different methods used in these studies. Objective : We aimed at assessing the frequency of trauma-related memories in PTSD related to interpersonal violence and investigated whether this frequency is dependent upon the method. Method : For each patient trauma-related memories were assessed using two variants of smartphone-based AA: (1) Event-based sampling (EBS), i.e. participants entered data on each intrusive memory as it occurred; (2) Time-based sampling (TBS), i.e. participants reported the number of trauma-related memories they had experienced during the last two hours after they had been alerted by the smartphone. The numbers reported during the TBS-block were either analysed as reported by the participants or restricted to one per hour (rTBS). The impact of smartphone-assessments on trauma-related memories was assessed during a post-monitoring questionnaire. Results : While trauma-related memories were frequent across assessments, the methodology had a huge impact on the numbers: EBS (median = 7) and rTBS (median = 6) yielded significantly lower weekly numbers of intrusive trauma-related memories than TBS (median = 49). Accordingly, the possibility to report unrestricted numbers of trauma-related memories clearly impacted the results. The post-monitoring questionnaire identified another source for the divergent findings: while feeling disrupted by the smartphone-assessments was unrelated to the numbers reported during EBS, feeling disrupted was related to an increase of trauma-related memories during TBS and r
Kunz, Sebastian N; Arborelius, Ulf P; Gryth, Dan; Sonden, Anders; Gustavsson, Jenny; Wangyal, Tashi; Svensson, Leif; Rocksén, David
Cardiac-related injuries caused by blunt chest trauma remain a severe problem. The aim of this study was to investigate pathophysiological changes in the heart that might arise after behind armor blunt trauma or impacts of nonlethal projectiles. Sixteen pigs were shot directly at the sternum with "Sponge Round eXact I Mpact" (nonlethal ammunition; diameter 40 mm and weight 28 g) or hard-plastic ammunition (diameter 65 mm and weight 58 g) to simulate behind armor blunt trauma. To evaluate the influence of the shot location, seven additional pigs where exposed to an oblique heart shot. Physiologic parameters, electrocardiography, echocardiogram, the biochemical marker troponin I (TnI), and myocardial injuries were analyzed. Nonlethal kinetic projectiles (101-108 m/s; 143-163 J) did not cause significant pathophysiological changes. Five of 18 pigs shot with 65-mm plastic projectiles (99-133 m/s; 284-513 J) to the front or side of the thorax died directly after the shot. No major physiologic changes could be observed in surviving animals. Animals shot with an oblique heart shot (99-106 m/s; 284-326 J) demonstrated a small, but significant decrease in saturation. Energy levels over 300 J caused increased TnI and myocardial damages in most of the pigs. This study indicates that nonlethal kinetic projectiles "eXact iMpact" does not cause heart-related damage under the examined conditions. On impact, sudden heart arrest may occur independently from the cardiac's electrical cycle. The cardiac enzyme, TnI, can be used as a reliable diagnostic marker to detect heart tissue damages after blunt chest trauma.
Guarino, Kathleen; Bassuk, Ellen
The prevalence of traumatic stress in the lives of families who are homeless is extraordinarily high. Often these families are headed by single mothers who have experienced ongoing trauma in the form of childhood abuse and neglect, domestic violence, and community violence, as well as the trauma associated with poverty and the loss of home,…
Arash Forouzan; Kambiz Masoumi; Hassan Motamed; Alireza Teimouri; Hassan Barzegari; Behzad Zohrevandi; Fatemeh Rasouli
Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries are among the most important causes of mortality and disability. Since there is a lot of controversy regarding discharge of head trauma patients, especially those with mild traumatic brain injuries, this study was designed aiming to evaluate traumatic brain injuries from an epidemiologic point of view. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, patients with isolated head trauma, and all those who underwent computed tomography (CT) were includ...
Dunbar, Nancy M; Yazer, Mark H
Use of universally ABO-compatible group AB plasma for trauma resuscitation can be challenging due to supply limitations. Many centers are now using group A plasma during the initial resuscitation of traumatically injured patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of this practice on mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS). Seventeen trauma centers using group A plasma in trauma patients of unknown ABO group participated in this study. Eligible patients were group A, B, and AB trauma patients who received at least 1 unit of group A plasma. Data collected included patient sex, age, mechanism of injury, Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) probability of survival, and number of blood products transfused. The main outcome of this study was in-hospital mortality differences between group B and AB patients compared to group A patients. Data on early mortality (≤24 hr) and hospital LOS were also collected. There were 354 B and AB patients and 809 A patients. The two study groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, TRISS probability of survival, and total number of blood products transfused. The use of group A plasma during the initial resuscitation of traumatically injured patients of unknown ABO group was not associated with increased in-hospital mortality, early mortality, or hospital LOS for group B and AB patients compared to group A patients. These results support the practice of issuing thawed group A plasma for the initial resuscitation of trauma patients of unknown ABO group. © 2017 AABB.
Starnino, Vincent R
Studies have identified spirituality to be a helpful resource for dealing with various types of trauma experiences. This coincides with a heightened focus on the role of spirituality within trauma-related theory (e.g., spiritual coping, meaning-making, and posttraumatic growth). Little remains known, however, about the relationship between trauma and spirituality among people with severe psychiatric disorders. Meanwhile, a high percentage of those with psychiatric disabilities are known to have trauma histories, whereas a majority self-identify as spiritual and/or religious. Two cases from a hermeneutic phenomenological qualitative study of people with co-occurring psychiatric disabilities and trauma histories are highlighted. Themes related to trauma and spirituality are discussed in-depth. Study participants drew upon a variety of spiritual coping strategies (e.g., prayer, meditation, spiritual readings) to help deal with trauma experiences. Participants additionally experienced spiritual struggles-a detailed account is given of a participant who was able to work through such struggles by shifting to a less self-blaming spiritual worldview (e.g., shifted from believing in a "punishing God" to viewing oneself as part of "oneness with humanity"). The study also examined the meaning-making process and shows how concepts such as global and appraised meaning-making are applicable to people with psychiatric disabilities. Finally, unique challenges related to posttraumatic growth are discussed (e.g., intrusive ruminations and "voices" with spiritual themes). This study offers useful examples of how spirituality and trauma can impact one another, and how people with psychiatric disabilities draw upon spirituality to cope as they strive for recovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children worldwide. Trauma education is one of the most commonly reported deficiencies in pediatric emergency medicine (PEM training. In this study, we describe the creation of a pediatric trauma boot camp in which trainees’ basic knowledge, level of confidence, teamwork, and communication skills are assessed. The primary goal of this pilot study was to create a simulation-based pediatric trauma curriculum for PEM fellows and emergency medicine residents utilizing Kern’s curricular conceptual framework. This was a pilot, prospective, single cohort, exploratory, observational study utilizing survey methodology and a convenience sample. The curriculum consisted of a two-day experience that included confidence surveys, a cognitive multiple-choice questionnaire, and formative and summative simulation scenarios. At the conclusion of this intensive simulation-based trauma boot camp participants reported increased confidence and demonstrated significant improvement in the basic knowledge and performance of the management of pediatric trauma cases in a simulated environment.
Severe child trauma poses a heavy burden upon the public's health and the nations' economies, in terms of mortality, morbidity, and disability. The burden varies by the maturity level of the adopted trauma system. This work aimed to identify the impact of trauma system maturity on the outcomes of care of severely injured children. Discharge data for the hospitalized trauma children in Florida (mature trauma system) and Indiana (immature trauma system) were retrospectively analyzed. All severely injured children, 1-15 years of age with an injury severity score ≥25 during 1999-2000 were included. Assessment involved the differences in specified treatment procedures, survival rates, hospital length of stay, and the need for post-hospital institutional care. Analysis revealed that Indiana children significantly stay longer in hospital, and that no differences in the rates of patient mortality, discharge-home, and selected procedures were found. Trauma system maturity impacts the volume and complexity of interventions, as well as the mortality, morbidity, and disability associated with severe children and adolescent trauma. The cost of such burden could be directed to improving the quality of the state's injury management services.
Severe child trauma poses a heavy burden upon the public's health and the nations' economies, in terms of mortality, morbidity, and disability. The burden varies by the maturity level of the adopted trauma system. This work aimed to identify the impact of trauma system maturity upon the outcomes of care of severely injured children. Discharge data for hospitalized trauma children in Florida (mature trauma system) and Indiana (immature trauma system) were retrospectively analyzed. All severely injured children, 1-15 years of age with an injury severity score ≥25 during 1999-2000 were included. Assessment involved the differences in specified treatment procedures, survival rates, hospital length of stay, and the need for post-hospital institutional care. Analysis revealed that Indiana children significantly stay longer in hospital, and that no differences in the rates of patient mortality, discharge home, and selected procedures were found. Trauma system maturity impacts the volume and complexity of interventions, as well as the mortality, morbidity, and disability associated with the severe child and adolescent trauma. The cost of such burden could be directed to improving quality of the state's injury management services.
Mohatt, Nathaniel Vincent; Thompson, Azure B.; Thai, Nghi D.; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer
Theories of historical trauma increasingly appear in the literature on individual and community health, especially in relation to racial and ethnic minority populations and groups that experience significant health disparities. As a consequence of this rapid growth, the literature on historical trauma comprises disparate terminology and research approaches. This critical review integrates this literature in order to specify theoretical mechanisms that explain how historical trauma influences the health of individuals and communities. We argue that historical trauma functions as a public narrative for particular groups or communities that connects present-day experiences and circumstances to the trauma so as to influence health. Treating historical trauma as a public narrative shifts the research discourse away from an exclusive search for past causal variables that influence health to identifying how present-day experiences, their corresponding narratives, and their health impacts are connected to public narratives of historical trauma for a particular group or community. We discuss how the connection between historical trauma and present-day experiences, related narratives, and health impacts may function as a source of present-day distress as well as resilience. PMID:24561774
study from our institution demonstrated an improvement in the anatomical knowledge of ... oversubscription, financial reasons, followed by difficulty in obtaining professional development leave due to staff shortage. There is an urgent need to .... specifically in the rural setting.4 Navarro et al. from Spain further noted that ...
Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, T., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Forensic Medicine, Netherlands Forensic Institute, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center/Emma Children' s Hospital, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Robben, S.G.F., E-mail: email@example.com [Maastricht University Medical Center, P.O. Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Karst, W.A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Forensic Medicine, Netherlands Forensic Institute, P.O. Box 24044, 2490 AA The Hague (Netherlands); Moesker, F.M., E-mail: email@example.com [Faculty of Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aalderen, W.M. van, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Paediatrics, Academic Medical Center/Emma Children' s Hospital, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laméris, J.S., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, R.R. van, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Forensic Medicine, Netherlands Forensic Institute, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center/Emma Children' s Hospital, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Objectives: To determine whether imaging findings can be used to differentiate between impact and non-impact head trauma in a group of fatal and non-fatal abusive head trauma (AHT) victims. Methods: We included all AHT cases in the Netherlands in the period 2005–2012 for which a forensic report was written for a court of law, and for which imaging was available for reassessment. Neuroradiological and musculoskeletal findings were scored by an experienced paediatric radiologist. Results: We identified 124 AHT cases; data for 104 cases (84%) were available for radiological reassessment. The AHT victims with a skull fracture had fewer hypoxic ischaemic injuries than AHT victims without a skull fracture (p = 0.03), but the relative difference was small (33% vs. 57%). There were no significant differences in neuroradiological and musculoskeletal findings between impact and non-impact head trauma cases if the distinction between impact and non-impact head trauma was based on visible head injuries, as determined by clinical examination, as well as on the presence of skull fractures. Conclusions: Neuroradiological and skeletal findings cannot discriminate between impact and non-impact head trauma in abusive head trauma victims.
Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, T.; Robben, S.G.F.; Karst, W.A.; Moesker, F.M.; Aalderen, W.M. van; Laméris, J.S.; Rijn, R.R. van
Objectives: To determine whether imaging findings can be used to differentiate between impact and non-impact head trauma in a group of fatal and non-fatal abusive head trauma (AHT) victims. Methods: We included all AHT cases in the Netherlands in the period 2005–2012 for which a forensic report was written for a court of law, and for which imaging was available for reassessment. Neuroradiological and musculoskeletal findings were scored by an experienced paediatric radiologist. Results: We identified 124 AHT cases; data for 104 cases (84%) were available for radiological reassessment. The AHT victims with a skull fracture had fewer hypoxic ischaemic injuries than AHT victims without a skull fracture (p = 0.03), but the relative difference was small (33% vs. 57%). There were no significant differences in neuroradiological and musculoskeletal findings between impact and non-impact head trauma cases if the distinction between impact and non-impact head trauma was based on visible head injuries, as determined by clinical examination, as well as on the presence of skull fractures. Conclusions: Neuroradiological and skeletal findings cannot discriminate between impact and non-impact head trauma in abusive head trauma victims
outcomes in the early phases after major trauma. Curr Opin Crit Care 2011;17:515–9. 27. Lansink KW, Leenen PH . Do designated trauma systems improve...severely injured patients treated in trauma centers following the establishment of trauma systems. J Trauma 2006;60(2):371–8. 30. Papa L, Langland-Orban B
Matsushima, Kazuhide; Goldwasser, Eleanor R; Schaefer, Eric W; Armen, Scott B; Indeck, Matthew C
The care of the critically ill trauma patients is provided by intensivists with various base specialties of training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of intensivists' base specialty of training on the disparity of care process and patient outcome. We performed a retrospective review of an institutional trauma registry at an academic level 1 trauma center. Two intensive care unit teams staffed by either board-certified surgery or anesthesiology intensivists were assigned to manage critically ill trauma patients. Both teams provided care, collaborating with a trauma surgeon in house. We compared patient characteristics, care processes, and outcomes between surgery and anesthesiology groups using Wilcoxon tests or chi-square tests, as appropriate. We identified a total of 620 patients. Patient baseline characteristics including age, sex, transfer status, injury type, injury severity score, and Glasgow coma scale were similar between groups. We found no significant difference in care processes and outcomes between groups. In a logistic regression model, intensivists' base specialty of training was not a significant factor for mortality (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval; 0.79-2.80; P = 0.22) and major complication (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.67; P = 0.63). Intensive care unit teams collaborating with trauma surgeons had minimal disparity of care processes and similar patient outcomes regardless of intensivists' base specialty of training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harvin, John A; Maxim, Tom; Inaba, Kenji; Martinez-Aguilar, Myriam A; King, David R; Choudhry, Asad J; Zielinski, Martin D; Akinyeye, Sam; Todd, S Rob; Griffin, Russell L; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Bailey, Joanelle A; Livingston, David H; Cunningham, Kyle; Stein, Deborah M; Cattin, Lindsay; Bulger, Eileen M; Wilson, Alison; Undurraga Perl, Vicente J; Schreiber, Martin A; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Alam, Hasan B; Holcomb, John B
Two decades ago, hypotensive trauma patients requiring emergent laparotomy had a 40% mortality. In the interim, multiple interventions to decrease hemorrhage-related mortality have been implemented but few have any documented evidence of change in outcomes for patients requiring emergent laparotomy. The purpose of this study was to determine current mortality rates for patients undergoing emergent trauma laparotomy. A retrospective cohort of all adult, emergent trauma laparotomies performed in 2012 to 2013 at 12 Level I trauma centers was reviewed. Emergent trauma laparotomy was defined as emergency department (ED) admission to surgical start time in 90 minutes or less. Hypotension was defined as arrival ED systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤90 mm Hg. Cause and time to death was also determined. Continuous data are presented as median (interquartile range [IQR]). One thousand seven hundred six patients underwent emergent trauma laparotomy. The cohort was predominately young (31 years; IQR, 24-45), male (84%), sustained blunt trauma (67%), and with moderate injuries (Injury Severity Score, 19; IQR, 10-33). The time in ED was 24 minutes (IQR, 14-39) and time from ED admission to surgical start was 42 minutes (IQR, 30-61). The most common procedures were enterectomy (23%), hepatorrhaphy (20%), enterorrhaphy (16%), and splenectomy (16%). Damage control laparotomy was used in 38% of all patients and 62% of hypotensive patients. The Injury Severity Score for the entire cohort was 19 (IQR, 10-33) and 29 (IQR, 18-41) for the hypotensive group. Mortality for the entire cohort was 21% with 60% of deaths due to hemorrhage. Mortality in the hypotensive group was 46%, with 65% of deaths due to hemorrhage. Overall mortality rate of a trauma laparotomy is substantial (21%) with hemorrhage accounting for 60% of the deaths. The mortality rate for hypotensive patients (46%) appears unchanged over the last two decades and is even more concerning, with almost half of patients presenting
Road traffic accident (RTA) related mortality and injury may be reduced by up to 40% with the introduction of \\'road safety\\' legislation. Little is known regarding changes in pattern of injury and overall resource impact on acute trauma services. This prospective study examines RTA related admissions, injuries sustained and resultant sub-speciality operative workload in a Level 1 Trauma Centre during the 12 months immediately prior to and following the introduction of \\'penalty points\\' legislation. Eight hundred and twenty RTA related admissions were identified over the 24-month period from 01\\/11\\/2001 to 31\\/10\\/2003. There was a 36.7% decrease in RTA related admissions subsequent to the introduction of new legislation. Bed occupancy was almost halved. However, the relative Orthopaedic workload increased from 34% to 41% with a 10% increase in relative bed occupancy. The pattern of orthopaedic injury was significantly altered with a >50% absolute reduction in high velocity injuries. Curiously, there was no change in the absolute number of spinal fractures seen. This favourable early Irish experience of \\'penalty points\\' legislation mirrors that of worldwide published literature. Our findings demonstrate that the injury reduction effects were primarily enjoyed by non-orthopaedic sub-specialities. Such findings mandate consideration when allocating vital resources to sub-specialities within busy trauma units.
Sheppard, Charles W; Groll, Amy L; Austin, Cindy L; Thompson, Simon J
The regionalization of trauma in the USA results in frequent transfers of patients from a primary hospital ED to a higher level trauma facility. While many hospitals have a Picture Archive Communication System (PACS) which captures digital radiological images, these are often not available to the receiving institution resulting in duplicate imaging. The state of Arkansas instituted a trauma image repository (TIR) in July 2013. We examined whether implementation of this repository would impact CT scan duplication in the trauma system. This was a retrospective analysis of trauma patients transferred from outlying hospitals in Arkansas and Missouri to a single level 1 trauma hospital in Missouri between July 2012 and June 2015. We compared the duplicate CT rate for patients transferred from Arkansas and Missouri hospitals before and after the repository was implemented for Arkansas. Prior to implementation (July 2012-June 2013) of Arkansas TIR, duplicate CT rates were similar for patients transferred from Arkansas (11.5% ± 2.8) or Missouri (16.3% ± 7.5). Following implementation (July 2013-June 2014), the duplicate CT rate for patients transferred from Arkansas was significantly lower (Arkansas = 10.1% vs. Missouri 16.2%; CI 95%, p = 0.02), and significance continued (Arkansas = 9.0% vs. Missouri = 17.8%; CI 95%, p = 0.02) during follow-up (July 2014-June 2015). Fewer patients received duplicated scans within the Arkansas as compared with the Missouri-based trauma referral systems regardless of Injury Severity Scores (ISS). Our findings suggest that TIR adoption coupled with PACS improved transferability of radiographic studies and could improve patient care while reducing costs in trauma transfers.
Kumar, Sandeep; Chaudhary, Sushant; Kumar, Akshay; Agarwal, Arpit Kumar; Misra, M C
Trained doctors and para-medical personnel in accident and emergency services are scant in India. Teaching and training in trauma and emergency medical system (EMS) as a specialty accredited by the Medical Council of India is yet to be started as a postgraduate medical education program. The MI and CMO (casualty medical officer) rooms at military and civilian hospitals in India that practice triage, first-aid, medico-legal formalities, reference and organize transport to respective departments leads to undue delays and lack multidisciplinary approach. Comprehensive trauma and emergency infrastructure were created only at a few cities and none in the rural areas of India in last few years. To study the infrastructure, human resource allocation, working, future plans and vision of the established trauma centers at the 3 capital cities of India - Delhi (2 centres), Lucknow and Mumbai. Participant observer structured open ended qualitative research by 7 days direct observation of the facilities and working of above trauma centers. Information on, 1. Infrastructure; space and building, operating, ventilator, and diagnostic and blood bank facilities, finance and costs and pre-hospital care infrastructure, 2. Human resource; consultant and resident doctors, para-medical staff and specialists and 3. Work style; first responder, type of patients undertaken, burn management, surgical management and referral system, follow up patient management, social support, bereavement and postmortem services were recorded on a pre-structured open ended instrument interviewing the officials, staff and by direct observation. Data were compressed, peer-analyzed as for qualitative research and presented in explicit tables. Union and state governments of Delhi, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh have spent heavily to create trauma and emergency infrastructure in their capital cities. Mostly general and orthopedics surgeons with their resident staff were managing the facilities. Comprehensively
Full Text Available Childbirth is one of the most vulnerable moments and the most important and memorable events in the lives of women that despite of bringing happiness, it can be associated with psychological trauma and endanger the mother and neonate health. Mothers' perception of the psychological birth trauma is a highly subjective process that depends on the cultural, social and biological conditions of mothers that is not achievable except with examination of their views. This study aimed to understand psychological birth trauma from the perceptions of Iranian mothers.A qualitative research design using in-depth interviews of 23 Iranian mothers was conducted from Tehran and Isfahan health centers. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using conventional content analysis.Two themes were extracted from the data: impact of psychological birth trauma and trends of psychological birth trauma. Several categories and sub-categories also emerged from the data. Feelings of fear, anxiety, helplessness and sense of impending death (collapse were reported by the mothers.By considering the unforgettable experience of mothers from the psychological birth trauma, a plan for supportive care before, during and after birth is critical.
Mauro Carlos Agner Busato
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the histological alterations that occurred in the periodontal area of rat molars submitted to induced tooth movement (ITM right after an intentional trauma (subluxation. METHODS: Forty adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were selected. The animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5, according to the combination of variables: Group 1 - control (neither trauma nor ITM; Group 2 - ITM; Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 - dentoalveolar trauma groups corresponding, respectively, to 1, 3, 8 and 10 days after trauma; Groups 7 and 8 - the animals' molars were subjected to a 900 cN impact and, one and three days after the trauma event, tooth movement was induced. The rats' maxillary first molars were mesially moved during seven days with a closed coil (50 cN. After the experimental period of each group, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the right maxillas were removed and processed for histological analysis under light microscopy. RESULTS: In the animals of group 3, 4, 5 and 6, the histological alterations were not very significant. Consequently, the effect of induced tooth movement right after a subluxation event (groups 7 and 8 was very similar to those described for Group 2. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the quality of periodontal repair when ITM was applied to teeth that had suffered a subluxation trauma.
Söderholm, Hanna M.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Cairns, Bruce
Emergency trauma is a major health problem worldwide. To evaluate the potential of emerging 3D telepresence technology for facilitating paramedic - physician collaboration while providing emergency medical trauma care we conducted a between-subjects post-test experimental lab study. During...... proxy condition also reported higher levels of self-efficacy. These results indicate 3D telepresence technology has potential to improve paramedics' performance of complex emergency medical tasks and improve emergency trauma health care when designed appropriately....
Full Text Available Background: Although ocular trauma is preventable public health problem throughout the world it is still one of the common causes of ophthalmic morbidity and monocular blindness. There are no published studies on pattern and severity of ocular trauma in Uttarakhand. The present study analyzes the pattern and visual outcome of ocular trauma in this region. Methods: Study design: Prospective hospital-based study. Settings: Patients of ocular trauma presenting to Ophthalmology OPD and emergency department of Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun. Participants: All ocular injury patients seen for the first time during the period January to December 2008. Results: A total of 88 patients, and 103 eyes, were studied. Men had two fold higher rate of ocular injury than women. The mean age of presentation was 31.2 + 13.6 years (range: 6 - 80 years. The predominant age group of patients was 21-40 years, 55.29 % (n = 47. Eye injuries related to road traffic accident were seen in 37.86% of eyes. Industrial workers were more frequently involved in ocular trauma (23.86%. Closed globe injuries were noted in 55 eyes (53.39% and open globe injuries were noted in 40 eyes (38.83%. Eight eyes (7.76% suffered from chemical injuries. The initial presenting visual acuity of patients with blunt ocular trauma was better than penetrating injury. Eye with better visual acuity at presentation had better visual prognosis at 6 months. Conclusion: Ocular injuries were common in young males. Road traffic accidents related eye injuries were noted in significant number of cases. Strict implementation of traffic rules, health education and preventive strategies may help to decrease the occurrence of ocular injuries.
Fiona Chew Lee Min
Full Text Available AIM: To survey ophthalmological outcomes of pediatric patients who presented during a five-year period with ocular trauma to a tertiary referral center in West Malaysia.METHODS: All consecutive patients presenting to the Accident and Emergency Department from Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2013 were identified. Patients were recruited as study subjects if they were less than 15y of age and had sustained ocular trauma. Follow-up patients were excluded. Data collected including the subjects' demographic data and past medical and ocular history. Ocular injury, treatment and progress details were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of pediatric ocular trauma was 17.6/100 000 per year. Males represented 69.5% of the 426 subjects recruited. Mean subject age was 6.08 years \\〖standard deviation(SD: 2.24\\〗. Domestic tools(19.7%and falls(19.7%represented the commonest causes of trauma. Most subjects(79.9%had presenting visual acuity(VAof 6/12 or better. The anterior segment of the eye(93.9%was most commonly injured, and 22.8% of subjects required surgery. Relative afferent pupillary defect was associated with closed globe injury(P=0.001and poorer final VA(P=0.001. Final VA in most subjects(92.7%was 6/12 or better. CONCLUSION: Increased awareness is necessary for the prevention and early ophthalmological intervention of pediatric ocular trauma, to ensure optimum visual rehabilitation for these patients.
Chaves, Maria Emília de Abreu; Araújo, Angélica Rodrigues; Santos, Suellen Fonsêca; Pinotti, Marcos; Oliveira, Leandro Soares
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a LED phototherapy prototype apparatus in the healing of nipple trauma in breastfeeding women. There is no scientific evidence of an effective treatment for nipple trauma. The experimental group was treated with orientation on nipple care and adequate breastfeeding techniques in addition to active LED phototherapy. The control group was treated with orientation on nipple care and adequate breastfeeding techniques in addition to placebo LED phototherapy. Participants were treated twice a week, for a total of eight sessions. Healing of the nipple lesions was measured by a reduction in their area, and decrease in pain intensity was measured in accordance with an 11-point Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale and a standard 7-point patient global impression of change. Statistically significant reductions in measured nipple lesion area (pLED phototherapy to be an effective tool in accelerating the healing of nipple trauma.
Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Baird, Stephanie
Vicarious trauma (VT) and secondary traumatic stress (STS) or compassion fatigue both describe effects of working with traumatized persons on therapists. Despite conceptual similarities, their emphases differ: cognitive schemas vs. posttraumatic symptoms and burnout, respectively. The TSI Belief Scale (TSI-BSL) measures VT; the Compassion Fatigue Self-Test (CFST) for Psychotherapists measures STS. Neither has substantial psychometric evidence yet, nor has their association been studied. Results for 99 sexual assault and domestic violence counselors show concurrent validity between TSI-BSL and CFST, moderate convergence with burnout but useful discrimination, and strong convergence with general distress, but adequate independent shared variance. Counselors with interpersonal trauma histories scored higher on CFST, but not TSI-BSL or burnout, consistent with the CFST's emphasis on trauma symptomatology.
Full Text Available Background: Early experiences of traumatic events (TEs may be associated with subsequent eating disturbance. However, few studies have investigated overall exposure and trauma-type frequency in various types of eating disorders (EDs. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and type of TEs in a nationally representative sample of Swedish ED patients. Method: Data from a database (Stepwise for specialized ED care were used. Trauma history was assessed as a part of the routine, initial assessment. Participants over the age of 18 with a diagnosed DSM-IV ED were included (N=4,524. Results: The number of patients having experienced at least one TE was 843 (18.6%, and 204 (24.2% reported at least one additional trauma. Sexual trauma was the most common form of TE (6.3%. There was no difference in overall traumatic exposure or in type of experienced trauma between the ED diagnostic subgroups (AN, BN, EDNOS, and BED. Overall traumatic exposure was linked to self-reported severity of ED symptoms, more secondary psychosocial impairment, psychiatric comorbidity, and negative self-image. Conclusions: Trauma history in ED patients merits attention. Results are partly in line with and partly in contrast to previous research. Measurement of trauma history has varied substantially in research on EDs, and this study adds to the indistinct literature on trauma history in ED.
Full Text Available The intersection of trauma with the need for safe, stable, sustainable, and long-term housing is important when working with survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV. IPV advocacy agencies are advised to use a trauma-informed approach to help practitioners understand the impact of IPV on individuals. Housing First, a model addressing homelessness that provides permanent housing without preconditions, has been found to increase housing stability for survivors of IPV. Thus, we used a case study approach to examine how practitioners and administrators implement trauma-informed care in a Housing First program for IPV survivors. Trauma-informed care principles and the Housing First model were found to be complementary. The majority of clients in this program retained housing up to 3-months after services ended and increased their safety and knowledge of domestic violence. Combining Housing First with trauma-informed care may increase success for survivors of IPV.
Panter-Brick, Catherine; Grimon, Marie-Pascale; Kalin, Michael; Eggerman, Mark
Studies of war-affected youth have not yet examined how trauma memories relate to prospective changes in mental health and to subjective or social experiences. We interviewed a gender-balanced, randomly selected sample of Afghan child-caregiver dyads (n = 331, two waves, 1 year apart). We assessed lifetime trauma with a Traumatic Event Checklist, past-year events with a checklist of risk and protective events, and several child mental health outcomes including posttraumatic distress (Child Revised Impact of Events Scale, CRIES) and depression. We examined the consistency of trauma recall over time, identified mental health trajectories with latent transition modeling, and assessed the predictors of posttraumatic distress and depression trajectories with multinomial logistic regressions. From baseline to follow-up, reports of lifetime trauma significantly changed (p ≤ 0.01). A third of the cohort reported no trauma exposure; only 10% identified the same event as their most distressing experience. We identified four CRIES trajectories: low or no distress (52%), rising distress (15%), declining distress (21%), and sustained high distress (12%). Youth with chronic posttraumatic distress were more likely to be girls (OR = 5.78, p ≤ 0.01), report more trauma exposure at baseline (OR = 1.55, p ≤ 0.05) and follow-up (OR = 5.96, p ≤ 0.01), and experience ongoing domestic violence (OR = 4.84, p ≤ 0.01). The risks of rising distress and sustained distress showed a steady increase for youth recalling up to four traumatic experiences. Depression and CRIES trajectories showed weak comorbidity. Memories of violent events are malleable, embedded in social experiences, and present heterogeneous associations with posttraumatic distress. Our study provides insights on resilience and vulnerability to multiple adverse childhood experiences, highlighting research and clinical implications for understanding trauma in conflict-affected youth. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of
Kartha, Anand; Brower, Victoria; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Keane, Terence M.; Liebschutz, Jane
Background Trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increase healthcare utilization in veterans, but their impact on utilization in other populations is uncertain. Objectives To examine the association of trauma exposure and PTSD with healthcare utilization, in civilian primary care patients. Research Design Cross-sectional study. Subjects English speaking patients at an academic, urban primary care clinic. Measures Trauma exposure and current PTSD diagnoses were obtained from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Outcomes were nonmental health outpatient and emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and mental health outpatient visits in the prior year from an electronic medical record. Analyses included bivariate unadjusted and multivariable Poisson regressions adjusted for age, gender, income, substance dependence, depression, and comorbidities. Results Among 592 subjects, 80% had ≥1 trauma exposure and 22% had current PTSD. In adjusted regressions, subjects with trauma exposure had more mental health visits [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 3.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1–14.1] but no other increased utilization. After adjusting for PTSD, this effect of trauma exposure was attenuated (IRR, 3.2; 95% CI, 0.9–11.7). Subjects with PTSD had more hospitalizations (IRR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4–3.7), more hospital nights (IRR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4–5.0), and more mental health visits (IRR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1–4.1) but no increase in outpatient and emergency department visits. Conclusions PTSD is associated with more hospitalizations, longer hospitalizations, and greater mental healthcare utilization in urban primary care patients. Although trauma exposure is independently associated with greater mental healthcare utilization, PTSD mediates a portion of this association. PMID:18362818
Kuhlman, Michael Bilde; Lohse, Nicolai; Sørensen, Anne Marie
and gender. RESULTS: Of all 6687 patients admitted to the trauma centre, a total of 1722 trauma patients were included and followed for a median of 6.2 years (interquartile range (IQR) 3.7-9.1). Of these, 1305 (75.8%) were males, median age was 35.0 years (IQR 25.4-46.5), and median ISS was 16 (IQR 9.......03-1.05) per ISS point and 1.03 (95% CI 1.03-1.04) per year older. Gender was not found to be a significant risk factor (p=0.69). Five-year absolute risks of early retirement were 9.9% (95% CI 7.8-12.0%) for the low ISS group and 24.6% (95% CI 21.6-27.5%) for the high ISS group. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of early...
Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In
Ruslin, M.; Wolff, J.; Boffano, P.; Brand, H.S.; Forouzanfar, T.
Aim: The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence and associated factors of dental trauma in patients with maxillofacial fractures at the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam. Material and methods: Data from 707 patients who were treated surgically for maxillofacial fractures
Ruslin, M.; Wolff, J.; Boffano, P.; Brand, H.S.; Forouzanfar, T.
Aim The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence and associated factors of dental trauma in patients with maxillofacial fractures at the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam. Material and methods Data from 707 patients who were treated surgically for maxillofacial fractures were
Using a case study approach, this quantitative and descriptive analysis explored the incidence and consequences of sexual violence, particularly rape, occurring among Nigerian university students' acquaintance. It discusses the concept of vicarious trauma as a form of post-traumatic stress response sometimes ...
Sefrioui, I; Amadini, R; Mauro, J; El Fallahi, A; Gabbrielli, M
Exceptional circumstances like major incidents or natural disasters may cause a huge number of victims that might not be immediately and simultaneously saved. In these cases it is important to define priorities avoiding to waste time and resources for not savable victims. Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) methodology is the well-known and standard system usually used by practitioners to predict the survival probability of trauma patients. However, practitioners have noted that the accuracy of TRISS predictions is unacceptable especially for severely injured patients. Thus, alternative methods should be proposed. In this work we evaluate different approaches for predicting whether a patient will survive or not according to simple and easily measurable observations. We conducted a rigorous, comparative study based on the most important prediction techniques using real clinical data of the US National Trauma Data Bank. Empirical results show that well-known Machine Learning classifiers can outperform the TRISS methodology. Based on our findings, we can say that the best approach we evaluated is Random Forest: it has the best accuracy, the best area under the curve, and k-statistic, as well as the second-best sensitivity and specificity. It has also a good calibration curve. Furthermore, its performance monotonically increases as the dataset size grows, meaning that it can be very effective to exploit incoming knowledge. Considering the whole dataset, it is always better than TRISS. Finally, we implemented a new tool to compute the survival of victims. This will help medical practitioners to obtain a better accuracy than the TRISS tools. Random Forests may be a good candidate solution for improving the predictions on survival upon the standard TRISS methodology.
Tee, J. W.; Chan, C. H. P.; Fitzgerald, M. C. B.; Liew, S. M.; Rosenfeld, J. V.
Knowledge of current epidemiology and spine trauma trends assists in public resource allocation, fine-tuning of primary prevention methods, and benchmarking purposes. Data on all patients with traumatic spine injuries admitted to the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne between May 1, 2009, and January 1, 2011, were collected from the Alfred Trauma Registry, Alfred Health medical database, and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry. Epidemiological trends were analyzed as a general cohort, with...
Moore, Lynne; Lauzier, François; Stelfox, Henry Thomas; Le Sage, Natalie; Bourgeois, Gilles; Clément, Julien; Shemilt, Michèle; Turgeon, Alexis F
Complications affect up to 37% of patients hospitalized for injury and increase mortality, morbidity, and costs. One of the keys to controlling complications for injury admissions is to monitor in-hospital complication rates. However, there is no consensus on which complications should be used to evaluate the quality of trauma care. The objective of this study was to develop a consensus-based list of complications that can be used to assess the acute phase of adult trauma care. We used a three-round Web-based Delphi survey among experts in the field of trauma care quality with a broad range of clinical expertise and geographic diversity. The main outcome measure was median importance rating on a 5-point Likert scale (very low to very high); complications with a median of 4 or greater and no disagreement were retained. A secondary measure was the perceived quality of information on each complication available in patient files. Of 19 experts invited to participate, 17 completed the first (brainstorming) round and 16 (84%) completed all rounds. Of 73 complications generated in Round 1, a total of 25 were retained including adult respiratory distress syndrome, hospital-acquired pneumonia, sepsis, acute renal failure, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, wound infection, decubitus ulcers, and delirium. Of these, 19 (76%) were perceived to have high-quality or very high-quality information in patient files by more than 50% of the panel members. This study proposes a consensus-based list of 25 complications that can be used to evaluate the quality of acute adult trauma care. These complications can be used to develop an informative and actionable quality indicator to evaluate trauma care with the goal of decreasing rates of hospital complications and thus improving patient outcomes and resource use. DRG International Classification of Diseases codes are provided.
Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani
Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder with high heritability. It is the most common childhood mental disorder. The key aspects of ADHD may put the affected children at risk for different traumatic experiences. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the severity of trauma and ADHD symptoms in children. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, the target population included 90 children aged 6-12 years old, visiting Imam Reza, Children, Sina, and Shohada Hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. The severity of trauma was assessed, using placebo transdermal system (PTS, and the ADHD symptoms were evaluated, using Conners' Parent Rating Scale. To rule out other psychiatric disorders, the Child Symptoms Inventory-4 (CSI-4 was employed. Results: Results showed a significant positive correlation between the severity of trauma and ADHD, hyperactivity, oppositional/impulsivity, and attention-deficit scores (P < 0.01. In addition, results from the independent t-test suggested a significance difference between the ADHD and non-ADHD children in terms of the severity of trauma. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between the symptoms of ADHD and the severity of trauma in children, in a way that the scores of the aforementioned variables improved with increasing the severity of trauma. Regarding the profound effects of trauma on human and financial resources, required measures should be taken for making house and school settings safe for such children.
Keihani, Sorena; Xu, Yizhe; Presson, Angela P; Hotaling, James M; Nirula, Raminder; Piotrowski, Joshua; Dodgion, Christopher M; Black, Cullen M; Mukherjee, Kaushik; Morris, Bradley J; Majercik, Sarah; Smith, Brian P; Schwartz, Ian; Elliott, Sean P; DeSoucy, Erik S; Zakaluzny, Scott; Thomsen, Peter B; Erickson, Bradley A; Baradaran, Nima; Breyer, Benjamin N; Miller, Brandi; Santucci, Richard A; Carrick, Matthew M; Hewitt, Timothy; Burks, Frank N; Kocik, Jurek F; Askari, Reza; Myers, Jeremy B
The rarity of renal trauma limits its study and the strength of evidence-based guidelines. Although management of renal injuries has shifted toward a nonoperative approach, nephrectomy remains the most common intervention for high-grade renal trauma (HGRT). We aimed to describe the contemporary management of HGRT in the United States and also evaluate clinical factors associated with nephrectomy after HGRT. From 2014 to 2017, data on HGRT (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades III-V) were collected from 14 participating Level-1 trauma centers. Data were gathered on demographics, injury characteristics, management, and short-term outcomes. Management was classified into three groups-expectant, conservative/minimally invasive, and open operative. Descriptive statistics were used to report management of renal trauma. Univariate and multivariate logistic mixed effect models with clustering by facility were used to look at associations between proposed risk factors and nephrectomy. A total of 431 adult HGRT were recorded; 79% were male, and mechanism of injury was blunt in 71%. Injuries were graded as III, IV, and V in 236 (55%), 142 (33%), and 53 (12%), respectively. Laparotomy was performed in 169 (39%) patients. Overall, 300 (70%) patients were managed expectantly and 47 (11%) underwent conservative/minimally invasive management. Eighty-four (19%) underwent renal-related open operative management with 55 (67%) of them undergoing nephrectomy. Nephrectomy rates were 15% and 62% for grades IV and V, respectively. Penetrating injuries had significantly higher American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades and higher rates of nephrectomy. In multivariable analysis, only renal injury grade and penetrating mechanism of injury were significantly associated with undergoing nephrectomy. Expectant and conservative management is currently utilized in 80% of HGRT; however, the rate of nephrectomy remains high. Clinical factors, such as surrogates of
Motlagh, Leila Tafreshi; Yahya, Wan Roselezam Wan
Toni Morrison is an acknowledged master of trauma literature, however trauma theory and a gender response to trauma remain largely unaccounted for her migration literature, specifically "Jazz" (1992). In her novel, two migrant women are affected by the same trauma, a crime of passion. But they choose different reactions and coping…
Makadia, Rakhee; Sabin-Farrell, Rachel; Turpin, Graham
The study investigated the relationship between exposure to trauma work and well-being (general psychological distress, trauma symptoms, and disrupted beliefs) in trainee clinical psychologists. It also assessed the contribution of individual and situational factors to well-being. A Web-based survey was employed. The survey comprised the General Health Questionnaire, Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale, Trauma and Attachment Belief Scale, Trauma Screening Questionnaire, and specific questions about exposure to trauma work and other individual and situational factors. The link to the online survey was sent via email to trainee clinical psychologists attending courses throughout the UK RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-four trainee clinical psychologists participated. Most trainees had a caseload of one to two trauma cases in the previous 6 months; the most common trauma being sexual abuse. Exposure to trauma work was not related to general psychological distress or disrupted beliefs but was a significant predictor of trauma symptoms. Situational factors contributed to the variance in trauma symptoms; level of stress of clinical work and quality of trauma training were significant predictors of trauma symptoms. Individual and situational factors were also found to be significant predictors of general psychological distress and disrupted beliefs. This study provides support for secondary traumatic stress but lacks evidence to support belief changes in vicarious traumatization or a relationship between exposure to trauma work and general psychological distress. The measurement and validity of vicarious traumatization is discussed along with clinical, theoretical implications, and suggestions for future research. Secondary traumatic stress is a potential risk for trainee clinical psychologists. Training courses should (a) focus on quality of trauma training as it may be protective; (b) advocate coping strategies to reduce stress of clinical work, as the level of stress of
Medam, Sophie; Zieleskiewicz, Laurent; Duclos, Gary; Baumstarck, Karine; Loundou, Anderson; Alingrin, Julie; Hammad, Emmanuelle; Vigne, Coralie; Antonini, François; Leone, Marc
The aim of this study was to compare septic shock directly associated-mortality between severe trauma patients and nontrauma patients to assess the role of comorbidities and age. We conducted a retrospective study in an intensive care unit (ICU) (15 beds) of a university hospital (928 beds). From January 2009 to May 2015, we reviewed 2 anonymized databases including severe trauma patients and nontrauma patients. We selected the patients with a septic shock episode. Among 385 patients (318 nontrauma patients and 67 severe trauma patients), the ICU death rate was 43%. Septic shock was directly responsible for death among 35% of our cohort, representing 123 (39%) nontrauma patients and 10 (15%) trauma patients (P septic shock associated-mortality, whereas severe trauma was a protective factor (OR: 0.26; 95% CI [0.08-0.78], P = 0.01). From these independent risk factors, we determined the probability of septic shock associated-mortality. The receiver-operating characteristics curve has an area under the curve at 0.76 with sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 86%. Trauma appears as a protective factor, whereas the severity of organ failure has a major role in the mortality of septic shock. However, because of the study's design, unmeasured confounding factors should be taken into account in our findings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Goettems, Marília Leão; Brancher, Letícia Coutinho; da Costa, Catiara Terra; Bonow, Maria Laura Menezes; Romano, Ana Regina
The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess the likelihood of children suffering traumatic dental injuries in the permanent dentition subsequent to traumatic dental injuries in their primary dentition. A longitudinal study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. Children were assessed in 2007, when they were aged 2-5 years, and in 2013, at which time, they were aged 8-11 years. Data collection included interviews with parents and clinical oral examination for dental trauma and occlusion. The classification proposed by Andreasen and Andreasen was used, and crown discoloration and fistula were added to this criterion in order to assess pulp involvement. Child/parent report was used to aid in the diagnosis of both treated and untreated injuries. As a limitation, no radiographs were taken. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. A total of 110 children were included. Dental trauma frequency in the primary dentition was 38.2% and that in the permanent dentition was 30.9%. In the multivariate analyses, children with dental trauma in the primary dentition showed a higher likelihood of suffering dental trauma in the permanent dentition [odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-8.91, P = 0.05]. Individuals with previous trauma in the primary dentition are prone to further trauma in the permanent dentition. The history of dental trauma may be used to predict dental trauma in the permanent dentition and to establish preventive measures. Behavioral characteristics may be related to the risk of a child suffering injuries. The results suggested that some children are accident-prone.
Brown, Joshua B; Gestring, Mark L; Stassen, Nicole A; Forsythe, Raquel M; Billiar, Timothy R; Peitzman, Andrew B; Sperry, Jason L
Evaluate the effect of US geographic region on outcomes of helicopter transport (HT) for trauma. HT is an integral component of trauma systems. Evidence suggests that HT is associated with improved outcomes; however, no studies examine the impact of geographic variation on outcomes for HT. Retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing scene HT or ground transport in the National Trauma Databank (2009-2012). Subjects were divided by US census region. HT and ground transport subjects were propensity-score matched based on prehospital physiology and injury severity. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of HT on survival and discharge to home in each region. Region-level characteristics were assessed as potential explanatory factors. A total of 193,629 pairs were matched. HT was associated with increased odds of survival and discharge to home; however, the magnitude of these effects varied significantly across regions (P trauma center and helicopter distribution, trauma center access, traffic congestion, and urbanicity (P trauma. Variations in resource allocation partially account for outcome differences. Policy makers should consider regional factors to better assess and allocate resources within trauma systems to optimize the role of HT.
Leila Tafreshi; Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya
Toni Morrison is a master of trauma literature, but trauma theory and a gender response to trauma remain largely unaccounted for in her migration literature, specifically Jazz (1992). In Jazz, two migrant women are affected by the same trauma, a crime of passion. But they choose different coping strategies. This causes a fundamental change to their mental health. Toni Morrison's migrant women are not only faced with migration stress factors, but also exposed to trauma. Managing mi...
Chest trauma is an important cause of mortality in children worldwide. In this study we present our experience with childhood chest trauma within a five years period. This was a 5-year prospective study of consecutive patients with chest trauma. Data entered into a pre-planned proforma included demographic information, ...
Full Text Available Injuries, especially traffic accidents are so important causes of death, disability, hospital expenses, economic damages to the society which World Health Organization selected them as the main subjects for investigation and research. We have done an epidemiologic study about trauma in Guilan, a province in north of Iran. This is a descriptive study carried out on patients with traumatic injuries, admitted in Poursina Teaching Hospital, during September 2005 to July 2006. Data were collected prospectively using a data collection form including demographic information, mechanism of trauma, anatomical site of injuries, according to AIS90 and severity of head trauma according to glasgow coma scale (GCS. Data were processed by SPSS 11.5 and are shown in tables and figures. Overall 3598 patients admitted. Mean age was 31.85 ± 17.76 years with male to female ratio about 3.5:1. Most of patients were 25-44 years old (33.9%. Traffic accidents were the leading cause of injuries (73.84% and then fall (15.7%. Motorcycle was the most common mode of transport in our patients (47.07% after that car (24.3%. Occurrence of traffic accidents increased through evening. Forty six percent of patients transported to hospital by people or came themselves (46.42%. Head and neck were the most common injured part of body (82.4 %, however about in 81.66% of patients were mild and then limb and pelvis (34.7%. Finally about 2.8% of them died. A trauma especially traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Guilan, we recommend conducting other studies focusing on risk factors in details, and considering injury prevention in local decision making.
Cheung Chung, Man; AlQarni, Nowf; AlMazrouei, Mariam; Al Muhairi, Shamsa; Shakra, Mudar; Mitchell, Britt; Al Mazrouei, Sara; Al Hashimi, Shurooq
This study investigated the impact of trauma exposure characteristics on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among Syrian refugees. One thousand one hundred and ninety-seven refugees residing in Turkey and Sweden participated in the research. They completed the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire-28. Forty-three percent of refugees met the cutoff for PTSD. After adjusting for location of residence, witnessing horror and exposure to life threat and assault were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity respectively. Death of, or life threat to family members or friends were significantly correlated with both distress outcomes. Refugees residing in Turkey had significantly higher levels of PTSD, psychiatric co-morbidity and trauma characteristics than those living in Sweden. To conclude, Syrian refugees who witnessed horror, life threat or had family or friends die, tended to have elevated psychological distress. Levels of distress among resettled refugees can vary depending on country of resettlement. We recommend systematic mental health screening and implementation of psychotherapeutic interventions to address issues pertaining to subjective experience of resettlement and trauma exposure for Syrian refugees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
J. Faraji Oskooie
Full Text Available The author conducted 1-year study investigating the causation and management of eye trauma at Farabi Eye' center. All patients sustaining eye injuries who were evaluated by ophthalmology service over one year interval were included."n. A formal questionnaire was completed with details of the injuiy being obtained. An ophthalmologic examination was performed on each patient, and examination findings and diagnostic tests obtained, diagnosis and treatment were recorded and analyzed."nNine hundreds and sixty-one injuries (65% occured in males and 503 (35% in females. The average age was 30 years. This study included 1464 eye injuries."nFour handreds and eighty-five (nearly 30% of patients were in pediatric age group. Seventy percent of all patients were admitted within 24 hours of their injury. Fourty percent of all injuries occurred in the street, 30% at home, 15% at the work place , the rest either in school or sport field."nAmong those older than 65 years of age, 70% of injuries were the result of fall. Seventy percent of all eye injuries were caused by blunt trauma. Diagnosis and management were recorded."nConclusions : Tehran and other metropolitans population is more likely to sustain eye trauma as the result of an assault and is less likely to be involved in a work- or sports-related one."nGiven poor compliance without patient management and follow-up, aggressive primary management may be indicated to optimize visual outcome
Ibrahim Hassan El-Kalla
Full Text Available Background: Traumatic injuries are common dental problems in pediatric dentistry that may influence the children's quality of life. Aim: the aim of this study is to assess the impact of traumatic dental injuries (TDI and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL among Egyptian schoolchildren aged 11–14 years. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving a sample of 11700 schoolchildren from public and private schools of Mansoura city, Egypt. OHRQoL was assessed using Child Perceptions Questionnaire. Clinical examination included the presence and type of TDI, malocclusion status, and dental caries in anterior teeth (decayed, missing, and filled teeth. Results: The prevalence of TDI was 13.6%. Untreated TDI was more likely to have a negative impact on the children's daily living regarding pain, functional, emotional, and social aspect than treated injuries and control children. Pearson's correlation test indicated significant association between trauma and malocclusion and dental caries. Conclusion: Untreated dental injury has a negative impact on quality of life regarding social, functional, and emotional aspects. However, treated injured teeth appear to improve social and emotional aspects of the OHRQoL of school children, whereas functional limitations may continue because of the pulpal and periodontal effects of the injury.
Siddiqui, Saad; Saeed, Muhammad Anwar; Shah, Noreen; Nadeem, Naila
Trauma remains one of the most frequent presentations in emergency departments. Imaging has established role in setting of acute trauma with ability to identify potentially fatal conditions. Adequate knowledge of health professionals regarding trauma imaging is vital for improved healthcare. In this work we try to assess knowledge of medical students regarding imaging in trauma as well as identify most effective way of imparting radiology education. This cross-sectional pilot study was conducted at Aga Khan University Medical College & Khyber Girls Medical College, to assess knowledge of medical students regarding imaging protocols practiced in initial management of trauma patients. Only 40 & 20% respectively were able to identify radiographs included in trauma series. Very few had knowledge of correct indication for Focused abdominal sonography in trauma. Clinical radiology rotation was reported as best way of learning radiology. Change in curricula & restructuring of clinical radiology rotation structure is needed to improve knowledge regarding Trauma imaging.
