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Sample records for trato gastrintestinal avaliacao

  1. Análise histológica do trato gastrintestinal de avestruzes jovens (Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Cristina Maria Rodrigues Monteiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p149 Aspectos histológicos do trato gastrintestinal do avestruz (Struthio camelus são pouco estudados, portanto, é de interesse desta pesquisa ampliar tais estudos. Para isso foram obtidas amostras de diferentes segmentos do tubo digestório de cinco avestruzes jovens, com idade entre 20 a 30 dias. Com base nos resultados obtidos pudemos concluir que os diferentes segmentos do tubo digestório do avestruz jovem apresenta a mesma estrutura geral de outras aves e mamíferos domésticos, com pequenas diferenças, como ausência de inglúvio e vesícula biliar, intestino grosso maior que o intestino delgado e ceco com propriedades fisiológicas semelhantes ao estômago de ruminantes.  Estas variações são inerentes à espécie ou podem ser decorrentes da idade e hábito alimentar. Esperamos que esta análise contribua para uma melhor compreensão dos processos fisiológicos relacionados à nutrição e ao manejo do avestruz durante seu crescimento.

  2. Endometriose do trato gastrintestinal: correlações clínicas e laparoscópicas Endometriosis of the gastrointestinal tract: clinical and laparoscopic correlations

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    Univaldo Etsuo Sagae

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, quarenta pacientes selecionadas com endometriose pélvica e utilizando do método videolaparoscópico de corrida dos órgãos peritoneais na endometriose (COPE, puderam verificar se suas queixas encontram-se correlacionadas aos achados de lesões no trato gastrintestinal. O estudo avaliou 21 pacientes com e 19 pacientes sem sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais, visando estabelecer: associações e correlações entre os parâmetros clínicos que sinalizam a presença de focos endometrióticos e as localizações das lesões em cada segmento do trato gastrintestinal (TGI e a correlação entre o estadiamento da endometriose (ASRM, 1996 e o comprometimento intestinal. A pesquisa atestou, de modo significativo, a correlação entre a presença dos sintomas gastrintestinais em conseqüência das lesões no trato gastrintestinal. Os sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais significativamente relacionados com a presença de endometriose ginecológica localizada no segmento retossigmóide e/ou íleo e com comprometimento do trato gastrintestinal foram: o puxo e o tenesmo cíclico, dor em cólica cíclica, obstipação cíclica, diarréia cíclica, dor acíclica, fezes afiladas e o sangramento intestinal cíclico. O estádio IV (ASRM correlacionou-se com a presença de endometriose no trato gastrintestinal. O presente estudo demonstrou a correlação positiva dos sinais e sintomas gastrointestinais e ginecológicos e o estadiamento da doença ginecológica com o comprometimento gastrointestinal pela doença.The peritoneal organs of 40 patients with pelvic endometriosis were scanned for endometriosis in this study by the videolaparoscopic method to verify the relation of their complaints with lesions found in the gastrointestinal tract. Twenty one of these patients who had gastrointestinal signs and symptoms and 19 who did not, were evaluated in order to establish associations and correlations between clinical parameters pointing to endometriotic

  3. Dinâmica dos nutrientes no trato gastrintestinal de novilhos holandeses alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar Dynamic of the nutrients in the gastrintestinal tract of holstein steers fed sugar cane based diets

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    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram objetivos deste trabalho validar as predições com base nas estimativas da dinâmica ruminal e pós-ruminal dos nutrientes e do crescimento microbiano no rúmen, usando as equações que compõem o submodelo Cornell relativo ao trato gastrintestinal. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos Holandês-Zebu com peso médio de 300 kg, canulados no rúmen e abomaso, distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino 4 x 4. Os animais experimentais foram alimentados com rações à base de cana-de-açúcar, suplementada com duas fontes de nitrogênio (uréia ou cama de frango e dois níveis de levedura (0 ou 10 g dia-1, constituindo-se esquema fatorial 2 x 2. A FDN indigestível e a FDN da cana-de-açúcar complexada com cromo foram usadas como indicadores interno e externo, para estimar a produção fecal diária e a taxa de passagem de partículas no rúmen. A dinâmica dos nutrientes baseou-se nas determinações do fluxo de nitrogênio total e do fluxo de nitrogênio de origem bacteriana no abomaso e dos carboidratos totais digeridos no rúmen. A produção microbiana não foi influenciada pelas fontes nitrogenadas e pela adição de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. O Sistema Cornell superestimou os carboidratos totais degradados no rúmen, o fluxo de nitrogênio de origem microbiana e subestimou o fluxo de N total no abomaso.The objectives of this work were to validate the predictions based on the estimates of the ruminal nutrient dynamics and on the microbial growth in the rumen, using equations of the Cornell Submodel system relative to the gastrintestinal tract. Four Holstein - Zebu steers, with 300 kg live weight, rumen and abomasal cannulated were allotted to 4x4 latin square design. The experimental animals received sugar cane based diets, supplemented with two nitrogen sources (urea or poultry litter and two yeast levels (0 or 10 g / d, being constituted 2x2 factorial arrangement. The indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF and chromium mordant

  4. Características das carcaças, biometria do trato gastrintestinal, tamanho dos órgãos internos e conteúdo gastrintestinal de bovinos F1 Simental x Nelore alimentados com dietas contendo vários níveis de concentrado

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    Ferreira Marcelo de Andrade

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de diferentes níveis de concentrado na ração (25; 37,5; 50; 62,5; e 75% foi avaliada sobre as características da carcaça, o peso dos compartimentos do trato gastrintestinal, o peso dos órgãos internos e o conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal, de 24 bovinos mestiços Simental x Nelore, não-castrados, com 17 meses de idade e peso vivo médio de 354 kg. Os animais foram abatidos quando atingiram 500 kg de peso vivo. Após o resfriamento, as carcaças foram avaliadas qualitativa (área de olho de lombo e quantitativamente (medições, rendimentos e cortes básicos. O rendimento da carcaça e dos cortes básicos, a área de olho de lombo e as proporções de músculo e gordura não foram influenciados pelos níveis de concentrado, enquanto o comprimento de carcaça diminuiu linearmente com o aumento do nível de concentrado. O conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal diminuiu linearmente com a adição de concentrado na ração. Não houve efeito dos níveis de concentrado nos pesos de coração, pulmão e rúmen-retículo. Os pesos de fígado, rins, baço, abomaso, intestino delgado e gordura interna aumentaram e o do omaso diminuiu linearmente com a adição de concentrado na dieta.

  5. Efeitos do exercício físico sobre o trato gastrintestinal Effects of physical exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

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    Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O impacto do exercício sobre o trato gastrintestinal (TGI, apesar de pouco investigado, é uma área de grande interesse. O exercício aeróbio intenso e de longa duração pode provocar sintomas gastrintestinais. Estes podem ser divididos em sintomas superiores (vômitos, náuseas e pirose retroesternal - azia e inferiores (diarréia, cólica abdominal, perda de apetite, sangramento, aceleração dos movimentos intestinais e vontade de defecar. A etiologia desses sintomas durante o exercício é multifatorial e inclui a redução do fluxo sanguíneo intestinal, a liberação de hormônios gastrintestinais, o estresse mecânico sobre o TGI, a desidratação, os fatores psicológicos, a idade, o sexo, a dieta e o nível de treinamento do indivíduo. Por outro lado, o exercício de baixa intensidade tem efeito protetor sobre o TGI, principalmente com relação à predisposição a certas doenças como o câncer de cólon, a diverticulite, a colelitíase e a constipação. Diversos mecanismos são postulados para explicar os efeitos do exercício sobre o TGI, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de estratégias terapêuticas no tratamento de indivíduos com sintomas e doenças gastrintestinais.The impact of exercise on the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, although being little investigated, is a field of high interest. Intense endurance aerobic exercise can lead to gastrointestinal symptoms. These symptoms can be classified into upper symptoms (vomiting, nausea and retrosternal pyrosis - heartburn and lower symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal cramps, loss of appetite, bleeding, accelerated bowel transit time, urge to defecate. These symptoms’ etiology during exercise is multifactorial and includes: reduction of intestinal blood flow, release of gastrointestinal hormones, mechanical stress on the GI tract, dehydration, psychological factors, age, gender, diet, and training status. On the other hand, low intensity exercise has a protective effect on the

  6. Efeito protetor da lactoferrina humana no trato gastrintestinal Efecto protector de la lactoferrina humana en el sistema gastrointestinal Protective effect of human lactoferrin in the gastrointestinal tract

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    Valterlinda Alves de O. Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os mecanismos de ação da lactoferrina humana na proteção de morbidades gastrintestinais. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão não sistemática da literatura utilizando como estratégia de busca pesquisa bibliográfica em bases de dados, as quais incluíram SciELO, Lilacs e MedLine entre 1990 e 2011. Os descritores utilizados foram: lactoferrina, leite materno/humano, gastrintestinal e imunidade, nos idiomas português e inglês. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A lactoferrina é a segunda proteína predominante no leite humano, com concentrações mais elevadas no colostro (5,0 a 6,7mg/mL em relação ao leite maduro (0,2 a 2,6mg/mL. Em contraste, o leite de vaca contém teores inferiores, 0,83mg/mL no colostro e 0,09mg/mL no leite maduro. A lactoferrina desempenha diversas funções fisiológicas na proteção do trato gastrintestinal. A atividade antimicrobiana está relacionada à capacidade de sequestrar ferro dos fluidos biológicos e/ou de desestruturar a membrana de micro-organismos. A lactoferrina possui também a capacidade de estimular a proliferação celular. A ação anti-inflamatória desempenhada pela lactoferrina está associada à capacidade de penetrar no núcleo do leucócito e bloquear a transcrição do fator nuclear Kappa B. Diante da importância da lactoferrina na prevenção de doenças infecciosas em crianças aleitadas ao peito, a indústria vem, por meio da engenharia genética, desenvolvendo tecnologias para expressar esta proteína recombinante humana em plantas e animais, na tentativa de adequar a composição das fórmulas infantis àquela do leite humano. CONCLUSÕES: A lactoferrina humana é um peptídeo com potencial para prevenir morbidades, especialmente às gastrintestinais. Evidências científicas dos efeitos protetores da lactoferrina humana fortalecem ainda mais a recomendação para prática do aleitamento materno.OBJETIVO: Describir los mecanismos de acción de la lactoferrina humana en la protecci

  7. Estudo histológico e parasitológico do trato gastrintestinal de cães infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi

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    Aldair Junio Woyames Pinto

    2011-01-01

    São poucas as descrições das alterações patológicas e parasitológicas relacionadas ao envolvimento do trato gastrointestinal (TGI) na leishmaniose visceral canina e, sobretudo considerando-se o TGI de forma sistemática. Assim, neste trabalho objetivou-se um estudo sistemático, clínico, anatomopatológico e parasitológico do TGI de cães naturalmente infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi provenientes da região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, MG. Após confirmação sorológica (RIFI e ELIS...

  8. Efeito da restrição alimentar qualitativa precoce sobre o desempenho, as características do trato gastrintestinal e a carcaça de frangos de corte Effects of early-life feed qualitative restriction on performance, characteristics of gastrintestinal tract and carcass of broilers

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    Flavio Alves Longo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da restrição alimentar qualitativa precoce sobre o desempenho, as características do trato gastrintestinal e a carcaça de frangos de corte. Um total de 975 pintos de corte de um dia da linhagem "Ross", 15 parcelas com 30 machos cada e 15 parcelas com 35 fêmeas, foi distribuído em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 (forma de restrição x sexo, com três repetições por tratamento. As formas de restrição estudadas foram: 1 - testemunha, sem diluição; 2 -diluição com 15% de calcário; 3 - diluição com 30% de calcário; 4 - diluição com 15% de casca de arroz; e 5 - diluição com 30% de casca de arroz. Os frangos foram alimentados ad libitum com ração padrão, no período de 1 a 7 dias e de 15 a 45 dias de idade. A restrição alimentar por diluição das rações, conforme cada tratamento, foi aplicada do 8º ao 14º dia de idade. Para o período de restrição alimentar, foram formuladas rações com níveis normais de minerais e vitaminas, reduzindo-se os outros nutrientes, conforme a diluição. Os frangos submetidos à restrição alimentar qualitativa precoce, pela diluição com 15% de calcário e, 15 ou 30% de casca de arroz, apresentaram ganho compensatório, com bom desempenho final. Entretanto, a restrição com 30% de calcário foi muito severa, prejudicando o desempenho. Houve alteração nas características do trato gastrintestinal com a restrição alimentar, porém houve recuperação até o momento do abate. Os frangos submetidos à restrição alimentar qualitativa precoce apresentaram menor deposição de gordura e maior deposição de proteína na carcaça em comparação ao controle.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the early-life qualitative feed restriction on the performance, gastrintestinal tract characteristics and carcass of broilers. A total of 975 one-d-old "Ross" broiler chicks, 15

  9. Plantas medicinais usadas nos distúrbios do trato gastrintestinal no povoado Colônia Treze, Lagarto, SE, Brasil Medicinal plants used for aliments of the gastro-intestinal tract at Colonia Treze village, Lagarto Municipality, Sergipe State, Brazil

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    Maria Silene da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os modelos de desenvolvimento sócio-econômicos adotados pela sociedade humana refletem diferentes formas de relacionamento com a natureza, as quais no paradigma vigente têm levado à grande perda de recursos naturais. Na esfera dessa relação, a conservação e preservação da biodiversidade da flora medicinal torna-se fundamental, pela importância que as plantas medicinais assumem como potencial genético para o desenvolvimento de novas drogas, e como acesso primário à saúde para muitas comunidades. Utilizando a abordagem etnofarmacológica na pesquisa de plantas medicinais, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as plantas medicinais utilizadas popularmente contra distúrbios do trato gastrintestinal no povoado Colônia Treze em Lagarto, SE, comunidade que tem o uso popular das plantas medicinais inserido em sua cultura. Sua metodologia abrangeu trabalho de campo na comunidade, adotando o método etnográfico qualitativo rápido. A amostra foi composta por líderes da comunidade, usuários de plantas e praticantes da medicina popular. Baseando-se nas indicações populares sobre o uso das plantas medicinais, selecionaram-se oito plantas que foram submetidas aos experimentos farmacológicos. As plantas testadas no Modelo de Trânsito Intestinal não produziram alteração na motilidade. Já as submetidas ao Modelo de Indução de Lesão Gástrica aguda, mostraram-se efetivas na atividade antiulcerogênica. A partir destes resultados propõem-se estratégias de desenvolvimento local para esta comunidade, que aliem a conservação da flora medicinal à melhoria de sua qualidade de vida.Models of socioeconomic development adopted by human societies reflect different ways of relating to Nature, which, given the present paradigm, have evolved towards great natural-resource loss. Within the sphere of this relationship, both the conservation and preservation of medicinal-plant biodiversity are fundamental because of the importance of

  10. Órgãos internos e trato gastrintestinal de novilhos de gerações avançadas do cruzamento rotativo entre as raças Charolês e Nelore terminados em confinamento Internal organs and gastrointestinal tract of feedlot finished steers of advanced generations of rotational crossbreeding between Charolais and Nellore

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    Luís Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de heterose e de grupo genético nos órgãos internos e no trato gastrintestinal de novilhos puros (Charolês - C e Nelore - N e cruzados da segunda (G2 (3/4C 1/4N e 3/4N 1/4C, terceira (G3 (5/8C 3/8N e 5/8N 3/8C e quarta (G4 (11/16C 5/16N e 11/16N 5/16C gerações de cruzamento terminados em confinamento e abatidos com 23 meses de idade. Os animais cruzados da G2, G3 e G4 foram, respectivamente, 14,95; 17,25 e 18,46% superiores aos puros quanto ao peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ. A heterose para o rendimento de carcaça fria em relação ao PCVZ (RCFCVZ foi positiva em todas as gerações. Os mestiços apresentaram menor peso relativo (ao PCVZ de coração, pulmões e rins, de modo que a heterose foi significativa para peso de coração (-18,29% e rins (-14,29% na G3 e para pulmões (-13,45% na G4. Novilhos mestiços apresentaram valores inferiores à média dos puros para todos os componentes do trato gastrintestinal quando o peso destes componentes foi expresso em relação a 100 kg de PCVZ ou de peso vivo ao abate (PVA, com exceção do rúmen na G2. A heterose retida foi positiva e significativa para PCVZ, RCFCVZ e para peso absoluto do fígado. Entretanto, foi negativa para a quantidade de sangue para os pesos de coração, intestino delgado + grosso e trato gastrintestinal quando expressos em relação a 100 kg de PCVZ e de PVA. Entre os animais puros, os novilhos Nelore tiveram maior RCFCVZ (57,09 vs 61,64%. O peso absoluto de rúmen, abomaso, intestino delgado + grosso e o trato gastrintestinal foram maiores nos novilhos Charolês em relação aos Nelore, o que também foi observado quando estes componentes foram expressos em relação ao PCVZ e PVA, com exceção para o intestino grosso + delgado. Estas diferenças explicam, em parte, o maior rendimento de carcaça dos novilhos Nelore.The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of heterosis and genetic group on the yield and weight of internal organs

  11. Caracterização biométrica externa, avaliação corpórea e caracterização histológica do trato gastrintestinal de gaviões-carijó (Rupornis magnirostris apreendidos pelo CETAS/IBAMA na Paraíba

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    Millena de Oliveira Firmino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n1p101   Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar as medidas biométricas externas e do sistema digestório e, também, as condições corpóreas e de plumagem de gaviões-carijó apreendidos pelo CETAS/IBAMA na Paraíba, e descrever a histologia das vísceras do trato gastrintestinal (TGI, tendo como foco fornecer subsídios para novos estudos na área de nutrição animal e classificação taxonômica, bem como para sistemas de manejo e de conservação. Os espécimes foram analisados, tiveram as medidas mensuradas e coletadas amostras biológicas para procedimentos histológicos. Constatou-se que existe relação entre a condição corpórea e a perda de plumagem, demonstrando que a morfologia do TGI é semelhante à da maioria das aves já descritas, incluindo outras espécies de Accipitridae. Os resultados proporcionam subsídios para estudos posteriores envolvendo manejo nutricional, conservacionista, clínico e cirúrgico para a espécie.

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites of sheep, municipality of Lajes, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil Parasitos do trato gastrintestinal de ovinos, município de Lajes, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

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    Maria de Fátima de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the gastrointestinal parasitism by helminths and protozoa in sheep (Ovis aries Santa Inês breed, municipality of Lajes, Rio Grande do Norte. Monthly, from April 2005 to August 2007, stool samples were collected from two tracer lambs in the first day of the experiment and performed a necropsy of these animals in 44th day. A total of 64 lambs were sampled, but only 62 lambs were slaughtered. The fecal samples were examined by sedimentation in water. The contents of the abomasum, small intestine and large intestine were examined for the recovery of helminths. The parasitological examination revealed eggs of the following groups of helminths: Strongyloidea, Strongyloides sp., Trichuris sp., and Moniezia sp. Also were found oocysts of Eimeria spp., cysts of Entamoeba ovis and Giardia duodenalis. The helminths identified from examining the contents were: Haemonchus contortus, Cooperia pectinata, Cooperia punctata, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Moniezia expansa, Oesophagostomum sp. Skrjabinema ovis and Trichuris sp.O presente estudo investigou o parasitismo gastrintestinal por helmintos e protozoários em ovinos (Ovis aries da raça Santa Inês, no município de Lajes, Rio Grande do Norte. Mensalmente, entre abril de 2005 e agosto de 2007, foram coletadas amostras fecais de dois cordeiros traçadores no primeiro dia do experimento e realizada a necropsia desses animais no 44º dia. O total de cordeiros amostrados foi 64, mas apenas 62 foram necropsiados. As amostras fecais foram examinadas pela técnica de sedimentação espontânea em água. Os conteúdos do abomaso, intestino delgado e intestino grosso dos cordeiros necropsiados foram examinados para a recuperação dos helmintos. Os exames parasitológicos evidenciaram ovos dos seguintes grupos de helmintos: Strongyloidea, Strongyloides sp. , Trichuris sp., e Moniezia sp. Também foram encontrados oocistos de Eimeria spp., cistos de Entamoeba ovis e de Giardia duodenalis

  13. Margem de segurança do meloxicam em cães: efeitos deletérios nas células sangüíneas e trato gastrintestinal Margin of safety of meloxicam in dogs: deleterious effects on blood cells and gastrointestinal tract

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    Marilac Maria Arnaldo Alencar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investigou a margem de segurança do inibidor COX-2, meloxicam, em cães, enfocando seus efeitos deletérios nas células sangüíneas e no trato gastrintestinal. Para tanto, após uma avaliação clínico-laboratorial, os cães foram distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: I (placebo; n= 3, II (piroxicam; 1,0mg kg-1; n= 5, III (meloxicam; 0,2mg kg-1; n= 5, IV (meloxicam;1,0mg kg-1; n= 5 e V (meloxicam; 2,0mg kg-1; n= 5. Os fármacos foram usados, por via oral, por 16 dias. No 17º dia, repetiu-se o hemograma completo e, então, procedeu-se a eutanásia seguida pela necrópsia. No grupo I, não houve alterações dignas de nota. No grupo II, todos os cães apresentaram episódios moderados de vômito e diarréia. O perfil celular sangüíneo não foi significativamente modificado. Em dois cães, houve redução no hematócrito e na hemoglobina. Na necropsia, observaram-se focos hemorrágicos e lesões gastriduodenais moderadas. A análise microscópica revelou a presença de gastrite e enterite ulcerativa. No grupo III, quatro cães (80% apresentaram vômito e diarréia, sem alteração no perfil celular sangüíneo. Na análise macroscópica, observaram-se lesões brandas na mucosa gástrica e focos hemorrágicos no duodeno em quatro cães. Na histopatologia, observaram-se lesões sugestivas de discreta gastroenterite. No grupo IV, os cinco cães tiveram vômito e diarréia sanguinolenta. Quatro deles (80% apresentaram anemia (p This study investigated the margin of safety of the COX-2e inhibitor, meloxicam on blood cells and gastrointestinal tract of dogs. After a clinical and laboratorial examination, the dogs were distributed in the following groups: I (placebo; n=3, II (piroxicam: 1.0mg kg-1; n=5, III (meloxicam: 0.2mg kg-1; n=5, IV (meloxican: 1.0mg kg-1; n=5 and V (meloxican: 2.0mg kg-1; n=5. The drugs were given orally for 16 days. On the 17th day the complete hemogram was repeated and the euthanasia and necropsy were then

  14. Trato verbal paterno al adolescente

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    Rodríguez Juan Carlos

    1995-06-01

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    En alguna ocasión se ha escuchado una palabra, que causa un sentimiento y a la vez un recuerdo, que lleva a evocar la adolescencia o la infancia, se recuerda quien la pronunciaba y en que ocasión la decía. Este es el poder que tiene una palabra y más aún si es dicha por el padre, puesto que este es la figura significativa que se lleva en la memoria. De aquí nace el interés de realizar un estudio, en donde se describe y analice la percepción y el sentimiento del adolescente, quien en esta etapa es vulnerable al cambio, ya que está buscando su propia identidad; que con el trato verbal paterno la encontrara sin ninguna dificultad o por el contrario nunca la encontrará.

     

  15. Aspectos anátomo-radiográficos e tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal em jacaré tinga Caiman crocodilus crocodilus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae

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    Heloisa Castro Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p149 O interesse pela criação de jacarés em cativeiro tem aumentado no Brasil, no entanto, faltam estudos aprofundados sobre o tipo e a frequência de alimentação adequada destes répteis em cativeiro. Objetivou-se determinar os aspectos anátomo-radiográficos e o tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal do Caiman crocodilus crocodilus por meio de radiografias contrastadas. Os dez jacarés, cinco machos e cinco fêmeas, foram contidos fisicamente para a administração, via sonda orogástrica, de 10 ml/kg de suspensão de sulfato de bário e óleo mineral, na proporção de 70%: 30%, respectivamente. As radiografias foram realizadas em projeção dorso-ventral nos tempos de cinco minutos, e seis, 24, 30, 48, 54, 72, 80, 96, 104, 120, 130, 144 e 150 h após a administração do contraste. A técnica utilizada permitiu a visibilização da passagem do contraste, além de determinar o tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal em jacaré tinga. Verificou-se que a média do tempo de passagem do contraste pelo trato digestório desta espécie foi de 117 ± 29,6 h para fêmeas e 86,4 ± 21,5 h para os machos.

  16. Cobre no controle da verminose gastrintestinal em ovinos Copper on the control of gastrintestinal nematodes in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gonçalves de Gonçalves

    2004-02-01

    was to verify the possible activity of copper oxide wire particles against reinfection by gastrintestinal nematodes in sheep under extensive grazing. Thirty-two sheep, all wethers, aged 18 months and kept on native pastures naturally contaminated by trichostrongylides were used. The animals were weighed and treated with anthelmintics and then allocated to four experimental groups: T I (treated with copper and necropsied on Day 28, T II (untreated control and necropsied on Day 28, T III (treated with copper and necropsied on Day 56, T IV (untreated control and necropsied on Day 56. Groups T I e T III received, per os, a 4g bolus containing 3.4g of copper oxide wire particles. The animals were monitored, at weekly intervals, for faecal egg counts (EPG, packed cell volume (PCV, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and plasma copper concentration. At necropsy, worm burdens, liver copper concentration and liver weights were determined. There were no differences in plasma copper levels between treatments (P>0.05. As for copper in the livers, all treated groups had higher levels than the untreated animals (P0.05. Worm counting at necropsy revealed that copper was effective only against Haemonchus contortus and only in the animals slaughtered on Day 28º where the reduction was 60% in comparison to the untreated group (P0.05. It is concluded that 3.4g of copper oxide wire particles can have a significant action in reducing reinfections by H. contortus during four weeks without toxicity to animals under conditions of extensive grazing.

  17. Tamanho relativo dos órgãos internos e do trato gastrintestinal de bovinos Zebu e mestiços leiteiros em sistema de recria

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    Backes Alfredo Acosta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 12 bovinos machos castrados, com peso vivo médio de 257kg, sendo quatro zebu e oito mestiços leiteiros (quatro fraction one-half sangue Holandês x Gir e quatro fraction one-half sangue Holandês x Guzerá. Foram pesados e distribuídos em dois tratamentos (zebu e mestiços leiteiros, em fase de recria. Os animais foram avaliados até atingirem 340kg de peso vivo. O volumoso utilizado foi o feno de capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon. Por ocasião do abate foram coletadas amostras de rúmen, retículo, omaso, abomaso e intestinos, após o seu esvaziamento e limpeza, obtendo-se ainda os pesos e amostras de sangue, pele, pés, cabeça, fígado, rins, pulmões, língua, baço e gordura interna (mesentério e gorduras perirenal e pericardíaca. O peso do corpo vazio (PCVZ foi obtido pela soma dos pesos da carcaça, sangue, pele, pés, rabo, vísceras e órgãos. Na fase de recria e engorda, os animais zebu apresentaram a pele e o conjunto cabeça-pés-pele mais pesado do que os mestiços leiteiros. Também apresentaram os órgãos rins, baço, coração e língua mais leves do que dos mestiços. O conjunto rúmen-retículo-omaso-abomaso e os teores de gordura mesentérica e interna não apresentaram diferença entre animais mestiços leiteiros e zebu.

  18. Controle de nematóides parasitos gastrintestinais por Arthrobotrys musiformis em ovinos naturalmente infestados mantidos em pastagens Control of gastrintestinal parasitic nematodes by Arthrobotrys musiformis in naturally infested sheep maintained on pastures

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    Érika Barbosa Neves Graminha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar, in vitro e in vivo, o fungo predador Arthrobotrys musiformis, administrado via oral na forma de conídios microencapsulados em alginato ou in natura em meio líquido, após passagem pelo trato gastrintestinal de ovinos. No teste in vitro, avaliou-se a manutenção da atividade predatória, e no teste in vivo, a capacidade de controlar nematóides parasitos de ovinos naturalmente infectados, mantidos em pastagens. O resultado do teste in vitro confirmou a viabilidade de A. musiformis (95,5%, mesmo após a passagem pelo trato gastrintestinal. Na avaliação in vivo, não houve diferença estatística entre o número de ovos por grama de fezes dos grupos tratados e controle, provavelmente em razão da baixa lotação dos piquetes, da quantidade e periodicidade insuficientes de oferecimento de conídios aos ovinos, o que teria proporcionado dispersão e migração das larvas na pastagem. Contudo, os helmintos recuperados na necropsia dos animais traçadores mostraram que A. musiformis reduziu em 50,9% e 57,6% o número de Trichostrongylus colubriformis dos grupos tratados com conídios microencapsulados e in natura, respectivamente, e em 95% o número de L4 de Haemonchus do grupo tratado com conídios in natura. Embora os resultados não sejam conclusivos, A. musiformis mostrou-se promissor agente no biocontrole de nematóides parasitos gastrintestinais.The objective of the present study was to assess in vitro and in vivo the predatory fungus Arthrobotrys musiformis administered orally, in the form of alginate-microencapsulated conidia, or in natura in liquid medium after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of sheep. Maintenance of the predatory activity of the fungus was evaluated in the in vitro test, and its ability to control parasitic nematodes in naturally infested sheep maintained on pastures was analyzed in the in vivo test. The result of the in vitro test confirmed the viability of A. musiformis (95

  19. Tumor Estromal Gastrintestinal de Localização Esofágica: Relato de Caso/ Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Location Esophageal: Case Report

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    Daniele Ribeiro Matsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Os tumores estromais gastrintestinais (GIST são considerados as neoplasias mesenquimatosas mais comuns do trato gastrintestinal (TGI. São derivados das células intersticiais de Cajal, localizadas ao nível do plexo mioentérico e responsáveis pela motilidade gastrintestinal. Podem se originar em qualquer região do TGI, sendo apenas 5% provenientes do esôfago. Casuística: Foi relatado um caso de GIST de localização esofágica em um paciente que iniciou quadro de disfagia para alimentos sólidos e odinofagia, de caráter intermitente, acompanhado de náuseas e vômitos. Foram realizadas Seriografia contrastada de esôfago, Endoscopia Digestiva Alta, Tomografia Computadorizada de Abdome, o resultado histopatológico da biópsia da lesão foi inconclusivo e o diagnóstico foi confirmado pela imunohistoquímica que expressou CD117 (KIT pelas células neoplásicas. O serviço de oncologia de referência orientou a realização de cirurgia para ressecção tumoral, porém o paciente optou pela utilização do Mesilato de Imatinib (MI, tendo apresentado melhora progressiva do quadro clínico inicial. Discussão: O tratamento padrão para pacientes com GIST não metastático é a ressecção completa da lesão, pois oferece a maior chance de cura. Entretanto, o paciente optou somente pelo tratamento com o MI. Conclusão: Concluímos que o GIST deve ser considerado nas lesões exofíticas esofágicas e que o tratamento somente com o MI pode ser considerado, mesmo sabendo que o tratamento preconizado nestes casos é a ressecção cirúrgica, associada ao MI como terapia adjuvante, com melhora da sobrevida. Introduction: The gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST considered the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. It is derived from interstitial cells of Cajal, located at the myenteric plexus and responsible for gastrointestinal motility. It can originate anywhere in the GI tract, and only 5% come from

  20. Estudo da atividade do látex do Croton urucurana Baill. sobre o trânsito gastrintestinal de camundongos

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    Luilma Albuquerque Gurgel

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como propósito avaliar uma possível atividade inibitória do látex do Croton urucurana Baill. sobre o trânsito gastrintestinal de camundongos, bem como tentar esclarecer os possíveis mecanismos de ação envolvidos em sua atividade. Foram utilizados os modelos de trânsito gastrintestinal normal e trânsito gastrintestinal estimulado por fisostigmina em camundongos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que o látex inibiu o trânsito gastrintestinal de camundongos, e, muito embora seu mecanismo de ação ainda não seja claro, seu efeito é independente da participação de mecanismo opióide, colinérgico, α2-adrenérgico ou nitriérgico.

  1. Cuerpos rotos, mentes destrozadas: Tortura y malos tratos a mujeres

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Este informe pertenece a una serie de documentos publicados por Amnistía Internacional como parte de su campaña mundial contra la tortura, iniciada en octubre del 2000. Otros informes de la campaña: ¡Actúaya! Tortura, nunca más (Índice AI: ACT 40/13/00/s), Un escándalo oculto, una vergüenza secreta. Tortura y malos tratos a menores (Índice AI: ACT 40/38/00/s) y El comercio de la tortura: una lacra que hay que erradicar (Índice AI: ACT 40/02/01/s).

  2. Maus tratos, comportamento externalizante e autoestima: um estudo comparativo

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Débora Cristina Fava

    2013-01-01

    Os maus tratos vividos pela criança são considerados prejudiciais ao desenvolvimento infantil e um fator de risco para o surgimento de problemas de comportamento na adolescência. Têm sido associados ao comportamento externalizante e a baixa autoestima, que podem influenciar negativamente o desenvolvimento psicológico, comportamental e social do indivíduo. Esta dissertação de mestrado deriva de um projeto maior desenvolvido no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Faculdade de Psicologia/...

  3. Trato digno proporcionado por enfermería en unidades para adultos de un hospital general

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán López, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    El trato digno: Es la percepción que tiene el paciente o familiar del trato y atención proporcionada por el personal de enfermería durante su estancia hospitalaria, se mide a través de indicadores de calidad. Objetivo: Analizar el trato digno que proporciona el personal de enfermería a usuarios adultos hospitalizados en unidades de medicina interna y cirugía de un hospital general. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal, realizado en los servicios de cirugías hombres, mujeres, m...

  4. Aspectos clínicos, morfológicos e imuno-histoquímicos da pitiose gastrintestinal canina

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    Maria E. Trost

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Através de um estudo retrospectivo dos casos de biópsias e necropsias de cães recebidos no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, constatou-se a ocorrência de dois casos confirmados e de quatro casos suspeitos de pitiose gastrintestinal canina. Os dois casos diagnosticados e publicados tiveram a etiologia confirmada através da cultura e indução de zoosporogênese ou por nested-PCR. Neste estudo utilizou-se a técnica de imuno-histoquímica com anticorpo policlonal anti-Pythium insidiosum para confirmação da etiologia dos quatro casos suspeitos. A epidemiologia, sinais clínicos, lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas, características histoquímicas e imuno-histoquímicas e diagnósticos diferenciais são relatados e discutidos.Four suspect and two confirmed cases of gastrointestinal pythiosis were found in a retrospective study of biopsy and necropsy cases of dogs received in the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. The two diagnosed and published cases have had the etiology confirmed by culture and zoosporogenesis induction or by nested-PCR. On this study, the etiologic diagnosis of four suspect cases was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using anti-Pythium insidiosum policlonal antibody. Epidemiology, clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and differential diagnoses are reported and discussed.

  5. A Origem dos Maus-Tratos: Revisão Sobre a Evolução Histórica das Perceções de Criança e Maus-Tratos

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    Raquel V. Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjetivoNeste trabalho elabora-se, com base em revisão bibliográfica, a evolução histórica das perceções acerca de maus-tratos e de criança. Começa-se por abordar o constructo de maus-tratos, passando seguidamente pela Antiguidade e Idade Média, onde as crianças eram sujeitas a constantes maus-tratos, sendo prevalentes os maus-tratos físicos, abuso sexual e o trabalho infantil, progredindo até à Idade Moderna, onde a criança passa a ser vista como um ser com características particulares e merecedor de cuidados especiais. Aborda-se de forma breve as tipologias de maus-tratos na atualidade e as variações culturais.ConclusãoTorna-se fulcral compreender o impacto que os maus-tratos têm vindo ao longo da histórico e que continuam a ter na atualidade, sendo fundamental a considerar estes aspetos nas intervenções a serem desenvolvidas nesta área, tendo em particular consideração o amplo leque de variações culturais cada vez mais presentes e evidentes.

  6. Percepción de trato digno de usuarias que acuden al servicio de interrupción legal del embarazo (ILE)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Becerril, Martha Lilia; Ramírez Alba, Atalia; Ramírez, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Las mujeres embarazadas que desean interrumpir su embarazo de forma voluntaria deben recibir un trato digno durante su atención. El Trato Digno incluye saludo amable, presentación del personal de salud, hablar a la paciente por su nombre, explicación e información de procedimientos a realizar, salvaguardar la intimidad, trato respetuoso, y la satisfacción del paciente con respecto al trato del personal que le atendió. Objetivo: Evaluar la percepción que tienen las usuarias del cumplimiento de...

  7. Identificacao e Notificacao dos Maus-tratos Infantis no Setor Educacional

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    Marina Rezende Bazon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos conhecer: (a o que pensam os profissionais da educação com relação à notificação dos maus-tratos infantis; (b o que fazem frente a esses casos; (c suas alegações para não notificar. Participaram 22 diretores/coordenadores e 139 professores de escolas públicas de duas cidades do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Empregaram-se um questionário para a caracterização sociodemográfica e dos conhecimentos sobre o tema e uma questão aberta sobre o ato de notificar. A análise de dados, quantitativo-interpretativa, indicou que a maioria dos professores teve contato com casos suspeitos de maus-tratos que, majoritariamente, foram comunicados à direção; esta com maior frequência decidiu por não notificar, mas por tentar resolver a situação, conversando com os envolvidos e/ou encaminhando-os para tratamento. As principais razões para não notificar foram o medo e a falta de confiança no sistema de proteção. Desse modo, estão deixando de desempenhar o devido papel no sistema de proteção infantil.

  8. Desenvolvimento do trato digestivo de bezerros leiteiros criados em sistema de aleitamento fracionado

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    Rafael A. Azevedo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o efeito do sistema de aleitamento fracionado no desenvolvimento ruminal de bezerros leiteiros holandeses, foram utilizados 12 animais, com peso corporal inicial médio de 37,0 kg, alojados individualmente em baias. O tratamento convencional constituiu-se de quatro litros de leite diários durante 60 dias e o fracionado, de seis litros do 6º ao 25º dia; quatro litros dos dias 26 a 45 e dois litros de 46 a 59 dias de vida, além de concentrado, feno de Cynodon sp., água e suplemento mineral, oferecidos livremente. O consumo dos alimentos foi monitorado diariamente e os animais, pesados semanalmente, após o fornecimento da dieta líquida, pela manhã. Aos 60 dias de vida, os animais foram abatidos e realizaram-se pesagens do trato digestivo e medidas histológicas das papilas ruminais. O sistema de aleitamento não interferiu significativamente no consumo de concentrado, de feno, de matéria seca total e no peso corporal final vazio. O aleitamento fracionado resultou em maior peso corporal final, pesos absolutos do trato digestivo, do ruminorretículo, do omaso e dos intestinos, de pesos relativos do omaso e dos intestinos e maior índice mitótico das papilas ruminais. O sistema de aleitamento fracionado pode ser alternativa para melhorar o desenvolvimento ruminal e o desempenho de bezerros.

  9. O uso de vacinas na profilaxia das infecções do trato urinário

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    José Carlos Carraro-Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O trato urinário é o sítio mais comum de infecção bacteriana. As infecções do trato urinário (ITU recorrentes em mulheres sem anormalidades anatômicas do trato urinário demandam uso frequente e repetido de antibióticos, aumentando a prevalência de micro-organismos resistentes aos antimicrobianos. A possibilidade de abordagem alternativa, com a utilização de vacinas produzidas a partir de bactérias inativadas ou componentes estruturais desses micro-organismos, é uma realidade palpável. Confirmando resultados observados experimentalmente, estudos clínicos controlados têm mostrado redução dos episódios de recorrência, sem efeitos colaterais significativos, com imunoterapia oral ou vaginal. Nesta revisão, foram apresentados os mecanismos de agressão e defesa envolvidos na gênese das infecções urinárias em mulheres com trato urinário normal, a evolução do conhecimento sobre a imunoterapia nas ITU e as vacinas já disponíveis ou em desenvolvimento para o tratamento dessa importante condição clínica.

  10. Resiliência e maus-tratos à criança

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    Junqueira Maria de Fátima Pinheiro da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe discutir o conceito de resiliência a partir de uma revisão crítica. Foram priorizados textos produzidos por órgãos que têm um papel direcionador no campo da saúde da criança e do adolescente (OPAS - Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde; ASBRA - Associação Brasileira de Adolescência. Discute-se as principais definições de resiliência. São debatidas as contribuições e limitações das leituras vigentes. Debate-se ainda, as possibilidades conceituais e operativas da resiliência frente às situações de maus-tratos contra criança e adolescente, tomando o exemplo do abuso sexual intrafamiliar. Conclui-se que o conceito de resiliência apresenta polarizações em torno de certos eixos: "adaptação/superação", "inato/adquirido", "permanente/circunstancial". Contudo, ele aponta para um ponto comum: a singularidade e a delicadeza das relações microssociais de promoção em saúde.

  11. Vascularização arterial do trato gastrointestinal da Trachemys scripta elegans, Wied, 1838

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    Rosângela Felipe Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos a irrigação do esôfago, ventrículo gástrico, pâncreas e intestinos de 30 tartarugas da espécie Trachemys scripta elegans injetados com substância látex, onde evidenciamos duas aorta, sendo aorta direita e esquerda, que em 100,00% dos casos apresenta um trato anastomótico entre elas, ao nível da emergência da artéria celíaca. A artéria mesentérica cranial é responsável pela irrigação do jejuno, íleo, ceco, colo ascendente, colo transverso em 100,00% dos casos. Já a artéria mesentérica caudal origina-se da artéria ilíaca interna no antímero direito, em 26 preparações (86,60%, e no antímero esquerdo em 03 casos (13,30%. Em 01 preparação (3,30% a artéria mesentérica caudal, no antímero direito, origina-se a partir das artérias ilíacas direita e esquerda.

  12. Maus-tratos a idosos: revisão integrativa da literatura

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    Annelissa Andrade Virgínio de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou identificar, a partir de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, o conhecimento científico produzido entre 2005 e 2009, sobre maus-tratos contra idosos. Para tal, foram selecionados dezesseis estudos nos bancos LILACS e SciELO e na base BDENF. Dentre os dezesseis estudos, 56,25% compreendiam artigos originais. O periódico que mais publicou foi o Caderno de Saúde Pública (25%, sendo a maioria dos estudos desenvolvidos no Sudeste (56,25%. O levantamento revelou que a violência física foi predominante entre os idosos, sendo o domicílio o ambiente onde frequentemente ocorre a agressão, sendo os familiares os principais agressores. Entre os idosos agredidos, observou-se que as mulheres são as vítimas mais acometidas. Esses achados suscitam o desenvolvimento de outras pesquisas que possam clarificar as múltiplas dimensões da violência contra o idoso.

  13. Digestive tract microbiota in healthy volunteers Microbiota no trato digestivo em voluntários saudáveis

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    Bruno Zilberstein

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to standardize the methods of sample collection of mucus from the digestive tract and to determine the microbiota in healthy volunteers from Brazil, collecting samples from the mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum. METHODS: Microbiota of selected healthy volunteers from the oral cavity (n=10, the esophagus (n=10, the upper digestive tract (n=20, and the lower digestive tract (n=24 were evaluated through distinct collection methods. Collection methods took into account the different sites, using basic scraping and swabbing techniques, stimulated saliva from the oral cavity, irrigation-aspiration with sterile catheters especially designed for the esophagus, a probe especially designed for upper digestive tract, and a special catheter for the lower digestive tract. RESULTS: (i Mixed microbiota were identified in the oral cavity, predominantly Gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic cocci; (ii transitional flora mainly in the esophagus; (iii Veillonella sp, Lactobacillus sp, and Clostridium sp in the stomach and duodenum; (iv in the jejunum and upper ileum, we observed Bacteroides sp, Proteus sp, and Staphylococcus sp, in addition to Veillonella sp; (v in the colon, the presence of "nonpathogenic" anaerobic bacteria Veillonella sp (average 10(5 UFC indicates the existence of a low oxidation-reduction potential environment, which suggests the possibility of adoption of these bacteria as biological markers of total digestive tract health. CONCLUSIONS: The collection methods were efficient in obtaining adequate samples from each segment of the total digestive tract to reveal the normal microbiota. These procedures are safe and easily reproducible for microbiological studies.OBJETIVO: Padronizar os métodos de coleta do muco do trato digestivo e determinar a microbiota, em voluntários saudáveis no Brasil, coletando amostras da boca, esôfago, estômago, duodeno, jejunos e íleo, c

  14. Gastrintestinal helminths of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Linnaeus, 1766 in Cattle Breeding Farm in the area of the Ecological Reserve of Taim, Rio Grande

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    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was we observe the prevalence, intensity and mean intensity of theinfection by gastrintestinal helminths in capybaras. The helminths collected resulted in the following relationship with their respective prevalence and mean intensities of infection: Strongyloides sp. - 62.55% and 168.67; Protozoophaga obesa - 95.83% and 2698.26; Vianella hydrochoeri - 70.83% and 83.82; Hydrochoerisnema anomalobursata - 58.33% and 57.86; Capillaria hydrochoeri - 83.33% and 35.25; Trichuris spp. - 50.00% and 36.58; Hippocrepis hippocrepis - 62.50% and 22.40; Taxorchis schistocotyle - 12.50% and 2.33; Hydrochoeristrema cabrali - 45.83% and 10.73; Monoecocestus hydrochoeri - 50,00% and 28.25 and Monoecocestus jacobi - 41.67% and 5.40. The helminths M. hydrochoeri, Strongyloides sp., Trichuris spp., H. hippocrepis and H. cabrali showed a statistical differences between ages in the mean intensity of parasitism, and the first two presented higher values for the young animals and the last three for the adults.Com o objetivo de observar a prevalência, intensidade e intensidade média de infecção de helmintos gastrintestinais de capivaras foram estudados 24 animais na Granja Santa Maria, região do Banhado do Taim, Município de Rio Grande, RS. As espécies de helmintos coletadas resultaram na seguinte relação, com suas respectivas prevalências e intensidades médias de infecção: Strongyloides sp. - 62,5% e 168,67; Protozoophaga obesa - 95,83% e 2698,26; Vianella hydrochoeri - 70,83% e 83,82; Hydrochoerisnema anomalobursata - 58,33% e 57,86; Capillaria hydrochoeri - 83,33% e 35,25; Trichuris spp. - 50,00% e 36,58; Hippocrepis hippocrepis - 62,50 e 22,40; Taxorchis schistocotyle - 12,50% e 2,33; Hydrochoeristrema cabrali - 45,83% e 10,73; Monoecocestus hydrochoeri - 50,00% e 28,25 e Monoecocestus jacobi - 41,67% e 5,40. Os helmintos M. hydrochoeri, Strongyloides sp., Trichuris spp., H. hippocrepis e H. cabrali diferiram estatisticamente entre

  15. Resiliência e maus-tratos à criança Resilience and child abuse

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    Maria de Fátima Pinheiro da Silva Junqueira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe discutir o conceito de resiliência a partir de uma revisão crítica. Foram priorizados textos produzidos por órgãos que têm um papel direcionador no campo da saúde da criança e do adolescente (OPAS - Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde; ASBRA - Associação Brasileira de Adolescência. Discute-se as principais definições de resiliência. São debatidas as contribuições e limitações das leituras vigentes. Debate-se ainda, as possibilidades conceituais e operativas da resiliência frente às situações de maus-tratos contra criança e adolescente, tomando o exemplo do abuso sexual intrafamiliar. Conclui-se que o conceito de resiliência apresenta polarizações em torno de certos eixos: "adaptação/superação", "inato/adquirido", "permanente/circunstancial". Contudo, ele aponta para um ponto comum: a singularidade e a delicadeza das relações microssociais de promoção em saúde.The article discusses the resilience concept from a critical review. It prioritizes texts produced by organizations with leading roles in the field of child and adolescent health (PAHO, Pan-American Health Organization; ASBRA, the Brazilian Association for Adolescence. The main definitions of resilience are discussed, along with a debate on the contributions and limitations of the current literature. Furthermore, the conceptual and operative possibilities of resilience when confronted with child abuse are discussed, specifically using intra-familial sexual abuse as an example. The authors conclude that the concept of resilience presents polarization around certain axes: "adaptation/overcoming process", "innate/acquired", "permanent/circumstantial". However, they all point to a common ground: the singularity and delicacy of micro-social health-promoting relationships.

  16. Efeitos da Salmonella Enteritidis experimentalmente inoculada na saúde gastrintestinal de perus Effects of experimentally inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis on the gastrointestinal health of turkeys

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    Carla Yoko Tanikawa de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de Salmonella Enteritidis sobre a colonização e o desenvolvimento do trato intestinal, a conversão alimentar e o ganho de peso em perus. Um total de 135 perus de corte de 1 dia foi distribuído em três tratamentos: controle; perus oriundos de ovos inoculados com Salmonella Enteritidis via casca e perus desafiados com água de bebida com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aos 10, 20 e 28 dias, avaliaram-se as variáveis de desempenho e coletaram-se amostras para avaliação bacteriana, biometria e histomorfometria. Realizaram-se também, nos dias 1, 15 e 28 de idade, coletas de mecônio/excretas de todas as aves. A colonização intestinal aumentou durante a fase inicial quando Salmonella foi inoculada via casca. O intestino apresentou maior peso ao 1º, 10º e 28º dias quando Salmonella esteve presente, sem diferença no comprimento. Salmonella Enteritidis foi capaz de colonizar o trato intestinal, estabelecer infecção, reduzir o desempenho das aves e modificar as estruturas celulares do intestino. A contaminação da casca do ovo antes da incubação propiciou a ocorrência de infecções ao nascimento, e a frequência de isolamento de Salmonella Enteritidis persistiu até 28 dias de idade. A inoculação de Salmonella pela água de bebida gerou aves infectadas, porém com menor nível de infecção com o avançar da idade. O desempenho de aves inoculadas com Salmonella Enteritidis é menor e isso confirma potenciais prejuízos para a produção avícola.The effects of Salmonella Enteritidis on the colonization and development of the intestinal tract, feed conversion and weight gain were evaluated. A total of 135 day old turkeys were assigned to three treatments: control; turkeys from eggs inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis via shell and turkeys challenged with drinking water with Salmonella Enteritidis. At 10, 20 and 28 days, the performance variables were evaluated and samples were collected to perform bacterial

  17. Maus-tratos contra idosos no município de Camaragibe, Pernambuco Elder abuse in Camaragibe, Pernambuco

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    Victor Lopes de Melo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever a situação de maus-tratos contra idosos no município de Camaragibe, na região metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo de corte transversal com uma amostra representativa da população idosa do município, e submetida a questionário previamente elaborado conforme os objetivos do estudo. RESULTADOS: dos 315 idosos, 95,4% estavam na sexta e sétima década de vida, 65,2% eram mulheres e recebiam até dois salários mínimos (91,4%, 87,5% tinham casas próprias, com deficiente esgotamento sanitário (84,1% e baixo grau de escolaridade (97,1%. Sessenta e seis referiram sofrer maus-tratos. Desses, 65,2% eram do sexo feminino. O tipo de violência mais comum foi a psicológica (62,1%, seguida da física (31,8%, cometidas pelos próprios familiares dentro do próprio domicílio. As mulheres foram mais agredidas que os homens. 71,3% reagiram passivamente não sabendo a que órgão denunciar. No seu entendimento a comunidade era indiferente ao problema. CONCLUSÕES: os maus-tratos contra idosos apresentam-se como problema relevante para a saúde pública. Medidas educativas poderiam ser implementadas para esclarecê-los sobre direitos, facilitar a denúncia e a obtenção de apoio ou ajuda.OBJECTIVES: to describe the situation of abuse against the elderly in the municipality of Camaragibe, in the metropolitan region of Recife, Pernambuco. METHODS: cross sectional study with a representative sample of the elderly population in the municipality, subject to abuse and respondents to a previously designed questionnaire according to the objectives of the study. RESULTS: of the 315 elderly, 95.4% were in the sixth and seventh decade of life and 65.2% were women and received up to two minimum wages (91.4%, were house owners (87.5%, living in neighborhoods with deficient sewage systems (84.1% and low education level (97.1%. Seventy six claimed they were abused. Among these 65.2% were females. The most common type

  18. UN DEBATE EN TORNO AL TRATO PREFERENCIAL: LA REIVINDICACIÓN DEL DERECHO A LA IGUALDAD DE TRATO Y NO DISCRIMINACIÓN DEL COLECTIVO DE DESPLAZADOS POR EL CONFLICTO ARMADO INTERNO

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    Paula Andrea Ramírez Monsalve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La violación masiva y sistemática de los derechos constitucionales fundamentales al colectivo de desplazados por parte de los actores vinculados al conflicto armado interno, no deja de ser un fenómeno que hoy exige, más que nunca, de un profundo análisis que ayude a dimensionar dinámicas de cambio frente a la forma como el Estado interviene y regula, aun considerando la atención especial, la protección y reivindicación de sus derechos constitucionales fundamentales. Particularmente su derecho a la igualdadde trato y no discriminación. Es aquí donde la atención de la población desplazada, a través de políticas públicas en materia de discriminación positiva, protagoniza de manera coyuntural un quehacer jurídico que tiende a discriminar al ya discriminado.