Levin, Liran; Lin, Shaul; Goldman, Sharon; Peleg, Kobi
Trauma, a major public health problem, has been extensively studied. However, characteristics of maxillofacial and dental injuries and their association with socio-economic position (SEP) have not been thoroughly documented. This study retrospectively investigated the occurrence of maxillofacial, dental and general trauma in Israel, and examined the relationship between socio-economic status and trauma-related hospitalizations. Records were obtained for all trauma patients hospitalized and recorded in the National Israel Trauma Registry (ITR) between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2005. Maxillofacial and dental injuries were separated and further analyzed by residence locality and SEP. The socio-economic index, developed by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was used to determine the socio-economic status of 50 selected localities. During the study period, 77 072 trauma patients were hospitalized, of whom 3972 (5%) were diagnosed with maxillofacial or dental injuries. Among the selected localities, 42 303 hospitalizations were recorded, of which 1886 (4.5%) involved maxillofacial or dental injuries. For all traumas, lower injury rates were found among residents living in high socio-economic localities. The difference in hospitalization rates for maxillofacial and dental injuries was not significant. The cause of injury differed by age, SEP and category of injury. A fall (35%) or road crash (33%) caused most of the maxillofacial injuries, with 50% of dental injuries because of a road crash. Intentional injuries constituted 22% of the maxillofacial-related hospitalizations and were more prevalent among adults living in low SEP localities. These data should be used to promote injury prevention programs with emphasis directed at high risk populations.
Mcphillamy, Austin; Gurnea, Taylor P; Moody, Alastair E; Kurnik, Christopher G; Lu, Minggen
In today's climate of cost containment and fiscal responsibility, generic implant alternatives represent an interesting area of untapped resources. As patents have expired on many commonly used trauma implants, generic alternatives have recently become available from a variety of sources. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical and economic impact of a cost containment program using high quality, generic orthopaedic locking plates. The implants available for study were anatomically precontoured plates for the clavicle, proximal humerus, distal radius, proximal tibia, distal tibia, and distal fibula. Retrospective review. Level II Trauma center. 828 adult patients with operatively managed clavicle, proximal humerus, distal radius, proximal tibia, tibial pilon, and ankle fractures. Operative treatment with conventional or generic implants. The 414 patients treated with generic implants were compared with 414 patients treated with conventional implants. There were no significant differences in age, sex, presence of diabetes, smoking history or fracture type between the generic and conventional groups. No difference in operative time, estimated blood loss or intraoperative complication rate was observed. No increase in postoperative infection rate, hardware failure, hardware loosening, malunion, nonunion or need for hardware removal was noted. Overall, our hospital realized a 56% reduction in implant costs, an average savings of $1197 per case, and a total savings of $458,080 for the study period. Use of generic orthopaedic implants has been successful at our institution, providing equivalent clinical outcomes while significantly reducing implant expenditures. Based on our data, the use of generic implants has the potential to markedly reduce operative costs as long as quality products are used. Therapeutic Level III.
Anantha, Ram Venkatesh; Zamiara, Paul; Merritt, Neil H
Given that the management of severely injured children requires coordinated care provided by multiple pediatric surgical subspecialties, we sought to describe the frequency and associated costs of surgical intervention among pediatric trauma patients admitted to a level 1 trauma centre in southwestern Ontario. All pediatric (age < 18 yr) trauma patients treated at the Children's Hospital - London Health Sciences Centre (CH-LHSC) between 2002 and 2013 were included in this study. We compared patients undergoing surgical intervention with a nonsurgical group with respect to demographic characteristics and outcomes. Hospital-associated costs were calculated only for the surgical group. Of 784 injured children, 258 (33%) required surgery, 40% of whom underwent orthopedic interventions. These patients were older and more severely injured, and they had longer lengths of stay than their nonsurgical counterparts. There was no difference in mortality between the groups. Seventy-four surgical patients required intervention within 4 hours of admission; 45% of them required neurosurgical intervention. The median cost of hospitalization was $27 571 for the surgical group. One-third of pediatric trauma patients required surgical intervention, of whom one-third required intervention within 4 hours of arrival. Despite the associated costs, the surgical treatment of children was associated with comparable mortality to nonsurgical treatment of less severely injured patients. This study represents the most recent update to the per patient cost for surgically treated pediatric trauma patients in Ontario, Canada, and helps to highlight the multispecialty care needed for the management of injured children.
Aiolfi, Alberto; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Recinos, Gustavo; De Leon Castro, Alejandro; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios
The effect of prehospital helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) on mortality has been analyzed previously in polytrauma patients with discordant results. Our aim was to compare outcomes in patients with isolated severe blunt traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) transported by HEMS or ground emergency medical services (GEMS). We conducted a National Trauma Data Bank study (2007-2014). All adult patients (≥16 years old) who sustained an isolated severe blunt TBI and were transported by HEMS or GEMS were included in the study. There were 145,559 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 116,391 (80%) patients were transported via GEMS and 29,168 (20%) via HEMS. Median transportation time was longer for HEMS patients (41 vs. 25 min; p < 0.001). HEMS patients were more likely to have hypotension (2.7% vs. 1.5%; p < 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score < 9 (38.2% vs. 10.9%; p < 0.001), and head Abbreviation Injury Scale (AIS) score of 5 (20.1% vs. 9.7%; p < 0.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified age ≥ 65 years old, male sex, hypotension, GCS score < 9, prehospital intubation, and head AIS scores 4 and 5 as independent predictors of mortality. Helicopter transportation was independently associated with improved survival (odds ratio [OR] 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.67; p < 0.001). Admission to a Level I trauma center was an independent predictor of survival (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.53-0.82; p = 0.001). Regardless of head AIS, helicopter transport was an independent predictor of survival (AIS 3: OR 0.35; p < 0.001; AIS 4: OR 0.44; p < 0.001; AIS 5: OR 0.76; p < 0.001). A prolonged transport time was not an independent predictor of mortality. Helicopter transport, in adult patients with isolated severe TBI, is associated with improved survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
trauma [7,8]. There is a belief that trauma occurs more during Ramadan, the Muslims' holy month, compared with other months of the year, and the patterns of trauma are different and injuries are more severe. This could be attributed to the Saudi rituals during that time of the year. Muslims start fasting from dawn to sunset, ...
Hughes, Hannah; Hughes, Andrew; Murphy, Colin
Aim Social media (SoMe) platforms have become leading methods of communication and dissemination of scientific information in the medical community. They allow for immediate discussion and widespread engagement around important topics. It has been hypothesized that the activity on Twitter positively correlates with highly cited articles. The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence and activity of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery journals on Twitter, with the hypothesis that the impact factor is positively associated with the Twitter usage. Methods The top 50 Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery journals, ranked by 2016 Impact Factor were analyzed. The Twitter profiles of each journal or affiliated society were identified. Other SoMe platforms used were also recorded. The Twitonomy software (Digonomy Pty Ltd, New South Wales, Australia) was used to analyze the Twitter profiles over a one-year period. The Twitter Klout scores were recorded for each journal to approximate the SoMe influence. The Altmetric scores (the total number of mentions via alternative metrics) were also recorded. The statistical analysis was carried out to identify correlations between journal Impact Factors, SoMe activity, Twitter Klout scores and Altmetric scores. Results Twenty-two journals (44%) were dedicated to the Twitter profiles. Fourteen journals (28%) were associated with societies that had profiles and 14 journals (28%) had no Twitter presence. The mean Impact Factor overall was 2.16 +/- 0.14 (range, 1.07-5.16). The journals with dedicated Twitter profiles had higher Impact Factors than those without (mean 2.41 vs. 1.61; P=0.005). A greater number of Twitter followers were associated with higher Impact Factors (R2 0.317, P=0.03). The journals with higher Twitter Klout scores had higher Impact Factors (R2 0.357, P=0.016). The Altmetric score was positively associated with an Impact Factor (R2 0.310, P=0.015). The journals with higher numbers of retweets (virtual citations in
Thompson, Lee; Hill, Michael; Davies, Caroline; Shaw, Gary; Kiernan, Matthew D
Major trauma is often life threatening and the leading cause of death in the United Kingdom (UK) for adults aged less than 45 years old. This study aimed to identify pre-hospital factors associated with patient outcomes for major trauma within one Regional Trauma Network. Secondary analysis of pre-hospital audit data and patient outcome data from the Trauma Audit Research Network (TARN) was undertaken. The primary outcome used in analysis was 'Status at Discharge' (alive/deceased). Independent variables considered included 'Casualty Characteristics' such as mechanism of injury (MOI), age, and physiological measurements, as well as 'Response Characteristics' such as response timings and skill mix. Binary Logistic Regression analysis using the 'forward stepwise' method was undertaken for physiological measures taken at the scene. The study analysed 1033 major trauma records (mean age of 38.5 years, SD 21.5, 95% CI 37-40). Adults comprised 82.6% of the sample (n = 853), whilst 12.9% of the sample were children (n = 133). Men comprised 68.5% of the sample (n = 708) in comparison to 28.8% women (n = 298). Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) (p < 0.000), Respiration Rate (p < 0.001) and Age (p < 0.000), were all significant when associated with the outcome 'Status at Discharge' (alive/deceased). Isolated bivariate associations provided tentative support for response characteristics such as existing dispatching practices and the value of rapid crew arrival. However, these measurements appear to be of limited utility in predictive modelling of outcomes. The complexity of physiological indices potentially complicate their predictive utility e.g. whilst a Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) of < 90 mmHg serves as a trigger for bypass to a Major Trauma Centre, the utility of this observation is nullified in cases of Traumatic Brain Injury. Analysis suggested that as people age, outcomes from major trauma significantly worsened. This finding is consistent with existing research
Osofsky, Joy D.; Cross Hansel, Tonya; Moore, Michelle B.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Hughes, Jennifer B.; Dickson, Amy B.
When expectant mothers are exposed to traumatic events such as natural disasters, their children are at increased risk for developmental and behavioral problems. Many people believe that young children will not be impacted by the traumatic experiences that occur during and following disasters. Therefore, planning for the youngest children at the…
Shalhub, Sherene; Starnes, Benjamin W; Brenner, Megan L; Biffl, Walter L; Azizzadeh, Ali; Inaba, Kenji; Skiada, Dimitra; Zarzaur, Ben; Nawaf, Cayce; Eriksson, Evert A; Fakhry, Samir M; Paul, Jasmeet S; Kaups, Krista L; Ciesla, David J; Todd, S Rob; Seamon, Mark J; Capano-Wehrle, Lisa M; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Kozar, Rosemary A
Blunt abdominal aortic injury (BAAI) is a rare injury. The objective of the current study was to examine the presentation and management of BAAI at a multi-institutional level. The Western Trauma Association Multi-Center Trials conducted a study of BAAI from 1996 to 2011. Data collected included demographics, injury mechanism, associated injuries, interventions, and complications. Of 392,315 blunt trauma patients, 113 (0.03%) presented with BAAI at 12 major trauma centers (67% male; median age, 38 years; range, 6-88; median Injury Severity Score [ISS], 34; range, 16-75). The leading cause of injury was motor vehicle collisions (60%). Hypotension was documented in 47% of the cases. The most commonly associated injuries were spine fractures (44%) and pneumothorax/hemothorax (42%). Solid organ, small bowel, and large bowel injuries occurred in 38%, 35%, and 28% respectively. BAAI presented as free aortic rupture (32%), pseudoaneurysm (16%), and injuries without aortic external contour abnormality on computed tomography such as large intimal flaps (34%) or intimal tears (18%). Open and endovascular repairs were undertaken as first-choice therapy in 43% and 15% of cases, respectively. Choice of management varied by type of BAAI: 89% of intimal tears were managed nonoperatively, and 96% of aortic ruptures were treated with open repair. Overall mortality was 39%, the majority (68%) occurring in the first 24 hours because of hemorrhage or cardiac arrest. The highest mortality was associated with Zone II aortic ruptures (92%). Follow-up was documented in 38% of live discharges. This is the largest BAAI series reported to date. BAAI presents as a spectrum of injury ranging from minimal aortic injury to aortic rupture. Nonoperative management is successful in uncomplicated cases without external aortic contour abnormality on computed tomography. Highest mortality occurred in free aortic ruptures, suggesting that alternative measures of early noncompressible torso hemorrhage
Garvey, Paula; Liddil, Jessica; Eley, Scott; Winfield, Scott
According to the National Trauma Institute (2015), trauma accounts for more than 180,000 deaths each year in the United States. Nurses play a significant role in the care of trauma patients and therefore need appropriate education and training (L. ). Although several courses exist for trauma education, many nurses have not received adequate education in trauma management (B. ; L. ). Trauma Tactics, a 2-day course that focuses on high-fidelity human patient simulation, was created to meet this educational need. This descriptive study was conducted retrospectively to assess the effectiveness of the Trauma Tactics course. Pre- and postsurveys, tests, and simulation performance were used to evaluate professional nurses who participated in Trauma Tactics over a 10-month period. Fifty-five nurses were included in the study. Pre- and postsurveys revealed an increase in overall confidence, test scores increased by an average of 2.5 points, and simulation performance scores increased by an average of 16 points. Trauma Tactics is a high-quality course that provides a valuable and impactful educational experience for nurses. Further research is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of Trauma Tactics and its impacts on quality of care and patient outcomes.
Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries are among the most important causes of mortality and disability. Since there is a lot of controversy regarding discharge of head trauma patients, especially those with mild traumatic brain injuries, this study was designed aiming to evaluate traumatic brain injuries from an epidemiologic point of view. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, patients with isolated head trauma, and all those who underwent computed tomography (CT were included using convenience sampling. Demographic data and final diagnosis of the patients were extracted from their medical profile, and were analyzed using SPSS 21 and appropriate statistical tests. Results: 786 patients with the mean age of 24 ± 16.8 years (range: 0.5 – 75 were evaluated (67.8% male. 42 patients (5.3% had abnormal CT scan and were hospitalized. 7 of them (16.7% of hospitalized, 3.3% of low-risk, and 0.9% of all patients were in the group categorized as low-risk regarding probability of brain injuries. 12 (1.5% participants needed surgery, 2 of which (0.9% were initially categorized as low-risk. Vomiting was significantly more in patients with abnormal CT scan (45.2% compared to those who had normal CT scan (19.6% (p = 0.0001. No significant difference was detected between the 2 groups in other symptoms. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that by making decisions based on clinical findings alone, there is a probability of about 3.3% error in management of head trauma patients. In addition, 0.9% of the patients initially categorized as low-risk, needed surgical intervention in the end.
Hay-David, A G C; Clint, S A; Brown, R R
April 1st 2012 saw the introduction of National Trauma Networks in England. The aim to optimise the management of major trauma. Patients with an ISS≥16 would be transferred to the regional Major Trauma Centre (level 1). Our premise was that trauma units (level 2) would no longer manage complex foot and ankle injuries thereby obviating the need for a foot and ankle specialist service. Retrospective analysis of the epidemiology of foot and ankle injuries, using the Gloucestershire trauma database, from a trauma unit with a population of 750,000. Rates of open fractures, complex foot and ankle injuries and requirement for stabilisation with external fixation were reviewed before and after the introduction of the regional Trauma Network. Secondly, using the Trauma Audit & Research Network (TARN) database, all foot and ankle injuries triaged to the regional Major Trauma Centre (MTC) were reviewed. Incidence of open foot and ankle injuries was 2.9 per 100,000 per year. There were 5.1% open injuries before the network and 3.2% after (p>0.05). Frequency of complex foot and ankle injuries was 4.2% before and 7.5% after the network commenced, showing no significant change. There was no statistically significant change in the numbers of patients with complex foot and ankle injuries treated by application of external fixators. Analysis of TARN data revealed that only 18% of patients with foot and ankle injuries taken to the MTC had an ISS≥16. The majority of these patients were identified as requiring plastic surgical intervention for open fractures (69%) or were polytrauma patients (43%). Only 4.5% of patients had isolated, closed foot and ankle injuries. We found that at the trauma unit there was no decrease in the numbers of complex foot and ankle injuries, open fractures, or the applications of external fixators, following the introduction of the Trauma Network. These patients will continue to attend trauma units as they usually have an ISScomplex foot and ankle
Rubenson Wahlin, Rebecka; Ponzer, Sari; Skrifvars, Markus B; Lossius, Hans Morten; Castrén, Maaret
Trauma systems and regionalized trauma care have been shown to improve outcome in severely injured trauma patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a prehospital trauma care protocol and transport directive, and to determine its effects on the number of primary admissions and secondary trauma transfers in a large Scandinavian city. We performed a retrospective observational study based on local trauma registries and hospital and ambulance records in Stockholm County; patients > 15 years of age with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 15 transported to any emergency care hospitals in the Stockholm area were included for the years 2006 and 2008. We also included secondary transferred patients to the regional trauma center during 2006, 2008, and 2013. A total of 693 primarily admitted trauma patients were included for the years 2006 and 2008. For the years 2006, 2008 and 2013, we included 114 secondarily transported trauma patients. The number of primary patient transports to the trauma center increased during the years by 20.2%, (p transported to the trauma center had a significantly higher Injury Severity Score in 2008 than in 2006, and the number of patients transported secondarily to the trauma center in 2006 was higher compared to 2008 and to 2013 (p data indicate that implementation of a prehospital trauma care protocol may have an effect on transportation of severely injured trauma patients. A decrease in secondarily transported trauma patients to the regional trauma center was noted after 1 year and persisted at 7 years after the organizational change. Patients primarily admitted to the trauma center after the change had more severe injuries than patients transported to other emergency hospitals in the area even if 20 % of patients were not admitted primarily to a trauma center. This does not imply that the transport directives or the criteria were not followed but rather reveals the difficulties and uncertainties of field
Gross, T; Amsler, F
Given the lack of data in the available literature, we were interested in the disability rate and corresponding insurance costs following multiple trauma in Switzerland. The possible impact of demographic, traumatic and hospital process factors as well as subjective and objective longer-term outcome variables on insurance data acquired were examined. Following multiple trauma the clinical and socioeconomic parameters in 145 survivors of working age were investigated over 2 and 4 years post-injury at a Swiss trauma center (University Hospital Basel). The correlation with the corresponding data provided by the largest Swiss accident insurance company (Suva, n = 63) was tested by univariate and multivariate analysis and patients insured at Suva were compared with those insured elsewhere (n = 82). The mean level of disability in this cohort of multiple trauma patients insured at Suva was 43 %. The insurer expected costs of more than 1 million Swiss Francs per multiply injured patient. In univariate analysis, only discrete correlations (maximum r = 0.37) were found with resulting disability, but significant correlations were found in subsequent multivariate testing most of all for age and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA 11 % and 15 % predictive capacity, p = 0.001; corrected R 2 = 0.26). Among variables of longer-term outcome the Euro Quality of Life Group health-related quality of life in five dimensions (EQ-5D) correlated almost as highly with the objective extent of disability as did the reduced capacity to work declared by the patients (0.64 and 0.7, respectively). The estimation of long-term disability following multiple trauma based on primary data following injury appears to be possible only to a limited extent. Given the clinical and socioeconomic relevance, comparable analyses are necessary by including all insurance providers involved.
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A; Decker, Suzanne E; Desai, Rani A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan
This study examined lifetime exposure to traumatic events as reported by 581 homeless female veterans enrolled in a Homeless Women Veterans Program across 11 sites to characterize the types of trauma they experienced; their correlation with baseline characteristics; and their association with housing, clinical outcomes, and psychosocial functioning over a 1-year treatment period. Almost all participants endorsed multiple types and episodes of traumatic events. Among the most common were having someone close experience a serious or life-threatening illness (82%) and rape (67%). Exploratory factor analysis revealed 6 potential trauma categories: being robbed, experiencing accident or disasters, illness or death of others, combat, sexual assault, and physical assault. At baseline, trauma from sexual assault was associated with more days homeless (β = .18, p drugs (β = .22, p homeless women veterans can achieve through homeless services. Published © 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Coleman, Jennifer A; Delahanty, Douglas L; Schwartz, Joseph; Murani, Kristina; Brondolo, Elizabeth
Prior research has examined the incidence of posttraumatic stress stemming from either direct or indirect trauma exposure in employees of high-risk occupations. However, few studies have examined the contribution of both direct and indirect trauma exposure in high-risk groups. One particularly salient indirect trauma often endorsed as the most stressful by many occupational groups is interacting with distressed family members of victims of crime, illness, or accidents. The present study examined the extent to which interacting with distressed families moderated the impact of cumulative potentially traumatic event (PTE) exposure on depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 245 employees of medical examiner (ME) offices. Employees from 9 ME office sites in the United States participated in an online survey investigating the frequency of work place PTE exposures (direct and indirect) and mental health outcomes. Results revealed that cumulative PTE exposure was associated with higher PTSD symptoms (PTSS) for employees who had higher frequency of exposure to distressed family members. After controlling for cumulative and direct PTE exposure, gender, and office site, exposure to distressed families was significantly associated with depressive symptoms, but not PTSS. Findings of our research underscore the need for training employees in high-risk occupations to manage their reactions to exposure to distraught family members. Employee training may buffer risk for developing PTSD and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bücker, J; Kozicky, J; Torres, I J; Kauer-Sant'anna, M; Silveira, L E; Bond, D J; Lam, R W; Yatham, L N
Both bipolar disorder (BD) and childhood trauma are associated with cognitive impairment. People with BD have high rates of childhood trauma, which confer greater overall disease severity, but, it is unknown if childhood trauma is associated with greater neurocognitive impairment in BD patients early in the course of their illnesses. In this study, we investigated the impact of childhood trauma on specific cognitive dysfunction in patients who recently recovered from their first episode of mania. Data were available for 64 patients and 28 healthy subjects matched by age, gender and pre-morbid IQ, recruited from a large university medical center. History of childhood trauma was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed through a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Trauma was associated with poorer cognitive performance in patients on cognitive measures of IQ, auditory attention and verbal and working memory, and a different pattern was observed in healthy subjects. We had a modest sample size, particularly in the group of healthy subjects with trauma. Childhood trauma was associated with poorer cognition in BD patients who recently recovered from a first episode of mania compared to healthy subjects. The results require replication, but suggest that the co-occurrence of trauma and bipolar disorder can affect those cognitive areas that are already more susceptible in patients with BD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lu, Shaojia; Wei, Zhaoguo; Gao, Weijia; Wu, Weiwei; Liao, Mei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Weihui; Li, Zexuan; Li, Lingjiang
To date, insufficient studies have focused on the relationship between childhood trauma and white matter integrity changes in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential effects of childhood trauma on white matter microstructural changes by using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) values in a group of young healthy adults. A total of 21 healthy adults with a history of childhood trauma exposures and 21 age- and sex-matched individuals without childhood trauma were recruited in the present study. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess five aspects of childhood trauma exposures. DTI data were obtained on a Philips 3.0-Tesla scanner. Voxel-based analysis was conducted to compare white matter FA values between groups. Adults with self-reported childhood trauma experiences showed decreased white matter FA values in the genu and body of the corpus callosum and the left occipital fusiform gyrus (p 100). There was no significant difference in FA values between individuals with single and multiple childhood trauma exposures at the defined threshold. Our findings suggest that childhood trauma is associated with reduced microstructural integrity of the white matter in adulthood. These effects are still evident even in the absence of current psychiatric or medical symptoms, which may represent the vulnerability for developing mental disorders after childhood trauma experiences.
Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Traynelis, Vincent C
Cervical spinal injuries occur in 2.0-6.6% of patients after blunt trauma and can have devastating neurological sequelae if left unrecognized. Although there is high quality evidence addressing cervical clearance in asymptomatic and symptomatic awake patients, cervical spine clearance in patients with altered level of alertness (i.e., obtunded patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 14 or less) following blunt trauma has been a matter of great controversy. Furthermore, there are no data on cervical spine clearance in obtunded patients without high impact trauma and these patients are often treated based on evidence from similar patients with high impact trauma. This retrospective study was conducted on this specific subgroup of patients who were admitted to a neurointensive care unit (NICU) with primary diagnoses of intracranial hemorrhage with history of minor trauma; the objective being to evaluate and compare cervical spinal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in this particular group of patients. Patients with GCS of 14 or less admitted to neruointensive care unit (NICU) at RUSH University Medical Center from 2008 to 2010 with diagnoses of intracranial hemorrhage (surgical or non-surgical) who had reported or presumed fall (i.e., "found down") were queried from the computer data registry. A group of these patients had cervical spine CT and subsequently MRI for clearing the cervical spine and removal of the cervical collar. Medical records of these patients were reviewed for demographics, GCS score and injury specific data and presence or absence of cervical spine injury. Eighty-three patients were identified from the computer database. Twenty-eight of these patients had positive findings on both CT and MRI (33.73% - Group I); four patients had a negative CT but had positive findings on follow-up MRI (4.82% - Group II); fifty-one patients had both negative CT and MRI (61.44% - Group III). All patients in Group I required
Violence & Injury Prevention, WHO Geneva. Mackay G M 1969 Some collision aspects of British road accidents Auto. Eng. 59: 500–506. Mackay G M 2005 Quirks of mass accident data bases J. Traffic Injury Prevention 6(4): 299–303. Mackay G M, Ashton S J, Galer M and Thomas P D 1985 Methodology of in-depth studies ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Method This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents’ experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. Results The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. Conclusions The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts.
Braga, Luciana Lorens; Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Fiks, José Paulo
Over the past five decades, clinicians and researchers have debated the impact of the Holocaust on the children of its survivors. The transgenerational transmission of trauma has been explored in more than 500 articles, which have failed to reach reliable conclusions that could be generalized. The psychiatric literature shows mixed findings regarding this subject: many clinical studies reported psychopathological findings related to transgenerational transmission of trauma and some empirical research has found no evidence of this phenomenon in offspring of Holocaust survivors. This qualitative study aims to detect how the second generation perceives transgenerational transmission of their parents' experiences in the Holocaust. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants. A Grounded Theory approach was employed, and constant comparative method was used for analysis of textual data. The development of conceptual categories led to the emergence of distinct patterns of communication from parents to their descendants. The qualitative methodology also allowed systematization of the different ways in which offspring can deal with parental trauma, which determine the development of specific mechanisms of traumatic experience or resilience in the second generation. The conceptual categories constructed by the Grounded Theory approach were used to present a possible model of the transgenerational transmission of trauma, showing that not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation. As in all qualitative studies, these conclusions cannot be generalized, but the findings can be tested in other contexts.
Viñar, Marcelo N
My aim is to discuss the immediate effects of extreme trauma and to speculate on its long term effects. The formulations associated with the Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome generate an overly medicalized view of trauma, grossly underestimating its devastating impact. Catastrophic traumatic experience rips a hole in the representational continuity of psychic life; neither representations nor narrations are generated. Instead, a representational emptiness occurs, such that what has taken place cannot be shared or transmitted. The cathartic word becomes a robotic mocking of the interchange between human beings. There is no internalization, no ability to make the experience subjective. The resulting deep splitting in the psyche is characteristic of extreme traumatism, and its balance or perpetual working through is elaborated in this paper.
Ileana Miguel Pérez
los traumatismos abiertos combinados tuvieron pérdida del bulbo ocular. En los traumatismos cerrados solo a un 1,4 % se le realizó cirugía radical (evisceraciónA retrospective longitudinal study of patients with mechanical ocular traumas hospitalized in "Dr. Luis Díaz Soto" Higher Institute of Military Medicine was conducted from 1988 to 2002.There was a casuistics of 508 eyes from 479 patients. The statistical processing was carried out with the same automated program (Access with which the data base was created, acccording to the characteristics of the variables b analyzed with parametric and nonparametric statistical methods with a reliability of 95 % (a=0.05. A ratio 4:1 of predominance of males was obtained, with an average age of 27.4 years old with a minimum value of 2 years old and a maximum of 78 years old. The most frequent mechanisms of production of the accident were firearms (22.7 % and the action of hammering (21.4 %, taking into account that 38.3 % of the patients were military men The most frequent injuries associated with traumas were hyphema and hemovitreous and it was proved that as they were higher the final visual acuity decreases consideraby. The closed traumas (41.3 % were more common and had better final visual results (66.7 % with vision over 0.1 than the rest of the open traumas (simple wound, contusion-wound, wound with CEIO and contusion-wound with CEIO. The contusions-wounds with CEIO were mostly caused by firearms and had the worst visual results (60.5 % with vison under 0.1. The affectation of the posterior segment proved to be an element that influenced significantly on the visual results. The most frequent complications for closed traumas were secondary hypertension, cataract and retina detachment; cataract for simple wounds; and retina detachment and ptisis bulbi for the rest of the traumas. Approximately, 15 % of the combined open traumas had loss of the bulbus oculi. Radical surgery (evisceration was only performed in 1.4 % of
Patel, Rina P.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Hilmes, Melissa A.; Kan, J.H.; Yu, Chang; Ray, Jackie
Chest CT after pediatric trauma is frequently performed but its clinical impact, particularly with respect to surgical intervention, has not been adequately evaluated. To assess the impact of chest CT compared with chest radiography on pediatric trauma management. Two hundred thirty-five consecutive pediatric trauma patients who had both chest CT and radiography were identified. Images were reviewed and findings were categorized and correlated with subsequent chest interventions, blinded to final outcome and management. Of the 235 children, 38.3% (90/235) had an abnormal chest radiograph and 63.8% (150/235) had an abnormal chest CT (P < 0.0001). Chest interventions followed in 4.7% (11/235); of these, the findings could be made 1 cm above the dome of the liver in 91% (10/11). Findings requiring chest intervention included pneumothorax (PTX) and vertebral fractures. PTX was found on 2.1% (5/235) of chest radiographs and 20.0% (47/235) of chest CTs (P < 0.0001); 1.7% (4/235) of the children received a chest tube for PTX, 0.85% (2/235) seen on chest CT only. Vertebral fractures were present in 3.8% of the children (9/235) and 66.7% (6/9) of those cases were treated with spinal fusion or brace. There were no instances of mediastinal vascular injury. Most intrathoracic findings requiring surgical management in our population were identified in the lower chest and would be included in routine abdominopelvic CT exams; this information needs to be taken into consideration in the diagnostic algorithm of pediatric trauma patients. (orig.)
Objective The first objective of this thesis was to describe trends in pediatric trauma in the Netherlands, and to describe changes in mortality rates and referral behavior after regionalization of trauma care. The second objective of this thesis was to describe the health condition and the
Introduction Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of death among the Saudi population. In Ramadan, the working hours and the road traffic rush hours differ from other months of the year; the pattern of trauma may also differ. We compared trauma in the pediatric age group in Ramadan with non-Ramadan months in ...
Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Blood, Emily A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J
Childhood trauma exposure has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of exposure on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of exposure in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. Children (N=206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for exposure to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months. Child intelligent quotient (IQ) scores were assessed at 24, 64 and 96 months of age. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, birth complications, birth weight and cognitive stimulation in the home were also assessed. IPT was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores at all time points, even after controlling for socio-demographic factors, maternal IQ, birth complications, birth weight and cognitive stimulation in the home. IPT in the first 2 years appeared to be especially detrimental. On average, compared with children not exposed to IPT in the first 2 years, exposed children scored one-half SD lower across cognitive assessments. IPT in early life may have adverse effects on cognitive development. IPT during the first 2 years may have particular impact, with effects persisting at least into later childhood.
Ringdal, Kjetil G; Lossius, Hans Morten; Jones, J Mary
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: No worldwide, standardised definitions exist for documenting, reporting, and comparing data from severely injured trauma patients. This study evaluated the feasibility of collecting the data variables of the international consensus-derived Utstein Trauma Template. METHODS......: Trauma centres from three different continents were invited to submit Utstein Trauma Template core data during a defined period, for up to 50 consecutive trauma patients. Directly admitted patients with a New Injury Severity Score (NISS) equal to or above 16 were included. Main outcome variables were...... was 27 (IQR 20-38), and blunt trauma predominated (91.1%). Of the 36 Utstein variables, 13 (36%) were collected by all participating centres. Eleven (46%) centres applied definitions of the survival outcome variable that were different from those of the template. Seventeen (71%) centres used...
Hall, Andrea; McKenna, Brian; Dearie, Vikki; Maguire, Tessa; Charleston, Rosemary; Furness, Trentham
Background Practicing with trauma informed care (TIC) can strengthen nurses? knowledge about the association of past trauma and the impact of trauma on the patient?s current mental illness. An aim of TIC is to avoid potentially re-traumatising a patient during their episode of care. A TIC education package can provide nurses with content that describes the interplay of neurological, biological, psychological, and social effects of trauma that may reduce the likelihood of re-traumatisation. Al...
Venta, Amanda; Kenkel-Mikelonis, Robyn; Sharp, Carla
The relation between trauma and borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been studied in great detail with adults, but few studies have examined this link in adolescents. Furthermore, virtually nothing is known about how different aspects of trauma relate to BPD and whether trauma symptoms reflect actual trauma history in adolescents diagnosed with BPD. Using a sample of 147 adolescent psychiatric inpatients, the authors examined the concurrent link between trauma symptoms, trauma history, and BPD. Findings suggest that adolescents with BPD are more likely than their non-BPD counterparts to have a history of sexual trauma and to report sexual concerns. However, the link between BPD and sexual concerns is not completely explained by increased sexual trauma history in the BPD group, indicating that there is some relation between BPD and sexual concerns independent of trauma history. These findings are discussed within an attachment framework. The preliminary nature of this study is noted and used as the basis for encouraging future research in the area.
Introduction Despite the integral role played by tracheostomy in the management of trauma patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), its timing remains subject to considerable practice variation. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of early tracheostomy on the duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay, and outcomes in trauma ICU patients. Methods The following data were obtained from a prospective ICU database containing information on all trauma patients who received tracheostomy over a 5-year period: demographics, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Glasgow Coma Scale score, Injury Severity Score, type of injuries, ICU and hospital outcomes, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), and the type of tracheostomy procedure (percutaneous versus surgical). Tracheostomy was considered early if it was performed by day 7 of mechanical ventilation. We compared the duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU LOS and outcome between early and late tracheostomy patients. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the impact of tracheostomy timing on ICU stay. Results Of 653 trauma ICU patients, 136 (21%) required tracheostomies, 29 of whom were early and 107 were late. Age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and Injury Severity Score were not different between the two groups. Patients with early tracheostomy were more likely to have maxillofacial injuries and to have lower Glasgow Coma Scale score. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter with early tracheostomy (mean ± standard error: 9.6 ± 1.2 days versus 18.7 ± 1.3 days; P tracheostomy, patients were discharged from the ICU after comparable periods in both groups (4.9 ± 1.2 days versus 4.9 ± 1.1 days; not significant). ICU and hospital mortality rates were similar. Using multivariate analysis, late tracheostomy was an independent predictor of
Vats, S; Chandra, M; Gupta, S K; Vashist, P; Gogoi, M
Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7) Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant (P < 0.001), when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%). Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028). Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4%) were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001), and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041) and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028) of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78), between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81), and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170). Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority. PMID:18579991
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7 Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant ( P < 0.001, when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%. Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028. Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4% were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001, and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041 and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028 of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78, between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81, and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170. Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority.
Deppe, Sharon; Truax, Christopher B; Opalek, Judy M; Santanello, Steven A
Hospital accounting methods use diagnosis-related group (DRG) data to identify patients and derive financial analyses and reports. The National Trauma Data Bank and trauma programs identify patients with trauma by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9)-based definitions for inclusion criteria. These differing methods of identifying patients result in economic reports that vary significantly and fail to accurately identify the financial impact of trauma services. Routine financial data were collected for patients admitted to our Trauma Service from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006 using two methods of identifying the cases; by trauma DRGs and by trauma registry database inclusion criteria. The resulting data were compared and stratified to define the financial impact on hospital charges, reimbursement, costs, contribution to margin, downstream revenue, and estimated profit or loss. The results also defined the impact on supporting services, market share and total revenue from trauma admissions, return visits, discharged trauma alerts, and consultations. A total of 3,070 patients were identified by the trauma registry as meeting ICD-9 inclusion criteria. Trauma-associated DRGs accounted for 871 of the 3,070 admissions. The DRG-driven data set demonstrated an estimated profit of $800,000 dollars; the ICD-9 data set revealed an estimated 4.8 million dollar profit, increased our market share, and showed substantial revenue generated for other hospital service lines. Trauma DRGs fail to account for most trauma admissions. Financial data derived from DRG definitions significantly underestimate the trauma service line's financial contribution to hospital economics. Accurately identifying patients with trauma based on trauma database inclusion criteria better defines the business of trauma.
Full Text Available Nicola Hogan,1 Shane Costello,1 Malcolm Boyle,2 Brett Williams2 1Faculty of Education, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, Australia Introduction: Investigation into the psychological effects of violence toward health care workers and its associated trauma is increasing. The Impact of Event Scale (IES provides a measure of current, subjective, emotional distress symptomatic of a specific traumatic event. However, its validity among paramedics is largely unknown. Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the IES with a sample of Australian paramedics. Methods: The study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the 15-item IES with a sample of Australian paramedics using Exploratory Factor Analysis with model fit statistics as found in confirmatory analysis. Results: Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis with Varimax rotation supported the hypothesis that a two-factor solution would provide the best fit of the data. Procrustes rotation provided further support for this hypothesis indicating that the factors, labeled “Intrusion” and “Avoidance”, as well as the individual items of the 12-item final model, were a good fit to an ideal solution. Conclusion: The revision of the scale has improved its validity for use in the general population of paramedics, improving the potential for its use in trauma-related research. Keywords: impact of event scale, psychometrics, paramedics, occupational violence, PTSD
Hirota, Masashi; Kanazumi, Naohito; Kato, Koichi; Eguchi, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Suzuki, Yuichi; Kimura, Jiro; Ishii, Masataka
Pancreatic trauma treatment depends on pancreatic ductal injury. We examined the usefulness and problems of diagnostic imaging, such as enhanced CT, ERP, and CT after ERP, in pancreatic trauma. Subjects were 12 patients with pancreatic trauma treated in our hospital between April 1993 and March 2000. Enhanced CT was performed in 6 patients undergoing diagnostic imagings and ERP in 4 of the 6. Overall diagnostic accuracy of pancreatic ductal injury in enhanced CT was 16.7% and accuracy in ERP with CT after ERP was 100%. Intraoperative diagnosis of main pancreatic ductal injury was difficult in 1 of 2 patients in whom ERP failed. The importance of preoperative diagnostic imaging is thus clear. We expect that MRCP, recently evaluated in pancreatic disease diagnosis, will become a new pancreatic trauma modality. (author)
Freeman, Lisa; Fothergill-Bourbonnais, Frances; Rashotte, Judy
The lived experience of being a trauma nurse was explored using a phenomenological qualitative research approach. Seven registered nurses employed in a trauma unit from one large metropolitan Canadian teaching hospital participated in in-depth conversational interviews. Data analysis revealed four sub theme clusters embedded within the overarching theme of Seeing Through Cloudy Situations: being on guard all the time, being caught up short, facing the challenge and sharing the journey. Even though trauma nurses are able to find meaning and satisfaction in their work, the findings of this research reveal the need for support and the assurance of safe work environments as trauma nurses can live with violence and aggression in their daily nursing practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the domestic care environment on the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among orphaned and separated children in Uasin Gishu County, western Kenya.A total of 1565 (55.5% male orphaned and separated adolescents aged 10-18 years (mean 13.8 years, sd 2.2, were assessed for PTSD and PTEs including bullying, physical abuse and sexual abuse. In this sample, 746 lived in extended family households, 746 in Charitable Children's Institutions (CCIs, and 73 on the street. Posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS scores and PTSD were assessed using the Child PTSD Checklist.Bullying was the commonest PTE in all domestic care environments, followed by physical and sexual abuse. All PTEs were commonest among the street youth followed by CCIs. However, sexual abuse was more prevalent in households than in CCIs. Prevalence of PTSD was highest among street youth (28.8%, then households (15.0% and CCIs (11.5%. PTSS scores were also highest among street youth, followed by CCIs and households. Bullying was associated with higher PTSS scores and PTSD odds than either sexual or physical abuse.This study demonstrated differences in distribution of trauma and PTSD among orphaned and separated children in different domestic care environments, with street youth suffering more than those in CCIs or households. Interventions are needed to address bullying and sexual abuse, especially in extended family households. Street youth, a heretofore neglected population, are urgently in need of dedicated mental health services and support.
Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Benishek, Lauren E; Patzer, Brady; Gregory, Megan E; Hughes, Ashley M; Heyne, Kyle; Salas, Eduardo; Kuchkarian, Fernanda; Marttos, Antonio; Schulman, Carl
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a telemedical robot on trauma intensive care unit (TICU) clinician teamwork (i.e., team attitudes, behaviors, and cognitions) during patient rounds. Thirty-two healthcare providers who conduct rounds volunteered to take surveys assessing teamwork attitudes and cognitions at three time periods: (1) the onset of the study, (2) the end of the 30-day control period, and (3) the end of the 30-day experimental period, which immediately followed the control period. Rounds were recorded throughout the 30-day control period and 30-day experimental period to observe provider behaviors. For the initial 30 days, there was no access to telemedicine. For the final 30 days, the rounding healthcare providers had access to the RP-7 robot (Intouch Health Inc., Santa Barbara, CA), a telemedical tool that can facilitate patient rounds conducted away from bedside. Using a one-tailed, one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare trust at Times 1, 2, and 3, there was no significant effect on trust: F(2, 14)=1.20, p=0.16. When a one-tailed, one-way repeated-measures ANOVA to compare transactive memory systems (TMS) at Times 1, 2, and 3 was conducted, there was no significant effect on TMS: F(2, 15)=1.33, p=0.15. We conducted a one-tailed, one-way repeated-measures ANOVA to compare team psychological safety at Times 1, 2, and 3, and there was no significant effect on team psychological safety: F(2,15)=1.53, p=0.12. There was a significant difference in communication between rounds with and without telemedicine [t(25)=-1.76, pteamwork competencies without sacrificing the efficacy of others and may be adopted by intact rounding teams without hindering teamwork.
Funder, Kamillia S.; Steinmetz, Jacob; Petersen, John Asger
This was an observational cohort study of penetrating trauma patients treated by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit in Copenhagen with a 30-day follow-up. Between January 2002 and September 2009, data were prospectively registered regarding the anatomical location of the trauma, time intervals and procedures performed...
Full Text Available Abstract Preventable trauma deaths are defined as deaths which could be avoided if optimal care has been delivered. Studies on preventable trauma deaths have been accomplished initially with panel reviews of pre-hospital and hospital charts. However, several investigators questioned the reliability and validity of this method because of low reproducibility of implicit judgments when they are made by different experts. Nevertheless, number of studies were published all around the world and ultimately gained some credibility, particularly in regions where comparisons were made before and after trauma system implementation with a resultant fall in mortality. During the last decade of century the method of comparing observed survival with probability of survival calculated from large trauma registries has obtained popularity. Preventable trauma deaths were identified as deaths occurred notwithstanding a high calculated probability of survival. In recent years, preventable trauma deaths studies have been replaced by population-based studies, which use databases representative of overall population, therefore with high epidemiologic value. These databases contain readily available information which carry out the advantage of objectivity and large numbers. Nowadays, population-based researches provide the strongest evidence regarding the effectiveness of trauma systems and trauma centers on patient outcomes.
Parth Arvind Shah
Discussion: This study showed that the quality of elective operative notes was improved through surgeon education and the circulation of a guideline based electronic operative note. We have further plans to implement procedure specific notes for the most common types of trauma cases to help improve the quality of trauma operative notes.
Veling, W.; Counotte, J.; Pot-Kolder, R.; van Os, J.; van der Gaag, M.
Background. Childhood trauma is associated with higher risk for mental disorders, including psychosis. Heightened sensitivity to social stress may be a mechanism. This virtual reality study tested the effect of childhood trauma on level of paranoid ideations and distress in response to social
Tabet A. Al-Sadek
CONCLUSIONS:The study confirms the role of scapular fractures as a marker for the severity of the chest trauma (based on the number of associated thoracic injuries, but doesn’t present scapular fractures as an indicator for high mortality in blunt chest trauma patients.
Nordberg, Martin; Castrén, Maaret; Lindström, Veronica
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bystanders with no training in triage can correctly prioritize three injured patients by using a triage instrument. An observational study was conducted. Participants performed a primary triage on three paper-based patient cases and answered 11 questions during a public event in the center of Stockholm, Sweden. A total of 69 persons participated in the study. The success rate among all the participants for correct triage of the three patient cases was 52 percent. The female participants and younger participants (triage to a greater extent. The over-triage was 12.5 percent and under-triage was 6.3 percent. Participants with no prior knowledge of triage instruments may be capable of triaging injured patients with the help of an easy triage instrument. The over- and under-triage percentages were low, and this may indicate that the developed triage instrument is relatively easy to use. It may also indicate that bystanders can identify a severely injured patient. Nordberg M , Castrén M , Lindström V . Primary trauma triage performed by bystanders: an observation study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):353-357.
Tina Birgitte Wisbech Carstensen
Full Text Available 10-22% of individuals sustaining whiplash trauma develop persistent symptoms resulting in reduced working ability and decreased quality of life, but it is poorly understood why some people do not recover. Various collision and post-collision risk factors have been studied, but little is known about pre-collision risk factors. In particular, the impact of sickness and socioeconomic factors before the collision on recovery is sparsely explored. The aim of this study was to examine if welfare payments received within five years pre-collision predict neck pain and negative change in provisional situation one year post-collision.719 individuals with acute whiplash trauma consecutively recruited from emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in Denmark completed questionnaires on socio-demographic and health factors immediately after the collision. After 12 months, a visual analogue scale on neck pain intensity was completed. 3595 matched controls in the general population were sampled, and national public register data on social benefits and any other welfare payments were obtained for participants with acute whiplash trauma and controls from five years pre-collision to 15 months after. Participants with acute whiplash trauma who had received sickness benefit for more than 12 weeks pre-collision had increased odds for negative change in future provisional situation (Odds Ratio (OR (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 3.8 (2.1;7.1 and future neck pain (OR (95%CI = 3.3 (1.8;6.3, controlling for other known risk factors. Participants with acute whiplash trauma had weaker attachment to labour market (more weeks of sick leave (χ2(2 = 36.7, p < 0.001 and unemployment (χ2(2 = 12.5, p = 0.002 pre-collision compared with controls. Experiencing a whiplash trauma raised the odds for future negative change in provisional situation (OR (95%CI = 3.1 (2.3;4.4 compared with controls.Sick leave before the collision strongly predicted prolonged recovery
Full Text Available Infants and toddlers are exposed to abuse and neglect at disproportionate rates compared to other children, setting a trajectory for disrupted developmental processes and increased vulnerability to future traumatic exposure. Social workers encounter trauma–exposed young children across a number of systems, including but not limited to early childcare, family physical and mental health, court, and child welfare. It benefits social workers to have a working understanding of current research related to the bio–psycho–social impact of trauma on infants and young children and an awareness of current, research-driven interventions that can support young, at–risk children and families. This article reviews trauma-impacted development throughout the first two years of life with a discussion of current research exploring attachment and brain development and then discusses caregiver–child based interventions that work to repair disrupted attachment patterns, repair impaired regulatory processes, and return the caregiver–child relationship to a healthy developmental path.
Pekkari, Patrik; Bylund, Per-Olof; Lindgren, Hans; Öman, Mikael
Abdominal injuries occur relatively infrequently during trauma, and they rarely require surgical intervention. In this era of non-operative management of abdominal injuries, surgeons are seldom exposed to these patients. Consequently, surgeons may misinterpret the mechanism of injury, underestimate symptoms and radiologic findings, and delay definite treatment. Here, we determined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic abdominal injuries at our hospital to provide a basis for identifying potential hazards in non-operative management of patients with these injuries in a low trauma volume hospital. This retrospective study included prehospital and in-hospital assessments of 110 patients that received 147 abdominal injuries from an isolated abdominal trauma (n = 70 patients) or during multiple trauma (n = 40 patients). Patients were primarily treated at the University Hospital of Umeå from January 2000 to December 2009. The median New Injury Severity Score was 9 (range: 1-57) for 147 abdominal injuries. Most patients (94%) received computed tomography (CT), but only 38% of patients with multiple trauma were diagnosed with CT management succeeded in 82 patients. Surgery was performed for 28 patients, either immediately (n = 17) as result of operative management or later (n = 11), due to non-operative management failure; the latter mainly occurred with hollow viscus injuries. Patients with multiple abdominal injuries, whether associated with multiple trauma or an isolated abdominal trauma, had significantly more non-operative failures than patients with a single abdominal injury. One death occurred within 30 days. Non-operative management of patients with abdominal injuries, except for hollow viscus injuries, was highly successful in our low trauma volume hospital, even though surgeons receive low exposure to these patients. However, a growing proportion of surgeons lack experience in decision-making and performing trauma laparotomies. Quality assurance
Pedrotti Moreira, Fernanda; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen; Portela, Luis Valmor; Lara, Diogo R; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of childhood trauma in cytokine serum levels of individuals with MDD. This was a cross-sectional study population-based, with people aged 18 to 35. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) measured to current major depressive disorder (MDD). To evaluate traumatic experiences during childhood, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was applied. Serum TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA using a commercial kit. The total sample comprised 166 young adults, of these: 40.4% were subjects with MDD and childhood trauma and 59.6% were diagnosed with MDD without childhood trauma. In relation to serum interleukin levels, subjects with childhood trauma showed a significantly higher serum IL-6 (p = 0.013) and IL-10 levels (p = 0.022) to compare no childhood trauma. Subjects with childhood trauma was observed positive correlation between serum IL-6 and physical abuse (r = 0.232, p = 0.035) and emotional abuse (r = 0.460, p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, IL-10 were positive correlation with physical abuse (r = 0.258, p = 0.013). TNF- α was not associated with childhood trauma. Childhood maltreatment may result higher inflammation dysregulation in individuals with depression than individuals that no has childhood maltreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pym, Aaron J; Wallis, Belinda A; Franklin, Richard C; Kimble, Roy M
To describe paediatric (0-15 years) motorcycle incidents in Queensland, inform safety policy and identify opportunities to improve data in this area. Population-based study of motorcycle-related child (0-15 years) trauma, resulting in fatality or hospital admission beyond 24 h to any Queensland public hospital (2007-2009). Data compiled by Statewide Trauma Network and Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian. Ten child fatalities were recorded (child death rate = 0.36/100,000 population 0-15 years). All were male and primary riders of their motorcycle. Nine fatalities were related to head injury; of these, five wore inadequate head protection. The coroner identified rider factors as contributory (speed, age or substance abuse) in seven cases. Motorcycle-related incidents were the second most common mechanism recorded after bicycles, comprising 6.8% of 9141 paediatric trauma cases (619 motorcycle-related incidents; 1225 injuries; admission rate = 22.2/100,000 population 0-15 years). Compared with the all-trauma population, patients were older (median age = 13 vs. 10 years) and more frequently male (85% vs. 67%). Average admission was 4.4 days (head injuries = 7.0 days; burns = 5.8 days). Most children incurred >1 injury (mean = 2.01 injuries) with fractures (45%) and open wounds (17%) most common. As a proportion of all diagnoses, most injuries were to lower limb (44%), upper limb (26%) or head and neck (16%). These data emphasise the need for children to use full protective equipment, especially helmets. Children are not currently protected by legislation mandating safety standards. Regulating rider age and safety standards (protective equipment, training and vehicle maintenance) may reduce the rate and severity of injury. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Full Text Available Introduction: Abuse and neglect might cause multiple and long-term consequences on physical and mental health, development and future life of children. The consequences that abuse and neglect cause on a child’s personality and functioning in adult life have particular importance. The aim: Determining the level of trauma, as well as differences in personality traits of adolescents who are on psychiatric treatment and has been registered in Department for the protection of children against abuse and neglect, comparing with children who are on psychiatric treatment but not abused, and control group of adolescents. Materials and methods: The study analysed three groups: abused group on psychiatric treatment, group on psychiatric treatment and not abused, and control healthy population. All subjects filled out General questionnaire with basic socio-demographical data, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Temperament and Character Adolescent Inventory (ATCI – 46. Results: There is statistically significant difference between groups in all types of abuse: physical, emotional, sexual, as well as emotional and physical neglect (p<0.001. Psychiatric group has significantly lower scores on Persistence (P (p<0.01, while abused group has lower scores on Harm avoidance (HA (p<0.05. Negative correlation between abuse and Self-transcendence (ST, and negative correlation between physical abuse and Self-directedness (SD has been shown. Conclusion: Abuse and neglect in children and adolescents are a significant cause of trauma and can cause different psychopathology, as well as changes on character and temperament traits.
Full Text Available Following exposure to a trauma, people tend to experience intrusive thoughts and memories about the event. In order to investigate whether intrusive memories in the aftermath of trauma might be accounted for by an impaired ability to intentionally forget disturbing material, the present study used a modified Directed Forgetting (DF task to examine intentional forgetting and intrusive recall of words in sexual assault victims and controls. By including words related to the trauma in addition to neutral, positive and threat-related stimuli it was possible to test for trauma-specific effects. No difference between the Trauma and the Control group was found for correct recall of to-be-forgotten (F words or to-be-remembered (R words. However, when recalling words from R- list, the Trauma group mistakenly recalled significantly more trauma-specific words from F- list. Intrusive recall of F trauma words when asked to recall R-words was related to symptoms of intrusion reported on the IES.
Full Text Available Aim: To assess the various epidemiological parameters that influence the causation of trauma as well as the consequent morbidity and mortality in the pediatric age group. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 791 patients of less than 12 years age, was carried out over a period of 1 year (August 2009 to July 2010, and pediatric trauma trends, with regards to the following parameters were assessed: Age group, sex, mode of trauma, type of injury, place where the trauma occurred and the overall mortality as well as mortality. Results: Overall trauma was most common in the school-going age group (6-12 years, with male children outnumbering females in the ratio of 1.9:1. It was observed that orthopedic injuries were the most frequent (37.8% type of injuries, whereas fall from height (39.4%, road traffic accident (27.8% and burns (15.2% were the next most common modes of trauma. Home was found out to be the place where maximum trauma occurred (51.8%. Maximum injuries happened unintentionally (98.4%. Overall mortality was found out to be 6.4% (n = 51. Conclusions: By knowing the epidemiology of pediatric trauma, we conclude that majority of pediatric injuries are preventable and pediatric epidemiological trends differ from those in adults. Therefore, preventive strategies should be made in pediatric patients on the basis of these epidemiological trends.
Shultz, James M.; Cela, Toni; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Espinola, Maria; Heitmann, Ilva; Sanchez, Claudia; Jean Pierre, Arielle; Foo, Cheryl YunnShee; Thompson, Kip; Klotzbach, Philip; Espinel, Zelde; Rechkemmer, Andreas
ABSTRACT Background. Hurricane Matthew was the most powerful tropical cyclone of the 2016 Atlantic Basin season, bringing severe impacts to multiple nations including direct landfalls in Cuba, Haiti, Bahamas, and the United States. However, Haiti experienced the greatest loss of life and population disruption. Methods. An established trauma signature (TSIG) methodology was used to examine the psychological consequences of Hurricane Matthew in relation to the distinguishing features of this event. TSIG analyses described the exposures of Haitian citizens to the unique constellation of hazards associated with this tropical cyclone. A hazard profile, a matrix of psychological stressors, and a “trauma signature” summary for the affected population of Haiti - in terms of exposures to hazard, loss, and change - were created specifically for this natural ecological disaster. Results. Hazard characteristics of this event included: deluging rains that triggered mudslides along steep, deforested terrain; battering hurricane winds (Category 4 winds in the “eye-wall” at landfall) that dismantled the built environment and launched projectile debris; flooding “storm surge” that moved ashore and submerged villages on the Tiburon peninsula; and pummeling wave action that destroyed infrastructure along the coastline. Many coastal residents were left defenseless to face the ravages of the storm. Hurricane Matthew's slow forward progress as it remained over super-heated ocean waters added to the duration and degree of the devastation. Added to the havoc of the storm itself, the risks for infectious disease spread, particularly in relation to ongoing epidemics of cholera and Zika, were exacerbated. Conclusions. Hurricane Matthew was a ferocious tropical cyclone whose meteorological characteristics amplified the system's destructive force during the storm's encounter with Haiti, leading to significant mortality, injury, and psychological trauma. PMID:28321360
Goldsmith, Helen; McCloughen, Andrea; Curtis, Kate
To explore the pain management experiences of recently discharged adult trauma patients and the discharge practices of the treating hospital. Adult trauma patients are not always able to manage their pain effectively and as a result often experience intense and enduring injury pain at home. They describe their pain experience as unique and debilitating, and report feeling uninformed at hospital discharge. There is a need to understand what is fundamentally required for this population at hospital discharge, to facilitate competent pain management and promote best possible outcomes. A mixed methods convergent study design. The quantitative results (incidence, intensity and impact of injury pain and the barriers to effective pain management) were merged with the qualitative results (patient experiences and beliefs) to produce greater understanding about the reasons behind the pain management practices of participants. Integration of the quantitative and qualitative data produced four new themes. These themes demonstrate that recently discharged adult trauma patients do not have the knowledge or experience to understand or manage their injury pain effectively at home. Inadequate information and education by clinicians, at hospital discharge, contribute to this insufficiency. Clinicians need to understand the trauma patient pain experience to appreciate the importance of their discharge practices. Increased understanding and implementation of evidence-informed discharge processes would improve current discharge practices and ultimately support and improve the trauma patient's injury pain management practices at home. By understanding the patient perspective in the pain management of injuries, clinicians are better able to appreciate what hospital discharge practices and information are genuinely required by the trauma patient to manage their pain effectively at home, potentially preventing the long-term consequences of injury pain. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.
van Reedt Dortland, A.K.B.; Giltay, E.J.; van Veen, T.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.
Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.
McCarthy, Amy; Curtis, Kate; Holland, Andrew J A
Injury is a leading cause of death and disability for children. Regionalised trauma systems have improved outcomes for severely injured adults, however the impact of adult orientated trauma systems on the outcomes of severely injured children remains unclear. This research aims to identify the impact of trauma systems on the health outcomes of children following severe injury. Integrative review with data sourced from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus and hand searched references. Abstracts were screened for inclusion/exclusion criteria with fifty nine articles appraised for quality, analysed and synthesised into 3 main categories. The key findings from this review include: (1) a lack of consistency of prehospital and inhospital triage criteria for severely injured children leading to missed injuries, secondary transfer and poor utilisation of finite resources; (2) severely injured children treated at paediatric trauma centres had improved outcomes when compared to those treated at adult trauma centres, particularly younger children; (3) major causes of delays to secondary transfer are unnecessary imaging and failure to recognise the need for transfer; (4) a lack of functional or long term outcomes measurements identified in the literature. Research designed to identify the best processes of care and describe the impacts of trauma systems on the long term health outcomes of severely injured children is required. Ideally all phases of care including prehospital, paediatric triage trauma criteria, hospital type and interfacility transfer should be included, focusing on timeliness and appropriateness of care. Outcome measures should include long term functional outcomes in addition to mortality. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sii, Freda; Barry, Robert J; Blanch, Richard J; Abbott, Joseph; MacEwen, Caroline J; Shah, Peter
Ocular trauma is an important cause of visual morbidity in children worldwide. Pediatric ocular trauma accounts for up to one third of all ocular trauma admissions, with significant economic implications for health care providers. It is estimated that 90% of all ocular trauma is preventable. Development of strategies to reduce the incidence and severity of pediatric ocular trauma requires an understanding of the epidemiology of these injuries and their characteristics. This will enable appropriate targeting of resources toward prevention and allow effective service planning. At present, there is no standardized methodology for the collection of global cross-sectional data in pediatric ocular trauma, and the ability to undertake detailed epidemiological and health-economic analyses is limited. Furthermore, it is difficult to draw international comparisons in incidence, etiology, and outcomes of pediatric ocular trauma due to the range of published reporting criteria. This study describes two novel questionnaires for standardized data collection in pediatric ocular trauma, which can be adopted across a range of health care settings internationally. Two standardized data collection questionnaires have been developed from previously reported templates. The first enables collection of demographic and incident data on serious pediatric ocular trauma requiring hospitalization, and the second enables follow-up outcome data collection. Both the questionnaires are designed to collect primarily categorical data in order to increase ease of completion and facilitate quantitative analysis. These questionnaires enable acquisition of standardized data on the incidence, etiology, and outcomes of pediatric ocular trauma. These questionnaires enable collection of standardized data and are designed for global use across all health care settings. Through prospective data collection, epidemiological trends can be determined, allowing health care providers to develop collaborative
Lee, Mo Yee; Zaharlick, Amy; Akers, Deborah
This study was a randomized controlled trial that examined the impact of meditation practice on the mental health outcomes of female trauma survivors of interpersonal violence who have co-occurring disorders. Sixty-three female trauma survivors were randomly assigned to the meditation condition and the control condition. Treatment conditions consisted of a 6-week meditation curriculum that was influenced by Tibetan meditation tradition and focused on breathing, loving kindness, and compassion meditation. Clients in the meditation condition made significant changes in mental health symptoms (t = 5.252, df = 31, p = .000) and trauma symptoms (t = 6.009, df = 31, p = .000) from pre-treatment to post-treatment, whereas non-significant changes were observed among the control condition clients. There were significant group differences between clients in the meditation condition and in the control condition on their mental health symptoms, F(1, 54) = 13.438, p = .001, and trauma symptoms, F(1, 54) = 13.395, p = .001, with a generally large effect size of eta squared .127 and .146, respectively. In addition, significantly more clients in the meditation condition achieved reliable change in mental health symptoms (35.5% vs. 8.3%) and trauma symptoms (42.3% vs. 4.8%) than clients in the control condition. Significance of the study is discussed with respect to the empirical evidence of meditation practice as a complementary behavioral intervention for treating female trauma survivors of interpersonal violence who have co-occurring disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kopacheva-Barsova, Gabriela; Arsova, Slavica
AIM: To prevent and to treat nasal trauma in children properly, because it can lead to displacement or depression of the nasal bones or septum. Second, our aim was, for the patient to recognise and create a mature decision for eventual nose changes which will be made with the operative intervention or they are not mature enough and the decisions were made by their parents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our retrospective study was made at University Clinic for Ear, Nose and Throat, Faculty of Medi...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development
Sii, Freda; Barry, Robert J; Abbott, Joseph; Blanch, Richard J; MacEwen, Caroline J; Shah, Peter
Pediatric ocular trauma is an important cause of visual morbidity worldwide, accounting for up to one-third of all ocular trauma admissions. It has long-term implications for those affected and significant economic consequences for healthcare providers. It has been estimated that 90% of all ocular trauma is preventable. Targeted strategies are required to reduce the incidence and the severity of pediatric ocular trauma; this requires an understanding of the epidemiology and characteristics of these injuries and the children involved. Prospective, observational study of pediatric ocular trauma cases presenting to UK-based ophthalmologists over a 1-year period; reporting cards were distributed by the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit, and clinicians were asked to report incidents of acute orbital and ocular trauma in children aged ≤16 years requiring inpatient or day-case admission. A validated, standardized questionnaire was sent to reporting ophthalmologists to collect data on the demographics and circumstances of injury. Median age at presentation was 7.7 years, with boys more than twice as likely to be affected than girls (M:F =2.1:1.0). Almost 50% of injuries occurred at home, with 25% occurring in school or nursery. A total of 67% of injuries occurred during play, and 31% involved a sharp implement. Pediatric ocular trauma remains an important public health problem. At least three-quarters of all injuries are preventable through measures, including education of children and responsible adults, restricting access to sharp implements, improving adult supervision, and appropriate use of eye protection.
Pradhan, E; Limbu, B; Thakali, S; Jain, N S; Gurung, R; Ruit, S
Nepal was struck by a massive earthquake on the 25th April 2015 and major aftershock on the 12th of May 2015, resulting in widespread devastation with a death toll in the thousands. The burden of ocular trauma resulting from the recent earthquakes in Nepal has not been described thus far. The aim of this study was to determine the types of ocular injuries sustained in the earthquake in Nepal and its management in Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology (TIO) in Gaushala, Kathmandu. This is a hospital-based retrospective study of patients presenting to TIO following repeated earthquake. Variables that were recorded included patients' presenting symptoms and time to presentation, visual acuities at presentation and at follow-up, diagnosis of ocular injury and surgery performed. There were 59 cases of earthquake victims visiting TIO, Gaushala, Kathmandu from April 2015 to July 2015, with 64 affected eyes due to 5 cases of bilateral involvement. The majority of patients were from the district Sindhupalchowk (14 cases, 23.7%), which was the epicenter of the main earthquake. The average duration between the earthquake and presentation was 13 · 9 days (range 1-120 days). Closed globe injury was most frequent (23 cases), followed by open globe injuries (8 cases). While 24 patients (38%) initially presented with a visual acuity visual acuity of <3/60 on follow-up. A variety of surgical treatments were required including anterior and posterior segment repair. Immediate management of ocular trauma is critical in order to prevent blindness. Characterizing the burden of earthquake-related ocular trauma will facilitate planning for service provision in the event of a future earthquake in Nepal, or in countries, which are similarly at risk of having natural disasters.
Full Text Available Background: Consequences of war-related traumatisation have mostly been investigated in military and predominant male populations, while research on female civilian victims of war has been neglected. Furthermore, research of post-war posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women has rarely included early-life trauma in their prediction models, so the contribution of trauma in childhood and early youth is still unexplored. Objective: To examine the relationship of early-life trauma, war-related trauma, personality traits, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress among female civilian victims of the recent war in Croatia. Method: The cross-sectional study included 394 participants, 293 war-traumatised adult women civilians, and 101 women without war-related trauma. Participants were recruited using the snowball sampling method. The applied instruments included the Clinician-Administrated PTSD Scale (CAPS, the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R, the War Stressors Assessment Questionnaire (WSAQ, and the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the prediction model of PTSD symptom severity measured by CAPS score for current PTSD. Results: The prevalence of current PTSD (CAPS cut-off score=65 in this cohort was 20.7%. The regression model that included age, early-life trauma, war-related trauma, neuroticism, and extraversion as statistically significant predictors explained 45.8% of variance in PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: Older age, exposure to early-life trauma, exposure to war-related traumatic events, high neuroticism, and low extraversion are independent factors associated with higher level of PTSD symptoms among women civilian victims of war.
Kerig, Patricia K.; Sink, Holli E.; Cuellar, Raven E.; Vanderzee, Karin L.; Elfstrom, Jennifer L.
Effective approaches for the treatment of childhood posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic grief are needed given the prevalence of trauma and its impact on children's lives. To effectively treat posttraumatic stress disorder in children, evidence-based practices should be implemented with flexibility and responsiveness to culture,…
a “Trauma Coding Manual” developed for this study, trauma types were identified in interview transcripts. In both men and women with Iraqi and Palestinian-Lebanese backgrounds, high levels of trauma complexity and high rates of childhood maltreatment were found (63%, n = 27). A number of concepts...... and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...
Leonard, Elizabeth; Curtis, Kate
The Australasian Trauma Verification Program was developed in 2000 to improve the quality of care provided at services in Australia and New Zealand. The programme outlines resources required for differing levels of trauma services. This study compares the human resources in Australia and New Zealand trauma services with those recommended by the Australasian College of Surgeons Trauma Verification Program. In September 2011, all trauma nurse coordinators in Australia and New Zealand were invited to participate in an electronic survey endorsed by the Australasian Trauma Society. This study expands on previous bi-national research and aimed to identify demographic and trauma service human resource levels. Fifty-three surveys (78%) were completed and all 27 Level 1 trauma centres represented. Of the Level 1 trauma centres, a trauma director and fellow were available at 16 (51.8%) and 14 (40.7%) centres, respectively. The majority (93%) had a full-time trauma coordinator although a trauma case manager was only available at 14 (48.1%) of Level 1 trauma centres. Despite the large amount of data collection and extraction required, trauma services had limited access to a data manager (50.9%) or clerical staff (36.9%). Human resources in Australian and NZ trauma services are not reflective of those recommended by the Australasian Trauma Verification Program. This impacts on the ability to coordinate trauma monitoring and performance improvement. Review of the Australasian Trauma Verification Model Resource Criteria is required. Injury surveillance in Australia and NZ is hampered by insufficient trauma registry resources. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008
This paper offers facts which can help educators deal with children undergoing trauma. These include: (1) One out of every 4 children attending school has been exposed to a traumatic event that can affect learning and/or behavior; (2) Trauma can impact school performance; (3) Trauma can impair learning; (4) Traumatized children may experience…
Teshome, Amare; Andualem, Getaneh; Tsegie, Rediet; Seifu, Samuel
Maxillofacial injury poses a challenge to oral and maxillofacial surgeons working in developing countries with limited resource and human power. The present study aimed to determine the etiology, pattern, and management of maxillofacial trauma in Gondar university of Gondar hospital. A retrospective descriptive study design was used. Medical registration retrieving of patients with maxillofacial trauma visited dental center of University of Gondar Hospital from September 2013 to August 2015 was done. During data collection, etiology of trauma, pattern of fracture, treatment modality and complications were recorded using predesigned data collection template and analyzed using SPSS computer software version 20. Statistical analysis was done to show the sex distribution of maxillofacial trauma and the effect of alcohol intake on the incidence of trauma. During 2-year period, September 2013-August 2015, 326 patients of maxillofacial trauma were treated in the dental center of university of Gondar hospital. The mean age was 29.12 (± 8.62) with age range of 11-75 years. Majority of the study participants (47.2%) were within the age group of 21-30 years. Eighty percent of the participants were male with a male to female ratio of 4.02:1. Interpersonal violence (75.8%) and Road traffic accident (21.5%) were the leading causes. Males are at high risk of maxillofacial trauma relative to females (P maxillofacial trauma, while mandible and soft tissue were the most affected maxillofacial areas. The federal ministry of health, Ethiopia should have well-organized maxillofacial center in tertiary hospitals for emergency management to avoid morbidity and mortality.
Wulffeld, S.; Rasmussen, L. S.; Højlund Bech, B.
with a trauma resuscitation table. Subgroup analyses were performed on severely injured and patients with traumatic brain injury. Results: We included 784 patients before and 742 patients after the reconstruction. Case-mix differed between study periods as there was a higher proportion of severe injuries....... Methods: We included trauma patients admitted in two 1-year periods, before and after a major rebuilding of the trauma room. Beforehand, one CT scanner was located in an adjacent room. After the rebuilding, two mobile CT scanners were placed in the resuscitation bays, where a moving gantry was combined......, traumatic brain injury and penetrating trauma in the after period. We found a minor increase in time to CT in the after period (20 vs. 21 min, P = 0.008). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for differences in case-mix and with time to CT as outcome, period was an insignificant explanatory...
and track this epidemic. A number of socio-political changes have continued, and these will impact on the trauma patterns seen in the country. Gun control legislation has been enforced since the turn of the millennium, and there have been ongoing attempts to demilitarise society by removing assault weapons. The ongoing ...
Kameoka, Satomi; Yagi, Junko; Arai, Yoko; Nosaka, Sachiko; Saito, Azusa; Miyake, Wakako; Takada, Saeko; Yamamoto, Sayaka; Asano, Yasuko; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Asukai, Nozomu
Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy is used to treat children who have experienced traumatic events and suffer from trauma-related disorders. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated in several randomized controlled studies. However, most of these studies have been performed in the United States, with few studies conducted in Asian countries. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy in children who have experienced traumatic events and who suffer from trauma-related disorders in Japan. Thirty-five traumatized children (mean age = 10.9 years; range = 3-17 years; 74.3% girls) who received trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy were included. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated in each case using the University of California at Los Angeles Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index for DSM-IV for trauma-related symptoms and the Children's Global Assessment Scale for social functioning. Pre- and post-treatment outcome measures were analyzed using two-tailed paired t tests. The results for 35 participants indicate that post-traumatic stress symptoms were significantly improved following therapy [t(35) = 8.27; p cognitive behavioral therapy is feasible for treating traumatized children of an Asian population. We discuss the implications of this result for clinical practice and future research.
Wagenmans, Anouk; Van Minnen, Agnes; Sleijpen, Marieke; De Jongh, Ad
Background : It is assumed that PTSD patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse benefit less from trauma-focused treatment than those without such a history. Objective : To test whether the presence of a history of childhood sexual abuse has a negative effect on the outcome of intensive trauma-focused PTSD treatment. Method : PTSD patients, 83% of whom suffered from severe PTSD, took part in a therapy programme consisting of 2 × 4 consecutive days of Prolonged Exposure (PE) and EMDR therapy (eight of each). In between sessions, patients participated in sport activities and psycho-education sessions. No prior stabilization phase was implemented. PTSD symptom scores of clinician-administered and self-administered measures were analysed using the data of 165 consecutive patients. Pre-post differences were compared between four trauma groups; patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse before age 12 (CSA), adolescent sexual abuse (ASA; i.e. sexual abuse between 12 and 18 years of age), sexual abuse (SA) at age 18 and over, or no history of sexual abuse (NSA). Results : Large effect sizes were achieved for PTSD symptom reduction for all trauma groups (Cohen's d = 1.52-2.09). For the Clinical Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES), no differences in treatment outcome were found between the trauma (age) groups. For the PTSD Symptom Scale Self Report (PSS-SR), there were no differences except for one small effect between CSA and NSA. Conclusions : The results do not support the hypothesis that the presence of a history of childhood sexual abuse has a detrimental impact on the outcome of first-line (intensive) trauma-focused treatments for PTSD.
Anxiety; Anxiety Disorders; Behavioral Symptoms; Depression; Mental Disorders; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic; Stress Disorders, Traumatic; Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders; Wounds and Injuries
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS in predicting significant trauma in patients presenting with blunt trauma to a high-level pediatric emergency department. Methods: Patients younger than 15 years of age presenting to the pediatric emergency department of the Tepecik Training and Research Hospital with acute high-energy blunt trauma were analyzed prospectively. The PTS was calculated on arrival at the pediatric emergency department. The patients were classified into two groups as follows: patients with a PTS of ≤8 comprised the significant trauma group, while patients with a PTS of >8 made up the non- significant trauma group. Results: Two-hundred-thirteen children with a mean age of 6.1±3.9 years (range: 10 days-15 years were included in the study. The frequency of coagulation testing and thorax computed tomography in the pediatric emergency department, need for critical interventions and therapies in the pediatric emergency department, rate of hospitalization, need for transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, operation, blood transfusion, and mortality rate were statistically higher in the significant trauma group (p<0.05. PTS ≤8 exhibited a sensitivity of 56.2% and a specificity of 90.8% for hospitalization (AUROC: 0.682; 95% confidence interval: 0.610-0.755. The PTS was significantly correlated with length of hospital stay (r=-0.493; p<0.001 and length of observation in the pediatric emergency department (r=-0.442; p<0.01. Conclusion: PTS on arrival at a high-level pediatric emergency department is a good predictor of the need for critical interventions/therapies and mortality in children with high-energy blunt trauma. However, its accuracy is moderate for the prediction of hospitalization.
Emejulu, J K C; Shokunbi, M T
Trauma is the most common cause ofpaediatric deaths. In 75% ofpaediatric trauma deaths, head injury is responsible, and most are from falls. Recent reports from Nigeria, however, appear to indicate a predominance of road traffic accidents, instead of falls. To evaluate the aetiology of paediatric head trauma, management protocols and outcome from our Centre, in order to acquire a baseline data base and recommend measures to reduce childhood trauma. A prospective study of all paediatric head trauma cases presenting to Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, for 12months from April 21, 2006 to April 20, 2007, was done and collated data subsequently analyzed. The paediatric age group was taken as = 15 years, and grading of head injury was with the Glasgow Coma Scale (3-15) and the modified scale for non-verbal children; while outcome was measured with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (1-5). Out of 334 patients treated within the period of study, 210 were head trauma cases. Of these, 52 were paediatric head trauma, representing 24.8% of all head trauma cases; and 19.2% (10 of 52) of them were aged 0-2 years. About 62% (32 of 52) were males. Falls and RTA were each responsible in 25 (48.1%) cases. Mild head injury occurred in 31 (59.6%), and 49 (94.2%) patients were evaluated by plain radiography. Treatment was conservative in 39 (75%) cases; with satisfactory outcome in 36 (69.2%), and a mortality rate of 15.4%. Road traffic injury, mostly from motorcycles, has become the major cause of morbidity and mortality amongst the paediatric age group, especially the male gender, and outcome from management is mostly satisfactory.
Kylie Marie Connell
Full Text Available Restoration of the quality of life (QoL of trauma injury survivors is the aim of trauma rehabilitation. It is generally acknowledged that sexuality is an important component of QoL; however, rehabilitation services frequently fall short of including sexuality as a matter of routine. The literature was reviewed to examine the experiences of trauma survivors from three groups: spinal cord injury (SCI, traumatic brain injury (TBI and burns. The focus was on the impact of trauma on the QoL to identify future research directions and to advocate for the inclusion of sexuality as an integral part of rehabilitation. Databases searched were Proquest, Ovid, Cinahl, Medline, PsycInfo and Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials. A total of 36 eligible studies were included: SCI (n = 25, TBI (n = 6, burns (n = 5. Four themes were identified across the three trauma groups that were labeled as physiological impact of trauma on sexuality, cognitive-genital dissociation (CGD, sexual disenfranchisement (SD and sexual rediscovery (SR. Trauma injury has a significant impact on sexuality, which is not routinely addressed within rehabilitation services. Further sexuality research is required among all trauma groups to improve rehabilitation services and in turn QoL outcomes for all trauma survivors.
Full Text Available Introduction: During the year 2014, a part of the population from Serbia was exposed to floods. After natural disasters and other types of extreme trauma, some people will be more affected by trauma than others. How women and men differ, in the symptoms that can manifest after the exposure to extreme trauma, is still an open question. Aim: To evaluate if there are differences in the severity of trauma-related symptom clusters between the sexes (re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and arousal; according to DSM V and in experiencing negative emotional states (depression, anxiety, stress. Material and methods: Forty healthy volunteers from Obrenovac (25 women and 15 men were administered with three instruments: The Life Events Checklist - LEC-5, PTSD checklist for DSM V - PCL-5 and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - DASS. Results: The majority of subjects reported floods as the major lifetime trauma (72.5%. Despite the relatively low level of the post-traumatic symptom intensity (5.02 ±4.99, women exhibited significantly higher total post-traumatic symptom severity scores in comparison to men (p<0.01 and higher severity of trauma re-experiencing symptoms (p<0.01. Sex differences were neither observed in other trauma-related symptoms clusters, nor in the severity of current depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Conclusion: In the non-clinical sample, with only a sub-threshold level of post-traumatic symptoms, the most prominent difference between sexes was found in relation to re-experiencing and this finding is consistent with the results obtained from clinical samples. Future studies are needed, in order to examine whether trauma-focused treatments can be gender-tailored and to which extent they might prevent the full-blown post-traumatic stress disorder.
Munjiza, Jasna; Britvic, Dolores; Radman, Maja; Crawford, Mike J
Exposure to war-related trauma has long been recognised to have an adverse effect on mental health. We attempted to investigate whether people who have clinically significant personality-related problems 15 years after a war are more likely to have been exposed to severe war-related trauma than those who do not have significant personality difficulties. A case -control study was conducted in southern Croatia, fifteen years after the 1991-1995 war. We recruited 268 participants: 182 cases who scored positively on the International Personality Disorder Examination scale (IPDE), and 86 controls who were IPDE negative. Severity of war-related trauma was assessed according to the 17 items on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) trauma event scale, which were considered to be of severe (catastrophic) nature based on the ICD-10 description of catastrophic trauma and the opinion of trauma experts. All participants also completed measures of mental health (depression, anxiety and PTSD), social functioning and current substance misuse. Cases (IPDE positive) were eight times more likely to report exposure to severe war-related trauma than controls. This association increased after adjustments for demographic factors (OR = 10.1, 95% CI 5.0 to 20.4). The types of severe trauma most frequently reported were either the participants'own life being in direct danger or witnessing extreme violence inflicted on others or the result of violence towards others (murder, torture, seeing burned or disfigured bodies). Prevalences of depression, anxiety and PTSD were high among IPDE positive participants 15 years after exposure to war trauma. Their level of interpersonal dysfunction was considerably higher than that in controls (OR = 10.39, 95% CI 3.51 to 30.75). Alcohol consumption in cases was significantly higher with a mean of 14.24 units per week (sd = 11.03) when compared to controls whose mean number of alcohol units was 9.24 (sd = 7.25), t (73) = 2.16, p
Griffin, Michael G; Resick, Patricia A; Waldrop, Angela E; Mechanic, Mindy B
Few studies have examined the impact of trauma research participation upon trauma survivors. Empirical data regarding reactions to research participation would be very useful to address the question of whether it is harmful for trauma survivors to participate in trauma studies. We examined participant reactions to different trauma assessment procedures in domestic violence (N = 260), rape (N = 108), and physical assault (N = 62) samples. Results indicated that participation was very well tolerated by the vast majority of the trauma survivors. Participants generally found that the assessment experience was not distressing and was, in fact, viewed as an interesting and valuable experience. The findings suggest that trauma survivors are not too fragile to participate in trauma research even in the acute aftermath of a traumatic experience.
Helminen, Elisa; Punamaki, Raija-Leena
This study examines the impact of military trauma on contextualized emotional images in children's dreams, and the function of the intensity and valence of the emotional images in protecting mental health from negative trauma impact. Participants were 345 Palestinian children and adolescents (aged 5-16 years) belonging to high trauma (Gaza) and…
Hovens, Jacqueline Gerarda Francisca Maria
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of childhood trauma and childhood life-events on the development and course of depressive and anxiety disorders, and to identify risk factors contributing to these associations. In brief, our findings indicate that childhood trauma is an important
Ammerman, Robert T.; Shenk, Chad E.; Teeters, Angelique R.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.
Research has documented the deleterious effects of maternal depression and childhood trauma on parenting and child development. There are high rates of both depression and childhood trauma in new mothers participating in home visitation programs, a prevention approach designed to optimize mother and child outcomes. Little is known about the…
Full Text Available Traditionally, the exploration of the impact of trauma on trauma survivors in South Africa has been focused mainly on the bio-psychosocial aspects. The bio-psychosocial approach recognises that trauma affects people biologically, socially and psychologically. In this article, the author explores a holistic understanding of the effects of trauma on people from communities historically affected by political violence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using a participatory action research design (PAR as a way of working through trauma, a longitudinal study was conducted in Pietermaritzburg from 2009–2013. At the end of the study, life narratives were documented and published. The textual analysis of these life narratives reveals that, besides the bio-psychosocial effects that research participants experienced during and after the trauma, they also sustained moral and spiritual injuries. Trauma took its toll in their lives emotionally, psychologically, spiritually, morally and in their relationships with themselves, others and God. From these findings, the author argues that the bio-psychosocial approach is incomplete for understanding the holistic effects of trauma on the whole person. Therefore, he recommends the integration of the moral and spiritual aspects of trauma to come up with a holistic model of understanding the effects of trauma on traumatised individuals. The holistic model will enhance the treatment, healing and recovery of trauma survivors. This, in turn, will alleviate the severe disruption of many aspects of psychological functioning and well-being of trauma survivors caused by the effects of trauma.
Holtz, T H
A retrospective cohort study of 35 refugee Tibetan nuns and lay students who were arrested and tortured in Tibet matched with 35 controls who were not arrested or tortured was carried out in India. Subjects were administered the Hopkins Checklist-25, evaluating anxiety symptoms, effective disturbances, somatic complaints, and social impairment. The prevalence of symptom scores in the clinical range for both cohorts was 41.4% for anxiety symptoms and 14.3% for depressive symptoms. The torture survivors had a statistically significant higher proportion of elevated anxiety scores than did the nontortured cohort (54.3% vs. 28.6%, p = .05). This was not true for elevated depressive scores. The results suggest that torture has long-term consequences on mental health over and above the effects of being uprooted, fleeing one's country, and living in exile as a refugee, though the additional effects were small. Political commitment, social support in exile, and prior knowledge of and preparedness for confinement and torture in the imprisoned cohort served to foster resilience against psychological sequelae. The contribution of Buddhist spirituality plays an active role in the development of protective coping mechanisms among Tibetan refugees.
Brown, Carlos V R; Daigle, Jacob B; Foulkrod, Kelli H; Brouillette, Brandee; Clark, Adam; Czysz, Clea; Martinez, Marnie; Cooper, Hassie
After mechanical ventilation, extubation failure is associated with poor outcomes and prolonged hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stays. We hypothesize that specific and unique risk factors exist for failed extubation in trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors in trauma patients. We performed an 18-month (January 2008-June 2009) prospective, cohort study of all adult (8 years or older) trauma patients admitted to the ICU who required mechanical ventilation. Failure of extubation was defined as reintubation within 24 hours of extubation. Patients who failed extubation (failed group) were compared with those who were successfully extubated (successful group) to identify independent risk factors for failed extubation. A total of 276 patients were 38 years old, 76% male, 84% sustained blunt trauma, with an mean Injury Severity Score = 21, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score = 7, and systolic blood pressure = 125 mm Hg. Indications for initial intubation included airway (4%), breathing (13%), circulation (2%), and neurologic disability (81%). A total of 17 patients (6%) failed extubation and failures occurred a mean of 15 hours after extubation. Independent risk factors to fail extubation included spine fracture, airway intubation, GCS at extubation, and delirium tremens. Patients who failed extubation spent more days in the ICU (11 vs. 6, p = 0.006) and hospital (19 vs. 11, p = 0.002). Mortality was 6% (n = 1) in the failed group and 0.4% (n = 1) in the successful extubation group. Independent risk factors for trauma patients to fail extubation include spine fracture, initial intubation for airway, GCS at extubation, and delirium tremens. Trauma patients with these four risk factors should be observed for 24 hours after extubation, because the mean time to failure was 15 hours. In addition, increased complications, extended need for mechanical ventilation, and prolonged ICU and hospital stays should be expected for trauma patients
Lin Jin-Mann S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and human studies suggest that stress experienced early in life has detrimental consequences on brain development, including brain regions involved in cognitive function. Cognitive changes are cardinal features of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Early-life trauma is a major risk factor for these disorders. Only few studies have measured the long-term consequences of childhood trauma on cognitive function in healthy adults. Methods In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive function in 47 healthy adults, who were identified as part of a larger study from the general population in Wichita, KS. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and the Wide-Range-Achievement-Test (WRAT-3 to examine cognitive function and individual achievement. Type and severity of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression on CANTAB measures with primary predictors (CTQ scales and potential confounders (age, sex, education, income. Results Specific CTQ scales were significantly associated with measures of cognitive function. Emotional abuse was associated with impaired spatial working memory performance. Physical neglect correlated with impaired spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory. Sexual abuse and physical neglect were negatively associated with WRAT-3 scores. However, the association did not reach the significance level of p Conclusions Our results suggest that physical neglect and emotional abuse might be associated with memory deficits in adulthood, which in turn might pose a risk factor for the development of psychopathology.
Adams, Ryan D F; Cole, Elaine; Brundage, Susan I; Morrison, Zoe; Jansen, Jan O
An understanding of stakeholders' views is key to the successful development and operation of a rural trauma system. Scotland, which has large remote and rural areas, is currently implementing a national trauma system. The aim of this study was to identify key barriers and enablers to the development of an effective trauma system from the perspective of rural healthcare professionals. This is a qualitative study, which was conducted in rural general hospitals (RGH) in Scotland, from April to June 2017. We used an opportunistic sampling strategy to include hospital providers of rural trauma care across the region. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, recorded, and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify and group participant perspectives on key barriers and enablers to the development of the new trauma system. We conducted 15 interviews with 18 participants in six RGHs. Study participants described barriers and enablers across three themes: 1) quality of care, 2) interfaces within the system and 3) interfaces with the wider healthcare system. For quality of care, enablers included confidence in basic trauma management, whilst a perceived lack of change from current management was seen as a barrier. The theme of interfaces within the system identified good interaction with other services and a single point of contact for referral as enablers. Perceived barriers included challenges in referring to tertiary care. The final theme of interfaces with the wider healthcare system included an improved transport system, increased audit resource and coordinated clinical training as enablers. Perceived barriers included a rural staffing crisis and problematic patient transfer to further care. This study provides insight into rural professionals' perceptions regarding the implementation of a trauma system in rural Scotland. Barriers included practical issues, such as retrieval, transfer and referral processes. Importantly, there is a degree of uncertainty
Williamson, Victoria; Creswell, Cathy; Butler, Ian; Christie, Hope
Objective Parents are often children's main source of support following fear-inducing traumatic events, yet little is known about how parents provide that support. The aim of this study was to examine parents' experiences of supporting their child following child trauma exposure and presentation at an emergency department (ED). Design Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using thematic analysis. Setting The setting for this study was two National Health Service EDs in England. Participants 20 parents whose child experienced a traumatic event and attended an ED between August 2014 and October 2015. Results Parents were sensitive to their child's distress and offered reassurance and support for their child to resume normal activities. However, parental beliefs often inhibited children's reinstatement of pretrauma routines. Support often focused on preventing future illness or injury, reflective of parents' concerns for their child's physical well-being. In a minority of parents, appraisals of problematic care from EDs contributed to parents' anxiety and perceptions of their child as vulnerable post-trauma. Forgetting the trauma and avoidance of discussion were encouraged as coping strategies to prevent further distress. Parents highlighted their need for further guidance and support regarding their child's physical and emotional recovery. Conclusions This study provides insight into the experiences of and challenges faced by parents in supporting their child following trauma exposure. Perceptions of their child's physical vulnerability and treatment influenced parents' responses and the supportive strategies employed. These findings may enable clinicians to generate meaningful advice for parents following child attendance at EDs post-trauma. PMID:27821599
Full Text Available Hasan Kara,1 Aysegul Bayir,1 Ahmet Ak,1 Murat Akinci,1 Necmettin Tufekci,1 Selim Degirmenci,1 Melih Azap21Department of Emergency Medicine, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Konya Numune Hospital, Konya, TurkeyPurpose: Trauma is a common cause of admission to the hospital emergency department. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cause of admission, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients aged ≥65 years admitted to an emergency department in Turkey because of blunt trauma.Materials and methods: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for 568 patients (314 women and 254 men aged ≥65 years who were admitted to an emergency department of a tertiary care hospital.Results: Trauma was caused by low-energy fall in 379 patients (67%, traffic accident in 79 patients (14%, high-energy fall in 69 patients (12%, and other causes in 41 patients (7%. The most frequent sites of injury were the lower extremity, thorax, upper extremity, and head. The femur was the most frequent fracture site. After evaluation in the emergency department, 377 patients (66% were hospitalized. There were 31 patients (5% who died. Risk of hospitalization after trauma was significantly associated with trauma to the lower extremity, thorax, and spine; fractures of the femur and rib; and intracranial injury.Conclusion: Emergency department admission after trauma in patients aged $65 years is common after low-energy falls, and most injuries occur to the extremities. It is important to focus on prevention of falls to decrease the frequency of trauma in the elderly.Keywords: fall, femur, fracture, injury
Atwoli, Lukoye; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Mclaughlin, Katie A; Petukhova, Maria; Kessler, Ronald C; Koenen, Karestan C
South Africa's unique history, characterised by apartheid, a form of constitutional racial segregation and exploitation, and a long period of political violence and state-sponsored oppression ending only in 1994, suggests a high level of trauma exposure in the general population. The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the South African general population. The South African Stress and Health Study is a nationally representative survey of South African adults using the WHO's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and presence of DSM-IV mental disorders. The most common traumatic events were the unexpected death of a loved one and witnessing trauma occurring to others. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of PTSD were 2.3% and 0.7% respectively, while the conditional prevalence of PTSD after trauma exposure was 3.5%. PTSD conditional risk after trauma exposure and probability of chronicity after PTSD onset were both highest for witnessing trauma. Socio-demographic factors such as sex, age and education were largely unrelated to PTSD risk. The occurrence of trauma and PTSD in South Africa is not distributed according to the socio-demographic factors or trauma types observed in other countries. The dominant role of witnessing in contributing to PTSD may reflect the public settings of trauma exposure in South Africa and highlight the importance of political and social context in shaping the epidemiology of PTSD.
Lewis, E. A.; Horsfall, Ian; Watson, Celia H.
Recently published research has characterised the behind armour blunt trauma (BABT) effects associated with high velocity ballistic impact on textile-based armour faced with a ceramic plate. Subsequently dynamic displacements, accelerations and pressures have been characterised both in Gelatine experiments and animal experiments and used to provide test methodologies. High velocity armour consists of a ceramic plate usually backed with a composite panel, which is worn over the conventional te...
Hall, Andrea; McKenna, Brian; Dearie, Vikki; Maguire, Tessa; Charleston, Rosemary; Furness, Trentham
Practicing with trauma informed care (TIC) can strengthen nurses' knowledge about the association of past trauma and the impact of trauma on the patient's current mental illness. An aim of TIC is to avoid potentially re-traumatising a patient during their episode of care. A TIC education package can provide nurses with content that describes the interplay of neurological, biological, psychological, and social effects of trauma that may reduce the likelihood of re-traumatisation. Although mental health nurses can be TIC leads in multidisciplinary environments, the translation of TIC into clinical practice by nurses working in emergency departments (EDs) is unknown. However, before ED nurses can begin to practice TIC, they must first be provided with meaningful and specific education about TIC. Therefore, the aims of this study were to; (1) evaluate the effectiveness of TIC education for ED nursing staff and (2) describe subsequent clinical practice that was trauma informed. This project was conducted as exploratory research with a mixed methods design. Quantitative data were collected with an 18-item pre-education and post-education questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected with two one-off focus groups conducted at least three-months after the TIC education. Two EDs were involved in the study. A total of 34 ED nurses participated in the TIC education and 14 ED nurses participated in the focus groups. There was meaningful change (p TIC education. Two themes, each with two sub-themes, were evident in the data. The themes were based on the perceived effectiveness of TIC education and the subsequent changes in clinical practice in the period after TIC education. Emergency department nurses became more informed of the interplay of trauma on an individual's mental health. However, providing care with a TIC framework in an ED setting was a considerable challenge primarily due to time constraints relative to the day-to-day ED environment and rapid turnover of
Scheffers, Wilhelmina; Hoek, Maike; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Schoevers, Robert A.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.
Background:A crucial but often overlooked impact of early life exposure to trauma is its farreaching effect on a person's relationship with their body. Several domains of body experience may be negatively influenced or damaged as a result of early childhood trauma. Objective: The aim of this study
Price, Jennifer L; MacDonald, Helen Z; Adair, Kathryn C; Koerner, Naomi; Monson, Candice M
Controlled qualitative methods complement quantitative treatment outcome research and enable a more thorough understanding of the effects of therapy and the suspected mechanisms of action. Thematic analyses were used to examine outcomes of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a randomized controlled trial of individuals diagnosed with military-related PTSD (n = 15). After sessions 1 and 11, participants wrote "impact statements" describing their appraisals of their trauma and beliefs potentially impacted by traumatic events. Trained raters coded each of these statements using a thematic coding scheme. An analysis of thematic coding revealed positive changes over the course of therapy in participants' perspective on their trauma and their future, supporting the purported mechanisms of CPT. Implications of this research for theory and clinical practice are discussed.
Loss, Julika; Weigl, Johannes; Ernstberger, Antonio; Nerlich, Michael; Koller, Michael; Curbach, Janina
As inter-hospital alliances have become increasingly popular in the healthcare sector, it is important to understand the challenges and benefits that the interaction between representatives of different hospitals entail. A prominent example of inter-hospital alliances are certified 'trauma networks', which consist of 5-30 trauma departments in a given region. Trauma networks are designed to improve trauma care by providing a coordinated response to injury, and have developed across the USA and multiple European countries since the 1960s. Their members need to interact regularly, e.g. develop joint protocols for patient transfer, or discuss patient safety. Social capital is a concept focusing on the development and benefits of relations and interactions within a network. The aim of our study was to explore how social capital is generated and used in a regional German trauma network. In this qualitative study, we performed semi-standardized face-to-face interviews with 23 senior trauma surgeons (2013-14). They were the official representatives of 23 out of 26 member hospitals of the Trauma Network Eastern Bavaria. The interviews covered the structure and functioning of the network, climate and reciprocity within the network, the development of social identity, and different resources and benefits derived from the network (e.g. facilitation of interactions, advocacy, work satisfaction). Transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis. According to the interviews, the studied trauma network became a group of surgeons with substantial bonding social capital. The surgeons perceived that the network's culture of interaction was flat, and they identified with the network due to a climate of mutual respect. They felt that the inclusive leadership helped establish a norm of reciprocity. Among the interviewed surgeons, the gain of technical information was seen as less important than the exchange of information on political aspects. The perceived resources derived from
Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Zavattero, E.; Dediol, E.; Uglešić, V.; Kovačič, Ž.; Vesnaver, A.; Konstantinović, V.S.; Petrović, M.; Stephens, J.; Kanzaria, A.; Bhatti, N.; Holmes, S.; Pechalova, P.F.; Bakardjiev, A.G.; Malanchuk, V.A.; Kopchak, A.V.; Galteland, P.; Mjøen, E.; Skjelbred, P.; Grimaud, F.; Fauvel, F.; Longis, J.; Corre, P.; Løes, S.; Lekven, N.; Laverick, S.; Gordon, P.; Tamme, T.; Akermann, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Kommers, S.C.; Meijer, B.; Forouzanfar, T.
Objective The aim of this study is to present and discuss the results of a European multicentre prospective study about pediatric maxillofacial trauma epidemiology during a year. Study Design The following data were recorded: gender, age, etiology, site of fracture, date of injury. Of the 3396
Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Zavattero, E.; Dediol, E.; Uglesic, V.; Kovacic, Z.; Vesnaver, A.; Konstantinovic, V.S.; Petrovic, M.; Stephens, J.; Kanzaria, A.; Bhatti, N.; Holmes, S.; Pechalova, P.F.; Bakardjiev, A.G.; Malanchuk, V.A.; Kopchak, A.V.; Galteland, P.; Mjoen, E.; Skjelbred, P.; Grimaud, F.; Fauvel, F.; Longis, J.; Corre, P.; Loes, S.; Lekven, N.; Laverick, S.; Gordon, P.; Tamme, T.; Akermann, S.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Kommers, S.C.; Meijer, B.; Forouzanfar, T.
Objective The aim of this study is to present and discuss the results of a European multicentre prospective study about pediatric maxillofacial trauma epidemiology during a year. Study Design The following data were recorded: gender, age, etiology, site of fracture, date of injury. Of the 3396
Högberg, Göran; Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Högberg, Ulf
Causality in abusive head trauma has never been fully established and hence no gold standard exists for the diagnosis. Implications hereof include bias introduced by circular reasoning and a shift from a trustful doctor patient relationship to a distrustful one when the caregiver statement...... is questioned. In this paper we examine seven recent abusive head trauma studies including 476 diagnosed abuse cases for circular reasoning as well as the role of the caregiver statement in the diagnosis. Secondly, we present a novel ranking scale for the diagnosis of abusive head trauma designed to minimize...... to the abuse cases showed that the demands of our ranking scale were not fulfilled in 440 (92%) cases. We conclude that most abuse cases in the studies were, to some extent, diagnosed on criteria based on circular reasoning. The caregiver statement was one of the most frequently used diagnostic items...
Hovens, Jacqueline Gerarda Francisca Maria
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of childhood trauma and childhood life-events on the development and course of depressive and anxiety disorders, and to identify risk factors contributing to these associations. In brief, our findings indicate that childhood trauma is an important risk factor for the development of depressive and/or anxiety disorders, especially depressive and comorbid disorders, and predicts a more chronic course of illness. Emotional neglect, as core comp...
Yalch, Matthew M
Several contemporary researchers have noted the virtues of Bayesian methods of data analysis. Although debates continue about whether conventional or Bayesian statistics is the "better" approach for researchers in general, there are reasons why Bayesian methods may be well suited to the study of psychological trauma in particular. This article describes how Bayesian statistics offers practical solutions to the problems of data non-normality, small sample size, and missing data common in research on psychological trauma. After a discussion of these problems and the effects they have on trauma research, this article explains the basic philosophical and statistical foundations of Bayesian statistics and how it provides solutions to these problems using an applied example. Results of the literature review and the accompanying example indicates the utility of Bayesian statistics in addressing problems common in trauma research. Bayesian statistics provides a set of methodological tools and a broader philosophical framework that is useful for trauma researchers. Methodological resources are also provided so that interested readers can learn more. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that cranial injuries associated with facial fractures may cause a great risk of mortality and neurological morbidity, which mainly occurs in young adults. Aims and objectives: Study of the features of facial injuries associated with head injuries, discussing the management options and detecting the outcomes following craniofacial trauma. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out at Imam reza and Shohada Hospitals. Radiographs and hospital data of 50 patients with craniofacial trauma between January 2013 and December 2014, managed at the Oral and Maxillofacial surgery department were gathered and analyzed. Results: The greatest number of the patients had 20 to 50 years old (68% and most of them were male. (M/F ratio was 6.09:1. The most prevalent causes of the trauma in this study were the motor vehicle accidents (44% and falling from height (36%, respectively. The most common bone fracture among the patients was the zygomatic bone fx (38.2%. Among the symptoms which the patients presented, Loss of the consciousness (52% and headache (43% showed the highest prevalence. Compound depressed fractures, contusions and intracranial hematoma were the leading causes of the surgical intervention for intracranial lesions. A high number of patients who have died in this study had associated systemic injuries. Displaced facial bone fracture were the indications for operation in facial fractures. Conclusions: The majority of the patients with craniofacial trauma were the adult males and the leading cause of trauma were road traffic accidents. A high number of the patients had mild head injuries and required only a conservational therapy. Keywords: head injury; craniofacial trauma; facial fracture
Full Text Available Background: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs are widespread in the population and are a serious dental public health problem among children. Dental trauma may cause both functional and esthetic problems, with possible impacts on the patient's quality of life. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of elementary school teachers regarding dental trauma and its management. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire study consisting of 12 closed-ended questions were used to interview 150 elementary school teachers who participated in this study. The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude of teachers toward their student's dental trauma and its management. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Packages of Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Results: Among 150 teachers, 54% had dealt with trauma to their students, 91.3% school teachers said that they would save the avulsed tooth, 64% had heard about reimplantation of tooth, and 37% school teachers stated that they would not carry the tooth in any media reflecting their lack of knowledge regarding management of avulsed tooth. Conclusion: As many teachers have a low level of knowledge regarding dental trauma, there is a need for greater awareness to improve knowledge and attitude of teachers related to the emergency management of TDIs in children by organizing educative and motivational programs.