  19. Estudo da mcrobiota fúngica gastrintestinal de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera da região noroeste do estado de São Paulo: potencial zoonótico

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    Luciano Nery Tencate

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Os morcegos são hospedeiros de uma rica diversidade de microrganismos. Muitos trabalhos apontam uma estreita ligação entre quirópteros e fungos com potencial patogênico, principalmente por habitarem ambientes como cavernas, grutas e ocos de árvores, favoráveis à manutenção e propagação dos fungos. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a microbiota fúngica gastrintestinal de morcegos. Das 98 amostras pertencentes a 11 espécies de morcegos procedentes de 15 cidades estudadas, 20% são da espécie Carollia perspicillata, 19% Artibeus lituratus, 17% Molossus rufus, 13% Glossophaga soricina, 9% Nyctinomops macrotis, 8% Molossus molossus, 7% Desmodus rotundus, 2% Lasiurus ega, e 1% Eptesicus furinalis, Myotis nigricans e Tadarida brasiliensis. O gênero Aspergillus sp. foi isolado de 29% das amostras, seguidos por 6% Microsporum sp. e Penicillium sp., 4% Tricophyton sp. e zigomicetos e 2% Fusarium sp. Das espécies de leveduras, 14% foram de Rhodotorula sp., 10% Candida sp. e 2% Cryptococcus sp., 22% dos isolados permaneceram sem identificação. Todos os 82 cultivos de vísceras foram negativos para Histoplasma capsulatum. Houve associação estatística significativa entre os resultados do cultivo microbiológico e as espécies de morcegos (p < 0,05. Concluímos que os morcegos podem atuar como agentes veiculadores de fungos com potencial patogênico, entretanto outros trabalhos devem ser realizados a fim de estabelecer estratégias que permitam identificar os principais fatores correlacionados com o crescimento e a disseminação dos microrganismos na natureza e qual a implicação dos quirópteros no ciclo epidemiológico.

  20. Abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica na infecção do trato urinário: ITU

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    Heilberg Ita Pfeferman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores revisam aspectos recentes no diagnóstico e no tratamento clínico de infecção do trato urinário. As diferentes formas de apresentação da ITU como cistite, pielonefrite, síndrome uretral bem como a relevância clínica da bacteriúria assintomática, contaminação e bacteriúria de baixa contagem são comentadas. Abordam-se os aspectos fisiopatogênicos relacionados à virulência da bactéria e também os fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro à ITU como obstrução do trato urinário, refluxo vesico-ureteral, cateterização urinária, gravidez, diabetes mellitus, atividade sexual, métodos contraceptivos, prostatismo, menopausa, idade avançada e transplante renal. Os critérios diagnósticos de ITU e os principais exames laboratoriais utilizados na diferenciação entre ITU do trato urinário baixo ou alto foram revistos. Os autores concluem que é importante a compreensão destes diferentes aspectos no manuseio e também na prevenção da recorrência em pacientes com ITU e que os diferentes esquemas terapêuticos estabelecidos de acordo com grupos específicos de pacientes com ITU maximizam os benefícios terapêuticos, além de reduzir os custos e as incidências de efeitos adversos.

  1. Protocolo de perícia em bem-estar animal para diagnóstico de maus-tratos contra animais de companhia

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    Janaina Hammerschmidt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As decisões judiciais sobre casos de maus-tratos contra animais podem ser subsidiadas por laudos de peritos em bem-estar animal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi adaptar protocolos de diagnóstico de bem-estar animal para a identificação de maus-tratos contra animais de companhia. O protocolo é composto por quatro conjuntos de indicadores: nutricionais, de conforto, sanitários e comportamentais, os quais devem ser classificados em inadequados, regulares e adequados. As decisões finais para cada conjunto de indicadores devem ser integradas em um único resultado, o qual será o grau final de bem-estar. O protocolo utiliza uma forma de integração simplificada, baseada em limites para a inclusão em cada um dos cinco graus de bem-estar, descritos como: muito baixo, baixo, regular, alto e muito alto. Graus de bem-estar baixo e muito baixo são considerados inaceitáveis e devem ser descritos como maus-tratos. Grau de bem-estar regular é considerado aceitável se medidas corretivas forem asseguradas. Graus de bem-estar alto e muito alto são considerados desejáveis para o bem-estar animal. O protocolo permite a diferenciação do grau de bem-estar em escala compatível para a decisão em relação à ocorrência de maus-tratos. Nós esperamos que o refinamento das formas de identificação de crimes contra animais, especialmente nos casos nos quais não existem lesões físicas, juntamente com um protocolo padronizado, possam aprimorar a percepção do sofrimento animal, além de facilitar o trabalho de campo das pessoas envolvidas nestas investigações, oferecendo assim uma contribuição para incrementar o bem-estar animal, por meio de ações adequadas e de redução da criminalidade.

  2. Aspectos orofaciais dos maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica Orofacial aspects of childhood abuse and dental negligence

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    Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino Massoni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar os principais aspectos orofaciais dos maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica, contribuindo com a identificação destas vítimas no ambiente odontológico. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados Adolec, MEDLINE, LILACS e BBO. Utilizaram-se como descritores: maus-tratos infantis, manifestações bucais, odontólogos, papel (figurativo e responsabilidade legal. Verificou-se que os maus-tratos infantis acontecem em geral em domicílio e os ferimentos orofaciais decorrentes incluem trauma, queimaduras e lacerações dos tecidos duros e moles, marcas de mordida e hematomas em vários estágios de cura. Pode haver ferimentos que envolvem outras partes do corpo próximas à cavidade bucal, como hematoma periorbital e contusão nasal. Quanto ao abuso sexual, muitas vítimas não apresentam nenhum sinal físico associado; assim, indicadores comportamentais devem ser observados. A imediata identificação e o relato de maus-tratos infantis e da negligência odontológica pelo cirurgião-dentista são essenciais para a proteção das crianças, sendo fundamental uma maior atuação destes profissionais, através do registro e denúncia dos casos suspeitos às agências de proteção à criança.The aim of this paper was to identify the main oral and dental aspects of childhood abuse and dental neglect, contributing to the identification of these victims in a dental office. A bibliographic research was carried out, in ADOLEC, MEDLINE, LILACS and BBO databases. The following key words were used: child abuse, oral manifestations, dentists; role; liability, legal. It was verified that violence against children happens in general at home and the resulting orofacial injuries encompass: injuries, burns and lacerations on soft and hard tissues, bite marks and gradually-healed wounds. It can have wounds in other parts of the body next to the oral cavity, such as periorbital wound and nasal

  3. Violência denunciada: ocorrências de maus tratos contra crianças e adolescentes registradas em uma unidade policial

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    Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo objetiva verificar o perfil da ocorrência de maus-tratos contra crianças e adolescentes. Foram analisados os dados registrados nas ocorrências policiais da Delegacia de Defesa da Mulher de Araçatuba-SP, no ano de 2008, relativos à agressão; relação vítima-agressor; características sociodemográficas de agressores e vítimas e procura das vítimas por serviço de saúde. Dentre as denúncias feitas, houve uma maior prevalência de maus tratos físicos, sendo a residência o local de maior incidência de agressões. Na maioria das vezes, o agressor era a mãe da criança, sendo o motivo não relatado, na maior parte dos casos. Desse modo, podemos delinear o perfil das ocorrências violentas contra criança, contribuindo para a visualização, conhecimento e enfrentamento do problema.

  4. Un análisis interseccional sobre malos tratos y violencia laboral en mujeres que ejercen la prostitución

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    PILAR RODRÍGUEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un análisis cualitativo sobre violencias contra las mujeres (malos tratos en el ámbito doméstico y violencia laboral, tomando como sujeto de investigación una muestra cualitativa de 12 mujeres?autóctonas y migrantes- que ejercen la prostitución de bajo standing en Almería. El estudio ha sido diseñado a partir del enfoque interseccional, multi-nivel y focalizado en las perspectivas de grupos que experimentan múltiples discriminaciones. Los resultados arrojan que la violencia tiene efectos en la identidad de las mujeres. También se pone de manifiesto que en las trayectorias de las mujeres se han producido diferentes webs de violencias, que llevan a interpretar los malos tratos de distinto modo. Por último, se analiza cómo la edad, nivel de estudios y, sobre todo, el estigma social, se relacionan con la posibilidad de sufrir violencia en el trabajo, y con su percepción de la actividad que desarrollan.

  5. Preservation of the olfactory tract in bifrontal craniotomy Preservação do trato olfatório em craniotomias bifrontais

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    Paulo H. Aguiar

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The bifrontal craniotomy approach used to be associated with a high percentage of olfactory tract damage. We present our experience with this technique, that was used with excellent results in a series of 11 patients that underwent the surgical approach described in this paper. We support the idea that bilateral subfrontal craniotomy allows a wide operative exposure as well as the complete anatomic and functional preservation of the olfactory tracts bilaterally.A craniotomia bifrontal costumava estar associada com alta incidência de lesão do trato olfatório. Apresentamos nossa experiência com técnica que foi usada com excelentes resultados numa série de 11 pacientes que foram submetidos à abordagem cirúrgica descrita neste estudo. Defendemos a idéia de que a craniotomia bilateral subfrontal permite uma exposição cirúrgica ampla bem como a completa preservação anatômica e funcional dos tratos olfatórios bilateralmente.

  6. Barreiras, para a notificação pelo pediatra, de maus-tratos infantis Barriers for reporter of child abuse by pediatricians

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    Joelza M. Pires

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar os fatores que interferem na notificação de maus-tratos infantis, pelos pediatras, aos serviços de proteção à criança. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional transversal. Uma amostra aleatória de pediatras de Porto Alegre foi selecionada entre 990 inscritos na sociedade de pediatria local. Variáveis sócio-demográficas, formação profissional, conhecimento diante de casos de maus-tratos infantis foram obtidos através de questionário anônimo. Análises descritiva e multivariada foram utilizadas para determinar os fatores associados a não notificação. RESULTADOS: foram incluídos 97 pediatras dos quais 92 concordaram em participar do estudo. Oitenta identificaram casos de maus-tratos, e destes 63 notificaram ao menos um caso. A maioria revelou medo de envolver-se legalmente, apresentou nível suficiente de conhecimento e baixo grau de confiança nos órgãos de proteção à criança. Conhecimento insuficiente (OR = 3,94, trabalhar exclusivamente no setor privado (OR = 6,33 foram fatores associados a não notificação. Após ajustes, o conhecimento insuficiente foi significativamente associado com o resultado OR = 5,06 (IC95% = 1,45 - 17,59. CONCLUSÕES: verificou-se uma alta taxa de identificação e notificação, pelo pediatra, de maus-tratos infantis. Programas de educação continuada, melhoria dos serviços de proteção, suporte técnico profissional para o setor privado podem aumentar a taxa de identificação e notificação de maus-tratos.OBJECTIVES: to determine factors interfering with the reporting of child abuse by pediatricians to children protection services. METHODS: cross sectional observation study. A random sample of pediatricians from Porto Alegre was selected among the 990 registered in the local pediatrician's society. Social and demographic variables, professional background, knowledge concerning child abuse were obtained through the application of anonymous questionnaires. Descriptive and

  7. Trato a los usuarios en los servicios públicos de salud en México The treatment received by public health services users in Mexico

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    Esteban Puentes Rosas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Documentar que las diferencias en el trato recibido por los usuarios de los servicios de salud en México dependen principalmente del proveedor, independientemente de las condiciones socioeconómicas de los usuarios. MÉTODOS: Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta aplicada a 18 018 usuarios que asistieron a 73 servicios de salud de 13 estados de México. Los usuarios debían calificar la forma en que la institución se había desempeñado en siete de los ocho dominios del trato adecuado de los usuarios (autonomía, confidencialidad, comunicación, trato respetuoso, condiciones de las instalaciones básicas, acceso a redes de apoyo social y capacidad de elección. En el cuestionario se presentaron viñetas para valorar las expectativas de los usuarios. Se aplicó un modelo probit ordinal compuesto con la percepción sobre la calidad de cada uno de los dominios del trato adecuado como variable dependiente y el sexo, la escolaridad, la edad, el tipo de proveedor y las expectativas de los usuarios como variables de control. RESULTADOS: El principal factor que determinó la percepción de los usuarios sobre el trato que recibieron en los servicios de salud en México fue el proveedor. Las instituciones de seguridad social mostraron el peor desempeño, mientras que los servicios del programa destinado a la población rural (IMSS Oportunidades recibieron las mejores calificaciones. En general, el dominio mejor calificado fue el trato respetuoso, mientras que la menor calificación se asignó a la capacidad de elección del proveedor. Los hombres consideraron haber tenido mejor comunicación que las mujeres, mientras que el trato respetuoso, la comunicación y el apoyo social tuvieron una asociación significativa inversa con respecto al nivel educacional (P OBJECTIVE: To document the fact that differences in the treatment received by health services users in Mexico are mainly dependent on the type of provider, regardless of the users

  8. Impacto de uma abordagem interdisciplinar em crianças e adolescentes com disfunção do trato urinário inferior (DTUI

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    Roberta Vasconcellos Menezes de Azevedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A disfunção do trato urinário inferior (DTUI corresponde a alterações no enchimento ou esvaziamento de urina de causas neurogênicas, anatômicas e funcionais. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto do tratamento em crianças e adolescentes com DTUI. Métodos: Coorte histórica de 15 anos de seguimento com participação de 192 pacientes (123F, 69M com idade inicial de 0,1 a 16,8 anos, analisados à admissão (T0 e ao final do seguimento (T1. A maioria dos pacientes era do grupo neurológico (60,4%. O tratamento instituído foi a uroterapia com intervenção comportamental e cognitiva, micção de hora marcada, hidratação oral, dieta laxativa, biofeedback, eletroestimulação sacral, cateterismo vesical intermitente limpo (CIL, terapia anticolinérgica, enema retal, tratamento da infecção do trato urinário (ITU e, nos casos refratários, procedimentos cirúrgicos, tais como a derivação urinária continente e incontinente (vesicostomia, ampliação vesical e conduto para a realização do enema anterógrado cólico. Resultados: Os principais sintomas foram incontinência urinária diurna (82,3%, enurese noturna não monossintomática (78,6%, incontinência fecal (54,2% e constipação intestinal (47,9%. Detectou-se redução significativa da infecção do trato urinário (p = 0,0027, da incontinência urinária diurna (p < 0,001, da enurese noturna (p < 0,001, da incontinência fecal (p = 0,010 e do refluxo vesicoureteral (p = 0,01. Houve aumento significativo no uso do CIL (p = 0,021, da terapia com anticolinérgico (p < 0,001 e diminuição da quimioprofilaxia (p < 0,001. Conclusão: Este estudo mostrou que o tratamento da DTUI na criança deve ser individualizado, além de requerer uma monitorização constante dos parâmetros clínicos, laboratoriais e de imagem, para minimizar o risco de lesão renal.

  9. Perfil das infecções do trato urinário em idosos hospitalizados na Unidade de Geriatria do Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS = Urinary tract infections profile of the hospitalized elderly in a Geriatric Ward

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    Dallacorte, Roberta Rigo

    2007-01-01

    Conclusões: Escherichia coli foi o germe mais associado a infecções do trato urinário nos idosos hospitalizados na Unidade de Geriatria do Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS. Nessa população, a taxa de resistência bacteriana a fluorquinolonas foi elevada

  10. Maus-tratos na infância e adolescência: conhecimento e atitude de profissionais de saúde

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    Massoni, Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino; Almeida, Maria Aldenize Neves Freitas; Martins, Cássio Gadelha; Firmino, Ramon Targino; Garcia, Ana Flávia Granville-

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Verificar o conhecimento e as atitudes dos profissionais de saúde cadastrados na equipe da Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF) e do Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família (NASF) do município de Patos, PB, sobre os casos suspeitos de maus-tratos na infância e na adolescência. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo  transversal, realizado com 200 profissionais que responderam a um questionário sobre o tema investigado. Foi realizada estatística descritiva e inferencial, utilizando-se o Teste Qui-qu...

  11. Prevalência da microbiota no trato digestivo de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae provenientes do campo

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    Oliveira Sandra Maria Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram dissecados o trato digestivo de 245 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis originários da Gruta da Lapinha, Município de Lagoa Santa, MG, formando 7 grupos de 35 flebotomíneos. Das 8 espécies de bactérias isoladas houve uma predominância de bactérias Gram negativas (BGN pertencentes ao grupo de não fermentadoras de açúcar das seguintes espécies: Acinetobacter lowffii, Stenotrophomonas maltophhilia, Pseudomonas putida e Flavimonas orizihabitans. No grupo das fermentadoras tivemos: Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella ozaenae. No grupo dos Gram positivos foram identificados Bacillus thuringiensis e Staphylococcus spp.

  12. Expressão imuno-histoquímica dos marcadores pcna, KI67 e p53 em carcinomas epidermóides do trato aerodigestivo superior

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    João Paulo Esposito

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os carcinomas epidermóides do trato aerodigestivo superior são tumores de comportamento biológico heterogêneo. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar se a expressão imuno-histoquímica dos marcadores Ki67, PCNA e P53 apresenta correlações com parâmetros prognósticos clínico-patológicos. MÉTODOS: Determinação da expressão imuno-histoquímica dos antígenos Ki67, PCNA e P53 em espécimes tumorais fixados e embebidos em parafina de 53 pacientes com carcinoma epidermóide em diferentes sítios primários do trato aerodigestivo superior. RESULTADOS: Os marcadores tiveram altos índices de expressão imuno-histoquímica, sendo 46,5% para o Ki67, 66,5% para o PCNA e 36,5% para o P53. Não houve correlação da expressão do Ki67 e do PCNA com o estadiamento TNM (AJCC, nem com o grau de malignidade. A expressão do Ki67 apresentou correlação positiva com a expressão do PCNA (p = 0,037. O mesmo aconteceu para o PCNA e o número de mitoses por campo (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÕES: De acordo com estes resultados, concluiu-se que a determinação da imunorreatividade dos marcadores Ki67 e PCNA é um método objetivo e quantificável para avaliar proliferação celular que pode subsidiar as informações prognósticas.

  13. Radiographic anatomy aspects and gastrointestinal transit time in Podocnemis unifilis troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Podocnemididae. = Aspectos anátomo-radiográficos e tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal em Podocnemis unifilis troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Podocnemididae

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    Fernando Moraes Machado Brito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the radiographic anatomy and determined thegastrointestinal transit time of Podocnemis unifilis. We used ten animals belonging to LAPAS from the Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The animals were orally fed with a barium sulphate suspension at 10 mL kg-1 mixed with mineral oil, at a ratio of 70% of barium sulphate for 30% of mineral oil. Afterwards, the animals underwent radiography in a dorsum ventriloquoal position, with the X-ray device adjusted at 72 Kv and 200 mA, in time intervals to follow the permanency of contrast in the organism. Five minutes after the contrast was supplied, the stomach was filled. After sixteen hours the contrast advanced to the smallintestine. In 48 hours, the whole small intestine and part of the colon were fulfilled. On the 9th day the stomach was empty and the contrast advanced to the colon. On the 11th day, the colon was totally fulfilled, and the contrast was close to cloaca. On the 18th day all contrast was eliminated by the animal. Total time for contrast elimination was, in average, 17.6 ± 2.4 days, with the minimum of 12 and maximum of 22 days, with temperature at 27ºC. The digestion of the food was slower in the duodenum, and faster in the colon-rectum, which presents lower indices of repletion.Avaliou-se aspectos anátomo-radiográficos bem como o tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal em Podocnemis unifilis. Foram utilizados 10 animais pertencentes ao Laboratório de Pesquisas em Animais Silvestres(LAPAS da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Aos animais foi administrada, por via oral, uma suspensão de sulfato de bário 10 mL kg-1 misturada com óleo mineral na proporção de 70% de sulfato de bário para 30% de óleo. Posteriormente, os animais foram radiografados dorso-ventralmente, com o aparelho de raios-X regulado para 72 Kv e 200 mA, em intervalos de tempo pré-estabelecidos. Em média, cinco

  14. Psychobiology of childhood maltreatment: effects of allostatic load? Psicobiologia dos maus-tratos na infância: efeitos de peso alostático?

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    Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    resposta alostática é excessiva ou ineficiente, o organismo desenvolve um peso alostático. A cascata de efeitos moleculares e neurobiológicos associados ao abuso e negligência na infância poderia ser um exemplo de respostas alostáticas e, dessa forma, poderia precipitar peso alostático em um organismo ainda vulnerável no seu desenvolvimento. Este artigo revisa as conseqüências psicobiológicas relacionadas com os maus-tratos na infância. MÉTODO: Uma revisão seletiva com base sistemática foi realizada na base de dados MedLine, procurando artigos em inglês que investigassem uma associação direta e explícita entre maus-tratos na infância e conseqüências psicobiológicas em humanos durante o período de 1990-2007. RESULTADOS: De 115 artigos, foram selecionados 55 estudos do MedLine e 30 de suas listas de referências, num total de 85 artigos (JCR IF: 1-31,4; mediana: 5,88. Especificamente apenas 29 estudos investigaram uma associação direta e explícita entre eles. CONCLUSÃO: Em resumo, as conseqüências estruturais dos maus-tratos na infância incluem anormalidades no desenvolvimento do corpo caloso, neocórtex esquerdo, hipocampo e amígdala; as conseqüências funcionais incluem um aumento da irritabilidade nas áreas límbicas, disfunções do lobo frontal e redução da atividade funcional do vermis cerebelar; e as conseqüências neuro-humorais englobam a reprogramação do eixo HPA e subsequentemente à resposta ao estresse.

  15. Occurrence of domestic elder abuse Ocurrencia de maltratos a los ancianos en el domicilio Ocorrência de maus-tratos em idosos no domicílio

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    Cheila Cristina Leonardo de Oliveira Gaioli

    2008-06-01

    como objetivo verificar a ocorrência de maus-tratos praticados nos domicílios contra idosos, de ambos os sexos, no ano 2006, em laudos de exame de corpo de delito e identificar os ofensores e tipos de lesões sofridas pelos mesmos, segundo a Classificação Internacional das Doenças (CID-10. A amostra constou de 87 idosos, de ambos os sexos, com idade de 60 anos ou mais, residentes no município de Ribeirão Preto, SP, que realizaram Boletim de Ocorrência nas Delegacias de Polícia, no ano 2002. Foram consultados laudos de exames de corpo de delito e a análise utilizada foi a estatística descritiva. Os maus-tratos no domicílio ocorreram com maior freqüência entre idosos do sexo masculino (58,6%, que foram ofendidos por familiares como filhos, netos, genros e noras (47,1%. Quanto ao tipo de lesões sofridas, 33,5% apresentaram traumatismo superficial não especificado de ombro e braço. Os maus-tratos em idosos estão cada vez mais evidentes na sociedade, adquirindo dimensão social e de saúde pública.

  16. Perfil epidemiológico da infecção nosocomial do trato urinário em hospital universitário de Campina Grande (PB

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    Ygor Paiva Schiel Baracuhy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A infecção do trato urinário (ITU é a infecção hospitalar mais frequente. Objetivo: Este estudo tem como objetivo categorizar e identificar aspectos relacionados à infecção nosocomial do trato urinário (ITUN no Hospital Universitário Alcides Carneiro (HUAC, em Campina Grande (PB, traçando um perfil dos pacientes com este diagnóstico durante internação de janeiro a julho de 2012 em enfermarias clínicas do hospital (clínica geral, cardiologia, endocrinologia, infectologia e pneumologia. Métodos: Foram analisados prontuários referentes a 436 internamentos. A pesquisa de base quantitativa e qualitativa se caracterizou por um estudo descritivo. As variáveis examinadas incluíram idade, sexo, enfermaria, tempo de internação, sondagem vesical de demora (SVD e sua duração, exames diagnósticos, evolução para ITUN, drogas utilizadas como terapia empírica inicial, agentes isolados em uroculturas e susceptibilidade antimicrobiana dos patógenos isolados. Resultados: Foi identificada a evolução para ITUN em 12,61% das internações, predominando entre pacientes idosos e naqueles com SVD, além da supremacia da Escherichia coli entre os patógenos isolados e sua taxa de resistência às fluoroquinolonas de 50%. Conclusão: As cepas de E. coli isoladas mostraram sensibilidade às cefalosporinas de 2ª e 3ª gerações, amicacina e meropenem. As cepas isoladas de Klebsiella pneumoniae, segundo patógeno mais frequente, foram sensíveis apenas à cefoxitina e ao meropenem. As fluoroquinolonas foram, em nossa pesquisa, as mais prescritas como terapia empírica, o que pode justificar as elevadas taxas de resistência encontradas, tornando, então, seu uso impróprio para tratamento empírico de novos casos.

  17. Estudo da utilização de antimicrobianos e outros fármacos para distúrbios do trato respiratório em pacienteso de antimicrobianos e outros fármacos para distúrbios do trato respiratório em pacientes pediátricos hospitalizados

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    L. C. Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O tratamento das doenças respiratórias requerem a utilização de antibióticos, corticosteróides e broncodilatadores. Todavia é desejável que, na pediatria, estas medicações sejam restritas e se utilize uma via de administração confortável. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização dos medicamentos do trato respiratório e antimicrobianos em pacientes pediátricos hospitalizados, por meio da análise de seus prontuários. Os dados foram coletados durante 120 dias, observando-se os medicamentos prescritos, as doses, as vias de administração e as medidas não farmacológicas prescritas. O critério de inclusão na pesquisa foi estar o paciente internado na pediatria, ter na prescrição um antimicrobiano ou medicamento para o trato respiratório. As análises dos 136 prontuários mostrou que 97,06% continham um antimicrobiano, sendo o mais prescrito ampicilina e o fenoterol e ipratrópio como broncodilatadores. Destaca-se que 21,35% das prescrições apresentaram dosagem abaixo do mínimo e em, 21,89% acima do máximo. Embora em 93,75% dos casos tenha havido prescrição de dieta por via oral, 70,59% dos pacientes tiveram prescrição de medicação por via intravenosa. Esses dados revelam o uso de doses subterapêuticas, prescrição excessiva de antimicrobianos e o uso freqüente da via parenteral que encarecem o tratamento, predispõem ao aparecimento de efeitos indesejáveis como superinfecção, prolongando o tempo de permanência no hospital. Palavras-chave: Posologia, criança hospitalizada, prescrição de medicamento, vias de administração, antimicrobianos, medicamentos do trato respiratório.

  18. Malos tratos y violencia doméstica entre los judeoconversos hispanos en el tránsito de la Edad Media a la Moderna

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    Enrique Cantera Montenegro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La lectura atenta de procesos inquisitoriales de fines del siglo XV y de los primeros decenios del XVI, permite rastrear abundantes noticias acerca del uso de los malos tratos en el seno de las familias judeoconversas españolas en el tránsito de la Edad Media a la Moderna. El recurso a la violencia doméstica es particularmente frecuente en las relaciones señores-criados, y todo permite sospechar que este tipo de actuaciones no debía ser objeto de condena social ni de sanción penal, siempre que el castigo fuera «oportuno y moderado».The careful reading of the Inquisition trials at the end of the XV century and the first decades of the XVI century, allows us to track the abundant news about the maltreatments inside the converted Spanish Jewish families in the transition of the Middle Ages to the Modern Age. The use of the domestic violence is particularly frequent in the relations lord-servant, and everything allows us to suspect that this type of behaviours did not have to be object of social condemnation nor of penal sanction, provided that the punishment was «appropriate and moderate».

  19. On Preaching in Three Plays by Cervantes: El trato de Argel, Los baños de Argel and El rufián dichoso

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    Jaume Garau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The creative genius of Cervantes was not immune to the influence that preachers wielded in Spain of the Counter-reformation. In this context, the oratorical genre is the one that exercised the greatest social influence, surpassing even the impact of popular theater, to the extent that it was a powerful contributor to the molding of ideas in the society of that time. This study analyzes the characteristic elements of what we might denominate, at certain moments of a number of the plays of Cervantes, a ‘sermon play’, along with the inherently indoctrinating function that is associated with this type of work. In some passages of El trato de Argel, El Rufián dichoso and Los baños de Argel we will also be able to observe the configuration of the discourse in a way that a rhetorician of sacred oratory, such as the Jesuit Juan Bautista Escardó ([1581]-1652, defined as a ‘tono’ or brief sermon in his Retórica cristiana (1647, a widespread practice among students of the Society of Jesus. This study also examines other themes and motifs inspired by sermons that Cervantes may have utilized in order to write certain fragments of his dramatic works, driven by the defense of Catholic doctrine that was consecrated by the Council of Trent.

  20. Buen trato a la infancia: deriva semántica en la producción científica publicada en Latinoamérica

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    Roberto Contreras-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La deriva semántica de los conceptos en la producción científica muchas veces significa una puerta de entrada para las diversas representa - ciones colectivas y su praxis consecuente. Anterior a la difusión de las palabras mismas y su asimilación en el imaginario colectivo en la vida cotidiana, cada una de ellas muestra un curso de validación dentro de la comunidad científica. El buen trato a la infancia es un concepto emergente que comienza a ser nombrado en 1997, frecuentemente asociado a prácticas de cuidado en salud o protección social, creado por oposición y en prevención al maltrato infantil. Mayormente presente en el mundo francés e hispano, esta noción logra un importante impacto en la comunidad científica latinoamericana. El propósito de este estudio es mostrar el comportamiento que presenta el desplie - gue del concepto en las principales revistas indexadas en la red de Redalyc durante los últimos quince años. Desde un análisis de orienta - ción bibliométrica del término se compara la participación de países latinoamericanos de habla hispana en la publicación de artículos que usan el término en referencia al mismo como fenómeno presente en diversos campos y disciplinas. A partir del reconocimiento de esta distribución en el tiempo, se develan los principales significados y referencias del concepto. Se espera, a partir de este mapeo, contribuir a la dilucidación y delimitación del mismo, para aportar a su validación dentro y fuera de la comunidad científica.

  1. Análise retrospectiva de denúncias de maus-tratos contra animais na região de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná, utilizando critérios de bem-estar animal

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    Janaina Hammerschmid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre seres humanos e animais deve ser positiva. No entanto, interações negativas também têm sido descritas, como os relatos de ocorrências de maus-tratos contra animais. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar o perfil de denúncias de maus-tratos contra animais registradas nas Sociedades Protetoras dos Animais de Campo Largo e de Curitiba e na Rede de Defesa e Proteção Animal de Curitiba, e analisar a pertinência da ação de profissionais capacitados em tais processos. Os elementos apurados foram espécies animais envolvidas e descrição das denúncias a fim de coletar as informações pertinentes e classificá-las de acordo com as causas e com as Cinco Liberdades. Das denúncias, 82,9% envolveram cães. As causas mais comuns foram abandono (16,2%, não fornecimento de alimento e água (15,7%, morte (14,7% e ausência de atendimento veterinário (13,5%. A maioria das ocorrências fez referência às liberdades sanitária (71,8% e nutricional (28,2%, embora a avaliação técnica tenha revelado o comprometimento comum da liberdade psicológica (93,5%. Os resultados sugerem que a colaboração de profissional capacitado em bem-estar animal pode subsidiar o aprimoramento das deliberações em casos de suspeita de maus-tratos aos animais.

  2. Análisis de desigualdades en el trato adecuado en las Unidades de Atención Primaria de los Servicios Estatales de Salud de México

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    Christian Díaz de León Castañeda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar desigualdades en el trato adecuado en la atención a pacientes sin seguridad social que utilizan servicios de salud ambulatorios en las Unidades de Atención Primaria (UAP de los servicios estatales de salud de la Secretaría de Salud, en México.Métodos: Se trata de un diseño transversal y ecológico que plantea como unidades de análisis las entidades federativas de México. Se utilizaron datos de tiempo de espera y percepción de calidad en la atención que reportaron los usuarios en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (ENSANUT 2012. Se plantearon algunos Indicadores de Trato Adecuado (ITA, y se calcularon indicadores de desigualdad sugeridos en la literatura. Asimismo, se recopilaron de la literatura Indicadores Proxy de Determinantes Sociales de la Salud (IPDSS con fines de analizar la posible asociación entre ITA e IPDSS a través de análisis de correlación y regresión (índice de efecto.Resultados: Se identificaron desigualdades en los ITA planteados entre las entidades federativas de México, principalmente en los indicadores de tiempo de espera (disparidad absoluta 52.7 min y disparidad relativa 1.9 para la media estatal en tiempo de espera. Asimismo, se identificaron asociaciones significativas entre ITA e IPDSS. Particularmente, se encontró asociación entre todos los ITA propuestos y la tasa estatal de UAP, aunque con débil índice de efecto.Conclusiones: Persisten desigualdades en el trato adecuado durante la prestación de servicios ambulatorios a población sin seguridad social. Es necesario trabajar más en subsanar desigualdades y promover la equidad en salud.

  3. Instrumentação e conhecimento dos profissionais da equipe saúde da família sobre a notificação de maus-tratos em crianças e adolescentes

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    Gracyelle Alves R. Moreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a instrumentação e o conhecimento dos profissionais da Equipe de Saúde da Família sobre a notificação de maus-tratos em crianças e adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal realizado em três municípios do Estado do Ceará, de janeiro a abril de 2012. Participaram da pesquisa 51 profissionais: médicos (9, enfermeiros (26 e cirurgiões-dentistas (16 que trabalhavam na Estratégia Saúde da Família. Utilizou-se um questionário para a coleta, e os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e analítica por meio da aplicação do teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson, sendo significante p≤0,05. RESULTADOS: Na amostra selecionada predominaram profissionais que não haviam participado de treinamento na área de violência contra crianças e adolescentes (86,3%, conheciam o Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (90,2% e conheciam a ficha de notificação de maus-tratos (62,7%. A maioria afirmou que a unidade de saúde possuía a ficha (70,5% e que sabia para qual lugar encaminhar as vítimas (82,3%. Prevaleceram os profissionais que não se depararam com situações de maus-tratos (62,8%; dos 37,2% que já tinham identificado algum caso, 60,0% relataram as ocorrências. Houve associação significante (p=0,035 entre o ato de notificar e a participação do profissional em treinamento sobre o tema. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo mostrou que os participantes têm dificuldades na notificação de maus-tratos em crianças e adolescentes. Existem lacunas no conhecimento e fragilidades na instrumentação para essa prática.

  4. Estudo comparativo dos meios de contraste baritado e iodado-iônico e não-iônico no trato respiratório de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Biondo-Simões, Maria de Lourdes Pessole; Greca, Fernando Hintz; Pedrazzani, Maurizzio; Mello Jr, Heraldo O.; Ioshii, Sérgio Ossamu; Cavalcanti, Maria Francisca Kaizu; Souza, Débora R. Voltarelli de; Kimura, Letícia Yurie

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Durante estudos radiológicos pode ocorrer a passagem do meio de contraste para a árvore traqueo-brônquica, determinando reações adversas e até fatais. O objetivo deste estudo é conhecer as alterações desencadeadas no trato respiratório pela presença do meio de contraste. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 91 ratos divididos, aleatoriamente, em 4 grupos. Um grupo de controle não manipulado com 7 animais e os demais grupos com 21 ratos. O grupo controle manipulado recebeu solução fisiológica e os...

  5. IDENTIFICAÇÃO E NOTIFICAÇÃO DE MAUS-TRATOS EM CRIANÇAS E ADOLESCENTES POR MÉDICOS DE FAMÍLIA NO CEARÁ

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    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores associados à identificação e notificação de maus-tratos em crianças e adolescentes no exercício da prática de médicos que atuam na atenção primária, assim como a influência de sua formação para essa prática. A pesquisa abrangeu 227 médicos da Estratégia Saúde da Família em municípios cearenses, nos anos de 2010 a 2012. Realizaram-se análises bivariada e multivariada por regressão logística de dados de questionários dirigidos aos participantes. A maioria referiu não ter participado de treinamento sobre o assunto na graduação (73,6%, não conhecia a ficha de notificação de violência (59% e relatou que a unidade em que trabalhava não tinha a ficha (80,5%. A maior parte também referiu não conhecer instituições de assistência à s vítimas de maus-tratos (85,6%. Dos participantes, 53,1% identificaram pelo menos um caso de maus-tratos contra criança e adolescente durante a prática profissional, e destes, 52,6% notificaram o caso. Tempo de formado, conhecimento da ficha de notificação e confiança nos órgãos de proteção estavam associados à identificação de maus-tratos. Os fatores para a notificação foram: presença da ficha de notificação na unidade e conhecimento de local para onde encaminhar as vítimas. Concluiu-se que a identificação desse problema e o manejo de sua notificação deveriam ser discutidos e orientados durante a formação médica.

  6. Atualização da abordagem de infecção do trato urinário na infância

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    Ana Cristina Simões e Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: A infecção do trato urinário (ITU é a infecção bacteriana mais comum na infância. A ITU pode ser o evento sentinela para alteração renal subjacente. Ainda há muitas controvérsias com relação ao tratamento adequado da ITU. Neste artigo de revisão, discutimos as últimas recomendações para diagnóstico, tratamento, profilaxia e imagiologia da ITU na infância, com base em comprovação e, na sua ausência, no consenso de especialistas. Fonte de dados: Os dados foram coletados após uma revisão da literatura e pesquisa no Pubmed, Embase, Scopus e Scielo. Resumo dos dados: No primeiro ano de vida, as ITUs são mais comuns em meninos (3,7% do que em meninas (2%. Os sinais e sintomas da ITU são muito inespecíficos, principalmente em neonatos e durante a infância. A febre é o único sintoma em muitos casos. Conclusões: O histórico clínico e exame físico podem sugerir ITU, porém a confirmação deve ser feita por urocultura. Antes da administração de qualquer agente antimicrobiano, deve ser feita coleta de urina. Durante a infância, a coleta de urina adequada é essencial para evitar resultados falso-positivos. O diagnóstico e o início do tratamento imediatos são importantes na prevenção de cicatriz renal de longo prazo. Neonatos febris com ITUs devem ser submetidos a ultrassonografia renal e da bexiga, Agentes antibacterianos intravenosos são recomendados para neonatos e neonatos jovens. Recomendamos também a exclusão de uropatias obstrutivas o mais rapidamente possível e posterior refluxo vesico-ureteral, caso indicado. A profilaxia deve ser considerada em casos de elevada susceptibilidade a ITU e risco elevado de danos renais.

  7. Infecções do trato urinário (ITU de cães e gatos: etiologia e resistência aos antimicrobianos

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    Vania M. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As infecções bacterianas do trato urinário (ITUs são causa comum de doença em cães, gatos e humanos. Embora bactérias Gram positivas como Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. e Enterococcus spp., possam ocasionar ITUs, as bactérias Gram negativas (Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. e Enterobacter spp. respondem por 75% dos casos. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a frequência de diferentes gêneros de bactérias em ITUs em cães e gatos, bem como a sua sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos utilizados na rotina clínica. Portanto, amostras de urina de 100 cães e gatos com sinais de ITU foram coletadas assepticamente, sofrendo avaliação microbiológica por meio de métodos qualitativos e quantitativos, além de urinálise. Todos os isolados foram submetidos a testes de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos. ITU foi confirmada em 74% dos animais, não havendo predominância quanto ao sexo. No que diz respeito à idade, 85% dos cães e 87% dos gatos tinham idades superiores a seis anos. Noventa e cinco cepas bacterianas foram isoladas, com maior frequência de Escherichia coli (55% do total dos sorogrupos O6 e O2. Constatou-se níveis elevados de resistência a antimicrobianos nas cepas isoladas. Para as cepas Gram positivas, tetraciclina (46,1%, enrofloxacina, cotrimazol e estreptomicina (42,3% cada foram as drogas com os maiores índices de resistência. Para as Gram negativas, amoxacilina e tetraciclina apresentaram percentuais acima de 50%. Multiresistência foi verificada em mais de 50% dos principais gêneros isolados. Considerando-se que as cepas de E. coli apresentam potencial zoonótico e forte participação na disseminação de resistência aos antimicrobianos, ressalta-se a importância do papel do médico veterinário na prevenção e controle das ITUs animais e sua contribuição para a saúde pública.

  8. PARÂMETROS IMUNOLÓGICOS E INFECÇÕES DO TRATO RESPIRATÓRIO SUPERIOR EM ATLETAS DE ESPORTES COLETIVOS

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    Rodrigo Dias

    Full Text Available RESUMO Entre atletas e treinadores, existe uma percepção comum de que altas cargas de treinamento e competições, aplicadas de forma crônica, com controle nutricional e/ou períodos de recuperação inadequados, podem reduzir a resistência imunológica, aumentando a predisposição aos episódios de infecções, principalmente infecções do trato respiratório superior (ITRS. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo está centrado em revisar as interações entre os parâmetros imunológicos com a síndrome do sobretreinamento, especificamente em esportes coletivos, considerando a sua natureza intermitente. Assim, foi realizada uma revisão de periódicos nacionais e internacionais relacionados com o tema. As correlações entre exercício, sistema imunológico e suscetibilidade às ITRS têm sido avaliadas principalmente em esportes individuais e de resistência em comparação aos coletivos. As modulações dos leucócitos ao longo da temporada, frente ao efeito somatório das cargas de treinamento e competições, quando analisadas especificamente quanto aos neutrófilos e monócitos, possivelmente se relacionam com os processos de reparo tecidual e incidência de ITRS. As modulações relacionadas com os linfócitos parecem estar relacionadas mais diretamente com a incidência das ITRS. Ademais, o entendimento de todos os marcadores propostos, incluindo os imunológicos em associação com os indicadores de desempenho e controle do treinamento, parece ser um caminho mais promissor para o diagnóstico clínico do estado imunológico do atleta e da prevenção da síndrome do sobretreinamento do que necessariamente a busca por um marcador exclusivo de excesso de treinamento.

  9. Ultramorphology of digestive tract of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae at final larval development/ Ultramorfologia do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no final do desenvolvimento larval

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    Luis Antônio Toledo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tract of insects is an important natural, physical, and chemical defense barrier against pathogen invasion. Certain lepidopteran caterpillars are serious pests of agricultural crops and their biology has received much attention, but little is known about the larval noctuid gut. The morphological analysis of the digestive tract in Anticarsia gemmatalis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM is a good model for studies about its defense mechanism. The material was fixed (2,5% glutaraldehyde solution; 0.1M-phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, post-fixed (1% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer, dried at critical point, gold coated and analyzed in a SEM 515-Philips. A. gemmatalis digestive tract consists of a straight duct of varying length and diameter, subdivided in three main regions: the foregut formed by the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and crop; the midgut that is the largest portion of the digestive tract without noticeable morphological differentiation along its length; and the hindgut that is morphologically differentiated in pylorus, ileum, colon, and rectum. Although the general morphology of the A. gemmatalis digestive tract is quite similar to the other Lepidoptera species, the anatomical array of the crop muscular layers is quite different comparing with the description for other larval insect.O trato digestivo dos insetos constitui uma importante barreira físico-química natural contra invasão de patógenos. Algumas larvas de lepidópteros são consideradas pragas agrícolas potenciais e sua biologia tem recebido muita atenção; no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a morfologia do sistema digestivo. A análise morfológica do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis em nível ultraestrutural é um método bastante eficaz para o estudo dos seus mecanismos de defesa. Os materiais foram fixados (solução de glutaraldeído 2,5%; 0.1M tampão fosfato, pH 7.3, pós-fixados (tetróxido de ósmio 1% no mesmo tampão, desidratados em

  10. Expressão de glicoesfingolipídeos no carcinoma espinocelular do trato aerodigestivo superior Glycosphingolipid expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract

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    Marcilio Ferreira Marques Filho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os glicoesfingolipídios (GSLs são importantes componentes da membrana celular, organizados em microdomínios, relacionados a receptores de membrana e comportamento anti-social da célula neoplásica como crescimento descontrolado, invasão e ocorrência de metástases. OBJETIVO: Como a expressão de GSLs no carcinoma espinocelular (CEC é tema pouquíssimo estudado decidiu-se realizar estudo prospectivo visando avaliar a expressão de GSLs no CEC do trato aerodigestivo superior. MÉTODO: Coletou-se 33 amostras de CEC e mucosa normal e GSLs extraídos e purificados por cromatografia de fase reversa em coluna de C-18 e hidrólise alcalina em metanol. Os GSLs foram quantificados por densitometria das placas de cromatografia de alta resolução em camada delgada coradas com orcinol. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento significativo de GSLs no CEC (3,57µg/mg em comparação à mucosa normal (1,92µg/mg, principalmente do monosialogangliosídeo (GM3, trihexosilceramida (CTH, dihexosilceramida (CDH, globosídeo (Gb4. A expressão de monohexosilceramida (CMH foi semelhante no CEC e na mucosa normal. O aumento do GM3 no CEC foi demonstrado por métodos imunoquímicos empregando-se MAb DH2 (anti-GM3. Analisando-se os carboidratos do CMH por cromatografia gasosa acoplado a espectrômetro de massa constatou-se que a mucosa normal expressa glucosilceramida e o CEC glucosilceramida e galactosilceramida. CONCLUSÃO: O aumento de GSLs no tecido tumoral pode representar alterações dos microdomínios da membrana celular resultantes do processo de transformação maligna, responsáveis por uma maior interação célula-célula e célula-matriz aumentando seu potencial de infiltração e metástase, possibilitando o emprego dos GSLs e de MAbs no diagnóstico e no tratamento do CEC, a exemplo do que ocorre no melanoma.Glycosphingolipids are integral constituents of cellular membrane, arranged in rafts, and with neoplasic cell anti-social behavior, like uncontrolled

  11. Aspectos ginecológicos e frequência de infecções do trato genital inferior em pacientes adolescentes e adultas: existem diferenças?

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    Juliana Barroso Zimmermmann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As adolescentes merecem atenção especial em saúde pública, pois ao iniciar atividade sexual se expõem aos riscos das DSTs, da gravidez indesejada, do câncer cervical e de outras doenças inflamatórias pélvicas. Objetivos: Avaliar os aspectos ginecológicos e a frequência de infecções do trato genital inferior em adolescentes. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo de caso-controle, onde foram estudadas pacientes adolescentes (n=68 e adultas (n=112 atendidas em uma clínica privada, que presta atendimento em ginecologia e obstetrícia. Excluíram-se aquelas que apresentavam qualquer tipo problema que impossibilitasse a realização dos exames necessários (sangramento genital, uso de cremes ou gel vaginal ou relação sexual em intervalo inferior a 72 horas da consulta médica e as que não assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido (TCLE. As pacientes foram submetidas à anamnese e exame físico, com coleta de material para a realização de citologia, exame a fresco e pesquisa do DNA do Papilomavírus humano (HPV, pela técnica de captura híbrida II. Quando necessário realizou-se a biópsia de colo uterino, guiada pela colposcopia. No teste de significância estatística das diferenças observadas na análise, utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado e/ou o teste T de Student, dependendo da natureza dos dados comparados. O nível de significância adotado na análise foi de 5%.                                                          Resultados: A frequência de infecção pelo HPV diagnosticada pela captura híbrida foi de 47,3% para as pacientes adultas e de 35,3% para as adolescentes (p=0,42. A frequência de neoplasia intraepitelial de alto grau foi mais frequente em pacientes adultas, mas as adolescentes apresentaram 19% de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical diagnosticada pela histopatologia. Conclusão: Identificou-se percentual elevado de neoplasia

  12. Imunoglobulinas no trato respiratório de bezerros sadios durante o primeiro mês de vida Immunoglobulin in the respiratory tract of healthy calves during their first month of life

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    Heloisa G. Bertagnon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o perfil de variação das imunoglobulinas em lavados das regiões traqueobrônquica e broncoalveolar do trato respiratório de bezerros neonatos sadios. Vinte bezerros da raça Holandesa, recém-nascidos e clinicamente sadios, receberam o colostro e foram distribuídos em dois grupos de dez animais cada. O Grupo 1 foi submetido à técnica de sondagem nasotraqueal para obtenção de lavado bronco-alveolar (LBA e o Grupo 2, à traqueocentese para colheita de lavado traqueobrônquico (LTB, sendo estes procedimentos realizados em intervalos semanais, iniciando-se nos primeiros dias pós-nascimento até, aproximadamente, um mês de vida. Verificaram-se maiores teores de IgG que IgA ao longo do trato respiratório e estas imunoglobulinas sofreram influências da região do trato respiratório lavado, bem como influência do tempo de vida dos bezerros. Pôde-se detectar maiores teores de imunoglobulinas no LTB, assim como as maiores taxas de IgM e IgA em comparação com aquelas do LBA. As imunoglobulinas do LBA tenderam a aumentar seus teores com a evolução das semanas de vida dos bezerros, enquanto tenderam a diminuir no LTB.The immunoglobulin variation profile in lavages from the broncoalveolar and tracheo-bronchial regions of 20 healthy newborn Holstein male calves was studied. They were fed with colostrum and distributed into 2 groups, 10 animals each. Group 1 underwent the nasotracheal catheterization technique to get the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, and Group 2 underwent the tracheocenthesis to collect the tracheobronchial lavage (TBL, both procedures being carried out at a 7-day-interval, starting on the first days up to about one month of life. Higher IgG contents, as compared to IgA, were noted across the respiratory tract. These immunoglobulins were impacted by the site of the respiratory tract washed, as well as by the calves' life time in weeks. Higher immunoglobulin contents were detected in TBL, as well as higher IgM and

  13. Dominant culturable bacterial microbiota in the digestive tract of the American black vulture (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 and search for antagonistic substances Microbiota bacteriana dominante cultivável no trato digestivo do urubu (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793

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    Lydston Rodrigues de Carvalho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Strict and facultative culturable anaerobic bacteria from the digestive tract of six American black vultures (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 were isolated and identified. After capture, the birds received a non-contaminated diet for one week to eliminate possible allochthonous microorganisms. Then, specimens collected from tongue, stomach and intestines were weighed, submitted to decimal dilution in an anaerobic chamber, inoculated into culture media and incubated aerobically and anaerobically at 37ºC for enumeration, isolation and identification. Isolated bacteria were submitted to tests to detect possible antagonisms between them. The total bacterial population along the digestive tract ranged from 3.46 ± 0.39 log CFU/g in the stomach to 10.75 ± 0.37 log CFU/g in the distal intestine. Some bacteria were isolated for the first time from the digestive tract of C. atratus: Actinomyces bovis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Micrococcus luteus, Neisseria sicca, Clostridium bifermentans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Peptostreptococcus sp., Sarcina sp., Serratia odorifera, and Shigella flexneri. Associations between microorganisms were observed during isolation on two occasions, one involving A. bovis and N. sicca, and the other involving A. bovis and a Gram-negative rod. Hetero-, iso- and autoantagonisms were observed, suggesting the ecological role of these indigenous microorganisms in terms of population auto-control and environmental barrier in the digestive tract of carrion-feeding birds.As bactérias anaeróbias estritas e facultativas cultiváveis do trato digestivo de seis urubus (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 foram isoladas e identificadas. Após a captura, as aves receberam uma alimentação de baixa contaminação durante uma semana para eliminar possíveis microorganismos alóctonos. A seguir, amostras colhidas na língua, estomago e intestinos foram pesadas, submetidas a diluições decimais numa câmara anaeróbia, inoculadas em meios de

  14. Digestibilidade e tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal de dietas contendo níveis crescentes de fibra bruta para pacu - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8625 Digestibility and gastrointestinal transit time of diets with increasing dietary fiber levels to pacu - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8625

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    Thiago Matias Torres Nascimento

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a digestibilidade e o tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal (TTGI de dietas contendo níveis crescentes de fibra bruta (FB para pacus. Para avaliar a digestibilidade foram utilizados 288 pacus, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, alimentados em aquários e transferidos para coletores do tipo Guelf Modificado, utilizando-se o método de coleta parcial de fezes. As rações foram marcadas com 1% de óxido de crômio para a determinação da digestibilidade das dietas. No ensaio de TTGI, 288 pacus foram distribuídos em 24 aquários em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados com rações contendo 1% óxido de titânio ou crômio, que apresentam cores diferentes, verde ou branca, respectivamente. Por meio de massagem abdominal foi averiguada periodicamente a cor das fezes, e o TTGI foi estabelecido quando as fezes de todos os peixes apresentaram cor verde. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente das dietas e o TTGI foram reduzidos com aumento do nível de FB nas dietas. Conclui-se que em dietas para pacus pode-se empregar até 9% de FB sem efeito negativo na digestibilidade da energia, proteína, matéria seca e estrato etéreo e sem alterar o TTGI.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary fiber levels on the digestibility and gastrointestinal transit time (GTT for pacu. The digestibility trial used 288 pacu in a completely randomized design, fed in aquaria and transferred to a modified Guelf-type feces collector, using the partial sampling method. The inert marker on the diets was chromic oxide (1% to establish the diet digestibility. In the GTT assay, 288 pacu were distributed in 24 aquaria in a completely randomized design. Fish were fed with two colored diets – green and white – and feces color was determined after abdominal pressure. The white and green diets used 1% of titanium and chromic oxides, respectively. Total GTT was determined when all fish showed green

  15. Estudos de mucoadesão no trato gastrointestinal para o aumento da biodisponibilidade oral de fármacos Mucoadhesion studies in the gastrointestinal tract to increase oral drug bioavailability

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    Felipe Oliveira Varum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A biodisponibilidade oral de muitos fármacos é limitada pelo tempo de residência das formas farmacêuticas ao longo do trato gastrointestinal. A mucoadesão tem sido proposta como forma de prolongar o tempo de residência em determinada zona, contribuindo para o aumento do efeito terapêutico dos fármacos. O estômago e o intestino delgado têm sido preferencialmente os alvos de estudo da mucoadesão, tendo sido observados resultados promissores em ensaios in vitro. Contudo, alguns ensaios em humanos, usando a técnica de γ-cintigrafia, têm revelado o insucesso da mucoadesão como forma de aumentar o tempo de contacto de formulações no trato gastrointestinal superior. A falta de correlação in vitro/in vivo pode ser atribuída à complexidade do trato gastrointestinal humano. Muitos dos modelos in vitro reproduzem apenas em parte as condições observadas in vivo. Outros fatores, tais como a motilidade, o pH, a espessura e a taxa de renovação de muco, presença de enzimas e alimentos, não têm sido simulados em ensaios in vitro. A taxa de renovação do muco, a sensibilidade aos estímulos secretores e a motilidade são mais baixas no cólon que no estômago e intestino delgado. Portanto, a mucoadesão no cólon poderá constituir um conceito mais bem sucedido. Contudo, são necessários mais estudos quer em modelos animais quer em humanos para avaliar o seu verdadeiro potencial. Além disso, são necessários estudos de farmacocinética para determinar a libertação e posterior absorção do fármaco a partir do sistema mucoadesivo.The oral bioavailability of many drugs can be limited by the residence time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract. Mucoadhesion has been proposed as a method to increase residence time at a specific area, hence increasing the therapeutic effect of drugs. Most research efforts on mucoadhesion have focused on the stomach and small intestine, with promising results observed from in in

  16. Professores e maus-tratos: uma revisão teórica sobre reconhecimento, denúncia e capacitação = Teachers and child maltreatment: a theoretical review of recognition, reports and capacity = Profesores y el abuso: una revisión teorica de reconocimiento, quejas y capacitación

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    Donat, Júlia Candia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho resgata teoricamente o fenômeno nos maus-tratos na infância, contemplando principalmente a dificuldade ainda presente dos professores no reconhecimento de sintomas específicos e no encaminhamento adequado desses casos. Buscou-se compreender os principais conceitos de maus-tratos e de suas subdivisões (abuso sexual, abuso emocional, abuso físico e negligência, bem como as dificuldades que profissionais da educação encontram no manejo desses casos no dia a dia. Além disso, procurou-se verificar, a partir de uma revisão assistemática da literatura, programas de capacitação preventiva visando ao desenvolvimento profissional de professores e, por fim, enfatizar importantes aspectos que devem ser considerados nesse tipo de capacitação

  17. Infecções do trato respiratório superior e treinos de alta intensidade: uma revisão integrativa da literatura / Upper respiratory tract infections and high intensity training: an integrative literature review

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    Drucila Coelho Boaes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata-se de uma revisão de literatura integrativa com o objetivo de discutir os principais achados na literatura envolvendo o comportamento do sistema imunológico frente ao estímulo de treino intenso. Foram utilizados os seguintes termos de busca: “infecção”, “inflamação”, “exercício”, “infecção do trato respiratório superior”. Foram revisados 70 estudos para a seleção inicial, dos quais selecionaram-se 19 publicações que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. O treino intenso induz alterações transitórias no sistema imunológico, gerando reorganização das respostas fisiológicas entre seus componentes, tais como: citocinas, células natural killer, receptores como toll like, monócitos e linfócitos T e B. O treinamento intenso causa elevação de glicocorticóides e catecolaminas, bem como temporário e inapropriado desenvolvimento da resposta de imunidade adaptativa, especificamente relacionada a uma resposta das células T tipo 1 e 2, aumentando o risco de infecções do trato respiratório superior. This review aimed to present a discussion on recent scientific findings that correlated extenuating training and immunological response in human samples. Seventy stud-ies were initially chosen according to the following search terms: "infection", "in-flammation", "exercise" and "upper respir-atory tract infection". Eventually, nineteen investigations met the inclusion criteria and therefore were chosen to compose this article. The literature has shown that intense training is associated with transi-ent changes in the immune system, induc-ing reorganization of physiological re-sponses involving cytokines, natural killer cells, toll-like receptors, monocytes and T and B cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that training at extenuating rates is associated to elevated plasmatic levels of glucocorticoids and catechola-mines. It has also been reported a tempo-rary and inappropriate development

  18. Analysis of digestive tract content of the larvae of Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Análise do conteúdo do trato digestivo das larvas de Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

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    Victoria Lilian Fernández Corujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 is a social wasp of biological interest for its role as pollinator and maybe as biological control agent of sanitary and agricultural pests. This study examines the digestive tract contents of the larvae of P. scutellaris from four nests in Magdalena (Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Contents included both animal (arthropod parts and plant (pollen, leaf and fruit epidermis parts. The pollen content analysis showed that the wasps visited 19 different taxa of plants during the last active period of the colony before the nests had been collected. The range of sources used by P. scutellaris allows us characterizing the species as a generalist flower visitor. Wasps visited both native and exotic plants located nearby the nest. Most of the epidermal plant remains found in the larval digestive tract belonged to Malvaceae, a family not exploited by the studied colonies as pollen source.Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 é uma vespa social de interesse biológico devido ao seu papel como polinizador e possível agente de controle biológico de pragas sanitárias e agrícolas. O presente estudo analisou o conteúdo do trato digestivo de larvas de P. scutellaris de quatros ninhos em Magdalena (província de Buenos Aires, Argentina. O conteúdo inclui restos animais (partes de artrópodos e vegetais (pólen, epiderme de folhas e frutos. A análise do conteúdo polínico mostrou que as vespas visitaram 19 táxons durante o último período ativo da colônia antes dos ninhos serem coletados. A diversidade de recursos utilizados por P. scutellaris permite caracterizá-la como um visitante generalista de flores. As vespas visitaram plantas nativas e exóticas localizados nas proximidades do ninho. A maioria dos restos de epiderme encontradas no trato digestivo das larvas pertence às Malvaceae, uma família não explorada pelas colônias estudadas como fonte de pólen.