Bakke, H K; Steinvik, T; Eidissen, S-I; Gilbert, M; Wisborg, T
Bystander first aid and basic life support can likely improve victim survival in trauma. In contrast to bystander first aid and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, little is known about the role of bystanders in trauma response. Our aim was to determine how frequently first aid is given to trauma victims by bystanders, the quality of this aid, the professional background of first-aid providers, and whether previous first-aid training affects aid quality. We conducted a prospective 18-month study in two mixed urban-rural Norwegian counties. The personnel on the first ambulance responding to trauma calls assessed and documented first aid performed by bystanders using a standard form. A total of 330 trauma calls were included, with bystanders present in 97% of cases. Securing an open airway was correctly performed for 76% of the 43 patients in need of this first-aid measure. Bleeding control was provided correctly for 81% of 63 patients for whom this measure was indicated, and prevention of hypothermia for 62% of 204 patients. Among the first-aid providers studied, 35% had some training in first aid. Bystanders with documented first-aid training gave better first aid than those where first-aid training status was unknown. A majority of the trauma patients studied received correct pre-hospital first aid, but still there is need for considerable improvement, particularly hypothermia prevention. Previous first-aid training seems to improve the quality of first aid provided. The effect on patient survival needs to be investigated. © 2015 The Authors. The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Berg, Gina M; Harshbarger, Jenni L; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Lippoldt, Diana
Compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout syndrome (BOS) are identified in trauma, emergency, and critical care nursing practices. The purpose of this qualitative study was to measure CF and BOS in a trauma team and allow them to share perceptions of related stress triggers and coping strategies. Surveys to measure CF and BOS and a focus group allowed a trauma team (12 practitioners) to share perceptions of related stress triggers and coping strategies. More than half scored at risk for CF and BOS. Stress triggers were described as situation (abuse, age of patient) versus injury-related. Personal coping mechanisms were most often reported. Both CF and BOS can be assessed with a simple survey tool. Strategies for developing a program culturally sensitive to CF and BOS are provided.
Alazraki, N.; Moitoza, J.; Heaphy, J.; Taylor, A. Jr.
An animal study was performed to assess the effect on the Tc-99m phosphate bone scintigram of injury by needle aspiration or drill hole to metaphyseal and diaphyseal areas in immature and mature bones. Results showed that in 12 immature rabbits such trauma to metaphyseal regions had no effect on the bone image. Similar metaphyseal trauma in two mature dogs showed definite abnormalities on the bone image, but in one mature rabbit, no abnormality could be identified by scintigram. Diaphyseal trauma always gave a definitely abnormal bone image. Extrapolation of these results to humans should be cautious, but it suggests that needling or drilling in metaphyseal regions in neonates or young children probably does not affect later bone images
Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.
In this study, Kimberly A. Truong and Samuel D. Museus focus on understanding strategies doctoral students of color use to respond to racism. The authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews with twenty-six participants who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during doctoral studies. Analysis of the data resulted in…
Bagher, A; Andersson, L; Wingren, C J; Ottosson, A; Wangefjord, S; Acosta, S
Epidemiological studies of patients with major trauma, including both hospitalized and immediately deceased whom are undergoing medico-legal autopsy, are very rare. We studied the incidence and mortality of major trauma in all 10 districts in the Scandinavian city of Malmö, Sweden, and the association between socio-economic status and major trauma. Major trauma was defined as a New Injury Severity Score > 15, or a lethal outcome due to trauma. Cases with a registration address in Malmö between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 were identified from the red trauma alarm list in the hospital and the autopsy register in the Forensic Department. Statistics Sweden matched each case with four randomly selected age-, gender- and district-matched controls. Social assistance within the household, level of education, income and capital income were compared. We identified 117 cases (80 men and 37 women) with a median age of 48.0 years (IQR 28.5-65.0). The incidence of major trauma in Malmö was 12.7 (95% CI 10.4-15.0) per 100,000 person-years; and 69 died due to major trauma, with 8.4 (95% CI 6.4-10.4) per 1000 deaths. Lower income (p = 0.024), no income (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.4; p = 0.037) and social assistance (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.3-4.1; p = 0.003) were associated with major trauma. The level of education was not found to be related to major trauma (p = 0.47). Low income and social assistance within the household were associated with major trauma in the city of Malmö, but not the level of education; in this age-, gender- and district-matched case-control study of major trauma. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma is the leading cause of death for young people in Norway. Studies indicate that several of these deaths are avoidable if the patient receives correct initial treatment. The trauma team is responsible for initial hospital treatment of traumatized patients, and team members have previously reported that non-technical skills as communication, leadership and cooperation are the major challenges. Better team function could improve patient outcome. The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of which non-technical skills are important to members of the trauma team during initial examination and treatment of trauma patients. Methods Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted at four different hospitals of various sizes and with different trauma load. At each hospital a nurse, an anaesthesiologist and a team leader (surgeon were interviewed. The conversations were transcribed and analyzed using systematic text condensation according to the principles of Giorgi's phenomenological analysis as modified by Malterud. Results and conclusion Leadership was perceived as an essential component in trauma management. The ideal leader should be an experienced surgeon, have extensive knowledge of trauma care, communicate clearly and radiate confidence. Team leaders were reported to have little trauma experience, and the team leaders interviewed requested more guidance and supervision. The need for better training of trauma teams and especially team leaders requires further investigation and action.
De Vloo, Philippe; Nijs, Stefaan; Verelst, Sandra; van Loon, Johannes; Depreitere, Bart
According to level 2 evidence, earlier evacuation of acute subdural or epidural hematomas necessitating surgery is associated with better outcome. Hence, guidelines recommend performing these procedures "immediately". Literature on extent and causes of pre- and intra-hospital intervals in trauma patients requiring emergent craniotomies is almost completely lacking. Studies delineating and refining the interval before thrombolytic agent administration in ischemic stroke have dramatically reduced the "door-to-needle time". A similar exercise for "trauma-to-decompression time" might result in comparable reductions. We aim to map intervals in emergent trauma craniotomies in our Level 1 Trauma Center, screen for associated factors, and propose possible ways to reduce these intervals. We analyzed patients who were primarily referred (1R; n=45) and secondarily referred (after CT imaging in a community hospital; 2R; n=22) to our emergency department (ED), and underwent emergent trauma craniotomies between 2010 and 2016. Median pre-hospital interval (between emergency call (EC) and arrival at the ED) was 42min for 1R patients. Median intra-hospital interval (between initial ED arrival and skin incision (SI)) was 140min and 268min for 1R and 2R patients, respectively. In 1R patients, ED-SI interval was positively correlated with GCS (ρ=.49; Ppre-hospital and intra-hospital measures to improve performance. This is the first report on EC-SI interval in emergent trauma craniotomy, with a median of 174min and >297min for 1R and 2R patients, respectively, in our center. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brenner, Inbal; Ben-Amitay, Galit
It has been proposed that a complexity of personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors is related to sexual revictimization among childhood sexual abuse survivors. In this study, we investigated the relations between attachment dimensions, exposure to accumulated childhood traumas, reaction to childhood sexual abuse disclosure, and adult sexual revictimization. Participants were 60 Israeli women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy percent of the women reported adult sexual revictimization. Revictimization was related to higher attachment anxiety but not to higher attachment avoidance. Revictimization was also related to emotional and physical child abuse but not to emotional and physical child neglect. Revictimization rates were higher among women who had received negative environmental responses following childhood sexual abuse disclosure than among women who had received supportive reactions and those who had not disclosed childhood sexual abuse at all. Findings were significant even after controlling for severity of childhood sexual abuse. The findings emphasize the role of various contextual-interpersonal factors on revictimization vulnerability among the survivors of childhood sexual abuse.
Dutro, Elizabeth; Bien, Andrea C.
This article discusses theoretical lenses drawn from scholars in the interdisciplinary field of trauma studies to consider students' positioning in relation to emotional-cognitive, private-public dichotomies that permeate normative notions of what can and should count as successful engagement with school. Specifically, we explicate…
Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi
Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,…
Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia-Pina, Corina A.; Loredo-Abdala, Arturo; Paz, Francisco; Garcia, Sandra G.; Schilmann, Astrid
Objectives: Determine the prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic and family characteristics of children attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, to illustrate the characteristics of abusive head trauma among this population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of infants and children under 5,…
Full Text Available Freda Sii,1,2 Robert J Barry,1 Joseph Abbott,3 Richard J Blanch,1,4 Caroline J MacEwen,5 Peter Shah1,2,6,7 1Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, 2Birmingham Institute for Glaucoma Research, Institute of Translational Medicine, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, 4Academic Department of Military Surgery and Trauma, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, 6National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, 7Centre for Health and Social Care Improvement, School of Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK Purpose: Pediatric ocular trauma is an important cause of visual morbidity worldwide, accounting for up to one-third of all ocular trauma admissions. It has long-term implications for those affected and significant economic consequences for healthcare providers. It has been estimated that 90% of all ocular trauma is preventable. Targeted strategies are required to reduce the incidence and the severity of pediatric ocular trauma; this requires an understanding of the epidemiology and characteristics of these injuries and the children involved. Methods: Prospective, observational study of pediatric ocular trauma cases presenting to UK-based ophthalmologists over a 1-year period; reporting cards were distributed by the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit, and clinicians were asked to report incidents of acute orbital and ocular trauma in children aged ≤16 years requiring inpatient or day-case admission. A validated, standardized questionnaire was sent to reporting ophthalmologists to collect data on the
Silverstein, Michael; Feinberg, Emily; Cabral, Howard; Linhart, Yaminette Diaz; Sandler, Jenna; Hegel, Mark; Appugliese, Danielle Pierce; Beardslee, William
Background Violent trauma is common in urban communities. We explored the hypothesis that past trauma could moderate the effect of a cognitive behavioral intervention designed to prevent depression among urban, low-income mothers. Methods Synthesis of two pilot randomized trials of problem solving education (PSE), among 93 mothers of children hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit or enrolled in community-based Early Intervention programs. Outcomes included depressive symptoms, perceived stress, social functioning. Results were adjusted for baseline depressive symptoms, then stratified according to subjects’ trauma history. Results Fifteen of 44 PSE subjects (34%) experienced a moderately severe depressive symptom episode during the four-month follow-up period, as opposed to 21 of 45 control subjects (47%) – for a nearly significant adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 0.36 (95% CI 0.13, 1.02). Among mothers without trauma histories, far fewer PSE mothers (5 of 24; 21%) experienced an episode of moderately severe depressive symptoms than control mothers (12 of 26; 46%), for a significant aOR of 0.15 (95% CI 0.03, 0.79). Conversely, among mothers with trauma histories, a similar proportion of PSE mothers (10 of 19; 53%) experienced an episode of moderately severe depressive symptoms as control mothers (9 of 19; 47%). Similar trends held for perceived stress and social functioning. Conclusions PSE may be more effective at preventing depression among mothers without trauma histories. Our results are consistent with the depression treatment literature, but are novel because they support the principle of intervention moderation in a risk-prevention – as opposed to treatment – paradigm. PMID:21506207
Silverstein, Michael; Feinberg, Emily; Cabral, Howard; Linhart, Yaminette Diaz; Sandler, Jenna; Hegel, Mark; Appugliese, Danielle Pierce; Beardslee, William
Violent trauma is common in urban communities. We explored the hypothesis that past trauma could moderate the effect of a cognitive behavioral intervention designed to prevent depression among urban, low-income mothers. Synthesis of two pilot randomized trials of problem solving education (PSE) among 93 mothers of children hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit or enrolled in community-based Early Intervention programs. Outcomes included depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and social functioning. Results were adjusted for baseline depressive symptoms, then stratified according to subjects' trauma history. Fifteen of the 44 PSE subjects (34%) experienced a moderately severe depressive symptom episode during the 3-month follow-up period, as opposed to 21 of 45 control subjects (47%), for a nearly significant adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 0.36 (95% CI: 0.13, 1.02). Among mothers without trauma histories, far fewer PSE mothers (5 of 24; 21%) experienced an episode of moderately severe depressive symptoms than control mothers (12 of 26; 46%) for a significant aOR of 0.15 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.79). Conversely, among mothers with trauma histories, a similar proportion of PSE mothers (10 of 19; 53%) experienced an episode of moderately severe depressive symptoms as control mothers (9 of 19; 47%). Similar trends held for perceived stress and social functioning. PSE may be more effective at preventing depression among mothers without trauma histories. Our results are consistent with the depression treatment literature, but are novel because they support the principle of intervention moderation in risk prevention, as opposed to treatment, paradigm. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Goldberg, A.L.; Rothfus, W.E.; Deeb, Z.L.; Daffner, R.H.; Lupetin, A.R.; Wilberger, J.E.; Prostko, E.R.
From 1984 to 1987 magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on 100 patients suffering acute spinal trauma. MR demonstrated one or more injuries to the cervicothoracic region in 31 patients. It displayed a spectrum of spinal cord injury ranging from mild compression and swelling to complete transection. MR was also useful in evaluating alignment at the cervicothoracic junction, in depicting ligamentous injury, in establishing the presence of disc herniation, and in identifying unsuspected levels of injury. We present a diagnostic algorithm that incorporates the role of MR in evaluating acute cervicothoracic spinal trauma and emphasizes the replacement of myelography by MR in the initial assessment of neurologic deficit. (orig.)
David W. Foy
Full Text Available Background: While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective: The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method: We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results: Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion: Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences.
Foy, David W; Ritchie, Iya K; Conway, Alison H
While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders' trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences.
Farchi, Moshe; Cohen, Ayala; Mosek, Atalia
This article addresses the challenging task of preparing baccalaureate social work students to master proficiency as first responders in stress and trauma situations. We begin with a brief description of the context, goals, admission procedure, structure, and process of a stress and trauma studies (STS) program. We then compare the development of…
Over the last several years there has been a notable increase in neurological and neurodevelopmental research, with a keen interest in applying this research to our understanding of everyday human learning and behaviour. One aspect of this research has examined how the experience of trauma in childhood can affect neurodevelopment with implications…
Goldstein, Lizabeth A; Dinh, Julie; Donalson, Rosemary; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Maguen, Shira
Previous research has demonstrated the deleterious effects of traumatic military experiences on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in female veterans. However, more research is needed to identify the unique predictors of distressing psychological symptoms when both combat-related and sexual trauma are considered, particularly as women's combat exposure in the military increases. Female veterans who had attended at least one appointment at a large Veterans Health Administration medical center were invited to complete questionnaires about traumatic military exposures and psychiatric symptoms. A total of 403 veterans responded, with 383 respondents' data used in analyses. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with trauma exposure items entered simultaneously to determine their association with symptoms of (1) PTSD and (2) depression. Sexual assault had the strongest relationship with both posttraumatic and depressive symptoms. Sexual assault, sexual harassment, feeling in danger of being killed, and seeing others killed/injured were associated with symptoms of PTSD, but only sexual assault and sexual harassment were associated with symptoms of depression, even when accounting for several aspects of combat exposure. Improving assessment for trauma exposure and developing treatments personalized to type of trauma experienced are important clinical research priorities as female service members' roles in the military expand. Published by Elsevier B.V.
O'Donnell, Lolita; Begg, Lisa; Lipson, Linda; Elvander, Erika
This article summarizes the findings from the Second Annual Trauma Spectrum Disorders Conference, which was held in December 2009 and was sponsored by the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury in conjunction with the Department of Veterans Affairs and the National Institutes of Health. The conference…
Popescu, M R; Deva, V; Dragomir, L P; Searpe, Monica; Vătu, Mihaela; Stefârţă, A; Rauten, Anne Marie
The diagnosis of occlusion-generated disorders of the dento-maxillary apparatus represents a sensitive stage within the establishment of the therapeutic means for the functional rehabilitation of dental arches. The laborious effort carried out in order to specify the diagnosis resides in the fact that any trauma arising at the level of any component of the stomatognate system may lead to an occlusal dysfunction. The uncured carious processes, besides the pulp and periapical complications, may lead to an occlusal dysfunction through horizontal migrations of teeth resulting in the derangement of the occlusal curvatures as well as through vertical migrations of the teeth opposing a tooth diagnosed with occlusal caries or which largely reduced the coronary height. The dental iatrogenia, besides the eructation anomalies and neuromuscular dysfunction within the oromaxillofacial area also determines the appearance of occlusal dysfunction. The radiological examination through correlation with the clinical manifestations may provide significant data related to the magnitude of the prejudice caused to dento-paradontal units experiencing occlusal trauma. The histopathological study through correlation with the clinical manifestations provides significant data on the tolerance of dento-paradontal units within the occlusal dysfunction. Also, subsequent to the analysis of the possible actions of aggression generated by the occlusal trauma correlations could be determined between the type of the histological lesion of the pulp-dentine complex and the etiopathogenic factors, as well as correlations depending on the damage degree through occlusal trauma of the dental parts involved.
Larsen Claus F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe injury induces an acute coagulopathy associated with increased mortality. This study compared the Thrombelastography (TEG and biomarker profiles upon admission in trauma patients. Methods Prospective observational study of 80 trauma patients admitted to a Level I Trauma Centre. Data on demography, biochemistry including standard coagulation tests, hematology, transfusions, Injury Severity Score (ISS and TEG were recorded. Retrospective analysis of thawed plasma/serum for biomarkers reflecting tissue injury (histone-complexed DNA fragments, sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline, coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (sCD40L, protein C, activated Protein C, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer, prothrombinfragment 1+2, plasmin/α2-antiplasmin complex, thrombin/antithrombin complex, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, antithrombin, von willebrand factor, factor XIII. Comparison of patients stratified according to ISS/TEG maximum clot strength. Linear regression analysis of variables associated with clot strength. Results Trauma patients had normal (86%, hypercoagulable (11% or hypocoagulable (1% TEG clot strength; one had primary hyperfibrinolysis. Hypercoagulable patients had higher age, fibrinogen and platelet count (all p 10 red blood cells the initial 24 h. Patients with normal or hypercoagulable TEG clot strength had comparable biomarker profiles, but the few patients with hypocoagulable TEG clot strength and/or hyperfibrinolysis had very different biomarker profiles. Increasing ISS was associated with higher levels of catecholamines, histone-complexed DNA fragments, sCD40L, activated protein C and D-dimer and reduced levels of non-activated protein C, antithrombin, fibrinogen and factor XIII (all p 26. In patients with ISS > 26, adrenaline and sCD40L were independently negatively associated with clot strength. Conclusions Trauma patients displayed
Cooper, C.A.; Wicks, S.J.
Analytical and experimental studies of subsonic impacts on nuclear reactor plant structures have been in progress at Winfrith since 1977. These studies have examined the behaviour of concrete and metal structures under the impact of missiles typifying those derived either from the plant itself or from external sources, such as crashing aircraft. During 1986 the Winfrith programme was expanded to include studies of the behaviour of radioactive materials transport containers under impact conditions. This report initially describes the experimental facilities available for impact studies at Winfrith. These include both compressed air guns, capable of delivering payloads of up to 65 kg at sonic velocity or payloads up to 2 tonnes at speeds up to 45 ms -1 , and drop test facilities for impact testing of models, up to full-scale radioactive materials transport flasks, at relatively low speeds. Supporting facilities include a small concrete manufacturing laboratory to produce concrete targets. Assessments of the resistance of concrete or metal structures to impact damage are performed using empirical or semi-empirical correlations, derived from data obtained in well-characterised experiments, or using structural dynamics finite element codes. The codes used by the analysts and the computing facilities available for impact analysis work are described. Finally the current programme of impact studies is reviewed, recent progress is summarised and future plans outlined. (author)
Hsu, Sheng-Der; Chen, Cheng-Jueng; Chou, Yu-Ching; Wang, Sheng-Hao; Chan, De-Chuan
Background: We aimed to evaluate the effect of early pelvic binder use in the emergency management of suspected pelvic trauma, compared with the conventional stepwise approach. Methods: We enrolled trauma patients with initial stabilization using a pelvic binder when suspecting pelvic injury. The inclusion criteria were traumatic injury requiring a trauma team and at least one of the following: a loss of consciousness or a Glasgow coma score (GCS) of pelvic injury. Various parameters, including gender, age, mechanism of injury, GCS, mortality, hospital stay, initial vital signs, revised trauma score, injury severity score, and outcome, were assessed and compared with historical controls. Results: A total of 204 patients with high-energy multiple-trauma from a single level I trauma center in North Taiwan were enrolled in the study from August 2013 to July 2014. The two group baseline patient characteristics were all collected and compared. The trauma patients with suspected pelvic fractures initially stabilized with a pelvic binder had shorter hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stays. The study group achieved statistically significantly improved survival and lower mean blood transfusion volume and mortality rate, although they were more severe in the trauma score. Conclusions: We recommend prompt pelvic binder use for suspected pelvic injury before definitive imaging is available, as a cervical spine collar is used to protect the cervical spine from further injury prior to definitive identification and characterization of an injury. PMID:29023379
Porgo, Teegwendé Valérie; Shemilt, Michèle; Moore, Lynne; Bourgeois, Gilles; Lapointe, Jean
In 2000, more than 50 million Americans were treated in hospitals following injury, with costs estimated at $80 billion, yet no performance indicator based on costs has been developed and validated specifically for acute trauma care. This study aimed to describe how data on costs have been used to evaluate the performance of acute trauma care hospitals. A systematic review using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, TRIP, and ProQuest was performed in December 2012. Cohort studies evaluating hospital performance for the treatment of injury inpatients in terms of costs were considered eligible. Two authors conducted the screening and the data abstraction independently using a piloted electronic data abstraction form. Methodological quality was evaluated using seven criteria from the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement and the Downs and Black tool. The search retrieved 6,635 studies, of which 10 were eligible for inclusion. Nine studies were conducted in the United States and one in Europe. Six studies used patient charges as a proxy for patient costs, of which four used cost-to-charge ratios. One study estimated costs using average unit costs, and three studies were based on the real costs obtained from a hospital accounting system. Average costs per patient in 2013 US dollar varied between 2,568 and 74,435. Four studies (40%) were considered to be of good methodological quality. Studies evaluating the performance of trauma hospitals in terms of costs are rare. Most are based on charges rather than costs, and they have low methodological quality. Further research is needed to develop and validate a performance indicator based on inpatient costs that will enable us to monitor trauma centers in terms of resource use. Systematic review, evidence, level III.
Gobin, Robyn L
Betrayal trauma theory suggests that social and cognitive development may be affected by early trauma such that individuals develop survival strategies, particularly dissociation and lack of betrayal awareness, that may place them at risk for further victimization. Several experiences of victimization in the context of relationships predicated on trust and dependence may contribute to the development of relational schema whereby abuse is perceived as normal. The current exploratory study investigates interpersonal trauma as an early experience that might impact the traits that are desired in potential romantic partners. Participants in the current study were asked to rate the desirability of several characteristics in potential romantic partners. Although loyalty was desirable to most participants regardless of their trauma history, those who reported experiences of high betrayal trauma rated loyalty less desirable than those who reported experiences of traumas that were low and medium in betrayal. Participants who reported experiences of revictimization (defined as the experience of trauma perpetrated by a close other during 2 different developmental periods) differed from participants who only reported 1 experience of high betrayal trauma in their self-reported desire for a romantic partner who possessed the traits of sincerity and trustworthiness. Preference for a partner who uses the tactic of verbal aggression was also associated with revictimization status. These preliminary findings suggest that victimization perpetrated by close others may affect partner preferences.
Petrović, Mateja; Kühl, Sebastian; Šlaj, Martina; Connert, Thomas; Filippi, Andreas
Handball has developed into a much faster and high-impact sport over the past few years because of rule changes. Fast sports with close body contact are especially prone to orofacial trauma. Handball belongs to a category of sports with medium risk for dental trauma. Even so, there is only little literature on this subject. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and the type of injuries, especially the occurrence of orofacial trauma, habits of wearing mouthguards, as well as degree of familiarity with the tooth rescue box. For this purpose, 77.1% (n=542/703) of all top athletes and coaches from the two highest Swiss leagues (National League A and National League B), namely 507 professional players and 35 coaches, were personally interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. 19.7% (n=100/507) of the players experienced dental trauma in their handball careers, with 40.8% (n=51/125) crown fractures being the most frequent by far. In spite of the relatively high risk of lip or dental trauma, only 5.7% (n=29/507) of the players wear mouthguards. The results of this study show that dental trauma is common among Swiss handball players. In spite of the high risk of dental trauma, the mouthguard as prevention is not adequately known, and correct procedure following dental trauma is rarely known at all.
Ochmann, J; Vrastyák, J; Svoboda, P; Kantorová, I; Zelnícek, P; Cierny, M
Authors present their first experience with urgent videothoracoscopy in polytraumatism and in isolated thoracic trauma patients. During the prospective study in 1993-1995 thoracoscopically was treated 41 (18%) from 229 multiple trauma patients including thorax trauma, hospitalised in our Institute. Thoracoscopy underwent 62 (4%) from 1452 patients with simple thoracic trauma. Thoracoscopy has been indicated above all for continued bleeding into peritoneal cavity, for suspected diafragmatic injury and for the diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic complications. Authors suggest that thoracoscopy is in experienced hands and adequatelly equipped workplaces an accurate and safe method for the diagnosis and in some cases also for therapy of hemodynamic stabile patients with thoracic trauma.
Wegener, Stephen T; Carroll, Eben A; Gary, Joshua L; McKinley, Todd O; OʼToole, Robert V; Sietsema, Debra L; Castillo, Renan C; Frey, Katherine P; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Huang, Yanjie; Collins, Susan C J; MacKenzie, Ellen J
The impact of the Trauma Collaborative Care (TCC) program on surgeon confidence in managing the psychosocial sequelae of orthopaedic trauma was evaluated as part of a larger prospective, multisite, cluster clinical trial. We compared confidence and perceived resource availability among surgeons practicing in trauma centers that implemented the TCC program with orthopaedic trauma surgeons in similar trauma centers that did not implement the TCC. Prospective cohort design. Level-I trauma centers. Attending surgeons and fellows (N = 95 Pre and N = 82 Post). Self-report 10-item measure of surgeon confidence in managing psychosocial issues associated with trauma and perceived availability of support resources. Analyses, performed on the entire sample and repeated on the subset of 52 surgeons who responded to the survey at both times points, found surgeons at intervention sites experienced a significantly greater positive improvement (P < 0.05) in their (1) belief that they have strategies to help orthopaedic trauma patients change their psychosocial situation; (2) confidence in making appropriate referrals for orthopaedic trauma patients with psychosocial problems; and (3) belief that they have access to information to guide the management of psychosocial issues related to recovery. Initial data suggest that the establishment of the TCC program can improve surgeons' perceived availability of resources and their confidence in managing the psychosocial sequelae after injury. Further studies will be required to determine if this translates into beneficial patient effects. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Peterson, Jean Sunde
A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…
Shobha G Pai
Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze blunt eye injuries with respect to mode of injury, sites involved and outcome. Method: This was a retrospective study of 32 patients with blunt ocular trauma from 2010 to 2012 in a tertiary care centre. Patient data, mode and extent of injury, management and outcome was noted and analyzed. Result: The commonest age of presentation was 10-20 years (28.125% and the commonest mode of injury was road traffic accident (28.125%. The most commonly involved structure was conjunctiva (84.375%, followed by lid and adnexa (62.5%. Anterior segment involvement included corneal epithelial defect (7 cases, hyphaema (4 cases, iritis (3 cases and anterior dislocation of lens (1 case. Posterior segment involvement included vitreous haemorrhage (1 case and commotio retinae (2 cases. Conclusion: This study reinforces that blunt trauma can cause any extent of damage to ocular structures and the final visual outcome is dependent on the structures injured.
Russell Vivienne A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma experienced early in life increases the risk of developing a number of psychological and/or behavioural disorders. It is unclear, however, how genetic predisposition to a behavioural disorder, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, modifies the long-term effects of early life trauma. There is substantial evidence from family and twin studies for susceptibility to ADHD being inherited, implying a strong genetic component to the disorder. In the present study we used an inbred animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, to investigate the long-term consequences of early life trauma on emotional behaviour in individuals predisposed to developing ADHD-like behaviour. Methods We applied a rodent model of early life trauma, maternal separation, to SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain from which SHR were originally derived. The effects of maternal separation (removal of pups from dam for 3 h/day during the first 2 weeks of life on anxiety-like behaviour (elevated-plus maze and depressive-like behaviour (forced swim test were assessed in prepubescent rats (postnatal day 28 and 31. Basal levels of plasma corticosterone were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results The effect of maternal separation on SHR and WKY differed in a number of behavioural measures. Similar to its reported effect in other rat strains, maternal separation increased the anxiety-like behaviour of WKY (decreased open arm entries but not SHR. Maternal separation increased the activity of SHR in the novel environment of the elevated plus-maze, while it decreased that of WKY. Overall, SHR showed a more active response in the elevated plus-maze and forced swim test than WKY, regardless of treatment, and were also found to have higher basal plasma corticosterone compared to WKY. Maternal separation increased basal levels of plasma corticosterone in SHR females only, possibly through adaptive
Magnone, S; Ghirardi, A; Ceresoli, M; Ansaloni, L
Centralization of trauma patients has become the standard of care. Unfortunately, overtriage can overcome the capability of Trauma Centres. This study aims to analyse the association of different mechanisms of injury with severe or major trauma defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 15 and an estimation of overtriage upon our Trauma Centre. A retrospective review of our prospective database was undertaken from March 2014 to August 2016. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between covariates (gender, age, and mechanisms of injury) and the risk of major trauma. The trauma team (TT) treated 1575 patients: among the 1359 (86%) were triaged only because of dynamics or mechanism of trauma. Overtriage according to an ISS < 15, was 74.6% on all trauma team activation (TTA) and 83.2% among the TTA prompted by the mechanism of injury. Patients aged 56-70 years had an 87% higher risk of having a major trauma than younger patients (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.29-2.71) while for patients aged more than 71 years OR was 3.45, 95% CI 2.31-5.15. Car head-on collision (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.27-4.92), intentional falls (OR 5.61, 95% CI 2.43-12.97), motorbike crash (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.65) and pedestrian impact (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.51-4.74) were significantly associated with a higher risk of major trauma in a multivariate analysis. Significant association with major trauma was demonstrated in the multivariate analysis of different mechanisms of trauma in patients triaged only for dynamics. A revision of our field triage protocol with a prospective validation is needed to improve overtriage that is above the suggested limits.
Perez-Dandieu, Béatrice; Tapia, Géraldine
Abstract Objective: This study investigated the effects of standard eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) protocol in chronically dependent patients. We propose that reprocessing traumatic memories with EMDR would lead to measurable changes of addiction symptoms. Twelve patients with alcohol and/or drug dependency were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU plus eight sessions of EMDR (TAU+EMDR). Measures of PTSD symptoms, addiction symptoms, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and alexithymia were included in this study. The TAU+EMDR group showed a significant reduction in PTSD symptoms but not in addiction symptoms. EMDR treatment was also associated with a significant decrease in depressive symptoms, while patients receiving TAU showed no improvement in this area. The TAU+EMDR group also showed significant changes in self-esteem and alexithymia post-treatment. This study suggests that PTSD symptoms can be successfully treated with standard EMDR protocol in substance abuse patients.
Gurses, Ayse P.; Hu, Peter; Gilger, Sheila; Dutton, Richard P.; Trainum, Therese; Ross, Kathy; Xiao, Yan
We described the information transfer and communication activities of nurse coordinators (NCO), who lead patient flow management in a major trauma center. A field study was conducted to identify information sources and information tools used, leading purposes of communication, and the information types NCOs need for patient flow management. In addition to verbal communication, NCOs frequently used a combination of patient-oriented and process-oriented information tools.
Jones, Deborah L; Kashy, Deborah; Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen M
Few HIV prevention interventions focus on sexual risk reduction as mutual process determined by couple members, though risk behaviors are inter-dependent. This trial examined the impact of substance use, history of sexual trauma, and intimate partner violence on sexual risk associated with participation in a risk reduction intervention. HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant multicultural couples in Miami, Florida (n = 216) were randomized to group (n = 112) or individual (n = 104) couple-based interventions. Group intervention participants increased condom use in couples in which women had a history of sexual trauma [F(2,221) = 3.39, p = 0.036] and by partners of alcohol users. History of sexual trauma was a determinant of conflict resolution, predicting negative communication and intimate partner violence. Results emphasize the need for group sexual risk reduction interventions targeting sexual trauma, partner violence, and substance use among HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples.
Street, J T
Road accident trauma is a leading cause of death and serious morbidity among healthy young adults in the developed world. The Irish Republic has the third worst road safety record in the EU. In studying the unique demographics of rural road accidents, our aim was to provide information essential to the future development of trauma care in Ireland. Our figures highlight the inadequacies of data received by the National Roads Authority, illustrate the resource impact of road trauma on a peripheral hospital, and demonstrate the need for similar studies in the rationalisation of trauma care as we approach the next millennium.
Park, Won Se; Lee, Hae Na; Jeong, Jin Sun; Kwon, Jung Hoon; Lee, Grace H; Kim, Kee Dong
Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 kB and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones.
Park, Won Se; Lee, Hae Na; Jeong, Jin Sun; Kwon, Jung Hoon; Lee, Grace H; Kim, Kee Dong [College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Dental trauma is frequently unpredictable. The initial assessment and urgent treatment are essential for dentists to save the patient's teeth. Mobile-phone-assisted teleconsultation and telediagnosis for dental trauma could be an aid when a dentist is not available. In the present in-vitro study, we evaluated the success rate and time to transfer images under various conditions. We analyzed the image quality of cameras built into mobile phones based on their resolution, autofocus, white-balance, and anti-movement functions. The image quality of most built-in cameras was acceptable to perform the initial assessment, with the autofocus function being essential to obtain high-quality images. The transmission failure rate increased markedly when the image size exceeded 500 kB and the additional text messaging did not improve the success rate or the transmission time. Our optimal protocol could be useful for emergency programs running on the mobile phones.
Full Text Available Dysfunctional processing of traumatic events may be in particular related to high trait anxiety as a pre-traumatic risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, as this has rarely been investigated in prospective, experimental studies, we aimed to analyse the association between high trait anxiety and affective as well as cognitive processing of stress using a new prospective Virtual Reality analogue trauma paradigm to overcome limitations of retrospective or current analogue designs. Individuals with high and low trait anxiety (N = 80 were exposed to a multi-sensory Virtual Reality emergency scenario while psychophysiological stress response, emotion regulation and intrusive memories were assessed. Our results showed that high trait anxiety individuals display increased (i subjective stress responses, (ii emotion dysregulation and (iii intrusive memories upon VR analogue trauma exposure. In particular, our sample of high trait anxiety individuals displayed limited access to different emotion regulation strategies as well as increased worry and rumination regarding perceived intrusive memories. Considering the complex interplay of multiple risk factors, our findings suggests that peri-traumatic affective processing seems to mediate high trait anxiety and post-traumatic intrusive memories thereby pointing out the central role of peri-traumatic processes for intrusion development. In addition, HA as a modulating pre-traumatic risk factor might further increase the risk of later dysfunctional processing of an analogue trauma by interacting with factors of affective processing during analogue trauma exposure. Implications of these findings which may contribute to a higher risk to develop PTSD are discussed.
Merchant, Amina; Outhay, Malena; Gonzaléz-Calvo, Lazáro; Moon, Troy D; Sidat, Mohsin; Taibo, Catia Luciana Abdulfattáhe; McQueen, Kelly
Over half of prehospital deaths in low-income countries are the result of airway compromise, respiratory failure, or uncontrolled hemorrhage; all three conditions can be addressed using simple first-aid measures. For both hospital personnel and laypersons, a basic trauma resuscitation training in modified ABCD (airway, breathing, circulation, disability) techniques can be easily learned and applied to increase the number of first responders in Mozambique, a resource-challenged country. A trauma training session was administered to 100 people in Mozambique: half were hospital personnel from 7 district medical centers and the other half were selected laypersons. This session included a pre-test, intervention, and post-test to evaluate and demonstrate first response skills. Eighty-eight people completed both the pre- and post-tests. Following the education intervention, both groups demonstrated an improvement in test scores. Hospital personnel had a mean post-test score of 60% (SD = 17, N = 43) and community laypeople had a mean score of 51% (SD = 16, N = 45). A t test for equal variances demonstrated significant difference between the post-intervention scores for the two groups (p = 0.01). All 100 participants were able to open an airway, externally control hemorrhage, and transport a patient with appropriate precautions. The trauma training session served as new information that improved knowledge as well as skills for both groups, and increased the number of capable responders in Mozambique. This study supports WHO recommendations to utilize the strengths of a developing nation-population-as the first step in establishing an organized trauma triage system.
Schweizer, Tina; Schmitz, Julian; Plempe, Laura; Sun, Dali; Becker-Asano, Christian; Leonhart, Rainer; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Dysfunctional processing of traumatic events may be in particular related to high trait anxiety as a pre-traumatic risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, as this has rarely been investigated in prospective, experimental studies, we aimed to analyse the association between high trait anxiety and affective as well as cognitive processing of stress using a new prospective Virtual Reality analogue trauma paradigm to overcome limitations of retrospective or current analogue designs. Individuals with high and low trait anxiety (N = 80) were exposed to a multi-sensory Virtual Reality emergency scenario while psychophysiological stress response, emotion regulation and intrusive memories were assessed. Our results showed that high trait anxiety individuals display increased (i) subjective stress responses, (ii) emotion dysregulation and (iii) intrusive memories upon VR analogue trauma exposure. In particular, our sample of high trait anxiety individuals displayed limited access to different emotion regulation strategies as well as increased worry and rumination regarding perceived intrusive memories. Considering the complex interplay of multiple risk factors, our findings suggests that peri-traumatic affective processing seems to mediate high trait anxiety and post-traumatic intrusive memories thereby pointing out the central role of peri-traumatic processes for intrusion development. In addition, HA as a modulating pre-traumatic risk factor might further increase the risk of later dysfunctional processing of an analogue trauma by interacting with factors of affective processing during analogue trauma exposure. Implications of these findings which may contribute to a higher risk to develop PTSD are discussed.
Madni, Tarik David; Ekeh, Akpofure Peter; Brakenridge, Scott C; Brasel, Karen J; Joseph, Bellal; Inaba, Kenji; Bruns, Brandon R; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Cuschieri, Joseph; Mohler, M Jane; Nakonezny, Paul A; Clark, Audra; Imran, Jonathan; Wolf, Steven E; Paulk, M Elizabeth; Rhodes, Ramona L; Phelan, Herb A
The nine-center Prognostic Assessment of Life and Limitations After Trauma in the Elderly consortium has validated the Geriatric Trauma Outcome Score (GTOS) as a prognosis calculator for injured elders. We compared GTOS' performance to that of the Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) in a multicenter sample. Three Prognostic Assessment of Life and Limitations After Trauma in the Elderly centers not submitting subjects to the GTOS validation study identified subjects aged 65 years to 102 years admitted from 2000 to 2013. GTOS was specified using the formula [GTOS = age + (Injury Severity Score [ISS] × 2.5) + 22 (if transfused packed red cells (PRC) at 24 hours)]. TRISS uses the Revised Trauma Score (RTS), dichotomizes age (<55 years = 0 and ≥55 years = 1), and was specified using the updated 1995 beta coefficients. TRISS Penetrating was specified as [TRISSP = -2.5355 + (0.9934 × RTS) + (-0.0651 × ISS) + (-1.1360 × Age)]. TRISS Blunt was specified as [TRISSB = -0.4499 + (0.8085 × RTS Total) + (-0.0835 × ISS) + (-1.7430 × Age)]. Each then became the sole predictor in a separate logistic regression model to estimate probability of mortality. Model performances were evaluated using misclassification rate, Brier score, and area under the curve. Demographics (mean + SD) of subjects with complete data (N = 10,894) were age, 78.3 years ± 8.1 years; ISS, 10.9 ± 8.4; RTS = 7.5 ± 1.1; mortality = 6.9%; blunt mechanism = 98.6%; 3.1 % of subjects received PRCs. The penetrating trauma subsample (n = 150) had a higher mortality rate of 20.0%. The misclassification rates for the models were GTOS, 0.065; TRISSB, 0.051; and TRISSP, 0.120. Brier scores were GTOS, 0.052; TRISSB, 0.041; and TRISSP, 0.084. The area under the curves were GTOS, 0.844; TRISSB, 0.889; and TRISSP, 0.897. GTOS and TRISS function similarly and accurately in predicting probability of death for injured elders. GTOS has the advantages of a single formula, fewer variables, and no reliance on data
Ashraf F. Hefny
Conclusion: A strategic plan is required to support pediatric trauma research in GCC countries so as to address unmet needs. Areas of deficiency include pre-hospital care, post-traumatic psychological effects and post-traumatic rehabilitation, interventional studies focused on a safe child environment and attitude changes, and the socioeconomic impact of pediatric trauma.
Full Text Available Background: Avoidance of stimuli that are associated with the traumatic event is a key feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Thus far, studies on the role of avoidance in the development and maintenance of PTSD focused primarily on strategic or explicit avoidance. However, patients may also show implicit avoidance behavior, which may remain even when explicit avoidance is reduced. Objectives: The present pilot study was designed to test the hypothesis that PTSD patients show implicit avoidance of threatening, trauma-related stimuli. In addition, it was tested whether this avoidance behavior also occurs for other stimuli. Methods: The Approach-Avoidance Task was used as an indirect measure of avoidance. Participants were 16 women suffering from PTSD who had experienced a sexual trauma, and 23 healthy non-traumatized women. Using a joystick, they pulled pictures closer to themselves or pushed them away. The pictures varied in content, being either high-threat sexual, non-threat sexual, high-threat accident, or positive. Results: Compared to control participants, PTSD patients avoided high-threat sexual pictures, and the degree of avoidance was predicted by self-reported arousal level. Moreover, PTSD patients with high levels of self-reported explicit avoidance, depressive symptoms, and PTSD symptom severity also avoided high-threat accident pictures. Conclusions: These findings point to the possible importance of threat value instead of trauma-relatedness in explaining implicit avoidance. The results are discussed in light of cognitive-behavioral models of PTSD, and clinical implications are suggested.
Le Breton, Alexia; Jegoux, Franck; Pilet, Paul; Godey, Benoit
Knowledge of cochlear trauma resulting from the implantation of electrodes is important for the development of atraumatic surgical techniques. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the advantages of micro-CT scanning, back-scattered electron microscopy (BSEM) and optical microscopy (OM) in understanding the mechanisms of cochlear trauma due to cochlear implantation. Our study involved six petrous bones removed from fresh human cadavers: one control specimen plus five other specimens that were surgically implanted with Neurelec Digisonic SP EVO electrode arrays. All six specimens underwent glycol methyl methacrylate embedding, were examined via micro-CT scan and were then sectioned for histological analysis of undecalcified samples via BSEM and OM. The 2D micro-CT scan reconstructions did not display cochlear microtrauma due to a limited resolution and the loss of information caused by the metallic artifacts of the intracochlear electrodes. The 3D reconstructions displayed the quality of the electrode array positioning in the cochlea and enabled determining the axes on which to section the specimens for histological examination. BSEM afforded a clear view of the damage to the osseous structures of the cochlea, but did not display the soft tissue injuries. OM enabled viewing and grading the histological lesions resulting from insertion. In our opinion, the combination of 3D micro-CT scan reconstructions and histological analysis using OM appears to be the best method to analyze this type of trauma.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The best method for radiographic "clearance" of the cervical spine in obtunded patients prior to removal of cervical immobilization devices remains debated. Dynamic radiographs or MRI are thought to demonstrate unstable injuries, but can be expensive and cumbersome to obtain. An upright lateral cervical radiograph (ULCR was performed in selected patients to investigate whether this study could provide this same information, to enable removal of cervical immobilization devices in the multiple trauma patient. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our experience with ULCR in 683 blunt trauma victims who presented over a 3-year period, with either a Glasgow Coma Score Results ULCR was performed in 163 patients. Seven patients had studies interpreted to be abnormal, of which six were also abnormal, by either CT or MRI. The seventh patient's only abnormality was soft tissue swelling; MRI was otherwise normal. Six patients had ULCR interpreted as normal, but had abnormalities on either CT or MRI. None of the missed injuries required surgical stabilization, although one had a vertebral artery injury demonstrated on subsequent angiography. ULCR had an apparent sensitivity of 45.5% and specificity of 71.4%. Conclusion ULCR are inferior to both CT and MRI in the detection of cervical injury in patients with normal plain radiographs. We therefore cannot recommend the use of ULCR in the obtunded trauma patient.
Keane, Carol; Magee, Christopher A; Lee, Jeong Kyu
This paper examined whether recall of childhood trauma was associated with adult alcohol consumption in a sample of Australians with low housing security. The secondary aim was to examine whether risky alcohol consumption predicted subsequent housing instability. Sociodemographic factors were examined as potential moderators of these associations. This paper utilised data collected through the Journeys Home Study, a longitudinal study of a representative sample of individuals who were homeless or at risk of homelessness. This paper focused on 1224 participants aged 18 years and over. Data on alcohol use, childhood trauma and sociodemographic characteristics were collected through interviews at baseline. Homeless status at 6- to 12-month follow-up was assessed via interview. Logistic regression modelling was used to examine associations of alcohol consumption with childhood abuse, sociodemographic factors and changes in homelessness status. Self-reported recall of childhood experiences of violence was more likely among current drinkers, risky or not, than among abstainers. Recall of childhood neglect was more common among abstainers than among risky drinkers. The relationships between recall of childhood trauma and adult alcohol consumption are likely to be complex. Risky consumption may contribute to continuing homelessness among adults with unstable housing. [Correction added on 29 December 2014, after first online publication: The Results, and Discussion and Conclusion sections in the abstract have been replaced.]. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Carstensen, Tina B W; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Oernboel, Eva
Patients with acute whiplash trauma were followed to examine if post-trauma ratings of pre-collision pain and psychological distress were associated with reduced work capability and neck pain at 12 months follow-up. The study included 740 consecutive patients (474 females, 266 males) referred from...... emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in four counties in Denmark. After the collision patients received a questionnaire on psychological distress, unspecified pain and socio-demographics and 12 months later a follow-up on work capability and neck pain was performed. Risk factors were...... with poor recovery and high accumulation of pre-collision psychological distress is associated with considerable neck pain at follow-up. However, no conclusions on causality can be drawn. Personal characteristics before the collision are important for recovery and attention to pre-collision characteristics...
Full Text Available D Eschbach,1 T Kirchbichler,1 T Wiesmann,2 L Oberkircher,1 C Bliemel,1 S Ruchholtz,1 B Buecking1 1Center for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, 2Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany Background: Most studies focusing on improving the nutritional status of geriatric trauma patients exclude patients with cognitive impairment. These patients are especially at risk of malnutrition at admission and of worsening during the perioperative fasting period. This study was planned as a feasibility study to identify the difficulties involved in including this high-risk collective of cognitively impaired geriatric trauma patients. Patients and methods: This prospective intervention study included cognitively impaired geriatric patients (Mini–Mental State Examination <25, age >65 years with hip-related fractures. We assessed Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA, Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002, body mass index, calf circumference, American Society of Anesthesiologists’ classification, and Braden Scale. All patients received parenteral nutritional supplementation of 800 kcal/d for the 96-hour perioperative period. Serum albumin and pseudocholinesterase were monitored. Information related to the study design and any complications in the clinical course were documented. Results: A total of 96 patients were screened, among whom eleven women (median age: 87 years; age range: 74–91 years and nine men (median age: 82 years; age range: 73–89 years were included. The Mini–Mental State Examination score was 9.5 (0–24. All patients were manifestly undernourished or at risk according to MNA and NRS 2002. The body mass index was 23 kg/m2 (13–30 kg/m2, the calf circumference was 29.5 cm (18–34 cm, and the mean American Society of Anesthesiologists’ classification status was 3 (2–4. Braden Scale showed 18 patients at high risk of developing pressure ulcers. In all, 12 patients had nonsurgical
Oner, F Cumhur; Sadiqi, Said; Lehr, A Mechteld; Aarabi, Bizhan; Dunn, Robert N; Dvorak, Marcel F; Fehlings, Michael G; Kandziora, Frank; Post, Marcel W; Rajasekaran, S; Vialle, Luiz; Vaccaro, Alexander R
Empirical cross-sectional multicenter study. To identify the most commonly experienced problems by patients with traumatic spinal column injuries, excluding patients with complete paralysis. There is no disease or condition-specific outcome instrument available that is designed or validated for patients with spine trauma, contributing to the present lack of consensus and ongoing controversies in the optimal treatment and evaluation of many types of spine injuries. Therefore, AOSpine Knowledge Forum Trauma started a project to develop such an instrument using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as its basis. Patients with traumatic spinal column injuries, within 13 months after discharge from hospital were recruited from 9 trauma centers in 7 countries, representing 4 AOSpine International world regions. Health professionals collected the data using the general ICF Checklist. The responses were analyzed using frequency analysis. Possible differences between the world regions and also between the subgroups of potential modifiers were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Fisher exact test. In total, 187 patients were enrolled. A total of 38 (29.7%) ICF categories were identified as relevant for at least 20% of the patients. Categories experienced as a difficulty/impairment were most frequently related to activities and participation (n = 15), followed by body functions (n = 6), and body structures (n = 5). Furthermore, 12 environmental factors were considered to be a facilitator in at least 20% of the patients. Of 128 ICF categories of the general ICF Checklist, 38 ICF categories were identified as relevant. Loss of functioning and limitations in daily living seem to be more relevant for patients with traumatic spinal column injuries rather than pain during this time frame. This study creates an evidence base to define a core set of ICF categories for outcome measurement in adult spine trauma patients. 4.
Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Barto, Beth; Griffin, Jessica L; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Hodgdon, Hilary; Bodian, Ruth
Child maltreatment is a serious public health concern, and its detrimental effects can be compounded by traumatic experiences associated with the child welfare (CW) system. Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a promising strategy for addressing traumatized children's needs, but research on the impact of TIC in CW is limited. This study examines initial findings of the Massachusetts Child Trauma Project, a statewide TIC initiative in the CW system and mental health network. After 1 year of implementation, Trauma-Informed Leadership Teams in CW offices emerged as key structures for TIC systems integration, and mental health providers' participation in evidence-based treatment (EBT) learning collaboratives was linked to improvements in trauma-informed individual and agency practices. After approximately 6 months of EBT treatment, children had fewer posttraumatic symptoms and behavior problems compared to baseline. Barriers to TIC that emerged included scarce resources for trauma-related work in the CW agency and few mental providers providing EBTs to young children. Future research might explore variations in TIC across service system components as well as the potential for differential effects across EBT models disseminated through TIC. © The Author(s) 2015.
Timothy H Rainer
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare 6 month and 12 month health status and functional outcomes between regional major trauma registries in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Multicentres from trauma registries in Hong Kong and the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR. METHODS: Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Major trauma patients and aged ≥18 years were included. The main outcome measures were Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE functional outcome and risk-adjusted Short-Form 12 (SF-12 health status at 6 and 12 months after injury. RESULTS: 261 cases from Hong Kong and 1955 cases from VSTR were included. Adjusting for age, sex, ISS, comorbid status, injury mechanism and GCS group, the odds of a better functional outcome for Hong Kong patients relative to Victorian patients at six months was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.17, and at 12 months was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.12. Adjusting for age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, Hong Kong patients demonstrated comparable mean PCS-12 scores at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.2, 95% CI: -1.2, 3.6 and 12-months (adjusted mean difference: -0.4, 95% CI: -3.2, 2.4 compared to Victorian patients. Keeping age, gender, ISS, GCS, injury mechanism and comorbid status, there was no difference in the MCS-12 scores of Hong Kong patients compared to Victorian patients at 6-months (adjusted mean difference: 0.4, 95% CI: -2.1, 2.8 or 12-months (adjusted mean difference: 1.8, 95% CI: -0.8, 4.5. CONCLUSION: The unadjusted analyses showed better outcomes for Victorian cases compared to Hong Kong but after adjusting for key confounders, there was no difference in 6-month or 12-month functional outcomes between the jurisdictions.
Shipherd, Jillian C; Ruben, Mollie A; Livingston, Nicholas A; Curreri, Andrew; Skolnik, Avy A
Past research suggests that rates of trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are elevated among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans compared to heterosexual and cisgender veterans. Given higher rates of trauma exposure and PTSD, and the culture associated with the Department of Defense's history of policies excluding LGBT people, it is important to understand if LGBT veterans are seeking PTSD treatment following discrimination-based traumatic events, where they seek care, and if they are satisfied with treatment. This study aimed to describe the experiences of discrimination-based trauma-exposed LGBT veterans' (n = 47) experiences with PTSD treatment, including location of treatment (Veterans Health Administration [VHA] versus non-VHA) and satisfaction with care. The majority of veterans had received a PTSD diagnosis from a health-care provider in their lifetimes (78.72%, n = 37), and over half reported currently experiencing PTSD symptoms. Approximately 47% of LGBT veterans with discrimination-based trauma histories preferred to seek PTSD treatment exclusively at VHA (46.81%) or with a combination of VHA and non-VHA services (38.30%). Veterans who received PTSD treatment exclusively from VHA reported higher satisfaction ratings (7.44 on 0-9 scale) than veterans who received PTSD treatment exclusively from outside VHA (5.25 on 0-9 scale). For veterans who sought PTSD treatment at both VHA and non-VHA facilities, there were no significant differences regarding satisfaction ratings for their PTSD treatment in the two settings. Results are discussed in terms of VHA's continued efforts to establish equitable, patient-centered health care for all veterans and the importance of non-VHA facilities to recognize veteran identities.
Full Text Available Occupational diseases are consequences of various workplace hazards. Cumulative trauma disorder or repetitive strain injury indicates the effect of repeated physical movements and partial pressure on muscles, tendons and other soft tissues of body. This is the most common disease caused by work. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study performed on state office workers in Kerman city in 2007. Data was collected using examination and three questionnaires about work-related diseases, job satisfaction and job stress. After completion of the questionnaires, a trained researcher analyzed the collected data by SPSS 13 and Chi square test. A level of P≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: Data analysis showed that factors such as repeated writing, typing, using computers at work, repeated lifting objects at the table level, traffic through the steps, traffic through the office corridor, reach of foot to the ground when sitting on the chair, using footrests under desk, using chair cushions, using lumber pillows, or swivel chair were not the cause of cumulative trauma disorder. Repetitive bending and refusal to lean against the seat when sitting were effective in causing the disease. Other findings of our research were employees’ ergonomic awareness status, job satisfaction and job stress being calculated according to the median scores for all three factors as average. Conclusion: Repetitive bending and avoidance from leaning against the chair were significant factors causing high rates of cumulative trauma disorder in office workers of Kerman city. Modification of these factors or even using lumbar supportive equipment may reduce the high prevalence of this disease. Cumulative trauma disorder was found less in employees under the age of thirty and the rates increased with age and work history, linearly.
André Sevenius Nilsen
Full Text Available Background: In studies employing physiological measures such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, it is often hard to distinguish what constitutes risk-resilience factors to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD following trauma exposure and what the effects of trauma exposure and PTSD are. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether there were observable morphological differences in cortical and sub-cortical regions of the brain, 7–8 years after a single potentially traumatic event. Methods: Twenty-four participants, who all directly experienced the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and 25 controls, underwent structural MRI using a 3T scanner. We generated cortical thickness maps and parcellated sub-cortical volumes for analysis. Results: We observed greater cortical thickness for the trauma-exposed participants relative to controls, in a right lateralized temporal lobe region including anterior fusiform gyrus, and superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyrus. Conclusions: We observed greater thickness in the right temporal lobe which might indicate that the region could be implicated in resilience to the long-term effects of a traumatic event. We hypothesize this is due to altered emotional semantic memory processing. However, several methodological and confounding issues warrant caution in interpretation of the results.
Farming is the most dangerous occupation in Ireland1 and the incidence of farm accidents is rising. This study examines major farm animal-related trauma treated at Cork University Hospital over a 5 year period. There were 54 patients admitted to Cork University Hospital (C.U.H.) with major farm animal-related trauma. The median age was 56 years, 85% were male and the median hospital length of stay was four days. Older patients had longer lengths of stay; 5.5 vs 4 days (p=0.026). Tibia\\/fibula fractures were the most common injuries (N=13, 24%); head injury occurred in six patients (11%). There were 32 (59%) patients who required surgery, the majority for orthopaedic injuries. There were nine patients (16.7%) admitted to the intensive care unit; their median ICU stay was four days. Injury prevention and treatment strategies require that the age profile, mechanism of injury and injury patterns of farmers sustaining animal-related trauma is recognised.
Pääkkönen, Markus; Kallio, Markku J T; Lankinen, Petteri; Peltola, Heikki; Kallio, Pentti E
Preceding trauma may play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of hematogenous bone and joint infections. Among 345 children with an acute hematogenous bone and/or joint infection, 20% reported trauma during a 2-week period leading to infection. Blunt impact, bruises, or excoriations were commonly reported. The rate was similar to that in the general pediatric population obtained from the literature. In the study group, patients with and without trauma were similar in age, serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, length of hospitalization, and late sequelae. Preceding minor trauma did not prove to be significant as an etiological or as a prognostic factor.
Beckett, Kate; Earthy, Sarah; Sleney, Jude; Barnes, Jo; Kellezi, Blerina; Barker, Marcus; Clarkson, Julie; Coffey, Frank; Elder, Georgina; Kendrick, Denise
To explore views of service providers caring for injured people on: the extent to which services meet patients' needs and their perspectives on factors contributing to any identified gaps in service provision. Qualitative study nested within a quantitative multicentre longitudinal study assessing longer term impact of unintentional injuries in working age adults. Sampling frame for service providers was based on patient-reported service use in the quantitative study, patient interviews and advice of previously injured lay research advisers. Service providers' views were elicited through semistructured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants were recruited from a range of settings and services in acute hospital trusts in four study centres (Bristol, Leicester, Nottingham and Surrey) and surrounding areas. 40 service providers from a range of disciplines. Service providers described two distinct models of trauma care: an 'ideal' model, informed by professional knowledge of the impact of injury and awareness of best models of care, and a 'real' model based on the realities of National Health Service (NHS) practice. Participants' 'ideal' model was consistent with standards of high-quality effective trauma care and while there were examples of services meeting the ideal model, 'real' care could also be fragmented and inequitable with major gaps in provision. Service provider accounts provide evidence of comprehensive understanding of patients' needs, awareness of best practice, compassion and research but reveal significant organisational and resource barriers limiting implementation of knowledge in practice. Service providers envisage an 'ideal' model of trauma care which is timely, equitable, effective and holistic, but this can differ from the care currently provided. Their experiences provide many suggestions for service improvements to bridge the gap between 'real' and 'ideal' care. Using service provider views to inform service design
Foley, P. T.; Kavnoudias, H.; Cameron, P. U.; Czarnecki, C.; Paul, E.; Lyon, S. M.
PurposeTo compare the impact of proximal or distal splenic artery embolisation versus that of splenectomy on splenic immune function as measured by IgM memory B cell levels.Materials and MethodsPatients with splenic trauma who were treated by splenic artery embolisation (SAE) were enrolled. After 6 months splenic volume was assessed by CT, and IgM memory B cells in peripheral blood were measured and compared to a local normal reference population and to a post-splenectomy population.ResultsOf the 71 patients who underwent embolisation, 38 underwent proximal embolisation, 11 underwent distal embolisation, 22 patients were excluded, 1 had both proximal and distal embolisation, 5 did not survive and 16 did not return for evaluation. There was a significant difference between splenectomy and proximal or distal embolisation and a trend towards greater preservation of IgM memory B cell number in those with distal embolisation—a difference that could not be attributed to differences in age, grade of injury or residual splenic volume.ConclusionIgM memory B cell levels are significantly higher in those treated with SAE compared to splenectomy. Our data provide evidence that splenic embolisation should reduce immunological complications of spleen trauma and suggest that distal embolisation may maintain better function
Foley, P. T., E-mail: email@example.com [The Canberra Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging (Australia); Kavnoudias, H., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [The Alfred Hospital, Radiology Research Unit, Radiology Department (Australia); Cameron, P. U., E-mail: email@example.com [The Alfred Hospital, Infectious Diseases Unit (Australia); Czarnecki, C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Radiology Department (Australia); Paul, E., E-mail: email@example.com [Monash University, Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Alfred Hospital (Australia); Lyon, S. M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Melbourne Endovascular (Australia)
PurposeTo compare the impact of proximal or distal splenic artery embolisation versus that of splenectomy on splenic immune function as measured by IgM memory B cell levels.Materials and MethodsPatients with splenic trauma who were treated by splenic artery embolisation (SAE) were enrolled. After 6 months splenic volume was assessed by CT, and IgM memory B cells in peripheral blood were measured and compared to a local normal reference population and to a post-splenectomy population.ResultsOf the 71 patients who underwent embolisation, 38 underwent proximal embolisation, 11 underwent distal embolisation, 22 patients were excluded, 1 had both proximal and distal embolisation, 5 did not survive and 16 did not return for evaluation. There was a significant difference between splenectomy and proximal or distal embolisation and a trend towards greater preservation of IgM memory B cell number in those with distal embolisation—a difference that could not be attributed to differences in age, grade of injury or residual splenic volume.ConclusionIgM memory B cell levels are significantly higher in those treated with SAE compared to splenectomy. Our data provide evidence that splenic embolisation should reduce immunological complications of spleen trauma and suggest that distal embolisation may maintain better function.
Ashley, Dennis W; Nicholas, Jeffrey M; Dente, Christopher J; Johns, Tracy J; Garlow, Laura E; Solomon, Gina; Abston, Dena; Ferdinand, Colville H
As quality and outcomes have moved to the fore front of medicine in this era of healthcare reform, a state trauma system Performance Based Payments (PBP) program has been incorporated into trauma center readiness funding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a PBP on trauma center revenue. From 2010 to 2016, a percentage of readiness costs funding to trauma centers was placed in a PBP and withheld until the PBP criteria were completed. To introduce the concept, only three performance criteria and 10 per cent of readiness costs funding were tied to PBP in 2010. The PBP has evolved over the last several years to now include specific criteria by level of designation with an increase to 50 per cent of readiness costs funding being tied to PBP criteria. Final PBP distribution to trauma centers was based on the number of performance criteria completed. During 2016, the PBP criteria for Level I and II trauma centers included participation in official state meetings/conference calls, required attendance to American College of Surgeons state chapter meetings, Trauma Quality Improvement Program, registry reports, and surgeon participation in Peer Review Committee and trauma alert response times. Over the seven-year study period, $36,261,469 was available for readiness funds with $11,534,512 eligible for the PBP. Only $636,383 (6%) was withheld from trauma centers. A performance-based program was successfully incorporated into trauma center readiness funding, supporting state performance measures without adversely affecting the trauma center revenue. Future PBP criteria may be aligned to designation standards and clinical quality performance metrics.
Uranues, Selman; Popa, Dorin Eugen; Diaconescu, Bogdan; Schrittwieser, Rudolph
If morbidity and mortality are to be reduced in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma, first priority goes to prompt and accurate determination of peritoneal penetration and identification of the need for surgery. In this setting, laparoscopy may have an important impact on the rate of negative or non-therapeutic laparotomies. We analyzed indications and patient selection criteria for laparoscopy in penetrating trauma along with outcomes. The analysis focused on identification of peritoneal penetration and injuries to the diaphragm, small intestine, and mesentery. Results from the early phase of laparoscopy were compared with those from recent decades with more advanced laparoscopic equipment and instruments and more experienced surgeons. A systematic review of the role of laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal trauma shows a sensitivity ranging from 66.7 to 100%, specificity from 33.3 to 100% and accuracy from 50 to 100%. Publications from the 1990s found trauma laparoscopy to be inadequate for detecting intestinal injuries and so to lead to missed injuries. Twenty-three of the 50 studies including the most recent ones report sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100%. Laparoscopy is more cost effective than negative laparotomy. Laparoscopy can be performed safely and effectively on stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. The most important advantages are reduction of morbidity, accuracy in detecting diaphragmatic and intestinal injuries, and elimination of prolonged hospitalization for observation, so reducing the length of stay and increasing cost effectiveness.
Ono, Miyuki; Devilly, Grant J
The aim of this study was to examine the contributory role of childhood and adulthood trauma events and the appraisal of self-discrepancy (the magnitude and distress) in overgeneral memory retrieval (OGM) using a non-clinical sample. Participants with a history of childhood trauma (n=29); adulthood trauma only (n=17) or no-trauma (n=26) participated in this study. The childhood trauma group showed a significantly higher level of general negative memory retrieval than the no-trauma group. Conversely, the adulthood trauma group showed a significantly higher level of general threat memory retrieval than the no-trauma group. The perceived similarity and distress relating to the perceived similarity between participants' "actual self" and "feared self" significantly predicted the level of OGM, even after controlling for the impact of a history of adult or child trauma.
Lapostolle, Frédéric; Couvreur, James; Koch, François Xavier; Savary, Dominique; Alhéritière, Armelle; Galinski, Michel; Sebbah, Jean-Luc; Tazarourte, Karim; Adnet, Frédéric
Hypothermia is common in trauma victims and is associated with increased mortality, however its causes are little known. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with hypothermia in prehospital management of trauma victims. This was an ancillary analysis of data recorded in the HypoTraum study, a prospective multicenter study conducted by the emergency medical services (EMS) of 8 hospitals in France. Inclusion criteria were: trauma victim, age over 18 years, and victim receiving prehospital care from an EMS team and transported to hospital by the EMS team in a medically equipped mobile intensive care unit. The following data were recorded: victim demographics, circumstances of the trauma, environmental factors, patient presentation, clinical data and time from accident to EMS arrival. Independent risk factors for hypothermia were analyzed in a multivariate logistic regression model. A total of 461 trauma patients were included in the study. Road traffic accidents (N = 261; 57%) and falls (N = 65; 14%) were the main causes of trauma. Hypothermia (present in 136/461 cases (29%). Independent factors significantly associated with the presence of hypothermia were: a low GCS (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0,87 ([0,81-0,92]; p measurement and immediate thermal protection should be routine, and special attention should be given to patients who are wet. Prospective, multicenter, open, observational study; Level IV.
Matuszewski, Paul E; Costales, Timothy; Zerhusen, Timothy; Coale, Max; Mehta, Samir; Pollak, Andrew N; OʼToole, Robert V
Some have proposed that a so-called digital divide exists for orthopaedic trauma patients and that the clinical usefulness of the Internet for these patients is limited. No studies to date have confirmed this or whether patients would use a provided web resource. The hypotheses of this study were (1) a larger than expected percentage of trauma patients have access to the Internet and (2) if given access to a custom site, patients will use it. Prospective cohort. Level 1 regional trauma center. Patients who were 18 years or older with acute operative fractures participated in this study. Enrollment was initiated either before discharge or at initial outpatient follow-up. We conducted a survey of demographics, Internet usage, device type, eHealth Literacy, and intent to use the web site. Participants received a keychain containing the web address and a unique access code to our custom orthopaedic trauma web site. Percentage of patients with Internet access and percentage of patients who visited the web site. One hundred twelve patients were enrolled. Ninety-three percent (104/112) reported having Internet access (P digital divide is a myth in orthopaedic trauma. Despite widespread access and enthusiasm for our web site, few patients visited. This cautions against the allocation of resources for patient-specific web sites for orthopaedic trauma until a rationale for use can be better delineated. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Scheffers, Mia; Hoek, Maike; Bosscher, Ruud J; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T
Background : A crucial but often overlooked impact of early life exposure to trauma is its far-reaching effect on a person's relationship with their body. Several domains of body experience may be negatively influenced or damaged as a result of early childhood trauma. Objective : The aim of this study was to investigate disturbances in three domains of body experience: body attitude, body satisfaction, and body awareness. Furthermore, associations between domains of body experience and severity of trauma symptoms as well as frequency of dissociation were evaluated. Method : Body attitude was measured with the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire, body satisfaction with the Body Cathexis Scale, and body awareness with the Somatic Awareness Questionnaire in 50 female patients with complex trauma and compared with scores in a non-clinical female sample ( n = 216). Patients in the clinical sample also filled out the Davidson Trauma Scale and the Dissociation Experience Scale. Results : In all measured domains, body experience was severely affected in patients with early childhood trauma. Compared with scores in the non-clinical group, effect sizes in Cohen's d were 2.7 for body attitude, 1.7 for body satisfaction, and 0.8 for body awareness. Associations between domains of body experience and severity of trauma symptoms were low, as were the associations with frequency of dissociative symptoms. Conclusions : Early childhood trauma in women is associated with impairments in self-reported body experience that warrant careful assessment in the treatment of women with psychiatric disorders.
High rates of lifetime trauma experiences exist among men incarcerated in US state and federal prisons. Because lifetime trauma experiences have been linked to problematic behavioral and psychiatric outcomes for incarcerated populations, trauma-informed interventions could improve post-release well-being of releasing men prisoners with trauma histories. Social support has consistently been found to have a positive impact on trauma-related outcomes in non-incarcerated populations. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that social support may be an important intervention component for releasing men prisoners with trauma experiences; yet, the relationship between trauma experiences, psychiatric and behavioral factors, and social support has received almost no attention in research with men prisoners. Using a probability sample of 165 soon-to-be-released men, the present study examined differences in certain demographic, criminal justice history, mental health, substance abuse, and social support (type, quality, amount, and source) variables between releasing men prisoners with and without lifetime trauma experiences. Results indicate that men with trauma histories had more negative social support experiences and fewer positive social support resources before prison than their counterparts. Men with trauma histories also had more lifetime experiences with mental health and substance use problems. On further investigation of the subsample of men with trauma histories, those who were older, had substance use disorders, and histories of mental health problems anticipated fewer post-release social support resources. Study findings underscore the nuances of social support for men prisoners with trauma experiences and point to implications for future directions in targeted trauma-informed intervention development for releasing men prisoners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laidoowoo, E; Baert, O; Besnier, E; Dureuil, B
Dental injuries are the first cause of sinistrality in anaesthesiology. However, few insurance-related data are available concerning the publicly-owned establishments, in particular on the cost of the complaints deposited. We studied the epidemiology of dental trauma in a teaching hospital and brought it closer to the induced insurance-related costs. We conducted a retrospective study, examining the files of declaration of dental trauma, from January 2005 to December 2008. The litigations for dental injuries treated by Quality and Services Department were also analysed. Seventy-two cases of dental lesions were declared, i.e. 1/1528 general anaesthesias. Concerning the risk factors of lesion, 47 patients (65%) presented bad dental conditions identified during the pre-anaesthetic consultation; 27 patients (37%) had criteria for difficult intubation listed on the sheet of anaesthesia. The association of the 2 factors was found among 20 patients. The indication of information to the patient on the dental risk was registered on the sheet of anaesthesia in 17% of cases. The Quality and Services Department recorded 23 complaints for dental trauma over the period. In 4 cases the complaint was followed by a compensation for an average amount equal to 608 (256-1002) Euros, i.e., a total cost of 2434 Euros. The two main risk factors of dental lesion are well identified with the consultation of anaesthesia and are noted on the file. However, information to the patient on this risk is seldom notified. The incidence of dental lesions is important, but few complaints open right to financial repair for a very low insurance-related total amount. Copyright © 2011 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Rapid acute physiology score (RAPS and rapid emergency medicine score (REMS are two physiologic models for measuring injury severity in emergency settings. The present study was designed to compare the two models in outcome prediction of trauma patients presenting to emergency department (ED.Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the two models of RAPS and REMS were compared regarding prediction of mortality and poor outcome (severe disability based on Glasgow outcome scale of trauma patients presenting to the EDs of 5 educational hospitals in Iran (Tehran, Tabriz, Urmia, Jahrom and Ilam from May to October 2016. The discriminatory power and calibration of the models were calculated and compared using STATA 11.Results: 2148 patients with the mean age of 39.50±17.27 years were studied (75.56% males. The area under the curve of REMS and RAPS in predicting in-hospital mortality were calculated to be 0.93 (95% CI: 0.92-0.95 and 0.899 (95% CI: 0.86-0.93, respectively (p=0.02. These measures were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.94 and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.90, respectively, regarding poor outcome (p=0.001. The optimum cut-off point in predicting outcome was found to be 3 for REMS model and 2 for RAPS model. The sensitivity and specificity of REMS and RAPS in the mentioned cut offs were 95.93 vs. 85.37 and 77.63 vs. 83.51, respectively, in predicting mortality. Calibration and overall performance of the two models were acceptable.Conclusion: The present study showed that adding age and level of arterial oxygen saturation to the variables included in RAPS model can increase its predictive value. Therefore, it seems that REMS could be used for predicting mortality and poor outcome of trauma patients in emergency settings
Sara M. Al-Kindi
Full Text Available Objectives: Road traffic injuries (RTIs are considered a major public health problem worldwide. In Oman, high numbers of RTIs and RTI-related deaths are frequently registered. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of trauma care facilities in Oman with regards to their proximity to RTI-prevalent areas. Methods: This descriptive pilot study analysed RTI data recorded in the national Royal Oman Police registry from January to December 2014. The distribution of trauma care facilities was analysed by calculating distances between areas of peak RTI incidence and the closest trauma centre using Google Earth and Google Maps software (Google Inc., Googleplex, Mountain View, California, USA. Results: A total of 32 trauma care facilities were identified. Four facilities (12.5% were categorised as class V trauma centres. Of the facilities in Muscat, 42.9% were ranked as class IV or V. There were no class IV or V facilities in Musandam, Al-Wusta or Al-Buraimi. General surgery, orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery services were available in 68.8%, 59.3% and 12.5% of the centres, respectively. Emergency services were available in 75.0% of the facilities. Intensive care units were available in 11 facilities, with four located in Muscat. The mean distance between a RTI hotspot and the nearest trauma care facility was 34.7 km; however, the mean distance to the nearest class IV or V facility was 83.3 km. Conclusion: The distribution and quality of trauma care facilities in Oman needs modification. It is recommended that certain centres upgrade their levels of trauma care in order to reduce RTI-associated morbidity and mortality in Oman.
Full Text Available Introduction: Dental trauma has become an important attribute of dental public health inducing feelings of embarrassment to smile, laugh, and show teeth affecting social relationships. Available literature regarding the impact of dental trauma on the quality of life of children in Lucknow is scarce. Aims: To assess the impact of traumatic dental injuries (TDI on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL among 12-year-old school going children of Lucknow. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 12-year-old Lucknow school children. A total of 492 school children were selected through multistage cluster random sampling. The participants completed the child perceptions questionnaire (CPQ 11-14 - impact short form: 16 followed by an assessment of TDI. Unpaired t-test was used to determine the association of TDI with CPQ 11-14 because it involved two separate groups; one with dental trauma and other without dental trauma. Results: The prevalence of TDI was 10.8%. Maxillary central incisors (8.73% were the frequently traumatized teeth. Enamel fracture (7.11% was the most common type of TDI. OHRQoL had statistically significant association with TDI. Conclusions: TDI has a negative impact on OHRQoL of children affecting their personal relationships and school performance.
Full Text Available Background: Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal–fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition. Objective: We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and their association with adverse birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a South African birth cohort study. Methods: Pregnant women were recruited from two clinics in a peri-urban community outside Cape Town. Trauma exposure and PTSD were assessed using diagnostic interviews; validated self-report questionnaires measured other psychosocial characteristics. Gestational age at delivery was calculated and birth outcomes were assessed by trained staff. Multiple logistic regression explored risk factors for trauma and PTSD; associations with birth outcomes were investigated using linear regression. Potential confounders included study site, socioeconomic status (SES, and depression. Results: A total of 544 mother–infant dyads were included. Lifetime trauma was reported in approximately two-thirds of mothers, with about a third exposed to past-year intimate partner violence (IPV. The prevalence of current/lifetime PTSD was 19%. In multiple logistic regression, recent life stressors were significantly associated with lifetime trauma, when controlling for SES, study site, and recent IPV. Childhood trauma and recent stressors were significantly associated with PTSD, controlling for SES and study site. While no association was observed between maternal PTSD and birth outcomes, maternal trauma was significantly associated with a 0.3 unit reduction (95% CI: 0.1; 0.5 in infant head-circumference-for-age z-scores (HCAZ scores at birth in crude analysis, which remained significant when adjusted for study site and recent stressors in a multivariate regression model. Conclusions: In this exploratory study
Reininghaus, U; Gayer-Anderson, C; Valmaggia, L; Kempton, M J; Calem, M; Onyejiaka, A; Hubbard, K; Dazzan, P; Beards, S; Fisher, H L; Mills, J G; McGuire, P; Craig, T K J; Garety, P; van Os, J; Murray, R M; Wykes, T; Myin-Germeys, I; Morgan, C
Evidence has accumulated that implicates childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but our understanding of the putative psychological processes and mechanisms through which childhood trauma impacts on individuals and contributes to the development of psychosis remains limited. We aimed to investigate whether stress sensitivity and threat anticipation underlie the association between childhood abuse and psychosis. We used the Experience Sampling Method to measure stress, threat anticipation, negative affect, and psychotic experiences in 50 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, 44 At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) participants, and 52 controls. Childhood abuse was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations of minor socio-environmental stress in daily life with negative affect and psychotic experiences were modified by sexual abuse and group (all p FWE childhood sexual abuse and psychosis.
Bosboom, D. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St Radboud, Postbus 9101, Route 667, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Braam, A.W.E. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Medical Center St Radboud, Postbus 9101, Route 815, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Blickman, J.G. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center St Radboud, Postbus 9101, Route 667, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Wijnen, R.M.H. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Medical Center St Radboud, Postbus 9101, Route 815, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: R.Wijnen@kchir.umcn.nl
Background: The role imaging studies play in the choice of treatment in traumatic pancreas damage remains unclear. This study was performed to gain insight into the role of radiological studies in children 16 years of age or younger admitted to our hospital with pancreatic damage due to a blunt abdominal trauma. Method: Retrospectively, the radiological as well as patient clinical records were reviewed of all children admitted to our hospital between 1975 and 2003 with a pancreatic lesion due to blunt abdominal trauma. Results: Thirty-four children with ages ranging from 3 to 14 years old were admitted with traumatic pancreas damage. Initially 33 children were treated conservatively for the pancreatic damage and only one had immediate surgery of the pancreas with a Roux-y pancreaticojejunostomy. Five other children had immediate surgery for other reasons. Overall, five children proved to have a pancreas transection on CT scans or during laparotomy. One child had a pancreas hematoma and 28 a pancreas contusion. In total 15 children developed a pseudocyst (44%), nine of which resolved spontaneously while six were treated by intervention. None of the children had residual morbidity, and there were no deaths. Considering the pancreas, the 11 available CT's were re-evaluated by two radiologists independently. Grade 3 pancreas damage (distal transection of the pancreatic duct) was diagnosed in five patients by radiologist A and four patients by radiologist B (80% match); Grade 1 was diagnosed in, respectively six and one patients (15% match). An US was performed on 19 children with 82 follow-up examinations, mostly for follow-up of the pseudocysts. Conclusion: Traumatic pancreas damage is a rare and difficult diagnosis. There is no straightforward answer for diagnostic imaging in blunt abdominal trauma in children. The diagnostic relevance of CT is limited. CT in combination with MRCP may be a better option for exclusion of pancreatic duct lesions.
Papanikolaou, Vasiliki; Gadallah, Mohsen; Leon, Gloria R; Massou, Efthalia; Prodromitis, Gerasimos; Skembris, Angelos; Levett, Jeffrey
Social and political instability have become common situations in many parts of the world. Exposure to different types of traumatic circumstances may differentially affect psychological status. The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between personal perceptions of control over the events happening in one's life and psychological distress in two groups who experienced physical trauma but differed as to whether the trauma was a result of political upheaval and violence. Views on the extent to which the state was interested in the individual were also assessed. The sample consisted of 120 patients who were injured in the Cairo epicenter and 120 matched controls from the greater Cairo area whose injuries were from other causes. The Brown Locus of Control Scale and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL 90-R) were administered approximately three months after the January 2011 start of the demonstrations and subsequent overthrow of the government. The groups did not differ on locus of control. For both groups, externality was associated with greater distress, suggesting a relationship between perceived helplessness in controlling one's life and distress. The Cairo group scored significantly higher than the control group on the SCL 90-R Global Severity Index (GSI) and Positive Symptom Total (PST). Perceptions of state interest in the population were low; overall, 78% viewed the state as having little or no interest in them. Discussion The relationship between exposure intensity and psychological distress is examined. In addition, differences in findings in populations experiencing political chaos compared with other types of disasters are considered. Beliefs regarding personal control over one's life circumstances are more closely associated with psychological distress than the circumstances in which the trauma occurred.
Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per; Elklit, Ask; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
The prevalence of trauma-related psychiatric disorders is high among refugees. Despite this, little is known about the effect of pharmacological treatment for this patient group. The objective of the present study was therefore to examine differences in the effects of venlafaxine and sertraline on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression and functional impairment in trauma-affected refugees. The study was a randomised pragmatic trial comparing venlafaxine and sertraline in combination with psychotherapy and social counselling. PTSD symptoms were measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire - part IV, which was the primary outcome measure. Other outcome measures included: Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 (depression and anxiety), Social Adjustment Scale - short version (social functioning), WHO-5 Well-being Index (quality of life), Crisis Support Scale (support from social network), Sheehan Disability Scale (disability in three areas of functioning), Hamilton Depression and Anxiety scale, the somatisation items of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales and the summarised score of pain in four body areas rated on visual analogue scales. Two hundred seven adult refugee patients were included in the trial (98 in the venlafaxine and 109 in the sertraline group). Of these, 195 patients were eligible for intention-to-treat analyses. Small but significant pre-treatment to post-treatment differences were found on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and a number of other ratings in both groups. On the primary outcome measure, no difference was found in treatment effect between the sertraline and venlafaxine group. A significant group difference was found in favour of sertraline on the Sheehan Disability Scale. Sertraline had a slightly better outcome than venlafaxine on some of the secondary outcome measures, but not on the primary outcome measure. Furthermore, a higher percentage of dropouts was found in the venlafaxine group compared to the
LaGrone, Lacey N; Isquith-Dicker, Leah N; Huaman Egoavil, Eduardo; Rodriguez Castro, Manuel J A; Allagual, Alfredo; Revoredo, Fernando; Mock, Charles N
The globalization of medical education-the process by which trainees in any region gain access to international training (electronic or in-person)-is a growing trend. More data are needed to inform next steps in the responsible stewardship of this process, from the perspective of trainees and institutions at all income levels, and for use by national and international policymakers. To describe the impact of the globalization of medical education on surgical care in Peru from the perspective of Peruvian surgeons who received international training. Observational study of qualitative interviews conducted from September 2015 to January 2016 using grounded theory qualitative research methods. The study was conducted at 10 large public institutions that provide most of the trauma care in Lima, Peru, and included urban resident and faculty surgery and trauma care physicians. Access to international surgical rotations and medical information. Outcome measures defining the impact of globalization on surgical care were developed as part of simultaneous data collection and analysis during qualitative research as part of a larger project on trauma quality improvement practices in Peru. Fifty qualitative interviews of surgeons and emergency medicine physicians were conducted at 10 hospitals, including multiple from the public and social security systems. A median of 4 interviews were conducted at each hospital, and fewer than 3 interviews were conducted at only 1 hospital. From the broader theme of globalization emerged subthemes of an eroded sense of agency and a perception of inadequate training on the adaptation of international standards as negative effects of globalization on surgical care in Peru. Access to research funds, provision of incentives for acquisition of advanced clinical training, increased expectations for patient outcomes, and education in quality improvement skills are ways in which globalization positively affected surgeons and their patients in Peru
Chen, Chen; Zhang, Yi; An, Jin-gang; He, Yang; Gong, Xi
To select a scoring system suitable for the scoring of maxillofacial trauma by comparing 4 commonly used scoring systems according to expert scoring. Twenty-eight subjects who had experienced maxillofacial trauma constituted the study cohort. Four commonly used systems were selected: New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Facial Injury Severity Scale (FISS), Maxillofacial Injury Severity Score (MFISS), and Maxillofacial Injury Severity Score (MISS). Each patient was graded using these 4 systems. From the experience of our trauma center, an expert scoring table was created. After the purpose and scheme of the study had been explained, 35 experts in maxillofacial surgery were invited to grade the injury of the 28 patients using the expert scoring table according to their clinical experience. The results of the 4 scoring systems and expert score were compared. The results of the 4 scoring systems and expert score demonstrated a normal distribution. All results demonstrated significant differences (P expert score was the greatest (0.801). The correlation coefficient between the NISS, FISS, and MISS and the expert score was 0.714, 0.699, and 0.729, respectively. Agreement between the standardized scores and the expert score was evaluated using Bland-Altman plots; the agreement between the standardized MFISS and expert score was the best. Compared with the other 3 scoring systems, the correlation and agreement between the MFISS and expert score was greater. This finding suggests that the MFISS is more suitable for scoring maxillofacial injuries. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Choudhary, Arabinda K. [Nemours A.I. DuPont Children Hospital, Department of Radiology, Wilmington, DE (United States); Ishak, Ramsay; Zacharia, Thomas T. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Dias, Mark S. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Hershey, PA (United States)
Spinal imaging has been a neglected part of abusive head trauma (AHT) imaging. As most of the radiographs and CT spine are negative in AHT in infants, the cervical spine is assumed to be normal. There is increasing evidence in the role of injury to brainstem and cervical cord in the pathogenesis of AHT. In addition, in courts of law, there is fierce debate about AHT, its mimics and other disparate nontraumatic diagnoses explaining the neuroradiological and skeletal findings. However, this discussion ignores the evidence and significance of spinal injury. We sought to study the cervical spine in an AHT cohort to understand the true prevalence of spinal injuries in AHT and contrast it with cohorts of accidental and nontraumatic groups to give the clinicians a robust diagnostic tool in evaluating AHT. The purpose of this study is to compare the relative incidence of spinal ligamentous and soft-tissue abnormalities on spinal MRI among three groups of children ages < 48 months: (1) those with AHT, (2) those with accidental trauma, and (3) those with nontraumatic conditions. This comparative study included 183 children who underwent spine MRI: 67 with AHT, 46 with accidental trauma and a clinical suspicion of spinal injury, and 70 with nontraumatic conditions. Clinical and radiographic findings were collected in all cases and were analyzed retrospectively to identify MRI evidence of traumatic spinal injuries. The incidence of spinal injuries among the three groups was compared. The incidence of spinal ligamentous injuries was calculated for those with and without radiographic evidence of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. All comparisons were performed using Fisher exact test with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Cervical spine ligamentous injuries (predominantly the nuchal, atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial ligaments) were present in 78% of the AHT group, 46% of the accidental trauma group and 1% of the nontraumatic group; all of these differences were
Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Ishak, Ramsay; Zacharia, Thomas T.; Dias, Mark S.
Spinal imaging has been a neglected part of abusive head trauma (AHT) imaging. As most of the radiographs and CT spine are negative in AHT in infants, the cervical spine is assumed to be normal. There is increasing evidence in the role of injury to brainstem and cervical cord in the pathogenesis of AHT. In addition, in courts of law, there is fierce debate about AHT, its mimics and other disparate nontraumatic diagnoses explaining the neuroradiological and skeletal findings. However, this discussion ignores the evidence and significance of spinal injury. We sought to study the cervical spine in an AHT cohort to understand the true prevalence of spinal injuries in AHT and contrast it with cohorts of accidental and nontraumatic groups to give the clinicians a robust diagnostic tool in evaluating AHT. The purpose of this study is to compare the relative incidence of spinal ligamentous and soft-tissue abnormalities on spinal MRI among three groups of children ages < 48 months: (1) those with AHT, (2) those with accidental trauma, and (3) those with nontraumatic conditions. This comparative study included 183 children who underwent spine MRI: 67 with AHT, 46 with accidental trauma and a clinical suspicion of spinal injury, and 70 with nontraumatic conditions. Clinical and radiographic findings were collected in all cases and were analyzed retrospectively to identify MRI evidence of traumatic spinal injuries. The incidence of spinal injuries among the three groups was compared. The incidence of spinal ligamentous injuries was calculated for those with and without radiographic evidence of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. All comparisons were performed using Fisher exact test with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Cervical spine ligamentous injuries (predominantly the nuchal, atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial ligaments) were present in 78% of the AHT group, 46% of the accidental trauma group and 1% of the nontraumatic group; all of these differences were
Humphries, Clare; Jobson, Laura
This study investigated the influence of culture and trauma history on autobiographical memory specificity. Chinese international and British undergraduate university students (N=64) completed the autobiographical memory test, Hopkins symptom checklist-25, twenty statements test, trauma history questionnaire, and impact of events scale-revised. The results indicated that the British group provided significantly more specific memories than the Chinese group. The high trauma exposure group provided significantly fewer specific autobiographical memories than the low trauma exposure group. The interaction was not significant. The findings suggest that even in cultures where specificity is not as evident in autobiographical remembering style, trauma exposure appears to exert similar influence on autobiographical memory specificity.
Kim, S; Noh, D; Park, S I
What is known on the subject? Despite the increase of studies into the predictors of psychological distress, few have attempted to address the mediation of stress in the relationship between early trauma and psychological distress. What does this paper add to existing knowledge? In this study, college students with trauma exposure before the age of 18 years reported high levels of college life stress and psychological distress. In addition, of the subcategories of early trauma, emotional abuse was most highly correlated with current stress and psychological distress. This paper confirmed the partial mediating effect of stress between early trauma and psychological distress among Korean college students. In other words, this study found a direct effect of early trauma on current psychological distress and an indirect effect of early trauma on psychological distress mediated through life stress. What are the implications for practice? Early trauma and stress should be considered when developing interventions for college students' mental health, although individuals with trauma exposure have difficulties disclosing their traumatic event. Therefore, we suggest that stress management may be easier to apply and more effective in promoting college students' mental health than trauma-focused interventions. Research has shown that early trauma and stress may affect current psychological distress. However, few studies have attempted to address the mediation of stress between early trauma and psychological distress. This cross-sectional observational study aimed to examine the mediating effects of stress on the association between early trauma and psychological distress in Korean college students. Participants included 216 college students (51.4% male) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing early trauma, college life stress, and psychological distress. Early trauma, stress, and psychological distress were significantly correlated. Of the subcategories of early
Alisic, Eva; Jongmans, Marian J; van Wesel, Floryt; Kleber, Rolf J
Many children are exposed to traumatic events, with potentially serious psychological and developmental consequences. Therefore, understanding development of long-term posttraumatic stress in children is essential. We aimed to contribute to child trauma theory by focusing on theory use and theory validation in longitudinal studies. Forty studies measuring short-term predictors and long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms were identified and coded for theoretical grounding, sample characteristics, and correlational effect sizes. Explicit theoretical frameworks were present in a minority of the studies. Important predictors of long-term posttraumatic stress were symptoms of acute and short-term posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and parental posttraumatic stress. Female gender, injury severity, duration of hospitalization, and elevated heart rate shortly after hospitalization yielded small effect sizes. Age, minority status, and socioeconomic status were not significantly related to long-term posttraumatic stress reactions. Since many other variables were not studied frequently enough to compute effect sizes, existing theoretical frameworks could only be partially confirmed or falsified. Child trauma theory-building can be facilitated by development of encouraging journal policies, the use of comparable methods, and more intense collaboration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carrington, B.M.; Hricak, H.; Dixon, C.; McAninch, J.W.
This paper evaluates the role of MR imaging in posterior urethral trauma. Fifteen patients with posttraumatic membranous urethral strictures underwent prospective MR imaging with a 1.5-T unit before open urethroplasty. All patients had transaxial T1-weighted (500/20) and T2-weighted (2,500/70) spin-echo images and T2-weighted sagittal and coronal images (matrix, 192 x 256; section thickness, 4 mm with 20% gap). Conventional retrograde and cystourethrography were performed preoperatively. Compared with conventional studies, MR imaging defined the length and location of the urethral injury and provided additional information regarding the direction and degree of prostatic and urethral dislocation
Creamer, Gowan; Civil, Ian; Ng, Alex; Adams, David; Cacala, Shas; Koelmeyer, Timothy; Thompson, John
To investigate the role of Māori and Pacific ethnicity within the severe trauma and population demographics of Auckland, New Zealand. A population-based study utilising prospectively gathered trauma databases and coronial autopsy information. Population data was derived from Statistics New Zealand resident population projections for the year 2004. The geographic boundaries of the Auckland district health boards (Waitemata DHB, Auckland DHB and Counties-Manukau DHB). Severe injury was defined as death or injury severity score more than 15. Combining data from coronial autopsy and four hospital trauma databases provided age, gender, ethnicity, mechanism, mortality and hospitalisation information for severely injured Aucklanders. Māori and Pacific had increased risk of severe injury and injury-related mortality. A major gender difference is apparent: Māori female at increased risk and Pacific female at decreased risk compared to the remaining female population; both Māori and Pacific male have high severe injury rate than the remaining population. The relative risk for severe injury (and mortality) for Māori RR=2.38 (RR=2.80) and Pacific RR=1.49 (RR=1.59) is higher than the remaining population, the highest risk (and more statistically significant) is seen in the 15-29 age group (Māori RR=2.87, Pacific RR=2.57). Road traffic crashes account for the greatest proportion of injuries in all groups. Māori have relatively higher rates of hanging and assault-related injury and death; Pacific have relatively higher rates of falls and assault. Ethnicity is a factor in severe injury and mortality rates in Auckland. Age is an important influence on these rates. Although mechanism of injury varies between ethnic groups, no particular mechanism of injury accounts for the overall differences between groups.
LUCIANA THURLER TEDESCHI
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the knowledge growth of the members of the Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency League in comparison with a nonparticipating group, with similar characteristics, at the Fluminense Federal University. Methods: we evaluated 50 league members and 50 non-members (control group through questionnaires applied at the beginning and end of a school year. We used a generalized linear model, with interaction effect between groups and tests (multiple comparisons with Bonferroni correction. We included the following control variables: gender, period, age, and attendance to some other course on a similar topic. Results: there was an increase of 22 percentage points (p<0.001 for the group with more than 75% presence in the League compared with the eight points in the control group (p<0.05. There was no statistically significant growth for the group with less than 75% presence. Conclusion: the growth of knowledge was significantly higher in the group that assiduously participated in the League, which reinforces its importance in complementing the traditional content of medical courses.
Jordan, Robert; Westacott, Daniel; Patel, Hiten; Pattison, Giles
Our study analyzes the impact of becoming a major trauma centre (MTC) on paediatric trauma workload in a centre outside a major city without specialist paediatric surgical services. Paediatric 'trauma calls' presenting between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. As our centre became an MTC on 1 April 2012, our study population was split into 'pre-MTC' and 'post-MTC' groups. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, patient outcome, Injury Severity Score and results of radiological investigations were recorded. There were 132 paediatric trauma calls, with a 72% annual increase post-MTC. More children with minor injuries, according to the Injury Severity Score, were seen post-MTC (47.5 vs. 29.6%). Although the proportion of patients undergoing a CT scanning remained static, the actual number increased and a higher proportion were normal in the post-MTC group (72.9 vs. 52.4%). This contributed to a higher proportion of patients being discharged home directly from the emergency department post-MTC (47.5 vs. 36.6%). Practice moved away from targeted CT scanning, in favour of trauma scanning post-MTC. The implementation of a regional trauma network has led to a rise in paediatric trauma cases. Paediatric trauma patients tend to be less severely injured, but the proportion undergoing CT scanning has remained the same, and these scans are more likely to be normal. A more rational approach for imaging of paediatric trauma patients is required to reduce the potentially harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and criteria for implementing trauma calls in children should be reconsidered.
Peters, Matthew E; Rao, Vani; Bechtold, Kathleen T; Roy, Durga; Sair, Haris I; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Stevens, Robert D; Batty, D Scott; Falk, Hayley; Fernandez, Christopher; Ofoche, Uju; Vassila, Alexandra; Hall, Anna J; Anderson, Braden; Bessman, Edward; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Everett, Allen D; Van Eyk, Jennifer; Korley, Frederick K
Accurate diagnosis and risk stratification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) at time of presentation remains a clinical challenge. The Head Injury Serum Markers for Assessing Response to Trauma study (HeadSMART) aims to examine blood-based biomarkers for diagnosing and determining prognosis in TBI. HeadSMART is a 6-month prospective cohort study comparing emergency department patients evaluated for TBI (exposure group) to (1) emergency department patients evaluated for traumatic injury without head trauma and (2) healthy persons. Study methods and characteristics of the first 300 exposure participants are discussed. Of the first 300 participants in the exposure arm, 70% met the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine criteria for TBI, with the majority (80.1%) classified as mild TBI. The majority of subjects in the exposure arm had Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 13-15 (98.0%), normal head computed tomography (81.3%) and no prior history of concussion (71.7%). With systematic phenotyping, HeadSMART will facilitate diagnosis and risk-stratification of the heterogeneous group of individuals currently diagnosed with TBI.
Roberts, Nicole K; Williams, Reed G; Schwind, Cathy J; Sutyak, John A; McDowell, Christopher; Griffen, David; Wall, Jarrod; Sanfey, Hilary; Chestnut, Audra; Meier, Andreas H; Wohltmann, Christopher; Clark, Ted R; Wetter, Nathan
Communication breakdowns and care coordination problems often cause preventable adverse patient care events, which can be especially acute in the trauma setting, in which ad hoc teams have little time for advanced planning. Existing teamwork curricula do not address the particular issues associated with ad hoc emergency teams providing trauma care. Ad hoc trauma teams completed a preinstruction simulated trauma encounter and were provided with instruction on appropriate team behaviors and team communication. Teams completed a postinstruction simulated trauma encounter immediately afterward and 3 weeks later, then completed a questionnaire. Blinded raters rated videotapes of the simulations. Participants expressed high levels of satisfaction and intent to change practice after the intervention. Participants changed teamwork and communication behavior on the posttest, and changes were sustained after a 3-week interval, though there was some loss of retention. Brief training exercises can change teamwork and communication behaviors on ad hoc trauma teams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia following major trauma is a well know phenomenon related to stress-induced systemic reaction. Reports on glucose level management in patients with head trauma have been published, but the development of insulin resistance in trauma patients without head injury has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the prognostic role of acute insulin-resistance, assessed by the HOMA model, in patients with severe trauma without head injury. Methods All patients consecutively admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a tertiary referral center (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, IT for major trauma without head injury (Jan-Dec 2010 were enrolled. Patients with a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy or metabolism alteration were excluded from the analysis. Patients were divided into “insulin resistant” and “non-insulin resistant” based on the Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA IR. Results are expressed as medians. Results Out of 175 trauma patients admitted to the ICU during the study period, a total of 54 patients without head trauma were considered for the study, 37 of whom met the inclusion criteria. In total, 23 patients (62.2% resulted insulin resistant, whereas 14 patients (37.8% were non-insulin resistant. Groups were comparable in demographic, clinical/laboratory characteristics, and severity of injury. Insulin resistant patients had a significantly higher BMI (P=0.0416, C-reactive protein (P=0.0265, and leukocytes count (0.0301, compared to non-insulin resistant patients. Also ICU length of stay was longer in insulin resistant patients (P=0.0381. Conclusions Our data suggest that admission insulin resistance might be used as an early outcome predictor.
Fox, Christine K; Hills, Nancy K; Vinson, David R; Numis, Adam L; Dicker, Rochelle A; Sidney, Stephen; Fullerton, Heather J
To quantify the incidence, timing, and risk of ischemic stroke after trauma in a population-based young cohort. We electronically identified trauma patients (ischemic stroke within 4 weeks of trauma and 3 controls per case. A physician panel reviewed medical records, confirmed cases, and adjudicated whether the stroke was related to trauma. We calculated the 4-week stroke incidence and estimated stroke odds ratios (OR) by injury location using logistic regression. From 1,308,009 trauma encounters, we confirmed 52 trauma-related ischemic strokes. The 4-week stroke incidence was 4.0 per 100,000 encounters (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-5.2). Trauma was multisystem in 26 (50%). In 19 (37%), the stroke occurred on the day of trauma, and all occurred within 15 days. In 7/28 cases with cerebrovascular angiography at the time of trauma, no abnormalities were detected. In unadjusted analyses, head, neck, chest, back, and abdominal injuries increased stroke risk. Only head (OR 4.1, CI 1.1-14.9) and neck (OR 5.6, CI 1.03-30.9) injuries remained associated with stroke after adjusting for demographics and trauma severity markers (multisystem trauma, motor vehicle collision, arrival by ambulance, intubation). Stroke risk is elevated for 2 weeks after trauma. Onset is frequently delayed, providing an opportunity for stroke prevention during this period. However, in one-quarter of stroke cases with cerebrovascular angiography at the time of trauma, no vascular abnormality was detected. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Eckert, Matthew J; Wertin, Thomas M; Tyner, Stuart D; Nelson, Daniel W; Izenberg, Seth; Martin, Matthew J
pediatric combat trauma patients, typically in the setting of severe abdominal or extremity trauma and metabolic acidosis. TXA administration was independently associated with decreased mortality. There were no adverse safety- or medication-related complications identified. Therapeutic study, level IV.
Mooij, S C; Antony, P; Ruesseler, M; Pfeifer, R; Drescher, W; Simon, M; Pape, H-C; Knobe, M
Due to recent changes in the medical licencing act as well as to the introduction of a new model-course programme for medical studies, careers in medicine have become increasingly more attractive. However, there is still a dramatic shortage in younger generation physicians, especially within the surgical fields. The goal of this cross-sectional study was the gender-specific assessment of the ideal career wishes of students during medical school, with a focus being placed in orthopaedic trauma surgery. During the winter semester of 2010/2011 an online questionnaire (www.surveymonkey.com) was created for students enrolled in their 3rd to 12th semester (n=887). The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions [Likert scale (LS); 5 = agree, 1 = disagree] along with 10 free response questions. The scope of these questions ranged from personal career goals, within the context of their learning environment, to general life goals and planning. With regard to career choice, a differentiation was made between students' ideal career choices/subjects (IS), which were based solely on personal affinity, and so-called reality-based subjects (RS), which students considered more practical and to which they were more likely to apply in the future. The response rate was 36,4% (n=323, 23,4 years, 6.3 semesters, 226 [70.0%] female [f] and 97 [30.0%] male [m]). A total of 206 students (63.8%; m=55.7% vs. f=66.7%; p=0.047) were able to pinpoint an IS, this percentage increased with increasing semester number (p=0.048). Overall, 29.1% of students indicated that their IS lay in the field of orthopaedic trauma, while 20.0% of men and 19.1% of women saw it as a realistic career path (RS). Throughout the course of their studies, from the 3rd semester to their practical year, a declining tendency was observed regarding the agreement between ideal and realistic career paths. Particularly evident was a decreasing interest in the field of orthopaedic trauma, beginning around the 9th semester and
Windeløv, Nis A; Sørensen, Anne M; Perner, Anders
We aimed to elucidate platelet function in trauma patients, as it is pivotal for hemostasis yet remains scarcely investigated in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of platelet aggregation capacity in 213 adult trauma patients on admission to an emergency department (ED...