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and multiple primary tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract Carcinoma epidermoide do esôfago e múltiplos tumores primários do trato aerodigestivo alto

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    Ulysses RIBEIRO Jr.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is frequently associated with other, synchronous or metachronous tumors, in the upper aerodigestive tract. All 264 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, treated in the Gastrointestinal Surgery, Esophagus section, of the "Hospital das Clínicas" (São Paulo University Medical School, Brazil, between 1979 and 1989 were analyzed retrospectively with regards to the occurrence of multiple primary tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract. Multiple primary tumors were encountered in 10 (3.8% patients. All patients were male and the mean age at the time of the first primary was 52.2 years. Tobacco smoke and alcohol were the principal carcinogens in these patients (n = 10. The sites of the tumors were: larynx (n = 4, tongue (n = 4, lung (n = 2, and oral cavity (n = 1. Two simultaneous, three synchronous and five metachronous multiple primary carcinomas were detected. The esophagus was the second primary tumor in nine patients. The mean overall survival after the diagnosis of the second primary was 2.8 months (SD = 0.89. Inquiry regarding other malignancies, associated with panendoscopy should be carry out prior to the treatment of the first primary to diagnose simultaneous or synchronous primary tumors, and careful follow-up should be performed after treatment of the first primary to detect new tumors in these high-risk patients.Carcinoma epidermóide do esôfago está freqüentemente associado a outros, sincrônicos ou metacrônicos tumores do trato aerodigestivo alto. Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 264 pacientes com carcinoma de esôfago tratados na Disciplina de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo, Divisão de Cirurgia do Esôfago, do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, entre 1979 e 1989, com o intuito de se observar a ocorrência de múltiplos tumores primários do trato aerodigestivo alto. Observaram-se 10 (3.8% pacientes com múltiplos tumores

  20. Parâmetros biométricos do trato genital masculino de caprinos sem raça definida (SRD criados no semi-árido nordestino durante o período seco e chuvoso

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    Ana Cláudia Nascimento Campos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo comparar a morfometria do trato genital masculino caprino entre a época seca e chuvosa. Foram coletados 46 e 52 genitais de machos caprinos na época seca e chuvosa, respectivamente. Testículos foram identificados em direito ou esquerdo, mensurados quanto ao comprimento, espessura e diâmetro. Os epidídimos foram pesados. Ductos deferentes e o pênis foram mensurados quanto ao comprimento. As vesículas seminais foram identificadas em direita ou esquerda, pesadas individualmente, e mensuradas quanto ao comprimento, largura e espessura. Os parâmetros de peso, largura, espessura e comprimento das diferentes estruturas foram submetidos ao teste t de Student a 5,00% de probabilidade. Os resultados demonstraram que houve diferença significativa entre os parâmetros mensurados no período seco e chuvoso (P<0,05, com exceção da vesícula seminal. Também foi demonstrado que os maiores valores foram encontrados no período seco, com exceção do ducto deferente. Concluiu-se que os parâmetros biométricos de caprinos SRD da região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil são inferiores aos citados na literatura internacional. Estes resultados demonstraram que o processo de adaptação de raças exóticas trazidas pelos colonizadores portugueses ao longo destes 500 anos provocou uma diminuição do porte dos mesmos, tornando-os mais rústicos, porém com características reprodutivas normais, mesmo em épocas de escassez de alimentos.

  1. O teatro atualiza a história: mediações entre o materialismo histórico de Benjamin e a peça Auto dos bons tratos, da Cia do Latão

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    Alexandre Villibor Flory

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, fundamentado no conceito do teatro épico e na relação entre literatura e processos de historicidade, tem por objetivo estudar a peça Auto dos bons tratos (2002, da Cia do Latão, grupo representativo de um contexto sócio-histórico específico de retomada do teatro épico no Brasil. A peça tematiza o processo de escravização dos índios, em 1546, pelo primeiro donatário da capitania de Porto Seguro que, marcado pela ética do trabalho capitalista, entra em uma disputa ideológica com a Igreja por ser contrário aos feriados de dia santo. Na prisão, tem uma visão a respeito da cordialidade, que indica a ele o modo ideal de se relacionar com os seus escravos e funcionários. Ao fazer menção a um fato histórico real relatado no processo movido pela Igreja Católica contra o donatário de terras, a peça revisita criticamente um acontecimento representativo da história oficial, em uma perspectiva que pode ser aproximada do materialismo histórico de Walter Benjamin. É, assim, reveladora de um momento histórico específico do processo de implantação do capitalismo em solo brasileiro e de suas consequências. Além disso, este tema é expresso formalmente por meio da apropriação crítica do auto, o que direciona também a um estudo das formas épicas.

  2. Análise da condição corpórea, biometria externa e das vísceras do trato gastrointestinal de canários-da-terra, Sicalis flaveola braziliensis

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    Raul A.S. Siqueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se em canários-da-terra, Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis, apreendidos pelo Cetas-IBAMA/PB e que morreram logo após sua chegada, as medidas biométricas externas, condições corpóreas e de plumagem, medidas biométricas das vísceras do trato gastrointestinal (TGI, assim como a topografia visceral, a fim de fornecer dados morfológicos e caracterizar as condições em esses pássaros chegaram a esse centro de triagem. A topografia visceral estava em consonância com a de periquitos e avestruz, a exceção que essa última espécie apresenta um ceco. Verificou-se que há relação entre as condições corpóreas desfavoráveis e a perda de plumagem. Conclui-se, que S. flaveola braziliensis possui medidas biométricas em consonância á de outros Passeriformes, contudo possui divergências para aves do mesmo gênero e poucas diferenças biométricas entre machos e fêmeas. Através do estudo, verifica-se que as condições corpóreas de animais traficados devem ser consideradas nos centros de triagem, a fim de se fazer um melhor manejo nutricional e/ou clínico, diminuindo a mortalidade.

  3. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus, Rhodnius neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus and Panstrongylus megistus, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas, 1909 Flora fúngica do trato digestivo de Rhodnius prolixus, Rhodnius neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus e Panstrongylus megistus vetores de Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas 1909

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    Aurea Maria Lage de Moraes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study on the mycobiota in the digestive tract of four important species of triatomines: Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus and Panstrongylus megistus. The digestive tracts of 90 adults and 425 nymphs of these four triatomine species were studied and 365 fungal strains were isolated. The genera with the greatest number of species were Aspergillus, Penicillium (14 species in each genus, Acremonium and Cladosporium (three species in each genus, and the most frequent species, in decreasing order, were Aspergillus awamori, Penicillium corylophilum, Cladosporium herbarum and Aspergillus niger. It was concluded that, among the isolated fungi, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum might be part of the natural flora of the digestive tract of triatomines.Um estudo da micobiota do trato digestivo de quatro importantes espécies de triatomíneos, Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus e Panstrongylus megistus, foi realizado. Foram examinados os tratos digestivos de 90 adultos e 425 ninfas destas espécies de triatomíneos e 365 cepas fúngicas foram isoladas. Os gêneros com o maior número de espécies encontradas foram Aspergillus, Penicillium (14 espécies cada, Acremonium e Cladosporium (3 espécies cada e as espécies mais freqüentes, em ordem decrescente, foram Aspergillus awamori, Penicillium corylophilum, Cladosporium herbarum e Aspergillus niger. Dentre os fungos isolados, concluímos que Aspergillus niger e Penicillium corylophilum possam fazer parte da flora natural do trato digestivo destes triatomíneos.

  4. EVALUACIÓN CRÍTICA DEL PROGRAMA “¡EH! ¡NO TE DESPISTES!” Y ELABORACIÓN DE UNA PROPUESTA DE INTERVENCIÓN SOCIOEDUCATIVA DE PREVENCIÓN DE LOS MALOS TRATOS Y ABUSOS SEXUALES

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    Trenado-Fuertes, Adela

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objeto la evaluación del “Programa comunitario de prevención del abuso sexual y otros malos tratos infantiles ¡Eh! ¡No te despistes!”. El programa surgió como necesidad de encontrar espacios de comunicación interinstitucional, entidades y profesionales para el abordaje integral de la detección intervención y la prevención de los abusos sexuales a menores. Ante la ausencia de una evaluación objetiva en el tiempo y la continuidad del programa “¡Eh! ¡No te despistes!” sur...

  5. Estudo comparativo dos meios de contraste baritado e iodado-iônico e não-iônico no trato respiratório de ratos Comparative study of barium and iodine agents - ionic and nonionic on the respiratory tract of the rats

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    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões; Fernando Hintz Greca; Maurizzio Pedrazzani; Heraldo O. Mello Jr; Sérgio Ossamu Ioshii; Maria Francisca Kaizu Cavalcanti; Débora R. Voltarelli de Souza; Letícia Yurie Kimura

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Durante estudos radiológicos pode ocorrer a passagem do meio de contraste para a árvore traqueo-brônquica, determinando reações adversas e até fatais. O objetivo deste estudo é conhecer as alterações desencadeadas no trato respiratório pela presença do meio de contraste. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 91 ratos divididos, aleatoriamente, em 4 grupos. Um grupo de controle não manipulado com 7 animais e os demais grupos com 21 ratos. O grupo controle manipulado recebeu solução fisiológica e os...

  6. Infecção do trato urinário de repetição por fístula enterovesical secundária a doença diverticular do cólon: um relato de caso

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    Natália Silva Cavalcanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As fístulas enterovesicais (FEV são comunicações patológicas entre a bexiga e as alças intestinais pélvicas. Trata-se de uma rara complicação decorrente de doenças inflamatórias e neoplásicas da pelve, além de casos resultantes de iatrogenia, e associa-se a altos índices de morbimortalidade. RELATO DO CASO: Trata-se de um paciente de 61 anos com um quadro de dor e distensão abdominal, vômitos, parada de eliminação de fezes e flatos. APP: Hipertenso, diabético, com antecedentes de disfunção vesical e infecções do trato urinário de repetição (ITUr nos últimos três anos. Por meio da realização de ressonância magnética de abdômen e pelve, diagnosticou-se FEV associada à doença diverticular (DDC do sigmoide. A conduta estabelecida consistiu em colectomia parcial com rebaixamento de colo e cistectomia parcial com colocação cirúrgica de cateter duplo jota à esquerda. DISCUSSÃO: Embora consista de afecção primária do trato digestivo, normalmente o paciente com DDC associada a FEV procura atendimento médico em decorrência de queixas do trato urinário. Nesse caso, a demora no diagnóstico fez com que a queixa principal fosse do trato digestivo e com antecedentes de queixas urinárias. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de pouco frequente, a ocorrência de ITUr associada à DDC deve ser sempre considerada no diagnóstico diferencial das ITUr pela alta morbimortalidade.

  7. Tumor de reto e cárdia sincrônicos: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Rectum and cardia cynchronous tumor: case report and literature review

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    Robson Luis Silveira Jara

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso raro de um paciente de 77 anos, que desenvolveu dois tumores sincrônicos do trato gastrintestinal, localizados em topografia de reto e cárdia. Feito o diagnóstico de ambos simultaneamente. Foi submetido à cirurgia em dois tempos e evoluiu bem, realizando a reconstrução do trato gastrintestinal três meses após a primeira intervenção. Não encontramos na literatura nenhum outro relato desta combinação de tumores.We discuss a 77-year-old man who developed two cancers: adenocarcinoma of the stomach and adenocarcinoma of the rectum. He was submitted at the surgery developed for two interventions and evolved aright. To the best of our knowledge, no other patient with the combination of these two cancers has been reported in the literature.

  8. Perfil de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas do trato respiratório baixo de pacientes com pneumonia internados em hospitais brasileiros: resultados do Programa SENTRY, 1997 e 1998

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    SADER HÉLIO S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Pneumonia hospitalar é a mais fatal das infecções hospitalares, com taxas de mortalidade de 30 a 60%. Estima-se que 15% de todas as mortes associadas à hospitalização estejam diretamente relacionadas a pneumonias hospitalares. O SENTRY é um estudo de vigilância de resistência a antimicrobianos envolvendo centros médicos em todo o mundo. Objetivo: Avaliar a sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas no trato respiratório baixo de pacientes com pneumonia internados em hospitais brasileiros. Material e métodos: Foram avaliadas 525 amostras bacterianas de 11 hospitais brasileiros, como parte do programa SENTRY. Os isolados foram testados por microdiluição em caldo contra um grande número de antimicrobianos. Resultados: As cinco espécies mais freqüentes foram (n/%: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (158/30,1%, Staphylococcus aureus (103/19,6%, Acinetobacter spp. (68/13,0%, Klebsiella spp. (50/9,5%, e Enterobacter spp. (44/8,4%. Essas cinco espécies representam mais de 80% de toda a amostragem. A P. aeruginosa apresentou altas taxas de resistência à maioria dos antimicrobianos testados. As maiores taxas de sensibilidade foram apresentadas por piperacilina/tazobactam (71,5% e meropenem (69,0%. Os compostos com maior atividade in vitro contra Acinetobacter spp. foram imipenem e meropenem (80,9% de sensibilidade seguido pela tetraciclina (63,2%. A sensibilidade das amostras de Klebsiella spp. foi muito baixa. MICs > ou = 2mig/mL para ceftriaxona ou ceftazidima, indicando produção de ESBL, foram encontrados em 36,0% das amostras. Os antimicrobianos mais ativos contra Klebsiella spp. foram os carbapenens (100% de sensibilidade e as quinolonas (92,0% de sensibilidade. Ceftriaxona foi ativa contra somente 56,8% das amostras de Enterobacter spp. (MIC50, 1mig/mL, enquanto a cefepima foi ativa contra 88,6% destes isolados (MIC50, <= 0,12mig/mL. A resistência à oxacilina foi detectada em 43,7% dos isolados de S. aureus. As

  9. Morfologia do trato digestório e dieta de larvas de Bryconamericus aff. iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae = Morphology of Digestive tract and diet of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii larvae (Boulenger, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae

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    Renato Ziliani Borges

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar alguns aspectos da alimentação de larvas de Bryconamericus aff. iheringii, capturadas nos meses de julho e novembro de 2001, nas regiões limnética e litorânea do reservatório de Santa Maria, rio Piquiri, Estado do Paraná. As larvas apresentaram boca subterminal durante todo o seu desenvolvimento. O tubo digestório se diferenciou em estômago e intestino apenas no estágio de pós-flexão. As larvas consumiram, principalmente, algas e microcrustáceos, o que permitiu caracterizá-las como planctófagas. A intensa modificação morfológica no trato digestório nos indivíduos em pósflexão coincidiu com o aumento na abundância de algas em relação aos itens de origemanimal; porém, de forma geral, a ocorrência aumentou para todos os itens. A análise do grau de digestão dos itens alimentares sugeriu que indivíduos em pré-flexão alimentaram-se, possivelmente, durante o dia, e os mais desenvolvidos, durante o entardecer e no períodonoturno.The aim of this study was to analyze some feeding treats of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii larvae, sampled in both the limnetic and littoral regions of the Piquiri River, in Santa Maria reservoir, between July and November 2001. The larvae presented sub-terminal mouth in larval period. The digestive tract differentiated in terms of stomach and intestine only in the postflexion larvae. The larvae fed mainly on algae and microcrustacea allowing to characterize them as planktivorous. The intense morphologic shift in the digestive tract in the postflexion larvae coincided with an increase in the abundance of algae in relation to animals items; however, in general, all the items had their occurrence increased. Analysis of the digestion stage suggested that preflexion larvae, possibly, fed themselves during the day, and those more developed, at dusk and night.

  10. COMO EU TRATO AS DERMATITES PERIESTOMA

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    Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia Santos

    Full Text Available Uma das complicações mais freqüentes, durante o processo de reabilitação do ostomizado, é a dermatite periestoma que pode e deve ser evitada através de uma assistência especializada, A autora faz uma revisão apontando os principais fatores causais e associados que acarretam as dermatites, sua classificação e os princípios de tratamento e prevenção.

  11. Lesões do trato gastrointestinal na síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: [title]estudo de 45 necrópsias consecutivas Gastrointestinal tract lesions in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: study of forty five consecutive necropsies

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    Maria Goretti Freire de Carvalho

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de estudar afrequência e etiologia das lesões do tubo digestivo na Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (AIDS, foram analisadas retrospectivamente 45 necrópsias consecutivas de pacientes adultos portadores do vírus da AIDS. Lesões macroscópicas e cortes histológicos de amostras da boca à região anal foram estudados, sendo as lâminas coradas por HE, métodos histoquímicos ou imunohistoquímicos. Trinta e sete (82,3 %pacientes apresentaram lesões no tubo digestivo. O local mais freqüente de lesões foi a boca (73,3%, seguido do cólon (55,5%. Lesões múltiplas foram identificadas em 17 (37,7% casos. O diagnóstico mais prevalente foi infecção pelo citomegalovírus (35,7% identificado predominantemente no cólon. Candidíasefoi mais freqüente na boca (26,6% e infecção herpética no esôfago (8,8%. Verificou-se leucoplasiapilosa oral em 16 (35,5% eneoplasias emsete (15,5%. Asneoplasias incluíram quatro sarcomas de Kaposi, dois Carcinomas intramucosos anais e um linfoma gástrico. Os dados do presente estudo confirmam a importância do trato gastrointestinal como sede de alterações patológicas relacionadas à AIDS.This study was designed to evaluate restropectivefy the frequency and etiology of the gastrointestinal (GI lesions in 45 consecutive necropsies of adult patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Gross descriptions and histological sections of the GI tract, from mouth to anus, were reviewed. The slides were H&E stained, and when necessary special stains and immunohistochemicalmethods were also employed. There were lesions in GI tract in 37(82.3% patients; the mouth was the segment mostfrequently involved (73.3% of the cases, followed by the colon (55.5%. Multiple lesions occurred in 17 (37.7% cases. Cytomegalovirus caused colonic lesions in 35.7% of the cases. Candidiasis was observed in 26.6% mainly in the mouth and herpes simplex (8.8% was the important agent of esophageal lesions. Oral

  12. Maus-tratos a idosos: revisão integrativa da literatura Abuso contra ancianos: revisión integradora de la literatura Elderly maltreatment: integrative review of the literature

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    Annelissa Andrade Virgínio de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou identificar, a partir de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, o conhecimento científico produzido entre 2005 e 2009, sobre maus-tratos contra idosos. Para tal, foram selecionados dezesseis estudos nos bancos LILACS e SciELO e na base BDENF. Dentre os dezesseis estudos, 56,25% compreendiam artigos originais. O periódico que mais publicou foi o Caderno de Saúde Pública (25%, sendo a maioria dos estudos desenvolvidos no Sudeste (56,25%. O levantamento revelou que a violência física foi predominante entre os idosos, sendo o domicílio o ambiente onde frequentemente ocorre a agressão, sendo os familiares os principais agressores. Entre os idosos agredidos, observou-se que as mulheres são as vítimas mais acometidas. Esses achados suscitam o desenvolvimento de outras pesquisas que possam clarificar as múltiplas dimensões da violência contra o idoso.El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar, a través de una revisión bibliográfica integrada, los conocimientos científicos, producidos entre 2005 y 2009 sobre maltrato a ancianos. Con este fin, se seleccionaron dieciséis estudios en los bancos LILACS e SciELO e en la base de datos BDENF. De ellos, 56,25% eran artículos originales. La revista más utilizada para publicación, fue el Cuaderno de Salud Pública (25%, y la mayoría de los estudios se desarrollaron en el Sudeste (56,25%. La encuesta reveló que la violencia física era la más frecuente entre los ancianos; el entorno familiar es adonde ocurre con mayor frecuencia la agresión; y los familiares son los principales agresores. Entre las personas de edad que fueron atacados, se observó que las mujeres son las víctimas más afectadas. Estos resultados plantean el desarrollo de otras investigaciones que puedan aclarar las múltiples dimensiones de la violencia contra los ancianos.The study aimed to identify, through an integrative literature review, scientific knowledge, produced between 2005 and 2009 about the

  13. Por que as crianças são maltratadas?: Explicações para a prática de maus-tratos infantis na literatura Why are children abused?: A bibliographical review of the explanations for child abuse

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    Romeu Gomes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar os fatores que são identificados como atuantes para a ocorrência das situações de maus-tratos cometidos contra crianças, presentes nos três principais periódicos brasileiros de Pediatria. A produção bibliográfica foi tratada com base na análise de conteúdo. Considerando os critérios de inclusão dos artigos, foram analisados 14 trabalhos. Em termos de resultados, ressaltam-se como modelos teóricos explicativos: (a a reprodução das experiências de violência; (b os desajustes familiares, psíquicos e alcoolismo; (c a ordem macro estrutural. Dentre as conclusões, destaca-se que as políticas de prevenção e intervenção dos maus-tratos cometidos contra a infância terão maior êxito se conseguirem articular uma compreensão teórico-prática. É preciso integrar a singularidade de cada caso ao conhecimento acumulado no atendimento a milhares de famílias envolvidas na prática de maus-tratos (no Brasil e no mundo.This article analyzes the factors related to child abuse that have been published in three of the main Brazilian pediatrics journals. The literature was assessed by content analysis. Fourteen studies were analyzed. The main explanatory factors were: (a reproduction of violence; (b family and psychological disorders and alcohol abuse; and (c the structural or macro-social order. The authors conclude that prevention or intervention policies can be more successful if a theoretical/practical understanding is achieved, and that it is necessary to integrate each unique case with the knowledge based on care for thousands of families involved in child abuse both in Brazil and worldwide.

  14. O uso da acupuntura no auxílio à terapia da doença idiopática do trato urinário inferior dos felinos Use of acupuncture in the management and therapy of feline idiopathic lower urinary tract disease

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    Luciano Henrique Giovaninni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes afecções podem acometer o trato urinário inferior dos felinos, acarretando sinais clínicos inespecíficos como: hematúria, disúria, polaquiúria, estrangúria, periúria ou obstrução, caracterizando a doença do trato urinário inferior dos felinos (DTUIF. Entretanto, em até 65% dos felinos acometidos, a etiologia é indeterminada, denominada de doença idiopática do trato urinário inferior dos felinos (DTUIF idiopática, que tem se mostrado como um desafio ao clínico veterinário, uma vez que não há diagnóstico específico ou terapia efetiva. Atualmente, tem sido estudado o papel da inflamação neurogênica da bexiga urinária secundária ao estresse, como etiologia da DTUIF idiopática. Há evidências científicas de que a acupuntura restaure a homeostase, reduza o estresse e, pela estimulação neural periférica, ative mecanismos endógenos de antinocicepção, regulando a liberação de mediadores dos mecanismos da dor e do processo inflamatório, como a substância P. O objetivo desta revisão bibliográfica foi descrever como a acupuntura pode ser um recurso na terapia da DTUIF idiopática, tendo como base a modulação da inflamação neurogênica da bexiga urinária e o controle do estresse desses gatos.Several diseases may affect feline lower urinary tract, causing unspecific signs such as: hematuria, dysuria, pollakiuria, stranguria, periuria or urethral obstruction, which are clinically described as feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD. However, FLUTD is of unknown etiology in up to 65% cases, named as idiopathic feline lower urinary tract disease (idiopathic FLUTD, which is a challenge to veterinary, since there is nor diagnostic or effectiveness treatment available. Recently, many studies have evaluated the role of neurogenic inflammation related to stress as etiology factor to idiopathic FLUTD. There are scientific evidences that acupuncture recuperate homeostasis, reduce stress and, by peripheral

  15. Relación entre la satisfacción laboral y el trato digno que brinda el profesional de Enfermería al paciente que acude a una institución privada de salud de IV nivel de atención, Lima 2013

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    Casildo Bedón, Danitza Raquel

    2015-01-01

    s Objetivo: Establecer la relación entre la satisfacción laboral y el trato digno que brinda el profesional de Enfermería al paciente que acude a una institución privada de salud de IV nivel de atención en la ciudad de Lima. Metodología: El estudio fue de diseño no experimental; tipo cuantitativo, descriptivo, correlacional y transversal. La población estuvo constituida por 57 profesionales de Enfermería que trabajan en el área asistencial de la Clínica San Felipe, durante el último año. En l...

  16. Neoplasias do trato alimentar superior de bovinos associadas ao consumo espontâneo de samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum Neoplasms of the upper digestive tract of cattle associated with spontaneous ingestion of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum

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    Marione A. Moreira Souto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 30 bovinos com neoplasias no trato alimentar superior (TAS associadas ao consumo espontâneo de samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum provenientes de 27 propriedades rurais, sendo 23 no município de Jaguari e quatro em Nova Esperança do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul. A população bovina total das 27 propriedades em que ocorreram os casos era de 1.090 bovinos e havia quantidade abundante de samambaia nas áreas de pastoreio dos animais. Vinte e seis bovinos eram vacas e 4 eram machos castrados. A idade variou de 3 a 13 anos, sendo o maior número de casos entre 7 e 8 anos (46,6%. Os sinais clínicos observados incluíram emagrecimento progressivo, atonia ruminal, tosse, disfagia, regurgitação, halitose, diarréia e timpanismo. Outros sinais clínicos menos freqüentes foram apetite seletivo, dispnéia e salivação. Dois bovinos tiveram morte espontânea e 28 foram submetidos à eutanásia em estágios avançados da doença e necropsiados. Os principais achados macroscópicos e histológicos observados nos 30 bovinos localizavam-se nos mesmos locais do TAS e consistiram de papilomas, papilomas em transformação para carcinomas de células escamosas (CCEs e CCEs. Metástases de CCEs para linfonodos regionais e outros órgãos (como fígado e pulmões foram também observadas (18/30. Vinte e nove bovinos tinham papilomas de diversos tamanhos, sendo a quantidade variável entre leve (45%, moderada (38% e acentuada (17%. Nos papilomas examinados microscopicamente, foram observadas três fases de desenvolvimento: a fase de inicial de crescimento, b fase de desenvolvimento, e c fase de regressão. Em 16 bovinos, observou-se a transformação maligna de papilomas em CCEs. Os CCEs eram únicos (12/30 ou múltiplos (18/30 e variaram quanto ao grau de diferenciação celular entre bem, moderadamente ou pouco diferenciados. Quando a distribuição dos CCEs de maior extensão foi agrupada em regiões cranial (base da língua, faringe

  17. Avaliação da atividade mioelétrica do trato gastrointestinal em cães: avaliação de um sistema de fixação de eletrodos na parede abdominal Gastrointestinal myoelectric activity in dogs: evaluation of a fixation system of electrodes on the abdominal wall

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    Álvaro Antônio Bandeira Ferraz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A implantação de eletrodos intra-abdominais para captura de sinais de onda elétrica constitui instrumento de estudo da atividade mioelétrica do tubo gastrointestinal. O deslocamento destes eletrodos do local de implantação ocorre com certa freqüência em animais de experimentação não anestesiados, devido aos movimentos da musculatura diafragmática, abdominal, do peristaltismo gastrintestinal e sobretudo aos hábitos inerentes à espécie de animal estudada, particularmente presentes em caninos. No referido estudo foi proposto um procedimento que proporciona estabilidade ao referido sistema utilizando-se recursos simples e de custos irrelevantes. MÉTODOS: Os autores apresentam através de diagramas e fotos um sistema de ancoração dos eletrodos elétricos na pele dos animais com botões. RESULTADOS: Foram realizados 5 experimentos, fixando-se em cada animal 3 eletrodos bipolares. Os animais foram mantidos em repouso até a completa recuperação do íleo paralítico. Não foi identificado nos animais estudados nenhuma migração dos eletrodos. CONCLUSÃO: O procedimento proposto é eficiente, simples, de fácil confecção e permite o monitoramento da atividade mioelétrica, em cães não anestesiados, por períodos de tempo prolongado.OBJECTIVE: The use of intra-abdominal electrodes in the study of gastrointestinal electrical wave is an important instrument of the gastrointestinal mioelectric activity. However, the dislocations of the electrodes in non-anaesthetized animals due to diaphragmatic muscle movements, gastrointestinal movements and mainly due to the animals habits, especially in dogs. The study has the objective to demonstrate a procedure that stabilize the system using simple resources an irrelevant cost. METHODS: The authors demonstrate under diagrams and picture a fixed system to fix the electrical electrodes through the animal skin using bottoms. RESULTS: The system was used in 5 animals. Each animal had 3

  18. New histochemical and morphological findings in the female genital tract of Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae: an attempt toward the elucidation of fertilization in ticks Novas características histoquímicas e morfológicas no trato genital feminino de Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae: uma tentativa para a elucidação da fertilização nos carrapatos

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    Casimiro García-Fernández

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available At present not only is the site of fertilization in ticks still unknown but it is also unclear as to how this mystery can be solved. Signs of fertilization can be observed throughout the female genital tract and these can be clues for the elucidation of the unsolved questions relating to ticks fertilization. In Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 the most important signs are the following: the final eversion of the acrosomal canal in females ready for oviposition; the presence of small tubules, resembling the subplasmalemal process of the spermatozoon between the oviduct cells; budding nuclei throughout the female genital tract; and the two Feulgen and DAPI positive areas in the oocyte at vitelogenesis. These morphological characteristics suggest that fertilization takes place in the internal cylinder which extends from the uterus to the ovary itself.Até o momento, não só o lugar da fertilização em carrapatos é desconhecido, mas também não é claro como este mistério possa ser esclarecido. Sinais de fertilização podem ser observados ao longo do trato genital feminino e estes podem ser pistas para a elucidação das questões relacionadas à fertilização em ácaros. Em Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887, os sinais mais importantes são os seguintes: a eversão final do canal acrossômico em fêmeas prestes à oviposição; a presença de pequenos túbulos assemelhando-se a processos subplasmalêmicos dos espermatozóides entre as células do oviduto; brotamentos nucleares ao longo do trato genital feminino e as duas áreas Feulgen e DAPI positivas nos ovócitos em processo de vitelogênese. Estas características morfológicas sugerem que a fertilização ocorra no cilindro interno, o qual se estende desde o útero até o ovário inclusive.

  19. Desempenho, eficiência de utilização dos nutrientes e estrutura do trato digestório de pintos de corte alimentados na fase pré-inicial com rações de diferentes formas físicas Performance, efficiency of nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal structures of broiler chick fed in prestarter phase with ratios with different physical form

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    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da forma física da ração sobre o desempenho, a utilização dos nutrientes das rações e o desenvolvimento do trato disgestório de pintos de corte na primeira semana de vida. Foram utilizados 150 pintos machos Cobb distribuídos ao acaso em três tratamentos com cinco repetições de dez aves. Os tratamentos consistiram das formas físicas farelada, triturada e peletizada de uma ração pré-inicial comercial. Com exceção da moela, os órgãos do trato digestório e a estrutura morfométrica do intestino não foram influenciados pela forma física da ração. Maior digestibilidade do N foi obtida com a ração peletizada, enquanto a ração triturada possibilitou maior digestibilidade do EE. A energia metabolizável determinada para a ração farelada foi menor que a obtida nas demais formas físicas da ração. As aves alimentadas com raç��o farelada tiveram menor consumo de ração e ganho de peso e pior conversão alimentar. Ingeriram ainda menos energia, apresentaram menores retenções de proteína, gordura e energia corporal e utilizaram maior proporção da energia ingerida para produção de calor. As rações pré-iniciais na forma peletizada ou triturada possibilitam maior aproveitamento dos nutrientes da ração pelos pintos e melhor desempenho.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different physical form of pre-starter diet on performance, nutrient utilization and development of gastrointestinal tract of broiler chicks during the first week of age. A total of 150-day-old male broiler chicks was allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments and five replicates of 10 birds each. Treatments consisted of three physical forms of a commercial pre-starter diet: mashed, crumbled and pressed into pellets. Except for gizzard, the other organs of the digestive tract and morphologic structures of the small intestine were not affected by

  20. Utilização de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas do trato intestinal de tilápia-do-nilo como probiótico Lactic-acid bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of Nile tilapia utilized as probiotic

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    Adolfo Jatobá

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar bactérias ácido-lácticas do intestino de tilápias-do-nilo, e avaliar seu potencial probiótico. Foram isoladas cepas de bactérias ácido-lácticas, e foi avaliada a inibição aos patógenos in vitro. As cepas com os melhores resultados foram identificadas e utilizadas no experimento de colonização do trato intestinal de tilápias-do-nilo, via suplementação na dieta, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram avaliados: o total de bactérias, as bactérias ácido-lácticas, Vibrio ssp. e Pseudomonas ssp. A cepa com melhor resultado foi utilizada na infecção experimental, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x3: dieta suplementada com a cepa e dieta-controle; e os peixes não submetidos à injeção, peixes submetidos à injeção de solução salina e à injeção de Enterococcus durans, com três repetições. Foram avaliados os parâmetros hematológicos. As duas cepas identificadas foram: Lactobacillus plantarum e Lactobacillus brevis, que colonizaram o trato intestinal de tilápias, contudo L. plantarum teve menor número total de bactérias e de Pseudomonas ssp. Foi observado maior número total de eritrócitos, trombócitos, leucócitos, linfócitos, neutrófilos e monócitos, em peixes alimentados com L. plantarum e submetidos à injeção de E. durans. O L. plantarum tem efeito probiótico e melhora o sistema imune das tilápias.The objective of this work was to isolate lactic-acid bacteria from the intestines of Nile tilapia, and to assess their potential as probiotic. Strains of lactic-acid bacteria were isolated, and inhibition against pathogens was evaluated in vitro. Strains with best results were identified and used in tilapia intestinal tract colonization experiment through supplementation in the diet, in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and four replicates. Total number bacteria, lactic

  1. Maus-tratos: estudo através da perspectiva da delegacia de proteção à criança e ao adolescente em Salvador, Bahia Maltreatment: study from the perspective of the police department for the frotection of the child and the adolescent in Salvador, Bahia

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    Ana Clara de Rebolças Carvalho

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal descreve a ocorrência de maus-tratos em uma delegacia de proteção a crianças e adolescentes em Salvador, Bahia, entre 1997 e 1999. Dados sociodemográficos e físicos das vítimas, agressores e denunciantes foram investigados a partir de uma amostra de 2.073 casos. As vítimas apresentaram idades entre 0 e 18 anos, 56,1% do sexo feminino. De todas as manifestações de maus-tratos, exceto o abuso físico, prevaleceram as sobre o sexo feminino. O subgrupo de pré-adolescentes foi o mais atingido. O tipo de maltrato mais freqüente foi o abuso físico (64,7%. Lesões corporais ocorreram em 22,2% dos casos, a maioria concentrando-se na cabeça e pescoço (65,3%. Observou-se intensa participação do sexo masculino entre os agressores (71,8%. Houve correlação positiva entre sexo feminino e abuso sexual e o sexo masculino e abuso físico, inclusive de forma mais severa em relação à presença de lesões corporais. As denúncias foram feitas pelos pais das vítimas (72,9%, sendo o sexo feminino mais freqüente. Neste estudo, não foi identificada nenhuma denúncia realizada pelos profissionais de saúde, refletindo maior necessidade de comprometimento destes na problemática, conforme as recomendações da política de redução da morbimortalidade por acidentes e violência.This cross-sectional study describes the occurrences of maltreatment recorded over three years (1997-1999 in a Brazilian Police Department for the Protection of the Child and the Adolescent. Socio-demographic and physical data of victims, aggressors and denouncers were investigated in a sample consisting of 2073 cases. The victims were aged between 0-18 years, of which 56.1% were girls. Data were entered into EPI INFO 2000 software and analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test to determine significant differences (p<0.05. All manifestations of abuse, except physical abuse, tend to occur more frequently in females, and tend to be more

  2. Diabetes melito como fator associado às disfunções do trato urinário inferior em mulheres atendidas em serviço de referência The association between diabetes mellitus and lower urinary tract dysfunctions in women assisted in a reference service

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    Eneida Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as disfunções do trato urinário inferior e as características demográficas e clínicas de mulheres com queixas urinárias, estimando a prevalência de diabetes melito e de alterações urodinâmicas nestas mulheres. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal, retrospectivo, com análise de 578 prontuários. As prevalências de diabetes melito e de cada diagnóstico urodinâmico nas pacientes com disfunções do trato urinário inferior foram estimadas, com seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%. Foram calculadas as razões de prevalência das alterações urodinâmicas segundo o diagnóstico de diabetes. RESULTADOS: Setenta e sete pacientes (13,3% eram diabéticas e a maioria (96,1% tinha diabetes tipo 2. O diagnóstico urodinâmico mais frequente nas pacientes diabéticas foi o de incontinência urinária de esforço (39%, seguido de hiperatividade do detrusor (23,4%. A prevalência de urodinâmica alterada foi associada à de diabetes melito (RP=1,31; IC95%=1,17-1,48. As alterações de contratilidade do detrusor (hiper ou hipoatividade estiveram presentes em 42,8% das pacientes diabéticas e em 31,5% das não diabéticas. CONCLUSÕES: As mulheres diabéticas apresentaram maior prevalência de alterações urodinâmicas do que as não diabéticas. Não houve associação entre o diabetes e as alterações de contratilidade do detrusor (p=0,80.PURPOSE: to describe lower urinary tract dysfunctions and clinical demographic characteristics of patients with urinary symptoms. This study assessed the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and urodynamic changes in these women. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study on 578 women. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and urodynamic diagnoses was assessed in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunctions, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence ratios of urodynamic alterations were calculated according to the diabetes mellitus

  3. Caracterização de crianças e adolescentes atendidos por maus tratos em um hospital de emergência no município de Fortaleza-CE Characterization of maltreated children and adolescents taken into a paediatric emergency health care service in Fortaleza-CE-Brazil

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    Arcelina Maria da Silva

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o perfil da criança e adolescente maltratados e atendidos em um hospital de emergência, no Município de Fortaleza, Ceará. Utilizou-se a pesquisa documental retrospectiva com análise dos formulários da Comissão de Maus Tratos à Infância e Adolescência. Os resultados revelaram que o sexo masculino e a faixa etária de 1 a 5 anos foram os mais atingidos; o principal agressor é o pai biológico e os tipos de violência mais freqüentes foram o hematoma, o abuso sexual e as lesões por objetos cortantes. Conclui-se que o tema requer estudos aprofundados que modifiquem o ambiente em que a criança, adolescente e famílias estão inseridos.This study aimed to characterise the profile of the child and the adolescent who were maltreated and taken into paediatric emergency care in a hospital, in Fortaleza, Ceará. It was used a documented retrospective evaluation. The results showed that the children in the age group of 1-5 years were the most victimised as well as the children of the male sex. The main perpetrator was a biological father and the most frequent kind of violence were hematomas, sexual abuse and wounds by slashing objects. In conclusion, this subject needs to be more investigated for providing changes within the' environment where a child, adolescent and families were inserted.

  4. Jejum alimentar e qualidade da carne de frango de corte tipo caipira

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    OLIVEIRA,Felipe Rosa; BOARI,Cleube Andrade; PIRES,Aldrin Vieira; MOGNATO,João Carlos; CARVALHO,Rúbio Madureira de Souza; SANTOS JÚNIOR,Marco Aurélio; MATTIOLI,Cristiano Campos

    2015-01-01

    ResumoObjetivou-se avaliar as características de qualidade da carne de frango de corte tipo caipira em diferentes tempos de jejum alimentar. Aves, machos, da linhagem “pesadão vermelho”, criadas até 85 dias de idade em sistema semiextensivo, foram submetidas aos tempos de zero, três, seis, nove e 12 horas de jejum alimentar. Obteve-se o peso vivo, peso da carcaça, o rendimento de carcaça fria, o peso do trato gastrintestinal das aves. Foram avaliados o pH24h, a luminosidade (L*), ...

  5. Aspectos nutricionais na população de pacientes com síndrome do intestino irritável atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo

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    Daiana Amarante

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome do intestino irritável (SII) é uma doença funcional do trato gastrintestinal que afeta até 20% da população adulta. Os principais sintomas envolvem o mau funcionamento do intestino, associados com dores abdominais, manifestação de diarreia ou constipação, sem alterações estruturais e bioquímicas do intestino. A maneira mais adequada de tratar o paciente é por meio de uma abordagem ampla e integral, porém individualizada, com identificação dos fatores desencadeantes e/ou...

  6. Qualitative feed restriction for heavy swines: effect on digestibility and weight of organs of digestive tract, and environmental impact of feces Restrição alimentar qualitativa para suínos pesados: efeito sobre digestibilidade e peso dos órgãos do trato digestório e impacto ambiental das fezes

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    A.L. Fraga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 50 barrows were used to evaluate qualitative feed restriction on digestibility of dietary components, weight of organs of digestive tract, and composition and production of feces. Five experimental diets, with increasing levels of qualitative feed restriction of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% were used. There was linear reduction (PForam utilizados 50 suínos machos castrados para avaliar o efeito da restrição alimentar qualitativa sobre a digestibilidade dos componentes dietéticos, os órgãos do trato digestório, a composição e a produção fecal. Foram utilizadas cinco dietas experimentais, com níveis de restrição qualitativa de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20%. Houve redução linear (P<0,001 para todos os coeficientes de digestibilidade, com exceção da fibra em detergente ácido, que apresentou resposta quadrática (P<0,05. Os teores de sólidos totais (P<0,01 e voláteis (P<0,05, e minerais totais (P<0,001 nas fezes aumentaram com os níveis de restrição alimentar, enquanto os níveis de K (P<0,05, Cu (P<0,01 e de N, P, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe e Zn (P<0,001, apresentaram resposta quadrática. A excreção diária de fezes, sólidos totais e voláteis, minerais totais, N, P, K, Mn e Cu (P<0,001, Ca, Na, Mg e Fe (P<0,05 apresentaram aumento em função do nível da restrição alimentar qualitativa. A restrição qualitativa pode ser alternativa para destinação de resíduos da agroindústria, conferindo boas propriedades às fezes suínas, no que diz respeito à utilização para adubação de culturas.

  7. Avaliação do efeito fisiológico da farinha de semente de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima, L. no trato intestinal de ratos Evaluation of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, L. seed flour effects on the intestinal tract of rats

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    Matilde Pumar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito fisiológico da Farinha de Semente de Abóbora (FSA no trato intestinal de ratos Wistar machos recém desmamados, submetidos a dietas experimentais contendo Farinhas de Semente de Abóbora (FSAs integral, peneirada e residual, por 10 dias. As dietas experimentais foram obtidas substituindo-se 30% do valor total de amido e dextrina, da ração controle, pela FSA correspondente. As farinhas e rações controle e experimentais foram caracterizadas quimicamente. Os animais divididos em grupos foram avaliados quanto ao crescimento, consumo, material fecal e pH cecal. As FSAs e rações experimentais apresentaram relevantes teores de fibras alimentares, proteínas e lipídios. Dietas contendo FSAs integral, peneirada e residual levaram a um ganho ponderal e ingestão similar entre todos os grupos. Em relação ao grupo controle, os animais experimentais submetidos a dietas contendo FSAs apresentaram maior volume e peso fecais (p This study has the aim to evaluate the physiological effects of the Pumpkin Seed Flour (PSF on the intestinal tract of newly weaned male Wistar rats fed on diets containing whole Sifted and Residual - PSF for ten days. The experimental diets were prepared substituting 30% of the total content of starch and dextrin of the control diet for the corresponding PSF. The control and the experimental diets were chemically characterized. The animals were divided into four groups in order to evaluate growth, ingestion, feces, and cecal pH. The PSFs and the experimental diets presented high contents of alimentary fibers, proteins, and lipids. Similar ingestions of diets containing whole Sifted and Residual - PSF resulted in body weight gain. Rats on diets containing PSFs showed higher feces volume and weight (p > 0.05 in addition to an expressive insoluble fiber excretion, especially in the Residual - PSF group. Only the Residual PSF presented a significant reduction (p < 0.05 in the

  8. Análise da condição corpórea, biometria externa e das vísceras do trato gastrointestinal de canários-da-terra, Sicalis flaveola braziliensis Analysis of body condition and external and gastrointestinal biometry of saffron finch, Sicalis flaveola braziliensis

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    Raul A.S. Siqueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se em canários-da-terra, Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis, apreendidos pelo Cetas-IBAMA/PB e que morreram logo após sua chegada, as medidas biométricas externas, condições corpóreas e de plumagem, medidas biométricas das vísceras do trato gastrointestinal (TGI, assim como a topografia visceral, a fim de fornecer dados morfológicos e caracterizar as condições em esses pássaros chegaram a esse centro de triagem. A topografia visceral estava em consonância com a de periquitos e avestruz, a exceção que essa última espécie apresenta um ceco. Verificou-se que há relação entre as condições corpóreas desfavoráveis e a perda de plumagem. Conclui-se, que S. flaveola braziliensis possui medidas biométricas em consonância á de outros Passeriformes, contudo possui divergências para aves do mesmo gênero e poucas diferenças biométricas entre machos e fêmeas. Através do estudo, verifica-se que as condições corpóreas de animais traficados devem ser consideradas nos centros de triagem, a fim de se fazer um melhor manejo nutricional e/ou clínico, diminuindo a mortalidade.Forty-one saffron finch, Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis, were studied regarding the external biometry, corporeal and plumage conditions, gastrointestinal tract (GIT biometry, and the visceral topography, in order to provide morphological data and to characterize the condition in which these birds came to the wild animal screening Center. The visceral topography was similar to the found in parakeets and ostriches; however the last have a cecum. There was also relationship between the unfavorable body conditions and the loss of feathers. It was concluded that S. flaveola braziliensis has biometric measurements similar to other Passeriformes, however with differences to birds of the same gender, and few biometric differences among males and females. The results demonstrate that the corporal conditions of trafficked animals should be considered in wild

  9. Prevalência e suscetibilidades bacterianas das infecções comunitárias do trato urinário, em Hospital Universitário de Brasília, no período de 2001 a 2005 Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of community acquired urinary tract infection in University Hospital of Brasília, 2001 to 2005

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    Marcelle Cristina da Silva Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A infecção do trato urinário é uma das afecções mais comuns da clínica médica, sendo mandatório o conhecimento epidemiológico da mesma e do perfil de sensibilidade dos agentes etiológicos. O estudo teve como objetivo identificar os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentes e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos das bactérias isoladas de uroculturas de pacientes ambulatoriais atendidos no Hospital Universitário de Brasília no período de 2001 a 2005. Foram analisadas 2.433 uroculturas positivas realizadas no laboratório de microbiologia do Hospital Universitário de Brasília. A Escherichia coli foi a bactéria mais isolada (62,4%, seguida de Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,8% e Proteus mirabillis (4,7%. A Escherichia coli apresentou maior sensibilidade à amicacina (98,6%, gentamicina (96,2%, nitrofurantoína (96,3%, e às quinolonas ciprofloxacina (90,9% e norfloxacina (89,8%, com baixa sensibilidade ao sulfametoxazol-trimetoprima (50,6%. As outras bactérias apresentaram similar padrão de sensibilidade. Em conclusão, a Escherichia coli foi a bactéria mais isolada, sendo altamente sensível aos amiglicosídeos, nitrofurantoína e quinolonas.Urinary tract infection is among the most common infectious diseases in clinical medicine, and knowledge of its epidemiology and the sensitivity profile of the etiological agents is mandatory. The aim of this study was to identify the most frequent etiological agents and the profile of sensitivity to antimicrobial agents of the bacteria isolated from urine cultures from outpatients at the University Hospital of Brasília between 2001 and 2005. From analyses at the hospital’s microbiology laboratory, there were 2,433 positive urine cultures. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated bacteria (62.4%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.8% and Proteus mirabilis (4.7%. Escherichia coli showed the highest sensitivity to amikacin (98.6%, gentamicin (96.2%, nitrofurantoin (96.3% and the

  10. Morfologia do trato digestório e dieta de larvas de Bryconamericus aff. iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1059 Morphology of Digestive tract and diet of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii larvae (Boulenger, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1059

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    Keshiyu Nakatani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar alguns aspectos da alimentação de larvas de Bryconamericus aff. iheringii, capturadas nos meses de julho e novembro de 2001, nas regiões limnética e litorânea do reservatório de Santa Maria, rio Piquiri, Estado do Paraná. As larvas apresentaram boca subterminal durante todo o seu desenvolvimento. O tubo digestório se diferenciou em estômago e intestino apenas no estágio de pós-flexão. As larvas consumiram, principalmente, algas e microcrustáceos, o que permitiu caracterizá-las como planctófagas. A intensa modificação morfológica no trato digestório nos indivíduos em pós-flexão coincidiu com o aumento na abundância de algas em relação aos itens de origem animal; porém, de forma geral, a ocorrência aumentou para todos os itens. A análise do grau de digestão dos itens alimentares sugeriu que indivíduos em pré-flexão alimentaram-se, possivelmente, durante o dia, e os mais desenvolvidos, durante o entardecer e no período noturnoThe aim of this study was to analyze some feeding treats of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii larvae, sampled in both the limnetic and littoral regions of the Piquiri River, in Santa Maria reservoir, between July and November 2001. The larvae presented sub-terminal mouth in larval period. The digestive tract differentiated in terms of stomach and intestine only in the postflexion larvae. The larvae fed mainly on algae and microcrustacea allowing to characterize them as planktivorous. The intense morphologic shift in the digestive tract in the postflexion larvae coincided with an increase in the abundance of algae in relation to animals items; however, in general, all the items had their occurrence increased. Analysis of the digestion stage suggested that preflexion larvae, possibly, fed themselves during the day, and those more developed, at dusk and night

  11. Infecções do trato urinário em pacientes não hospitalizados: etiologia e padrão de resistência aos antimicrobianos Urinary tract infections in non hospitalized patients: etiology and antibiotic resistance patterns

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    Alexandre Braoios

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: Infecção do trato urinário (ITU é comumente diagnosticada na prática médica, e é cada vez mais comum o isolamento de cepas resistentes em pacientes não hospitalizados. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a frequência e a resistência dos principais uropatógenos na cidade de Presidente Prudente, SP, entre janeiro de 2006 e dezembro de 2007. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Nós realizamos um levantamento de dados retrospectivo sobre a etiologia e o padrão de resistência dos uropatógenos. RESULTADOS: O uropatógeno mais frequente foi E. coli (65,97%. Foi encontrada diferença significativa (p INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infection (UTI is frequently diagnosed in medical practice and the isolation of resistant strains in non-hospitalized patients is increasingly common. Our objective was to evaluate the frequency and resistance of uropathogens in the city of Presidente Prudente, Brazil, between January 2006 and December 2007. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective investigation into the etiology and resistance patterns of uropathogens. RESULTS: The most frequent uropathogen was E. coli (65.97%. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05 in the prevalence of E. coli according to the age group. Ampicillin and nitrofurantoin showed, respectively, smaller and larger inhibitory power against enterobacteria. However, 88.4% of Proteus mirabilis showed resistance to nitrofurantoin as well as wider resistance pattern. Resistance rates to ceftriaxone suggest production of ESBL. DISCUSSION: Our data are similar to those found in other studies. It is important that the local medical community should be acquainted with these findings as well as data from future studies that can detect changes in etiology or resistance pattern in our region. This monitoring is an important tool for the update of empirical therapy. CONCLUSION: The data reported herein show that the etiology of urinary infections is very similar to

  12. Infecções do trato urinário

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Susana; Cambão, Marta; Vieira, Sandra; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2005-01-01

    O sistema urinário é uma das quatro vias de excreção existentes no corpo humano. A sua exposição a factores exteriores e/ou interiores torna-o sensível a diversas infecções, pelo que, actualmente, em termos de quadro clínico. as patologias relacionadas com as infecções do tracto urinário (ITU), nomeadamente, a uretrite, cistite, síndroma uretral agudo e pielonefrite, são bastantes comuns.