Klein, Jan Philipp; Roniger, Antje; Schweiger, Ulrich; Späth, Christina; Brodbeck, Jeannette
Chronic depression has often been associated with childhood trauma. There may, however, be an interaction between personality pathology, childhood trauma, and chronic depression. This interaction has not yet been studied. This retrospective analysis is based on 279 patients contacted for a randomized trial in an outpatient psychotherapy center over a period of 18 months from 2010 to 2012. Current diagnoses of a personality disorder and presence of chronic depression were systematically assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Retrospective reports of childhood trauma were collected using the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF). DSM-IV-defined chronic depression was the primary outcome. The association between chronic depression, childhood trauma, and personality disorders was analyzed using correlations. Variables that had at least a small effect on correlation analysis were entered into a series of logistic regression analyses to determine the predictors of chronic depression and the moderating effect of childhood trauma. The presence of avoidant personality disorder, but no CTQ-SF scale, was associated with the chronicity of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, P = .015). The emotional abuse subscale of the CTQ-SF did, however, correlate with avoidant personality disorder (OR = 1.15, P = .000). The level of emotional abuse had a moderating effect on the effect of avoidant personality disorder on the presence of chronic depression (OR = 1.08, P = .004). Patients who did not suffer from avoidant personality disorder had a decreased rate of chronic depression if they retrospectively reported more severe levels of emotional abuse (18.9% vs 39.7%, respectively). The presence of avoidant personality pathology may interact with the effect of childhood trauma in the development of chronic depression. This has to be confirmed in a prospective study. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01226238. © Copyright 2015 Physicians
Fiorentino, Jorge A; Molise, Claudia; Stach, Patricia; Cinder, Paulina; Solla, María Marta; Hoffman, Estela; Tomezzoli, Silvana; Fiorini, Sandra; Djourian, Claudia; Caorsi, Natalia; Fosco, Matías; Dartiguelongue, Juan B; Barbaro, Cristian; Rossi, Santiago
In Argentina, trauma is the most common cause of death among children older than 1 year old, has a high morbidity rate, and results in large costs for the health system. To identify causes of injuries in patients admitted to the hospital due to a trauma, and to analyze the relationship between epidemiological factors and severe trauma. Prospective study. Children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years old admitted to the hospital due to unintentional trauma between April 2012 and March 2013 were included. They were divided into two groups based on severity according to the pediatric trauma score (8 or lower) to identify risk factors by means of a logistic regression model. PREDICTIVE OUTCOME MEASURES: patients' and parents' demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, event data, initial care, course, and risk factors. Patients were stratified into three age groups for the analysis of the type of injury and the anatomic location. Two hundred and thirty-seven patients were included. Traumatic brain injuries were predominant among children younger than 3 years old, while limb fractures were most common among children older than 3 years old. In the bivariate analysis, foreign parents, a state of poverty or destitution, an immediate preventable cause, dangerous heights, and an unsafe heating system were statistically significant outcome measures. Based on multiple regression, outcome measures included were foreign parents, living in a slum area, an immediate preventable cause, and an unsafe heating system. The main cause of trauma was related to falls from heights, and some of the studied socioeconomic factors were associated with a higher risk of trauma. This information may be useful to develop prevention measures.
Meisler, Rikke; Thomsen, A B; Abildstrøm, H
Most studies on trauma and trauma systems have been conducted in the United States. We aimed to describe the factors predicting mortality in European trauma patients, with focus on triage.......Most studies on trauma and trauma systems have been conducted in the United States. We aimed to describe the factors predicting mortality in European trauma patients, with focus on triage....
Zyśko, Dorota; Sutton, Richard; Timler, Dariusz; Furtan, Stanisław; Melander, Olle; Fedorowski, Artur
Head trauma may present as transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) currently classified as traumatic in origin, in contrast to non-traumatic forms, such as syncope. Whether past history of syncope predisposes to loss of consciousness after head injury has been poorly studied. A retrospective analysis of data obtained from 818 consecutive patients admitted to Emergency Departments was conducted. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were performed, where patients' past history of syncope and head injury were explored. Head injury events were stratified as high- or low-energy trauma. Data regarding past syncopal events were explored in regard to number, age at the first occurrence, and syncope circumstances. Multivariate logistic regression model was applied to assess the relationship between loss of consciousness during head injury and past history of syncope. Both past history of non-traumatic TLOC (odds ratio [OR] 3.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.13-6.68, p consciousness after head injury. The clinical importance of this finding merits further investigation.
Wood, Cristina M; Salguero, José M; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Galea, Sandro
Panic attacks frequently lead to psychopathological disorders, including panic disorder. Even though panic disorder is a highly comorbid and disabling mental health problem associated with stressful life or traumatic events, perievent panic attacks and their association with panic disorder have hardly been investigated as a central topic after mass trauma. Using data from a longitudinal population-based assessment of Madrid residents after the March 11, 2004 train bombings (N = 1,589), with assessments conducted 1, 6, and 12 months after the attacks, the rate of perievent panic attacks was 10.9%. Level of exposure, previous life stressors, and negative emotionality were associated with perievent panic attacks (β = .12, .15, and .10, respectively), which in turn mediated the relationship between exposure to the terrorist event and panic disorder in the following year. Previous life stressors (β = .15) and low social support (β = -.14) were directly associated with panic disorder during the subsequent year. The most vulnerable individuals who experienced perievent panic attacks were 3.7 times, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.1, 6.4], more likely to suffer from panic disorder in the following year. Results suggest that early identification of perievent panic attacks following mass trauma may be helpful for reducing panic disorder. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Full Text Available Francesca D Reeder,1 Nusrat Husain,2 Abdul Rhouma,3 Peter M Haddad,2 Tariq Munshi,4 Farooq Naeem,4 Davit Khachatryan,4 Imran B Chaudhry2 1School of Medicine, 2Neurosciences and Psychiatry Unit, University of Manchester, Manchester, 3Early Intervention Service, Lancashire Care NHS Foundation Trust, Preston, UK; 4Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada Aim: There is evidence that childhood trauma is a risk factor for the development of psychosis and it is recommended that childhood trauma is inquired about in all patients presenting with psychosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma in patients in the UK Early Intervention Service based on a case note review.Methods: This is a retrospective case note study of 296 patients in an UK Early Intervention Service. Trauma history obtained on service entry was reviewed and trauma experienced categorized. Results were analyzed using crosstab and frequency analysis.Results: The mean age of the sample was 24 years, 70% were male, 66% were White, and 23% Asian (ethnicity not documented in 11% of the sample. Approximately 60% of patients reported childhood trauma, 21% reported no childhood trauma, and data were not recorded for the remaining 19%. Among those reporting trauma, the prevalence of most frequently reported traumas were: severe or repeated disruption (21%, parental mental illness (19%, bullying (18%, absence of a parent (13%, and ‘other’ trauma (24% – the majority of which were victimization events. Sixty-six percent of those reporting trauma had experienced multiple forms of trauma.Conclusion: A high prevalence of childhood trauma (particularly trauma related to the home environment or family unit was reported. This is consistent with other studies reporting on trauma and psychosis. The main weakness of the study is a lack of a control group reporting experience of childhood trauma in those without psychosis. Guidelines recommend that all patients with
Brousseau, Audrey-Anne; Émond, Marcel; Sirois, Marie-Josée; Daoust, Raoul; Griffith, Lauren E; Lang, Eddy; Lee, Jacques; Perry, Jeffrey J; Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Verreault, René; Berthelot, Simon; Mercier, Éric; Allain-Boulé, Nadine; Boucher, Valérie; Tardif, Pier-Alexandre; Le Sage, Natalie
The consequences of minor trauma involving a head injury (MT-HI) in independent older adults are largely unknown. This study assessed the impact of a head injury on the functional outcomes six months post-injury in older adults who sustained a minor trauma. This multicenter prospective cohort study in eight sites included patients who were aged 65 years or older, previously independent, presenting to the emergency department (ED) for a minor trauma, and discharged within 48 hours. To assess the functional decline, we used a validated test: the Older Americans' Resources and Services Scale. The cognitive function of study patients was also evaluated. Finally, we explored the influence of a concomitant injury on the functional decline in the MT-HI group. All 926 eligible patients were included in the analyses: 344 MT-HI patients and 582 minor trauma without head injury. After six months, the functional decline was similar in both groups: 10.8% and 11.9%, respectively (RR=0.79 [95% CI: 0.55-1.14]). The proportion of patients with mild cognitive disabilities was also similar: 21.7% and 22.8%, respectively (RR=0.91 [95% CI: 0.71-1.18]). Furthermore, for the group of patients with a MT-HI, the functional outcome was not statistically different with or without the presence of a co-injury (RR=1.35 [95% CI: 0.71-2.59]). This study did not demonstrate that the occurrence of a MT-HI is associated with a worse functional or cognitive prognosis than other minor injuries without a head injury in an elderly population, six months after injury.
Zatti, Cleonice; Rosa, Virgínia; Barros, Alcina; Valdivia, Lucianne; Calegaro, Vitor Crestani; Freitas, Lúcia Helena; Ceresér, Keila Maria Mendes; Rocha, Neusa Sica da; Bastos, Andre Goettems; Schuch, Felipe Barreto
Childhood trauma (CT) is a modifiable risk factor for lifetime suicide attempts (SA). However, the extent to which each type of CT increases SA risk is unclear. This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published in the last 10 years about the relationship between CT and lifetime SA risk. The PUBMED, PsycINFO, ISI, and EMBASE databases were searched for cohort studies that reported AS during follow-up and included an assessment of CT. A meta-analysis was conducted to identify potential effects of each type of CT on SA. Seven unique studies were included for review. Sexual (n=6, OR=3.73, 95%CI 2.94-4.75, pbroken home were not significantly associated with further SA. The modes of CT that most contribute to SA in later life are physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and physical neglect, in descending order. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liang, Chi-Cheng; Liu, Hang-Tsung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the injury pattern, mechanisms, severity, and mortality of adolescents and adults hospitalized for treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a Level I trauma center. Detailed data regarding patients aged 13-19 years (adolescents) and aged 30-50 years (adults) who had sustained trauma due to a motorcycle accident were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012. The Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, or the independent Student's t-test were performed to compare the adolescent and adult motorcyclists and to compare the motorcycle drivers and motorcycle pillion. Analysis of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that the adolescent patients had sustained higher rates of facial, abdominal, and hepatic injury and of cranial, mandibular, and femoral fracture but lower rates of thorax and extremity injury; hemothorax; and rib, scapular, clavicle, and humeral fracture compared to the adults. No significant differences were found between the adolescents and adults regarding Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma-Injury Severity Score (TRISS), mortality, length of hospital stay, or intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate. A significantly greater percentage of adolescents compared to adults were found not to have worn a helmet. Motorcycle riders who had not worn a helmet were found to have a significantly lower first Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and a significantly higher percentage was found to present with unconscious status, head and neck injury, and cranial fracture compared to those who had worn a helmet. Adolescent motorcycle riders comprise a major population of patients hospitalized for treatment of trauma. This population tends to present with a higher injury severity compared to other hospitalized trauma patients and a bodily injury pattern differing from that of adult motorcycle riders, indicating the
Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Maghaminejad, Farzaneh; Paravar, Mohammad
Background: Trauma is a major healthcare challenge worldwide. In developing countries, most road deaths happen during the pre-hospital phase; consequently, pre-hospital trauma care has received considerable attention during the past decades. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of pre-hospital oxygen therapy in patients with multiple trauma. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2013. The study population consisted of all patients with multiple trauma who had been transferred by emergency medical services to the central trauma department in Shahid Beheshti Medical Center, Kashan, Iran. The data collection instrument had three parts including demographic, a trauma assessment, and an oxygen therapy quality assessment questionnaires that were designed by the researchers. In total, 350 patients with multiple trauma were recruited from March through July 2013. Data were described by using frequency tables, central tendency measures, and variability indices. Moreover, we analyzed data by using the Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and the logistic regression analysis. Results: The study sample consisted of 263 (75.1%) male and 87 (24.9%) female patients. Overall, 211 patients needed oxygen therapy during the pre-hospital phase; however, only 35 (16.60%) patients had received oxygen. The quality of oxygen therapy was undesirable in 92.42% of cases. In addition, 83.4% of patients, whose pre-hospital records indicated the administration of oxygen, reported that they had not received oxygen therapy. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the place of accident and the level of patients' education were significant predictors for administration of oxygen during the pre-hospital phase (P pre-hospital oxygen therapy had been provided for the patients with multiple trauma was poor while these patients, particularly patients with chest traumas and head injuries, were in urgent need of oxygen therapy
Maxillofacial injury; Midface trauma; Facial injury; LeFort injuries ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...
Sosa Martin, Gimel; Morales Portuondo, Kelvis; Baez Franco, Zenia
Pancreas is an intra-abdominal organ in retroperitoneal location chow trauma is uncommon. Degree classification helps in more effective treatment practice and in decrease of complications appeared s consequence of traumas or the surgical treatment, which may be simple or involves large resections. The case of a patient with closed abdominal trauma of 3 days course. Diagnostic and clinic and complementary examinations were carried out being necessary surgical treatment. The aim of present paper was to expose the clinical elements, complementary results and surgical findings in this patient, as well as to motivate the suspicion of this affection in abdominal trauma. (author)
Martinson, Amber A; Sigmon, Sandra T; Craner, Julia; Rothstein, Ethan; McGillicuddy, Morgan
To fully understand the negative impact of sexual trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) upon adult intimacy-related functioning, cognitive models designed to investigate implicit processing of stimuli with emotional content are warranted. Using an emotional Stroop paradigm, the present study examined the impact of sexual trauma history (childhood sexual abuse and/or adult sexual assault) and a PTSD diagnosis on the implicit processing of 3 types of word stimuli: intimacy, sexual trauma, and neutral. Based on the results of a structured clinical interview and a behavioral-specific sexual trauma questionnaire, participants (n = 101; 74 females, 27 males) were placed in 3 groups: sexual trauma only (n = 33), sexual trauma and PTSD (n = 33), and controls (n = 35). Results indicated that men and women with a history of sexual trauma and a current PTSD diagnosis had increased latency for intimacy-related words and trauma words compared to controls, whereas individuals with only a history of sexual trauma did not differ from controls. Thus, it appears that the presence of symptoms associated with a diagnosis of PTSD is important for implicit processing of intimacy stimuli, rather than having a history of sexual trauma alone. Avoidance, a key feature of PTSD, may strengthen this relationship. More research is needed to determine the mechanisms by which individuals with a history of sexual trauma and PTSD experience intimacy difficulties.
Survivors.............................................. 39 Intergenerational Transmission of Stress Disorder Symptoms ......................... 40...Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights battle spaces of the 1973 war did not have any large civilian populations living on the land. One can extrapolate...how a surprise attack followed by high intensity conflict over the course of weeks would impact the civilian population living in that battle space
Bruhn, Maja; Rees, Susan; Mohsin, Mohammed
. Postmigration stressors were deemed to impact on 39.1% of treatment sessions with medical personnel. Issues related to work, finances, and family were the most frequently identified stressors. Postmigration stressors interfering with treatment were more common among male refugees, those living alone, those from...
Beck, Bolette Daniels; Messel, Catharina; Meyer, Steen Lund
-being and social function demonstrated significant changes with large effect sizes. Evaluation of the single sessions showed that participants found the therapy acceptable and helpful. All participants used music listening for self-care in their homes between sessions. The findings indicate that trauma......© 2017 GAMUT – The Grieg Academy Music Therapy Research CentreTraumatized refugees seeking treatment in special units of psychiatry are in need of treatment options that can help them stabilize and cope with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their everyday life. Guided Imagery and Music (GIM......) has improved psychological health for clinical populations including trauma survivors with PTSD. Prior to the implementation of a randomized controlled study, a clinical non-controlled study was carried out to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a trauma-focused modification of GIM combined...
Krammer, Sandy; Kleim, Birgit; Simmen-Janevska, Keti; Maercker, Andreas
Childhood traumatic events may lead to long-lasting psychological effects and contribute to the development of complex posttraumatic sequelae. These might be captured by the diagnostic concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) as an alternative to classic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). CPTSD comprises a further set of symptoms in addition to those of PTSD, namely, changes in affect, self, and interpersonal relationships. Previous empirical research on CPTSD has focused on middle-aged adults but not on older adults. Moreover, predictor models of CPTSD are still rare. The current study investigated the association between traumatic events in childhood and complex posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults. The mediation of this association by 2 social-interpersonal factors (social acknowledgment as a survivor and dysfunctional disclosure) was investigated. These 2 factors focus on the perception of acknowledgment by others and either the inability to disclose traumatic experiences or the ability to do so only with negative emotional reactions. A total of 116 older individuals (age range = 59-98 years) who had experienced childhood traumatic events completed standardized self-report questionnaires indexing childhood trauma, complex trauma sequelae, social acknowledgment, and dysfunctional disclosure of trauma. The results showed that traumatic events during childhood were associated with later posttraumatic stress symptoms but with classic rather than complex symptoms. Social acknowledgment and dysfunctional disclosure partially mediated this relationship. These findings suggest that childhood traumatic stress impacts individuals across the life span and may be associated with particular adverse psychopathological consequences.
Buhmann, Cæcilie; Lykke Mortensen, Erik; Nordentoft, Merete
PURPOSE: To describe change in mental health after treatment with antidepressants and trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. METHODS: Patients receiving treatment at the Psychiatric Trauma Clinic for Refugees in Copenhagen completed self-ratings of level of functioning, quality of life...
Full Text Available Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS measures the frequency and severity of the posttraumatic Stress Disorder pTSD. Since chile has limited data about validity and reliability of instruments to measure pTSD, this study evaluated psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of 130 adolescents between 13 and 18 years (M= 15,78; DT= 1,40. Some of them were traumatized patients and others were from general population. They answered the DTS, a depression and an anxiety scale. The scale obtained adequate internal consistency scores, showed convergent validity (DTS score was associated moderately, directly and significantly with depression and anxiety scores, and discriminated between clinical sample and general population. DTS seems to be a valid and reliable instrument in chilean adolescents.
Torkki, Paulus Mikael; Alho, Antti Ilmari; Peltokorpi, Antti Veikko; Torkki, Markus Ilmari; Kallio, Pentti Ensio
Industrial management principles could be used to improve the quality and efficiency of health care. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of a process management approach to trauma patient care. The major objective was to reduce the waiting times and increase the efficiency of the hospital. Urgent surgery care was analyzed as an overall process. The process development followed the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle and was based on statistical analysis of certain performance metrics. Data were collected from hospital databases and by personnel interviews. To develop the process, the anesthesia induction was performed outside the operating room, better process guidance was developed, and patient flow was reorganized. The transition time for these changes was 1 year (2002 to 2003). Waiting times decreased by 20.5 percent (p quality of care without a need to increase personnel resources. The focus should be on reducing waiting times and waste times.
Becker, Marion A.; Noether, Chanson D.; Larson, Mary Jo; Gatz, Margaret; Brown, Vivian; Heckman, Jennifer P.; Giard, Julienne
Using data from a common cross-site protocol administered at study enrollment, in this article we examine key characteristics of 2,729 participants in the Women, Co-Occurring Disorders and Violence Study (WCDVS), including demographics, physical health, mental health, substance abuse, trauma experiences, parenting status, and past history of…
Idemudia, Erhabor Sunday
This paper is a report of 4 published papers on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)/posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and traumas experienced by homeless Zimbabwean refugees living in South Africa. The general purpose of the papers was to explore how pre- and postmigration difficulties predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms/disorder; to understand gender differences in PTSS/PTSD reports using quantitative and qualitative approaches; and finally, to understand the nature of abuses, perpetrators, and sex of perpetrators. Through focused group discussions (FGD)s, structured in-depth interviews, data were collected from 125 randomly selected homeless Zimbabwean refugees in Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Age of participants ranged from 18 years to 48 years with a mean age of 28.3 years (SD = 6.27). Participants were assessed on demographic variables, Pre- and Post-Migration Difficulties Checklists, General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ-28), and PTSD Checklist (Civilian Version; PCL-C). Results (Paper 1) indicated that a majority of the participants were significantly traumatized and pre- and postmigration traumas contributed to PTSS and PTSD. The qualitative study (Paper 2) overwhelmingly shared similar experiences that could be temporally framed into pre-, mid-, and postmigration. Many of the challenging sociocultural, structural, and institutional factors that they experienced were seen across all the migration stages. In Paper 3, results of a structural equation model (SEM) showed that none of the 3 paths (pre- and postmigration stress and poor mental health) on PTSD is significant for men whereas for women, the path from poor mental health to PTSD (β = .36, p = .013) is significant. Finally the fourth paper showed that rape and sexual harassment were common abuses. Perpetrators were mainly single male border and police officers. The Zimbabwean refugees were found to constitute a particularly vulnerable group to have experienced cumulative traumas
Falasca, Tony; Caulfield, Thomas J.
Describes some classic causes of trauma and symptoms that can result when a child has been traumatized. Lists several factors that effect the degree to which a child is affected by trauma. Categories a wide range of behaviors displayed by the victims into three groups: affect, memories, and behaviors. Discusses various considerations when…
Singaram, Mohanavalli; G, Sree Vijayabala; Udhayakumar, Rajesh Kumar
This retrospective study aims to evaluate the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma in a developing country, along with its pattern, etiology and management. Data for the present study were collected from the Department of Dentistry, ESIC Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Chennai in India. The medical records of patients treated for maxillofacial injuries between May 2014 and November 2015 were retrospectively retrieved and analyzed for prevalence, pattern, etiology, and management of maxillofacial trauma. SPSS software version 16.0 was used for the data analysis. Maxillofacial fractures accounts for 93.3% of total injuries. The mean and standard deviation for the age of the patients were 35.0±11.8 years and with a minimum age of 5 years and maximum age of 75 years. Adults from 20 to 40 years age groups were more commonly involved, with a male to female ratio of 3:1. There was a statistically significantly higher proportion of males more commonly involved in accident and injuries (P maxillofacial injury was road traffic accidents (RTA) followed by falls and assaults, the sports injuries seem to be very less. In RTA, motorized two-wheelers (MTW) were the most common cause of incidents. The majority of victims of RTA were young adult males between the ages of 20 to 40 years. The malar bone and maxilla were the most common sites of fracture, followed by the mandible. The right side of the zygomatic complex was the predominant side of MTW injury. The majority of the zygomatic complex fractures were treated by conservative management. Open reduction and internal fixation were performed for indicated fracture patients.
Dela Cruz Fajarito, Cariñez; De Guzman, Rosalito G
Few studies demonstrate how the index trauma may influence subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, especially among soldiers. There is still no consensus on specific trauma types and their corresponding PTSD symptom profiles. Furthermore, varied PTSD symptom manifestations that may yield to PTSD trauma subtypes are yet to be known. Importantly, the significance of the military culture's possible influence on soldiers' PTSD has also been underexplored. And the dominant PTSD construct may possibly be unable to capture the essential aspects of the military context in understanding combat-related PTSD. Hence, this study aims to reach an understanding into how index trauma and military culture may possibly shape participants' PTSD expressions. Case study design was used, wherein multiple sources of data-such as PTSD assessments, and interviews with the participants and key informants-enabled data triangulation. The three case reports are the outcomes of the corroboration of evidences that reveal an enriched and holistic understanding of the phenomenon under study. The Ethics Review Board Committee of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Medical Center approved the study. The participants were three Filipino active duty combat soldiers. Although all participants had similar index traumas, their PTSD symptom expressions are unique from one another, in that they differ in terms of their most incapacitating PTSD symptoms and other symptoms that have been potentially shaped by military culture. Their most incapacitating symptoms: hypervigilance (case 1), negative belief in oneself and negative emotions (case 2), prolonged distress, and marked physiological reactions to trauma-related cues (case 3), may be understood in the light of how they personally experienced different circumstances of their index traumas. The way participants have anchored specific components of their sworn soldier's creed (i.e., not leaving a fallen comrade) into some of their PTSD
Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung
To assess how accurately computed tomography (CT) can demonstrate the abnormal findings which are believed to cause the clinical signs and symptoms of hearing loss (HL), vertigo and facial paralysis (FP) in patients with temporal bone trauma. The authors studied CT scans of 39 ears in 35 patients with temporal bone trauma. CT scans were performed with 1-1.5 mm slice thickness and table incrementation. Both axial and coronal scans were obtained in 32 patients and in three patients only axial scans were obtained. We analyzed CT with special reference to the structural abnormalities of the external auditory canal, middle ear cavity, bony labyrinth, and facial nerve canal, and correlated these findings with the actual clinical signs and symptoms. As to hearing loss, we evaluated 32 ears in which pure tone audiometry or brainstem evoked response audiometry had been performed. With respect to the specific types of HL, CT accurately showed the abnormalities in 84% (16/19) in conductive HL, 100% (2/2) in sensorineural HL, and 25% (2/8) for mixed HL. When we categorized HL simply as conductive and sensorineural, assuming that mixed be the result of combined conductive and sensorineural HL, CT demonstrated the abnormalities in 89% (24/27) for conductive HL and 50% (5/10) for sensorineural HL. Concerning vertigo and FP, CT demonstrated abnormalities in 67%(4/6), and 29% (4/14), respectively. Except for conductive HL, CT seems to have a variable degree of limitation for the demonstration of the structural abnormalities resulting sensorineural HL, vertigo or facial paralysis. It is imperative to correlate the CT findings with the signs and symptoms in those clinical settings
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to identify how undergraduate students perceive learning opportunities available to them and to determine whether students with an interest in trauma and orthopaedic (T&O surgery have different perceptions and attitudes towards learning. Methods: All fourth year medical students from the University of Birmingham Medical School (UK were surveyed regarding their career intentions and their attitudes towards the teaching received in trauma and orthopaedic surgery. The questionnaire was designed to capture student perception of learning environments, core knowledge and career motivations. Results: Of the 157 respondents, 35 (22.3% expressed an interest in a career in trauma and orthopaedic surgery. Medical students who reported educational value for trauma and orthopaedic surgery revealed that bedside teaching with a consultant was perceived extremely useful by 57.8% (n = 89. A similar ranking was awarded to small group teaching seminars and bedside teaching with a junior doctor or trainee by 54.5% (n = 85 and 51.6% (n = 79 of students, respectively. In contrast, trauma meetings and operating theatre learning environments were perceived to be of low educational value. Seeing patients within the clinical setting and the quality of teaching received were reported as the most motivating factors in career interest towards trauma and orthopaedic surgery, rated 43.9% (n = 69 and 35% (n = 55, respectively. Conclusions: Perceptions of educational benefit derived from each learning environment vary among undergraduate medical students. Overall the most valuable learning environment perceived by the students is formal patient-based teaching. Despite diverging speciality choices students demonstrate similar learning needs.
Horst, Michael A; Jammula, Shreya; Gross, Brian W; Cook, Alan D; Bradburn, Eric H; Altenburg, Juliet; Von Nieda, Danielle; Morgan, Madison; Rogers, Frederick B
Proper triage of critically injured trauma patients to accredited trauma centers (TCs) is essential for survival and patient outcomes. We sought to determine the percentage of patients meeting trauma criteria who received care at non-TCs (NTCs) within the statewide trauma system that exists in the state of Pennsylvania. We hypothesized that a substantial proportion of the trauma population would be undertriaged to NTCs with undertriage rates (UTR) decreasing with increasing severity of injury. All adult (age ≥15) hospital admissions meeting trauma criteria (ICD-9, 800-959; Injury Severity Score [ISS], > 9 or > 15) from 2003 to 2015 were extracted from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council (PHC4) database, and compared with the corresponding trauma population within the Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation (PTSF) registry. PHC4 contains all hospital admissions within PA while PTSF collects data on all trauma cases managed at designated TCs (Level I-IV). The percentage of patients meeting trauma criteria who are undertriaged to NTCs was determined and Network Analyst Location-Allocation function in ArcGIS Desktop was used to generate geospatial representations of undertriage based on ISSs throughout the state. For ISS > 9, 173,022 cases were identified from 2003 to 2015 in PTSF, while 255,263 cases meeting trauma criteria were found in the PHC4 database over the same timeframe suggesting UTR of 32.2%. For ISS > 15, UTR was determined to be 33.6%. Visual geospatial analysis suggests regions with limited access to TCs comprise the highest proportion of undertriaged trauma patients. Despite the existence of a statewide trauma framework for over 30 years, approximately, a third of severely injured trauma patients are managed at hospitals outside of the trauma system in PA. Intelligent trauma system design should include an objective process like geospatial mapping rather than the current system which is driven by competitive models of financial and
Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.
This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.
A history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis. The potential impact of diagnosis (schizophrenia or affective psychosis) and gender on this association was also examined.
Abe, Tomohiro; Nagano, Takehiko; Ochiai, Hidenobu
Objective: Involvement of all regional medical facilities in a trauma system is challenging in rural regions. We hypothesized that the physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service potentially encouraged local facilities to participate in trauma systems by providing the transport of patients with trauma to those facilities in a rural setting. Materials and Methods: We performed two retrospective observational studies. First, yearly changes in the numbers of patients with trauma and destination facilities were surveyed using records from the Miyazaki physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service from April 2012 to March 2014. Second, we obtained data from medical records regarding the mechanism of injury, severity of injury, resuscitative interventions performed within 24 h after admission, secondary transports owing to undertriage by attending physicians, and deaths resulting from potentially preventable causes. Data from patients transported to the designated trauma center and those transported to non-designated trauma centers in Miyazaki were compared. Results: In total, 524 patients were included. The number of patients transported to non-designated trauma centers and the number of non-designated trauma centers receiving patients increased after the second year. We surveyed 469 patient medical records (90%). There were 194 patients with major injuries (41%) and 104 patients with multiple injuries (22%), and 185 patients (39%) received resuscitative interventions. The designated trauma centers received many more patients with trauma (366 vs. 103), including many more patients with major injuries (47% vs. 21%, p service potentially encouraged non-designated trauma centers to participate in trauma systems while maintaining patient safety.
Corbo, Vincent; Salat, David H; Amick, Melissa M; Leritz, Elizabeth C; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E
Studies have shown that early life trauma may influence neural development and increase the risk of developing psychological disorders in adulthood. We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine the impact of early life trauma on the relationship between current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cortical thickness/subcortical volumes in a sample of deployed personnel from Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. A group of 108 service members enrolled in the Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) were divided into those with interpersonal early life trauma (EL-Trauma+) and Control (without interpersonal early life trauma) groups based on the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were analyzed using the FreeSurfer image analysis package. Thickness of the paracentral and posterior cingulate regions was positively associated with PTSD severity in the EL-Trauma+ group and negatively in the Control group. In the EL-Trauma+ group, both the right amygdala and the left hippocampus were positively associated with PTSD severity. This study illustrates a possible influence of early life trauma on the vulnerability of specific brain regions to stress. Changes in neural morphometry may provide information about the emergence and maintenance of symptoms in individuals with PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Kim, Mimi M.; Ford, Julian D.; Howard, Daniel L.; Bradford, Daniel W.
This study examined the impact of physical and sexual trauma on a sample of 239 homeless men. Study participants completed a self-administered survey that collected data on demographics, exposure to psychological trauma, physical health and mental health problems, and substance use or misuse. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to…
Boterhoven de Haan, Katrina L; Lee, Christopher W; Fassbinder, Eva; Voncken, Marisol J; Meewisse, Mariel; Van Es, Saskia M; Menninga, Simone; Kousemaker, Margriet; Arntz, Arnoud
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that originates from childhood trauma experiences can develop into a chronic condition that has lasting effects on an individual's functioning and quality of life. While there are evidence-based guidelines for treating adult onset PTSD, treatments for adults with childhood trauma-related PTSD (Ch-PTSD) are varied and subject to ongoing debate. This study will test the effectiveness of two trauma-focused treatments, imagery rescripting (ImRs) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) in participants with Ch-PTSD. Both have been found effective in treatment of adult PTSD or mixed onset PTSD and previous research indicates they are well-tolerated treatments. However, we know less about their effectiveness for treating Ch-PTSD or their underlying working mechanisms. IREM is an international multicentre randomised controlled trial involving seven sites across Australia, Germany and the Netherlands. We aim to recruit 142 participants (minimum of n = 20 per site), who will be randomly assigned to treatment condition. Assessments will be conducted before treatment until 1-year follow-up. Assessments before and after the waitlist will assess change in time only. The primary outcome measure is change in PTSD symptom severity from pre-treatment to 8-weeks post-treatment. Secondary outcome measures include change in severity of depression, anger, trauma-related cognitions, guilt, shame, dissociation and quality of life. Underlying mechanisms of treatment will be assessed on changes in vividness, valence and encapsulated belief of a worst trauma memory. Additional sub-studies will include qualitative investigation of treatment experiences from the participant and therapists' perspective, changes in memory and the impact of treatment fidelity on outcome measures. The primary aims of this study are to compare the effectiveness of EMDR and ImRs in treating Ch-PTSD and to investigate the underlying working mechanisms of the two
Gibbs, Andrew; Dunkle, Kristin; Washington, Laura; Willan, Samantha; Shai, Nwabisa; Jewkes, Rachel
Childhood traumas, in the form of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and neglect, are globally widespread and highly prevalent, and associated with a range of subsequent poor health outcomes. This study sought to understand the relationship between physical, sexual and emotional childhood abuse and subsequent HIV-risk behaviours amongst young people (18-30) living in urban informal settlements in Durban, South Africa. Data came from self-completed questionnaires amongst 680 women and 677 men comprising the baseline of the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention trial. Men and women were analysed separately. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between six HIV-risk behaviours and four measures of trauma: the form of trauma, the severity of each trauma, the range of traumas, and overall severity of childhood trauma. Childhood traumas were incredibly prevalent in this population. All childhood traumas were associated with a range of HIV-risk behaviours. This was for the ever/never trauma, as well as the severity of each type of trauma, the range of trauma, and overall severity of childhood trauma. Despite the wider harsh contexts of urban informal settlements, childhood traumas still play a significant role in shaping subsequent HIV-risk behaviours amongst young people. Interventions to reduce childhood traumas for populations in informal settlements need to be developed. In addition, trauma focused therapies need to be considered as part of wider HIV-prevention interventions for young adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03022370.
Ma, Ellen Y M; Li, Frendi W S
The present study examined the relevance of the developmental trauma disorder (DTD) framework (van der Kolk, ) in Hong Kong Chinese children with repeated familial physical and/or sexual abuse. Self-reports of (a) key dimensions of DTD including emotion regulation, attribution and perceptions in self and relationships, belief in future victimization, behavioral difficulties, and self-esteem; and (b) attachment styles and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reactions were obtained from children aged 9-15 years in clinical and school settings. Children were categorized into an abused trauma group (n = 82), a nonabused trauma group (n = 83), and a no-trauma control group (n = 201). The findings indicated that the DTD framework was applicable to abused children who showed a lower level of attachment security (Cohen's d from 0.50-0.61) and a higher level of PTSD reactions (Cohen's d = 0.71) than the comparison groups. After adding attachment security and emotion dysregulation to the model, there were no longer significant group differences in most of the variables. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Gawlak, Dominika; Łuniewska, Joanna; Stojak, Wiktoria; Hovhannisyan, Anahit; Stróżyńska, Anna; Mańka-Malara, Katarzyna; Adamiec, Marcin; Rysz, Andrzej
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Seizures that occur during attacks may lead to head injuries. It is crucial to establish proper prophylactic management against trauma occurrence, as nowadays prevention is not sufficient. Assessment of the frequency of head and intraoral trauma during epileptic seizures and to evaluate factors that may predispose to injuries. The questionnaire was carried out among 106 patients with epilepsy. Survey conducted questions regarding development of the disease and occurrence of orodental and head trauma. Results were statistically analyzed with the chi-square test (ptrauma during epileptic seizures. The most common were lips, tongue or cheeks injuries. 18% patients suffered from tooth crack and 17% from tooth fracture. 50% of respondents suffered from head trauma during seizures: 41% patients reported bruises, 39% burns, 37% wounds, 10% nose fractures, 7% eye socket trauma and 3% skull crack. 14.1% of respondents experienced dentist refusal to undertake treatment, while 4% of patients had epileptic attack during dental procedures. Dental trauma is common result of epileptic seizures. It is necessary to implement prophylactic management to prevent hard and soft tissues injuries, for example by using custom-made mouthguards. Moreover, specially designed dental programs for this group of patients should be provided. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Silove, Derrick; Austin, Patricia; Steel, Zachary
The final decades of the twentieth century were accompanied by an upsurge in the number of persons fleeing persecution and regional wars. To stem the flow of asylum seekers, several countries in the west introduced policies of deterrence, including detention. Although many countries detain asylum seekers, Australia has been unique in establishing a policy of mandatory, indefinite detention. The impact of prolonged detention on the mental health of asylum seekers drew commentary from mental health professionals soon after the policy was introduced, but administrators and politicians disputed the assertion that detention was a factor in causing or exacerbating mental disorder. This overview examines the impact of mandatory, indefinite detention on the mental health of asylum seekers by drawing on evidence gathered during Commissions of Inquiry, from observations of health and mental health professionals who have worked in detention centres, and from the small body of systematic research undertaken among immigration detainees. The data from all sources converge in demonstrating that prolonged detention has adverse mental health and psychosocial impacts on adults, families and children. Recent studies suggest that the mental health effects may be prolonged, extending well beyond the point of release into the community. The Australian experience offers general lessons to health professionals worldwide about the importance of remaining vigilant in protecting the rights of vulnerable groups, and more specifically, to ensure that the traumas that cause mental suffering in refugees are not compounded as a consequence of immigration policy decisions in recipient countries. Documentation and research can be vital in achieving policy change in these settings.
Evers, Sandra; van der Brug, Nienke; van Wesel, F.; krabbendam, Lydia
When dealing with children and youth who experience distressing events, psychosocial diagnostics and healing programmes principally resort to biomedical models. Children are often viewed as individualised ‘victims’ suffering from trauma and ‘in need’ of outside help. Highlighting case studies from
Victor Y. Kong
Full Text Available “Major Trauma. Dr. Kong, please come to the Trauma Unit immediately. Dr. Kong, please come to the Trauma Unit immediately.” Even though I have been working at Edendale Hospital as a trauma registrar for over a year, whenever I hear this announcement over the hospital intercom system, my heart beats just a little faster than normal. When I first arrived at Edendale my colleagues told me that the adrenaline rush I would experience after being called out to attend a new emergency would decrease over time, and indeed they were right. However, it is also true to say that on some occasions more than others, it is still felt more strongly than ever.
... in snow or on ice. Alternative Names Coccyx injury Images Tailbone (coccyx) References Choi SB, Cwinn AA. Pelvic trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...
Davis, Thompson E., III; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Ollendick, Thomas H.
The following study examined the reactions of university students to Hurricane Katrina. A group of 68 New Orleans area students who were displaced from their home universities as a result of the hurricane were matched on race, gender, and age to a sample of 68 students who had been enrolled at Louisiana State University (LSU) prior to the…
Marcano-Caldera, Maytté; Mejía-Cardona, Jose Luis; Sanchez, José Hernán Parra; de la Espriella, Catalina Méndez; Morales, Eduardo Covo; Varón, Gustavo Sierra; Díaz, Martha Gómez; Mesa, Natalia Fortich; Villegas, Paola Escobar; Reyes, Patricia Bermúdez; Sanchez, Patricia Rodríguez; Fernández, Pedro Mejia; Gómez-Scarpetta, Ruth Ángela; Alfaro, Vanessa Bernal; Aguirre, Olga Lucia Cifuentes; Soto, Olga Patricia López; Sigurdsson, Asgeir
Dental trauma in school populations has a high frequency and school teachers are often close to the place where such injuries occur. However, many studies have confirmed the lack of knowledge as to how to act in these cases. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge in regard to dental trauma of school teachers in Colombia. A multi-centre, descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in 251 schools using a stratified randomized sampling. A structured hard copy survey was personally delivered to 2,390 school teachers in the selected schools. The survey contained questions related to work experience, teaching level and demographic data, as well as questions related to their knowledge of and attitude towards emergency dental trauma management. The response rate was 96%. Most of the school teachers (95%) had never received training related to dental trauma although, 35% had witnessed at least one case. Out of 2,296 school teachers surveyed, only 5.8% would have replanted an avulsed tooth. An association was found between work experience and appropriate management of an avulsed tooth. No significant differences were found in regard to school location (city), school type (private/public), gender and school teachers' education level. The knowledge of school teachers in Colombia about emergency dental trauma management is inadequate. The findings strongly suggest a need for an education strategy with the involvement of the government, dentistry schools and private organizations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Wong, Mark Yz; Man, Ryan Ek; Gupta, Preeti; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse Luc
To describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma (OT) in a population-based study in Singapore. We included 3353 Chinese adults aged ≥40 years from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based study, conducted between 2009 and 2011. OT was defined as self-reported history of any eye injury requiring medical attention with or without hospitalisation, and further classified as blunt object, sharp object or chemical burns related. Age and gender-standardised prevalence was estimated using the 2010 Singapore Chinese population census. Multivariable models were used to assess the independent associations of OT with age, gender, income, education, literacy, alcohol consumption, smoking and history of falls. The mean (SD) age was 59.7 (9.9) years and 49.4% were male. There were 138 OT cases, giving a crude and age and gender-standardised prevalence of 4.1% (95% CI 3.5% to 4.8%) and 4.4% (95% CI 3.7% to 5.2%), respectively. Of these, 45 (32.6%), 56 (40.6%) and 10 (7.3%) were blunt object, sharp object and chemical burns-related trauma, respectively. Twenty eight (20.3%) required hospitalisation, with no difference between subtypes. In multivariable models, men (OR (95% CI): 2.80 (1.79-4.39)), younger persons (per year decrease in age (1.03 (1.00-1.05)) and lower education levels (1.8 (1.25-2.60); comparing ≤6 years vs >6 years of education) were independent determinants of OT. OT affected one in 25 adults, with 20% of these requiring hospitalisation. Because OT is preventable, raising awareness and education strategies in the population would allow prevention of vision loss particularly in men, and younger and lesser-educated individuals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Broska, César Augusto; de Folchini, Augusto Bernardo; de Ruediger, Ricardo Rydygier
To compare and identify differences in the profile of elderly and non-elderly patients with trauma. We conducted a comparative, cross-sectional, retrospective, quantitative study with 3112 patients between November, 25th 2010 and February, 25th 2011; patients were classified into GI: elderly (60 years or older) and GA: non-elderly (13-59 years). We collected information on the mechanism of trauma, injuries and factors associated with the event, which were compared between groups by using chi-square, Student t and proportions tests. Falls were more frequent in GI, mostly from the standing height, while violence and traffic accidents (especially with motorcycles) were the most important in GA. Both groups possessed mild trauma (bruises, sprains) as the most frequent, followed by traumatic brain injury (TBI) and fractures. Femur fractures were more common in the elderly, and hand and wrist fractures in the nonelderly. The elderly were hospitalized fewer days and there was no difference as for complications, need for intensive care unit (ICU), or mortality between groups. Falls from the standing height are more frequent in the elderly, and motorcycle accidents and interpersonal violence in the non-elderly. Both groups had superficial injuries, head trauma and fractures as major injuries. The elderly were hospitalized for less time. There was no difference in the need for ICU, complications and mortality.
Full Text Available Background. The most common cause of abdominal trauma is blunt trauma, gunshot wounds and stab wounds are rare. Most commonly injured organs in abdominal cavity are the spleen and the liver.Conclusions. Early diagnosis is very important and include precise phisical examination and all available diagnostic methods. The final decission about the method of treatmet depends on patients clinical condition, surgeon’s experience and other local conditions.
UCRL-15910 specifies wind and tornado missiles for moderate- and high-hazard DOE facilities. Wall-barrier specimens have been tested at the Tornado Missile Impact Facility at Texas Tech University. The facility has an air-activated tornado missile cannon capable of firing 2x4 timber planks weighing 12 lb at speeds up to 150 mph and 3-in-diameter steel pipes weighing 75 lb at speeds to 7 5 mph. Wall barriers tested to date include reinforced concrete walls from 4-in. to 10-in. thick; 8-in. and 12-in. walls of reinforced concrete masonry units (CMU); two other masonry wall configurations consisting of an 8-in. CMU with a 4-in. clay-brick veneer and a 10-in. composite wall with two wythes of 4-in. clay brick. The impact test series is designed to determine the impact speed that will produce backface spall of each wall barrier. A set of 15 wall sections has been constructed and tested at this time. Preliminary finding suggest that all cells of CMU walls must be grouted to prevent missile penetration. Walls recommended in the workshop on UCRL-15910 provide acceptable protection if cracking can be accepted
Cook, Tonya L; Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A; Letts, James P; Dwee, Ehtaw
with resettled Karen refugees in their countries of resettlement. Health providers may need specialized training to understand the traumatic histories of this new refugee group, learn how to initiate conversations about trauma and its impact on health, and make appropriate mental health referrals in the context of a brief public health screening.
Huh, Hyu Jung; Baek, Kwangyeol; Kwon, Jae-Hyung; Jeong, Jaeseung; Chae, Jeong-Ho
Although poor decision-making ultimately impairs quality of life in depression, few studies describe the clinical characteristics of patients suffering from dysfunctional decision-making. This study aims to delineate the effect of childhood trauma and other personality factors on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression. A total of 50 depressive patients completed surveys for the measurement of sociodemographic factors, trauma loads and other clinical characteristics, including depression, anxiety, and strategies for emotion regulation. Risk aversion and loss aversion were quantified using probability discounting task and a 50:50 gamble on monetary decision-making task under specified risks. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the factors, predicting risk aversion or loss aversion in depression. Childhood trauma was the most prominent factor predicting loss aversion in patients with depressive disorders. Overall maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with risk aversion. Childhood trauma and specific strategies of emotion regulation contribute to risk or loss aversion in patients with depression. These findings may provide useful insight into elaborative evaluation and interventions to improve decision-making and quality of life in patients with depression.
Inaba, Kenji; Nosanov, Lauren; Menaker, Jay; Bosarge, Patrick; Williams, Lashonda; Turay, David; Cachecho, Riad; de Moya, Marc; Bukur, Marko; Carl, Jordan; Kobayashi, Leslie; Kaminski, Stephen; Beekley, Alec; Gomez, Mario; Skiada, Dimitra
Unlike the cervical spine (C-spine), where National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) and the Canadian C-spine Rules can be used, evidence-based thoracolumbar spine (TL-spine) clearance guidelines do not exist. The aim of this study was to develop a clinical decision rule for evaluating the TL-spine after injury. Adult (≥15 years) blunt trauma patients were prospectively enrolled at 13 US trauma centers (January 2012 to January 2014). Exclusion criteria included the following: C-spine injury with neurologic deficit, preexisting paraplegia/tetraplegia, and unevaluable examination. Remaining evaluable patients underwent TL-spine imaging and were followed up to discharge. The primary end point was a clinically significant TL-spine injury requiring TL-spine orthoses or surgical stabilization. Regression techniques were used to develop a clinical decision rule. Decision rule performance in identifying clinically significant fractures was tested. Of 12,479 patients screened, 3,065 (24.6%) met inclusion criteria (mean [SD] age, 43.5 [19.8] years [range, 15-103 years]; male sex, 66.3%; mean [SD] Injury Severity Score [ISS], 8.8 [7.5]). The majority underwent computed tomography (93.3%), 6.3% only plain films, and 0.2% magnetic resonance imaging exclusively. TL-spine injury was identified in 499 patients (16.3%), of which 264 (8.6%) were clinically significant (29.2% surgery, 70.8% TL-spine orthosis). The majority was AO Type A1 282 (56.5%), followed by 67 (13.4%) A3, 43 (8.6%) B2, and 32 (6.4%) A4 injuries. The predictive ability of clinical examination (pain, midline tenderness, deformity, neurologic deficit), age, and mechanism was examined; positive clinical examination finding resulted in a sensitivity of 78.4% and a specificity of 72.9%. Addition of age of 60 years or older and high-risk mechanism (fall, crush, motor vehicle crash with ejection/rollover, unenclosed vehicle crash, auto vs. pedestrian) increased sensitivity to 98.9% with specificity of
Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether there are differences in symptoms before and after an intervention to promote the emotional expression about critical incidents experienced during the fire-fighters work. Method: This was a longitudinal study with three assessment moments (M1, M2 and M3 being the expressive writing technique used between the 2nd and 3rd assessment. At assessment moments the 44 participants completed a questionnaire, with measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, peritraumatic dissociation, health complaints, mental health and socio-demographic variables. Results: All 44 fire-fighters had experienced critical incidents at work. From M1 to M2 there was only a significant increase in health complaints. After the expressive writing, there was a significant decrease of the perception of trauma reported by the fire-fighters, a decrease in reported symptoms of PTSD and dissociation symptoms, and in pseudoneurological complaints. In general, there was a tendency for all the negative symptoms to decrease over time and for an improvement in psychological well-being. Conclusions: This study presents a contribution for the promotion of emotional expression, through the use of the expressive writing technique, in order to minimize the risk of developing psychological disorders associated with critical incidents.
Costa, Matthew L; Griffin, Xavier L; Achten, Juul; Metcalfe, David; Judge, Andrew; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Parsons, Nicholas
Osteoporotic hip fractures present a significant global challenge to patients, clinicians and healthcare systems. It is estimated that hip fracture accounts for 1.4% of total social and healthcare costs in the established market economies. The World Hip Trauma Evaluation (WHiTE) was set up to measure outcome in a comprehensive cohort of UK patients with hip fracture. All patients in the cohort are treated under a single comprehensive treatment pathway. A core outcome set, including health-related quality of life, is collected on all the patients. This protocol describes the current multicentre project that will be used as a vehicle to deliver a series of embedded observational studies. Research Ethics Committee approval was granted (Rec reference 11/LO/0927, approved 18/8/2011) and each hospital trust provided National Health Service (NHS) approvals. The study is registered with National Institute of Health Research Portfolio (UKCRN ID 12351) and the ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN63982700). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Wamser-Nanney, Rachel; Cherry, Kathryn E; Campbell, Claudia; Trombetta, Elise
Complex trauma exposure has been defined as multiple or chronic interpersonal trauma that begins early in life, which leads to widespread dysregulation. Previous studies have reported that minorities may be at greater risk for trauma exposure and symptoms; yet, racial differences have not been investigated in the context of complex trauma. The aim of the present study was to determine if there are racial disparities in children's trauma exposure and outcomes among 167 child survivors of complex trauma (3-18 years, M = 9.90, SD = 3.92; 61.67% female; 62.2% Black). Black children endorsed a greater number of trauma types and were more likely to have experienced community violence and have been placed in child protective custody than White children. Caregivers of White children endorsed higher levels of select internalizing symptoms and social concerns whereas Black children reported higher levels of sexual concerns than White children. White children who experience complex trauma may be at higher risk for some trauma-related difficulties. Alternatively, caregivers of White children may perceive them to have, or be more willing to acknowledge, higher levels of symptoms than Black children. Future work is needed to further investigate the role of race in disclosure of trauma exposure and related symptoms.
Groeneveld AB Johan
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma and surgery may be complicated by pulmonary dysfunction, acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but the mechanisms are incompletely understood. Methods We evaluated lung capillary protein permeability non-invasively with help of the 67Ga-transferrin pulmonary leak index (PLI technique and extravascular lung water (EVLW by the transpulmonary thermal-dye dilution technique in consecutive, mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit within 24 h of direct, blunt thoracic trauma (n = 5, 2 with ARDS, and within 12 h of indirect trauma by transhiatal oesophagectomy (n = 8, abdominal surgery for cancer (n = 6 and bone surgery (n = 4. We studied transfusion history, haemodynamics, oxygenation and mechanics of the lungs. The lung injury score (LIS, 0–4 was calculated. Plain radiography was also done to judge densities and atelectasis. Results The PLI and EVLW were elevated above normal in 61 and 30% of patients, respectively, and the PLI directly related to the number of red cell concentrates given (rs = 0.69, P s = 0.55, P = 0.007. Thoracic trauma patients had a worse oxygenation requiring higher airway pressures and thus higher LIS than the other patient groups, unrelated to PLI and EVLW but attributable to a higher cardiac output and thereby venous admixture. Finally, patients with radiographic signs of atelectasis had more impaired oxygenation and more densities than those without. Conclusion The oxygenation defect and radiographic densities in mechanically ventilated patients with pulmonary dysfunction and ALI/ARDS after trauma and surgery are likely caused by atelectasis rather than by increased permeability-oedema related to red cell transfusion.
Strøm, Ida Frugård; Schultz, Jon-Håkon; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete
Background The psychological impact on survivors of terrorism has been well documented. However, studies on adolescent survivors and the academic performance of high school students following a terrorist attack are lacking. Objective This study investigated academic performance, absenteeism, and school support amongst survivors of a terrorist attack in Norway. Method Data from a longitudinal interview study were linked to officially registered grades of students (N=64) who successfully completed their 3-year senior high school program. Statistical tests of mean differences and linear regression were used to compare the survivors’ registered grades with the national grade point average, before and after the event, as well as to assess absenteeism, self-reported grades and to test the association with school support. Results The students’ grades were lower the year after the event than they had been the year before, and they were also lower than the national grade point average (pacademic functioning was reduced in the year after the traumatic event, but for students who successfully completed high school, the school situation improved 2 years after the event. The findings underscore the importance of keeping trauma-exposed students in school and providing support over time. A more defined educational approach to maintaining school attendance and educational measures which compensate for learning loss are needed in trauma-sensitive teaching. Highlights of the article School functioning among high school students following a terrorist attack. The findings showed a decline in school performance and increased absence after the event. For students who successfully completed high school, high satisfaction with school support was reported and an improvement in grades could be observed over time, indicating possible recovery. The findings underscore the importance of keeping trauma-exposed students in schools and providing support over time. PMID:27171613
Rahtz, Emmylou; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Hutchison, Iain; Korszun, Ania
Facial injuries are widely assumed to lead to stigma and significant psychosocial burden. Experimental studies of face perception support this idea, but there is very little empirical evidence to guide treatment. This study sought to address the gap. Data were collected from 193 patients admitted to hospital following facial or other trauma. Ninety (90) participants were successfully followed up 8 months later. Participants completed measures of appearance concern and psychological distress (post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms). Participants were classified by site of injury (facial or non-facial injury). The overall levels of appearance concern were comparable to those of the general population, and there was no evidence of more appearance concern among people with facial injuries. Women and younger people were significantly more likely to experience appearance concern at baseline. Baseline and 8-month psychological distress, although common in the sample, did not differ according to the site of injury. Changes in appearance concern were, however, strongly associated with psychological distress at follow-up. We conclude that although appearance concern is severe among some people with facial injury, it is not especially different to those with non-facial injuries or the general public; changes in appearance concern, however, appear to correlate with psychological distress. We therefore suggest that interventions might focus on those with heightened appearance concern and should target cognitive bias and psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davis, Matthew L; Wehbe-Janek, Hania; Subacius, Haris; Pinto, Ruxandra; Nathens, Avery B
The Trauma Center Organizational Culture Survey (TRACCS) instrument was developed to assess organizational culture of trauma centers enrolled in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Program (ACS TQIP). The objective is to provide evidence on the psychometric properties of the factors of TRACCS and describe the current organizational culture of TQIP-enrolled trauma centers. A cross-sectional study was conducted by surveying a sampling of employees at 174 TQIP-enrolled trauma centers. Data collection was preceded by multistep survey development. Psychometric properties were assessed by an exploratory factor analysis (construct validity) and the item-total correlations and Cronbach alpha were calculated (internal reliability). Statistical outcomes of the survey responses were measured by descriptive statistics and mixed effect models. The response rate for trauma center participation in the study was 78.7% (n = 137). The factor analysis resulted in 16 items clustered into three factors as described: opportunity, pride, and diversity, trauma center leadership, and employee respect and recognition. TRACCS was found to be highly reliable with a Cronbach alpha of 0.90 in addition to the three factors (0.91, 0.90, and 0.85). Considerable variability of TRACCS overall and factor score among hospitals was measured, with the largest interhospital deviations among trauma center leadership. More than 80% of the variability in the responses occurred within rather than between hospitals. TRACCS was developed as a reliable tool for measuring trauma center organizational culture. Relationships between TQIP outcomes and measured organizational culture are under investigation. Trauma centers could apply TRACCS to better understand current organizational culture and how change tools can impact culture and subsequent patient and process outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jacob, Michelle M; Gonzales, Kelly L; Calhoun, Darren; Beals, Janette; Muller, Clemma Jacobsen; Goldberg, Jack; Nelson, Lonnie; Welty, Thomas K; Howard, Barbara V
The aims of this paper are to examine the relationship between psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among 3776 American Indians in Phase V of the Strong Heart Family Study. This cross-sectional analysis measured psychological trauma symptoms using the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument, diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria, and treatment modality by four categories: no medication, oral medication only, insulin only, or both oral medication and insulin. We used binary logistic regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and diabetes prevalence. We used ordinary least squares regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and glucose control. We used binary logistic regression to model the association of psychological trauma symptoms with treatment modality. Neither diabetes prevalence (22%-31%; p=0.19) nor control (8.0-8.6; p=0.25) varied significantly by psychological trauma symptoms categories. However, diabetes treatment modality was associated with psychological trauma symptoms categories, as people with greater burden used either no medication, or both oral and insulin medications (odds ratio=3.1, ppsychological trauma symptoms suggests future research investigate patient and provider treatment decision making. © 2013.
Schutz, Martin (ed.)
We have estimated the impact of climate change on the chemical composition of the troposphere due to changes in climate from current climate (2000-2010) looking 40 years ahead (2040-2050). The climate projection has been made by the ECHAM5 model and was followed by chemistry-transport modelling using a global model, Oslo CTM2 (Isaksen et al., 2005; Srvde et al., 2008), and a regional model, EMEP. In this report we focus on carbon monoxide (CO) and surface ozone (O3) which are measures of primary and secondary air pollution. In parallel we have estimated the change in the same air pollutants resulting from changes in emissions over the same time period. (orig.)
Bendall, Sarah; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Hulbert, Carol A; McGorry, Patrick D; Jackson, Henry J
To investigate the relationship between childhood trauma, post-traumatic stress symptoms due to the experience of childhood trauma, and post-traumatic stress symptoms due to the experience of psychosis. The current study assessed childhood trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of both childhood trauma and psychosis using the Impact of Events Scale - Revised, in a group of 36 people with first-episode psychosis. Reported rates of clinical level post-psychotic PTSD symptoms, childhood trauma and childhood trauma-related clinical level PTSD symptoms were 47% (95% CI 31-64%), 64% (95% CI 48-80%) and 39% (95% CI 23-55%), respectively. Reporting childhood trauma increased the risk of developing post-psychosis PTSD 27-fold (95% CI 2.96-253.80, p = 0.01). Having childhood trauma-related PTSD increased the risk of developing post-psychosis PTSD 20-fold (95% CI 3.38-123.25, p = 0.01). These risks were not explained by illness factors such as duration of untreated psychosis, age of onset or severity of psychotic symptoms. Those without post-psychotic PTSD symptoms at clinical levels were unlikely to report childhood trauma (6%; 95% CI 3-8%). These results suggest the cognitive, social and biological consequences of childhood trauma can prevent effective recovery from the trauma of acute first-episode psychosis resulting in post-psychotic PTSD. Treatment strategies for post-psychotic PTSD must address childhood trauma and related PTSD.
Brauner, Edoardo; Pompa, Giorgio; Quarato, Alessandro; Jamshir, Sara; De Angelis, Francesca; Di Carlo, Stefano; Valentini, Valentino
Background . Maxillofacial trauma represents a field of common interest as regards both the maxillofacial surgery and prosthodontics, especially for the functional and aesthetic stomatognathic rehabilitation. This condition necessitates relationship between maxillofacial surgeon and prosthodontist, to achieve the ultimate treatment goal. Purpose . The purpose of this study is to make predictable patients outcomes classifying their clinical data, using certain parameters and introducing a new classification method. Materials and Methods . We have chosen 7 parameters to classify the entity of the damage of these patients and to make their treatment and their prognosis predictable: number of teeth lost (T1-T4), upper/lower maxilla (U/L), alveolar/basal bone (Alv/B), gingival tissues (G), soft tissues (S), adult/child (a/c), and reconstructed patient (R). Results and Conclusions . The multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration between multiple clinical figures are therefore critical for the success of the treatment of these patients. The presence and quantification of above parameters influence the treatment protocol; patients undergo different levels of treatment depending on the measured data. The recognition of certain clinical parameters is fundamental to frame diagnosis and successful treatment planning.
Full Text Available Background. Maxillofacial trauma represents a field of common interest as regards both the maxillofacial surgery and prosthodontics, especially for the functional and aesthetic stomatognathic rehabilitation. This condition necessitates relationship between maxillofacial surgeon and prosthodontist, to achieve the ultimate treatment goal. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to make predictable patients outcomes classifying their clinical data, using certain parameters and introducing a new classification method. Materials and Methods. We have chosen 7 parameters to classify the entity of the damage of these patients and to make their treatment and their prognosis predictable: number of teeth lost (T1–T4, upper/lower maxilla (U/L, alveolar/basal bone (Alv/B, gingival tissues (G, soft tissues (S, adult/child (a/c, and reconstructed patient (R. Results and Conclusions. The multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration between multiple clinical figures are therefore critical for the success of the treatment of these patients. The presence and quantification of above parameters influence the treatment protocol; patients undergo different levels of treatment depending on the measured data. The recognition of certain clinical parameters is fundamental to frame diagnosis and successful treatment planning.
Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Hanson, Ian; Dozzi, Nathalie
The potential for contextual information to bias assessments in the forensic sciences has been demonstrated, in several forensic disiplines. In this paper, biasability potential within forensic anthropology was examined by analyzing the effects of external manipulations on judgments and decision-making in visual trauma assessment. Three separate websites were created containing fourteen identical images. Participants were randomly assigned to one website. Each website provided different contextual information, to assess variation of interpretation of the same images between contexts. The results indicated a higher scoring of trauma identification responses for the Mass grave context. Furthermore, a significant biasing effect was detected in the interpretation of four images. Less experienced participants were more likely to indicate presence of trauma. This research demonstrates bias impact in forensic anthropological trauma assessments and highlights the importance of recognizing and limiting cognitive vulnerabilities that forensic anthropologists might bring to the analysis. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Cascardi, Michele; Jouriles, Ernest N
Research linking child maltreatment and dating violence in adolescence and emerging adulthood has proliferated in the past two decades; however, the precise mechanisms by which these experiences are related remain elusive. A trauma-informed perspective suggests four particularly promising mediators: maladaptive attachment, emotion regulation difficulties, emotional distress, and hostility. The current article characterizes the status of the empirical literature examining these four mediators using a study space analysis and a narrative review of existing research. An extensive literature search identified 42 papers (44 studies) that met the following criteria: (1) at least one measure of child maltreatment (emotional, physical, sexual, neglect, or exposure to intimate partner violence); (2) a measure of one of the four mediator variables; (3) a measure of dating violence perpetration or victimization; and (4) a sample of adolescents or young adults. The study space analysis suggested several important observations about the research on this topic, including a dearth of studies examining hostility as a mediator and little research using prospective designs or clinical samples. There are also limitations with the conceptualization and measurement of dating violence, child maltreatment, and some of the mediator variables. In addition, few studies examined more than one mediator variable in the same study. The narrative review suggested that maladaptive attachment (specifically insecure attachment styles), emotion regulation difficulties (specifically regulation of the emotion of anger), and emotional distress construed broadly represent promising mediators of the association between child maltreatment and dating violence, but conclusions about mediation must remain tentative given the state of the literature. The discussion offers recommendations for improved theoretical and empirical rigor to advance future research on mechanisms linking child maltreatment and dating
Poon, Maggie Wai-Ling
This paper described the application of eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) for addressing the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a Chinese woman who had experienced multiple traumas in her childhood. EMDR is an integrative therapeutic intervention that uses a standardized eight-phase approach to treatment. It is also a proven, effective, and efficient treatment for trauma. In this client with multiple traumas, the etiological event that lay the foundation of her dysfunctional responses was reprocessed first. The successful resolution of this event allowed the positive treatment effects to transfer to other traumatic events of a similar theme. This case also illustrates the importance of identifying a culturally appropriate positive cognition (PC) in contributing to the success of the treatment. PMID:22937416
Maggie Wai-Ling Poon
Full Text Available This paper described the application of eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR for addressing the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in a Chinese woman who had experienced multiple traumas in her childhood. EMDR is an integrative therapeutic intervention that uses a standardized eight-phase approach to treatment. It is also a proven, effective, and efficient treatment for trauma. In this client with multiple traumas, the etiological event that lay the foundation of her dysfunctional responses was reprocessed first. The successful resolution of this event allowed the positive treatment effects to transfer to other traumatic events of a similar theme. This case also illustrates the importance of identifying a culturally appropriate positive cognition (PC in contributing to the success of the treatment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several well established scores for the assessment of the prognosis of major trauma patients that all have in common that they can be calculated at the earliest during intensive care unit stay. We intended to develop a sequential trauma score (STS that allows prognosis at several early stages based on the information that is available at a particular time. Study design In a retrospective, multicenter study using data derived from the Trauma Registry of the German Trauma Society (2002-2006, we identified the most relevant prognostic factors from the patients basic data (P, prehospital phase (A, early (B1, and late (B2 trauma room phase. Univariate and logistic regression models as well as score quality criteria and the explanatory power have been calculated. Results A total of 2,354 patients with complete data were identified. From the patients basic data (P, logistic regression showed that age was a significant predictor of survival (AUCmodel p, area under the curve = 0.63. Logistic regression of the prehospital data (A showed that blood pressure, pulse rate, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, and anisocoria were significant predictors (AUCmodel A = 0.76; AUCmodel P + A = 0.82. Logistic regression of the early trauma room phase (B1 showed that peripheral oxygen saturation, GCS, anisocoria, base excess, and thromboplastin time to be significant predictors of survival (AUCmodel B1 = 0.78; AUCmodel P +A + B1 = 0.85. Multivariate analysis of the late trauma room phase (B2 detected cardiac massage, abbreviated injury score (AIS of the head ≥ 3, the maximum AIS, the need for transfusion or massive blood transfusion, to be the most important predictors (AUCmodel B2 = 0.84; AUCfinal model P + A + B1 + B2 = 0.90. The explanatory power - a tool for the assessment of the relative impact of each segment to mortality - is 25% for P, 7% for A, 17% for B1 and 51% for B2. A spreadsheet for the easy calculation of the sequential trauma
Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M
Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Browne, Tess; Evangeli, Michael; Greenberg, Neil
This study explored the psychological impact of exposure to work-related trauma among journalists. It was hypothesised that positive associations would exist between (a) exposure and PTSD symptoms, (b) exposure and guilt cognitions, and (c) guilt cognitions and PTSD symptoms, and that the relationship between exposure and PTSD symptoms would be mediated by guilt cognitions. The sample consisted of 50 journalists (response rate = 15%), who had recently been exposed to work-related trauma. They were predominantly male, aged 40 years or older, well-educated, and most had worked in journalism for at least 15 years. Participants completed an online questionnaire that explored their work-related experiences of trauma, PTSD symptoms, and trauma-related guilt cognitions. The findings showed that higher levels of exposure to work-related trauma were significantly associated with higher levels of PTSD symptoms (r = .36) and trauma-related guilt cognitions (r = .29). Guilt cognitions were significantly and positively independently associated with PTSD symptoms (r = .12) and were consistent with partial mediation of relationship between exposure to work-related trauma and PTSD symptoms. This study provides greater insight into the psychological processing of work-related traumatic events among journalists and emphasizes the importance of posttrauma appraisals of guilt regarding their experiences. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Adams, Sasha D; Holcomb, John B
The landscape of trauma is changing due to an aging population. Geriatric patients represent an increasing number and proportion of trauma admissions and deaths. This review explores recent literature on geriatric trauma, including triage criteria, assessment of frailty, fall-related injury, treatment of head injury complicated by coagulopathy, goals of care, and the need for ongoing education of all surgeons in the care of the elderly. Early identification of high-risk geriatric patients is imperative to initiate early resuscitative efforts. Geriatric patients are typically undertriaged because of their baseline frailty being underappreciated; however, centers that see more geriatric patients do better. Rapid reversal of anticoagulation is important in preventing progression of brain injury. Anticipation of difficult disposition necessitates early involvement of physical therapy for rehabilitation and case management for appropriate placement. Optimal care of geriatric trauma patients will be based on the well established tenets of trauma resuscitation and injury repair, but with distinct elements that address the physiological and anatomical challenges presented by geriatric patients.
Abdominal injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Ten percent of trauma-related deaths are due to abdominal injury. Thousands of children are involved in auto accidents annually; many suffer severe internal injury. Child abuse is a second less frequent but equally serious cause of internal abdominal injury. The descriptions of McCort and Eisenstein and their associates in the 1960s first brought to attention the frequency and severity of visceral injury as important manifestations of the child abuse syndrome. Blunt abdominal trauma often causes multiple injuries; in the past, many children have been subjected to exploratory surgery to evaluate the extent of possible hidden injury. Since the advent of noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques including radionuclide scans and ultrasound and, especially, computed tomography (CT), the radiologist has been better able to assess (accurately) the extent of abdominal injury and thus allow conservative therapy in many cases. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs following gunshot wounds, stabbing, and other similar injury. This is fortunately, a relatively uncommon occurrence in most pediatric centers and will not be discussed specifically here, although many principles of blunt trauma diagnosis are valid for evaluation of penetrating abdominal trauma. If there is any question that a wound has extended intraperitonelly, a sinogram with water-soluble contrast material allows quick, accurate diagnosis. The presence of large amounts of free intraperitoneal gas suggests penetrating injury to the colon or other gas-containing viscus and is generally considered an indication for surgery
Strøm, Ida Frugård; Schultz, Jon-Håkon; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete
The psychological impact on survivors of terrorism has been well documented. However, studies on adolescent survivors and the academic performance of high school students following a terrorist attack are lacking. This study investigated academic performance, absenteeism, and school support amongst survivors of a terrorist attack in Norway. Data from a longitudinal interview study were linked to officially registered grades of students (N=64) who successfully completed their 3-year senior high school program. Statistical tests of mean differences and linear regression were used to compare the survivors' registered grades with the national grade point average, before and after the event, as well as to assess absenteeism, self-reported grades and to test the association with school support. The students' grades were lower the year after the event than they had been the year before, and they were also lower than the national grade point average (pschool, indicating possible recovery. Absence from school increased after the event, compared to the previous year. However, students reported high satisfaction with school support. The results indicate that academic functioning was reduced in the year after the traumatic event, but for students who successfully completed high school, the school situation improved 2 years after the event. The findings underscore the importance of keeping trauma-exposed students in school and providing support over time. A more defined educational approach to maintaining school attendance and educational measures which compensate for learning loss are needed in trauma-sensitive teaching.
Levesque, Andre Y; Tauber, David M; Lee, Johnson C; Rodriguez-Feliz, Jose R; Chao, Jerome D
Facial trauma is among the most frequent consultations encountered by plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the reimbursement from these consultations can be low, and qualified plastic surgeons may exclude facial trauma from their practice. An audit of our records found insufficient documentation to justify higher evaluation and management (EM) levels of service resulting in lower reimbursement. Utilizing a standardized consultation form can improve documentation resulting in higher billing and EM levels. A facial trauma consultation form was developed in conjunction with the billing department. Three plastic surgery residents completed 30 consultations without the aid of the consult form followed by 30 consultations with the aid of the form. The EM levels and billing data for each consultation were obtained from the billing department for analysis. The 2 groups were compared using χ2 analysis and t tests to determine statistical significance. Using our standardized consultation form, the mean EM level increased from 2.97 to 3.60 (P = 0.002). In addition, the mean billed amount increased from $391 to $501 per consult (P = 0.051) representing a 28% increase in billing. In our institution, the development and implementation of a facial trauma consultation form has resulted in more complete documentation and a subsequent increase in EM level and billed services.
Hovens, J.G.; Giltay, E.J.; Spinhoven, P.; van Hemert, A.M.; Penninx, B.W.
Objective: To investigate the effect of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders over a 2-year period in participants without current psychopathology at baseline. Method: Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants without
Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Spinhoven, Philip; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objective: To investigate the effect of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders over a 2-year period in participants without current psychopathology at baseline. Method: Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants without
Kuwert, Philipp; Glaesmer, Heide; Eichhorn, Svenja; Grundke, Elena; Pietrzak, Robert H; Freyberger, Harald J; Klauer, Thomas
The aim of the study was to compare the long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence experienced at the end of World War II (WWII) with non-sexual WWII trauma (e.g., being exposed to shell shock or physical violence). A total of 27 elderly wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects who were drawn from a larger sample of subjects over 70 years of age who had experienced WWII-related trauma. A modified version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess trauma characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 was used to assess current psychopathology. Additionally, measures of posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and social acknowledgement as a trauma survivor (Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire) were used to assess two mediating variables in post-trauma conditions of rape victims. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence reported greater severity of PTSD-related avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as anxiety, compared with female long-term survivors of non-sexual WWII trauma. The vast majority (80.9 %) of these women also reported severe sexual problems during their lifetimes relative to 19.0 % of women who experienced non-sexual war trauma. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence also reported greater posttraumatic growth, but less social acknowledgement as trauma survivors, compared to survivors of non-sexual war trauma. The results were consistent with emerging neurobiological research, which suggests that different traumas may be differentially associated with long-term posttraumatic sequelae in sexual assault survivors than in other survivor groups and highlights the need to treat (or better prevent) deleterious effects of conflict-related sexual violence in current worldwide crisis zones.
Zarzaur, Ben L; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C
Trauma systems are threatened from declining reimbursement. To increase trauma system participation in Mississippi, a novel "Play or Pay" (PoP) state trauma funding law went into effect on September 1, 2008. Hospitals were required to participate in the trauma system or pay a fee of up to $1.5 million per year. Funds generated are distributed for uncompensated care to hospitals participating in the trauma system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of PoP on a bordering state's Level I trauma center. Patients living in the PoP state at the time of injury who were admitted to a regional Level I trauma center from 2006 to 2009 were eligible. Demographics, payer source, and injury severity were determined. The reimbursement ratio (reimbursement or charges) (REIMBR) was calculated for each patient. Patients admitted before PoP (PRE) were compared with those admitted after (POST). Trauma system participation increased in the PoP state PRE (70 of 107 [65%]) versus POST (85 of 106 [80%], p < 0.05). Transfers of Mississippi residents from referring hospitals to the regional Level I trauma center increased PRE (30.0%) versus POST (36.8%, p < 0.05). Payer mix was significantly different PRE versus POST with an increase in self-pay (37.4% POST vs. 36.5% PRE, p < 0.05) and a decrease in commercial insurance (36.0% POST vs. 41.0% PRE, p < 0.05). The REIMBR significantly decreased PRE (1.11 ± 1.43) compared with POST (0.91 ± 1.07, p < 0.05). At the same time, there was an increase in funds received from the PoP state. After accounting for increased funds, there was a significant increase in the adjusted REIMBR PRE (1.21 ± 1.53) versus POST (1.49 ± 4.51, p < 0.05). A PoP policy in a neighboring state was associated with more transfers, a change in payer mix, and a decrease in the REIMBR. However, funds received from the PoP state ameliorated the negative financial impact on bordering state's Level I trauma center. The Mississippi legislature's foresighted Po
Jacobs, Jordan V; Hooft, Nicole M; Robinson, Brenton R; Todd, Emily; Bremner, Ross M; Petersen, Scott R; Smith, Michael A
Reports documenting the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after blunt thoracic trauma are scarce. We used a large, multicenter database to examine outcomes when ECMO was used in treating patients with blunt thoracic trauma. We performed a retrospective analysis of ECMO patients in the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization database between 1998 and 2014. The diagnostic code for blunt pulmonary contusion (861.21, DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.) was used to identify patients treated with ECMO after blunt thoracic trauma. Variations of pre-ECMO respiratory support were also evaluated. The primary outcome was survival to discharge; the secondary outcome was hemorrhagic complication associated with ECMO. Eighty-five patients met inclusion criteria. The mean ± SEM age of the cohort was 28.9 ± 1.1 years; 71 (83.5%) were male. The mean ± SEM pre-ECMO PaO2/FIO2 ratio was 59.7 ± 3.5, and the mean ± SEM pre-ECMO length of ventilation was 94.7 ± 13.2 hours. Pre-ECMO support included inhaled nitric oxide (15 patients, 17.6%), high-frequency oscillation (10, 11.8%), and vasopressor agents (57, 67.1%). The mean ± SEM duration of ECMO was 207.4 ± 23.8 hours, and 63 patients (74.1%) were treated with venovenous ECMO. Thirty-two patients (37.6%) underwent invasive procedures before ECMO, and 12 patients (14.1%) underwent invasive procedures while on ECMO. Hemorrhagic complications occurred in 25 cases (29.4%), including 12 patients (14.1%) with surgical site bleeding and 16 (18.8%) with cannula site bleeding (6 patients had both). The rate of survival to discharge was 74.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that shorter duration of ECMO and the use of venovenous ECMO predicted survival. Outcomes after the use of ECMO in blunt thoracic trauma can be favorable. Some trauma patients are appropriate candidates for this therapy. Further study may discern which subpopulations of trauma patients will benefit most from ECMO. Therapeutic
Forsh, David A; Amanatullah, Derek F; Amanantullah, Derek F; Coleman, Sheldon; Wolinsky, Philip R
We examined the financial ramifications on the orthopedic trauma service after loss of payment to our institution for care of indigent patients. Our institution is the only Level I trauma center located within the county. Before mid-2009, county insurance-eligible patients treated at our institution had their health care paid for by the county. After mid-2009, the county no longer reimbursed our institution for care provided. A retrospective review was performed on 653 county patients treated by the four orthopedic trauma surgeons during a 4-year period including the 2 years before the loss of county payments as well as the 2-year period following the loss of payment. Data collected included demographics, admitting service, injuries treated, length of stay, surgeon billing, and reimbursement. We also classified the urgency of care that was rendered into one of three categories as follows: emergent, urgent, or elective. There was a higher frequency of emergent and urgent procedures and a lower frequency of elective cases performed in the noncontracted period versus the contracted period. During the contracted period, we billed and collected $1,161,036. After the loss of reimbursement from the county, we billed $870,590 and were paid $0. County reimbursements made up 33.5% of the total professional fees billed. There was a 20% net drop in total billing during the noncontracted period, of which the money not reimbursed by the county accounted for 31%. Despite the lack of county payment, our institution continues to provide care to the indigent population. This lack of payment may have significant long-term economic ramifications for the orthopedic trauma surgeons and for our institution. The financial burden preferentially falls on the "safety net" Level I trauma centers and the physicians who take care of patients with urgent and emergent injuries. This burden may be unsustainable in the future. Economic and value-based evaluation, level V.
Boeck, Marissa A; Callese, Tyler E; Nelson, Sarah K; Schuetz, Steven J; Fuentes Bazan, Christian; Saavedra Laguna, Juan Mauricio P; Shapiro, Michael B; Issa, Nabil M; Swaroop, Mamta
Ninety percent of nearly five million annual global injury deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where prehospital care systems are frequently rudimentary or nonexistent. The World Health Organization considers layperson first-responders as essential for emergency medical services in low-resource settings lacking more formalized systems. This study sought to develop and implement a layperson trauma first responder course (TFRC) in Bolivia. In March and April 2013 nine sessions of the eight-hour TFRC were held in La Paz, Bolivia. The course charged a nominal fee, and was led by an American surgeon and medical student. The TFRC built upon existing models with local stakeholder input, and included both didactic and practical components. Participants completed a baseline survey, and pre and posttests. The primary outcome was test performance, with secondary outcomes including demographic sub-group test score analyses and exam question validation. Data were assessed using nonparametric and psychometric methods RESULTS: One hundred fifty-nine individuals met study inclusion criteria. Participant median age was 28 (IQR 24, 36), 49.1% were male, 59.1% worked in a medical field, most had secondary (35.2%) or university (56.0%) level educations, and 67.3% had prior first aid training. Median test scores improved after course completion (48% vs. 76%, p course completion, and acceptable overall psychometric test properties, indicate this model is valid and effective. Future aims include TFRC revision, and enrollment of more layperson first responders to increase population-level impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parvathi Devi Munishwar
Full Text Available Gunshot injuries are rather serious but uncommon type of trauma in India. Radiologists can contribute substantially in the evaluation and treatment of patients with gunshot wounds. Foreign bodies that enter a patient as a result of trauma are contaminated and produce a range of symptoms. Oral and maxillofacial gunshot injuries are usually fatal due to close proximity with vital structures. Here, we report a case in which radiographic evidence of foreign bodies in the right orofacial region exposed a history of a gunshot injury. The patient did not have any major complaints except for reduced mouth opening. These foreign bodies were clinically silent for approximately 12 years.
Rossiter, Amy; Byrne, Fintan; Wota, Anna Paulina; Nisar, Zafar; Ofuafor, Thomas; Murray, Ivan; Byrne, Charles; Hallahan, Brian
Despite an increased awareness regarding the prevalence and impact of childhood trauma, especially childhood sexual abuse (CSA), few studies examine the clinical reporting of such childhood experiences. This study compared the prevalence of childhood trauma recorded in individual's clinical notes to those ascertained with a structured validated questionnaire, examined which forms of childhood trauma were less likely to be reported to the treating mental health team and established which demographic or clinical factors were associated with reporting of childhood trauma. The prevalence of childhood trauma was ascertained using both the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and a lifetime retrospective clinical note review in 129 individuals attending a general adult mental health service. Individuals were evaluated for the presence of mental health disorders, impulsivity, symptom severity and disability. Using the CTQ, childhood trauma was noted in 77% of individuals and recorded in 38% of individual's clinical notes (pChildhood trauma was associated with increased psychopathology and greater symptom severity, and was particularly prevalent for individuals with personality disorders. This study demonstrated high rates of childhood trauma amongst adults attending a general adult mental health service. Furthermore, we demonstrated high rates of either non-enquiry from mental health professionals and/or high rates of non-documentation of childhood trauma by mental health professionals. Given the disparity between reporting of childhood trauma in clinical notes and findings with the CTQ, the use of a standardised questionnaire for the assessment of childhood trauma should be considered when performing a comprehensive mental health history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mohanty, S P; Bhat, N S; Singh, K A; Bhushan, M
Prospective study. In a prospective study, 45 consecutive cases of cervical spinal cord injury without radiographic evidence of trauma (SCIWORET) who were treated non-operatively were analyzed to correlate the magnetic resonance image findings with the initial neurological deficit and the extent of neurological recovery at 2 years. University tertiary-care teaching hospital in South India. The neurological status of patients who did not have any radiographic or computerized tomographic abnormality at the time of admission was assessed by ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) modification of Frankel's grading. The spinal cord abnormality seen in the magnetic resonance imaging was noted. The neurological status at the end of 2 years was recorded. Twenty-seven of the 45 patients (60%) had cord oedema, 8 (17.77%) had cord contusion, 8 (17.77%) patients had a normal cord and 2 (4.44%) patients had cord swelling on the magnetic resonance image. Out of 27 patients who presented with cord oedema, 14 (31.11%) patients recovered from AIS D to AIS E and 6 (13.33%) patients did not recover and remained at AIS D. Seven (15.55%) patients who had a normal cord recovered completely to AIS E. Five (11.11%) patients who had contusion of the cord recovered up to AIS D. The initial neurological status correlates with magnetic resonance imaging findings. Subsequent neurological recovery is dependent on the type of cord damage and initial neurological status. The rate of recovery and the final motor outcome are inversely related to the length of cord involvement.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of open fractures and massive soft tissue injuries around leg ankle, foot and hand requires multi - disciplinary approach. VAC therapy is an innovative approach to the treatment of these wounds. VAC therapy facilitates granulation tissue formation, promotes healing, reduces infection and allows early skin grafting or flap closure. AIM: To describe our experience with VAC therapy for orthopaedics trauma around leg ankle, foot and hand. MATERIALS AND METHODS : 41 patients were included in Prospective Study performed at Preethi hospital, Madurai in years 2011 - 12. Only patients having t raumatic wound of leg, ankle, foot and hand were i ncluded. Patients with bleeding disorders were not included. VAC therapy was used as adjuvant to debridement in wound care. RESULTS: In 39 patients lower limb and in 2 patient hands was involved. The mean age was 39.3 years and 38 pateints were male 3 were female. Mean wound grade after VAC therapy decrease by 1 grade. Average wound area reduction was 10%. The mean duration of VAC therapy was 5.2 days. Plastic surgery was done in mean 6 days after removal of VAC dressing. Local flap was required in only 39% of patients. After VAC therapy all 10 patients having heel injury showed good granulation tissue. Complications like infection, bleeding and skin irritation were not seen in our study. CONCLUSION : VAC therapy is a viable adjuvant in the management of trau matic open wounds. It facilitates the rapid granulation tissue formation and wound healing. It reduces the duration of treatment, hospital stay and need of extensive plastic surgery
Alisic, E; Jongmans, M.J.; van Wesel, F.; kleber, R.J.
Many children are exposed to traumatic events, with potentially serious psychological and developmental consequences. Therefore, understanding development of long-term posttraumatic stress in children is essential. We aimed to contribute to child trauma theory by focusing on theory use and theory
Veling, Wim; Counotte, Jacqueline; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Van Os, Jim; Van Der Gaag, Mark
Introduction: Childhood trauma may be related to risk for psychosis by the mechanism of sensitization to social stress. Virtual Reality (VR) provides the opportunity to test this mechanism by controlled experimental exposure to different social environments. Methods: Fifty-five patients with recent
Galinski, Michel; Hoffman, Laure; Bregeaud, Delphine; Kamboua, Mounir; Ageron, François-Xavier; Rouanet, Catherine; Hubert, Jean-Christophe; Istria, Jacques; Ruscev, Mirko; Tazarourte, Karim; Pevirieri, Florence; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Adnet, Frédéric
The quality of procedural analgesia and sedation among trauma patients has not been studied much in the prehospital setting. The main objective of this study was to characterize the quality of procedural analgesia sedation practices in prehospital settings in trauma patients. This was an open-label observational prospective multicenter study (January 01, 2012-December 31, 2013). We included all consecutive trauma victims undergoing a potentially painful procedure on the accident scene. The primary endpoint was the procedural pain intensity. Data for 210 patients aged 11 to 98 years were analyzed. The most common lesions were limb fractures or dislocations. The most common procedures were limb realignment and splinting. Overall, 25 different drug combinations [with paracetamol [acetaminophen], non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, nefopam, opioids, loco-regional anesthesia, Equimolar Mixture of Oxygen/Nitrous Oxide (EMONO), sedative drugs] were used by the emergency medical services (EMS). One hundred seventeen patients (55%) received either one or two sedative drugs (among ketamine, propofol, and midazolam), 171 patients (81%) received morphine that was combined with a sedative drug in 54% of cases. During the procedure, 95 patients, 45% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 39-52] experienced intense to severe pain. Among patients who received sedative drugs, 27% (32/117) had intense to severe pain vs. 68% (63/93) in patients who did not, that is, 40% difference [95% CI 33.8-47.0]. Seventeen patients (8%) experienced 18 adverse events of which 6 were respiratory adverse events. A deep sedation occurred in 17 patients. No center had any specific protocols for procedural sedation analgesia. Procedural sedation-analgesia was inadequate in almost half of the trauma patients in the out-of-hospital setting. The reasons of these failures were probably multiple. The non-administration of a sedative drug despite an indication or non-adapted doses, in the context of a lack of
Sonne, Charlotte Kærgaard; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, P
Trauma Questionnaire – part IV, which was the primary outcome measure. Other outcome measures included: Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 (depression and anxiety), Social Adjustment Scale – short version (social functioning), WHO-5 Well-being Index (quality of life), Crisis Support Scale (support from social...... network), Sheehan Disability Scale (disability in three areas of functioning), Hamilton Depression and Anxiety scale, the somatisation items of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales and the summarised score of pain in four body areas rated on visual analogue scales. Results...... and sertraline on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression and functional impairment in trauma-affected refugees. Methods: The study was a randomised pragmatic trial comparing venlafaxine and sertraline in combination with psychotherapy and social counselling. PTSD symptoms were measured on the Harvard...
Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.
Brown, Carlos V R; Teixeira, Pedro G; Furay, Elisa; Sharpe, John P; Musonza, Tashinga; Holcomb, John; Bui, Eric; Bruns, Brandon; Hopper, H Andrew; Truitt, Michael S; Burlew, Clay C; Schellenberg, Morgan; Sava, Jack; VanHorn, John; Eastridge, Pa-C Brian; Cross, Alicia M; Vasak, Richard; Vercruysse, Gary; Curtis, Eleanor E; Haan, James; Coimbra, Raul; Bohan, Phillip; Gale, Stephen; Bendix, Peter G
Rectal injuries have been historically treated with a combination of modalities including direct repair, resection, proximal diversion, presacral drainage, and distal rectal washout. We hypothesized that intraperitoneal rectal injuries may be selectively managed without diversion and the addition of distal rectal washout and presacral drainage in the management of extraperitoneal injuries are not beneficial. This is an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional retrospective study from 2004 to 2015 of all patients who sustained a traumatic rectal injury and were admitted to one of the 22 participating centers. Demographics, mechanism, location and grade of injury, and management of rectal injury were collected. The primary outcome was abdominal complications (abdominal abscess, pelvic abscess, and fascial dehiscence). After exclusions, there were 785 patients in the cohort. Rectal injuries were intraperitoneal in 32%, extraperitoneal in 58%, both in 9%, and not documented in 1%. Rectal injury severity included the following grades I, 28%; II, 41%; III, 13%; IV, 12%; and V, 5%. Patients with intraperitoneal injury managed with a proximal diversion developed more abdominal complications (22% vs 10%, p = 0.003). Among patients with extraperitoneal injuries, there were more abdominal complications in patients who received proximal diversion (p = 0.0002), presacral drain (p = 0.004), or distal rectal washout (p = 0.002). After multivariate analysis, distal rectal washout [3.4 (1.4-8.5), p = 0.008] and presacral drain [2.6 (1.1-6.1), p = 0.02] were independent risk factors to develop abdominal complications. Most patients with intraperitoneal injuries undergo direct repair or resection as well as diversion, although diversion is not associated with improved outcomes. While 20% of patients with extraperitoneal injuries still receive a presacral drain and/or distal rectal washout, these additional maneuvers are independently associated with a three
van Vliet, Noortje I.; Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; van Dijk, Maarten K.; de Jongh, Ad
Background: The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to a history of sexual and/or physical abuse in childhood is the subject of international debate, with some favouring a phase-based approach as their preferred treatment, while others argue for immediate trauma-focused
van Vliet, Noortje I; Huntjens, Rafaele J C; van Dijk, Maarten K; de Jongh, Ad
BACKGROUND: The treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to a history of sexual and/or physical abuse in childhood is the subject of international debate, with some favouring a phase-based approach as their preferred treatment, while others argue for immediate trauma-focused
Girard, M; Marchand, F; Uch, R; Bretelle, F
To evaluate the pertinence of Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test, in case of abdominal trauma during pregnancy in forecast of fetal outcomes, according to trauma severity. A single-center retrospective study conducted between January 2014 and April 2016 in a maternity type III and a trauma center, which included the pregnant women admitted for abdominal trauma. The trauma's severity was assessed using the guidelines of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The impact of a positive KB test, defined as>0.1%, was analyzed. Adverse outcome was defined as one or more of the following complications: intrauterine fetal death, placental abruption, pre-term birth<37 weeks of gestation, and fetal or neonatal anemia. During the study period, 265 pregnancies involved into an abdominal trauma were included: 69% with a minor trauma and 31% with a severe trauma. Of all patients, 5.6% presented a positive KB test, among then 15.4% had an adverse outcome. There was no significant difference in the rate of adverse outcomes in the positive KB group and the KB negative group either in the overall population (P=0.16), in the minor trauma population (P=1) or in the major trauma population (P=0.14). The predictive positive values were respectively in the global population, in the minor trauma group and in the severe trauma group 15.4%, 0% and 25%. The KB test does not seem to be useful in case of trauma during pregnancy to define adverse outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Rock, Rachel
Childhood trauma has been empirically associated with various types of self-regulatory difficulties in adulthood. However, according to the extant literature, no study has examined relationships between various types of childhood trauma and compulsive buying behavior in adulthood. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 370 obstetrics/gynecology patients, we examined five types of childhood trauma before the age of 12 years (i.e. witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to compulsive buying as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). All forms of trauma demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the CBS. Using a linear regression analysis, both witnessing violence and emotional abuse significantly contributed to CBS scores. Further analyses indicated that race did not moderate the relationship between childhood trauma and compulsive buying. Findings indicate that various forms of childhood trauma are correlated with compulsive buying behavior, particularly witnessing violence and emotional abuse.
Santana, Márcia Rosane Moreira; Zatti, Cleonice; Spader, Mariana Lunardi; Malgarim, Bibiana Godoi; Salle, Emílio; Piltcher, Renato; Ceresér, Keila Maria Mendes; Bastos, Andre Goettems; Freitas, Lúcia Helena
Acute stress disorder (ASD) encompasses a set of symptoms that can arise in individuals after exposure to a traumatic event. This study assessed the defense mechanisms used by victims of physical trauma who developed ASD. This was a controlled cross-sectional study of 146 patients who suffered physical trauma and required hospitalization. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate ASD symptoms based on DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, in addition to the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). Ten participants (6.85%) received a positive diagnosis of ASD, and 136, (93.15%) a negative diagnosis. The majority of the sample consisted of men with median age ranging from 33.50 to 35.50. The most prevalent defense mechanisms among the 10 patients with ASD were cancellation and devaluation, which belong to the neurotic and immature factors, respectively. Positive associations between the presence of symptoms from criterion B of the DSM-5 and defense mechanisms from the DSQ were found. These included the mechanisms of undoing, projection, passive aggression, acting out, autistic fantasy, displacement, and somatization. Patients with ASD employed different defense mechanisms such as undoing and devaluation when compared to patients not diagnosed with ASD. These results mark the importance of early detection of ASD symptoms at a preventative level, thereby creating new possibilities for avoiding exacerbations related to the trauma, which represents an important advance in terms of public health.
Asuquo, Maurice E; Bassey, Okon O; Etiuma, Anietimfon U; Ugare, Gabriel; Ngim, Ogbu
Abdominal injuries are on the increase in both developed and developing countries. The frequency of penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) varies across the globe because it relates to industrialization, the weapons available, and the presence of military conflicts. This study sought to evaluate the current pattern and outcome of managementof PAT in Calabar, which is undergoing rapid urbanization, and with a focus on tourism. Patients admitted to the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar with PAT from February 2005 to January 2008 were prospectively studied. Seventy-nine patients presented with abdominal trauma, among which 39 (49%) were PAT. There were 37 males and two females, whose ages ranged from 5 to 54 years (mean 27.8 years). Stab wound (18; 46.1%) was the commonest injury, while gunshot wound (15; 38.5%) ranked second. Others were road traffic accident (two patients), fall, cow horn injury, shrapnel, and criminal abortion (a patient each). The commonest injury was evisceration of the omentum and small intestine, which occurred in 13 (36%) patients. Five (14%) patients suffered small intestinal perforations, while three (8%) had liver, splenic and colonic injuries, respectively. Others were rectal injury (four patients), mesenteric injury and perforated stomach (two patients each), and a patient with diaphragmatic injury. The outcome was fatal in two (5%) patients. Penetrating abdominal trauma is on the increase in Calabar. The pattern of injury revealed areas which, when effectively contained, will lead to an improvement in the safety of our environment.
Siniakova, Olga G.; Ishmuhametov, Airat I.; Proscurina, Gulnar B.; Sharifullin, Faad A.
Both creating of effective identification and evaluation mechanisms of environmental factors hazardous for health, and revealing their influence degree on the human health play an important role in ecological monitoring. The grate importance in a solution of many ecological problems belongs to medicine, first of all, to its social-preventive brunch. In this reference trauma remains the extremely important problem. Annually more than 10 million persons sustain traumas. Alongside with occupational, transport trauma, a significant number of trauma cases occur due to the impact of various ecological factors, including natural disasters, mass poisonings and other reasons. Trauma results in severe changes in human body organs and systems; the timely detection and correct evaluation of these changes are the key points for the choice of treatment. Among diagnostic methods used for this purpose, the methods of radial diagnostics play an important role. Various radial methods-- x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasonic, magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography (CT)--are used to detect the functional and structural changes of vital organs and systems in trauma. Each of these methods has its advantages and shortages. The reported study was devoted to the analysis of using the photon systems (gamma-camera and computer tomography) in application of radionuclide and CT methods of radial diagnostics in trauma.
Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Prachanukool, Thidathit; Sricharoen, Pungkava; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Kaewlai, Rathachai
Ultrasound plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of acute trauma patients through the use of multi-site scanning encompassing abdominal, cardiothoracic, vascular and skeletal scans. In a high-speed polytrauma setting, because exsanguinations are the primary cause of trauma morbidity and mortality, ultrasound is used for quick and accurate detection of hemorrhages in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities during the primary Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) survey. Volume status can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound of the inferior vena cava (IVC), which is a useful tool in the initial phase and follow-up evaluations. Pneumothorax can also be quickly detected with ultrasound. During the secondary survey and in patients sustaining low-speed or localized trauma, ultrasound can be used to help detect abdominal organ injuries. This is particularly helpful in patients in whom hemoperitoneum is not identified on an initial scan because findings of organ injuries will expedite the next test, often computed tomography (CT). Moreover, ultrasound can assist in detection of fractures easily obscured on radiography, such as rib and sternal fractures. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Feb 2, 2011 ... 66. CME FEBRUARY 2011 Vol.29 No.2. Eye trauma. To a clinician without experience, a person with an eye injury presents a dilemma. This article should reassure you that methodical assessment and treatment of most injuries is simple and within the ambit of every doctor. JONatHaN PONs, MB ChB, Dip ...
Pedersen, Bodil Maria
There are two main trends in psychological approaches to human suffering related to what we term trauma. Although they have their respective limitations both approaches may help us explore and alleviate human suffering. One trend, primarily using concepts like traumatic events and traumatisation ...
deaths due to other trauma types (gunshot wounds, road traffic fatalities and assault) ... the axillary artery was ligated during surgery. Type of ... Left axillary artery. Ischaemic left upper limb. 3. Fifth intercostal space on the left. Bilateral pneumothorax and haemothorax still present at autopsy. (intercostal drain only inserted on ...
Soong, Terrence Kwong-Weng; Koh, Alan; Subrayan, Visvaraja; Loo, Angela Voon Pei
To describe the epidemiology of ocular injuries presenting to the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Prospective analysis of all ocular trauma injuries presenting to the Department of Ophthalmology in UMMC from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2008. A total of 603 eyes of 546 patients were recruited for the study. All patients presenting to the department with ocular trauma injuries were assessed by an ophthalmologist. Data on the type and source of injury, demographic profile of the patients, and clinical presentation were documented using a uniform and validated datasheet. Among eye injury cases, 481 patients (88.1%) were male, with a male-to-female ratio of 7.4:1. Of the patients, 412 (75.5%) were Malaysian while the remaining 134 (24.5%) were of non-Malaysian nationality. The average age was 31.5 years (range 1-81 years). A total of 238 injured eyes (43.6%) were work-related. The common sources of eye trauma include the use of high-powered tools (30.8%), motor vehicle accident (23.1%), and domestic accidents (17.7%). Only six patients (2.5%) reported to having used eye protective device (EPD) at time of their work-related injuries. A major cause of preventable ocular injuries in Malaysia was work-related trauma. Ocular injuries can be reduced by the use of eye protection devices and the implementation of appropriate preventive strategies to address each risk factor. Effective training is an integral part of occupational safety and health, which should be made mandatory at the workplace. In addition, there should be a continual assessment of safety and health issues at the workplace. A long-term database of all ocular injuries in Malaysia is recommended, to aid research on a larger scale and the development of new preventive strategies for ocular injuries.
Lin, Shaul; Pilosof, Nir; Karawani, Munir; Wigler, Ronald; Kaufman, Arieh Y; Teich, Sorin T
This study explores the pattern of complications occurrence resulting from traumatic dental injuries, the relation of this pattern to the number of years from the time of the injury to its first diagnosis, and other contributing characteristics such as root development and trauma characteristic. Patients' data treated following dental trauma from 2002 to 2014 were classified and grouped according to age, gender, tooth type, injury type, diagnosis and the time that elapsed between the traumatic event and the diagnosis of complications (TIC). The distribution function of the quantitative parameters was determined with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Fisher exact test was used to test differences between categorical parameters. The review identified 166 patients (114 male and 52 female), with a total of 287 traumatized teeth, and a mean of 1.8 injured teeth per incident. Maxillary teeth were involved significantly more often in traumatic dental injuries. The follow-up period range (TIC) had a mean of 2.99 years. The most frequent complication was pulp necrosis (34.2%). The most frequent complication related to avulsion was ankylotic root resorption (50%) diagnosed after a median TIC of 1.18 years. Open apices at the occurrence of trauma were observed in 52 teeth. Of these, 54.9% experienced pulp necrosis and 9.8% inflammatory root resorption with a median TIC of 1.63 years. Teeth that experienced multiple traumatic events showed significantly more late pulp necrosis compared to teeth that experienced a single traumatic injury (61.9% vs. 25.3%, respectively, p dental injury and the severity of the potential complications for the tooth. Current recommendations for follow-up after traumatic dental injury should be revised to reflect the need for more frequent and overall prolonged follow-up. Key words: Dental trauma, avulsion, open apex, pulp necrosis, root resorption, follow-up, complications.
Spence, Richard Trafford; Zargaran, Eiman; Hameed, Morad; Nicol, Andrew; Navsaria, Pradeep
Surgical outcomes are provider specific. This prospective audit describes the surgical activity of five general surgery residents on their trauma surgery rotation. It was hypothesized that the operating surgical trainee is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes following major trauma. This is a prospective cohort study. All patients admitted, over a 6-month period (August 2014-January 2015), following trauma requiring a major operation performed by a surgical trainee at Groote Schuur Hospital's trauma unit in South Africa were included. Multiple logistic regression models were built to compare risk-adjusted surgical outcomes between trainees. The primary outcome measure was major in-hospital complications. A total of 320 major operations involving 341 procedures were included. The mean age was 28.49 years (range 13-64), 97.2 % were male with a median ISS of 9 (IQR 1-41). Mechanism of injury was penetrating in 93.42 % of cases of which 51.86 % were gunshot injuries. Surgeon A consistently had the lowest risk-adjusted outcomes and was used as the reference for all outcomes in the regression models. Surgeon B, D, and E had statistically significant higher rates of major in-hospital complications than Surgeon A and C, after adjusting for multiple confounders. The final model used to calculate the risk estimates for the primary outcome had a ROC of 0.8649. Risk-adjusted surgical outcomes vary by operating surgical trainee. The analysis thereof can add value to the objective assessment of a surgical trainee.
Bagattoni, S; Sadotti, A; D'Alessandro, G; Piana, G
Dental trauma is a frequent finding in people with special health care needs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental trauma in a sample of Italian children and adolescents with special health care needs. 556 medical and dental records of children and adolescents visited from January 2010 to March 2015 were examined. Information about medical diagnosis, gender, site and type of dental trauma (DT) were collected. According to age and reflecting the dentition stage, the sample was divided into 3 groups: subjects aged 0-5 years (group A, primary dentition), 6-11 years (group B, mixed dentition), 12-18 years (group C, permanent dentition). 113 individuals experienced a DT (prevalence 20.3%), with no difference in relation to gender. Individuals with cerebral palsy and autism showed the highest frequency of DT: 39.6% and 30.4%, respectively. The highest frequency of DT occurred both in group A (21.8%) and B (21.5%), which differed significantly from group C (9%). Avulsion was the most frequent type of DT in the primary dentition (24%) and enamel-dentin fracture without pulp exposure in the permanent dentition (60%). Upper central incisors were the most affected teeth. The prevalence of DT in a sample of Italian children and adolescents with special health care needs is high, especially in young individuals with cerebral palsy and autism. Preventive strategies for those patients should be developed in order to reduce the risk of DT.