  13. Variação nas medidas corporais e desenvolvimento do trato reprodutivo de novilhas de corte recriadas para o acasalamento aos 18 meses de idade Body measurements variations and development of the reproductive tract of beef heifers reared for breeding at 18 months of age

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    Yuri Regis Montanholi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do ganho de peso no período de recria, dos 13 aos 19 meses de idade, em algumas medidas de desenvolvimento corporal de novilhas de corte de reposição, da raça Hereford, mantidas em pastagem nativa. O período experimental foi compreendido entre 15/11/2002 e 23/04/2003. Os tratamentos foram três taxas de ganho de peso, em animais de 13 a 14 meses de idade, sendo: G600 - 20 novilhas (208+1,8kg submetidas a um ganho diário médio (GDM de 0,595kg dia-1; G700 - 23 novilhas (197+1,7kg submetidas a um GDM de 0,637kg dia-1 e G800 - 24 novilhas (181+1,2kg submetidas a um GDM de 0,723kg dia-1. Os GDM foram estabelecidos para que todos os animais atingissem 300kg (ou 65% do peso adulto ao início da estação de monta. Foram avaliados os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre o peso, a altura da garupa (AG, o perímetro torácico (PT, a relação peso:altura (PA e sobre o escore de trato reprodutivo (ETR. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 no incremento da AG e do PT e na PA entre os grupos experimentais. O peso vivo foi altamente correlacionado (PThis study was aimed at evaluating the effects of growth rate during the rearing phase of 13 to 19 months old replacement beef heifers Hereford on body development reared on native pasture. The experiment was conducted from 11/15/2002 to 04/23/2003. The treatments were the three weight gain rates: G600 - 20 heifers (208+1.8kg submitted to an average growth rate (AGR of 0.595kg day-1; G700 - 23 heifers (197+1.7kg with an AGR of 0.637kg day-1 and G800 - 24 heifers (181+1.2kg with an AGR of 0.723kg day-1. The three AGR aimed for a body weight of 300kg (or 65% of the expected adult weight at the end of the rearing phase. Treatment effects were determined on body weight, hip height (HH, heart girth (HG, weight:height ratio (WH and reproductive tract score (RTS. No differences (P>0.05 among treatments were observed on the increment of HH, HG and WH at the end of the

  14. Sintomas do trato digestivo superior e distúrbios motores do esôfago em pacientes portadores da forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas crônica Upper gastrointestinal symptoms and esophageal motility disorders in indeterminate Chagas’ disease patients

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    Rafaela de Liz P. Sanchez-Lermen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo descreve os sintomas referidos por portadores da forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas crônica e avalia sua associação com alterações da motilidade esofágica. Manometria do esôfago foi realizada em 50 pacientes, medindo-se a extensão e a pressão do esfíncter inferior do esôfago, o peristaltismo e a amplitude de contração do corpo esofágico. Oito (16% pacientes apresentaram relaxamento parcial do esfíncter inferior, 13 (26% apresentaram aperistalse parcial e 20 (40% apresentaram hipocontratilidade no esôfago distal. Sintomas digestivos altos foram referidos por 24 (48% pacientes, sendo mais freqüentes a pirose, a regurgitação e o desconforto intermitente à deglutição. Esses sintomas foram referidos por 17 (51,5% de 33 pacientes com alterações motoras do esôfago e por 7 (41,2% de 17 pacientes com manometria normal, diferença essa não estatisticamente significante (p=0,69. Esses achados sugerem que portadores da FCI apresentam sintomas inespecíficos do trato digestivo superior que podem dificultar a sua classificação com base apenas no exame clínico e radiológico, e que é alta a freqüência de portadores desta forma que apresentam distúrbios motores do esôfago.This study describes the symptoms reported by patients with the indeterminate form of chronic Chagas’ disease and evaluates associations between these symptoms and alterations in esophageal motility. Esophageal manometry was performed on 50 patients, with measurements of the length and pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter, peristaltism and the amplitude of contractions of the esophageal body. Eight (16% patients presented partial relaxation of the lower sphincter, 13 (26% presented partial lack of peristalsis and 20 (40% presented hypocontractility of the distal esophagus. Upper digestive symptoms were reported by 24 (48% patients, and the most frequent of these were heartburn, regurgitation and intermittent discomfort when swallowing

  15. Physician-patient communication in the prevention of female reproductive tract infections: some limitations Comunicação entre médicos e mulheres na prevenção das infecções do trato reprodutivo: algumas limitações

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    María Y. Makuch

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the information that women with tubal infertility recalled having received from physicians when they consulted for a reproductive tract infection (RTI and the information physicians reported having provided to women consulting for RTIs. Interviews were conducted with 16 women presenting primary tubal infertility selected on the basis of purposeful sampling criteria. Also, 15 physicians working in the public health network in the city of Campinas, Brazil, were selected at random and interviewed. Analysis of the women's statements concerning previous RTI-related medical consultations showed that they did not recall having received any information on either prevention or the impact of RTI on their reproductive future. Analysis of interviews with physicians showed that the information they provided to women consulting for RTIs was incomplete and unclear. The information women recalled having received and that which physicians remembered having provided at the time of treating a patient with RTI was similar. In conclusion, these women lacked adequate or complete information and that it was probably not possible for them to adopt measures to avoid repetition of RTI and minimize risk of tubal infertility.O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a informação que mulheres com esterilidade tubária lembravam haver recebido dos médicos quando elas compareceram à consulta em virtude de infeções do trato reprodutivo (ITR, assim como a informação que os médicos referiram dar-lhes no momento da consulta. Foram entrevistadas 16 mulheres com esterilidade primária de causa tubária, selecionadas seguindo o critério de amostra proposital. Foram selecionados ao acaso e entrevistados 15 médicos da rede pública de Campinas, SP, Brasil. A análise das respostas das mulheres mostrou que elas não lembravam de ter recebido informação a respeito de meios de prevenção ou sobre o impacto das ITRs em seu futuro

  16. OBTENTION METHODS OF RESPIRATORY TRACT CELSS IN HEALTHY SHEEP BY THE TRACHEOBRONCHEAL LAVAGE TECHNIQUE BY NASOTRACHEAL VIA METODOLOGIA DE COLHEITA DE CÉLULAS DO TRATO RESPIRATÓRIO EM OVINOS SADIOS ATRAVÉS DA TÉCNICA DE LAVAGEM TRAQUEOBRÔNQUICA POR VIA NASOTRAQUEAL

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    Roberto Calderon Gonçalves

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The technique of pulmonary cells obtention by nasotracheal intubation was evaluated and the cellular population of 19 healthy sheep was characterized. The animals were hold standing still with head and neck strait; aligned with the vertebral spine and a silicone tube guide till the carina, to introduce a lower caliber tube for precede the tracheobronchial lavage. The average counting of nucleated cells was 64.650 ± 49.674. The cytological analyses of the samples slowed by the average of obtained percentages: 62.74% of macrophages, 15.01% cylindrical epithelial cells, 20.04% of neutrophills, 1.44 of lymphocytes and 0.77% of eosinophills. It was concluded that this methods of sample obtention by nasotracheal intubation to reach the tracheobronchial region was efficient to cytological characterization and cellular differentiation in the obtained samples, being well supported by the animals.

     

    KEY WORDS: Citocentrifugation, cytology, tracheobronchial lavage, sheep.

    Avaliou-se a técnica de colheita de células do trato respiratório em ovinos, por sondagem nasotraqueal, e caracterizou-se a população celular em dezenove ovinos clinicamente sadios. Os animais foram contidos em estação, com cabeça e pescoço estendidos e alinhados com a coluna vertebral. Após a contenção, introduziu-se uma sonda-guia siliconizada até a bifurcação da traquéia, por dentro da qual se passou uma sonda de menor calibre, para realização do lavado traqueobrônquico. A média da contagem de células nucleadas foi de 64.650 ± 49.674. A análise citológica das amostras evidenciou, pelas médias das porcentagens obtidas, 62,74% de macrófagos, 15,01% de células epiteliais cilíndricas, 20,04% de neutrófilos, 1,44% de linfócitos e 0,77% de eosinófilos. Concluiu-se que o método de colheita por sondagem nasotraqueal foi eficiente na obtenção de amostras de regi

  17. Estudo comparativo dos meios de contraste baritado e iodado-iônico e não-iônico no trato respiratório de ratos Comparative study of barium and iodine agents - ionic and nonionic on the respiratory tract of the rats

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    Maria de Lourdes Pessole Biondo-Simões

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Durante estudos radiológicos pode ocorrer a passagem do meio de contraste para a árvore traqueo-brônquica, determinando reações adversas e até fatais. O objetivo deste estudo é conhecer as alterações desencadeadas no trato respiratório pela presença do meio de contraste. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 91 ratos divididos, aleatoriamente, em 4 grupos. Um grupo de controle não manipulado com 7 animais e os demais grupos com 21 ratos. O grupo controle manipulado recebeu solução fisiológica e os grupos de experimento: bário, iodo ônico e iodo não iônico conforme o grupo a que pertenciam. Sob anestesia e visibilização direta da traquéia, injetou-se 0,75 ml/kg (0,25 ml do meio de contraste de acordo com o grupo ao qual pertencesse o animal. Realizaram-se as aferições com 1 hora, 1 dia e 1 semana. Os ratos foram sorteados para a autanásia nos três tempos estudados. Fez-se documentação radiográfica seguida da ressecção dos pulmões e exame histo-patológico. RESULTADOS: Na primeira hora, no grupo que recebeu bário, os campos médios e o superior direito ficaram acometidos. Nos grupos que receberam iodo iônico e iodo não iônico, todo o pulmão direito mostrava-se opacificado. Nas avaliações de uma dia e 1 semana os grupos que receberam iodo estavam normais enquanto que o grupo que recebeu bário mostrava comprometimento dos campos médios. No estudo histo-patológico observou-se, no grupo que recebeu bário, na avaliação de uma semana, grande quantidade de macrófagos intra-alveolares, perivasculares e peribrônquicos. CONCLUSÃO: Os contrastes iodados iônico e não iônico levam a alterações passageiras enquanto que o bário promove reação inflamatória crônica com manutenção da tradução radiográfica, no rato.PURPOSE: During roadiologic studies, passage of the contrast medium to the tracheobronchial tree may occur, causibng adverse or even fatal reactions. The objective of the present study was to

  18. Maus-tratos infantis: um resgate da história e das políticas de proteção Maltrato infantil: un rescate de la historia y de las políticas de protección Child abuse: a review of the history and protection policies

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    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo apresenta uma revisão bibliográfica, cujo objetivo foi conhecer e divulgar a evolução histórica da violência contra a criança, bem como as políticas desenvolvidas na atenção à violência contra menores, além de discutir a importância da prevenção e da atuação dos profissionais de saúde. A pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada na base de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO, selecionando-se os estudos com os descritores: Violência, Agressão, Maus-Tratos, Síndrome da Criança Maltratada, Pediatria, não se fazendo restrição aos idiomas espanhol, inglês e francês. A literatura mostra a importância de ações preventivas e a necessidade de discussões e reflexões entre os diferentes setores que possam culminar em políticas e estratégias preventivas, diagnósticas e terapêuticas, além da relevância de incluir o tema na formação dos profissionais de saúde para que possam contribuir para o diagnóstico, tratamento e profilaxia do abuso infantil, rompendo as cadeias de determinação e fatalidade.El estudio tuvo por objetivo realizar una revisión bibliográfica, con la finalidad de conocer y divulgar la evolución histórica de la violencia contra los niños, así como las políticas desarrolladas en la atención a la violencia contra menores; además se discute la importancia de la prevención y de la actuación de los profesionales de la salud. La investigación bibliográfica fue realizada en la base de datos MEDLINE, LILACS y SciELO, seleccionando los estudios con las palabras claves: Violencia, Agresión, Maltrato, Síndrome del Niño Maltratado y, Pediatría; no se hizo restricción a los idiomas castellano, inglés y francés. La literatura muestra la importancia de las acciones preventivas y la necesidad de discutir y reflexionar, entre los diferentes sectores, para que culminen en políticas y estrategias preventivas, diagnósticas y terapéuticas. Es relevante incluir el tema en la formación de los

  19. A lesão do trato de Lissauer e do corno posterior da substância cinzenta da medula espinal e a estimulação elétrica do sistema nervoso central para o tratamento da dor por avulsão de raízes do plexo braquial DREZ lesions and electrical stimulation of the central nervous system for treatment of brachial plexus avulsion pain

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    MANOEL JACOBSON TEIXEIRA

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos os resultados do tratamento operatório de 10 doentes com dor resultante de avulsão de raízes do plexo braquial. Sete foram tratados pela técnica de lesão do trato de Lissauer (TL e do corno posterior da medula espinal (CPME, 4 pela técnica de estimulação elétrica da medula espinal (EM e 2 pela técnica de estimulação talâmica (ET. Três doentes foram tratados por ambos os procedimentos. Foi observada melhora imediata em 50% dos doentes com a técnica de estimulação medular e em apenas 25% dos casos, a longo prazo. Ocorreu melhora imediata, mas recorrência tardia da dor nos 2 doentes tratados pela ET. Houve melhora imediata de todos os doentes tratados pela técnica da lesão e recidiva parcial da dor em 23% dos casos, a longo prazo. Complicações temporárias foram observadas em 28,6% dos casos tratados pela técnica de lesão. Conclui-se que a lesão do TL e do CPME proporcionam resultados mais satisfatórios a longo prazo que a técnica de estimulação (p = 0,0046; entretanto, esta última é mais segura.We analyze the effectiveness of the treatment of 10 patients of brachial plexus avulsion pain. Seven underwent dorsal root entry zone lesions (DREZ, 3, dorsal column stimulation (DCS and, 2 thalamic stimulation (TS. DCS resulted in immediate improvement of pain in 50% of the patients. After a long term follow up period, just 25% of the patients were still better. TS resulted the in temporary improvement of 2 patients. Both had full recurrence few months after the operation. Immediate improvement of the symptoms occurred in all patients treated by DREZ. After a long term follow up period, excellent results were observed in 71.4% of the patients and good results in the remainder. The complication rate was higher among DREZ patients. It is concluded that DREZ is a better procedure for treatment of brachial plexus avulsion pain than DCS and TS (p = 0,0046; however, DCS and TS are safer.

  20. Sacroiliitis: imaging evaluation; Sacroiliite: avaliacao por imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Clinicas da Imagem e Multimagem, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: cmontandon@terra.com.br

    2007-01-15

    Sacroiliitis is a non-infectious inflammatory process involving the sacroiliac joint, and is a diagnostic criterion for seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Imaging methods are of great value for confirming the diagnosis of this condition. The present study is a review of cases included in didactic files and in the literature to illustrate the anatomy, techniques, and main imaging findings in x-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for determining the diagnosis of sacroiliitis, also approaching main differential diagnoses. (author)

  1. Fluxo biológico do fósforo no metabolismo de suínos alimentados com dietas contendo fitase Biological P flow on metabolism of pigs fed diets containg phytase

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    José Aparecido Moreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi conduzida para avaliar o fluxo biológico do P em suínos, na fase de crescimento, alimentados com dietas à base de milho, farelo de soja, farelo de arroz desengordurado e óleo de soja, isentas de P inorgânico e suplementadas com níveis crescentes de fitase (253, 759, 1.265 e 1.748 UF/kg de dieta, e destacar o melhor nível de utilização da enzima, usando modelos matemáticos. O modelo utilizado foi determinístico e compartimental, em que o trato gastrintestinal (C1, o plasma C2, os ossos (C3 e os tecidos moles (ossos, coração, figado, rins e músculos, estudados em conjunto (C4, representaram os compartimentos. Foram utilizados dados de metabolismo e cinética do P nos tecidos, obtidos pela técnica de diluição isotópica. Os parâmetros estimados foram: absorção, retenção, P endógeno que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal, P dietético absorvido, incorporação, reabsorção, balanço de P, P proveniente do osso, dos tecidos moles e do total absorvido que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal. o modelo biomatemático utilizado mostrou-se eficiente em explicar o fluxo do fósforo no organismo de suínos em crescimento. A fitase interferiu no fluxo biológico do P do compartimento C1 para o C3 e no refluxo dos compartimentos C3 e C4 para o C1. O nível 759 UF/kg de ração disponibilizou mais eficientemente o fósforo orgânico para o metabolismo dos suínos.The study was conducted to evaluate the biological flow of P in pigs fed diets based on corn, soybean meal, defatted rice bran (DRB and soybean oil, with increasing phytase levels (253, 759, 1265 and 1748 PU/kg of diet, using mathematics models. The model was deterministic and compartimental, in which the gastrintestinal tract (GIT (C1, the plasma C2, the bones (C3 and the soft tissues (liver, heart, kidney and muscle (C4 represented the compartments. Metabolism data and kinetics of P in tissues were used in the model, obtained by the isotopic dilution technique. The

  2. Accuracy of simple urine tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections in low-risk pregnant women La exactitud del examen de orina simple para diagnosticar infecciones del tracto urinario en gestantes de bajo riesgo Acurácia do exame de urina simples para diagnóstico de infecções do trato urinário em gestantes de baixo risco

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    Danielle Cristina Alves Feitosa

    2009-08-01

    ón de urocultura para el diagnóstico.Alterações anatômicas e fisiológicas da gravidez predispõem gestantes a infecções do trato urinário (ITU. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a acurácia do exame de urina simples para diagnóstico de ITU em gestantes de baixo risco. Fez-se uso do estudo de desempenho de teste diagnóstico realizado em Botucatu, SP, com 230 gestantes, entre 2006 e 2008. Os resultados mostram que a prevalência de ITU foi de 10%. A sensibilidade foi 95,6%, especificidade 63,3% e acurácia 66,5% do exame de urina simples, em relação ao diagnóstico de ITU. A análise dos valores preditivos positivo e negativo (VPP e VPN mostrou que, na vigência de exame de urina simples normal, a chance de haver ITU foi pequena (VPN 99,2%. Frente ao resultado alterado desse exame, a probabilidade de haver ITU foi baixa (VPP 22,4%. Conclui-se que a acurácia do exame de urina simples como meio diagnóstico de ITU foi baixa, sendo indispensável a realização de urocultura para o diagnóstico.

  3. Modelo do fluxo biológico do fósforo de fontes de fosfato em suínos, usando o 32P como marcador Model of the biological flow of phosphorus from phosphate sources in pig, using 32P as marker

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    João Batista Lopes

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa destinou-se a simular modelos matemáticos relacionados ao fluxo de fósforo (P, partindo-se das hipóteses de que o P endógeno do trato digestivo foi absorvido na mesma proporção do P alimentar e o fluxo de entrada e de saída desse mineral nos compartimentos foi constante. Foram avaliadas as variáveis absorção, retenção, P endógeno que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal, P dietético absorvido, incorporação, reabsorção e balanço de P no osso e nos tecidos moles e P proveniente do osso, dos tecidos moles e do total absorvido, que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal, em suínos em crescimento, alimentados com dietas contendo P de diferentes fontes de fosfato. O modelo usado foi determinístico e compartimental, em que o trato gastrintestinal (C1, os ossos (C2 e os tecidos moles, fígado, coração, rim e músculo, estudados em conjunto (C3, representaram os compartimentos. Foram utilizadas informações sobre metabolismo e cinética do fósforo em tecidos, obtidas pela técnica da diluição isotópica. Constatou-se que as hipóteses estabelecidas no modelo estão coerentes e os valores obtidos se ajustam ao fluxo do fósforo em suínos; as variáveis P consumido, P endógeno, que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal, P absorvido de origem dietética, retenção de P, incorporação, reabsorção e balanço de P do osso e dos demais tecidos e fração de P do total absorvido que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal não foram influenciadas pelas fontes suplementares de fósforo; a origem do fósforo dietético pode interferir na distribuição do P nos tecidos, após o processo de absorção desse mineral; e o P proveniente do absorvido que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal foi proporcional ao P consumido.The experiment was designed to simulate the mathematical models that relate to the phophorus (P flow, considering the hypotheses that the endogenous phosphorus from digestive tract was absorbed in the same proportion of the dietary

  4. Antifungigrama para comprovar o potencial de ação dos extratos vegetais hidroglicólicos sobre Candida sp. (Berkhout)

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    Glehn,E.A.V.; Rodrigues,G.P.S.

    2012-01-01

    A candidíase vaginal é uma doença causada, na maioria das vezes, pelo fungo do gênero Candida sp, que habita o trato gastrintestinal e geniturinário da espécie humana e pode tornar-se patogênico sob determinadas condições. A maioria dos indivíduos desenvolve defesas imunológicas que impedem a proliferação e desenvolvimento de candidíase localizada ou disseminada. Embora a causa exata do aumento de espécies não-albicans seja desconhecida, há evidências de que a própria terapia antifúngica poss...

  5. Análise da resistência às quinolonas e sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim em uroculturas positivas para Escherichia coli em infecções do trato urinário comunitárias no período de 2010 a 2014 em Itajubá – MG / Analysis of quinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance in positive Escherichia coli urucultures in urinary tract infections in a community environment from 2010 to 2014 in Itajubá – MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia\tCoura\tda\tSilva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As infecções do trato urinário (ITU, de origem comunitária, são diagnósticos muito prevalentes a nível ambulatorial, sendo uma grande causa de uso de antibioticoterapia. Seus agentes etiológicos mais prevalentes são os bacilos gram-negativos da família Enterobacteriaceae, em especial a Escherichia coli (E. coli. Visando este agente, as terapias antimicrobianas empíricas mais utilizadas no Brasil são o sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, quinolonas, cefalosporinas de 1º e 2º geração, amoxicilina e nitrofurantoína. Objetivos: Tendo em vista o aumento da antibioticorresistência a estes medicamentos, demonstrado na literatura médica mundial, e a importância do conhecimento deste dado pela comunidade médica local, este artigo pretende traçar o perfil de resistência às quinolonas e ao sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim pelas cepas de E. coli isoladas de uroculturas de ITU comunitária, encaminhadas para um laboratório de análises clínicas, de uma cidade do sul de Minas Gerais, no período de 2010 a 2014. Métodos: Estudo descritivo e retrospectivo por meio de pesquisa em banco de dados, no período de 2010 a 2014. Foram realizadas análises de urocultura e antibiograma, com cálculo estatístico utilizando-se o teste qui-quadrado. Resultados: Foram obtidas 14870 uroculturas, tendo crescimento bacteriano maior que 105 unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC em 3073 amostras, das quais 2203 foram cepas de E. coli e 870 de outras bactérias. A taxa global de resistência nos 5 anos de todos os antibióticos foi de 24,46%, sendo que a de sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim em específico foi de 19,65% e a do grupo quinolonas, 19,2%. Observou-se aumento da resistência ao longo dos 5 anos (p<0,0001 e que é mais incidente em mulheres e em maiores de 65 anos. Conclusão: As taxas de resistência às quinolonas e ao sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim atingiram níveis próximos do limiar permitido para seu uso empírico. A idade e o gênero mostram

  6. “PERCEPCIÓN DE L ADULTO MAYOR DEL TRATO DIGNO QUE BRINDA ENFERMERI A”

    OpenAIRE

    ANGUI ANO MORAN, ANA CELIA

    2012-01-01

    La práctica de la enfermería gerontológica, precisa una preparación, una infraestructura, un funcionamiento y una tecnología especial, en la cual se debe trabajar en forma interdisciplinaria, siendo esto un factor de vital importancia para poder brindar una atención de calidad a la población con estas características. El envejecimiento es un proceso complejo con componentes fisiológicos, psicológicos y sociológicos todos entrelazados entre sí. El anciano tiene una amplia gam...

  7. Análisis del trato del patrimonio filosófico en equipamientos patrimoniales

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    Jordi Arcos Pumarola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The heritage centres dedicated to philosophy are a minority in the cultural tourism context, since the philosophical heritage, given its immateriality and its complexity, does not have a large tradition in being communicated through the exhibition context. This paper aims to ground the bases for a suitable highlighting of the philosophical heritage in heritage centres. With this ultimate goal, the article offers in the first place an analysis of the museographic resources used in philosophical exhibitions, in order to verify if the proposal of such centres is able to communicate the exhibition’s content in a didactic way to its visitors, and to confirm, thereby, the adequacy of the use that they make of such philosophical heritage. In the second place, using the results of that research and the theoretical frame of the didactic museography, the article presents a good practice manual for the conceptualization and development of cultural and touristic products based in such heritage, with the intention that it will contribute to the development of exhibitions able to emphasize the richness of the philosophical heritage.

  8. Malos tratos y violencia conyugal en la sociedad vasca de la Edad Moderna

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    Iñaki Reguera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los archivos de los tribunales civiles y eclesiásticos con jurisdicción en el País Vasco en la Edad Moderna, constatan la existencia de un número importante de casos sobre violencia doméstica. Los ejemplos con los que contamos, fruto de una subordinación cultural y jurídica de la mujer a su marido, llegaron a los tribunales impulsados por la esposas como consecuencia de abusos y crueldades reiteradas por parte de los hombres. Este trabajo recoge varios ejem-plos ilustrativos donde se describen sus prota-gonistas, las causas de las disputas, así como las actitudes que las maltratadas, los maltratadores, los jueces, parientes y vecinos adoptaron frente al fenómeno de la violencia conyugal.

  9. EFEITO DO LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM NO TRATO INTESTINAL DE ALEVINOS DE OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

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    José Luís Pedreira Mouriño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the intestinal tract microbiota and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum. One hundred and twenty sexually reversed fingerlings were stocked in six aquaria and divided into two treatments, in triplicate: fingerlings fed diet supplement with L. plantarum and fingerlings fed control diet. After 42 days, tilapia fed the diet supplemented with L. plantarum had higher amount of lactic acid bacteria, 3,5x104 CFU and 1,1x102 CFU per g tract, and lower total bacteria, 5,8x106 CFU and 5,2x107 CFU per g tract, than the fish fed the control diet. Furthermore, probiotics increased 3,9% the weekly weight gain, 15,6% final biomass and 15,5% feed efficiency. The use of probiotics in tilapia hatcheries boosts productivity.

  10. Gastrintestinal helminths Of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 -Smith, 1839 from the caatinga area of the Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Roberto César Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 – Smith, 1839, is a medium sized canid which is found in almost every region of Brazil. It is the only registered native canid specie to be found in the semi-arid Northeastern region of the country. This study had as its objectives: the identification of the helminth fauna common to Cerdocyon thous found in the Caatinga of the state of Paraíba; and the determination of the ecological indications of helminthic infection, hoping to make a favourable addition to the understanding of this little known biome. In this study, 58 animals that were found as ‘roadkill’ on the highways in the municipality of Patos were used. The gastrointestinal helminths from these animals were colected. All the animals in this study were infected with helminths. 16 species of helminths were identified, two being trematodes, one being a cestode, one being an acanthocephalus, and the remaining twelve being nematodes. In this study a new specie, named Pterygodermatites pluripectinata n. sp. Was discovered and its host and location described.

  11. Technical evaluation of thermodynamics processes; Avaliacao tecnica dos processos termodinamicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petracco, Fulvio Celso

    1986-05-01

    An evaluation of thermodynamic processes, energy losses the origin of energy losses on thermodynamic process, where are the points or sources of those losses and variation of process when compared in relation of thermodynamic performance are discussed. The concept of energy losses and its origin, energy and work capacity, performance rates and examples of thermodynamic efficiency are also debated 3 figs.

  12. Radiologic evaluation of facial injury; Avaliacao radiologica dos traumatismos faciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Volpato, Richard [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: richard_volpato@uol.com.br; Nascimento, Lia Paula [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-03-01

    A detailed radiological investigation of the maxillofacial injuries is essential to achieve good treatment results. The images should identify every lesion and guide the treatment, thus improving esthetic and functional results. With the aim of simplifying the diagnostic task, the face may be seen as a five regions structure that may suffer a regional fracture or combined fractures involving the adjacent regions. These regions represent areas of focus for pre surgical planning and are as follows: nasal, orbital, zygomatic, maxillary, and mandibular. In order to understand the injury mechanisms and their consequences it is useful to know the supporting buttresses, which are divided in five sagittal planes, three horizontal planes and two coronal planes. We reviewed the cases of patients with facial trauma treated at Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A review of the relevant issues concerning radiological investigation of these injuries is presented. This study allowed standardization and ordering of the radiological investigation in patients with facial trauma. (author)

  13. Calcaneal tendon: imaging findings; Tendao calcaneo: avaliacao por imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Fonseca, Cristiano Rezio; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: crismontandon@hotmail.com; Lobo, Leonardo Valadares; Ribeiro, Flavia Aparecida de Souza; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem e Anatomia Patologica

    2003-12-01

    We reviewed the radiological and clinical features of 23 patients with calcaneal tendon diseases, who were submitted to ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. The objective of this study was to characterize the lesions for a precise diagnosis of calcaneal tendon injuries. A wide range of calcaneal tendon diseases include degenerative lesions, inflammation of the peritendinous tissue such as peritendinitis and bursitis, and rupture. Imaging methods are essential in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of calcaneal tendon diseases. (author)

  14. Seismic evaluation of nuclear installations; Avaliacao sismica de instalacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    Some considerations regarding extreme external events, natural or man-induce, such as earthquakes, floods, air crashes, etc, shall be done for nuclear facilities to minimizing the potential impact of the installation on the public and the environment. In this paper the main aspects of the seismic evaluation of nuclear facilities (except the nuclear power reactors) will be presented based on different codes and standards. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. An assessment of ninth round; Nona: uma avaliacao da rodada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assumpcao, Eduardo; Andrade, Leila; Fontana, Raphaela [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Accomplished on November, 27{sup th}, 2007, 271 exploratory blocks were offered in Round 9, distributed within 14 sectors, totalling an area of 73 thousand km{sup 2}. The following basins were included: Campos, Espirito Santo, Para- Maranhao, Parnaiba, Pernambuco-Paraiba, Potiguar, Santos, Reconcavo and Rio do Peixe. From the original lot of 67 companies qualified (31 Brazilian and 36 of foreign origin), 42 offered bids individually or in partnerships. 117 blocks were allocated to 24 winning operator companies. Other 12 enterprises won acreage as non-operator participants of joint bids. A record of R$ 2,1 billion were offered as signature bonuses along with 169.436 units of the so called minimum exploratory programs. These units may be converted to an estimated R$ 1,4 billion. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the results obtained in Round 9, analyzing collected data through three different perspectives of aggregate results: bidding companies, offered areas and exploratory models. (author)

  16. Heuristicas para avaliacao de interfaces de portais universitarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelogi, A.P.S.; van Amstel, Frederick; Barsottini, C.G.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Heuristic Evaluation method seems to be efficient to diagnose interface usability problems. The propose at this study is to determine whether specific heuristics for university portals are appropriate and contribute to a more specific evaluation of interface usability of the portal of the

  17. Energetic evaluation: public schools sector; Avaliacao energetica: setor escolas publicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jota, Patricia Romeiro da Silva; Ribeiro, Mariane Correa; Martins, Fernando Henrique Dias; Silva, Valeria R. Borges da [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Energia Inteligente

    2010-07-01

    Energy consumption evaluation at schools is very important for school management. However, there is a great difference among consumption rates, and a simplified analysis would lead to wrong evaluation. It is not possible to analyze schools that have different number of students or different sizes, unless these variables are applied. This article proposes a methodology in order to develop a sector analysis taking into account operation features. A case study is presented to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  18. Avaliacao de projeto de promocao da saude para adolescentes

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    Jovino Oliveira Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar programa de promoção de atividade física e de escolhas alimentares entre adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 911 adolescentes de 13 a 18 anos de idade, de escolas públicas de Goiânia, GO, em 2010. Os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos: intervenção (escolas participantes do Projeto Viver Saudável e controle. Foram considerados como atividade física: deslocamento, aulas de educação física na escola, atividade física fora da escola e no lazer. Foram definidos como ativos aqueles que acumularam 300 ou mais minutos por semana. Quanto às escolhas alimentares, foi classificado como adequado o consumo de alimentos protetores em cinco ou mais dias da semana. Foram realizadas análises estatísticas com teste de Qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos adolescentes foi identificada como inativos ou insuficientemente ativos, com 65,7% no grupo intervenção e 65,2% no grupo controle, sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos e com prevalência maior entre o sexo feminino. Pouco mais da metade dos adolescentes consumiam alimentos protetores da saúde em cinco ou mais dias da semana, sendo 56,6% e 50,4%, respectivamente, nos grupos intervenção e controle (p = 0,373. CONCLUSÕES: A ausência de diferenças quanto a escolhas alimentares e prática de atividade física entre os grupos intervenção e controle indica que o projeto Viver Saudável precisa ser reavaliado visando melhorar a efetividade no cumprimento dos seus objetivos.

  19. Bacterial ecology of tilapia fresh fillets and some factors that can influence their microbial quality Ecologia bacteriana de filés frescos de tilápia e de pontos capazes de influenciar a sua qualidade microbiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleube Andrade Boari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research was to investigate the bacterial ecology of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fresh fillets and some factors that can influence its microbial quality. Samples of fish cultivation water (n = 20, tilapia tegument and gut (n = 20 and fresh fillets (n = 20 were collected in an experimental tilapia aquaculture located in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Staphylococcus spp., Aeromonas spp., Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were quantified using selective plating. For the enumeration of Pseudomonas spp., the most probable number technique (MPN was utilized. Bacterial colonies (n = 198 were identified by Gram strain and biochemical tests. Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were found in the cultivation water (water from a fishpond cultivation, tegument, gut, and fresh fillets. Staphylococcus spp. was not isolated in the cultivation water. Salmonella spp. was not detected. The count variable of 10 to 10³ CFU or MPN.(g or mL-1. Associated to freshwater tilapia fillet processing, there is a large variety of microorganisms related to foodborne illnesses and fish products deterioration.A presente pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de se investigar a ecologia microbiana de filés frescos de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus e de pontos capazes de influenciar em sua qualidade microbiológica. Para sua condução, amostras de água de cultivo (n = 20, tegumento e trato gastrintestinal (n = 20 e filés frescos (n = 20 foram coletados em um sistema de produção aqüícola de água doce localizado em Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Staphylococcus spp., Aeromonas spp., Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae foram quantificados através de plaqueamento seletivo. Pseudomonas spp. foi enumerada através da técnica do número mais provável. Colônias (n = 198 foram identificadas por coloração de Gram e testes bioquímicos. Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterococcus spp. e

  20. Cinética de fósforo com modelos matemáticos em ovinos adultos Phosphorus kinetics using mathematical models for adult sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Louvandini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de modelos matemáticos, o metabolismo de fósforo (P em ovinos adultos suplementados com teores crescentes de farinha de ossos calcinados com 0, 1, 2 e 3 g de P por animal por dia. Esses valores representaram diferentes tratamentos, adicionados à dieta basal com 225 g de concentrado e feno ad libitum. Foram utilizados 16 ovinos, Suffolk, com peso vivo de 38,2±4,35 kg e idade média de 18 meses, mantidos em gaiolas individuais. Após 21 dias, 7,4 MBq do radiofósforo (32P foram injetados em cada ovino, e foram coletados sangue, fezes e urina por oito dias, a fim de determinar o fluxo de P entre três compartimentos: trato gastrintestinal, compartimento central (sangue e tecidos (moles e ósseo. Houve relação linear positiva entre o P consumido e o P absorvido, excretado nas fezes, urina e retenção. A perda endógena fecal de P foi exponencial com o aumento de P da dieta. A elevação do teor de P da dieta interfere nas trocas do mineral para o trato gastrintestinal e urinário, o que indica que 0,82 g de P por dia são suficientes para mantença dessa categoria animal.An experiment was carried out to measure the phosphorus (P flows in adult sheep by mathematical model. The work was conducted with 16 Suffolk sheep, live weight of 38.2±4.35 kg and 18-month aged, kept in individual cage to determine the effect of phosphorus (P intake by adding bone meal (0, 1, 2 and 3 g P per animal per day in the basal diet (225 g the concentrate and hay ad libitum. After 21 days, the lambs were injected with 7.4 MBq of 32P to trace the flows of P in the three compartments gastrointestinal tract, central (blood and tissues (soft and bone. There was a positive relationship between P intake and P absorbed, P faeces, P urinary and P retained. Fecal endogenous loss of the P was exponentially related to P intake. The high levels of P on diet affected the exchanges between gastrointestinal and urinary tract. Results

  1. RE-TRATOS DA JUVENTUDE NA CIDADE DE FORTALEZA: DIREITOS HUMANOS E INTERVENÇÕES MICROPOLÍTICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Pereira Barros

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa analisar processos de criminalização e extermínio de jovens em Fortaleza, capital brasileira com maior índice de homicídios desses segmentos, e dar visibilidade a práticas micropolíticas frente a tais aviltamentos de direitos humanos na periferia da cidade. Será utilizado o caso da cidade de Fortaleza para discutir relações entre estado neoliberal e recrudescimento da criminalização e do extermínio de jovens. Em um segundo momento, serão apresentadas experiências institucionais desenvolvidas por um projeto de extensão ligado ao Departamento de Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC, em territórios de Fortaleza com expressivos registros de letalidade juvenil. Destacam-se experiências de criação de dispositivos de análise coletiva da violência urbana envolvendo jovens, na forma de oficinas e rodas de conversa realizadas entre 2015 e 2016, junto a moradores e trabalhadores sociais inseridos em um dos principais equipamentos da política de juventude fortalezense. Será apresentada também a participação das ações extensionistas em atos públicos voltados à problematização do encarceramento e do homicídio de adolescentes e jovens. Conclui-se o artigo apontando a proficuidade dessas análises e experiências para a formação em psicologia, articulando temas como violência, exclusão social e modos de subjetivação. Palavras-chave: Juventude; violência urbana; direitos humanos; psicologia.   This article aims to analyze processes of criminalization and young extermination in Fortaleza, Brazilian capital with the highest murder rate in these segments, and give visibility to micropolitical front interventions such defilements of human rights on the outskirts of the city. relations between neoliberal state and recrudescence of criminalization and extermination of young people will be discussed, emphasizing its brands in Fortaleza. In a second stage, interventions will be presented around the urban violence involving young people developed by extension practices related to the Department of Psychology at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC in Fortaleza territories with significant records of juvenile mortality. Noteworthy are the experiences of creation of collective analysis devices, in the form of workshops and rounds of conversation held between 2015 and 2016, with the residents and social workers inserted in one of the main equipments of Fortaleza youth policy. You will see the participation of extension actions at public events aimed at questioning the imprisonment and murder of young people. We conclude the article pointing out the usefulness and the implication of the relationship between extension and research practices for training in psychology, articulating issues such as violence, social exclusion and modes of subjectivity. Keywords: Youth; urban violence; human rights; psychology

  2. Mecanismos de ação envolvidos nos efeitos da Bardana (Arctium lappa L.) sobre o trato gastrointestinal /

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Cristina dos

    2007-01-01

    Orientadora : Maria Consuelo Andrade Marques Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia. Defesa: Curitiba, 2007 Inclui bibliografia

  3. Efeito dos tratos silviculturais na produtividade e na qualidade da madeira em plantações de Eucalyptus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genilson Cordeiro de Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve os tratamentos culturais que podem ser realizados em plantações de eucalipto, com o intuito de melhorar a produtividade e qualidade da madeira produzida. A escolha do espaçamento inicial de plantio depende do destino final da madeira a ser produzida. O controle de plantas invasoras pode ser de forma manual, mecânica ou química nas linhas e/ou entrelinhas de plantio, este é de suma importância principalmente no estabelecimento da floresta, no qual essas plantas invasoras iram competir pelos recursos do meio com as mudas recém plantadas, retardando o crescimento da floresta. A fertilização pode alterar a estrutura anatômica e a densidade da madeira. A desrama pode melhorar a qualidade da madeira tornando-a isenta de nós. O desbaste é empregado para ampliar o espaço vital, e obter, dessa forma, um maior crescimento em diâmetro das árvores remanescentes.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in lower urinary tract endometriosis: iconographic essay; Ressonancia magnetica na endometriose do trato urinario baixo: ensaio iconografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Claudio Marcio Amaral de Oliveira; Coutinho, Elisa Pompeu Dias; Ribeiro, Erica Barreiros; Domingues, Marisa Nassar Aidar; Junqueira, Flavia Pegado; Coutinho Junior, Antonio Carlos [Clinicas de Diagnostico Por Imagem (CDPI) e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: cmaol@br.inter.net, e-mail: cmaolima@gmail.com

    2009-05-15

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the endometrial cavity and myometrium. Although this is a frequent disease with multifactorial causes, involvement of the lower urinary tract is rare. Magnetic resonance imaging is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of endometriosis in the lower urinary tract, especially for allowing the identification of lesions obscured by adhesions or with subperitoneal extension. The present iconographic essay presents the main magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lower urinary tract involvement by endometriosis. (author)

  5. Peso e rendimento dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros terminados em confinamento com dietas contendo proporções crescentes de resíduo úmido de cervejaria Weight and yield of liveweight components of feedlot finish lambs fed diets with increasing proportions of wet brewery residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Brochier

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de dietas contendo proporções crescentes de resíduo úmido de cervejaria sobre o peso e proporção dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros terminados em confinamento. Foram utilizados 25 cordeiros, machos, não-castrados, da raça Texel, distribuídos aleatoriamente em cinco tratamentos compostos por proporções de 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de substituição do alimento concentrado por resíduo úmido de cervejaria. Utilizou-se dieta composta de feno de Tifton-85 e mistura concentrada em uma relação volumoso:concentrado de 40:60, na matéria seca. O alimento concentrado foi constituído por milho desintegrado, farelo de soja, mistura mineral e resíduo úmido de cervejaria, sendo que suas proporções variaram de acordo com os tratamentos. Houve redução linear dos pesos de sangue, patas, cabeça, fígado, pulmão e baço, e da proporção de fígado, à medida que se elevou a proporção do resíduo úmido de cervejaria nas dietas. A proporção, em relação ao peso vivo, de rúmen/retículo e do trato gastrintestinal, com conteúdo, e do conteúdo gastrintestinal aumentou linearmente, enquanto os pesos de rúmen/retículo, abomaso, intestino delgado e do trato gastrintestinal, sem conteúdo, diminuíram linearmente com o aumento da proporção do resíduo nas dietas. A proporção de rúmen/retículo, sem conteúdo, foi influenciada de forma quadrática.The effect of diets with increasing proportions of wet brewery residue on the weight and proportion of live weight components of feedlot finished lambs was evaluated. Twenty-five non-castrated Texel male lambs were randomly allotted into five groups, consisting in the replacement of the concentrate by wet brewery residue; at the proportions of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Diet composition was Tifton-85 hay and concentrate mixture, in a relation roughage:concentrate of 40:60, based on dry matter (DM. The concentrate was composed of ground corn, soybean meal, mineral

  6. Weight and yield of non-carcass components of Morada Nova lambs fed with different levels of metabolizable energyPeso e rendimento dos componentes não-carcaça de ovinos Morada Nova alimentados com diferentes níveis de energia metabolizável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Araújo Camilo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different metabolizable energy (ME levels on weight of gastrointestinal content, weight and yield of the internal organs and gastrointestinal compartments of Morada Nova growing lambs. Thirty-two animals, non-castrated, with average body weight of 12.12 ± 1.69 kg and two months old approximately, were used. The animals were distributed into four different metabolizable energy (1.28; 1.72; 2.18 and 2.62 Mcal/kg DM levels, in randomized block design with eight replicates per treatment. Tifton 85 hay was used as roughage. There was no effect of energy levels (P > 0.05 on weight of gastrointestinal content. Increased linear effect (P Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de energia metabolizável (EM sobre: peso do conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal, peso e rendimento dos órgãos internos e compartimentos gastrintestinais em ovinos Morada Nova em crescimento. Foram utilizados 32 animais, não castrados, com peso corporal médio de 12,12 ± 1,69 kg e, aproximadamente, dois meses de idade. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro diferentes níveis de EM (1,28; 1,72; 2,18 e 2,62 Mcal/kg de MS, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito repetições por nível de EM. O feno de Tifton 85 foi utilizado como volumoso. Não foi observado efeito (P > 0,05 dos níveis de energia sobre o peso do conteúdo gastrintestinal. Verificou-se efeito linear crescente (P < 0,05 dos níveis de EM sobre os pesos do coração, PTEL (pulmões, traqueia, esôfago e língua, fígado e baço, expressos em kg. Em relação aos compartimentos do trato gastrintestinal foi observado efeito linear crescente (P < 0,05 dos níveis de EM somente sobre o rúmen-retículo, em %, e intestino delgado, em kg. As gorduras perirrenal, omental e mesentérica foram influenciadas pelos níveis de EM (P < 0,05, com incremento linear para os pesos em kg e %. O aumento dos níveis de EM das ra

  7. Componentes não-integrantes da carcaça de novilhos não-castrados ou castrados terminados em confinamento e abatidos aos 16 ou 26 meses de idade Non-carcass components of castrate and non-castrated cattle finished in feedlot and slaughtered at 16 or 26 months of age

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    Fernando Kuss

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os componentes não-integrantes da carcaça de novilhos terminados em confinamento e abatidos aos 16 (superjovem ou 26 (jovem meses de idade. A dieta foi formulada com 50% de volumoso e 50% de concentrado e continha 11,8% de proteína bruta e 2,83 Mcal de energia digestível por kg de matéria seca. Animais superjovens apresentaram maior rendimento de corpo vazio (92,39 versus 89,76% para os jovens, como resultado de seu menor conteúdo gastrintestinal (35,23 versus 53,46 kg para os jovens. Animais não-castrados apresentaram maior peso de cabeça (13,84 versus 12,35 kg, patas (11,12 versus 8,96 kg e couro (46,44 versus 37,71 kg em comparação aos castrados, o que está relacionado ao seu maior peso corporal (541,26 versus 445,47 kg. Observou-se influência da interação categoria x condição sexual sobre o peso absoluto dos órgãos vitais (coração, fígado e pulmões e dos componentes do trato gastrintestinal. O peso total de órgãos vitais e do trato gastrintestinal foi maior nos animais não-castrados, mas deixou de ser significativo quando ajustado para peso de corpo vazio (PCV e de abate (PA. Animais superjovens apresentaram maior peso absoluto das gorduras interna (25,91 versus 20,13 kg e de toalete (13,96 versus 10,98 kg. A castração dos animais resultou em maior participação de gordura interna calculada em relação ao peso de corpo vazio e ao peso de abate.The non-carcass components of castrated and non-castrated cattle (sex condition finished in feedlot and slaughtered at 16 (super young or 26 (young months of age (animal category were evaluated. The diet was formulated to contain 11.8% of CP and 2.83 Mcal/kg DM of DE with 50:50 forage to concentrate ratio (%MS. Super young animals showed higher of empty body dressing percentage (92.39 versus 89.76%, as a result of their lower gastrointestinal content (35.23 versus 53.46 kg as compared to the young animals. Non-castrate animals showed higher head weight (13

  8. Síntese e modelagem molecular do novo derivado indolinônico como candidato a antiinflamatório COX-2 seletivo

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    J. L. SANTOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Os fármacos antiinflamatórios são sabidamente os mais comercializados em todo o mundo, e apesar disto apresentam sérios efeitos colaterais, sobretudo no que se refere ao trato gastrintestinal. A descoberta de novos protótipos com atividade e segurança terapêutica melhoradas continua sendo uma busca constante. Com o advento da química computacional torna-se mais fácil o estudo teórico do comportamento fisiológico de uma nova substância bem como a compreensão do possível mecanismo de ação destas novas moléculas. Assim, através de modelos matemáticos de moléculas e receptores estudouse neste trabalho o composto I (1-(2,6- diclorofenilindolin-2-ona quanto à sua possibilidade de inibir seletivamente a isoforma COX-2 da enzima prostaglandina endoperóxido sintase (PGHS, e também as melhores posições para a introdução de grupamentos químicos e modificações moleculares. Palavras-chave: indolinônico; COX-2; antiinflamatório.

  9. Vasculites pulmonares: quando suspeitar e como fazer o diagnóstico Pulmonary vasculitis: when suspicion equal diagnosis

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    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available As vasculites pulmonares primárias são caracterizadas por processo inflamatório na parede dos vasos pulmonares que leva a isquemia e hemorragia pulmonar com as conseqüentes expressões clínicas e radiológicas. As vasculites pulmonares primárias são acompanhadas de expressão sistêmicas cutâneas, em nervos periféricos, rins, seios da face, olhos e ouvidos, além do trato gastrintestinal, e sistemas cardíaco e nervoso central. O diagnóstico é feito através da associação das informações clínicas, radiológicas e anatomopatológicas. O tratamento com corticosteróides e imunossupressores deve ser instituído precocemente e apresenta altas taxas de remissão.The primary forms of pulmonary vasculitis are characterized by an inflammatory process in the pulmonary vessel walls, leading to pulmonary ischemia and hemorrhage and the consequent clinical and radiological manifestations. These forms of vasculitis are accompanied by symptoms involving the skin, peripheral nerves, kidneys, sinuses, eyes, ears and gastrointestinal tract, as well as the cardiac and central nervous systems. The diagnosis is made through analysis of the clinical, radiological and pathological data. When treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy is initiated early, remission rates are high.

  10. Semi-obstrução intestinal por esclerodermia: relato de caso

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    Juliana Mendes Cardoso

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A esclerodermia ou esclerose sistêmica progressiva é uma doença auto-imune de causa desconhecida que se caracteriza por fibrose da pele, vasos sanguíneos e de alguns outros órgãos, como os pulmões, coração, rins e trato gastrintestinal. Sintomas atribuíveis ao comprometimento gastrintestinal podem estar presentes em até 50% dos pacientes, sendo os mais freqüentes, relacionados às manifestações esofagianas e anorretais. Anormalidades na motilidade intestinal com freqüência levam a desnutrição, supercrescimento bacteriano e quadro de pseudo-obstrução ou mesmo semi-obstrução intestinal. É apresentado um caso de paciente com esclerodermia há 43 anos, evoluindo com quadro de semi-obstrução, apresentando distensão abdominal, cólicas recorrentes e desnutrição grave. Sem resposta ao tratamento clínico foi submetida à cirurgia que evidenciou quadro obstrutivo por comprometimento ileal, o qual foi tratado por bypass íleo-cólico. Lesão intestinal por esclerodermia levando a quadro de obstrução é raramente descrita na literatura médica e, portanto, o tratamento de escolha ainda não foi definido.Scleroderma or progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS is a self-immune illness of unknown cause that is characterized by fibrosis of the skin, blood vessels and some other tissues like the lungs, heart, kidneys and gastrointestinal system. Attributable symptoms to the gastrointestinal involvement can be present in up to 50% of the patients, esophageal and anorectal manifestations being more frequent. Abnormalities in the intestinal motility frequently lead to malnutrition, bacterial over-growth and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. We report a case of scleroderma with intestinal pseudo-obstruction presenting chronic abdominal cramps, bloating and malnutrition with no response to clinical approach. Patient underwent surgery with diagnosis of intestinal obstruction by annular ileal fibrosis treated by ileocolic bypass. Intestinal

  11. Associação de técnicas na estimativa da nematodeose gastrintestinal de caprinos Mestiços Anglo Nubiano Association of techniques for estimation of gastrointestinal nematodeosis in Anglo Nubian crossbred goats

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    Marina Santana Rossi Peixoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A associação de métodos diretos como o exame de fezes, e indiretos como os métodos FAMACHA© e do micro-hematócrito, podem facilitar na classificação de caprinos com relação à resistência e suscetibilidade aos nematoides gastrintestinais. Sessenta caprinos foram avaliados pelo grau FAMACHA©, pela contagem de ovos nas fezes (OPG e volume globular. Por análise de agrupamento hierárquico ascendente foram selecionados aqueles com potencial para resistência aos nematoides gastrintestinais (n=10 e os com potencial para suscetibilidade (n=10. Os caprinos com potencial para suscetibilidade apresentaram os maiores valores do grau FAMACHA©, do OPG, do número de larvas infectantes (L3 de Haemonchus e da concentração de fibrinogênio, e os menores valores de volume globular, proteína total e escore corporal. Foi demonstrado que os graus 3 e 4 foram mais predominantes nos animais com potencial para suscetibilidade, com os percentuais válidos de 45,5 e 30,5 respectivamente, e os graus 2 e 3 nos potenciais para suscetibilidade, com os respectivos percentuais válidos de 34,4 e 51,9. Observou-se que 58,4% dos animais do potencial para suscetibilidade e 90,6% dos potenciais para resistência estavam entre os graus FAMACHA© 1 e 3, o que mostra a maior tendência dos potenciaias para resistência em tolerar a infecção contra nematoides gastrintestinais. O total de estádios jovens e adultos de nematoides dos caprinos com potencial para suscetibilidade foi 2660,4 contra 1669,3 dos potenciaias para resistência. A associação dessas técnicas é um modelo importante na abordagem das nematodeoses em caprinos em condições do semiárido.The association of direct methods, as faecal exams, and indirect methods such as FAMACHA© system and microhematocrit, can facilitate classification of resistant and suscetible goats to gastro-intestinal nematodes. Sixty goats were evaluated using FAMACHA© score, faecal worm egg counts (EPG and packed cell volum. Ten animals with potential to resistance and ten with potential to susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematode were selected by ascendent hierarchic groupment analysis. Goats from potential do susceptibility group presented the highest FAMACHA© score, EPG, Haemonchus L3 number and serum fibrinogem concentration, and the lowest packed cell volum, total serum protein and body score. The FAMACHA© score, 3 and 4, were the most predominant in potential do susceptibility animals with valid percentages of 45.5 and 30.5, respectively and degrees 2 and 3 in potential to resistance group, with respective valid percentages of 34.4 and 51.9. It was also observed that 58.4% of the potential do susceptibility animals and 90.6% of the potential to resistance are between FAMACHA© score 1 and 3, showing tendency of the potential to resistance to tolerate infection to gastro-intestinal nematode. The total number of immature and adult nematode obtained from potential to susceptibility goats was 2660.41 against 1669.34 in potential to resistance group. The association of these techniques is an important model to access nematodiosis in goats under semi-arid conditions.

  12. Radiographic anatomy aspects and gastrointestinal transit time in Podocnemis unifilis troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Podocnemididae). = Aspectos anátomo-radiográficos e tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal em Podocnemis unifilis troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Podocnemididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Moraes Machado Brito; Lucélia Gonçalves Vieira; Cirilo Antônio Paula Lima; Carlos Gomes Ferreira; José Guilherme Souza Pinto; André Luiz Quagliatto Santos

    2010-01-01

    The present study analyzed the radiographic anatomy and determined thegastrointestinal transit time of Podocnemis unifilis. We used ten animals belonging to LAPAS from the Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The animals were orally fed with a barium sulphate suspension at 10 mL kg-1 mixed with mineral oil, at a ratio of 70% of barium sulphate for 30% of mineral oil. Afterwards, the animals underwent radiography in a dorsum ventriloquoal position, with the...

  13. Heavy and viscous oil evaluation in a deep water environment: an integrated evaluation process; Avaliacao de oleo pesado e viscoso em aguas profundas: um processo integrado de avaliacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Wesley S.; Armacanqui, Gina [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    There are many challenges related to heavy and viscous oil reserves evaluation. When this includes a deep-water offshore environment the challenges, including safety issues, increase in complexity. In this paper we share some experiences obtained during the preparation and execution of heavy oil evaluation activities. The process uses the petrophysical and fluid characterization preliminary results obtained during the logging phase as well as prior information from correlation field/wells in order to design the appropriate ESP configuration and location in the DST string as well as the sampler location which should allow monophasic sampling. During the operation a real time interpretation is performed validating the data obtained and sensitizing parameters such as pump frequency, bubble point pressure, GOR and viscosities, allowing the diagnostic of the operation and consequent appropriated flow conditions in order to provide a optimum picture supporting decisions regarding sampling time and other specific evaluation objectives. The examples presented illustrate the methodology proposed of integrated evaluation applied to heavy oil and its benefits. (author)

  14. Carcass and non carcass components characteristics of lambs fed with diets containing castor mea Características da carcaça e dos componentes não-carcaça em ovinos alimentados com rações à base de farelo de mamona

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    Abner José Girão Meneses

    2010-03-01

    , as sobras, mantidas em torno de 15%. O período experimental teve duração de 70 dias, e os animais foram abatidos em seguida. Os ensaios experimentais foram realizados num delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os níveis de substituição para peso vivo (PV, peso vivo de abate (PVA, perdas devido ao jejum (PJ, peso da carcaça quente (PCQ, peso da carcaça fria (PCF, perdas por resfriamento (PR, comprimento da carcaça (CC, perímetro da garupa (PG, largura da garupa (LG e grau de acabamento (GA. A análise de regressão revelou efeito quadrático para rendimento verdadeiro e biológico, além de ter apresentado nível biológico ótimo de 100% de substituição. Na avaliação dos componentes não-carcaça, não foram observadas diferenças para vísceras (VIS, trato gastrintestinal cheio (TGIc, trato gastrintestinal vazio (TGIv, órgãos genitais (ORG, cabeça (CAB e patas (PAT. Na variável pele (PEL, a análise de regressão revelou efeito quadrático, com nível biológico ótimo de 44% de substituição. O farelo de mamona destoxificado pode substituir em até 100% o farelo de soja.

  15. CLINICAL AND ANATOMOHISTOPATOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TWO BROILER ORIGINATED FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INOCULATED EGGS WITH Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4 ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E ANATOMOHISTOPATOLÓGICOS DE PINTOS DE CORTE ORIUNDOS DE OVOS INOCULADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE COM Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4

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    Maria Auxiliadora Andrade

    2009-09-01

    linhagem ISA Label (crescimento lento. Nos dois experimentos, 1,5 X 102 UFC/0,1mL de Salmonella Enteritidis fagotipo 4 foram inoculadas na casca e no albume de ovos férteis no momento da incubação, para averiguar os sinais clínicos, as lesões macro e microscópicas e a mortalidade até a terceira semana de vida dos pintos. A Salmonella Enteritidis invadiu e colonizou o trato gastrintestinal das duas linhagens determinando alterações clínicas aliadas à disfunção intestinal, as quais foram mais pronunciadas nas aves Ross. A mortalidade observada foi de 25,0% (15/60 na linhagem Ross, e de apenas 1,7% (1/60 nas aves de crescimento lento até 21 dias de idade. Onfalite, enterite, pericardite e peri-hepatite constituíram as principais lesões macroscópicas da linhagem de crescimento rápido. No exame histopatológico observou-se processo inflamatório com infiltrados de células mononucleares com predominância de macrófagos e linfócitos no coração, fígado, duodeno, jejuno, íleo e ceco. Salmonella Enteritidis colonizou o trato gastrintestinal, invadiu os órgãos de ambas as linhagens, porém aves ISA Label foram mais resistentes à infecção do que aves da linhagem Ross.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Colonização intestinal, infecção, invasão, órgãos, resistência genética.

  16. Carqueja (Baccharis trimera: utilização terapêutica e biossíntese Broom (Baccharis trimera: therapeutic use and biosynthesis

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    T.K. Karam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas medicinais no tratamento e cura de enfermidades é um recurso terapêutico muito antigo e talvez o único adotado em muitas comunidades e grupos étnicos. A família Asteraceae concentra grande número de espécies com potencial terapêutico, algumas das quais do gênero Baccharis, utilizadas na medicina popular e também na produção de fitoterápicos. Estudos relatam que a principal indicação terapêutica mencionada para estas espécies estão relacionadas com ações sobre o trato gastrintestinal. A partir de pesquisa bibliográfica, foram identificadas as características morfológicas da carqueja, bem como, as propriedades terapêuticas cientificamente comprovadas, biossíntese dos principais metabólitos secundários, e possíveis interações medicamentosas.The use of medicinal plants to treat and cure diseases is a very old therapeutic resource and perhaps the only one adopted in many communities and ethnic groups. The Asteraceae family concentrates a great number of species with therapeutic potential, some of which belong to the Baccharis genus and have been used in folk medicine and herbal medicine production. Studies have reported that the main therapeutic indication for these species is related to actions on the gastrointestinal tract. From literature searches, the morphological characteristics of broom, its scientifically proven therapeutic properties, as well as biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and possible drug interactions were identified.

  17. O negócio atlântico : as redes comerciais portuenses e as novas geografias do trato internacional (séculos XVI-XVII

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    Amândio Jorge Morais Barros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces the part played by the Portuguese Northwest centres in the construction of the Atlantic system due to the international traffic developed from its ports. One discusses here traditional historiographical interpretations, namely in what concerns the amplitude of the trade developed in the beginning of the Early Modern Period by commercial agents who can be positioned outside the Iberian imperial schemes, and the centrality of the economic spaces in the same period.

  18. Aspectos histológicos do trato digestivo de Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea, Delphinidae: esôfago e estômago

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    Paulo de Tarso da C. Chaves

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Os esôfagos e estômagos de seis botos tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae foram examinados anatômica e microscopicamente e comparados com os de botos marinhos do mesmo gênero. O esôfago é um simples tubo distensível e macroscopicamente uniforme até sua junção com o estômago. Este boto tem um estômago tricompartimentado: uma parte anterior ou muscular; uma principal, glandular; e uma pilórica. As características anatomo-funcionais de cada compartimento são descritas. Não se achou esfíncter entre o esôfago e o estômago. Em comparação com os delfinídeos marinhos, não há adaptações, por parte de Sotalia, à invasão relativamente recente do ambiente de água doce.The oesophagus and stomachs of six tucuxi dolphins, Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae were examined anatomically and microscopically and compared with marine dolphins of the same genus. The oesophagus is a simple distendable tube and is macroscopically uniform to its junctureh with te stomach. This dolphin has a three-compartmented stomach: an anterior or muscular compartment; a principal one, which is glandular; and the pyloric part. The anatomical and functional characteristics of each compartment is described. No sphincter was found between the oesophagus and the stomach. In comparison with marine delphinids there are no adaptations specific to the relatively recent invasion of the fresh-water environment by Sotalia.

  19. El continuo trato con infieles: los renegados de la región pampeana centro-oriental durante el último tercio del siglo XVIII

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    Daniel Villar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se considera el caso de los renegados, un conjunto poco numeroso de criollos, mestizos, negros y mulatos voluntariamente instalados entre los grupos indígenas de la región pampeana centro-oriental. Acogidos con flexibilidad por estos últimos, que los incorporaban a su vida y proyectos, los renegados representaron, en cambio, para la administración colonial la figura del traidor por antonomasia, totalmente volcados a auxiliar a los infieles para lo cual previamente debieron apartarse de dios y abandonar al rey, convirtiéndose en seres irredimibles y peligrosos. Una serie de diacríticos que revelaban su singular condición transcultural contribuyeron a aumentar el grado de exposición al riesgoimplicado por su actividad como espías y baqueanos, y al tiempo que facilitaron su identificación y castigo, les confirieron una visibilidad documental que permite reflexionar sobre el contexto de mixegenación cultural 1 en el que sus presencias cobran sentido.The subject matter is the renegadoes, a small group of criollos, mestizos, black men and mulattoes, voluntarily settled among the indigenous groups of the central-west region of the pampas. Received with flexibility by the latter, who incorporated them into their lives and projects, the renegadoes were seen as absolute traitors by the colonial administration since, after abandoning the Christian god and king, they dedicated themselves to helping the unfaithful becoming irredeemable and dangerous beings. A series of diacritics, that revealed their unique transcultural condition, contributed to increase the risk exposure implied by their activities as spies and scouts (baqueanos, facilitating their identification and punishment and also granting them a documentary visibility that allows us to think about the cultural miscegenation context in which their presence became significant.

  20. Fatores de risco para cicatriz renal após a primeira infeção febril do trato urinário

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    Ana Cristina Freitas

    2016-03-01

    Conclusões: Os autores não detetaram nenhum fator de risco clínico, laboratorial ou imagiológico para progressão para lesão renal após um primeiro episódio de ITU febril em crianças entre 1 e 36 meses.

  1. Disfunção do homoenxerto pulmonar utilizado na reconstrução do trato de saída do ventrículo direito

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    Andréa Weirich Lenzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O homoenxerto pulmonar tem sido utilizado como uma opção na correção de cardiopatia congênita com obstrução da via de saída do ventrículo direito. Os resultados em longo prazo, no entanto, mostram-se pouco satisfatórios. OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores de risco associados à disfunção e à falência do homoenxerto pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Estudo em crianças submetidas à ampliação da via de saída do ventrículo direito com homoenxerto pulmonar. As variáveis clínicas, cirúrgicas, evolutivas e de aspectos morfológicos da prótese foram analisadas como fatores de risco. RESULTADOS: A amostra final de 75 pacientes com idade mediana na cirurgia de 22 meses, variando de 1-157 meses, apresentou 13 pacientes (17,0% que desenvolveram disfunção do homoenxerto, caracterizado por estenose ou insuficiência pulmonar grave. O tempo de ocorrência entre o implante do homoenxerto e a detecção da disfunção foi de 45 ± 20 meses. Quando o tamanho do homoenxerto foi menor de 21 mm e o escore Z da valva pulmonar foi menor do que zero, ou maior do que três, foram considerados fatores de risco para a ocorrência de disfunção. CONCLUSÃO: O homoenxerto pulmonar de tamanho menor do que 21 mm e a valva pulmonar inadequada para idade e peso do paciente são fatores determinantes para disfunção da prótese.

  2. «Se lo llevó El Chamuco». El trato familiar hacia el Diablo en algunos ejemplos de la literatura oral de México

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    Claudia Carranza Vera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. This article is a review of some lexical examples and texts from oral literature, in which it can be seen the representations that have being given to the Devil and to the Hell in mexican culture. The analysis focuses on the folklore devil and analyzes the functions of this representations, which serves as a catalyzer for some of the emotions, positive and negative, of the Mexican society. RESUMEN. Este estudio realiza una revisión de algunos ejemplos léxicos y de textos provenientes de la literatura oral actual (paremias, coplas, narraciones, en donde es posible apreciar las representaciones que suelen hacerse del Diablo y del Infierno en México. El análisis se centra en el diablo folklórico y analiza las funciones que este personaje puede tener para exponer y catalizar algunas de las emociones, positivas y negativas de la sociedad mexicana.

  3. Efeitos do fumo ambiental no trato respiratório inferior de crianças com até 5 anos de idade

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    Pereira Eanes DB

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação do fumo passivo com morbidade respiratória em crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal incluindo 1.104 crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade residentes na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Por meio de um questionário com os pais das crianças, foram obtidas informações sobre sintomas e doenças respiratórias, história familiar de morbidade respiratória, presença de fumantes nas casas e condições de moradia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 546 meninas e 558 meninos. Das 611 crianças fumantes passivas, 82% tinham problemas respiratórios ("odds ratio" = 1,64; IC 95%:1,21-2,20. As queixas respiratórias mais freqüentes foram: chiado no peito ("odds ratio" =1,66; IC 95%: 1,21-2,27, dispnéia ("odds ratio"=1,91; IC 95%:1,36-2,67, tosse e/ou expectoração("odds ratio" =1,58; IC 95%: 1,13-2,84. A chance de apresentar asma, bronquite ou pneumonia foi maior para as crianças fumantes passivas ("odds ratio" =1,60; IC 95%: 1.11-2.31. CONCLUSÕES: Os principais fatores de risco com chance de predizer morbidade respiratória em crianças com idade de 0 a 5 anos foram: crianças que conviviam com mães fumantes, pais fumantes, presença de mofo em casa, historia familiar de asma ou rinite.

  4. Efeitos do incremento da fibra em detergente neutro na ração de suínos sobre a histologia de segmentos do trato intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Diva Ferrugem Gomes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of including 0% or 8% of neutral detergent fiber in swine rations on the histological aspects of gastrointestinal segments of starting and growing-finishing pigs. It was employed cross-bred animals fed isoproteic and isoenergetic ad libitum rations in a completely randomized experimental design. At the end of each experiment, animals were slaughtered, eviscerated and pieces from digestive organs prepared for histological studies. For starter animals, the fibrous diet increased significantly the cecal glandular volumetric proportion; reduced the goblet cell volumetric proportion on jejunum epithelium; and enhanced the intensity of mucous production by duodenal and colonic mucous cells. By the end of finishing period, the pigs fed fibrous diets showed increased glandular surface area on cecal epithelium but slight reduction of mucosal cell surface area on the colon. These data suggest an epithelium adaptation, possibly a protective mechanism against the abrasive action promoted by the continuous feeding of dietary fiber to swine, particularly in the starting period.

  5. Descobrindo percursos para a pesquisa em saúde no trato com o movimento social Discovering pathways for health research in dealing with the social movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de L. M. Smeke

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da metodologia de trabalhos científicos em saúde nos quais o pesquisador é parte importante do objeto de investigação. A concretização de uma reforma sanitária neste país depende do envolvimento e compromisso dos usuários na garantia dos seus direitos. Muitas experiências com essa preocupação vêm acontecendo no Brasil. Entretanto, não há uma metodologia pre-definida que trate das relações entre trabalhos institucionais em saúde e o Movimento Social. Assim, o trabalho tem por objetivo contribuir para a discussão de possíveis caminhos para a abordagem dos mecanismos internos envolvidos nas relações saúde/usuários, com vistas a colaborar com o processo de desenvolvimento de cidadanias. Ele se realiza a partir de uma pesquisa teórica sobre metodologia participante e pesquisa-ação, em que tomam importância: a definição do caráter do objeto; o posicionamento pessoal; a explicitação de subjetividades; levantamento documental e entrevistas para um estudo de caso; e retorno às teorias. Finalmente, conclui-se que esta metodologia permite compreender alguns mecanismos que explicam as relações entre análises macro e microestruturais, além do amadurecimento dos agentes de pesquisa.This article is about methodology for scientific research in health, where the researcher is an important part of the object of investigation. The implementation of a broad-based Health Reform in Brazil depends on the involvement of users. It is important to guarantee these social rights. Many experiences sharing this concern are going on in this country. Still, research on the relationship between institutional work in health and the Social Movement lacks a predefined methodology. Therefore, the main objectives of this study are the following: to contribute to the discussion of possible ways of approaching the mechanisms of relationships between health and users of health services, and to collaborate with the development of the citizenship process. This work was done through theoretical research on participatory methodology and "action-based research". The following aspects are particularly important: definition of the object of study, self-positioning by the researcher, subjective explanations, documentary surveys and interviews for case studies, and feedback to theory. Finally, the author concludes that this methodology allows for an understanding of some mechanisms that explain the relationship between macro- and micro-structural analyses. In addition, one also observes a maturation process in the research protagonists.

  6. Prevalência de maus-tratos na terceira idade: revisão sistemática Prevalence of elder abuse: a systematic review

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    Cybele Ribeiro Espíndola

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar estudos sobre prevalência de abuso na terceira idade e analisar a qualidade dos estudos. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática estudos de base populacional em bases de dados eletrônicos (PubMed, LILACS, Embase, ISI, PsycInfo, referente aos anos de 1988 a 2005. Foram incluídos os estudos de base populacional e excluídos os estudos sem definição metodológica delineada e estudos realizados em clientela de serviços especializados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 440 artigos, mas apenas 11 artigos foram selecionados. A maioria dos artigos foi de corte transversal, apenas dois apresentaram desenho longitudinal. Os estudos foram conduzidos em diversas regiões do mundo, sobretudo dos Estados Unidos e da Europa. Observou-se variação nas definições de abuso. Os estudos de prevalência encontraram coeficientes de abuso físico entre 1,2% (Holanda e 18% (Finlândia. CONCLUSÕES: Existe substancial variação de prevalência entre os países, parecendo haver uma variável cultural importante. Como o número de idosos é crescente no mundo, são necessários mais estudos de base populacional representativos dessa faixa etária para melhor compreensão do fenômeno.OBJECTIVE: To identify prevalence studies of abuse among elderly and assess their quality. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed through PubMed, LILACS, Embase, ISI, and PsycInfo, for the period between 1988 and 2005. Population-based studies were included and studies without clear methodological definition and with clinical and service samples were excluded. RESULTS: There were found 440 articles, but only 11 of them were selected. Most were cross-sectional designs and only two were longitudinal studies. These studies were conducted in various countries worldwide, mostly in US and Europe. They varied widely in terms of abuse definition. Prevalence of physical abuse ranged from 1.2% (Holland to 18% (Finland. CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable prevalence variation between sites. The most influential variables on prevalence seem to be culture-related. As the number of elderly is increasing worldwide, there is a need for studies to better understand this phenomenon.

  7. CUERPO, TRATO INTERIOR Y ARTES DE LA MEMORIA: AUTOCONOCIMIENTO E INDIVIDUO MODERNO EN EL TEXTO DE ÚRSULA SAN DIEGO CONVENTO ESPIRITUAL

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    Alejandra Araya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available La obra Convento Espiritual, de la religiosa Úrsula de San Diego, posiblemente escrita en el siglo XVI en Granada, España, forma parte de una tradición de escritura de mujeres como ejercicio ascético-místico en la vida religiosa y devota a ambos lados del Atlántico. En este trabajo se presenta un modo de leerlo en tanto género textual derivado de prácticas de organización del conocimiento provenientes de las artes de la memoria y, como tal, una forma de construcción del sujeto. Estas características son notables en este texto, y si bien no son exclusivas de él, es importante por formar parte de la historia de los primeros impresos en Chile luego de la independencia indicando con ello el reconocimiento pedagógico de este tipo de escritura femenina en las sociedades del Antiguo Régimen.The book Convento Espiritual (Spiritual Convent ofthe Spanish nun Ursula de San Diego, possibly written during the sixteenth century in Granada, Spain, is part of a tradition of womens' writing as an exercise in mystical-ascetic and devout religious life on both sides of the Atlantic. This essay proposes a reading this text within the frame of a textual genre originated in those practices of knowledge organization derived from the arts of memory; as a textual genre, it can also be understood as aform of subject construction. These are remarkable features to be foundin this text, and though they are not exclusive to it, they are important because the Convento espiritual belongs to the history of the early books printed in Chile after the Independence; this points out to the recognition of the educational value  of this type of writing women in those societies belonging to the Old Regime.

  8. Cuerpo, trato interior y artes de la memoria: Autoconocimiento e individuo moderno en el texto de Úrsula San Diego Convento Espiritual

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    Alejandra Araya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La obra Convento Espiritual, de la religiosa Úrsula de San Diego, posiblemente escrita en elsiglo XVI en Granada, España, forma parte de una tradición de escritura de mujeres como ejercicio ascético-místico en la vida religiosa y devota a ambos lados del Atlántico. En este trabajo se presenta un modo de leerlo en tanto género textual derivado de prácticas de organización del conocimiento provenientes de las artes de la memoria y, como tal, una forma de construcción del sujeto. Estas características son notables en este texto, y si bien no son exclusivas de él, es importante por formar parte de la historia de los primeros impresos en Chile luego de la independencia indicando con ello el reconocimiento pedagógico de este tipo de escritura femenina en las sociedades del Antiguo Régimen.

  9. Rendimento dos componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado Non-carcass components yield of lambs fed corn silage or sugar cane under two levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greicy Mitzi Bezerra Moreno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o rendimento dos componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros terminados em confinamento recebendo dietas formuladas com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado. Utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros Ile de France, não-castrados, alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar em duas relações volumoso:concentrado, 60:40 ou 40:60. Os cordeiros foram mantidos em confinamento até atingirem 32 kg de peso corporal (PCA, quando foram abatidos. Após a sangria, todos os constituintes não-carcaça (sangue, pele, cabeça, patas, rúmen, retículo, omaso, abomaso, intestino delgado, intestino grosso, baço, fígado, coração, pulmão com traqueia, pâncreas, rins com gordura perirrenal, gorduras omental e mesentérica foram separados e pesados, calculando-se suas porcentagens em relação ao PCA. O conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal (TGI foi maior nos cordeiros alimentados com cana-de-açúcar (15,17% e 60% de volumoso (14,55%; enquanto as gorduras omental e perirrenal foram maiores nos cordeiros que receberam silagem de milho, 0,53 e 0,63%, respectivamente. A relação volumoso:concentrado e o tipo de volumoso afetaram as proporções de rúmen, omaso e intestino delgado em relação ao peso total do trato gastrintestinal. A relação volumoso:concentrado e o tipo de volumoso influenciam o conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal de cordeiros, afetando indiretamente os rendimentos de carcaça. O tipo de alimentação tem maior influência sobre as proporções dos órgãos responsáveis pela digestão e absorção de nutrientes. Os fatores que influenciam os componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros são variados e contraditórios, o que torna necessária a realização de mais pesquisas para incentivar sua utilização e, consequentemente, agregar valor aos sistemas de produção de carne ovina.The objective of this result was to evaluate the yields of non-carcass components of lambs finished in feedlot feeding on diets

  10. Evaluation of a fruit solar dryer; Avaliacao de um secador solar de frutas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthier, L.J.; Bittencourt, J.; Queiroz, M.R.

    2000-07-01

    A study of the Nanica banana drying was carried out in a solar dryer with six trays operating with direct exposure of the product to the solar radiation and internal convection. The solar drying was performed College of Agricultural Engineering of the UNICAMP, Campinas, S.Paulo state, Brazil. The study aimed a 20 to 25 per cent final humidity of the dry product, result obtained in the different trays during a maximum drying period of 147 hours (6 days), in a batch system. During the drying period, the average temperature of the environment air at daylight was of 26 degree Celsius with a maximum of 32 degree Celsius, and 18 degrees Celsius during nocturnal period, with a minimum of 12,6 degree Celsius. In the inward of the dryer reached average values near to 50 degree Celsius, measured at noon. The 29,540 kg initial net weight of peeled banana was reduced to yield of 10,815 kg after the drying process, obtaining an income of 36,61 percent of the total production. With the values of the product weight loss, the curves of the drying in each tray had been built, observing that, in the upper trays reached the desired humidity in a lesser period.

  11. Computing system of staff evaluation; Sistema informatizado de avaliacao de pessoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Marcelo Garcez; Aguiar, Joao Eugenio Lopes [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Accidents with lost time: using a different concept to deal with safety, focusing directly on the behavior of the worker, leading the worker to a shaper perception of the risks and thus enabling a change of behavior towards a safer attitude. 'Sounds and Links' Project: the programmatic content was made through musical dynamics because music has the power to evoke feelings, stimulating the participants to live intra personal and interpersonal relationships in order to promote safe behaviors. The methodology used was: 'Andragogic (adult education) Model'; multi discipline language; Methodology of 'experiencing and living'; and Focus on the day-to-day situations of work and life. The project was applied to four groups with 60 people, consisting of employees from TRANSPETRO and its contractors, other group with 60 people, composed by leaders, and one group with all participants of the five groups for the general closing session. Expecting Results and consequence of the Project: to turn the concept of safety into a real value to the worker; to preserve the integrity and to value the life; pursuit a lasting and stable changing of behavior, with culture base on safety; and to support the management safety system and reduction of the accidents. (author)

  12. Evaluation of protection measurements for rural environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Silva, Fernanda L.; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail: dneves@ird.gov.b, E-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.b, E-mail: fleite@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares

    2011-10-26

    Among the planning activities of actuation in nuclear/radiological emergences, it is included the efficiency evaluation of protection and remediation measurements. From the development of a data base on such measurements for the agricultural areas, the program SIEM was used for effectuation the simulations involving the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr radionuclides, in scenery previously established for simulation those areas of a 50 km surrounding the Admiral Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant. The obtained results indicate that the scenery is determinant of efficiency measurements involving various specific factors of each place, such as: agricultural and cattle breeding products, consumption habits of population and the grade of subsistence by the diet items, making not practical the elaboration of predefined generic sceneries. The great dependence on seasoning related to the moment of accident makes inadequate any previous evaluation what soever for evaluation of efficiency of protection and remediation measurements. Therefore, previous decisions are not recommended about the relevance of protection measurements for rural areas. Two classification criteria were defined: (i) the efficiency in reduction the doses in the firs year; and, (i i) efficiency in reduction the dose at long term

  13. SPECT for smokers brain perfusion evaluation; SPECT para avaliacao da perfusao cerebral em fumantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliska, C.M.; Martins, E.F.; Barros, D.S.; Lopes, M.M.S.; Lourenco, C.; Goncalves, S.; Goncalves, M.B.; Miranda, M.M.B.G.; Neto, L.M.; Penque, E.; Antonucci, J.B. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Cigarette smoking increases brain stroke risk, however,five to fifteen years after ceasing this habit, brain perfusion recovers normal pattern. We propose to compare brain perfusion patterns performing brain SPECT scans of smokers and non-smokers. Thirteen volunteers age range 20-30 years old) composed of six non-smokers and seven smokers were studied by brain scans (SPECT).We used ECD- {sup 99m} Tc radiolabelled as recommended by the manufacturer. All patients received 740 MBq of the radiopharmaceutical through intravenous injection, with their eyes opened and their ears unplugged, in a quiet room. We used a one head SPECT camera ( General Electric/ StarCam 4000 and Siemens/ E.Cam) with low-energy ultrahigh resolution collimator. Imaging begin 40 minutes after tracer injection. For reconstruction we used a Butterworth filter.The preliminary results showed brain perfusion deficit areas on five of the smokers while all non- smokers had normal brain perfusion scans. We believe that smoking increases the possibility of brain perfusion deficits. (author)

  14. Integrity assessment of pipelines - additional remarks; Avaliacao da integridade de dutos - observacoes adicionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Luis F.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios. Exploracao e Producao

    2005-07-01

    Integrity assessment of pipelines is part of a process that aims to enhance the operating safety of pipelines. During this task, questions related to the interpretation of inspection reports and the way of regarding the impact of several parameters on the pipeline integrity normally come up. In order to satisfactorily answer such questions, the integrity assessment team must be able to suitably approach different subjects such as corrosion control and monitoring, assessment of metal loss and geometric anomalies, and third party activities. This paper presents additional remarks on some of these questions based on the integrity assessment of almost fifty pipelines that has been done at PETROBRAS/E and P Bahia over the past eight years. (author)

  15. Avaliacao da gestao ambiental dos hoteis de selva na Amazonia, Brasil

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    Gomes de Moraes, Adriana

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the challenge of desvelar of that it forms the hoteleiros enterprises they manage its ambient action without causing great impacts in one of biggest ecosystems of the world, the Amazonian forest, was tried to know in this research the forms of ambient management of the located hotels of forest in the legal Amazônia. The norteadora question of the research was to know that type of ambient management is made by the hotels of selva?Foi used as instrument of collection of data the questionnaire, that if subdividiui in four great subjects to be searched. The first one was relative questions to the planning of the place, according to to the profile of the customer, third to the room and the relative questions architecture the building subject relative questions to the energy resources and infrastructure of the public services. As result of this analysis was concluded that two of three hotels searched are practising management ambient of form less impactante, since type of construction adopted until services offered to guests, or either shows objective that its hotel is coadjuvante for customer that visits this type of place, that stops it does not import luxury, comfort and amenities, more yes contact with the fauna and flora and way of life of the natives.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of traumatic muscle injuries; Avaliacao por ressonancia magnetica das injurias musculares traumaticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Elisa Pompeu [Santa Casa de Misericordia do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Coutinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Domingues, Romulo Cortes; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Centro Medico Barrashopping, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI)

    2001-12-01

    We evaluated 43 magnetic resonance scans of the leg or thigh of patients suffering from sports trauma. Strains were the most frequent lesions observed. These lesions presented iso- or hypointense signal on T1 and hyperintense signal on T2 images, and were classified according to the intensity of the injury of the fibers into grades 1, 2 and 3. The second most common lesions in these series were contusions that appeared iso- or hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2 images. Fibrosis was also observed as low signal lesions on T1 and T2 images. (author)

  17. Avaliacao da Relacao entre a Doenca Hepatica Nao Gordurosa e CAD utilizando TCMF

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    Duran Efe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Alguns fatores de risco para a aterosclerose são acompanhados pela doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA. Desejamos usar a tomografia computadorizada multi-fatias (TCMF como a técnica para encontrar relação entre a DHGNA e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Objetivo: A relação entre a DHGNA e a DAC foi investigada através de TCMF. Métodos: Um total de 372 indivíduos com ou sem sintomas cardíacos, que foram submetidos à angiografia por TCMF, foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a presença da DHGNA. Os segmentos arteriais coronarianos foram avaliados visualmente via angiografia por TCMF. Com base no grau de estenose arterial coronariana, aqueles com placas ausentes ou mínimas foram considerados como normais, enquanto aqueles que apresentavam estenose de menos do que 50% e no mínimo uma placa foram considerados como portadores da doença arterial coronariana não obstrutiva (não-obsDAC. Os pacientes que apresentaram no mínimo uma placa e estenose arterial coronariana de 50% ou mais foram considerados como portadores de doença arterial coronariana obstrutiva (obsDAC. A DHGNA foi determinada de acordo com o protocolo de TCMF, utilizando a densidade hepática. Resultados: De acordo com a densidade hepática, o número de pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (grupo 1 foi de 204 (149 homens, 54,8% e com fígado normal (grupos 2 foi de 168 (95 homens, 45.2%. Houve 50 (24,5% não-obsDAC e 57 (27,9% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 1, e 39 (23,2% não-obsDAC e 23 (13,7% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 2. Conclusões: O presente estudo utilizando TCMF demonstrou que a frequência da doença arterial coronariana em pacientes com NAFDL foi significativamente superior do que nos pacientes em NAFDL.

  18. Evaluation of biological analysis program for iodine 131; Avaliacao do programa de bioanalise para Iodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaburo, J.C.; Todo, A.S.; Potiens Junior, A.; Oliveira, E.M.; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    A program for the occupational control of internal contamination for the Radioisotopes Division workers of the IPEN-CNEN/SP has been performed by in vitro and in vivo bioassay techniques, every two weeks. From the assessment of the monitoring program, two groups of workers were identified in accordance with their activities and handling frequency {sup 131} I. The groups A and B are exposed five and three days respectively every week. In this program, urinalysis methods, thyroid and whole body measurements have been evaluated over the year. The sampling scheme, performed every two week, was altered for weekly, in order to minimize the interpretation errors and to get a better estimative of the intake. This study also provides and evaluation of the cost for the weekly urinalysis sampling method. (author) 6 refs., 1 fig.; e-mail: janetegc at net.ipen.br

  19. Computed radiography systems performance evaluation;Avaliacao de desempenho de sistemas de radiografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Clarice C.; Nersissian, Denise Y.; Furquim, Tania A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2009-07-01

    The performance of a computed radiography system was evaluated, according to the AAPM Report No. 93. Evaluation tests proposed by the publication were performed, and the following nonconformities were found: imaging p/ate (lP) dark noise, which compromises the clinical image acquired using the IP; exposure indicator uncalibrated, which can cause underexposure to the IP; nonlinearity of the system response, which causes overexposure; resolution limit under the declared by the manufacturer and erasure thoroughness uncalibrated, impairing structures visualization; Moire pattern visualized at the grid response, and IP Throughput over the specified by the manufacturer. These non-conformities indicate that digital imaging systems' lack of calibration can cause an increase in dose in order that image prob/ems can be so/ved. (author)

  20. LUCRO, VALOR CONTABIL E DIVIDENDOS NA AVALIAcAO DO PATRIMÔNIO LIQUIDO

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    James A. Ohlson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A contabilidade atribui uma importante função integrativa a demonstração das mutações do patrimônio liquido. A demonstração inclui os itens mais importantes do balanço o e da demonstração de resultado do exercício - o valor do patrimônio liquido e o lucro - e sua forma de apresentação exige que a alteração no valor do patrimônio liquido seja igual ao lucro menos os dividendos (líquidos das contribuições para aumento de capital. Referimo-nos a essa relação corno sendo a “relação de lucro limpo", pois, da forma como foi articulada, todas as alterações nos ativos e passivos que não estejam relacionadas com os dividendos devem passar pela demonstração de resultado do exercício. A teoria da contabilidade adota geralmente esse esquema sem relacioná-lo a perspectiva do usuário dos dados contábeis. Contudo, a idéia fundamental de que estoques (líquidos de valor são compatíveis com a criação c distribuição de valor levanta uma questão básica no contexto de avalia4ao do patrimônio liquido: e possível delinear urna teoria coesiva do valor de uma firma sustentada pela relação de lucro limpo, no intuito de se identificar um papel claro para cada uma das três variáveis, quais sejam: o lucro, o valor contábil do patrimônio liquido e os dividendos?

  1. Severe bronchiectasis in a dog: tomographic evaluation; Severa bronquiectasia em um cao: avaliacao tomografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Campos, Lidice Araujo; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Oliveira, Hugo Salvador de; Inamassu, Leticia Rocha; Charlier, Murilo Gomes de Soutello; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: viviam.babicsak@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Bronchiectasis is a bronchial dilatation caused by changes in the bronchial wall usually due to infectious processes. Computed tomography is an important imaging modality for the evaluation of this alteration due to its high sensitivity. In this study we describe the case report of a 6-year-old female mixed breed dog with severe and generalized bronchiectasis on computed tomography. Due to the severe extent of bronchiectasis, the method of measurement of the adjacent pulmonary artery and its relationship to the bronchus did not have to be performed. An indirect sign of bronchiectasis identified in the patient was the bronchial wall thickening, possibly due to the infiltration of inflammatory components, edema and even by peri-bronchial abscesses. (author)

  2. Marine terminal baseline criteria and assessment OCIMF; Avaliacao de terminais maritimos - criterio OCIMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fabio Lindoso; Garcia, Luciano Maldonado [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The development of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. corporate standards, specifically meant for the marine terminals segment and based on the 'Marine Terminal Baseline Criteria and Assessment Questionnaire', published by 'Oil Companies International Marine Forum' was accomplished by a Team of in-house staff with the assistance of international outsourced consultancy. This project resulted in the adjustment of the company's processes to international practices enabling consistent management and operating assessment of marine terminals. (author)

  3. Quality evaluation of blood irradiation process;Avaliacao da qualidade do processo de irradiacao de hemocomponentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, R.E.; Medeiros, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (DDI/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem. Coordenadoria de Fisica e Higiene das Radiacoes

    2009-07-01

    An adverse reaction in blood transfusion is the graft versus host disease (GVHD). This disease affects immunodeficient or immunosuppressed patients where transfused T cells proliferate and initiate a host's immune system reaction. Blood gamma irradiation is the most efficient way to inhibit lymphocyte T blastic transformation and mitotic activity and it is the most effective method to combat this disorder. However, there is no fast and effective system to analyze the dose distribution in the irradiation process and guarantee that the absorbed doses are in agreement with FDA recommendations. This study aims to establish a periodic quality control of the gammacell irradiators using radiochromic films properly calibrated. The quality control is simply and effective to combat GVHD as well as is useful to detect mechanical fails at rotation set system through the dose uniformity analysis. It was possible to verify the uniformity ranged from -72.38% to 106.33% and some blood bag received doses not compatible with recommended international threshold. (author)

  4. Radiological evaluation of the cranio vertebral junction; Avaliacao radiologica da transicao cranio-vertebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Silvia Marcal Benicio de; Haetinger, Rainer Guilherme [Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Cabeca e Pescoco]. E-mail: sbm@uol.com.br; Schettini, Marianna Cunha; Lima, Sergio Santos [Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mourao, Maria Lucia; Mendonca, Renato Adam [Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Neuroradiologia

    2005-04-15

    The cranio vertebral junction (CVJ) comprises the occiput, atlas, their joints and ligaments. Besides conventional x-rays other imaging methods are need for the assessment of CVJ including high resolution computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provide specific parameters such as field of view, slice thickness and incremental movement of the patient. A dynamic study is also important to assess the stability of the cranio vertebral junction and the effect upon the bulbomedullary junction. The aim of this study is to review the techniques used in the evaluation of the CVJ, the semiological parameters, and the most frequent disorders affecting this region. We review the literature and present conventional x-ray, CT and MRI images from the didactic file of the Radiology service 'Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, of cases with normal anatomy and the main congenital and acquired disorders of the CVJ. In daily practice, CVJ disorders are diagnoses using CT and MRI scans of the head and cervical spine. It is essential to be familiar with these conditions in order to preform specific tests which will allow a detailed study of the CVJ, thus providing the basis for the treatment, whenever indicated. (author)

  5. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: imaging evaluation; Persistencia hiperplastica do vitreo primitivo: avaliacao por metodos de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos da [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: biamjacob@hotmail.com

    2003-06-01

    Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is a congenital developmental anomaly of the eye that primarily affects premature infants. PHPV results from failure of regression of the embryogenic primary vitreous and hyaloid vasculature, and proliferation of connective tissue. Three types of PHPV may be found: anterior, posterior and a combination of anterior and posterior. The clinical findings include leukocoria (white pupillary reflex) and microphthalmic eye. This anomaly is usually unilateral and unassociated with other systemic findings. The differential diagnosis between PHPV and other ocular diseases may be difficult due to similar features such as leukocoria, detached retina, retinal folds and cataract. Other diseases with similar features include retinoblastoma, isolated congenital cataract, retinopathy of prematurity and pseudo gliomas or leukocorias. Direct visualization of the remnants of the fetal hyaloid vascular system offers the best evidence of PHPV. However, diagnosis using the ophthalmoscope is sometimes impossible because of opaque tissues. In this circumstance an indirect visualization by ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be useful. These imaging methods provide valuable information for the differentiation from other diseases, particularly retinoblastoma. The authors present a review of the literature and an iconographic study of the imaging findings in patients with PHPV. (author)

  6. Crystallinity evaluation of polyhydroxybutyrate and polycaprolactone blends; Avaliacao da cristalinidade de blendas de polihidroxibutirato e policaprolactona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Maxwell P.; Rodrigues, Elton Jorge R.; Tavares, Maria Ines B., E-mail: maxdpc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas

    2015-07-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate, PHB, is a polymer obtained through bacterial or synthetic pathways. It has been used in the biomedical field as a matrix for drug delivery, medical implants and as scaffold material for tissue engineering. PHB has high structural organization, which makes it highly crystalline and brittle, making biodegradation difficult, reducing its employability. In order to enhance the mechanical and biological properties of PHB, blends with other polymers, biocompatible or not, are researched and produced. In this regard, blends of PHB and polycaprolactone, PCL, another biopolymer widely used in the biomedical industry, were obtained via solution casting and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). Results have shown a dependence between PHB's crystallinity index and PCL quantity employed to obtain the blends.(author)

  7. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional em radiografia intraoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: annarocha@yahoo.com, E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G., E-mail: joao.tilly@derax.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (HC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  8. Instrumentos em Lingua Brasileira de Sinais para avaliacao da qualidade de vida da populacao surda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuma Chaveiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir a versão em Língua Brasileira de Sinais dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para avaliar a qualidade de vida da população surda brasileira. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para a construção dos instrumentos adaptados para população surda em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. A pesquisa para execução do instrumento consistiu de 13 etapas: 1 criação do sinal qualidade de vida; 2 desenvolvimento das escalas de respostas em Libras; 3 tradução por um grupo bilíngue; 4 versão reconciliadora; 5 primeira retrotradução; 6 produção da versão em Libras a ser disponibilizada aos grupos focais; 7 realização dos grupos focais; 8 revisão por um grupo monolíngue; 9 revisão pelo grupo bilíngue; 10 análise sintática/semântica e segunda retrotradução; 11 reavaliação da retrotradução pelo grupo bilíngue; 12 filmagem da versão para o software; 13 desenvolvimento do software WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. RESULTADOS: Características peculiares da cultura da população surda apontaram a necessidade de adaptações na metodologia de aplicação de grupos focais quando compostos por pessoas surdas. As convenções ortográficas da escrita das línguas sinalizadas não estão consolidadas, o que trouxe dificuldades em registrar graficamente as etapas de tradução. As estruturas linguísticas que causaram maiores problemas de tradução foram as que incluíram expressões idiomáticas do português, muitas sem conceitos equivalentes entre o português e a Libras. Foi possível construir um software do WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. CONCLUSÕES: O WHOQOL-BREF e o WHOQOL-DIS em Libras possibilitarão que os surdos se expressem autonomamente quanto a sua qualidade de vida, o que permitirá investigar com maior precisão essas questões.

  9. Evaluation of protection measurements for urban environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Nascimento, Udilma; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail: dneves@ird.gov.b, E-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.b, E-mail: udilma@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    Radioactive accidents has shown the necessity of a previous evaluation planning of exposure and directives for implementation of protection measurements. The description or measurements in the literature usually is associated to reduction of concentrations in the medium where they are applied. For verification the efficiency in dose reduction, it is necessary to proceed simulations. Through the development of data base on protection measurements, it was established basic sceneries, typically tropical as far the building type is concerned and the construction material. The program SIEM was used for simulation of contamination with {sup 137}Cs. The results indicates that generic solutions persuade not to and the decision make processes should be effectuated according to the real conditions of contamination and the use of affected area. For affected areas, two classification criteria were defined: (1) efficiency in reducing the dose in the first year; and (2) efficiency in dose reducing at long term

  10. Probabilistic evaluation of the Brazilian interconnected power systems; Avaliacao probabilistica do desempenho do sistema interligado brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, A C.G.; Mello, J C.O.; Romero, S P; Oliveira, G C [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fontoura Filho, R N [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the main features of the NH{sub 2} model, developed for the probabilistic evaluation of the adequacy of large scale power systems. The system analysis is carried out through a full set of indicators, including reliability indices and probability distributions of selected variables, such as area interchanges, power flow in circuits, voltage in buses etc. These indicators are calculated in two stages: before and after the introduction of remedial actions. Also, the model yields the representation of system hourly load curve, with uncertainty around the load levels. The flexibility and performance of the NH2 model are illustrated in case studies with a 1400-bus, configuration of the Brazilian system. (author) 12 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Avaliacao de interacoes medicamentosas potenciais em prescricoes da atencao primaria de Vitoria da Conquista (BA), Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Danyllo Fabio Lessa Leao; Cristiano Soares de Moura; Danielle Souto de Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    As interações medicamentosas são fatores de risco para a ocorrência de reações adversas a medicamentos. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar as interações medicamentosas potenciais em prescrições da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA), visando preencher a lacuna de conhecimento sobre essa temática no Brasil. Foram coletadas informações sobre diversas variáveis de prescrições oriundas da atenção primária e as interações medicamentosas avaliadas a partir dos bancos de dados do Medsc...

  12. Avaliacao de interacoes medicamentosas potenciais em prescricoes da atencao primaria de Vitoria da Conquista (BA, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyllo Fabio Lessa Leao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As interações medicamentosas são fatores de risco para a ocorrência de reações adversas a medicamentos. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar as interações medicamentosas potenciais em prescrições da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA, visando preencher a lacuna de conhecimento sobre essa temática no Brasil. Foram coletadas informações sobre diversas variáveis de prescrições oriundas da atenção primária e as interações medicamentosas avaliadas a partir dos bancos de dados do Medscape e Micromedex(r. Verificou-se ainda a frequência de polifarmácia e associação desta com a ocorrência de interações medicamentosas. Os resultados mostraram frequência de 48,9% de interações medicamentosas, 74,9% delas de gravidade moderada ou maior, e 8,6% de prescrições em polifarmácia que, em teste qui-quadrado, mostrou associação positiva com ocorrência de interações medicamentosas potenciais (p < 0,001. As prescrições oriundas da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA apresentaram uma alta frequência de interações medicamentosas, porém faz-se necessária a análise de outros fatores de risco para ocorrência destas nesse nível de atenção à saúde.

  13. Imperfect twinning - evaluation by imaging methods; Gemelidade imperfeita - avaliacao pelos metodos de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Arildo Correa; Julio, Hamilton [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Disciplina de Ginecologia e Obstetricia; Mazer, Sergio; Urban, Linei Augusta Brolini Delle [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia]. E-mail: lineiurban@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    Conjoined twins are rare malformations and a challenge for both radiologists and pediatric surgeons. Antenatal evaluation is essential for the identification of anatomic fusions and other associated abnormalities, which will enable an adequate surgical planning and the assessment of fetal prognosis. The authors present the clinical and imaging findings of thoracopagus twins, joined by the anterior portion of the thorax, sharing the heart and the liver. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and confirmed with fetal magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  14. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS - computerized tomography evaluation; Toxoplasmose cerebral na SIDA - avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Regina Coeli Fonseca [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro. Servico de Radiologia; Narchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-06-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a disease that affects many AIDS's patients. FOr this paper 46 patients with confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis who did a CT scan between March, 1994 and September, 1997 were examined. Single lesions were found in 28.3% of the patients. The lesions were more frequently detected in the basal ganglia and the frontal lobes. No lesion was larger than 4 cm. As regards the contrast enhancing of the lesions on a CT scan we observed that 54.5% of the lesions had a ring-like contrast enhancing, 36.4% had a nodular contrast enhancing and 6% had a heterogeneous form. After the 21st day of treatment we noticed an improvement in the aspect of the patients'lesions. The improvement of the lesions could be seen through a reduction of the edematous halo, a reduction of the lesion size and a modification in the contrast enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility with cerebral toxoplasmosis, as well as to monitor these patients during treatment. (author)

  15. Imaging assessment of osteitis pubis; Avaliacao por imagem da osteite pubica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Alexia Abuhid; Ferreira, Ana Paula Alves; Leite, Ana Rachel Albuquerque de Moura; Guido, Daniela Araujo; Rodrigues, Rogeria Nobre [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: ce@cidbh.com.br; Araujo, Rodrigo Otavio Dias [Minas Tenis Clube, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lasmar, Rodrigo Campos Pace [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Fisioterapia

    2005-10-15

    Objective: to assess the physiopathological aspects of osteitis pubis and the findings seen on imaging methods, emphasizing the usefulness of Flamingo view radiographs and the diagnostic aspects of Magnetic resonance images. Material and Method: magnetic resonance images of ten patients (eight of them professional athletes) referring symptoms in the inguinal regional were retrospectively evaluated. For some of these patients Flaming view radiographs were performed. Results: in all studied patients magnetic resonance imaging was the only diagnostic method capable of showing the different phases os osteitis pubis, from acute cases with pubic bone marrow edematous changes to chronic cases with involvement of other pelvic joints. Flamingo view radiographs were performed in six patients and three of them were diagnosed with vertical pubis symphyseal instability greater than 2 mm of vertical displacement. This diagnosis was confirmed by instability tests using orthopedic manoeuvres. Conclusion: magnetic resonance imaging was the most helpful method for the diagnosis of different phases of osteitis pubis whereas conventional X-ray was inconclusive in the initial phases. Flamingo view radiographs were extremely important to show vertical instability of the pubic symphysis, which in combination with osteitis pubis can be the cause of failure of nonoperative treatment. (author)

  16. Impacts evaluation: recent experience in rural electrification; Avaliacao de impactos: experiencia recente em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The electric power is one of the important requirements for the promotion of the social inclusion and of the development, especially in rural areas. In order to fill out this gap, the Brazilian government established as a goal reaches the universalization of the public electric energy services to provide conditions for the improvement of the quality of life of the urban and rural population. In this sense, the evaluation of the recent experiences in rural electrification can be of great help to achieve this objective in an efficient way. The results of such evaluation can point out some actions for the universalization of the attendance seeking for the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making process, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals or in the poverty mitigation. (author)

  17. LNG businesses evaluation: strategic positioning; Avaliacao de negocios de GNL: posicionamento estrategico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toste, Ana Cristina Leitao Goncalves; Frozza, Eduardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Given the global development of the LNG industry and the changes it has suffered along the recent years, companies must evaluate how they should better position themselves towards this business, in order to optimize resources and maximize gains. The present work discusses three fictitious cases, in an effort to delineate and understand the several issues that impact a business decision in the LNG industry. In each case, business evaluation is performed taking into consideration project economics, as well as risk and strategy issues. (author)

  18. Microhardness evaluation alloys Hf-Si-B; Avaliacao de microdureza de ligas Hf-Si-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigolotti, Joao Carlos Janio; Costa, Eliane Fernandes Brasil [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Rocha, Elisa Gombio; Coelho, Gilberto Carvalho, E-mail: carlosjanio@uol.com.br, E-mail: eliane-costabrasi@hotmail.com, E-mail: cnunes@demar.eel.usp.br, E-mail: elisarocha@alunos.eel.usp.br, E-mail: coelho@demar.eel.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The technological advance has generated increasing demand for materials that can be used under high temperature, what includes intermetallic MR-Si-B (MR = refractory metal) alloys with multiphase structures, that can also be applied in oxide environments. Thus, this work had for objective the micro hardness study of the Hf-Si-B system alloys, heat treated at 1600 deg C, in the Hf rich region. Hf-Si-B alloys had been produced with blades of Hf (min. 99.8%), Si (min. 99.998%) and B (min. 99.5%), in the voltaic arc furnace and heat treated at 1600 deg C under argon atmosphere. The relationship of the phases had been previously identified by X-ray diffraction and contrast in backscattered electron imaging mode. The alloys had their hardness analyzed by method Vickers (micro hardness) with load of 0.05 kgf and 0.2 kgf and application time of 20 s. The results, obtained from the arithmetic mean of measurements for each alloy on the heterogeneous region, showed a mean hardness of 11.08 GPA, with small coefficient of variation of 3.8%. The borides HfB2 (19.34 GPa) e HfB - 11.76 GPa, showed the hardness higher than the silicides Hf2Si (8.57 GPa), Hf5Si3 (9.63 GPa), Hf3Si2 (11.66 GPa), Hf5Si4 (10.00 GPa), HfSi (10.02 GPa) e HfSi2 (8.61 GPa). (author)

  19. Algorithms evaluation for transformers differential protection; Avaliacao de algoritmos para protecao diferencial de transformadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovesan, Luis Sergio

    1997-07-01

    The appliance of two algorithms is evaluated, one based in Fourier analysis and other based in a rectangular transform technique over Fourier analysis, to be used in digital logical circuits (digital protection relays) for the purpose of differential protection of power transformers (ANSI 87T). The first chapter has a brief introduction about electrical protection. The second chapter discusses the general problems of transform protection, the development of digital technology and, with more detail, the differential protection associated to this technology. In this chapter are presented the particular aspects of transformers differential protection concerning sensibility, inrush current situations and harmonic distortions caused by transformer core saturations and the differential protection algorithms and their applications in a specific relay design. In chapter three, a method to make possible testing the protection performance is developed. This work applies digital simulations using EMTP to generate current signal of transformer operation and fault conditions. Digital simulation using Matlab is used to simulate the protection. The EMTP generated field signals are sent to the relay under test, furnishing data of normal operation, internal and external faults. The relay logic simulator at Matlab will work this data and so, it will be possible to verify and evaluate the algorithm behavior and performance. Chapter 4 shows the protection operation over simulations of several of transformer operation and fault conditions. The last chapter presents a conclusion about the protection performance, discussions about all the methods applied in this work and suggestions for further studies. (author)

  20. Magnetomotive colon elastography: preliminary assessment; Elastografia magnetomotriz da regiao do colon: avaliacao preliminar em phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, A. Colello, E-mail: alexandrecolellobruno@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Grillo, F.W.; Sampaio, D.R.T.; Carneiro, A.A.O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras

    2015-08-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide and early diagnosis reduces morbidity. The standard preventive exams methods are uncomfortable for the patient, invasive, and /or are ionizing. Here, we evaluate the potential of magneto-motive ultrasound (MMUS) as a new, minimally invasive CRC screening technique. We developed a hybrid transducer (comprised of an ultrasound probe and a magnetic coil system) to construct relative elastography maps in a paraffin phantom with isoechoic inclusions. The electromagnetic component of our system manipulated ferromagnetic fluid located inside of our synthetic colon, and the captured ultrasound images were used to produce relative elastography maps. The MMUS images reveal by otherwise invisible structures based on differences in stiffness. Ultrasound elastography (relative) images by MMUs technique complements usual preventive CRC exams, is minimally invasive, has relative low cost when compared with others image methods. Also is fast diagnose and more comfortable for patient which prevents withdrawal of the screening. (author)

  1. Castor oil biodiesel: an economic evaluation; Biodiesel de mamona: uma avaliacao economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Monica de Moura; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Almeida, Cezar Menezes; Sousa, Geovania Silva de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Monteiro, Renata; Lopes, Beatriz Sampaio; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: mpires@uesc.br; jaenes@uesc.br; jalmeida@uesc.br; roserpa@uesc.br

    2004-07-01

    The production cost of castor oil biodiesel by methyl way and its economic viability, using as reference the production cost data of castor oil and the implantation of the pilot plant at UESC - state university of Santa Cruz, Bahia State, Brazil was determined. From this information, it was seen that the estimated price of castor oil biodiesel is close to the diesel price in the Itabuna market, Bahia state, Brazil. The indicators show economic viability of the mini-power plant installation. Such information are preliminary estimative for the market and can be modified as function of changes in the main factors used to have the production costs, as well as the sectorial policies that drives the activity as much in levels of raw material production as in biodiesel.