Sigvardsdotter, Erika; Nilsson, Henrik; Malm, Andreas; Tinghög, Petter; Gottvall, Maria; Vaez, Marjan; Saboonchi, Fredrik
A high proportion of refugees have been subjected to potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs), including torture. PTEs, and torture in particular, are powerful predictors of mental ill health. This paper reports the development and preliminary validation of a brief refugee trauma checklist applicable for survey studies. A pool of 232 items was generated based on pre-existing instruments. Conceptualization, item selection and item refinement was conducted based on existing literature and in collaboration with experts. Ten cognitive interviews using a Think Aloud Protocol (TAP) were performed in a clinical setting, and field testing of the proposed checklist was performed in a total sample of n = 137 asylum seekers from Syria. The proposed refugee trauma history checklist (RTHC) consists of 2 × 8 items, concerning PTEs that occurred before and during the respondents' flight, respectively. Results show low item non-response and adequate psychometric properties Conclusion: RTHC is a usable tool for providing self-report data on refugee trauma history surveys of community samples. The core set of included events can be augmented and slight modifications can be applied to RTHC for use also in other refugee populations and settings.
Full Text Available A high proportion of refugees have been subjected to potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs, including torture. PTEs, and torture in particular, are powerful predictors of mental ill health. This paper reports the development and preliminary validation of a brief refugee trauma checklist applicable for survey studies. Methods: A pool of 232 items was generated based on pre-existing instruments. Conceptualization, item selection and item refinement was conducted based on existing literature and in collaboration with experts. Ten cognitive interviews using a Think Aloud Protocol (TAP were performed in a clinical setting, and field testing of the proposed checklist was performed in a total sample of n = 137 asylum seekers from Syria. Results: The proposed refugee trauma history checklist (RTHC consists of 2 × 8 items, concerning PTEs that occurred before and during the respondents’ flight, respectively. Results show low item non-response and adequate psychometric properties Conclusion: RTHC is a usable tool for providing self-report data on refugee trauma history surveys of community samples. The core set of included events can be augmented and slight modifications can be applied to RTHC for use also in other refugee populations and settings.
Andrew M Lozen
Full Text Available Objective: Nearside impact collisions presenting with lateral mass fractures of atlanto-axial vertebrae contralateral to the impact site represents a rare fracture pattern that does not correlate with previously described injury mechanism. We describe our clinical experience with such fractures and propose a novel description of biomechanical forces involved in this unique injury pattern. The findings serve to alert clinicians to potentially serious consequences of associated unrecognized and untreated vertebral artery injury. Material and Methods : In addition to describing our clinical experience with three of these fractures, a review of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN database was conducted to further characterize such fractures. A descriptive analysis of three recent lateral mass fractures of the atlanto-axial segment is coupled with a review of the CIREN database. A total of 4047 collisions were screened for unilateral fractures of atlas or axis. Information was screened for side of impact and data regarding impact velocity, occupant injuries and use of restraints. Results: Following screening of unilateral fractures of atlas and axis for direct side impacts, 41 fractures were identified. Cross referencing these cases for occurrence contralateral to side of impact identified four such fractures. Including our recent clinical experience, seven injuries were identified: Five C1 and two C2 fractures. Velocity ranged from 14 to 43 km/h. Two associated vertebral artery injuries were identified. Conclusions: Complexity of the atlanto-axial complex is responsible for a sequence of events that define load application in side impacts. This study demonstrates the vulnerability of vertebral artery to injury under unique translational forces and supports the use or routine screening for vascular injury. Diminished sensitivity of plain radiography in identifying these injuries suggests that computerized tomography should be used in
Can paper replace laser film to communicate the results of wrist radiographs in trauma cases? A reproducibility study of the reading of wrist trauma case radiographs on a PACS workstation, laser film, and paper.
Teixeira, Pedro; Zabel, Jean-Philippe; Baumann, Cédric; Albizzati, Stéphane; Coudane, Henry; Winninger, Daniel; Blum, Alain
The main goal of this study was to determine the reproducibility of the reading of wrist trauma case radiographs using three different media: laser film, a picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstation, and paper with an optimized layout. The study was conducted retrospectively in 200 consecutive patients consulting at the emergency department for wrist trauma and who underwent wrist X-ray investigation using a computed radiography system. There were 82 men and 118 women. The mean age was 48.3 years (16-95 years). Our institutional review board does not require patient approval or informed consent for retrospective review of case records. The readings were made by two independent readers who analyzed the 200 patient radiographs consecutively in one session for each type of media: paper, laser film, and on a PACS dual-screen workstation. The inter-reader agreements were substantial or almost perfect, with kappa values of 0.83 (0.76-0.90) for the PACS, 0.83 (0.76-0.90) for film, and 0.80 (0.72-0.87) for paper. The inter-technique agreement was almost perfect in all cases. There is a high interobserver agreement between PACS, laser film, and paper readings for wrist trauma cases. With a layout of one radiograph on each sheet, paper could replace laser films to communicate the results of wrist radiographs in trauma cases for outpatients.
Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents are the 8th cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3rd rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. Methods: In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82 were evaluated (92.4% male. Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44% of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%. 610 (87.1% cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53% occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4% cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1% patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p < 0.001. The most common mechanisms of trauma for critical injuries were rollover (72.5%, motorcycle-pedestrian (23.8%, and car-motorcycle (13.14% accidents (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most important effective factors in severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car
Full Text Available Trauma is a global disease and is among the leading causes of disability in the world. The importance of outcome beyond trauma survival has been recognised over the last decade. Despite this there is no internationally agreed approach for assessment of health outcome and rehabilitation of trauma patients.To systematically examine to what extent outcomes measures evaluate health outcomes in patients with major trauma.MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (from 2006-2012 were searched for studies evaluating health outcome after traumatic injuries.Studies of adult patients with injuries involving at least two body areas or organ systems were included. Information on study design, outcome measures used, sample size and outcomes were extracted. The World Health Organisation International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF were used to evaluate to what extent outcome measures captured health impacts.34 studies from 755 studies were included in the review. 38 outcome measures were identified. 21 outcome measures were used only once and only five were used in three or more studies. Only 6% of all possible health impacts were captured. Concepts related to activity and participation were the most represented but still only captured 12% of all possible concepts in this domain. Measures performed very poorly in capturing concepts related to body function (5%, functional activities (11% and environmental factors (2%.Outcome measures used in major trauma capture only a small proportion of health impacts. There is no inclusive classification for measuring disability or health outcome following trauma. The ICF may provide a useful framework for the development of a comprehensive health outcome measure for trauma care.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a incidência, etiologia e gravidade do trauma facial e lesões associadas, possibilitando entender melhor o seu alcance e magnitude. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 164 pacientes com trauma facial de qualquer intensidade, sem controle de sexo, idade e cor. Os dados encontrados foram avaliados por meio da estatística Qui quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O sexo mais acometido foi o masculino (78% e sua incidência foi maior na faixa etária dos 20 aos 39 anos. A etiologia principal foi a violência interpessoal (48,1%, seguida de queda (26,2%, atropelamento (6,4%, esporte (5,4%, acidente de carro (4,2%, acidente de motocicleta (3,1%, impacto não relacionado à queda (2,4%, acidente de trabalho (1,8%, ferimento por arma de fogo (1,2%, inespecífica (1,2%. As contusões foram as lesões mais observadas (23,8%, seguidas das fraturas de mandíbula (21,9%, Le Fort/pan facial/complexas (17,8%, nasal (11,6%, zigoma (10,3%, dental (9,1%, órbita (4,9% e maxila (0,6%. Os traumas associados ocorreram em sua maioria em virtude de atropelamento, mas também em acidentes de carro, queda e violência pessoal. CONCLUSÃO: As causas de trauma facial são diretamente relacionadas com idade e tipo de lesão. Não foram encontradas evidências de que as causas estejam relacionadas com sexo e gravidade da lesão.OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the incidence, etiology, severity of facial trauma and associated injuries enabling a greater understanding of its range and magnitude METHODS: A hundred and sixty four patients were selected with some degree of facial trauma regardless of gender, age and skin color. Data were analyzed by the Pearson x² statistical method. RESULTS: A male predominance was observed (78% and its peak age was between 20 and 39 years. The major cause was interpersonal violence (48.1%, followed by fall (26.2%, run overs 6.4%, sports (5.4%, car accidents (4.2%, motorcycle accidents (3.1%, non
Lu, Shaojia; Gao, Weijia; Wei, Zhaoguo; Wang, Dandan; Hu, Shaohua; Huang, Manli; Xu, Yi; Li, Lingjiang
Childhood trauma confers great risk for the development of multiple psychiatric disorders; however, the neural basis for this association is still unknown. The present resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to detect the effects of childhood trauma on brain function in a group of young healthy adults. In total, 24 healthy individuals with childhood trauma and 24 age- and sex-matched adults without childhood trauma were recruited. Each participant underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Intra-regional brain activity was evaluated by regional homogeneity method and compared between groups. Areas with altered regional homogeneity were further selected as seeds in subsequent functional connectivity analysis. Statistical analyses were performed by setting current depression and anxiety as covariates. Adults with childhood trauma showed decreased regional homogeneity in bilateral superior temporal gyrus and insula, and the right inferior parietal lobule, as well as increased regional homogeneity in the right cerebellum and left middle temporal gyrus. Regional homogeneity values in the left middle temporal gyrus, right insula and right cerebellum were correlated with childhood trauma severity. In addition, individuals with childhood trauma also exhibited altered default mode network, cerebellum-default mode network and insula-default mode network connectivity when the left middle temporal gyrus, right cerebellum and right insula were selected as seed area, respectively. The present outcomes suggest that childhood trauma is associated with disturbed intrinsic brain function, especially the default mode network, in adults even without psychiatric diagnoses, which may mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychiatric disorders in later life.
1509. 10. Corwin, H.L.; Krantz, S.B. Anemia of the critically ill: “Acute” anemia of chronic disease . Crit. Care Med. 2000, 28, 3098–3099. 11. Berlin... anemia and normal or elevated ferritin levels. Plasma Cp oxidase activity in burn and trauma patients were markedly lower than controls on admission...thermally injured patients and the prevalence of anemia in critically injured patients [10,12]. In addition, we observed low iron binding capacity, serum
Hagenaars, M.A.; Fisch, I.; Minnen, A. van
Background: Different trauma characteristics have been suggested to lead to distinct symptom profiles. This study investigates the effect of two trauma characteristics, age of onset and frequency, on PTSD symptom profiles. Methods: Trauma characteristics (childhood versus adulthood trauma and single
Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress and Trauma. Marie Claire Gasanganwa1, Rebecca L White1. 1University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Rwanda. Background. Epidemiological studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show a lifetime prevalence rate of up to. 6.8%.
Anyikwa, Victoria A
Trauma leads to deleterious effects on individuals and families causing many to seek treatment from social work practitioners across systems of care. Trauma comes in all forms, from community violence to domestic violence, including physical and sexual abuse of children and violence among intimate partners that leaves its victims devastatingly impacted. Women make up the majority of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) with studies revealing significant associated mental health problems. Social workers are bound to work with survivors of IPV and must be prepared to deliver effective trauma-informed services. While trauma-specific services exist for specific populations, researchers are finding that negative events in childhood and in family functioning can impact individuals' lives in negative ways thus having implications for treatment across systems. For women survivors of IPV, the traumatic stress may be cumulative with varied emotional and mental health impacts that may force them to seek services across systems, not just domestic violence specific systems. As such it is imperative that social workers increase awareness of trauma, its impact on women, and the importance of the approach and environment in which they provide services. In this article the author aims to broaden social workers knowledge of the use of a TIC approach developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration that's applicable across systems of care, particularly when working with women survivors of IPV.
AlZoubi, Fahad; Mannocci, Francesco; Newton, Tim; Manoharan, Andiappan; Djemal, Serpil
To assess the baseline knowledge, knowledge acquisition and retention of dental undergraduate students in dental trauma, and the impact of a lecture on their level of confidence in managing traumatic dental injuries. A total of 145 dental undergraduate students from King's College London were invited to attend a lecture on dental trauma. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire on dental trauma before (T0), immediately after (T1) and 6 months (T2) following a 1-h lecture. Seventy of the 145 students participated in the study. The level of knowledge at T0, T1 and T2 was 64.9%, 83.2% and 69.5%, respectively. The increase in score was statistically significant between T0 and T1, and between T0 and T2. A significant decrease in score was also found between T1 and T2. Sex, level of education and whether or not the participants received previous teaching in dental trauma were not significant in predicting a change in score. The level of confidence increased significantly from 2.14 at T0 to 3.13 at T2. Participants who received teaching in dental trauma previous to the lecture were significantly more confident at T0. Lectures are effective at improving the knowledge and retention of knowledge of dental undergraduate students in dental trauma. However, retention of the knowledge is time limited suggesting that education should be repeated after a certain period of time to ensure that a high level of knowledge is maintained. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Trauma is the most common cause of pediatric mortality. Much of the research that led to life-saving interventions in adults, however, has not been replicated in the pediatric population. Children have important physiologic and anatomic differences from adults, which impact hemostasis and transfusion. Hemorrhage is a leading cause of death in trauma, and children have important differences in their coagulation profiles. Transfusion strategies, including the massive transfusion protocol and use of antifibrinolytics, are still controversial. In addition to the blood that is lost from the injury itself, trauma leads to inflammation and to a dysfunction in hemostasis, causing coagulopathy. In one study in which children suffered from mainly blast and penetrating injuries in a combat setting (PEDTRAX trial), the early administration of tranexamic acid was associated with decreased mortality. Some authors suggest that this result may not apply to blunt trauma, which is much more common in children in noncombat settings. Using thromboelastography to guide the administration of recombinant Factor VIIa has been done in selected cases and may represent a future avenue of research. This article explores new research from the past year in pediatric trauma, starting with the physiologic differences in pediatric red blood cells and coagulation profiles. We also looked at the dramatic change in thinking over the past decade in the tolerable level of anemia in critically ill pediatric patients, as well as scales for determining the need for massive transfusion and exploring if the concepts of damage control resuscitation apply to children. Other strategies, such as avoiding hypothermia, and the selective administration of antifibriniolytics, are important in pediatric trauma as well. Future research that is pediatric focused is needed for the optimal care of our youngest patients.
Slanbekova, Gulnara; Chung, Man Cheung; Abildina, Saltanat; Sabirova, Raikhan; Kapbasova, Gulzada; Karipbaev, Baizhol
Focusing on a group of Kazakh divorcees, this study examined the inter-relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from past trauma, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, adjustment difficulties, and psychiatric symptom severity following divorce. One hundred and twenty divorcees participated in the research and completed the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Brief COPE, and Fisher's Divorce Adjustment Scale Results: About 29% reported no trauma; 53%, 21%, and 26% met the criteria for no-PTSD, partial-PTSD, and full-PTSD respectively. Emotion-focused coping and managing emotions predicted adjustment difficulties. Controlling for gender, PTSD, problem-focused coping, and managing emotions predicted psychiatric symptom severity. Problem-focused coping mediated the direct effect of the path between PTSD and psychiatric symptom severity with its mediational effect being moderated by the effect of managing emotions. Following divorce, people can experience psychological distress which is influenced by the effects of PTSD from past trauma, and whether they used problem-focused coping and were able to manage their emotions.
Catherine van Zelst
Full Text Available Stereotype awareness--or an individual's perception of the degree to which negative beliefs or stereotypes are held by the public--is an important factor mediating public stigma, self-stigma and their negative consequences. Research is required to assess how individuals become more sensitive to perceive stereotypes, pointing the way to therapeutic options to reduce its negative effects and increase stigma resilience. Because perception and interpretation can be guided by belief systems, and childhood trauma (CT is reported to impact such beliefs, CT is explored in relation to stereotype awareness (SA in persons with psychosis, their siblings and controls.Data from the GROUP project (Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis were analyzed. SA was measured by devaluation scales which assess a respondent's perception of the degree to which stereotypes about people with mental illness and about their families are held by the public. CT was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (short form.In patients, symptoms of disorganization and emotional distress were associated with SA about people with mental illness. In siblings, schizotypal features were associated with both types of SA (more schizotypy = more SA. In both patients and siblings, CT was associated with both types of SA (more CT = more SA, independent of symptoms (patients or schizotypy (siblings.CT in people with psychosis and their siblings may sensitize to SA. Thus, CT may not only impact on risk for illness onset, it may also increase SA associated with mental illness, potentially interfering with the recovery process. CT-induced SA may indicate a heightened sensitivity to threat, which may also impact psychopathology.
Backes, Yara; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F; Tuip de Boer, Anita M; Hofstra, Jorrit Jan; Vlaar, Alexander PJ; Determann, Rogier M; Knape, Paul; Mackie, David P; Schultz, Marcus J
Introduction Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been proposed as a biologic marker of fibrinolysis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of systemic and pulmonary levels of suPAR in burn patients with inhalation trauma who need mechanical ventilation. Methods suPAR was measured in plasma and nondirected lung-lavage fluid of mechanically ventilated burn patients with inhalation trauma. The samples were obta...
?Anterior convergent? chest probing in rapid ultrasound transducer positioning versus formal chest ultrasonography to detect pneumothorax during the primary survey of hospital trauma patients: a diagnostic accuracy study
Ziapour, Behrad; Haji, Houman Seyedjavady
Background Occult pneumothorax represents a diagnostic pitfall during the primary survey of trauma patients, particularly if these patients require early positive pressure ventilation. This study investigated the accuracy of our proposed rapid model of ultrasound transducer positioning during the primary survey of trauma patients after their arrival at the hospital. Methods This diagnostic trial was conducted over 12?months and was based on the results of 84 ultrasound (US) exams performed on...
Chetan B Raval
Full Text Available Background: Airway management in maxillofacial injuries presents with a unique set of problems. Compromised airway is still a challenge to the anesthesiologist in spite of all modalities available. Maxillofacial injuries are the result of high-velocity trauma arising from road traffic accidents, sport injuries, falls and gunshot wounds. Any flaw in airway management may lead to grave morbidity and mortality in prehospital or hospital settings and as well as for reconstruction of fractures subsequently. Methods: One hundred and seventy-seven patients of maxillofacial injuries, operated over a period of one and half years during July 2008 to December 2009 in Al-Nahdha hospital were reviewed. All patients were reviewed in depth with age related type of injury, etiology and techniques of difficult airway management. Results: The major etiology of injuries were road traffic accidents (67% followed by sport (15% and fall (15%. Majority of patients were young in the age group of 11-30 years (71 %. Fracture mandible (53% was the most common injury, followed by fracture maxilla (21%, fracture zygoma (19% and pan-facial fractures (6%. Maxillofacial injuries compromise mask ventilation and difficult airway due to facial fractures, tissue edema and deranged anatomy. Shared airway with the surgeon needs special attention due to restrictions imposed during surgery. Several methods available for securing the airway, both decision-making and performance, are important in such circumstances. Airway secured by nasal intubation with direct visualization of vocal cords was the most common (57%, followed by oral intubation (17%. Other methods like tracheostomy and blind nasal intubation was avoided by fiberoptic bronchoscopic nasal intubation in 26% of patients. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that surgically securing the airway by tracheostomy should be revised compared to other available methods. In the era of rigid fixation of fractures and the
Butcher, Nerida E; D'Este, Catherine; Balogh, Zsolt J
A pilot validation recommended defining polytrauma as patients with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score greater than 2 in at least two Injury Severity Score (ISS) body regions (2 × AIS score > 2). This study aimed to validate this definition on larger data set. We hypothesized that patients defined by the 2 × AIS score > 2 cutoff have worse outcomes and use more resources than those without 2 × AIS score > 2 and that this would therefore be a better definition of polytrauma. Patients injured between 2009 and 2011, with complete documentation of AIS by New South Wales Trauma Registry and 16 years and older were selected. Age and sex were obtained in addition to outcomes of ISS, hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU LOS, and mortality. We compared demographic characteristics and outcomes between patients with ISS greater than 15 who did and did not meet the 2 × AIS score > 2 definition. We then undertook regression analyses (logistic regression for binary outcomes [ICU admission and death] and linear regression for hospital and ICU LOS) to compare outcomes for patients with and without 2 × AIS score > 2, adjusting for sex and age categories. In the adjusted analyses, patients with 2 × AIS score > 2 had twice the odds of being admitted to the ICU compared with those without 2 × AIS score > 2 (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-2.8) and 1.7 times the odds of dying (95% CI, 1.4-2.0; p 2 also had a mean difference of 1.5 days longer stay in the hospital compared with those without 2 × AIS score > 2 (95% CI, 1.4-1.7) and 1.6 days longer ICU stay (95% CI, 1.4-1.8; p 2 had higher mortality, more frequent ICU admissions, and longer hospital and ICU stay than those without 2 × AIS score > 2 and represents a superior definition to the definitions for polytrauma currently in use. Diagnostic test/ criteria, level III.
de Codt, Aloise; Monhonval, Pauline; Bongaerts, Xavier; Belkacemi, Ikram; Tecco, Juan Martin
Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high prevalence and is a major psychosocial and medical burden. The exact etiological pathways of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. Genetic factors are known to play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder. However, high rates of discordance among identical twins and a growing body of evidence that environmental factors such as early stress can influence the onset and course of psychiatric diseases underline the importance of additional etiological mechanisms of bipolar disorders. There has been little investigation about early trauma in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the association between early traumatic interactions like child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and the occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease. Studies investigating associations between child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease were searched in the Pubmed database. More than 700 articles were sorted independently by two of the authors using predefined criteria. Only research articles, reviews and meta-analyses were selected for this review. 53 articles met the inclusion criteria. To date, four systematic reviews partially addressed our research question. Early trauma is more frequently found in the past of bipolar patients than in the general population. Studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a worse prognosis. Early trauma is more often found in the past of bipolar adult patients than the general population and studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a
Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.
This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…
Harcke, H.T. (Alfred I. du Pont Institute, Wilmington, DE (USA))
The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging in identifying skeletal trauma in children has been established. Growth plates present a set of problems unique to pediatric studies and diagnotic accuracy is very technique dependent. Imaging for sports injuries and suspected child abuse has been productive. An expanding role for bone scintigraphy in the management of orthopedic problems post-trauma is developing.
The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging in identifying skeletal trauma in children has been established. Growth plates present a set of problems unique to pediatric studies and diagnotic accuracy is very technique dependent. Imaging for sports injuries and suspected child abuse has been productive. An expanding role for bone scintigraphy in the management of orthopedic problems post-trauma is developing [fr
Elsass, Peter; Carlsson, Jessica; Jespersen, Kristian
Our study falls in line with the numerous studies providing a critique of the use of western diagnostic instruments for assessing trauma in a cross-cultural context. Our purpose has been to give evidence for the Tibetan torture survivors' degree of traumatisation and for their use of spirituality...... to overcome their difficult situation. In addition we wanted to question the use of our western methods in an Asian context. 102 tortured refugees attended a formalised needs assessment including neuropsychological and psychological measures of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the Hopkins Symptom...
Genét, Gustav Folmer; Johansson, Per; Meyer, Martin Abild Stengaard
It remains debated whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a different coagulopathy compared to non-TBI. This study investigated traditional coagulation tests, biomarkers of coagulopathy and endothelial damage in trauma patients with and without TBI. Blood from 80 adult trauma patients were...... sampled (median of 68 min (IQR 48-88) post-injury) upon admission to our trauma centre. Plasma/serum were retrospectively analysed for biomarkers reflecting sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline, noradrenaline), coagulation activation/inhibition and fibrinolysis (protein C, activated protein C, tissue......+other had significantly higher plasma levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, annexinV, d-dimer, IL6, syndecan-1, solubel thrombomodulin, and reduced protein C and factor XIII levels (all p...
Pace, Michelle; Bilgic, Ali
This article focuses on the impact of emotions on the European Union (EU)’s international identity and agency in the context of memory of trauma. Emotions are understood as performances through which an actor expresses itself to others while constructing its identity, creating its agency......, and potentially affecting the social order. It is argued that the memory of trauma is translated into EU foreign policy practice through emotional performances of EU representatives. Empirically, we explore this impact in relation to the EU’s engagement in the Israel-Palestinian prolonged conflict that has many...... underlying emotions linked with past traumatic experiences. By doing so we aim to instigate a discussion between the emotions literature in International Relations and the European Union studies literature to nuance understanding of the politics of emotions that increasingly constrain what kind of a global...
Gola, Hannah; Engler, Harald; Schauer, Maggie; Adenauer, Hannah; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana
Studies investigating cortisol responses to trauma-related stressors in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded inconsistent results, demonstrating that cortisol responses were enhanced or unaffected when confronted with trauma reminders. This study investigated the effect of the type of trauma experienced on both salivary and plasma cortisol responses during confrontation with trauma-related material. Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without rape among the traumatic events experienced. Participants of both groups (raped vs. non-raped) fulfilled DSM-IV criteria of PTSD. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points during a standardized clinical interview: once before and twice after assessing individual traumatic experiences. Results show that groups did not differ in basal plasma and salivary cortisol levels. However, differential salivary cortisol responses were observed in PTSD patients who had been raped compared to those who had not been raped (prape (praped showed a significant cortisol increase when reminded of their traumatic events (p<.001). This effect was not found in plasma cortisol. Our results indicate that the type of traumatic stress experienced contributes to cortisol responses during the confrontation with trauma-related material. We hypothesize, that the nearness of the perpetrator during the traumatic event might shape later psychophysiological responding to trauma reminders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lin, Shaul; Levin, Liran; Goldman, Sharon; Peleg, Kobi
Maxillofacial injuries are a significant cause of morbidity and demand meticulously planned treatment. The aim of this present multi-center study was to evaluate the occurrence of dento-alveolar and maxillofacial injuries over a 5-year period. A retrospective cohort study of data from the Israel Trauma Registry was conducted for the years 2000-2004. The registry includes all trauma patients admitted and hospitalized due to an injury. Of the 111,010 hospitalized trauma patients, 5886 (5.3%) were diagnosed with maxillofacial or dental injuries. The main causes of injuries for hospitalized trauma patients were falls (48.1%) and motor vehicle accidents (25.2%), while the major causes of facial and dental injuries were vehicle accidents (39.6%, 56.8%, respectively) and falls (32.1%, 26.7%, respectively). High-risk age groups for dental and facial trauma were 10-18 years and 19-28 years, respectively, while for other trauma, ages for the greatest risk ranged from 0 to 9 years and over 59 years. Males were injured two to three times more frequently than females. A better understanding of the etiology of maxillofacial and dental injuries and identifying the high-risk groups should lead to appropriate prevention programs and treatment methods.
Perkins, R Serene; Lehner, Kathryn A; Armstrong, Randy; Gardiner, Stuart K; Karmy-Jones, Riyad C; Izenberg, Seth D; Long, William B; Wackym, P Ashley
Education and training of surgeons has traditionally focused on the development of individual knowledge, technical skills, and decision making. Team training with the surgeon's operating room staff has not been prioritized in existing educational paradigms, particularly in trauma surgery. We aimed to determine whether a pilot curriculum for surgical technicians and nurses, based on the American College of Surgeons' Advanced Trauma Operative Management (ATOM) course, would improve staff knowledge if conducted in a team-training environment. Between December 2012 and December 2014, 22 surgical technicians and nurses participated in a curriculum complementary to the ATOM course, consisting of 8 individual 8-hour training sessions designed by and conducted at our institution. Didactic and practical sessions included educational content, hands-on instruction, and alternating role play during 5 system-specific injury scenarios in a simulated operating room environment. A pre- and postcourse examination was administered to participants to assess for improvements in team members' didactic knowledge. Course participants displayed a significant improvement in didactic knowledge after working in a team setting with trauma surgeons during the ATOM course, with a 9-point improvement on the postcourse examination (83%-92%, p = 0.0008). Most participants (90.5%) completing postcourse surveys reported being "highly satisfied" with course content and quality after working in our simulated team-training setting. Team training is critical to improving the knowledge base of surgical technicians and nurses in the trauma operative setting. Improved communication, efficiency, appropriate equipment use, and staff awareness are the desired outcomes when shifting the paradigm from individual to surgical team training so that improved patient outcomes, decreased risk, and cost savings can be achieved. Determine whether a pilot curriculum for surgical technicians and nurses, based on the
Littleton, Heather L; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Axsom, Danny; Bye, Kimberly; Buck, Katherine S
A sizable body of research supports trauma's cumulative nature. However, few studies have evaluated potential mechanisms through which the experience of multiple traumas leads to elevated distress. The current study sought to evaluate differences between sexual trauma victims and women who had not experienced sexual trauma in their adjustment following a mass trauma (college women exposed to the 2007 Virginia Tech campus shooting). In addition, the study examined whether maladaptive schema change (lower self-worth and less belief in benevolence) and social support mediated the relationship between experiencing multiple traumas (sexual trauma and the campus shooting) and distress. The sample consisted of 215 college women who were assessed preshooting as well as two months and one year following the campus shooting. Women who had experienced sexual trauma (either contact sexual abuse or sexual assault) were compared to those who had not on their one-year postshooting PTSD and depressive symptoms. Results supported that sexual trauma victims reported significantly more depressive symptoms and shooting-related PTSD as well as less belief in benevolence and lower family support. Family support and benevolence beliefs at the two month postshooting assessment were significant medi-ators of the association between sexual trauma history and depression and PTSD. Implications of the findings for future research evaluating the cumulative impact of multiple traumatic experiences are discussed.
Howard, Morag L.
Aim: This study sought to explore the perceptions of community hospital based radiographers in North East Scotland regarding the practice of radiographer commenting on musculo-skeletal trauma images. Method: A purposive sample of radiographers (n = 8) were recruited from community hospitals throughout the North-east of Scotland. A qualitative, exploratory study was conducted employing semi-structured interviews consisting of one focus group and two individual interviews. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed in full to allow thematic analysis of the data using a framework adapted from Pope and Mays (2006). Main findings: This study revealed that the practice of radiographer commenting in the community provides a valuable front line opinion on musculo-skeletal trauma image appearances to enhance diagnostic outcomes for patients and streamline their care pathway. The appreciation shown from inter-professional colleagues for this practice induced feelings of professional pride and job satisfaction in the sample group. All participants expressed a desire to undertake additional training to allow progression from radiographer commenting to radiographer reporting of musculo-skeletal trauma images. Perceived barriers to the practice of radiographer commenting were time constraints and a lack of support with regards to continuing professional development (CPD) opportunities and mentorship from radiology colleagues. Conclusion: The practice of radiographer commenting in the community setting should be supported by ongoing training, and radiologist involvement in mentoring could provide radiographers with a valuable support mechanism. The voice of all radiographers regarding this extended role must be heard by professional leaders to ensure that the skills and education required for radiographer commenting are provided and subsequent patient care is not compromised
Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi
The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.
Background This study shows the efficacy of treating complex cases neurobiologically using Self-Regulation Therapy (SRT®) within the context of return to work goals. Case presentation This is a single case study of a 32-year-old white female. This case study follows a client with concurrent diagnoses of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bipolar disorder I and substance abuse over the course of 2 years of treatment with SRT®. Using SRT® as primary modality and Likert Scale self-report on the Zettl Scale of Dysregulation, psychiatric medication monitoring and pharmaceutical tracking, this study shows session summaries and progress. Results After six sessions the client was cleared by her psychiatrist for return to work. Her medications were reduced and her post-traumatic symptoms abated. She no longer met diagnostic criteria for PTSD or substance abuse after nine sessions. She returned to work successfully and maintained sobriety and continued symptom reduction. Follow up over a 2-year time period showed consistency and continued improvements in both her professional and her personal life. Conclusions Clients with complex traumatic history with concurrent diagnosis are typically difficult to treat in traditional psychotherapy with limited long-term success. This creates challenges in therapy because the traumas occur during key developmental periods of life. This study shows the efficacy of treating complex cases neurobiologically using SRT®. Using SRT®, clinicians are able to address both developmental and complex trauma to reduce sympathetic arousal in the nervous system providing symptom reduction and even resolution of previous clinical diagnoses.
Zegers, Lara DA; Zegers, Richard Hc
One of the characteristics in Laurel and Hardy films is a lot of physical violence. The present study examines the occurrence of eye trauma in Laurel and Hardy movies and discusses the impact they could have been had if the films were set in reality. All 92 movies starring Laurel and Hardy as a pair in leading roles were watched together by the authors and were scored for any eye trauma. Eighty-eight eye traumas happened, of which 48% were directed at Hardy. The eye poke was the most frequently occurring eye trauma and the traumatic corneal abrasion was very likely the most frequently occurring injury. Among the most serious causes of eye trauma were the pin of a door handle, a stick, a champagne cork, a tree branch and tacks. Without a doubt, if their films had been reality, especially Hardy but also Laurel and several other people, would have suffered from serious eye injuries caused by the 88 eye traumas. The findings of the present study might reflect the personality, character and intellectual capacity of both Laurel and Hardy as 'Two Minds Without a Single Thought'. © The Author(s) 2016.
Decolonizing trauma theory has been a major project in postcolonial literary scholarship ever since its first sustained engagements with trauma theory. Since then, trauma theory and postcolonial literary studies have been uneasy bedfellows, and the time has now come to take stock of what remains in
Helm, M; Hauke, J; Schlafer, O; Schlechtriemen, T; Lampl, L
Adequate prehospital and inhospital primary care is a decisive factor in the successful treatment of multiple trauma patients. For optimization of treatment algorithms the implementation of a medical quality management is of utmost importance. The aim of this study was to extend quality management by including data on process quality. A retrospective study of primary rescue missions of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) Christoph 22 in Ulm over a period of 2.5 years was performed. In a detailed analysis of filter criteria, in which relevant deviations from the recommendations (not fulfilled in > 10% of the cases) occurred, process data was included (vital data, measurements and events). In the study population (n = 298, males 71.8%, mean age 39.8 ± 21.8 years) 2 filter criteria were identified in which relevant deviations where observed: time management where prehospital treatment time ≤ 60 min in 36% of the cases was not fulfilled and circulatory management where the systolic blood pressure, detected with Riva-Rocci method (RR(sys)) ≥ 120 mmHg on hospital admission in patients with severe head trauma was not fulfilled in 45% of the cases. In patients with deviations in time management, prehospital treatment time was prolonged (75.6 ± 18.3 min versus 50.5 ± 6.7 min; p < 0.01) caused by a prolonged on scene attendance time (34.1 ± 22.1 min versus 20.6 ± 9.2 min; p < 0.01) and transport time (17.3 ± 9.4 min versus 13.3 ± 4.8 min; p < 0.01). In entrapment trauma prehospital treatment time was expanded (44% versus 10%; p < 0.01). Patients in whom circulatory management deviations were observed were more often in shock on arrival at the scene (RR(sys) ≤ 90 mmHg: 60% versus 30%; p < 0.01), more often hypoxemic [pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (S(p)O(2)) ≤ 90%: 36% versus 19%; p < 0.05] and more often sustained a trauma to the chest as well as to chest and abdomen/pelvis (69% versus 52% and 42% versus 28%, respectively; p < 0
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most trauma patients visit the hospital via the emergency department. They are at high risk for tetanus infection because many trauma patients are wounded. Tetanus immunity in the Korean population has been revealed to be decreased in age groups over 20 years old. It is important for emergency physicians to vaccinate patients with the tetanus booster in wound management. Methods Questionnaires were sent to the directors of the emergency departments of resident training hospitals certified by the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine. Results Two thirds of the emergency department directors surveyed reported applying tetanus prophylaxis guidelines to more than 80% of wounded patients. However, about 45% of clinicians in the emergency departments considered giving less than half of the wounded patient tetanus booster vaccinations, and there were no distinct differences in tetanus booster vaccination rates among different age groups. Most emergency physicians are familiar with tetanus prophylaxis guidelines for wound management. However, more than half of the emergency department directors reported that the major reason for not considering tetanus-diphtheria vaccination was due to assumptions that patients already had tetanus immunity. Conclusion Attitude changes should be encouraged among emergency physicians regarding tetanus prophylaxis. As emergency physicians are frequently confronted with patients that are at a high risk for tetanus infection in emergency situations, they need to be more informed regarding tetanus immunity epidemiology and encouraged to administer tetanus booster vaccines.
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy versus supportive therapy in affective relapse prevention in bipolar patients with a history of trauma: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Radua, Joaquim; Landín-Romero, Ramon; Blanco, Laura; Madre, Mercè; Reinares, Maria; Comes, Mercè; Jiménez, Esther; Crespo, Jose Manuel; Vieta, Eduard; Pérez, Victor; Novo, Patricia; Doñate, Marta; Cortizo, Romina; Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Lupo, Walter; McKenna, Peter J; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Amann, Benedikt L
Up to 60% of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have a history of traumatic events, which is associated with greater episode severity, higher risk of comorbidity and higher relapse rates. Trauma-focused treatment strategies for BD are thus necessary but studies are currently scarce. The aim of this study is to examine whether Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy focusing on adherence, insight, de-idealisation of manic symptoms, prodromal symptoms and mood stabilization can reduce episode severity and relapse rates and increase cognitive performance and functioning in patients with BD. This is a single-blind, randomized controlled, multicentre trial in which 82 patients with BD and a history of traumatic events will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two treatment arms: EMDR therapy or supportive therapy. Patients in both groups will receive 20 psychotherapeutic sessions, 60 min each, during 6 months. The primary outcome is a reduction of affective episodes after 12 and 24 months in favour of the EMDR group. As secondary outcome we postulate a greater reduction in affective symptoms in the EMDR group (as measured by the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale modified for BD), and a better performance in cognitive state, social cognition and functioning (as measured by the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry, The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and the Functioning Assessment Short Test, respectively). Traumatic events will be evaluated by The Holmes-Rahe Life Stress Inventory, the Clinician-administered PTSD Scale and the Impact of Event Scale. The results of this study will provide evidence whether a specific EMDR protocol for patients with BD is effective in reducing affective episodes, affective symptoms and functional, cognitive and trauma symptoms. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02634372 . Registered on
Ida Frugård Strøm
Full Text Available Background: The psychological impact on survivors of terrorism has been well documented. However, studies on adolescent survivors and the academic performance of high school students following a terrorist attack are lacking. Objective: This study investigated academic performance, absenteeism, and school support amongst survivors of a terrorist attack in Norway. Method: Data from a longitudinal interview study were linked to officially registered grades of students (N=64 who successfully completed their 3-year senior high school program. Statistical tests of mean differences and linear regression were used to compare the survivors’ registered grades with the national grade point average, before and after the event, as well as to assess absenteeism, self-reported grades and to test the association with school support. Results: The students’ grades were lower the year after the event than they had been the year before, and they were also lower than the national grade point average (p<0.001. However, their grades improved in the last year of high school, indicating possible recovery. Absence from school increased after the event, compared to the previous year. However, students reported high satisfaction with school support. Conclusion: The results indicate that academic functioning was reduced in the year after the traumatic event, but for students who successfully completed high school, the school situation improved 2 years after the event. The findings underscore the importance of keeping trauma-exposed students in school and providing support over time. A more defined educational approach to maintaining school attendance and educational measures which compensate for learning loss are needed in trauma-sensitive teaching.
Irene Searles McClatchey
Full Text Available Background: Studies on posttraumatic growth (PTG among bereaved youth are rare; outcome studies on how to facilitate PTG among this population are even more scarce. Objectives: This study examined the addition of trauma-informed care to bereavement interventions to foster PTG in youth attending a weekend-long bereavement camp. Method: A total of 105 participants completed standardized measures of posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress disorder after which 52 of the participants took part in a camp session. Ninety-five of the participants from both groups were post-tested four weeks after the camp session. Results: Multiple Regression showed that PTG scores were significantly greater at posttest for the treatment group. No significant changes in PTSD were found in either group, although the presence of dissociative symptoms decreased significantly among campers in the treatment group. Conclusions: Findings suggest trauma-informed care may increase posttraumatic growth among youth coping with loss. Implications for future studies and clinical practice are discussed
Fransman, Ryan; Kent, Alistair J; Haut, Elliott R; Reema Kar, A; Sakran, Joseph V; Stevens, Kent; Efron, David T; Jones, Christian
The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) includes patient comorbidities. This study evaluates factors of trauma centers associated with higher rates of missing comorbidity data. Proportions of missing comorbidity data from facilities in the NTDB from 2011 to 2014 were evaluated for associations with facility characteristics. Proportional impact analysis was performed to identify potential policy targets. Of 919 included facilities, 85% reported comorbidity data in 95% or more cases; only 31.3% were missing no data. Missing rates were significantly different based on most facility categories, but independently associated only with hospital size, region, and trauma center level. Only 15% of centers were responsible for over 80% of cases missing data. There is significant nonrandom variation in reporting trauma patient comorbidities to the NTDB. Missing data needs to be recognized and considered in studies of trauma comorbidities. Targeted intervention may improve data quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma patients have impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL after trauma. The aim of the study was to assess HRQOL during the first year after trauma and hospital stay in trauma patients admitted to an intensive-care unit (ICU for >24 hours compared with non-ICU trauma patients and the general population, and to identify predictors of HRQOL. Methods A prospective one-year follow-up study of 242 trauma patients received by the trauma team of a trauma referral centre in Norway was performed. HRQOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36 at 3 and 12 months. Results The mean age of the cohort was 42.3 years (95% CI, 40.4-44.3 years. The median Injury Severity Score (ISS was 10, interquartile range 16. The HRQOL improved significantly from the 3 to the 12 months follow up in the trauma patients. However their scores were significantly lower for most subscales of SF-36 compared to the general population. Significant differences between ICU and non-ICU patients at 12 months were observed only for physical functioning and role physical subscales. Optimism was an independent predictor of good HRQOL at 12 months, in all dimensions (beta, 0.95-2.45. A higher depression score at baseline predicted lower HRQOL in four of eight dimensions (beta -1.1 to -1.70. In addition, better physical functioning was predicted by lower age (beta, -0.20, and having head injury (reference as the most severe injury vs. spine or extremity injuries (beta, -9.49 and -10.85, and better mental health by higher age (beta, 0.21 and being employed or studying before the trauma (beta, 12.27. In addition to optimism good general health was predicted by lower score for post-traumatic stress (PTS symptoms at baseline (beta, -0.27 and lower ISS score (beta -10.59. Conclusions The HRQOL improved significantly from the 3 to the 12 months follow up in our sample. However their scores were significantly lower for most subscales of SF-36
Rahman, Roslan Abdul; Ramli, Roszalina; Rahman, Normastura Abdul; Hussaini, Haizal Mohd; Idrus, Sharifah Munirah Ai; Hamid, Abdul Latif Abdul
Maxillofacial trauma in children is not common worldwide. Domestic injuries are frequently seen in younger children while older children are mostly involved in motor vehicle accidents (MVA). The objective of this study was to analyze the pattern of maxillofacial injuries in pediatric patients referred to three government main hospitals in different areas of West Malaysia. Patients' records of three selected hospitals in Malaysia (National University of Malaysia Hospital, Kajang Hospital and Seremban Hospital) from January 1999 to December 2001 were reviewed. Data associated with demographics, etiology of injury in relation to age group, type of injuries whether soft tissues of hard tissue in relation to age group and treatment modalities were collected. A total of 521 pediatric patients' records were reviewed. Malays made up the majority of patients with maxillofacial injuries in the three hospitals. Males outnumbered females in all the three hospitals. Injuries commonly occur in the 11-16 years old. MVA was the most common etiology followed by fall and assault. Soft tissue injuries were the most common type of injuries in all the hospitals. In relation to fractures, mandible was the most common bone to fracture with condyle being the most common site. Orbital fracture was the most common fracture in the midfacial area. Most of the fractures were managed conservatively especially in the younger age groups. Open reduction with or without internal fixation was more frequently carried out in the 11-16 years old group. Children exhibit different pattern of clinical features depending on the etiology and stage of their bone maturation. A dedicated team, who is competent in trauma and aware of the unique anatomy, physical and psychological characteristics of children, should manage pediatric patient with trauma.
severe vascular, orthopedic/bone, nerve , or other injury . http://www.trauma.org/index.php/main/article/510/ Overall Vascular (total number...Pseudo-aneurysm, vascular blow-out, stenosis, failed vascular repair , AV fistula, and/or venous insufficiency. GWOT Vascular Injury Study...Award Number: W81XWH-14-2-0165 TITLE: GWOT Vascular Injury Study 2 Supplemental Project: Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR
Meyer DeMott, Melinda A; Jakobsen, Marianne; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Heir, Trond
This is the first controlled study of an expressive arts group intervention with unaccompanied minor asylum seeking children. The aim of the study was to examine whether such an intervention may alleviate symptoms of trauma and enhance life satisfaction and hope. One hundred forty five unaccompanied minor refugee boys with their stated age between 15 and 18 were allocated into a 10 session 5 weeks manualized expressive arts intervention (EXIT) or a life as usual (LAU) control group. The participants were assessed at onset and 4 times over a period of 25 months with a battery of instruments measuring post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), general psychological distress (HSCL-25A), current life satisfaction (CLS) and expected life satisfaction (ELS). The instruments were presented in the participants' native languages, using touch-screen laptops and the computer program Multilingual Computer Assisted Interview (MultiCASI). There were significant time by group interactions in favor of the EXIT group for PTSS and CLS. At the end of the follow up the EXIT group had higher life satisfaction and hope for the future than the LAU group. A manualized EXIT group intervention can have a beneficial effect on helping minor refugee boys to cope with symptoms of trauma, strengthen their life satisfaction and develop hope for the future. Our findings support previous studies showing that the arts may help people in reconstructing meaning and connection with others by focusing on resources and creativity. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sokoya, Mofiyinfolu; Eagles, Justin; Okland, Tyler; Coughlin, Dylan; Dauber, Hannah; Greenlee, Christopher; Winkler, Andrew A
The effect of marijuana on human health has been studied extensively. Marijuana intoxication has been shown to affect performance, attention span, and reaction time. The public health relationship between trauma and cannabis use has also been studied, with mixed conclusions. In this report, the effect of marijuana legalization on many aspects of facial trauma at two hospitals in Denver, Colorado is examined. A retrospective review of the electronic medical records was undertaken. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare age of patients before and after legalization, and chi squared analyses were used to compare mechanism of injury, and fracture types before and after recreational marijuana legalization in Denver, Colorado. Geographical location of patients was also considered. No significant increase was found in race before and after marijuana legalization (p=0.19). A significant increase in age was found before (M=39.54,SD=16.37), and after (M=41.38,SD=16.66) legalization (plegalization (plegalization (p>0.05). Public health efforts should be directed towards educating residents and visitors of Colorado on the effects and toxicology of marijuana. More epidemiologic studies are needed for further assessment of the long-term effects of the legalization of marijuana on the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sarnyai, Zoltán; Berger, Maximus; Jawan, Isabella
A considerable gap exists in health and social emotional well-being between Indigenous people and non-Indigenous Australians. Recent research in stress neurobiology highlights biological pathways that link early adversity and traumas as well as life stresses to ill health. We argue that the neurobiological stress response and its maladaptive changes, termed allostatic load, provide a useful framework to understand how adversity leads to physical and mental illness in Indigenous people. In this paper we review the biology of allostatic load and make links between stress-induced systemic hormonal, metabolic and immunological changes and physical and mental illnesses. Exposure to chronic stress throughout life results in an increased allostatic load that may contribute to a number of metabolic, cardiovascular and mental disorders that shorten life expectancy in Indigenous Australians. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Rodriguez, Sonia Pilar; Manzano, Ana Cristina
A case of a 3 years old female patient, who suffered blunt lumbar trauma (horse kick) with secondary kidney trauma, is reported. Imaging findings are described. Renal trauma classification and imaging findings are reviewed
Full Text Available Notwithstanding some discrepancy between results from neuroimaging studies of symptom provocation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, there is broad agreement as to the neural circuit underlying this disorder. It is thought to be characterized by an exaggerated amygdalar and decreased medial prefrontal activation to which the elevated anxiety state and concomitant inadequate emotional regulation are attributed. However, the proposed circuit falls short of accounting for the main symptom, unique among anxiety disorders to PTSD, namely, reexperiencing the precipitating event in the form of recurrent, distressing images and recollections. Owing to the technical demands, neuroimaging studies are usually carried out with small sample sizes. A meta-analysis of their findings is more likely to cast light on the involved cortical areas. Coordinate-based meta-analyses employing ES-SDM (Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping were carried out on 19 studies with 274 PTSD patients. Thirteen of the studies included 145 trauma-exposed control participants. Comparisons between reactions to trauma-related stimuli and a control condition and group comparison of reactions to the trauma-related stimuli were submitted to meta-analysis. Compared to controls and the neutral condition, PTSD patients showed significant activation of the mid-line retrosplenial cortex and precuneus in response to trauma-related stimuli. These midline areas have been implicated in self-referential processing and salient autobiographical memory. PTSD patients also evidenced hyperactivation of the pregenual/anterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral amygdala to trauma-relevant, compared to neutral, stimuli. Patients showed significantly less activation than controls in sensory association areas such as the bilateral temporal gyri and extrastriate area which may indicate that the patients' attention was diverted from the presented stimuli by being focused on the elicited trauma memory. Being
Full Text Available Background: Injury severity scoring systems that quantify and predict trauma outcomes have not been established in Korea. This study was designed to determine the best system for use in the Korean trauma population. Methods: We collected and analyzed the data from trauma patients admitted to our institution from January 2010 to December 2014. Injury Severity Score (ISS, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, and Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS were calculated based on the data from the enrolled patients. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC for the prediction ability of each scoring system was obtained, and a pairwise comparison of ROC curves was performed. Additionally, the cut-off values were estimated to predict mortality, and the corresponding accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were obtained. Results: A total of 7,120 trauma patients (6,668 blunt and 452 penetrating injuries were enrolled in this study. The AUCs of ISS, RTS, and TRISS were 0.866, 0.894, and 0.942, respectively, and the prediction ability of the TRISS was significantly better than the others (p < 0.001, respectively. The cut-off value of the TRISS was 0.9082, with a sensitivity of 81.9% and specificity of 92.0%; mortality was predicted with an accuracy of 91.2%; its positive predictive value was the highest at 46.8%. Conclusions: The results of our study were based on the data from one institution and suggest that the TRISS is the best prediction model of trauma outcomes in the current Korean population. Further study is needed with more data from multiple centers in Korea.
Reichert, Elizabeth; Segal, Caroline; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen
Individuals with previous histories of trauma are at increased risk for subsequent victimization and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders. Attentional biases to threat-related stimuli are thought to impact one's ability to recognize future risk in his or her environment and may explain high rates of revictimization. Although the literature has identified three possible types of attentional biases among victims of trauma (i.e., interference, facilitation, and avoidance), findings are mixed. The current study examined attentional biases to threats among a sample of men and women with no, some, and multiple incident interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma histories. It was hypothesized that those with multiple incident interpersonal trauma histories would demonstrate an interference effect (i.e., slower response times to threat-related words). Participants (N = 309) were 18- to 29-year-old college students. Self-report measures assessed trauma history, posttraumatic stress, and other psychological sequelae. Attentional biases were assessed using a dot probe computer task. Contrary to hypotheses, no significant differences in response times in the presence of threat-related words or neutral words were found among groups. Results suggest that multi