  2. Implementation and evaluation of a batch digester; Implementacao e avaliacao de um biodigestor de producao discontinua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte Neto, Ely Dias; Alvarenga, Leonardo Henrique; Costa, Lilian de Melo; Nascimento, Paulo Henrique; Silveira, Rafael Zanini; Leite, Leonardo Henrique de Melo [Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte (UniBH), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: ely.neto@materdei.com.br, lh.alvarenga@uol.com.br, lilianmello16@yahoo.com.br, paulonascimento88@hotmail.com, rafaelzanini_15@yahoo.com.br, leonardo.leite@prof.unibh.br

    2010-07-01

    The human development is intrinsically linked to the types of energy that had access. The control of the fire was the first big step for mankind. The use of Natural gas begins in the twentieth century in America, but with exports to Russia with the largest reserves on the planet, natural gas took place in the coal fired power. Today natural gas has become the world more energy used in power plants and is the fastest growing energy use in the world. This article describes an experimental implementation of a digester showing the equivalence between the production of biogas and the amount of material used and the practice that seeks to provide a small producer of an energy source. The biomass, after passing through the digester and producing biogas, also produces bio fertilizer for fertilization of soils. (author)

  3. Avaliacao da seguranca de diferentes doses de suplementos de acido folico em mulheres do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quenia dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a distribuição da ingestão de ácido fólico e a segurança de diferentes doses de suplementos em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados de consumo a partir de dois dias não consecutivos de registro alimentar de 6.837 mulheres em idade reprodutiva (19 a 40 anos participantes do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação, módulo da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. Médias e percentis de consumo habitual de folato natural e ácido fólico foram estimados utilizando o método do National Cancer Institute . Cinco cenários foram simulados somando-se diferentes doses diárias de fortificação (400 mcg, 500 mcg, 600 mcg, 700 mcg e 800 mcg ao ácido fólico oriundo dos alimentos consumidos pelas mulheres. Comparou-se o total de ácido fólico (dieta + suplemento com o nível máximo de ingestão tolerável (UL = 1.000 mcg para definir a dose segura de suplementação. RESULTADOS Mulheres com ingestão habitual de ácido fólico acima do nível máximo de ingestão tolerável foram observadas para doses de suplemento de 800 mcg (7,0% das mulheres. Abaixo desse valor, qualquer dose de suplementação mostrou-se segura. CONCLUSÕES O uso de suplementos de até 700 mcg de ácido fólico mostrou-se seguro.

  4. CT in the evaluation of severe liver trauma; Tomografia computadorizada na avaliacao do trauma hepatico grave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Marcel Autran C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clinicas; Souza Rocha, Manoel de; Machado, Manoel C.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Macedo Neto, Augusto Cesar de; Maciel, Rosangela Pereira; Simonetti, Celso

    1995-05-01

    Abdominal CT is a common examination in the evaluation of patients with blunt abdominal trauma and clinical suspicion for solid organ injury when reasons for immediate laparotomy are not present. A case of major blunt hepatic injury in a 22-year-old patient is reported. The authors present a brief review of the literature and discussion about the role of CT scan in the evaluation of hepatic trauma, surgical planning and postoperative follow-up. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Evaluation of operation strategies of hybrid systems; Avaliacao de estrategias de operacao de sistemas hibridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Luciano; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos]. E-mail: lucianoh@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article evaluates the operation strategies of photovoltaic-eolic-diesel hybrid systems used for the rural area applied to two cases studies placed at the Cardoso Island, SP. The operation strategies evaluation is performed by simulation using data collected at the Cardoso Island such as electric power consumption profile and the solar and wind potential. With those data, simulation have been done considering different operation strategies and different levels of renewable energies penetration in the total energy produced by the system, in order to obtain system operation results such as Diesel oil consumption and depth of average discharge of the battery banks. From the simulation results an economic analysis have been done by using elements data from the cost of life average cycle (LAC) for determining which strategy is the most adequate for operation the electric power supply hybrid system.

  6. Environmental impact evaluation from large energy projects; Avaliacao de impacto ambiental de grandes projetos energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, Alberto [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1985-12-31

    This paper builds up theoretical framework and methodological approaches to assess environmental impacts from large energy projects. It aims towards the definition of concrete tools, and technical proceedings to allow identification and quantification (or weighing) of effects on the natural and social environment. The environmental impacts assessment, (EIA), studies are described as important instruments in planning and in the choice of alternative energy policies. (author). 15 refs., 2 figs

  7. Computed tomography evaluation of mast cell tumours; Avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada dos mastocitomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorigados, Carla Aparecida Batista; Matera, Julia Maria; Macedo, Thais; Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandao Fonseca, E-mail: clorigados@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia

    2012-07-01

    The mast cell tumours are common tumours of the canine skin. Computed tomography (CT) has assumed an important role in tumours evaluation and staging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CT as a method of assessing characteristics of mast cell tumors. Ten dogs with mast cell tumor were evaluated. CT was performed before and after the intravenous injection of hydro soluble ionic iodine. Attenuation, contrast enhancement, cleavage with adjacent tissues and the unidimensional measurement of each lesion was determined in it maximum diameter, in transversal plane. Concerning the attenuation characteristic, 50% were homogeneous and 50% heterogeneous. The contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 50% of cases, heterogeneous in 40% and peripheral in 10%. Fifty percent of the tumours showed loss of plane of cleavage and 30% partial loss. This information can help in directing the patients that will be undergoing chemotherapy or surgery. (author)

  8. Model of global evaluation for energetic resources; Modelo de avaliacao global de recursos energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: ricardo_fujii@pea.usp.br; daeta@pea.usp.br; lcgalvao@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The traditional energy planning usually takes into account the technical economical costs, considered alongside environmental and a few political restraints; however, there is a lack of methods to evenly assess environmental, economical, social and political costs. This work tries to change such scenario by elaborating a model to characterize an energy resource in all four dimensions - environmental, political, social and economical - in an integrated view. The model aims at two objectives: provide a method to assess the global cost of the energy resource and estimate its potential considering the limitations provided by these dimensions. To minimize the complexity of the integration process, the model strongly recommends the use of the Full Cost Accounting - FCA - method to assess the costs and benefits from any given resource. The FCA allows considering quantitative and qualitative costs, reducing the need of quantitative data, which are limited in some cases. The model has been applied in the characterization of the region of Aracatuba, located in the west part of the state of Sao Paulo - Brazil. The results showed that the potential of renewable sources are promising, especially when the global costs are considered. Some resources, in spite of being economically attractive, don't provide an acceptable global cost. It became clear that the model is a valuable tool when the conventional tools fail to address many issues, especially the need of an integrated view on the planning process; the results from this model can be applied in a portfolio selection method to evaluate the best options for a power system expansion. It has to be noticed that the usefulness of this model can be increased when adopted with a method to analyze demand side management measures, thus offering a complete set of possible choices of energy options for the decision maker. (author)

  9. Renal dynamic scintigraphy in renal graft evaluation; Cintilografia renal dinamica na avaliacao do transplante renal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervo, Marco Antonio Cadorna; Amarante Junior, Jose Luiz de Medeiros; Souza, Ricardo Alberto Manhaes de; Evangelista, Maria Gardenia; Cavalcante, Carlos Alberto Provasi; Neder, Jacqueline de Roure e; Espinola, Ircania Jorge [Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1996-12-31

    The goal of this was to describe the use of the dynamic renal scintigraphy in patients grafted. The authors described the scintigraphy method utilised and results were discussed 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Dose assessment in pediatric computerized tomography; Avaliacao de doses em tomografia computadorizada pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilarinho, Luisa Maria Auredine Lima

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this work was the evaluation of radiation doses in paediatric computed tomography scans, considering the high doses usually involved and the absence of any previous evaluation in Brazil. Dose values were determined for skull and abdomen examinations, for different age ranges, by using the radiographic techniques routinely used in the clinical centers investigated. Measurements were done using pencil shape ionization chambers inserted in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantoms. These were compact phantoms of different diameters were specially designed and constructed for this work, which simulate different age ranges. Comparison of results with published values showed that doses were lower than the diagnostic reference levels established to adults exams by the European Commission. Nevertheless, doses in paediatric phantoms were higher than those obtained in adult phantoms. The paediatric dose values obtained in Hospitals A and B were lower than the reference level (DRL) adopted by SHIMPTON for different age ranges. In the range 0 - 0.5 year (neonatal), the values of DLP in Hospital B were 94 por cent superior to the DRL For the 10 years old children the values of CTDI{sub w} obtained were inferior in 89 por cent for skull and 83 por cent for abdomen examinations, compared to the values published by SHRIMPTON and WALL. Our measured CTDI{sub w} values were inferior to the values presented for SHRIMPTON and HUDA, for all the age ranges and types of examinations. It was observed that the normalized dose descriptors values in children in the neonatal range were always superior to the values of doses for the adult patient. In abdomen examinations, the difference was approximately 90% for the effective dose (E) and of 57%.for CTDI{sub w} . (author)

  11. Maus-tratos na infância de mulheres vítimas de violência Malos tratos en la niñez de mujeres víctimas de violencia Mistreatment in childhood among female victims of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Arleide da Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo identificar os comportamentos de risco de mulheres que presenciaram violência na família durante a sua infância e/ou adolescência e foram vítimas de violência na vida adulta, bem como determinar a prevalência desses casos e o perfil dessas mulheres. As mulheres investigadas eram assistidas no ambulatório de ginecologia do Centro de Atenção à Mulher do Instituto Materno-Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira, um centro de prestação de serviço terciário de saúde localizado no Nordeste do Brasil. O estudo foi um corte transversal e foram realizadas análises uni e bivariada em 619 questionários aplicados. Os resultados indicaram uma elevada prevalência (39,7% de história de violência familiar na infância e/ou adolescência de mulheres vítimas de violência na vida adulta. Concluiu-se que é importante e necessário identificar e assistir as famílias de risco, com o propósito de prevenir a prática de violência, haja vista a relevância da sua transmissão transgeracional.El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo determinar la preponderancia, identificar el perfil y comportamientos de riesgo desarrollados por mujeres que han vivenciado violencia en la familia durante su niñez y/o juventud y han sido víctimas de violencia en la vida adulta. Las mujeres investigadas eran asistidas en el ambulatorio de ginecología de un servicio terciario de salud en Nordeste de Brasil. El estudio fue un corte transversal y se realizó un análisis uni y bivariada en 619 cuestionarios aplicados. Los resultados indicaron una alta preponderancia 39,7% de histórico de violencia familiar en la niñez y/o juventud de mujeres víctimas de violencia en la vida adulta. Se concluyó por la importancia y necesidad de identificación y asistencia a las familias de riesgo, con el propósito de prevenir la práctica de violencia dada la relevancia de la su transmisión transgeracional.The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of women who had witnessed family violence in childhood and/or adolescence and were victims of violence in adult life, as well as identify the profile and risk behavior. The women investigated were being treated in a gynecology clinic at a tertiary healthcare service in northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional cohort study was carried out, using univariate and bivariate analysis on 619 applied questionnaires. The results indicated a high prevalence of family violence in childhood and/or adolescence among female victims of violence in adult life (39.7%. Conclusions were drawn regarding the importance and need for identification and assistance to families at risk in order to prevent the practice of violence, which has been demonstrated to have cross-generational transmission.

  12. Enzyme activity of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae on simulated conditions of human gastrointestinal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bosso

    2015-09-01

     capacidade de hidrólise de β-galactosidase produzida por Kluyveromyces lactis e Aspergillus oryzae simulando as condições do trato gastrintestinal humano. O teste foi realizado nas temperaturas ótimas de ação para cada enzima, 40 e 55°C, respectivamente, e na temperatura corpórea humana (37°C, nas concentrações de 1,5; 3,0 e 5,0 g/L para a enzima de Aspergillus oryzae ou mL/L para a de Kluyveromyces lactis. Na simulação da condição estomacal humana (pH 2, ambas enzimas foram totalmente inativadas. Quando as enzimas foram submetidas às condições simuladas do intestino delgado (pH 7,4, observou-se hidrólise da lactose, porém, a 37°C, a porcentagem foi menor do que a observada nas temperaturas ótimas de cada enzima. A enzima de K. lactis nas concentrações de 1,5; 3,0 e 5,0 mL/L apresentou hidrólise de 76,63%, 88,91% e 94,80% a 40°C e 55,99%, 80,91% e 81,53%, a 37°C, respectivamente. Nas concentrações 1,5; 3,0 e 5,0 g/L, a porcentagem de hidrólise pela enzima de A. oryzae a 55°C foi de 7,11%, 16,18% e 21,29%. Para esta enzima, nessas concentrações, a hidrólise obtida a 37°C foi 8,4%, 11,85% e de 16,43%. Sob condições intestinais simuladas, a enzima de K. lactis apresentou maior eficiência na hidrólise da lactose quando comparada à enzima de A. oryzae. Considerando-se as etapas avaliadas neste estudo, observa-se que é extremamente necessário o uso de um revestimento entérico em cápsulas de β-galactosidase, para que esta enzima seja liberada somente no intestino delgado, seu local de ação, não sofrendo, portanto, a ação do pH estomacal.Palavras-chave: Lactase. Hidrólise. Intolerância à lactose. Trato gastrintestinal.

  13. Peculiaridades da circulação mesentérica em recém-nascidos e suas implicações em doenças gastrintestinais do período neonatal Mesenteric circulation peculiarities in infant newborns and its implications in gastrointestinal illnesses of the neonatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yin Chia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Descrever peculiaridades da circulação mesentérica neonatal e caracterizar fatores de suscetibilidade ao desenvolvimento de doenças gastrintestinais e alterações do fluxo sanguíneo da artéria mesentérica superior por meio da dopplerfluxometria. FONTES DE DADOS: Livros-textos e publicações indexadas no Medline e SciELO nos últimos 20 anos, utilizando-se as palavras chaves: "mesenteric artery", "superior mesenteric artery", "newborn intestinal circulation", "necrotizing enterocolitis", "doppler flow velocimetry". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Alterações do fluxo sanguíneo mesentérico são um dos fatores predisponentes da enterocolite necrosante, doença neonatal de alta morbimortalidade que acomete principalmente prematuros. A circulação mesentérica é peculiar no período neonatal tanto em relação ao seu estado basal, quanto à sua resposta frente a estímulos fisiológicos. Variações da irrigação mesentérica podem ser inerentes à própria fase de desenvolvimento vascular intestinal do recém-nascido pré-termo, com possíveis agravos de fatores perinatais como: insuficiência placentária, asfixia, infecção, cateterismo umbilical, drogas (indometacina e cafeína, fototerapia, alimentação artificial e progressão rápida da dieta. A dopplerfluxometria permite o estudo da irrigação de órgãos-alvo e pode quantificar o fluxo sanguíneo, a resistência vascular e predizer situações de risco para doenças do trato gastrintestinal no período neonatal. CONCLUSÕES: O recém-nascido apresenta peculiaridades de irrigação sanguínea gastrintestinal. A dopplerfluxometria da artéria mesentérica superior é um método não invasivo que determina as condições circulatórias no território intestinal.OBJECTIVE:To describe peculiarities of the neonatal mesenteric circulation and to characterize the susceptibility factors to the development of gastrointestinal illnesses and alterations of the superior mesenteric artery

  14. Avaliação morfológica do abomaso e ceco-cólon de bovinos Morphologic evaluation of the abomasum and cecum-colon of bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A morfofisiologia relacionada à absorção de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV ao longo do trato gastrintestinal de ruminantes não é totalmente caracterizada. Desse modo, os objetivos deste trabalho foram mensurar a extensão da superfície de absorção e determinar o índice mitótico (IM do abomaso, do ceco e da alça proximal do cólon ascendente (APCA. Dez bovinos mestiços adultos tiveram seu estômago e intestino grosso removidos imediatamente após o abate. A área total da superfície de absorção foi mensurada por meio de digitalização e análise de imagens. Cortes histológicos foram feitos para determinação do IM. A superfície absortiva do abomaso, 0,58m², foi menor (PThe morphology and physiology related to volatile fatty acid (VFA absorption throughout the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants is not totally characterized. The purpose of this work was to measure the abomasum and cecum-colon absorptive surface extension and determine the mitotic index (MI. Ten adult crossbred bovine had their stomach and large intestine removed after slaughter. The total area of the absorptive surface was measured through image capture and analysis. Histological sections were performed to measure the MI. The abomasum absorptive surface (0.58m² was lower (P<0.01 than that of the rumen (6.53m² and omasum (2.31m². The cecum-colon absorptive surface (0.23m² corresponded to 3.5% of the rumen and 10% of the omasum. The MI observed was 0.48%; 0.14%; 0.36% and 0.41% for the regions of spiral folds, pyloric, cecum and proximal loop of ascending colon, respectively. A positive correlation between abomasum tissue mass and the abomasum absorptive surface was observed. This phenomenon has also occurred in the cecum and colon. It was possible to establish regressions to facilitate measurements of the absorptive surface of the abomasum and cecum-colon.

  15. Leiomioma vascular bucal: relato de dois casos, revisão da literatura e estudo imuno-histoquímico Oral vascular leiomyoma: report of two cases, review of literature and immunohistochemistry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ávila Sarmento Silveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os leiomiomas são neoplasias benignas do músculo liso que ocorrem mais comumente nos tratos geniturinário e gastrintestinal, entretanto são raros na cavidade bucal, na qual provavelmente a maioria desses tumores tem sua origem a partir de músculo liso vascular. OBJETIVOS: Relatar dois casos com história clínica semelhante, confrontando seus aspectos com aqueles encontrados na literatura. RELATO DOS CASOS: Dois casos de mulheres na quinta e sexta décadas de vida apresentando nódulo submucoso em ventre lingual. Após exame microscópico que revelou numerosos vasos sangüíneos entremeados a células fusiformes, com núcleos ovalados ou alongados, e exame imuno-histoquímico com positividade para actina de músculo liso nos dois casos, o diagnóstico final foi leiomioma vascular. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo do leiomioma vascular bucal é de extrema importância devido à raridade e semelhança desse com outras lesões da cavidade bucal. A análise imuno-histoquímica é importante para o diagnóstico final do leiomioma.INTRODUCTION: The leiomyomas are benign tumors of smooth muscle origin, which are more frequently found in genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts. However, leiomyomas rarely arise in the oral cavity, and when it happens, the majority of them is originated by smooth muscle of blood vessels. AIMS: Report two cases of oral vascular leiomyoma with similar clinical characteristics, and discuss their aspects with the literature. CASE REPORT: Two cases of vascular leiomyoma in women that presented a nodular mass in the tongue ventral surface were described. The microscopic analysis revealed numerous blood vessels surrounded by spindle cells with ovoid or elongated nuclei. The two cases presented immunopositivity for smooth muscle actin, confirming the diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The study of vascular leiomyoma is required due to its rarity and similar aspects with other oral common lesions. The immunohistochemical analysis is

  16. Toxicidade do pericarpo da Jatropha curcas em ovinos

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    O.R. Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas é uma planta cultivada para a produção de biocombustível. O pericarpo é um coproduto com potencial para alimentação animal, e a presença de componentes tóxicos, principalmente ésteres de forbol, pode limitar sua utilização. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a toxicidade do pericarpo. Vinte ovinos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos - um grupo-controle, que não recebeu a planta, e três experimentais, que receberam o pericarpo nas concentrações de 15% (G15, 30% (G30 e 45% (G45, durante 23 dias. Após o 10º dia, a ingestão do pericarpo promoveu redução do consumo de alimento, diarreia, desidratação e caquexia. Todos os grupos tratados apresentaram redução na concentração de fosfatase alcalina. Animais do G30 apresentaram redução na concentração de ureia e proteínas totais e elevação de potássio e sódio. No G45, houve aumento de aspartato aminotransferase, albumina, creatinina bilirrubina indireta e total. A avaliação anatomo-histopatológica revelou ascite, hidropericárdio, congestão no trato gastrintestinal e nos pulmões, edema pulmonar, aderências à parede torácica, degeneração hepática centrolobular e das células tubulares renais, pneumonia linfo-histiocitica e enterite linfoplasmocitária e histiocítica. À análise fitoquímica, constatou-se 0,3845mg de ésteres de forbol/g de pericarpo. Conclui-se que o pericarpo de J. curcas é tóxico, não sendo recomendado para alimentação de ovinos.

  17. AMIDO DISPONÍVEL E RESISTENTE EM ALIMENTOS: ADAPTAÇÃO DO MÉTODO DA AOAC 996.11

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    M. WALTER

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Muitos métodos para a quantificação do amido disponível (AD e resistente (AR foram desenvolvidos nos últimos anos. Entretanto, a utilização de diferentes enzimas, assim como de diferentes quantidades de amostra, leva a variações no teor destas frações dificultando a comparação dos resultados obtidos. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da utilização de protease, do aumento da quantidade de amostra (de 100mg para 300mg e da substituição do tampão MOPS pH 7,0 por tampão fosfato pH 6,8 na determinação de AD e AR pela técnica da AOAC 996.11. Para tanto, utilizou-se como amostra amido de milho, arroz branco polido, banana verde e flocos de milho. A utilização de protease no processo de digestão, bem como o aumento na quantidade de amostra, influenciaram significativamente o teor de AD e AR para a maioria dos materiais analisados. Já, a substituição por tampão fosfato não resultou em variação significativa para os teores de AD e AR. Portanto, o protocolo com as três modificações, por apresentar melhor simulação das condições hidrolíticas no trato gastrintestinal, menores coeficientes de variação e custo reduzido pela substituição do tampão, seria o mais adequado à quantificação destas frações do amido.

  18. Avaliação do tempo de trânsito esofágico pelo ultrassom: influência do gênero e índice de massa corpórea

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    Makoto Sakate

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Utilizar a ultrassonografia do esôfago intra-abdominal para avaliar o tempo de trânsito esofágico para água e iogurte, em posição ortostática, e avaliar a influência do gênero e índice de massa corpórea. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 89 indivíduos adultos jovens, sem clínica de doenças do trato gastrintestinal superior, sendo 40 do gênero feminino (média de 20,13 ± 1,62 anos e 49 do gênero masculino (média de 20,43 ± 2,17 anos. O tempo de trânsito esofágico foi cronometrado, com o paciente em posição ortostática, durante a deglutição de água e iogurte. RESULTADOS: O tempo de trânsito esofágico para as mulheres e para os homens foi, respectivamente: para água, de 5,84 ± 1,60 segundos versus 6,66 ± 1,68 segundos, e para iogurte, de 9,12 ± 1,96 segundos versus 9,28 ± 1,70 segundos. Não se constatou diferença entre os gêneros masculino e feminino, apesar de o fator índice de massa corpórea ser menor nas mulheres. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos do tempo de trânsito esofágico para alimento líquido (água e pastoso (iogurte, em posição ortostática, em adultos jovens não mostraram diferença entre os gêneros, mesmos nas mulheres com índice de massa corpórea menor em relação aos homens.

  19. Avaliação das propriedades de intumescimento e permeabilidade de filmes isolados de polimetacrilato contendo polissacarídeo da raiz de Lótus (Nelumbo nucifera Evaluation of swelling and permeability properties of films isolated from polymethacrylate containing polysaccharide from Lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera

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    Claudia Renata Rosina

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Polissacarídeo extraído da raiz de Lótus (Nelumbo nucifera adicionado a polimetacrilato foi utilizado para a obtenção de filmes isolados, constituindo material candidato ao revestimento de formas farmacêuticas sólidas orais, sendo estas voltadas à liberação modificada de fármacos, potencialmente suscetíveis à degradação pela microflora presente exclusivamente na região distal do trato gastrintestinal. A adição do polissacarídeo ao polímero de base, dispersão aquosa Eudragit®RS 30D, ocorreu em diferentes proporções: 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30. Os filmes isolados foram caracterizados pela determinação do índice de intumescimento e pela transmissão de vapor de água. Os resultados registraram, para as diferentes associações testadas, características de transparência (opacidade e de flexibilidade alteradas e dependentes do aumento da concentração do polissacarídeo: 100:0>90:10>80:20>7030, o mesmo ocorrendo no tocante à permeabilidade ao vapor d'água. Todavia estas diferenças não foram significativas entre si, demonstrando manutenção das propriedades físico-químicas do polímero sintético contendo polissacarídeo, o que permite sugerir o material obtido como candidato potencial ao desenvolvimento de sistema para liberação colônica.Polysaccharides such as extracted from Lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera combined with polymethacrylates on isolated films for film coating was studied as potential vehicles for colonic drug delivery, susceptible to fermentation by micro flora. For the preparation we used the association of Eudragit®RS 30D and polysaccharides in different concentrations (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 in aqueous-based solvents. In the present study, the films were characterized by swelling studies and water vapor transmission studies. These tests demonstrated that different associations do not present significant differences, showing that the physico-chemical properties of EudragitâRS 30D are not

  20. Influência da adição da goma arábica em filmes isolados de polímero acrílico: estudo das propriedades de intumescimento e de permeabilidade Influence of arabic gum in acrylic polymer isolated films: study of swelling properties and permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gustavo Santos Gabas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Goma arábica associada ao polímero acrílico Eudragit RS30D® na formação de filmes isolados foram obtidos e investigados como material potencialmente adequado à liberação modificada de fármacos. Foram preparadas dispersões aquosas de 4% (p/v e o citrato de trietila (20% massa polímero acrílico foi usado como plastificante. Dispersões foram vertidas em placa de Nylon revestida com Teflon® e colocadas em estufa a 60 ºC. A determinação do índice de intumescimento (Ii% em fluidos de simulação gástrica (FSG e intestinal (FSI, além da permeabilidade ao vapor d'água (TVA foram avaliadas. As dispersões propostas apresentaram habilidades filmogênicas. O polissacarídeo favoreceu, proporcionalmente à sua concentração, o grau de hidratação e a permeabilidade ao vapor d'água dos filmes formados. Estas particularidades observadas sugerem que os filmes constituídos por estas associações garantem acessibilidade com maior intensidade, quando comparado ao polimetacrilato individualmente, condição essa indispensável para uma biodegradação efetiva, em especial às regiões distais do trato gastrintestinal.Arabic gum combined with polymeric acrylic Eudragit RS30D® in isolated films for film coating, were obtained and investigated as potential material adapted for drug delivery systems. They were prepared aqueous dispersions of 4% (p/v, the triethyl citrate (20% w/w of the methacrylate polymer it was used with plasticizer. Sample of dispersions were poured over plate of Nylon covered with Teflon and placed in an air circulated oven at 60 ºC. Determination of the swelling index (Is% in fluids of gastric (SGF or intestinal simulation or intestinal (SIF, and the permeability to the water vapour (TVA were investigated. An increase in the amount of added polysaccharide favored the degree of hydration/swelling and permeability of the formed films. These observed particularities suggest that the films constituted by these

  1. Terapia nutricional enteral em pacientes sépticos na unidade de terapia intensiva: adequação às diretrizes nutricionais para pacientes críticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Fernandes Pasinato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a adequação do manejo nutricional do paciente séptico a diretrizes de nutrição enteral para pacientes críticos. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo com 92 pacientes sépticos, idade ≥18 anos, internados em unidade de terapia intensiva, em uso de nutrição enteral, avaliados segundo diretrizes para pacientes críticos quanto à nutrição enteral precoce, adequação calórica e proteica, e motivos para não início da nutrição enteral precoce bem como de interrupção da mesma. Escores prognósticos, tempo de internação, evolução clínica e estado nutricional também foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Pacientes com idade média de 63,4±15,1 anos, predominantemente masculinos, diagnóstico de choque séptico (56,5%, tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva de 11 (7,2 a 18,0 dias, escores SOFA de 8,2±4,2 e APACHE II de 24,1±9,6 e mortalidade de 39,1%. Em 63% dos pacientes, a nutrição enteral foi iniciada precocemente. Cerca de 50% atingiu as metas calóricas e proteicas no 3º dia de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva, percentual que foi reduzido para 30% no 7º dia. Motivos para início da nutrição enteral tardia foram complicações do trato gastrintestinal (35,3% e instabilidade hemodinâmica (32,3%. Procedimentos foram o motivo mais frequente para interrupção da nutrição enteral (44,1%. Não houve associação entre a adequação às diretrizes com estado nutricional, tempo de internação, gravidade ou evolução. CONCLUSÃO: Embora expressivo o número de pacientes sépticos que iniciaram a nutrição enteral precocemente, metas calóricas e proteicas no 3º dia da internação foram atingidas apenas pela metade destes, percentual que diminui no 7º dia.

  2. Avaliação morfológica do abomaso e ceco-cólon de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A morfofisiologia relacionada à absorção de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV ao longo do trato gastrintestinal de ruminantes não é totalmente caracterizada. Desse modo, os objetivos deste trabalho foram mensurar a extensão da superfície de absorção e determinar o índice mitótico (IM do abomaso, do ceco e da alça proximal do cólon ascendente (APCA. Dez bovinos mestiços adultos tiveram seu estômago e intestino grosso removidos imediatamente após o abate. A área total da superfície de absorção foi mensurada por meio de digitalização e análise de imagens. Cortes histológicos foram feitos para determinação do IM. A superfície absortiva do abomaso, 0,58m², foi menor (P<0,01 do que a do rúmen, 6,53m², e a do omaso, 2,31m². A superfície absortiva do ceco e da APCA, 0,23m², correspondeu a 3,5% da superfície do rúmen e a 10% da superfície do omaso. O IM observado foi 0,48%; 0,14%; 0,36% e 0,41% para as regiões de pregas espirais, pilórica, ceco e APCA, respectivamente. Observou-se correlação positiva entre a massa tecidual do abomaso e a área de superfície de absorção, aspecto também observado no ceco-APCA. Foi possível estabelecer regressões para facilitar a mensuração da superfície absortiva do abomaso e do ceco-APCA.

  3. Infecção em idosos internados em instituição de longa permanência Infection in elderly interned in long-term care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Fortes Villas Bôas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar ocorrência de infecção em idosos de instituição de longa permanência (ILP durante 13 meses consecutivos. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta e cinco idosos foram avaliados segundo critérios de infecção e de comunicação padronizada. RESULTADOS: A idade mediana foi de 75 (66-81 anos. O conjunto de dados constituiu-se de 20.896 pacientes-dia (PD durante o período, com um total de 76 infecções para uma taxa média de infecção de 3,2 por 1000 PD. A taxa de pacientes com infecção foi de 63,6%. As topografias prevalentes foram respiratória (50%, trato urinário (32%, pele e partes moles (12% e gastrintestinal (7%, com taxa de infecção/1000 PD de 1,60; 1,01; 0,38; e 0,2, respectivamente. A taxa de mortalidade por infecção foi de 5%. Agentes microbiológicos foram isolados em 30,5% dos episódios infecciosos e Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus foram os mais freqüentes. CONCLUSÃO: Infecção apresentou elevada incidência nos idosos institucionalizados, porém nenhum evento extraordinário foi observado.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence of infection in elderly interned in long-term care facilities (LTCF during 13 consecutive months. METHODS: Fifty five elderly were evaluated according to infection and, reporting was standardized. RESULTS: The median age was 75 (66 81 years. The data set consisted of 20,896 patients-day (PD of care during the period, with a total of 76 infections for a pooled mean rate of infections 3.20 per 1,000 PD of care. Patient infection rate was 63.6%. Prevalent topographies of infection were respiratory (50%, urinary tract (32%, skin and soft tissue (12% and gastroenteritis (7%, with an infection rate for specific categories/1000 PD of 1.60, 1.01, 0.38, 0.21, respectively. Mortality infection rate was 5%. Microbiological agents were isolated in 30.5% of the infection episodes. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were prevalent. CONCLUSION: Infection presented an elevated incidence in

  4. Endometriose colônica simulando câncer colorretal: relato de dois casos Colonic endometriosis simulating colorectal cancer: report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Garcia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Endometriose constitui doença enigmática de etiologia incerta e caracteriza-se pelo implante ectópico, extra-uterino, de tecido endometrial funcionante. Sua apresentação clínica comum é de sangramento retal cíclico, associado com período menstrual e queixas como dispareunia, dismenorréia e infertilidade. Porém sua apresentação pode variar, simulando tumores colorretais e apresentando sintomas como tenesmo e sangramento retal. O diagnóstico é anatomopatológico e muitas vezes elucidado após ressecção cirúrgica. O tratamento pode ser clínico ou cirúrgico, dependendo da idade, desejo de ter filhos, acometimento da lesão endometrial no trato gastrintestinal. OBJETIVO: relatar dois casos de Endometriose Colônica, simulando câncer colorretal, diagnosticados no serviço de Cirurgia Geral do Hospital Geral Universitário da Universidade de Cuiabá, e dissertando sobre a doença e formas de tratamento.The endometriosis is an enigmatic pathology that has an uncertain etiology and is characterized by ectopic implant of functional endometrial tissue. Its most common clinical presentation is periodic abdominal pain associated with menstrual period, infertility, and complaints of dyspareunie and dysmenorrheal, but its presentation can also varies, simulating colorectal tumors by presenting symptoms like tenesm and rectal bleeding. The diagnoses is made by the anatomopathologic exam and mostly explained after surgical resection. The treatment can be done clinically or surgically, depending on the age, desire to have children and the development of endometrial lesion in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this work is relating two cases of colonic endometriosis simulating colorectal cancer, diagnosed at the surgical service of the Hospital Geral Universitário de Cuiabá, and dissertating about the pathology forms and its treatment.

  5. Evaluation of the energetic equivalence of goat manure biogas; Avaliacao da equivalencia energetica do biogas de esterco de caprinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    The present paper shows the results of a research about a new production system model based on goats; part of the animals manure is used for biogas production. The biogas is used as fuel for water pumping for the irrigation of the animals pasture. For the viability of the project, a photovoltaic powered electrified fence was used. Additional to the positive results of sustainability, innovative solutions were developed for sizing, optimization and costs reduction by the use of digesters in small rural communities of the semi-arid of the Brazilian Northeast Region. (author)

  6. AIDS related thoracic lymphoma: evaluation by computed tomography; Linfoma toracico na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Antonio Alexandre de Oliveira [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiodiagnostico; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia

    2000-02-01

    The authors reviewed five cases of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related lymphoma to describe the thoracic findings on computed tomography. The patients were followed at Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro and Hospital da Lagoa, from November, 1989 to March 1998. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological data from these patients were quiet variable and pulmonary nodules and masses, hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and thoracic wall masses were observed. AIDS related lymphomas involving the chest are pleomorphic and most commonly extranodal. (author)

  7. Evaluation of process variables in obtaining of organo clays; Avaliacao das variaveis de processo na obtencao de argilas organofilicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, D.L.; Cardoso, M.A.F.; Ferreira, H.S.; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencais e Tecnologia. Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: danubialisboa@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The Paraiba state is the greater producing of bentonite in Brazil, for several industrial uses. In this production the Na{sup +} bentonite are distinguished, that when treated with ionic surfactants are used in based oil drilling fluids. The national production of organoclays for based oil drilling fluids is very poor, so this product is imported by PETROBRAS, from America. This present work has as objective the study of involved basic organofilization variable process such as: speed of agitation, temperature and time of cure preparation of organoclays, using bentonite clays Brasgel PA and Cloisite NA{sup +}, later treated with the ionic surfactant Praepagem WB. Organoclays had been characterized by X-ray and swell of Foster to determine the organoclays compatibility with the oil ways and to correlate the variable studied with the gotten results. (author)

  8. Experimental evaluation of the objective virtual mass coefficient; Avaliacao experimental do coeficiente de massa virtual apoiada em uma formulacao objetiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle

    1984-04-15

    This work is a continuation of many others studies that have been made in the field of two-phase flow, concerning the influence of the void fraction in a parameter known as 'induced mass' that appears in the constitutive equation of the inter-phase force called 'virtual mass force'. The determination of the influence of the void fraction in the induced mass is done using experiment involving a bubble flow in a vertical tube filled with water. Using the two-phase flow model together with some hypothesis concerning the bubble flow experience and the constitutive equation for the virtual mass force, we achieve through the analysis of the filming of the experiment our purpose in determining the influence of the void fraction on the induced mass. (author)

  9. Evaluation of personal protective devices used in diagnostic radiology; Avaliacao de dispositivos de protecao individual utilizados em radiologia diagnostica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador

    2006-07-01

    In this work protective devices of five manufacturers were evaluated according to the NBR/IEC 61331-1 and NBR/IEC 61331-3 standards. Three different methodologies (linear interpolation, Archer model and sum of exponentials) were applied for the determination of the attenuation equivalent, since the standard does not indicate how it must be determined. Moreover, the uncertainties associated to each method, and the influence of the number of measurements in the combined uncertainty were estimated. The evaluated manufacture characteristics were: accompanying document, design, materials, dimensions and label marking. For this evaluation a check list about the requirements of the NBR/IEC 61331-3 standard was elaborated. The results showed a great difference between nominal and measured attenuation equivalent values. The comparison of the results using the three methodologies showed small variations among the obtained values and among the associated uncertainties in the different methodologies. It was possible to observe that the number of measurements does not contribute significantly for the increase of the uncertainty in all three methodologies. The best methodology for the laboratory routine is the linear interpolation methodology, with five measurements for each air kerma rate value. The discrepancy between the results obtained in this work and the requirements of the applied standards show the need to adopt a compulsory certification process for protective devices, thus contributing for the increase of the radiation protection of the users. (author)

  10. Using radioactive tracers for the evaluation of industrial equipment; Utilizacao de tracadores radioativos na avaliacao de equipamentos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Luis Eduardo Barreira; Sa, Lidia Vasconcellos de; Sousa, Alvaro Serafim F. de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the radioactive tracer technique, giving as example some cases of the possible utilization developed by the Nuclear Engineering Institute, RJ, BR (Argonaut reactor) and through charged particle (CV-28 cyclotron), and also his production and aspects of radiological safety.

  11. Evaluation of a quality control program in radiodiagnosis; Radiologia diagnostica e programa de garantia de qualidade: avaliacao critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacovenco, Alejandro; Infantosi, A.F.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Biomedica; Lira, S.H. [Hospital Central da Policia Militar do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tauhata, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Supervisao de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    1996-12-31

    A quality assurance program, implemented at the Radiologic Service of the Hospital of the Military Police in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is evaluated. The results show a reduction around of 70% in the number of rejected films and 75% in the costs. A return to the former conditions is reported as after the discontinuation of the program 2 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Imaging assessment of isolated lesions affecting cranial nerve III; Avaliacao por imagem das lesoes isoladas do III par craniano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem (CBR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: cidbh@cidbh.com.br; Martins, Jose Carlos Tadeu [Sociedade Brasileira de Neuroradiologia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-05-15

    The aim of this study is to review the anatomy and main pathologic conditions affecting cranial nerve III using imaging studies, particularly magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging methods are essential in the evaluation of patients with suspected lesions of the oculomotor nerve once signs and symptoms are unspecific and a large number of diseases can affect cranial nerve III. A brief review of the literature is also presented. (author)

  13. Evaluation of sulphonated polycarbonate membranes for fuel cells; Avaliacao de membranas de policarbonato sulfonado para celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Isabela M.M.; Gomes, Ana C.; Pessan, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: isabelamuglia@gmail.com; Paranhos, Caio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Fuel cells based on ion conducting polymer membranes offer an alternative for the conventional energetic matrices. Among many advantages of this system, we can mention the reduction on the emission of pollutants, high efficiency and simplicity. This work presents the modification of polycarbonate by sulfonation reaction using acetyl sulfate, in order to increase the conductor ionic character of the membranes used as electrolytes for hydrogen fuel cells. The sulfonated polycarbonate membranes were obtained by casting and then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, water vapor transmission, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and viscosimetry. (author)

  14. Dose evaluation in special fluoroscopy procedures: Hysterosalpingography and Dacryocystography; Avaliacao de dose em procedimentos especiais de fluoroscopia: histerossalpingografia e dacriocistografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Cintya Carolina Barbosa

    2006-04-15

    The hysterosalpingography (HSG) and dacryocystography (DCG) are among the special fluoroscopy procedures. The HSG is a radiodiagnostic technique used to detect uterine and tubal pathologies and it is fundamental for the investigation of infertility. The DCG is a form of lacrimal system imaging, being important to show the level of obstruction, the presence of dilatation of the lacrimal sac, as well as alterations in nearby structures. At this research, the study of skin entrance dose was evaluated for these two special fluoroscopy procedures, besides the analyses of staff doses whose performs the exams. The exams of 22 HSG patients and 8 DCG patients were evaluated using TL-100 dosimeters attached on patient' skin at anatomical landmarks evolved on each exam. In the case of HSG, the results showed that skin entrance doses varied from 0.5 mGy to 73.4 mGy, with an average value of 22.1 mGy. The estimated uterus dose was 5.5 mGy, and 6.6 mGy was the average dose estimated to the ovaries. The patient' skin entrance dose undergoing to DCG examinations varied from 2.1 mGy to 10.6 mGy, and the average eye's dose was 6.1 mGy. The results of staff dose showed that, on HSG, the average dose on doctor's right hand was 4.3 mGy per examination. This value had to the fact that the physician introduces the contrast manually while all contrast exposures. In relation of DCG, the staff's dose values were nearby background radiation, evidencing that, inside of permitted limits, there is no risk for the physicians at this procedure. (author)

  15. Evaluation for turbine implementation for a micro hydroelectric power plant; Avaliacao para implantacao de uma turbina para uma microcentral hidreletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Gilberto Manoel; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Oliveira, Franciene Gois [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dep. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    In this work it was analyzed the viability technical and economical of turbines to micro hydroelectric headquarters as an alternative to consumers not served by electric energy in isolated areas. It was used a experimental methods to create an estimative and a evaluation of the hydroelectric potential, through hydrological criteria in the area and, thus, be able to note if there is viability for its use. Some kinds of turbines made by the national industry were verified, analyzing the technical and economical characteristics and in function of the hydro energetic-conditions of the area. The results shoed that a micro-headquarters serves the necessities and expectations of the owner at the electric energy supply. It was noted that the expenses are smaller comparing to the other expenses know in the literature, from national factories. Even though the limiting factor is the distance from the production to the consumer, the potency of 18.4 kw was enough to satisfy the local necessities. The installation of de micro headquarters will bring enhances and facilities by the fact that it represents a big social importance for the area. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the absorbed dose in odontological computerized tomography; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em tomografia computadorizada odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legnani, Adriano; Schelin, Hugo R.; Rocha, Anna Silvia P.S. da, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: anna@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluated the absorbed dose at the surface entry known as 'cone beam computed tomography' (CBCT) in odontological computerized tomography. Examination were simulated with CBCT for measurements of dose. A phantom were filled with water, becoming scatter object of radiation. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were positioned on points correspondent to eyes and salivary glands

  17. Dosimetric evaluation in panoramic and tele-radiography procedures; Avaliacao dosimetrica em procedimentos de radiografia panoramica e teleradiografias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Georgge Gomes

    2004-07-01

    The present work had as an objective to evaluate the skin surface entrance dose in panoramic and tele radiography procedures in three clinics in Recife - Pernambuco - Brazil, and to contribute with data for the determination of reference levels for super cited extra oral procedures, for this purpose, operational conditions in 3 clinics were evaluated in Recife, aiming to evaluate the existence and integrity of the radioprotection equipment, manner and conditions of image processing; and radiographic equipment parameters such as the dimension of the irradiation filed, the total filtration, the exposure time and the potential applied to the X ray tube. For an estimation of the skin entrance dose of the patient, the phantom Randon Alderson and thermoluminescence dosemeters were used. From these values and the conversion factors determined by the Monte Carlo technique, with the phantom MAX it was possible to estimate the dose absorbed in the organ due to the tele radiography procedures. Regarding panoramic radiography the study showed that the more elevated doses occurred in the parotid gland region which is near rotational venters. In the case of tele radiography the highest dose value occurred in the regions corresponding to the temporal lobe of the brain, followed by linfonodes, ears and parotid glands. The doses absorbed in the eyes and the thyroid gland were, 0.037 mGy and 0.002 mGy in Clinic A and 0.062 mGy and 0.003 mGy in Clinic C, respectively. Regarding equipment test, inadequacy was found in the beam collimation in Clinic A and in the reproducibility of the X ray exposure in Clinic C. The total filtration in both clinics was inadequate.(author)

  18. Evaluation of new polymers for enhanced oil recovery; Avaliacao de novos polimeros para recuperacao aumentada de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Ana M.S.; Chagas, Emanuel F.; Costa, Marta; Garcia, Rosangela B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The main polymers used nowadays for enhanced oil recovery, partially hydrolysed polyacrylamides and xanthan gum, show some limitations, such as low tolerance to salt presence and biological degradation. Therefore, it is necessary the improvement of the polymeric properties. With this goal, a new class of polymers, named 'water-soluble polymers hydrophobically modified' or simply 'amphiphilic polymers', has been developed. In this work, it was obtained a water-soluble acrylamide polymer hydrophobically modified with N,N-dihexyl acrylamide, using the micellar copolymerization technique. After the structural and rheological characterization of the copolymer, its performance in porous medium was evaluated through core flood tests in Botucatu sandstone. In the presence of sodium chloride, the amphiphilic copolymer presented a great increase of viscosity, besides values of resistance factor and of residual resistance factor higher than for the commercial polyacrylamide. This behavior can favor the oil recovery, mainly in high salinity and permeability reservoirs, by improving the water flooding sweep efficiency. (author)

  19. Developing pipeline risk methodology for environmental license permit; Metodologia para avaliacao do risco em dutos, no licenciamento ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Paulo; Naime, Andre [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Diretoria de Licenciamento e Qualidade Ambiental; Serpa, Ricardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analise de Riscos; Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS Engenharia, RJ (Brazil); Ventura, Gilmar [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Some new pipelines undertakings aim to establish connection between gas provinces in the Southeast and consumers in the Northeast of Brazil, in order to supply medium consuming centers and regions with minor potential of development. Consulting companies are carrying out Environmental Assessments studies and among them is the Risk Analyses of these pipeline transmission systems, in order to receive environmental permits by IBAMA, the Federal Brazilian Environmental Agency. In addition, existing interstate pipeline systems which are under IBAMA regulation will also require the same attention. For the purpose of defining a Pipeline Risk Analysis Protocol with methodology and risk criteria, with minimum risk analysis information on a comprehensive process, it has been decided for a 'tour de force' formed by experts from IBAMA and PETROBRAS engineers. The risk assessment protocol is focus on the risk to communities in the neighborhood of these pipelines and on the potential damage to the environment near and far from the ROW. The joined work ended up in two protocols, which attempt to provide environmental license permits for oil pipeline and gas pipelines with minimum contents for risk analysis studies. Another aspect is the environmental risk that has been focused on the contingency plan approach, since there are no consolidated environmental risk criteria for application as a common worldwide sense. The environmental risk mapping - MARA methodology will indicate areas with potential to be affected by leakages along a pipeline system. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the absorbed dose in odontological computerized tomography; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em tomografia computadorizada odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legnani, Adriano; Schelin, Hugo R; Rocha, Anna Silvia P.S. da, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: anna@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluated the absorbed dose at the surface entry known as 'cone beam computed tomography' (CBCT) in odontological computerized tomography. Examination were simulated with CBCT for measurements of dose. A phantom were filled with water, becoming scatter object of radiation. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were positioned on points correspondent to eyes and salivary glands

  1. Evaluation of elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais (MG); Avaliacao da composicao elementar de argilas de Campos Gerais (MG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao P.M.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jpmm0697@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    There are numerous applications given to clays including oil and water adsorbent, ceramic, whitening of beverages, porcelain, waste treatment, organic carrier molecules in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, support for catalysts. In the pharmaceutical industry, the clays are used as excipients, diluents, desiccants, emulsifiers, to mask undesirable flavors, isotonic agent such as charger and delivery of active substances. These characteristics have contributed to the expansion of the search for applications of clay minerals in the cosmetic industry. The aim of this study was to determine the elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais, Minas Gerais, with a view to their applicability in the production of cosmetics. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th,U, Yb and Zn were determined by neutron activation analysis and radionuclide activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K were determined by gamma spectrometry. It was verified that the activity concentration of radionuclides was in the same concentration as the global average, indicating that these samples do not present a risk of increased radiation exposure. The concentration of most elements determined is less than or equal to the overall mean concentrations, indicated by the values of Continental Upper Crust. (author)

  2. Evaluation of level of impregnation monomers in hydrotalcite; Avaliacao do grau de impregnacao de monomeros em hidrotalcita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Danieli M. do, E-mail: danielimcarmo@hotmail.com [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Machado, Jacson S.C.; Oliveira, Marcelo F.L.; Oliveira, Marcia G. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia - INT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Soares, Bluma G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the impregnation degree of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol monomers in hydrotalcite clays it was prepared dispersions with mixing ratio 1:100 (clay/monomer), using the Ultraturrax and Ultrasound. Subsequently the samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Swelling tests and Tyndall effect were used to illustrate the different dispersions. The results indicated a strong interaction between the hydrotalcite with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate, favoring the formation of intercalated structures. (author)

  3. Lung scintigraphy evaluation in workers exposed to abrasive dusts; Avaliacao cintilografica pulmonar em trabalhadores de industria de abrasivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra Filho, Mario

    1996-12-31

    The production process of abrasives use aluminium, or silicon carbide a synthetic material with a hardness only slightly less than that of a diamond. It is popularly known as carborundum since it was first manufactured as an abrasive in 1891, produced by the fusion of high grade silica and petroleum coke with sawdust. For many years silicon carbide was thought not to give rise to pulmonary lesions. Recently several researchers suggested the existence of a carborundum pneumoconiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m} Technetium chelated to diethylene-triamine penta-acetate ({sup 99m} Tc DTPA), and {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning in workers exposed to abrasive dusts. Thirty seven subjects, 13 smokers and 24 nonsmokers and ex smokers were studied. In 32 (86,48%) {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning was positive including 13 (40,62%) retired workers. We conclude that non smoking workers of abrasives plants have a pulmonary alveolar epithelial permeability disturbance similar as observed in smoking workers and smoking controls. Most workers, ex-workers of these industries and in patients with carborundum pneumoconiosis there is an evidence of pulmonary inflammation measured with abnormal {sup 67} Gallium lung scan. (author) 101 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Mechanical And Microstructural Evaluation Of A Wear Resistant Steel; Avaliacao mecanica e microestrutural de um aco resistente ao desgaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.L.F. dos; Vieira, A.G.; Correa, E.C.S.; Pinheiro, I.P., E-mail: falletti@hotmail.co [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the analysis of the mechanical properties and the microstructural features of a high strength low alloy steel, containing chromium, molybdenum and boron, subjected to different heat treatments, was conducted. After austenitizing at 910 deg C for 10 minutes, three operations were carried out: oil quenching, oil quenching followed by tempering at 200 deg C for 120 minutes and austempering at 400 deg C for 5 minutes followed by water cooling. The analysis was performed through tensile and hardness tests, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The bainitic structure led to high strength and toughness, both essential mechanical properties for wear resistant steels. The occurrence of allotriomorphic ferrite and retained austenite in the samples also increased the wear resistance. This phenomenon is related to the fact that both structures are able to be deformed and, in the case of the retained austenite, the transformation induced plasticity TRIP effect may take place as the material is used. (author)

  5. Evaluation of welding by MIG in martensitic stainless steel; Avaliacao da soldagem pelo processo MIG em aco inoxidavel martensitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Mariano, N.A.; Marinho, D.H.C. Marinho, E-mail: neideaparecidamariano@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work evaluated structure's characterization and mechanical properties after the welding process of the stainless steel CA6NM. The employed welding process was the metal active gas with tubular wire. The control of the thermal cycle in the welding process has fundamental importance regarding the properties of the welded joint, particularly in the thermally affected zone. The mechanical properties were appraised through impact resistance tests and the hardness and microstructure through metallographic characterization and Ray-X diffraction. The parameters and the process of welding used promoted the hardness and toughness appropriate to the applications of the steel. Welding energy's control becomes an essential factor that can affect the temperature of carbide precipitation and the nucleation of the retained austenite in the in the region of the in the thermally affected zone. (author)

  6. Evaluation of essential minerals in carioquinha beans by EDXRF; Avaliacao de minerais essenciais em feijao carioquinha por EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Ellen Cristina Alves de; Aquino, Reginaldo R. [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Scapin, Marcos A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the levels of essential minerals in the carioquinha beans were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF), searching determine the possible minerals, quantities and the correlation among different sources of same variety and the possible contribution of each to the human diet.

  7. Evaluation of kerma rate in radioactive waste disposal; Avaliacao da taxa de kerma em deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Rodolfo O.; Silva, Joao C.P.; Santos, Joao R. dos, E-mail: oliveira@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcarlos@ien.gov.br, E-mail: regis@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to assess the progression of kerma rate levels in the air due to the increase of collection, storing and storage of radioactive waste in the new building (after expansion) of the radioactive waste disposal (RWD) of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Brazil. This review is carried out every six months at IEN with thermoluminescent dosimeter lithium fluoride LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100H). Here are the average values of kerma rate for the period 2008- 2012. In this context, the methodology used for selection and choices of detectors used in dosimeters is presented. The detectors were chosen through homogeneity criteria of the pack, standardization factor and coefficient of variation (CV%). The monitoring points and the exposure time of the detectors are chosen considering various factors, including the rate of occupation and indoor and outdoor positions to RWD. These evaluations showed that the contribution of the new waste disposal in increasing kerma rate of IEN, has proved to be insignificant, that is, the presence of RWD does not contribute to increased environmental kerma rate in the region around this installation.

  8. Angra 3 - economic and financial evaluation of the enterprise; Angra 3 - avaliacao economico-financeira do empreendimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Ronaldo Barata de [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rbarata@eletronuclear.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an updated economic-financial evaluation of Angra 3 Nuclear Power Plant project and estimates the lowest power tariff value at which power potentially made available may be commercialized and yet ensures the project a profitability level agreeable to the interests of economic agents and shareholders. According to the project evaluation practice, Angra 3 power generation was considered separately from ELETRONUCLEAR operating plants (Angra 1 and Angra 2), thus preventing result distortions bound to occur if the economic-financial variables of the new project were analyzed associated with financial commitments and commercialization conditions resulting from the project implementation process and the generated power commercialization conditions, respectively. For this evaluation different technical and economic scenarios were devised, and the theory of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) for Own Capital cost and that of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) were used in addition to the forecast of the Statement of Results and Free Cash flow of Shareholders throughout the power plant life, which is the estimate basis for the lowest power tariff value and the Internal Return Rate (IRR) of the project. (author)

  9. Decantation time of evaluation on bentonite clays fractionation; Avaliacao do tempo de decantacao no fracionamento de argilas bentonitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J; Menezes, R R; Neves, G A; Lira, H L; Santana, L N.L., [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    Bentonite clays present a great number of industrial uses, from petroleum to pharmaceutics and cosmetic industry. The bentonite clay present particles with very fine particles that is responsible by the vast application of these materials. However, commercial clays present wide particle size distribution and a significant content of impurities, particularly quartz, in the form of silt and fine silt. So, the aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the stirring and decantation time in the deagglomeration, purification and size separation of the bentonite clay particles from Paraiba. The clays were characterized by X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution. Based on the results it was observed the decantation time give the elimination of the agglomerates formed by submicrometric particles. The uses of decantation column give separation of the fraction below 200nm. (author)

  10. Dose evaluation in special fluoroscopy procedures: Hysterosalpingography and Dacryocystography; Avaliacao de dose em procedimentos especiais de fluoroscopia: histerossalpingografia e dacriocistografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Cintya Carolina Barbosa

    2006-04-15

    The hysterosalpingography (HSG) and dacryocystography (DCG) are among the special fluoroscopy procedures. The HSG is a radiodiagnostic technique used to detect uterine and tubal pathologies and it is fundamental for the investigation of infertility. The DCG is a form of lacrimal system imaging, being important to show the level of obstruction, the presence of dilatation of the lacrimal sac, as well as alterations in nearby structures. At this research, the study of skin entrance dose was evaluated for these two special fluoroscopy procedures, besides the analyses of staff doses whose performs the exams. The exams of 22 HSG patients and 8 DCG patients were evaluated using TL-100 dosimeters attached on patient' skin at anatomical landmarks evolved on each exam. In the case of HSG, the results showed that skin entrance doses varied from 0.5 mGy to 73.4 mGy, with an average value of 22.1 mGy. The estimated uterus dose was 5.5 mGy, and 6.6 mGy was the average dose estimated to the ovaries. The patient' skin entrance dose undergoing to DCG examinations varied from 2.1 mGy to 10.6 mGy, and the average eye's dose was 6.1 mGy. The results of staff dose showed that, on HSG, the average dose on doctor's right hand was 4.3 mGy per examination. This value had to the fact that the physician introduces the contrast manually while all contrast exposures. In relation of DCG, the staff's dose values were nearby background radiation, evidencing that, inside of permitted limits, there is no risk for the physicians at this procedure. (author)

  11. Unilateral pulmonary veins atresia: evaluation by computed tomography; Atresia unilateral das veias pulmonares: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eifer, Diego Andre; Arsego, Felipe Veras, E-mail: felipesoarestorres@gmail.com [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), RS (Brazil). Serv. de Radiologia; Torres, Felipe Soares [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Medicina

    2013-11-15

    Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia is a rare congenital condition. In addition to cardiac malformations or pulmonary hypertension, patients may present with recurrent pulmonary infections or hemoptysis in childhood or adolescence. The authors report a case where the typical findings of such condition were observed at computed tomography in an adult patient. (author)

  12. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermo economic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller. The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  13. Comparative exergoeconomic analysis of prime movers of cogeneration plants; Avaliacao exergoeconomica comparativa de acionadores primarios de plantas de cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donatelli, Joao L.M. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: donatelli@lttc.com.ufrj.br; Vieira, Leonardo S.R. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Area de Conhecimento de Materiais e Mecanica]. E-mail: lsrv@cepel.br; Cruz, Manuel E.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: manuel@serv.com.ufrj.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we apply exergoeconomic principles to perform a comparative analysis of the use of internal combustion engines or gas turbines as prime movers of cogeneration plants. A preliminary comparison of these movers can be obtained by analysing them individually, considering the complete utilization of the generated products rated on a common exergetic basis. However, when these movers are integrated in a cogeneration plant, it is necessary to perform a global system analysis, which will consider the coupling between generation capacity and demand, under the design conditions. The design of a cogeneration plant should, ideally, consider all the aspects that affect its performance. In this paper we take into account several aspects which are not normally collectively considered in similar analyses encountered in the literature. Specifically, the comparative procedure considers the electrical tariff on an hourly basis, the electrical and thermal load profiles, the influence of the environmental conditions on the performance of the prime movers, sizing and operation mode options to meet plant loads, part-load efficiency, different criteria for cost partitioning, and, finally, the effect of size on plant cost. Once the operating conditions of the cogeneration plant are defined, the procedure attributes costs to all the fluxes, allowing for the identification of the ranges of capacity where each mover is economically advantageous. We apply the procedure to the energetic supply analysis of a typical process of Brazilian shopping centers. (author)

  14. Evaluation of radioiodinetherapy protocol for patients with Plummer disease; Avaliacao do protocolo da radioiodoterapia para pacientes com doenca de Plummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Keyla Mary Cavalheiro; Antonio Filho, Joao; Brandao, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail: keylamcm@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br, E-mail: simonecordis@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The disease Plummer (DP) is generated by the thyroid cells that function autonomously, independent the rest of the organ parenchyma. The DP presents a prevalence of 1% to 9%, higher in regions with iodine deficiency, affecting six women for every man. The study was conducted at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE) from {sup 99m}Tc data capture and mass existing in the thyroid records of 54 patients with PD who underwent radioiodine therapy with fixed activities 1110 megabecquerels (MBq) from 2004 to 2008. For capitation of {sup 99m}Tc from a group of 22 patients were used 5 ml syringes, measured by a Capintec CRC-7 model activimeter, having scintigraphy after 20 minutes and results in a region of interest. Mass evaluation was based on method of palpation of the thyroid, considering the mass standard. It is observed that 68.2% of patients received more activity than needed, 31.8% were less active, and none received activity in accordance with your needs. There was a statistically significant difference (p <0.05) between the fixed activities and activities computed for all patients, according to Chi-square test for independence with 21 degrees of freedom. The cure rate of a group of 32 patients was 75% after one year of follow-up. It is suggested that the RIT is preceded by an assessment of the maximum percentage of uptake and thyroid mass.

  15. Rural electrification based on photovoltaic systems: systemic evaluation and analysis; Eletrificacao rural com sistemas fotovoltaicos: avaliacao e analise sistemicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana Lafuente, Renan Jorge

    1995-07-01

    In spite of all advances made by modern technology, there are still regions which remoteness has made electrification of poor rural localities very difficult or impossible. The only practical solution for these localities is a local, decentralized form of electrical generation, such as solar energy. Based on its availability and potential, together with the scientific and technical advances made in photovoltaic conversion, solar energy is an alternative which is viable for many rural areas in developing countries. The technology has matured sufficiently, but in its application there is still a need for systematization for experiences, especially in the areas of planning and management. The present work deals with a project carried in the community of Chimboata, Chimboata department, Bolivia. The implementation aspects are analysed and the implementation methodology described. Finally, the forms of managing and funding this type of systems are analysed. (author)

  16. Pulmonary leukemic involvement: high-resolution computed tomography evaluation; Comprometimento pulmonar nas leucemias: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Paola de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza, Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2004-12-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms, to establish the main patterns and to correlate them with the etiology. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of the HRCT of 15 patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms. The examinations were performed using a spatial high-resolution protocol and were analyzed by two independent radiologists. Results: The main HRCT patterns found were ground-glass opacity (n=11), consolidation (n=9), airspace nodules (n=3), septal thickening (n=3), tree-in-bud pattern (n=3), and pleural effusion (n=3). Pulmonary infection was the most common finding seen in 12 patients: bacterial pneumonia (n=6), fungal infection (n = 4), pulmonary tuberculosis (n=1) and viral infection (n=1). Leukemic pleural infiltration (n=1), lymphoma (n=1) and pulmonary hemorrhage (n=1) were detected in the other three patients. Conclusion: HRCT is an important tool that may suggest the cause of lung involvement, its extension and in some cases to guide invasive procedures in patients with leukemia. (author)

  17. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance in osteoporosis evaluation; Aplicacoes de ressonancia magnetica nuclear na avaliacao de osteoporose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A., E-mail: giannoni@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Montrazi, Elton T.; Bonagamba, Tito J., E-mail: elton.montrazi@gmail.com, E-mail: tito@ifsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cesar, Reinaldo, E-mail: reinaldofisica@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2013-07-01

    In this work, initially ceramic samples of known porosity were used. These ceramic samples were saturated with water. The nuclear magnetic resonance signal due to relaxation processes that the hydrogen nucleus water contained in the pores of this ceramic material was measured. Then these samples were subjected to a process of drying and measures successively. As the water contained in pores greater evaporates the intensity of signal decreases and shows the sign because of the smaller pores. The analysis of this drying process gives a qualitative assessment of the pore size of the material. In a second step, bones of animals of unknown porosity underwent the same methodology for evaluating osteoporosis. Also a sample of human vertebra in a unique manner, with the same purpose was measured. Combined with other techniques is a quantitative evaluation of the possible porosity.

  18. DTS technology: evaluation in steam injection pilots in PETROBRAS; Tecnologias DTS: avaliacao em pilotos de injecao de vapor na PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triques, Adriana Lucia Cerri; Rodrigues, Renato Cunha; Souza, Carlos Francisco Sales de; Izetti, Ronaldo Goncalves [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In oil and gas industry, downhole pressure and temperature distributed sensors can provide strategic information for production optimization throughout the field. Upon the successful implementation of a pilot for optical fiber distributed temperature monitoring of observer wells in a steam injection field, two new pilots have been implemented to also monitor injectors and producers in both cyclic and continuous injection fields strongly influenced by H2S. The pilots demonstrated that this technology is suitable to monitor producers in onshore fields under the conditions above without risks to the production. The sensors did not prove to be suitable for long term monitoring of injectors under continuous steam injection if fiber is installed inside the injection tubing. For cyclic injection applications, the development of steam injection packers is needed to guarantee casing integrity during the injection cycle. The application of the technology in offshore wells is nowadays restricted to dry completion situation. The potential applicability in submarine wells is tightly linked to the development of downhole and wellhead wet mate optical fiber connectors. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  20. Cementing quality evaluation with ultrasonic logs in fiberglass casings; Avaliacao da qualidade do cimento em revestimentos de fibra de vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wellington; Lazaro, Andre F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The sonic and ultrasonic profiles are used as the main tools in assessing the cementing quality between formation and casing in oil wells. This assessment is important, because, if there is a failure in the primary cementing, both the structural integrity and zone isolation will be compromised. The sonic profiles are based on the acoustic energy attenuation in casing, cement and formation, while the ultrasonic profiles are based on the resonance of the wave pulse within the media where they travel (casings, cement and formation). The attenuation and resonance are due to the difference in the way the wave travel within these media. The acoustic impedance is the quantification of this difference, determining the refraction and reflection between the environments, and wave attenuation as well. In steel casings, this difference is meaningful, allowing the captured signals (reflected pulses) to be interpreted as good adhesion between cement and casing, or a lack of adhesion at some interval. In fiber glass casings, the impedance contrast between glass and cement is small and not detectable with the CBL/VDL sensors. The CBL/VDL tools provide an inefficient assessment of the quality of the cementing. The ultrasonic profile does not have this problem, theoretically. The goal of this work is to demonstrate and recommend the ultrasonic tool as the main instrument to assess the cementation quality in fiber glass casings. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  2. Evaluation of methods for wax determination in crude oil; Avaliacao de metodos de determinacao de parafinas em petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Julio Cesar M.; Silva, Maria do Socorro A.J. da; Vasconcellos, Rosa C.U. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Tamanqueira, Juliana B. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Determining the wax content of crude oil is of great importance for petroleum industry, especially for production, storage and transportation of crude oils. Many different methodologies of wax determining are available in the technical literature. However, the selection of the most suitable method must be in accordance with the aim of the analysis and observing the specificities of each technique. The purpose of this work was to determine the performance of different techniques of wax determining applied to characterization of precipitation properties of waxy compounds in crude oils. Twelve samples of crude oils proceeding from the main Brazilian oil producing sedimentary basins were selected for this study. These samples were analyzed by three important analytical techniques of wax determining: precipitation by cooled solvent; liquid chromatography with precipitation by cooled solvent; and liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography. Differential scanning calorimetry data related to the wax crystallization in these oils were used as parameters of validation. The results obtained in this study indicate that the liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography method has the best performance for wax determining in crude oils. (author)

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of antimalarial activity of curcumin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimalarica de compostos derivados da curcumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Patricia Ramos; Miguel, Fabio Balbino; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Couri, Mara Rubia Costa [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica; Oliveira, Michael Eder de; Ferreira, Vanessa Viana; Guimaraes, Daniel Silqueira Martins; Lima, Aline Brito de; Barbosa, Camila de Souza; Oliveira, Mariana Amorim de; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Viana, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla, E-mail: varotti@ufsj.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; others, and

    2014-05-15

    ne of the main challenges in the development of new antimalarial drugs is to achieve a viable lead candidate with good pharmacokinetic properties. Curcumin has a broad range of biological activities, including antimalarial activity. Herein, we report the antimalarial activity of six curcumin derivatives (6-12) and an initial analysis of their pharmacokinetic properties. Five compounds have demonstrated potent activity against the P. falciparum in vitro (IC{sub 50} values ranging from 1.7 to 15.2 μg mL{sup -1}), with moderate or low cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line. The substitution of the carbonyl group in 6 by a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone group (to afford 11) increases the Selective Index. These preliminary results indicate curcumin derivatives as potential antimalarial compounds. (author)

  4. Routine for uncertainties evaluation: study case in mammography; Roteiro para avaliacao de incertezas: caso estudo em mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, J.G.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guiherm@ird.gov.br; Almeida, C.E.V de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2005-03-15

    This paper gives a orientation in the identification of uncertainties in the measurement object and the influence magnitudes which directly affect the results of measurements. The entry magnitudes presented in this work applies exclusively for this study case, and their use depends of the professional for the choice of those entry magnitudes.

  5. Evaluation of the agricultural tractor using biofuel and diesel oil; Avaliacao de um trator agricola utilizando biocombustivel e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Meyer, Wagner; Mendonca, Elton Costa de; Roberti, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], Emails: raplopes@uem.br, rpneto@uem.br

    2009-07-01

    Test with alternative fuels is essential to evaluate the performance of machines and engines. In this paper, the performance of a tractor in chiseling operation was evaluated using oil diesel and biofuel (oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil mixture). Speed of displacement, slip wheels, force traction bar and fuel consumption was evaluated in areas under tillage and no-tillage. The speed of displacement of the set presented similar behavior in tillage and no-tillage. Bigger values mean force in the bar of traction, slip and fuel consumptions had been observed for no-tillage with the tractor operating with diesel. Bigger values mean consumption the biofuel had been observed in areas under tillage. The coverings of the soil had influenced in the values of force bar traction, slip wheels, speed of displacement and fuel consumption. In the studied conditions, the tests demonstrate that the mixture oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil had not influenced in the performance of the tractor. (author)

  6. Polyamide 6/nickel ferrite composites: morphological and structural evaluation; Compositos poliamida 6 /ferrita de niquel: avaliacao morfologica e estrutural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, P.C.F.; Santos, P.T.A.; Wanderley, A.S.D.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Araujo, E.M., E-mail: patricia.fernandes24@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of particle size of the load on the structure and morphology of polyamide composite 6/ferrita nickel. To obtain the composite, the polyamide 6 was previously vacuum dried at 80 ° C/48h to eliminate moisture, and then the load was incorporated as powders and as synthesized after calcination at 900°C in the mass concentration of 50%. Subsequently, the mixture was compressed using three tons to obtain the composites, which were characterized by XRD and SEM. XRD results showed the characteristic peaks of polyamide 6 and ferrite. An increase in crystallinity was observed for the composite loaded calcined at 900° C. SEM results showed a good dispersion of nickel ferrite loading in the matrix, the presence of larger clusters and evenly distributed load for the composite calcined at 900 ° C. (author)

  7. An evaluation of the potential impacts of the 'gas aid'; Uma avaliacao dos impactos potenciais do 'auxilio gas'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biazotto, Ana Lidia; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

    2004-07-01

    In May of 2001, the prices to the final consumer of GLP were set free in the whole country; this procedure had the intention, to continue process of deregulation in the fuel sector, in accord with the Oil Law. The release of the prices of sale and shipping subsidies elimination, along with the elimination of the crossed subsidy, required the adoption of a 'gas aid' social program, aimed to guarantee the low profit families necessities attendance that would pay the additional fuel costs. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the gas aid program as its covering level and the economic and distributive efficiency. The study encloses the metropolitans regions investigated in the IBGE Family Budget Research of 1996. With base in the previously identification of the potential beneficiary of the program, and with them consumption profile, it was possible to evaluate the potential impact of the withdrawal of the subsidy in the hypothesis of the family be or not beneficiary of the program. Assuming that the targeting is perfect, it is compared the transference politics to the low profit families in relation to the previous politics of subsidize crossed. (author)

  8. Energetic evaluation of a mechanical dryer (flex) to familiar agriculture; Avaliacao energetica de um secador mecanico (FLEX) para cafeicultura familiar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donzeles, Sergio M.L. [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (CTZM/EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico da Zona da Mata], E-mail: slopes@ufv.br; Silva, Juarez S.; Martin, Samuel; Nogueira, R.M.; Silva, Jadir N.; Zanata, Fabio L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: juarez@ufv.br, jadir@ufv.br, samuel.martin@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    Actually, the coffee is one of the most important exportation crops of the country. The utilization of obsolete or unsuitable processes, specifically related to the coffee drying, it can to damage the final quality of the product, besides to result in a low profitability of the coffee growing. In this work a mechanical drier (flex) was built, for the familiar coffee growing, being subsequently evaluated, to the drying of peeled cherry coffee, by the realization of two tests: one with heating of the air using vegetable coal and other combining the use of solar heater with vegetable coal. Basing on the results, it was possible to conclude that the drying of coffee in the mechanical drier Flex can be carried out using vegetable coal as fuel as well as associating the use of the vegetable coal with the solar collector, to save energy. (author)

  9. Intussusception in children: imaging evaluation and therapeutic approach; Intussuscepcao em criancas: avaliacao por metodos de imagem e abordagem terapeutica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Fabio Motta da; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos da; Monteiro, Soraya Silveira; Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: brunoradiol@hotmail.com; Oliveira, Galba Leite [Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2005-05-15

    Intussusception is a medical emergency that occur with higher frequency in children under 2 years of age. Diagnosis can be difficult as the classical triad of abdominal pain, jelly stools and palpable abdominal mass is seen in less than 50% of the patients. However, the diagnosis of intussusception can be established with variable degree of accuracy using plain abdominal x-ray films, ultrasound, computed tomography or barium (or air/saline) enema. Some of these imaging methods are also useful during treatment of this condition. The authors present a review of the literature and a pictorial essay of the imaging findings in patients with intussusception. In addition, a discussion on the current and controversial issues related to the treatment of intussusception is presented. (author)

  10. Evaluation of essential minerals in pumpkin seeds by EDXRF; Avaliacao de minerais essenciais em sementes de abobora moranga por EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaro, Flavia Araujo; Zacari, Cristiane Z. [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Scapin, Marcos A.; Aquino, Reginaldo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP(Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Pumpkin seeds, marketed in the Municipal Market of Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed using the Energy Dispersive of X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF) seeking to evaluate the content of the main essential minerals present in these seeds, and their contribution to human nutrition.

  11. Decision theory on the quality evaluation of medical images; A teoria da decisao na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessa, Patricia Silva

    2001-10-01

    The problem of quality has been a constant issue in every organization.One is always seeking to produce more, to do it at a lower cost, and to do it with better quality. However, in this country, there is no radiographic film quality control system for radiographic services. The tittle that actually gets done is essentially ad hoc and superficial. The implications of this gap, along with some other shortcomings that exist in process as a whole (the state of the x-ray equipment, the adequate to use in order to obtain a radiography, the quality of the film, the processing of the film, the brightness and homogeneity of the viewing boxes, the ability of the radiologist), have a very negative impact on the quality of the medical image, and, as result, to the quality of the medical diagnosis and therapy. It frequently happens that many radiographs have to be repeated, which leads to an increase of the patient's exposure to radiation, as well as of the cost of the procedure for the patient. Low quality radiographs that are not repeated greatly increase the probability of a wrong diagnosis, and consequently, of inadequate therapeutical procedures, thus producing increased incidence of bad outcomes and higher costs. The paradigm proposed in order to establish a system for the measurement of the image's quality is Decision Theory. The problem of the assessment of the image is studied by proposing a Decision Theory approach. The review of the literature reveals a great concern with the quality of the image, along with an absence of an adequate paradigm and several essentially empirical procedures. Image parameters are developed in order to formalize the problem in terms of Decision Theory, and various aspects of image digitalisation are exposed. Finally, a solution is presented, including a protocol for quality control. (author)

  12. Lung scintigraphy evaluation in workers exposed to abrasive dusts; Avaliacao cintilografica pulmonar em trabalhadores de industria de abrasivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra Filho, Mario

    1995-12-31

    The production process of abrasives use aluminium, or silicon carbide a synthetic material with a hardness only slightly less than that of a diamond. It is popularly known as carborundum since it was first manufactured as an abrasive in 1891, produced by the fusion of high grade silica and petroleum coke with sawdust. For many years silicon carbide was thought not to give rise to pulmonary lesions. Recently several researchers suggested the existence of a carborundum pneumoconiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m} Technetium chelated to diethylene-triamine penta-acetate ({sup 99m} Tc DTPA), and {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning in workers exposed to abrasive dusts. Thirty seven subjects, 13 smokers and 24 nonsmokers and ex smokers were studied. In 32 (86,48%) {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning was positive including 13 (40,62%) retired workers. We conclude that non smoking workers of abrasives plants have a pulmonary alveolar epithelial permeability disturbance similar as observed in smoking workers and smoking controls. Most workers, ex-workers of these industries and in patients with carborundum pneumoconiosis there is an evidence of pulmonary inflammation measured with abnormal {sup 67} Gallium lung scan. (author) 101 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Probabilistic model for primary distribution networks performance evaluation; Modelo probabilistico para avaliacao do desempenho de redes de distribuicao primaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Andre Luiz de Carvalho

    1997-07-01

    A method for performance evaluation of primary feeders with respect to voltage drop, loss and level of reliability to use, specially in studies of investment planning is focused. The probabilistic model is the chronological minimum length tree. The work consists of: analysis of model; proposition of modifications in model necessary to brazilian electrical sector reality, introducing parameter representing the load density; model adaptation to reliability studies, with evaluation of principal indicators in use in the country; development of software for microcomputer; the simulation of some cases with the software; based in the results, attainment of laws to facilitate the use of model. Eventually, the conclusions are made with considerations about possible applications of the method and research topics for further developments are settled. (author)

  14. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio

    2011-10-26

    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  15. Technological developments for environmental monitoring and assessment at PETROBRAS; O desenvolvimento de tecnologia de avaliacao e monitoramento ambiental na PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Pedro Penido D.; Veiga, Leticia Falcao [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borges, Heloisa V.

    2004-07-01

    Since 2000 PETROBRAS adopted strategies and actions to establish excellence in Environmental Management and Operational Safety - PEGASO, having invested around 6.1 billions of reais in the last four years to reduce emissions, residues, effluents, and to improve prevention and accident control in its units. In this context, PETROBRAS Research and Development Center has been expanding knowledge about the ecosystems where the company operates, providing essential information to evaluate viability and sustainability on its enterprises, as well as for environmental licensing. Reinforcing its corporative strategy, it was created in 2002 the Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Section, a group that counts nowadays with 48 professionals. This group develops technology and methodology for monitoring in social and environmental context for the petroleum industry, gas and energy, evaluating the impacts of PETROBRAS activities and products life cycle, contributing for reduction of negative effects and to improve the company's environmental management. The research areas are: land, coastal and marine ecosystems monitoring, atmospheric monitoring and air quality, environmental chemistry, ecotoxicology, social and economic evaluation and environmental damage valuation. Working partnerships with the scientific community established several contacts with Brazilian and international universities. Among these various projects related to activities in the Brazilian offshore we present some aspects of the project Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Monitoring. (author)

  16. Evaluation of integrity of radiation sources of nuclear gauges; Avaliacao da integridade de fontes radioativas de medidores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torohate, Wiclif Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear equipment meters are mainly used in the industry in quality control and process control. The principle of operation consists in a shielded radioactive source together with a radiation detector such that the radiation interacts with the material to be analyzed before reaching the detector, providing real time data. Can be as their fixed and mobile mobility, the unique properties of ionizing radiation are used in three basic modes, transmission, backscatter or dispersion or induced (reactive). With the advancement and technological modernization in the world, the demand for nuclear gauges becomes increasingly larger. Currently in Brazil there are about 465 process control plants and 21 portable systems and Mozambique about 45 facilities using nuclear gauges. This font registration is done through a process called source inventory that allows also to know the category of the source, the danger or risk to human health that the source offers. The handling of this equipment requires personnel, certified, skilled and well trained in radiation protection area in accordance with the requirements of the various CNEN Rules. Due to the presence of radioactive source and because these devices are used by workers risk because there external radiation. In this context, we made the smear test in two fixed meters from the IRD industry laboratory, which determines the integrity of the source package, mandatory item in periodic integrity testing of the radiation source of this type of device. A set of procedures is made for its implementation as an evaluation of the radiological risk by radiological survey. It was intended to contribute to the learning handling and safe use of these meters. (author)

  17. Evaluation of harmonic distortions using small scale computers; Avaliacao de distorcoes harmonicas utilizando-se computadores de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoareli, Junior, Dionizio

    1991-12-01

    The emergence more and more constant of non-linear loads in the power systems, with the consequent distortion in the voltage wave forms and of current, turns necessary complementary analyses in the planning of the systems, in way the if understands and to minimize the effects caused by the harmonic distortions. Among the methods used in this analysis are the computational programs that determine the flow of harmonic current and the voltages distorted in the buses. The objective of this work is the optimization of a program developed for large computers, turning possible its utilization in microcomputers. Besides, several models of components and two electric systems have its answers to the presence of multiple frequencies of the fundamental (harmonic frequency) evaluated and the results of the simulations will be presented. It also accomplishes simulations that make possible the visualization of the distortions in the voltage wave forms of the buses. Finally, the work offers a global and qualitative vision of this phenomenon that has been reason increasing preoccupation for mainly among the responsible for the quality of the supplied energy.

  18. Experimental evaluation of the objective virtual mass coefficient; Avaliacao experimental do coeficiente de massa virtual apoiada em uma formulacao objetiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle

    1984-04-15

    This work is a continuation of many others studies that have been made in the field of two-phase flow, concerning the influence of the void fraction in a parameter known as 'induced mass' that appears in the constitutive equation of the inter-phase force called 'virtual mass force'. The determination of the influence of the void fraction in the induced mass is done using experiment involving a bubble flow in a vertical tube filled with water. Using the two-phase flow model together with some hypothesis concerning the bubble flow experience and the constitutive equation for the virtual mass force, we achieve through the analysis of the filming of the experiment our purpose in determining the influence of the void fraction on the induced mass. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the numerical solution of polymer flooding; Avaliacao da solucao numerica da injecao de polimeros em reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Vinicius Ligiero; Pires, Adolfo Puime; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel G. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao do Petroleo (LENEP)

    2004-07-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods include injection of different fluids into reservoirs to improve oil displacement. The EOR methods may be classified into the following kinds: injection of chemical solutions, injection of solvents and thermal methods. The chemical fluids most commonly injected are polymers, surfactants, micellar solutions, etc. Displacement of oil by any of these fluids involves complex physico-chemical processes of interphase mass transfer, phase transitions and transport properties changes. These processes can be divided into two main categories: thermodynamical and hydrodynamical ones. They occur simultaneously during the displacement, and are coupled in the modern mathematical models of EOR. The model for one-dimensional displacement of oil by polymer solutions is analyzed in this paper. The Courant number is fixed, and we compare the results of different runs of a numerical simulator with the analytical solution of this problem. Each run corresponds to a different spatial discretization. (author)

  20. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermoeconomic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    The description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam is presented. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller.The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  1. Leitura rapida do KDIGO 2012: Diretrizes para avaliacao e manuseio da doenca renal cronica na pratica clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores desta "leitura rápida" apresentam os dados que consideraram mais relevantes na versão 2012 do KDIGO referente à avaliação e manuseio da doença renal crônica. Não se trata da opinião dos autores, mas sim de uma apresentação mais concisa das diretrizes, que podem ser úteis na prática clínica.

  2. Avaliacao da espessura medio-intimal em pacientes com doenca renal cronica nao dialitica: estudo prospectivo de 24 meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gaspar Marcos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O aumento da espessura média-intimal (EMI avaliada por ultrassom é um preditor de risco cardiovascular na população geral. Porém, em pacientes com doença renal crônica nos estágios iniciais, essa associação ainda não está bem estabelecida. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação EMI com a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e mortalidade em pacientes nos estágios iniciais da doença renal crônica. Métodos: A análise post hoc de uma coorte de pacientes nos estágios 2-4 da DRC. Foram avaliados dados laboratoriais, ultrassom da artéria carótida e tomografia coronariana no início do estudo e a ocorrência de óbito, em seguimento por 24 meses. Resultados: Um total de 117 pacientes (57 ± 11 anos, 61% sexo masculino foram avaliados. A taxa de filtração glomerular foi 36 ± 17 mL/min, 96% dos pacientes eram hipertensos, 23% diabéticos e 27% obesos. Calcificação arterial coronariana esteve presente em 48% dos pacientes, sendo mais prevalente em pacientes nos estágios mais avançados da DRC (p = 0,02. EMI foi 0,6 mm (0,4-0,7 mm. Comparado aos pacientes com EMI < 0,6mm, aqueles com EMI ≥ 0,6 mm eram mais velhos (p = 0,001, apresentavam maior prevalência do sexo masculino (p = 0,001, menor taxa de filtração glomerular (p = 0,01 e maior proporção de pacientes com calcificação (p = 0,001. Não foi observada relação entre a espessura média-intimal e a ocorrência de evento cardiovascular e óbito. Conclusão: A espessura médio-intimal em pacientes DRC se associou à calcificação coronariana, mas não à ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e óbito, em um seguimento de 24 meses.

  3. External exposure assessment in dwelling built with phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em residencia construida com fosfogesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaverde, Freddy Lazo

    2008-07-01

    In this study it was evaluated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum plates as a building material in the dwelling construction. Thus, the effective dose due to external gamma exposure was assessed through the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 210}Pb e {sup 40}K activity concentration in phosphogypsum plates. Samples of this material were analyzed by high resolution gamma spectrometry for their natural radionuclide activity concentration. The radium equivalent activity and extern ai and inter nai hazard indices were also calculated. The plates were made with phosphogypsum from fertilizer industries located in Cajati, Cubatao and Uberaba. The samples were identified according to phosphogypsum origin, Cajati (CA), Cubatao (CT) and Uberaba (UB). The activity concentrations results varied from 15.9 to 392 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 26.1 to 253 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 27.4 to 852 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. The results of {sup 40}K were lower than 81 Bq kg{sup -1}. The annual effective dose was obtained through the dosimetric model with reference standard room concept, the results were 0.02 mSv y{sup -1} for a house built with phosphogypsum from origin CA, 0.2 mSvy{sup -1} for CT phosphogypsum and 0.14 mSvy{sup -1} for UB phosphogypsum, everything the effective doses were below 1 mSvy{sup -1}, an annual effective dose limit for public exposure by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  4. Evaluation of conformal radiotherapy techniques through physics and biologic criteria; Avaliacao de tecnicas radioterapicas conformacionais utilizando criterios fisicos e biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Jonatas Carrero

    2012-07-01

    In the fight against cancer, different irradiation techniques have been developed based on technological advances and aiming to optimize the elimination of tumor cells with the lowest damage to healthy tissues. The radiotherapy planning goal is to establish irradiation technical parameters in order to achieve the prescribed dose distribution over the treatment volumes. While dose prescription is based on radiosensitivity of the irradiated tissues, the physical calculations on treatment planning take into account dosimetric parameters related to the radiation beam and the physical characteristics of the irradiated tissues. To incorporate tissue's radiosensitivity into radiotherapy planning calculations can help particularize treatments and establish criteria to compare and elect radiation techniques, contributing to the tumor control and the success of the treatment. Accordingly, biological models of cellular response to radiation have to be well established. This work aimed to study the applicability of using biological models in radiotherapy planning calculations to aid evaluating radiotherapy techniques. Tumor control probability (TCP) was studied for two formulations of the linear-quadratic model, with and without repopulation, as a function of planning parameters, as dose per fraction, and of radiobiological parameters, as the α/β ratio. Besides, the usage of biological criteria to compare radiotherapy techniques was tested using a prostate planning simulated with Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Afterwards, prostate planning for five patients from the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, using three different techniques were compared using the tumor control probability. In that order, dose matrices from the XiO treatment planning system were converted to TCP distributions and TCP-volume histograms. The studies performed allow the conclusions that radiobiological parameters can significantly influence tumor control calculations and that the TCP-volume histograms can provide important information for treatment techniques evaluation. However, the establishment of quantitative comparison parameters using radiobiological criteria demands the establishment of prescription protocols based on these same parameters. Also, the literature recently showed large variations in radiobiological parameters, meaning that the inclusion of those in treatment planning calculations should require a careful endeavor. (author)

  5. Comparative evaluation of online oil and gas monitor; Avaliacao de monitores de teor de oleo e graxa em linha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvisse, Ana Maria Travalloni; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino; Jesus, Rafael Ferreira de; Santos, Lino Antonio Duarte dos; Lopes, Humberto Eustaquio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Petroleum is predominantly recovered in form of water in oil emulsions, which are stabilised by petroleum resins and asphaltenes, the colloidal disperse components of crude oil. The water phase, separated during the production process, consists of a dilute oil in water emulsion, commonly called produced water.There are a wide variety of methods for determination of oil in produced water that are commercially based on a number of technique. On line continuously monitoring shall be particularly useful in providing information to assist in optimising the separation process and also to attend the environmental legislation for discharge the produced water. There are a wide variety of on line oil in water monitors that are commercially available based on a number of technique. In this paper, a comparative evaluation was made between some methods of on line oil in water detecting. These are light scattering and ultraviolet fluorescence technique. A brief description of the optical methods will be discussed and some of associated problems and limitation are pointed. The work was done in a specific experimental set up that allows the simultaneous pumping of crude oil and water through a calibrated restriction in a pipe has been used. A permanent pressure drop induced by the restriction leads to the dispersion of the oil droplets in the water phase. The monitors based on light scattering technique tested show good agreement between monitor reading and the oil dispersion used. Otherwise for ultraviolet fluorescence based monitors show a significant effect of the variation of oil type. (author)

  6. Gas geochemistry: a new technology to evaluate petroleum systems; Geoquimica de gases: uma nova tecnologia em avaliacao de sistemas petroliferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz dos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia de Geoquimica]. E-mail: eugenioneto@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    In the last decade hydrocarbon gas geochemistry has significantly evolved especially regarding to the widespread use of GC-C-IRMS (Gas chromatography-combustion-ion ratio monitoring system) techniques that allowed accurate measurements of {delta}{sup 13} C in the C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} fraction. Also, due to the improvement of the sampling procedures, sample collection - relatively small amounts of gas samples at low pressure - has become easier, sample transportation has become safer - the risk of accidents has been reduced - and analysis has become faster. The 'state-of-the-art' of the use of gas geochemistry to study processes within petroleum systems is discussed in this paper. The discussion is mainly focused on the identification of the hydrocarbon gas origin (biogenesis versus thermo genesis, mixing) and hydrocarbon gas generation (primary versus secondary cracking), including the inference of the relative thermal evolution and possible secondary alterations caused by biodegradation, secondary migration and eventually leakage from petroleum accumulations. Brief comments were also made about the new technologies involving noble gases and their potential use as tracers of processes in petroleum systems. Additionally, the origin of non-hydrocarbon gases in petroleum accumulations is succinctly discussed, as well as their possible economic impacts. The use of gas geochemistry techniques has brought a significant improvement in the understanding of petroleum systems under exploration in Brazil and in other parts of the world. Besides, on-going research projects suggest that there is a great potential for technological advances, e.g., adding the hydrogen isotopic composition of hydrocarbons to the interpretations, and also integrating the available results to the isotopic variations of noble gases. (author)

  7. Laboratory evaluation of hot metal de siliconizing process in ladle; Avaliacao laboratorial do processo de dessiliciacao do gusa na panela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Sergio R.M.; Furtado, Henrique S.; Bentes, Miguel A.G.; Almeida, Pedro S. de [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1996-12-31

    The attractiveness of hot metal de siliconizing in ladle, relative to the process in blast furnace runner, is the previous knowledge of silicon content of hot metal, without the constraints of slag removing by skimmer met in torpedo car, and the better efficiency in low range silicon content, making easier the process controllability. Meanwhile, the main question about this technology is the extent of the resulfurization of hot metal that may occur due to process be performed after the desulfurization. This work simulates de de siliconizing process in ladle by experiments in induction furnace to compare the efficiencies of various de siliconizing agents available at CSN iron and steel making plant, and to evaluate the resulfurization intensity able to occur during the process, as well as, unexpected increasing of refractory wear. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice; Avaliacao fisico-quimica do suco de maca irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple`s juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Assessment of overvoltage levels induced in rural distribution lines; Avaliacao dos niveis de sobretensoes induzidas em linhas de distribuicao rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomazella, Rogerio; Souza, Andre Nunes de; Silva, Ivan Nunes da [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil); Dotto, Fabio R.L. [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Haga, Amaury; Biazon, Rodolfo B. [Companhia Luz e Forca Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents a reliable computational tool to assess and to estimate the levels of induced voltage in rural lines. In this context, the traditional tools are used, such as ATP (Alternative Transients Program), that combined with a developed software, allows to quantify and to evaluate the level of overvoltage in the rural lines. (author)

  10. Hemorragia digestiva alta secundária a hamartoma de glândulas de Brunner: relato de caso e revisão da literatura = Upper gastrintestinal bleeding due to Brunner’s gland hamartoma: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lul, Rodrigo Mayer

    2013-01-01

    Conclusões: Apesar do hamartoma de glândulas de Brunner ser uma lesão benigna e rara, de crescimento indolente e comumente assintomática, pode provocar quadros graves como o descrito neste relato, devendo ser sempre lembrado como diagnóstico diferencial em casos de hemorragia digestiva alta

  11. Gastrointestinal transit after transverse colostomy: study of solid radiopaque markers progression and others clinical and radiological events - analysis of 20 cases; Transito gastrintestinal apos fechamento de transversostomia: estudo atraves da progressao de marcadores solidos radiopacos e de outros eventos clinicos e radiologicos - analise de 20 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Claudio Roberto

    1988-07-01

    The gastrointestinal transit was studied in 20 patients with loop transverse colostomies and previously normal colons. This analysis was performed through radiological observation of progression of 20 radiopaque pellets and measurements of its transit time in the various segments of the digestive tract. An evaluation of other related clinical and radiological events was carried out sentimentality's. In order to better understand the influence of the surgical procedure, the study was performed under similar dietary and supportive care conditions and standard radiological studies before and after the re-establishment of transit, thus enabling a comparison with the same individual. (author)

  12. Dermatomiosite recém-diagnosticada em idosos como preditiva de malignidade Newly diagnosed dermatomyositis in the elderly as predictor of malignancy

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    Fernando Henrique Carlos de Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os sintomas da dermatomiosite (DM podem ser um indício da existência de um câncer oculto. Melhorar a detecção precoce é essencial, porém não há estudos avaliando em curto prazo os fatores preditivos para a doença. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo, monocêntrico, incluindo pacientes com DM definida (pelo menos quatro dos cinco critérios de Bohan e Peter, 1975, no período entre 1991 e 2011. A presença de malignidade foi limitada a um período de até 12 meses após o diagnóstico da doença. RESULTADOS: Houve 12 casos de neoplasias em 139 pacientes (pele, trato gastrintestinal, próstata, tireoide, mama, pulmão e trato geniturinário. Os pacientes com neoplasia tiveram maior média de idade que os controles (56,8 ± 15,7 vs. 40,3 ± 13,1 anos, respectivamente, P = 0,004; odds ratio 1,09; intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,04-1,14. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas em relação a gênero, etnia, frequência de sintomas constitucionais, envolvimento de órgãos e sistemas e/ou alterações laboratoriais. CONCLUSÃO: Na DM recém-diagnosticada, a idade tardia ao diagnóstico foi um fator preditivo de malignidade.OBJECTIVE: Dermatomyositis (DM symptoms may be a clue to the existence of a hidden cancer. Enhancing early detection is essential, but there are no studies evaluating short-term predictive factors in this disease. METHODS: This is a singlecenter retrospective study, including patients diagnosed with DM meeting at least four of the five Bohan and Peter's criteria (1975, from 1991 to 2011. This study assessed malignancies occurring in up to 12 months after the diagnosis of DM. RESULTS: Neoplasm was found in 12 out of 139 patients (skin, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, thyroid, breast, lungs, and genitourinary tract. Patients with neoplasm had a higher mean age than controls (56.8 ± 15.7 vs. 40.3 ± 13.1 years, respectively, P = 0.004, odds ratio 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.14. No statistical

  13. Physiological quality of algaroba seeds recovered from faeces of mulesQualidade fisiológica de sementes de algaroba recuperadas de excrementos de muares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlândio Suassuna Gonçalves

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Preventing expansion into areas not yet infested is a priority standard for controlling mesquite. The contamination of other areas occurs through the flocks (endozoochory, which disperse the seeds in different areas to consume fruits, facilitating the emergence of new stands of invasive plant. This research was carried out with the objective to determine the transit time through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, viability and vigor of mesquite seeds (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC., recovered in the faeces of mules. Three adult mules were confined in stalls, being daily supplied to each of them as part of their diet, a kilogram of fruits of this invasive specie. The excrements were collected, placed on sieves and washed with running water to hold the seeds. The following variables were evaluated: percentage of seeds excreted, percentage of seeds with radicle emission and physiological quality of seeds. The mules, to consume the fruits of P. juliflora, effectively contribute to the advancement of biological invasion, being necessary to receive appropriate management not to act as dispersers of that invasion. The physiological quality of seeds of P. juliflora has not diminished with time spent in GIT. To clean the digestive tract of mules after consumption of fruits of that invasion are required at least 10 days. In the field, about 20% of the excreted seeds can be preserved viable in the faeces for longer than six months. A prevenção da expansão para áreas ainda não infestadas constitui uma medida prioritária no controle da algaroba. A contaminação de outras áreas ocorre basicamente através dos rebanhos (endozoocoria, que ao consumirem seus frutos dispersam as sementes em áreas distintas, facilitando o surgimento de novos povoamentos da planta invasora. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar o tempo de passagem pelo trato gastrintestinal (TGI, a viabilidade e a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de algaroba (Prosopis

  14. POLÍTICA SOCIAL DE PROTEÇÃO AO IDOSO: a reafirmação da cultura privacionista no trato das refrações da questão social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an analysis of the institutional design of the current policy for the social protection of the elderly in Brazil. This policy functions as a consequence of the ways of facing the social question, implanted by the new correlation of forces between capital and labor and of a “new” mociel of carrying out social policies in lhe context of the advance of neoliberalism and ot the social political reforms.

  15. Proposed of a new legal model in the utilization of the resources arising out of royalties by the municipalities; Proposta de um novo modelo legal no trato dos recursos advindos dos royalties por parte dos municipios beneficiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Daniel Ramos; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Direito do Petroleo e Gas Natural, PRH-36

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian model of exploration guarantees to some cities participation in the result of the exploration of the hydro-carbons. Since the distribution of these resources meet the technical criteria, established by law, what we have is that some of these cities receives relevant values. Despite such benefits, the general feeling of the population is that these cities have not been changes, although they have larger budgets. This slice of resources to cities arising from oil exploration, through royalties, through the simplistic view of the population does not guarantee them a better condition of life. Many cities receive large sums and or have considerable budget dependence on these resources. Point paramount in the study is that the management of municipal resources is very precarious. The waste is excessive, the practices of good management are unknown or simply ignored; and dealing with public resources as if they were private is a bad spread dramatically. The exposure of a different path is always well seen and spreads hope. These cities should be examples of quality of life for its population, since it does not know the value received monthly, and much less as these amounts are applied. Through comparative studies and analysis of good means employees in the use of these resources, it is observed that there are solutions to this problem. (author)

  16. Estrés traumático secundario en psicólogos que atienden a niños y niñas víctimas de malos tratos y abuso sexual: un estudio exploratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Cristóbal; Pereda Beltran, Noemí

    2015-01-01

    Una de las formas de desgaste laboral que puede afectar a profesionales dedicados a ayudar a víctimas de eventos traumáticos es el estrés traumático secundario. Este trastorno es frecuente en aquellos que trabajan con víctimas de la violencia y, especialmente, en los que ejercen con niños, niñas y adolescentes, si bien son pocos los trabajos al respecto. El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar los niveles de estrés traumático secundario de psicólogos de centros especializados en la aten...

  17. Estudo ultrassonográfico morfométrico do fígado e trato biliar de suínos submetidos a obstrução biliar experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gomes de Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as alterações anatômicas decorrentes de um quadro de icterícia obstrutiva experimental induzida em suínos nos períodos pré e pós-operatório por meio de exame ultrassonográfico. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Seis suínos da raça Landrace, com 36 dias de idade, foram submetidos a obstrução biliar completa mediante ligadura do ducto colédoco por cirurgia videolaparoscópica. RESULTADOS: Não ocorreram dificuldades na execução dos procedimentos obstrutivos e a recuperação cirúrgica foi eficiente. Decorridos sete dias, os animais apresentaram icterícia, bilirrubinúria e acolia fecal. O exame ultrassonográfico comparativo permitiu visualizar hepatomegalia, colecistomegalia e aumento no calibre do ducto colédoco em todos os animais, assim como alterações decorrentes da colestase. A avaliação morfométrica revelou aumento significativo nos diâmetros da vesícula biliar e do lobo hepático lateral esquerdo. CONCLUSÃO: Os suínos representam um modelo experimental adequado de icterícia obstrutiva, e o exame ultrassonográfico demonstrou-se sensível e relevante no diagnóstico das alterações decorrentes de obstrução biliar extra-hepática nesses animais.

  18. Parental stress, harsh treatment and parental monitoring as factors associated with aggressive behaviour[Estrés parental, trato rudo y monitoreo como factores asociados a la conducta agresiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivón Paola Guevara Marín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the joint contribution of three parenting practices in the explanation of aggressive behavior. The main interest was to investigate the associations between these factors, the socioeconomic status, and the differences between the reports provided by parents in regards to the aggressive behavior of their children. The sample included 256 couples whose children were teenagers with an age range between 12 and 18 years old. The results show that parental stress, the harsh treatment, and monitoring are significantly associated with aggressive behavior of children. Parental stress was the factor with the highest degree of prediction. Significant differences were found for the three factors in high and low socioeconomic levels, but in medium and high were not. As for the versions of the parents, there were no significant differences in stress and rough management, but monitoring.

  19. Cryptosporidiosis of the biliary tract mimicking pancreatic cancer in an AIDS patient Criptosporidiose do trato biliar simulando câncer do pâncreas em paciente com AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenice do Rosário de Souza

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium sp is frequent in patients with AIDS, but involvement of other organs of the digestive tract is uncommon. We report a case of Cryptosporidium-associated obstruction of the biliary tract mimicking cancer of the head of the pancreas in a 43-year-old woman with AIDS.A diarréia causada pelo Cryptosporidium sp é muito freqüente em pacientes com AIDS, mas o envolvimento de outros órgãos do aparelho digestivo é incomum. Relata-se o caso de uma mulher de 43 anos, que tinha AIDS, que apresentava obstrução das vias biliares associada ao Cryptosporidium, simulando câncer da cabeça do pâncreas.

  20. O trato da gymnastica nas revistas médicas do Rio de Janeiro da primeira metade do século 19 - Thoughts on gymnastics in Rio de Janeiro medical journals in the first half of the nineteenth century

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    Victor Andrade Melo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available No decorrer do século19 aginástica foi discutida, reconhecida como importante tema e difundida por instituições que se atribuíam o domínio do saber médico. Interessa-nos abordar sobre essas articulações entre os conhecimentos e práticas médicas e a ginástica, buscando compreender como esse olhar específico adquiriu legitimidade, constituindo um entendimento que se manifestou na introdução da prática nas escolas brasileiras. Tendo em vista esse intuito, discute-se os posicionamentos sobre a ginástica publicados em três periódicos médicos editados na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, na primeira metade do século 19: Semanário de Saúde Pública, Revista Médica Fluminense e Revista Médica Brasileira.Palavras-chave: ginástica, educação física, medicina.THOUGHTS ON GYMNASTICS IN RIO DE JANEIRO MEDICAL JOURNALS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AbstractDuring the 19th century, gymnastics was discussed, recognized as an important issue and disseminated by institutions that attributed itself the domain of medical knowledge. We are interested in think about these linkages between medical knowledge and practice and gymnastics, trying to understand how this particular look has acquired legitimacy, providing a comprehension which was manifested in the introduction of the practice in Brazilian schools. In this sense, this study aims to discuss the thoughts on gymnastics published in three medical journals edited in the city of Rio de Janeiro in the first half of the 19th century: Semanário de Saúde Pública, Revista Médica Fluminense and Revista Médica Brasileira.Key-words: gymnastics, physical education, medicine.MIRADAS SOBRE LA GIMNASIA EN LAS REVISTAS MÉDICAS DEL RIO DE JANEIRO DE LA PRIMERA MITAD DEL SIGLO 19 ResumenDurante el siglo 19, la gimnasia ha sido discutida, reconocida como un tema importante y difundida por instituciones que se atribuyan el dominio de los saberes médicos. Estamos interesados en el esclarecimiento de estas articulaciones entre el conocimiento y la práctica médica y la gimnasia, intentando percibir como esta mirada ha adquirido legitimidad, constituyendo una comprensión que se ha manifestado en la introducción de la práctica en las escuelas brasileñas. Con este fin, este estudio tiene el objetivo de discutir las miradas sobre la gimnasia publicadas en tres revistas médicas editadas en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro en la primera mitad del siglo 19: Semanário de Saúde Pública, Revista Médica Fluminense y Revista Médica Brasileira.Palabras-clave: gimnasia, educación física, medicina.LA GYMNASTIQUE DANS LES REVUES MEDICALES DE LA VILLE DE RIO DE JANEIRO A LA PREMIERE MOITIE DU 19E SIECLERésuméAu cours du 19e siècle, la gymnastique a été discuté, reconnu comme un problème important et diffusés par les institutions qui ont attribué le domaine des connaissances médicales. Nous sommes intéressés à enquêter sur ces liens entre les connaissances et la pratique médicale et la gymnastique, en essayant de comprendre comment ce regard particulier a acquis une légitimité, constituant une compréhension manifeste dans l'introduction de la pratique dans les écoles brésiliennes. À cette fin, la présente étude vise à examiner les emplacements sur la gymnastique dans trois revues médicales publiées à la ville de Rio de Janeiro à la première moitié du 19e siècle: Semanário de Saúde Pública, Revista Médica Fluminense et Revista Médica Brasileira.Mots-clé: gymnastique, éducation physique, médecine. 

  1. Protocol for therapy of people who suffered wounds from radioactive material in radiological and nuclear accidents; Protocolo para trato de pessoas que sofreram ferimentos com material radioativo em acidentes radiologicos e nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Amanda Gomes

    2015-07-01

    The handling of glassware in ampoules, containing solution is very common in research or production laboratories. During manipulation, there is a likelihood of occurrence of incidents such as the breaking of ampoules or glass vials containing material in liquid or powdered form which may cause a wound to the possibility of contamination with handled material. When the solution is radioactive there is a concern due to the risk of incorporation of that material. According to NCRP 156, the scientific literature contains over 2100 cases of wounds contaminated with radionuclides and more than 90% of the reported cases occurred in the hands and arms, but mainly on the fingers. Despite having no cases of wounds reported radioactive material in Brazil or a protocol developed by the National Agencies, applications and hence the manipulation of radionuclides is increasing in the country, rising the possibility of wound occurrence contaminated by radionuclides. In this work was proposed a methodology for management of individuals who suffered wounds from radioactive material in cases of nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies that present intake, which consisted of four steps: definition of the accident scenario, individual triage of the public or workers, proper measurements with detectors PRD, IdentiFINDER2 and germanium in different thicknesses material tissue-equivalent, and later adoption of first aid measures consisting of attendance, monitoring of contaminated personnel, evaluation of effective dose and direct to specialized medical center. As an example of results it follows the case of {sup 241}Am where the best performance was obtained by measurements with the shielded HPGe (7%) and the shielded and collimation of 0.5 cm IdentiFINDER2 (10%). While, unshielded PRD, unshielded or shielded side IdentiFINDER2 and unshielded TeCd showed performance ranging from 30 to 70%. In general, the uncertainties obtained had values below 1.5%. In this work a protocol for management individuals with wounds contaminated by radioactive material is presented. (author)

  2. Análise dos Vasos do Trato Urinário Inferior de Ratas Durante e Após a Prenhez Analysis of Urinary Tract Vessels during and after Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Kosmiskas

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar as variações da anatomia vascular de ratas, avaliando o número de vasos da uretra proximal e distal, da junção vésico-uretral e da bexiga, durante e após a prenhez. Métodos: trinta ratas, com teste positivo de acasalamento, foram divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos contendo 10 animais cada, a saber: GI - ratas no 10º dia de prenhez; GII - ratas no 20º dia de prenhez; GIII - ratas no 5º dia de puerpério; um grupo controle (GIV era composto de 10 ratas na fase de estro. Foram contados os vasos sangüíneos em quatro lâminas, por animal, coradas pelo método do tricrômico de Masson, com ocular de integração de 25 pontos, acoplada a microscopia de luz, com objetiva de 40 X. As regiões estudadas foram uretra proximal e distal, junção vésico-uretral e bexiga. Resultados: não houve variação significativa no número de vasos da bexiga, da junção vésico-uretral e da uretra proximal nas ratas durante a gestação ou em relação ao grupo controle. Na uretra distal, o número de vasos no grupo controle foi 13,7, sendo significativamente menor do que nos grupos com prenhez (20,5 a 24,4 vasos. Conclusões: as ratas prenhes apresentaram maior número de vasos na uretra distal do que aquelas em estro. Nos demais locais estudados não houve diferenças entre os grupos.Purpose: to evaluate the variations in vascular anatomy by assessing the number of vessels of the proximal and distal urethra, of the vesicourethral canal and of the bladder, during and after pregnancy in rats. Method: thirty female rats, with a positive test for pregnancy, were divided into three groups of 10 animals each: GI - rats on the 10th day of pregnancy; GII - rats on the 20th day of pregnancy; GIII - rats on the 5th day of puerperium; a control group (GIV composed of 10 rats in the estrous phase. The vessels were stained by the method of Masson and counted with a 25-dot integration ocular, coupled to a light microscope, with an objective of 40X. The studied regions were proximal and distal urethra, vesicourethral canal and bladder. Results: there was no significant variation in the vessel number in the bladder, in the vesicourethral canal and in the proximal urethra during gestation. In the distal urethra of the group IV there were 13.7 vessels, less than that observed in the pregnant groups (20.5 to 24.4 vessels. Conclusion: the pregnant rats had a larger number of vessels in the distal urethra than those in the estrous phase. There were no differences regarding the other sites.

  3. Obtenção de proteases a partir do trato digestivo de peixes neotropicais para aplicação na produção de peptídeos de colágeno

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, Vagne de Melo

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou obter proteases com propriedades colagenolíticas a partir dos resíduos de três espécies de peixes neotropicais (arabaiana Seriola dumerili; pescada-branca Cynoscion leiarchus; e tucunaré Cichla ocellaris), através de extração por sistema de duas fases aquosas (SDFA), visando aplicá-lo para produção de peptídeos de colágeno. Inicialmente, serino proteases foram extraídas e caracterizadas físico-quimicamente quanto à temperatura e pH ótimos, bem como estabilidade à varia...

  4. Alencastro, Luiz Felipe de, O trato dos viventes: Formação do Brasil no Atlântico Sul, séculos XVI e XVII, (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2000, 525 p.)

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Décio de Alencar

    2005-01-01

    O Brasil no contexto do Atlântico Sul. Esta é a escala de análise do livro de Luiz Felipe de Alencastro, professor de História do Brasil na Universidade de Paris-Sorbonne. A tese paradoxal do livro é a de que "o Brasil formou-se fora do Brasil". Como explicar isto? A explicação do professor Alencastro para este paradoxo não parte da formação do território colonial português na América do Sul, tal como tem praticado a historiografia brasileira para explicar a história colonial do país. Ela par...

  5. Human gastrointestinal tract resistance of Lactobacillus strains isolated from infant faecesResistência ao trato gastrointestinal humano de linhagens de Lactobacillus isoladas de fezes de crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Garcia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic bacteria survival during the gastrointestinal transit is primordial, and implies in the ability of microorganisms to survive at the stomach acidity and bile, so they can exert their beneficial effects on the host. The aim of this study was to evaluate, “in vitro”, Lactobacillus strains originated from one year old children fecal material in the selection of probiotic microorganisms. Two commercial strains, L. casei (Lc 01TM and L. acidophilus (La-05 TM were used as controls. The first screening resulted in 75 colonies and they were isolated from six samples faeces. Isolates were Gram positive, mostly rod shaped (cocobacilli, long and thin rods and rarely cocci. They were submitted to catalase test and evaluated for the presence of spores, resulting in 30 pre-selected strains. Among those strains, eight strains: L4, L5, L12, L19, L20, L22, L23, L24 were the most resistant to Oxgall (bile salts concentration (0.3 w/v. These eight strains were also resistant to acid conditions (pH 3.0 and all strains were able to grow in the presence of 0.3 w/v of phenol. The results of treatments were compared to the Neuman Keuls Student test at 5% of probability, with regression analyses made at different times for tolerance to intestinal conditions. The results demonstrated that all these strains were able to survive under gastrointestinal stress condition, indicating potential use as probiotics. The high survival rate of probiotic strains, in conditions that simulate the gastrointestinal transit, is strain dependent and thus, a proper selection of strains in the development of dairy probiotic products is vital.

  6. Los vínculos afectivos y la estructura social. Una reflexión sobre la convivencia desde la red de promoción del buen trato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Arango Cálad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una revisión general de los conceptos e investigaciones que fundamentan el enfoque psicosocial sobre los procesos de apoyo social y revisa la pertinencia de estos procesos en el campo de la salud y el bienestar. Además, revisa el concepto de redes sociales identificando los diversos niveles de intervención desde el ámbito de lo íntimo o microsocial hasta el nivel de lo macrosocial. Identifica y diferencia tres tipos de redes: las informales, las formales y las virtuales. Presenta el concepto de intervención en red y una serie de recomendaciones metodológicas y prácticas para llegar a realizar un diagnóstico social de la situación y una propuesta de intervención en red, alertando a los lectores sobre las implicaciones que para la intervención tienen el cambio de un nivel a otro.

  7. Perfil dos microrganismos isolados no trato urinário após sondagem vesical em cirurgia ginecológica Profile of microorganisms found in urocultures after urinary catheterization in patients undergoing elective gynecological surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cristina Hinrichsen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar os microrganismosfreqüentemente encontrados nas uroculturas apóssondagem vesical e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antibióticos em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia ginecológica eletiva. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia ginecológica com sondagem vesical, no Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP, em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, de janeiro a maio de 2007. As uroculturas foram coletadas em dois períodos: até 24h da retirada do cateter e após sete/10 dias. RESULTADOS: amostras de urina foram colhidas em 249 mulheres. Encontrouse 23,6% (n=46 de uroculturas positivas com até 24h da retirada da sonda e 11,1% (n=25 com sete/10 dias após sondagem vesical. Não foi observada diferença significativa em relação aos microrganismos, quando se compararamas duas uroculturas. A Klebsiella spp. foi o principal microrganismo em ambas uroculturas (até 24h=47,8% vs sete/10 dias=44,0%; p=0,76, seguido de Escherichia coli e outros Gram-negativos. Os antibióticos amicacina, cefepima, ciprofloxacina, meropenem e ticarcilina-clavulanato foram os que apresentaram sensibilidade igual ou superior a 75%para os principais microrganismos isolados. CONCLUSÕES: Klebsiella spp. foi o microrganismo mais encontrado nas uroculturas após sondagem vesical em cirurgias ginecológicas e o antibiótico com sensibilidade igual ou maior a 95% com via de administração oral foi a ciprofloxacina.OBJECTIVES: to determine the microorganisms mostfrequently found in urocultures after urinary catheterization and their antibiotic sensitivities in women undergoing elective gynecological surgery. METHODS: the study was carried out at theInstituto de Medicina Integral Professor FernandoFigueira, IMIP, in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, between January and May 2007. Urine cultures wereobtained from these patients on two occasions subsequent to the removal of the catheter: within the first 24h and 710 days later. RESULTS: urine samples were collected from 249 women. 23.6% (n=46 of the samples collected in the first 24h were found to have urine cultures and 11.1% (n=25 of those collected 710 days after removal of the catheter. No significant difference was observed regarding the microorganisms present in the uroculture, when comparing the two periods of sample collection. Klebsiella spp. was the most frequentmicroorganism found (first 24h=47.8% vs. 7/10 days=44.0%; p=0.76, followed by Escherichia coli, and other Gram negatives. The antibiotics, amicacine, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, meropenem andticarcilinclavulanate showed sensitivity equal to orgreater than 75% for the main microorganism isolated. CONCLUSIONS: Klebsiella spp. was the most frequent microorganism present in urocultures after urinary catheterization in women undergoing elective gynecological surgery. Ciprofloxacin was found to have a sensitivity of 95%.

  8. Efeitos do fumo ambiental no trato respiratório inferior de crianças com até 5 anos de idade Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on lower respiratory system of children under 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eanes DB Pereira

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação do fumo passivo com morbidade respiratória em crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal incluindo 1.104 crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade residentes na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Por meio de um questionário com os pais das crianças, foram obtidas informações sobre sintomas e doenças respiratórias, história familiar de morbidade respiratória, presença de fumantes nas casas e condições de moradia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 546 meninas e 558 meninos. Das 611 crianças fumantes passivas, 82% tinham problemas respiratórios ("odds ratio" = 1,64; IC 95%:1,21-2,20. As queixas respiratórias mais freqüentes foram: chiado no peito ("odds ratio" =1,66; IC 95%: 1,21-2,27, dispnéia ("odds ratio"=1,91; IC 95%:1,36-2,67, tosse e/ou expectoração("odds ratio" =1,58; IC 95%: 1,13-2,84. A chance de apresentar asma, bronquite ou pneumonia foi maior para as crianças fumantes passivas ("odds ratio" =1,60; IC 95%: 1.11-2.31. CONCLUSÕES: Os principais fatores de risco com chance de predizer morbidade respiratória em crianças com idade de 0 a 5 anos foram: crianças que conviviam com mães fumantes, pais fumantes, presença de mofo em casa, historia familiar de asma ou rinite.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of second-hand smoke in the respiratory system of children under 5 years old. METHODS: A cross sectional study of a total of 1,104 children under 5 years old. Information about respiratory symptoms and illness, family history of respiratory diseases, smoking habits of household members and housing conditions were assessed by home interviews with the children's parents. RESULTS: We studied 546 boys and 558 girls. Among 611 children exposed to second-hand smoke, 82% had respiratory problems (odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-2.20. Children whose parents were smokers at the time of the survey were more likely to experience wheezing than children of nonsmoking parents (odds ratio = 1.66; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-2.27, shortness of breath (odds ratio = 1.91; 95% confidence interval: 1.36-2.67, morning and day time or night coughs (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.28. The odds ratio for asthma, bronchitis and pneumonia was greater for children exposed to second-hand smoke (odds ratio = 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 1.11-2.31. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking, paternal smoking, family history of respiratory diseases, and housing conditions are considered risk factors for respiratory diseases in children.

  9. La cuestión de la frecuencia y el tipo de trato con inmigrantes: una aproximación a los efectos de las relaciones intergrupales sobre las actitudes hacia la inmigración

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Molina, Oscar; Jiménez Ruiz, África; Desrues, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de esta comunicación es profundizar en los efectos que las relaciones entre autóctonos e inmigrantes pueden tener sobre las actitudes de los primeros hacia los segundos. Para ello, se utilizan los resultados de una encuesta de opinión de ámbito nacional sobre la percepción de los españoles hacia la inmigración. Siguiendo la perspectiva tradicional de la Teoría del Contacto, desarrollada por G.W. Allport, se plantean aquí dos cuestiones centrales: en primer lugar,...

  10. Application of the physiological and morphological parameters of the brazilian population sample to the mathematical model of the human respiratory tract; Aplicacao dos parametros fisiologicos e morfologicos de uma amostra da populacao brasileira no modelo matematico do trato respiratorio humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Arlene Alves dos

    2005-07-01

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. It is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined by the ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The results suggest a significant variation in fractional deposition when Brazilian parameters are applied in the model. (author)

  11. Estigma e violências no trato com a loucura: narrativas de centros de atenção psicossocial, Bahia e Sergipe Estigma y violencias en el trato con la locura: narrativas de centros de atención psicosocial, Bahia y Sergipe (Noreste de Brasil Stigma and violence in dealing with madness: narratives from psychosocial care centers in Bahia and Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Nunes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar processos de estigmatização e modalidades de violência vividos por portadores de transtornos mentais. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo baseado em entrevistas individuais com usuários e grupos focais com familiares e profissionais de cinco centros de atenção psicossocial, nos municípios de Itaberaba, Lauro de Freitas, Salvador e Vitória da Conquista (BA e em Aracaju (SE, em 2006-2007. As categorias de análise foram construídas com base no conceito de estigma proposto por Goffman e foram sistematizadas quatro tipos de violência: interpessoal, institucional, simbólica e estrutural. RESULTADOS: Usuários e familiares relataram exemplos de desqualificações, repreensões, constrangimentos, humilhações, negligência e agressões físicas, com fins de dominação, exploração e opressão. Profissionais referiram que pessoas que sofrem transtornos mentais permanecem como alvo de preconceitos arraigados e naturalizados na cultura. A principal conseqüência foi a manutenção do isolamento, da vida social como forma de "tratamento" ou como atitude excludente manifestada por reações discriminatórias, que se apresentam como rejeição, indiferença e agressividade verbal ou física. CONCLUSÕES: As variadas formas de expressão do estigma denotam uma situação sociocultural de violências contra os portadores de transtornos mentais. Propõe-se a constituição de observatórios estaduais capazes de planejar e avaliar contra-ações às estigmatizações.OBJETIVO: Analizar procesos de estigmatización y modalidades de violencia vividos por portadores de trastornos mentales. MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo basado en entrevistas individuales con usuarios y grupos focales con familiares y profesionales de cinco centros de atención psicosocial, en los municipios de Itaberaba, Lauro de Freitas, Salvador, Vitória da Conquista y Aracaju (Noreste de Brasil, en 2006-2007. Las categorías de análisis fueron construidas con base en el concepto de estigma propuesto por Goffman y fueron sistematizadas cuatro tipos de violencia: interpersonal, institucional, simbólica y estructural. RESULTADOS: Usuarios y familiares relataron ejemplos de descalificaciones, reprensiones, desagrados, humillaciones, negligencia y agresiones físicas, con fines de dominación, explotación y opresión. Profesionales refirieron que personas que sufren trastornos mentales permanecen como centro de prejuicios arraigados y naturalizados en la cultura. La principal consecuencia fue el mantenimiento del aislamiento, de la vida social como forma de "tratamiento" o como actitud excluyente manifestada por reacciones discriminatorias, que se presentan como rechazo, indiferencia y agresividad verbal o física. CONCLUSIONES: Las variadas formas de expresión del estigma denotan una situación sociocultural de violencias contra los portadores de trastornos mentales. Se propone la constitución de observatorios estatales capaces de planificar y evaluar contra-acciones a las estigmatizaciones.OBJECTIVE: To analyze stigmatization processes and types of violence experienced by individuals with mental disorders. METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out, based on individual interviews with users and focus groups with family members and professionals at five psychosocial care centers in the municipalities of Itaberaba, Lauro de Freitas, Salvador, Vitória da Conquista, and Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil, in 2006-2007. The analysis categories were constructed based on the stigma concept proposed by Goffman, and four types of violence were systematized: interpersonal, institutional, symbolic and structural. RESULTS: Users and family members recounted examples of disqualification, reprimands, embarrassment, humiliation, negligence and physical aggression that had the aims of domination, exploitation and oppression. Professionals reported that people who suffer from mental disorders remain the target of prejudice that is culturally ingrained and naturalized. The main consequence is continuation of their isolation from social life as a form of "treatment" or as an excluding attitude manifested by discriminatory reactions in the form of rejection, indifference and verbal or physical aggressiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The various ways of expressing stigma denote a sociocultural situation of violence against individuals with mental disorders. It is proposed that state monitoring bodies capable of planning and evaluating countermeasures against stigmatization should be set up.

  12. Systematic approach for assessment of accident risks in chemical and nuclear processing; Abordagem sistematica para avaliacao de riscos de acidentes em instalacoes de processamento quimico e nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senne, Junior, Murillo

    2003-07-15

    The industrial accidents which occurred in the last years, particularly in the 80's, contributed a significant way to draw the attention of the government, industry and the society as a whole to the mechanisms for preventing events that could affect people's safety and the environment quality. Techniques and methods extensively used the nuclear, aeronautic and war industries so far were adapted to performing analysis and evaluation of the risks associated to other industrial activities, especially in the petroleum, chemistry and petrochemical areas. The risk analysis in industrial facilities is carried out through the evaluation of the probability or frequency of the accidents and their consequences. However, no systematized methodology that could supply the tools for identifying possible accidents likely to take place in an installation is available in the literature. Neither existing are methodologies for the identification of the models for evaluation of the accidents' consequences nor for the selection of the available techniques for qualitative or quantitative analysis of the possibility of occurrence of the accident being focused. The objective of this work is to develop and implement a methodology for identification of the risks of accidents in chemical and nuclear processing facilities as well as for the evaluation of their consequences on persons. For the development of the methodology, the main possible accidents that could occur in such installations were identified and the qualitative and quantitative techniques available for the identification of the risks and for the evaluation of the consequences of each identified accidents were selected. The use of the methodology was illustrated by applying it in two case examples adapted from the literature, involving accidents with inflammable, explosives, and radioactive materials. The computer code MRA - Methodology for Risk Assessment was developed using DELPHI, version 5.0, with the purpose of systematizing and automating the application of the methodology. (author)

  13. Evaluation of environmental impacts in the mining of solid fossil fuels; Avaliacao de impactos ambientais na mineracao de combustiveis fosseis solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Gilda Carneiro

    1989-07-01

    This study evaluates the environmental problems caused by the mining works of coal, peat and oil schists; also it evaluates the kind of treatment used by the mining companies against water, air and ground pollution, as well as the necessary control according to the mine activities and the affected environment. the studied areas are situated at brasilian states of Santa Catarina (Criciuma, Urussanga and Sideropolis), Rio Grande do Sul (Charqueada, Bage, Cachoeira do Sul, Butia and Arroio dos Ratos), Parana (Figueira and Sao Mateus do Sul), and Sao Paulo (Iguape and Sao Jose dos Campos). This study was done through a direct inquiry, by sending questionnaire to fifteen coal mining companies, three of peat ones and one of oil schists one. besides it was done a compilation of federal and state laws concerning to the environment and on the rights and duties of the mining companies. The information brought up in this way were compiled into a data bank, which allowed and sample surveys of environmental condition in the different industries and further it enabled a comparison between the real facts and the bibliography suggestions about adequate monitoring of the air, waters and ground, during mining activities. this analysis showed that the environment problems, created by the three former kind of mining works, are under control through projects of environment restoring and monitoring in phase of implantation and that these projects are restricted to that less expensive and easier to construct (holding back in pools or reservoirs, pouring in pits and aspersion). It was not notices a significant monitoring of parameters considered to be critical to the environment (metals, cyanides, sulphide and general bacteria). Almost all the companies have not yet exact data about the efficiency of each kind of environmental treatment because it is new ones and are just in follow-up and consequently they have not yet parameters to change the adequate the steps of the treatment, because of lack of information. Any way it is not a justification to the present condition of environment control of these companies, just because its of their responsibility the consequences of their producing activities. (author)

  14. Evaluation of solid waste and plastic clay mixtures for structural ceramic use; Avaliacao de misturas de residuo solido com argila plastica para aplicacao em ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Neli Iloni Warpechowski da [Fundacao de Ciencia e Tecnologia (CIENTEC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Belo, Pedro [Ceramics Representacoes Comerciais Ltda, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    This work aims to verify the behaviour of the organic solid waste added by 10%, 15% and 20% in mixture in a plastic clay. It intends to emphasize the influence of the waste in the mixture. Technology tests have been carried out in the clay and mixtures to obtain possible uses in the structural ceramics. (author) 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of technological alternative for low emission gasoline in PETROBRAS; Avaliacao de alternativas tecnologicas para gasolina de baixa emissao na PETROPBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, William Richard [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Catalisadores de FCC - TFCC

    2004-07-01

    More than 30% of the total NO and CO emitted to the atmosphere and up to 20% of the CO{sub 2} are produced by automobiles. New smart fuel injection systems and the three-way catalytic converter in the automobile tail pipes have dramatically reduced NO and CO emissions, but have also required a profound change in gasoline specifications, particularly in the case of sulfur content. In Brazil, the refining of Campos basin heavy crude oils with a high concentration of nitrogen and the gasoline production strongly dependent of the FCC process, have introduced additional challenges. In this work, classic solutions such as FCC feed hydrotreatment, cracked naphta post-treatment, and the use of FCC gasoline sulfur reduction catalyst additives applied to the PETROBRAS scenario will be discussed. Changes to the FCC process to produce future fuels with lower aromaticity and lower emissions in new HCCI motors, which have hybrid characteristics between Diesel and Otto power-trains will also be discussed. (author)

  16. Ergonomics in the licensing and evaluation of nuclear reactors control room; A ergonomia no licenciamento e na avaliacao de salas de controle de reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2002-07-01

    A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of bone cement with different concentrations of brushite; Sintese e avaliacao de cimento osseo com diferentes concentracoes de brushita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morua, O.C.; Cardoso, M.J.B.; Farias, K.A.S.; Barbero, M.A.R.; Carrodeguas, R.G.; Fook, M.V.L., E-mail: cumberbatch.otto@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias e Engenharia de Materiais; Laboratorio de Desenvolvimento e Avaliacao de Biomateriais (CERTBIO/UFCG), PB (Brazil); Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); AzureBio SL, Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to chemically synthesize brushite bone cement in different compositions and to evaluate the microstructural formation, crystalline phases present and the influence of the compositions and amount of water on the mechanical property of compression resistance. Characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical properties. The XRD results confirmed the presence of the brushite and wollastonite phases. In the SEM it was verified the presence of particle agglomerates of each phase and a reduction of the particle sizes. In mechanical properties, it was observed that the amount of water influenced both the porosity and the compressive strength of the compositions. It was concluded that the synthesized brushite bone cement presented the expected crystalline phases and morphology, both the compositions and the amount of water influenced the mechanical properties of the developed cement. (author)

  18. Evaluation of commercial and sulfated ZrO{sub 2} aiming application catalysis; Avaliacao de ZrO{sub 2} comercial e sulfatada visando aplicacao em catalise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.N.; Dantas, J.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: nilson.s@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais; Pallone, E.M.J.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Basicas; Dutra, R.C.L. [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (AQI/IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the performance of commercial and sulfated ZrO{sub 2} for future application in catalysis. Commercial ZrO{sub 2} was provided by the company Saint-Gobain Zirpro. The sulfation occurred with SO{sub 4}{sup -2} ion content of 30% compared to the mass of ZrO{sub 2}. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, EDX and GD. The results revealed the formation of a monoclinic phase for the commercial sample, and a monoclinic major phase with tetragonal traces for the sulfated sample. The commercial ZrO{sub 2} showed a narrow, bimodal and asymmetric agglomerates distribution, while the sulfated sample showed a narrow, tetramodal and asymmetric agglomerates distribution. The presence of traces of the tetragonal phase in the SO{sub 4}{sup -2}/ZrO{sub 2} XRD, and the presence of SO{sub 3} in the EDX were good indicators for future use in catalysis to provide ester. (author)

  19. Phytochemical study and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade anti-inflamatoria de Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignoato, Marlene Capelin; Fabrao, Rodrigo Monteiro; Schuquel, Ivania Teresinha Albrecht; Botelho, Marcos Felipe Pinatto; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Souza, Maria Conceicao de, E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Aeschynomene fluminensis leaves and branches led to isolation of the flavonoid glycosides kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-apiofuranosil-7-O- rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, 8-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone, the isoflavonoid 4',7-di-hydroxy-isoflavone, the dimer epicatechin-(2{beta} ->7, 4{beta} ->8)- epicatechin, the polyol 3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol and two steroids in sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture. These compounds were identified by NMR {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C and compared with literature data. Anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions was evaluated (author)

  20. Economic evaluation of pipeline construction and capacity expansion projects; Avaliacao economica dos projetos de construcao e expansao de um gasoduto de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Leandro Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In this work, two investment projects that are characteristic of the recent phase of the Brazilian natural gas industry were economically valued, taking into account the government going Thermoelectric Priority Program or PPT: economical design of a gas pipeline, to be built and operated by a Proprietary Carrier, where the interest variable is the transport tariff that will remunerate the investment and pipeline expansion through compressor stations, sponsored by the only shipper in the system, as it aims at selling gas to a thermoelectric plant, where the interest variable is the net present value of the project. In both cases, some sensitive analyses of the interest variable to variables that carry greater uncertainty are presented. Results show that pipeline expansion is viable. (author)

  1. Evaluation of pollution effects in transmission lines located in industrial areas; Avaliacao dos efeitos da poluicao em linhas de transmissao situadas em regiao industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanashiro, Arnaldo G.; Burani, Geraldo F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Nascimento, Iara R. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo SA, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work aims to determinate a correlation between the pollution levels and electric power transmission lines maintenance procedures in order to establish the necessary procedures for specific pollution levels. The methodology is presented. The results obtained in field tests and bench scale tests are presented and discussed. The so called pollution equivalent is determined for each site of the transmission line studied and maintenance procedures are established 6 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia; Avaliacao de dose glandular media em servicos de mamografia de 10 cidades de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D. [Grupo de Prevencion Temprana Del Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  3. Quality evaluation of Argentina onion irradiated, transported and stored; Avaliacao da qualidade da cebola argentina irradiada, transportada e armazenada no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, J M.M.; Domarco, R E; Spoto, M H.F.; Blumer, L [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Curzio, O A; Croci, C A [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Lab. de Radioisotopos

    1996-12-31

    Onion bulbs of the Valenciana Sintetica 14 variety from Argentina were irradiated with a dose of 60 Gy gamma rays at 30-40 days after harvest. Treated and control lots (40 bags of 20 Kg each) were send by road to Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, and stored up to 180 days in a warehouse at 20-28{sup 0} C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 100%. Monthly quality control was done by physical and sensorial analysis. Radiation treatment reduced the weight loss of the bulbs and increased the percentage of marketable bulbs without affecting its sensorial properties. (author). 4 refs, 8 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation; Avaliacao do palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processado por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-07-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  5. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-07-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and Eldorado. (author)

  6. Selection and ordering of contingencies for evaluation of voltage safety conditions; Selecao e ordenacao de contingencias para avaliacao das condicoes de seguranca de tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Ricardo Drumond de

    2002-10-01

    Although the use of compensation of reactive power allows a higher loading in the electric system, it leads it to work closer to voltage collapse situations. Therefore it's necessary to assess the behavior of the system regarding to this phenomena in the occurrence of the contingencies. In this work some existing methods are studied to check the capacity of ranking the contingencies that might affect the system, and how these methods rank them by severity and select those which are more damaging. The methods are studied having as the main focus the real-time operation. This work proposes a method which is able to rank and select a list of probable contingencies, having as a basis, nodal indexes of voltage security conditions assessment. These indexes are based on MV A margin to the maximum loading, indicate the region of operation on V x P,Q curve, and the relative importance among buses. The sensitivity index which indicates the reduction of the power margin before a contingency, is studied in detail. Besides the nodal analysis, it is proposed a form of a systemic analysis which is able to rank and select the contingencies according to their influence upon all electrical system. (author)

  7. Evaluation of parameters associated with monitoring in vivo of uranium isotopes in the lungs; Avaliacao de parametros associados a monitoracao in vivo de isotopos de uranio nos pulmoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juppa, Silvia P.; Lucena, Eder A.; Dantas, Bernardo M.; Dantas, Ana Leticia A., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br [Instiluto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Monitoracao In Vivo. Divisao de Dosimetria

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the parameters associated with the technique of monitoring individuals exposed to uranium isotopes, aiming to optimize the technique and reduced uncertainties associated.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hip in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a descriptive study; A ressonancia magnetica do quadril na avaliacao de pacientes com artrite reumatoide: estudo descritivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldana, Wanda Chiyoko Iwakami; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: wiwakami@ig.com.br; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil); Juliano, Yara [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Epidemiologia e Bioestatistica

    2005-07-15

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of MRI as a diagnostic method in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and to evaluate the frequency of changes in the hip in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Materials and methods: Forty patients (17 symptomatic and 23 asymptomatic) were evaluated by 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after intravenous contrast media injection. MRI findings were divided in inflammatory, degenerative, combined (inflammatory and degenerative) and extra-articular changes. Results: The most frequent findings seen were degenerative and extra-articular changes (22.5% each). Inflammatory changes were seen in only five (12.5%) symptomatic patients, four of them with degenerative findings associated (10%). Conclusion: The use of MRI of the hip allowed the evaluation of the main articular abnormalities seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The most frequent findings were degenerative and extra-articular changes. Inflammatory findings were seen in only five patients, four of them with degenerative changes associated. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the bleaching flux in clays containing hematite and different clay minerals; Avaliacao do fundente descolorante em argilas contendo hematita e diferentes argilominerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, E.M.; Lusa, T.; Silva, T.M.; Medeiros, B.B.; Santos, G.R. dos [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DAMEC/UFTPR), Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Morelli, M.R., E-mail: geocrisr@utfpr.edu.com, E-mail: morelli@power.ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/PPGCEM/UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the addition of a synthetic flux in a clay mineral constituted by illite phase in the presence of iron oxide with the hematite, promotes color change of the firing products, making the reddish color firing into whiteness. This flow is constituted of a vitreous phase of the silicates family obtained by fusion/solidification of oxides and carbonates. Thus, the objective of this work was that of studying the interaction of the iron element in the final color mechanism of the different types of mineral crystal phase of the clays. In order to study the phenomenon, we obtained different compositions between the select clays and the synthetic flow, and characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and visual analysis. The results showed that the action of the synthetic flow as a modifying agent for color depends on the mineral crystal phase of the clays. The color firing modification does not occur in the clays content high levels of kaolinite mineral phase. (author)

  10. Evaluation of kraft paper chemical byproducts in insulating mineral oil of energized transformers; Avaliacao de subprodutos quimicos de papel tipo kraft em oleo mineral isolante de transformadores energizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portella, Mariana d' Orey Gaivao; Portella, Kleber Franke; Swinka Filho, Vitoldo; Silva, Guilherme Cunha da; Stocco, Guilherme Barrachina; Batista, Douglas Antonio; Sabec, Daiane Cristina; Deger, Claudio Adriano [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mails: mariana.portella@lactec.org.br, portella@laclec.org.br; Andreoli, Mario Carlos [Centro de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica Paulista (CTEEP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mandreoli@cteep.com.br

    2011-10-15

    The insulating paper is a major determinant of the remaining lifetime of an electrical transformer, since it is not possible to analyse or replace this equipment during operation. However, using the quantification of the furanic compounds concentration formed in mineral oil, it is possible to infer about the quality of the material, confirming the presence of degradation. Given the existence of new kinds of solid insulation, this research aimed at studying a new analytical methodology, using the techniques of liquid chromatography with mass detection of these substances in order to increase the reliability of the results, assisting the preventive maintenance. (author)

  11. Evaluation of morphological changes of the skin after radiation-induced injury in Wistar rats;Avaliacao de alteracoes morfologicas da pele apos lesao radioinduzida em ratos Wistar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cherley Borba Vieira de

    2010-07-01

    The cancer covers a heterogeneous group of more than 100 diseases with different etiology and prognosis. Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities, aiming at the destruction of cancer cells, using ionizing radiation. One of the limiting factors of radiotherapy is that radiation promotes the death of tumor cells in addition to injure healthy tissue neighboring the tumor, and may cause their death. Irradiation of the skin, accidental or for therapeutic purposes can trigger many injuries culminating in fibrosis, which implies functional alteration of the body. The evaluation of morphological effects associated with skin irradiation becomes essential to develop more effective radiation strategies and decreased morbidity; and in case of accidents, proper handling of the victim.Evaluate radio-induced dermal changes using a Wistar rats model irradiated with 10, 40 and 60Gy. Male Wistar rats, aged approximately three months, were pre-anesthetized with midazolam and xylazine and anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, shaved in the back, immobilized on polystyrene support in the prone position and irradiated with doses of 10, 40 and 60 Gy, with 4MeV nominal energy electron beams. The skin was irradiated in a 3cm{sup 2} field, and used 0.5cm of tissue equivalent material, to obtain a homogeneous dose distribution. After irradiation, the animals remained on constant evaluation, and the lesions were recorded photographically. The animals were divided into groups and were killed on the irradiation day, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 100 days after irradiation. The skin was fixed in 10% formaldehyde; the samples were embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius red and immuno stained with antibody anti-TGF beta1. Another part of the tissue was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and processed for scanning electron microscopy. It was observed macroscopically the appearance of skin lesions similar to burns on the entire irradiated area. The optical microscope verified the early development of lesions in the 5 days group. After 10 days of irradiation it was already possible to see evidences of epidermal healing under the crust formed by the lesion. At 15 days after irradiation the tissue beneath the lesion had reconstructed epidermis. It was also observed the characteristics of tissue healing. It was also seen a significant polymorphonuclear cells infiltration. After 25 days at the higher doses the lesions remained, which did not occur at the lower dose, where the irradiated area of the animals were already completely healed. After 100 days of irradiation at 40Gy dose the wound was healed with the emergence of a well defined healed tissue. At the 60Gy dose, the lesion persisted in some animals, and in those that healing occurred the epidermis was a hypertrophied (acanthosis). It was visualized a tissue with their morphological aspect completely mis characterized, where it's possible to view a necrotic tissue. The results of the scanning electron microscopy analysis corroborate with the in optical microscopy findings, where it's possible to visualize the distortion of collagen fibers at the higher dosages. The results indicate that the used doses induced an important skin inflammatory process, activating the immune system. This fact leads to an increase in the expression of TGF beta1, one of the responsible for the increased production of extracellular matrix (ECM) by various cell types, mainly fibroblasts in injured tissues. Besides the increased expression of ECM, the TGF beta1 also promotes the inhibition of the degradation processes of the same. The intense expression of cytokines in irradiated skin can trigger the fibrosis process; consequently, affect the homeostasis of this organ due to the accumulation of ECM. (author)

  12. Experimental dosimetric evaluation of inhomogeneity effects caused by thoracic vertebrae; Avaliacao dosimetrica experimental de efeitos de inomogeneidade causados por vertebras toracicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Andre L.S.; Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto de Radioterapia Sao Francisco, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Tratamento em Radioterapia, Betim, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The presence of tissue inhomogeneities alters the absorbed dose distribution, which magnitude depends on the physical properties of these tissues and the quality of the radiation. Incorrect assessment of dose distribution may affect local tumor control or increase the normal tissue complication probabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the thoracic vertebrae inhomogeneous effects on the dose absorbed by the surrounding soft tissue. The values predicted by the treatment planning system (TPS) were compared to the experimental measurements with EBT-2 radiochromic films positioned on a simulator consisting of only water and inserted axially into a thoracic phantom made of synthetic bone and water. There was a significant change in the dose distribution pattern, increased absorbed dose at the bone-soft tissue interface and high point doses adjacent to the bone compared to the results obtained for the films in homogeneous medium and TPS. The experimental measurements in the water agreed with the TPS within 1.0% with respect to the modal dose whereas the biggest difference found for the medium containing the vertebrae was of 4.6%, however, both values are within the experimental uncertainty. (author)

  13. Density evaluation by computerized tomography in plain soils over different manipulation systems; Avaliacao da densidade pelo metodo da tomografia computadorizada de um planossolo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrotti, Alceu [Lavras Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia do Solo; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio [Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Instrumentacao Agropecuaria (CNPDIA)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this paper is the evaluation of a plain soil density in different culture systems determined by X ray computerized tomography.It was observed a larger variation in densities in soils profiles analysed. The identification of layers is better utilising computerized tomography than others technic 1 fig.

  14. Evaluation of dosimetric effects caused by the table top of therapy; Avaliacao dos efeitos dosimetricos causados pelo tampo da mesa de tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Andre Vinicius de; Alvares, Bruno; Fioravante, Gustavo Donisete; Silva, Diego da Cunha Silveira Alves da; Giglioli, Milena; Batista, Felipe Placido; Silva, Lais Bueno da; Radicchi, Lucas Augusto [Hospital de Cancer de Barretos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The attenuation and bolus effect for two tables top from different manufacturers were investigated for 6MV photons. The bolus effect of couch was compared with 0,5cm bolus (water equivalent). Maximum attenuation found in Exact Couch table was 6,9% and the minimum was 0,63%. The rail of Exact Couch, for beam in 180 deg, was observed attenuation of 13,61%. The same way that for attenuation, the surface dose was different for each region of couch Exact Couch and for different components of iBeam evo. The percentage of the dose in the depth of 1,8 mm was greater for table top of Exact Couch (66,2%). The extender of table iBeam evo offered increase dose of 38,3% and it table top of 51,9% in the same depth. The bolus increased surface dose in 61,1%. The results of this study showed that table tops when in contact with surface of the patient may significantly increase surface dose and beam attenuation. (author)

  15. Evaluation of quality of tomographs of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade dos tomografos do estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travassos, P.C.B.; Belem, V.R.; Magalhaes, L.A.; Almeida, C.E.A. de, E-mail: luisalexandregm@hotmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2014-07-01

    Computerized tomographs used in 56 institutions in the state of Rio de Janeiro were evaluated. Criteria of image quality and dosimetry were submitted. The results showed that some not performed optimize their protocols examinations or perform wrongly, which results in an increase in the dose received by patients, and an image in compromised quality. (author)

  16. Assessment of effect of chemical treatment to carnauba's fibers straw; Avaliacao do efeito de tratamento quimico as fibras da palha de carnauba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, T.M.P. de; Carvalho, L.F.M.; Oliveira, R.R. de; Sousa, F.M.S. de; Sousa, R.C. de; Marques, J.R., E-mail: thaismarjore.pc@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (IFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The use of natural fibers in composite materials has been highlighted in the scientific field. However, its application in polymer matrices usually requires surface modifications. The objective of this work was to treat carnauba's straw fibers with NaOH 1 % and NaOH 5% solutions and measure the water absorption. We used the X-ray diffraction (XRD configuration “Bragg- Brentano) for verification of the crystalline phases and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to identify functional groups. The alkali treatment allowed the solubilization of the hemicellulose and lignin without causing changes to cellulose, as indicated by FTIR spectrophotometry and by the increase in crystallinity content. The samples showed the typical peaks of constituents of the fiber. The natural fiber showed an average water absorption of 256 %; fiber treated with NaOH 1%, 315 %; and treated with NaOH 5%, 405 %. Therefore, it is evident improvement in hydrophilicity, fundamental aspect in the interaction fiber / matrix. (author)

  17. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1996-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous thrombosis. (author) 101 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of a wood chipping system for eucalyptus tops for energy; Avaliacao de um sistema de cavaqueamento de ponteiras de eucalipto para aproveitamento energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, Juliana Lorensi do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Machado, Carlos Cardoso; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Sant' Anna, Cleverson de Mello [Departamento de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Vicosa, UFV, MG (Brazil)], E-mails: machado@ufv.br, amaury@ufv.br, cleverson@ufv.br; Seixas, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, ESALQ], E-mail: fseixas@esalq.usp.br

    2011-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and to estimate costs of a wood chipping system for tree tops, which are considered residuals from wood harvesting, to be used for energy. The study was developed in a forest industry in the Para State, located in the north region of Brazil. The system was comprised by one wood chipper, two forwarders and one front loader. Data collection was based on time study, fuel consumption and chips load weighting. System average productivity was 17.51 tonnes per effective hour. Machine utilization rate was 51.9% due to many delays, mainly for repair and maintenance of the chipper. Chips transportation was considered to be the critical point of the system, due to some lack of trucks available for blowing chips. The system can produce between 94 and 162 times more energy than the energy consumed. System cost per effective hour was R$ 376.56, which means R$ 21.51/tonne of chips or R$ 2.70/G J. (author)

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging pre- and postoperative evaluation of tetralogy of Fallot; Avaliacao pre e pos-operatoria da tetralogia de Fallot por ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardes, Renata Junqueira Moll; Simoes, Luiz Carlos [Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia (INC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Cardiologia da Crianca e do Adolescente; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@bol.com.br; Bernardes, Paulo Manuel de Barros; Gonzaga, Maria Beatriz Albano Monzo [Rede Labs/D' Or, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the pre- and postoperative evaluation of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Twenty patients aged 1 to 29 years were prospectively evaluated with black-blood and contrast-enhanced angiographic techniques, 11 with the classic form of tetralogy of Fallot and 9 with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia. MRI studies provided adequate visualization of the aorta that was classified as dilated or not dilated, and definition of its position in all cases. The use of contrast-enhanced MR angiographic techniques provided excellent imaging of the main right and left pulmonary arteries. The results suggest that MRI, including contrast-enhanced angiography techniques, is a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with tetralogy of Fallot before and after cardiac surgery since it provides important anatomical information that is not always obtained with echocardiography. MRI can be considered an alternative to cardiac catheterization, particularly in the evaluation of the pulmonary vascular anatomy. (author)

  20. Evaluation of safety requirements of erbium laser equipment used in dentistry; Avaliacao de requisitos de seguranca de um equipamento a laser de erbio para fins odontologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Flavio Hamilton

    2002-07-01

    The erbium laser (Er:YAG) has been used in several therapeutic processes. Erbium lasers, however, operate with energies capable to produce lesions in biological tissues. Aiming the safe use, the commercialization of therapeutic laser equipment is controlled in Brazil, where the equipment should comply with quality and safety requirement prescribed in technical regulations. The objective of this work is to evaluate the quality and safety requirements of a commercial therapeutic erbium laser according to Brazilian regulations, and to discuss a risk control program intended to minimize the accidental exposition at dangerous laser radiation levels. It was verified that the analyzed laser can produce lesions in the skin and eyes, when exposed to laser radiation at distances smaller than 80 cm by 10 s or more. In these conditions, the use of protection glasses is recommended to the personnel that have access to the laser operation ambient. It was verified that the user's training and the presence of a target indicator are fundamental to avoid damages in the skin and buccal cavity. It was also verified that the knowledge and the correct use of the equipment safety devices, and the application of technical and administrative measures is efficient to minimize the risk of dangerous expositions to the laser radiation. (author)

  1. Evaluation of low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids; Avaliacao de fluidos de perfuracao a base de oleo mineral de baixa toxidez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Ielton Frederico da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1989-12-31

    In order to introduce low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids in Brazil, we carried out a series with a low aromatic content basic oil for lubricants, produced by PETROBRAS: the Lubrax Industrial OB-9 (Lubind OB-9). This oil, as well as its mixture with aviation kerosene to reduce viscosity, was found adequate for use in drilling fluids together with other national products developed by companies that supply additives for drilling fluids in Brazil. We present the results of laboratory tests with systems of four different manufacturers, one of which was chosen for initial field tests. These tests, which were carried out at the Miranga and Bu River Fields, in the Drilling District of Bahia, produced satisfactory results. We anticipate the use of these fluids in other areas where the company operates. (author) 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of radon measuring technique using passive detector activated carbon; Avaliacao da tecnica de medicao do radonio utilizando detector passivo com carvao ativado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Rocha; Lessa, Edmilson de Lima; Oliveira, Evaldo Paulo de, E-mail: epoliveira@aluno.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radioprotecao Ambiental e Ocupacional

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of measuring the radioactive gas Radon ({sup 222} Rn) with passive detector activated carbon. Alpha Guard, exposure chamber, air sampler, default font Radio, calibrator flow, flow adjuster, ducts drivers: For this, various equipment to make the measurement system as were used. An assembly of such equipment, with specific sequence was used allowing for more efficient exposure of passive detectors Radon gas. Twenty samples were heated to remove moisture and then stored in desiccator until the experiment were made. The exhibition was held passive dosimeters being removed from the chamber, and one hour after, subjected to analysis by gamma spectrometry in germanium (HPGe) for an hour. Subsequently, other measurements were made at scheduled times and sequential for one hour. The results were presented in report form and spectra, measures and graphs generated by Alpha Guard were also extracted. Finally we calculated the efficiency of the passive meter activated carbon. (author)

  3. Glass forming ability of the Al-Ce-Ni system; Avaliacao da capacidade de formacao vitrea do sistema Al-Ce-Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triveno Rios, C. [Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: triveno@ufmt.br; Surinach, S.; Baro, M.D. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the glass forming ability (GFA) and its compositional dependence on Al-Ni-Ce system alloys were investigated in function of several thermal parameters. Rapidly quenched Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 15}-{sub X}Ce{sub X} (X=4,5,6,7,10), Al{sub 90}Ni{sub 5}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 89}Ni{sub 2}.{sub 4}Ce{sub 8}.{sub 6}, Al{sub 80}Ni{sub 15.6}Ce{sub 4}.{sub 4} and Al{sub 78}Ni{sub 18.5}Ce{sub 3.5} amorphous ribbons were produced by melt-spinning and the structural transformation during heating was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the GFA and the thermal stability in the Al-rich corner of Al- Ni-Ce system alloys were enhanced by increasing the solute content and specifically the Ce content (author)

  4. Assessment of conditions of service to maximum demand in decennial horizon; Avaliacao das condicoes de atendimento a demanda maxima em horizonte decenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Flavio Borsato; Nasser, Ivana Costa [Wise Systems, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Danielle Bueno de; Machado, Renato Simoes; Morozowski Filho, Marciano [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Planning the future hydro capacity in Brazil includes considering power reinforcements in the peak hours due to the increasing numbers of run-of-river plants. It means that the Brazilian's reservoir profile has been changing over the years from five years regularization to monthly regularization. This article presents a deterministic methodology to evaluate the capacity reserve of the Brazilian power system. It is based on the 'capacity reserve margin' calculation done by a monthly comparison between peak availability and maximum peak load. This methodology was applied to the Decennial Energy Expansion Plan 2019 (PDE 2019) and its final results are shown here through Peak Balances considering different operation conditions and the whole inflows historical records. Additionally, it is presented a suggestion about the evolution of peak evaluation criteria to be applied to the Brazilian power system on its expansion planning. (author)

  5. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1995-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous thrombosis. (author) 101 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Dynamic system for the evaluation of CIM monitoring and control techniques; Sistema dinamico para avaliacao de tecnicas de monitoracao e controle da CIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Monica de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Ecossistemas]. E-mail: mpena@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Baptista, Walmar; Brito, Rosane Fernandes de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais, Equipamentos e Corrosao]. E-mails: walmar@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; rosanef@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Silva, Edilson Domingos da; Nascimento, Juliana Rangel do [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: edilson@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; julianarn@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Coutinho, Claudia M.L.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Celular e Molecular

    2002-03-01

    In general, the two main problems associated to the water injection system for secondary petroleum recovery are the corrosion control and the decrease in solid injection in the reservoir. Corrosion problems in injection water systems may have abiotic as well as biotic causes, and the occurrence of reservoir plugs can result from the injection of particles (suspended solids as well as corrosion products), bacteria and fouling formation. Due to the need to implement a methodology for the evaluation of abiotic and biotic corrosive processes, monitoring techniques and MIC control in a dynamic system, an apparatus was built that simulates the characteristics of a water injection system. The apparatus allows monitoring and control of the parameters that, when varied, may influence the performance of the quality of the injected water. The dynamic system was designed to simulate as precisely as possible the conditions that allow the SRB and heterotrophic bacteria to create fouling in a water injection system. This article discusses the dynamic system, analytical methods and some preliminary results. (author)

  7. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  8. Evaluation as a tool for planning: a case study on rural electrification; Avaliacao como instrumento de planejamento: estudo de caso em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The universalization of access of the electric energy is one of the goals established by the Brazilian government so as to attend the rural and urban population. The arrival of electric energy in remote and low income areas allows these populations to reach one of the basic conditions to improve the quality of life and citizenship. In order to achieve this goal efficiently, it is necessary to build tools that make possible the impact and process evaluation, searching the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals, or in the poverty mitigation. The knowledge originated from evaluation impact studies provides an important contribution to the improvement of social programs, and a return to society as how the public fund is being managed, promoting transparency and focus. In this context, tolls are developed so as to support the impact and process evaluation in terms of rural electrification publics policies, using a study case that includes about 23.000 questionnaires in 21 states, considering the moment before the access (ex-ante) and after (ex-post), during the years of 2000 and 2004. (author)

  9. Assessing the quality of energy supplied by small renewable energy systems; Avaliacao da qualidade da energia fornecida por sistemas renovaveis isolados de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, Marcos Andre Barros; Pinho, Joao Tavares [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Energeticas], e-mail: galhardo@ufpa.br, E-mail: jtpinho@ufpa.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper makes an analysis of the power quality supplied by small renewable energy systems with energy storage in a battery bank and its DC/AC conversion by an inverter. It is shown that the power quality supplied by stand-alone renewable systems depends on the used inverter, specially of its voltage waveform, the load supplied and the voltage level in the battery bank, which has a direct influence on the value of the rms output voltage of the inverter. For these analysis, measurements are presented for typical loads used in these systems as illumination, TV, refrigerator, etc., and combinations of these loads, supplied by different waveforms. (author)

  10. Evaluation of advanced oxidative processes in contaminated soil of the Pernambuco state; Avaliacao dos processos oxidativos avancados num solo contaminado do estado de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paula T.S. e [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Santos, Suenia S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Barros Neto, Benicio de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Dorea, Haroldo S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Motta Sobrinho, Mauricio A. da; Silva, Valdinete L. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work were used the following techniques of advanced oxidative processes: hydrogen peroxide, Fenton reagent and heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2). These processes have shown as an alternative technology to the treatment of some environmental matrices. The soil studied was contaminated by an oil mixture proceeding from an emptying in the patio of an industry of the state of Pernambuco. This soil has about 14,5 g/Kg of total organic carbon and 3400 mg/kg of TPH. Two planning factorial 23 were composed: one in relation to hydrogen peroxide and the other to titanium dioxide, in order to find the best conditions for the contaminant degradation. The variables and the studied levels for the former was: FeSO4 - 0,18 M (without, 4 and 8 ml); Adjustment of pH (3, without, without); Time of exposition to the sun (8h, 12h, 16h). The volumes of used peroxide in the assays were 80 and 40 ml. In relation to the second planning, were studied the following conditions: TiO2 (g) (without,5;0,75;1,0), volume H2O (0, 2,5 and 5 ml) and time of exposition to the sun (8, 40, 72h). In relation to the first planning a destruction of 84% of the oil was achieved. However, in relation to 2nd the planning non-significant degradation was obtained, and to study other conditions ought to be investigated. (author)

  11. Occupational exposure prevention program to oil and gas industry; Antecipacao, reconhecimento, avaliacao e controle dos riscos ambientais em uma planta de petroleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Paulo Sergio de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Palierini, Renato Martins [TWA Brasil, Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals have 500 regular employees and 5.064 out sourced workers in its Southeast Division. The out sourced employees work under 125 contracts involving a wide range of activities such as maintenance, pipeline operation, pipeline launching, engineering, administrative and auxiliary services. Among these workers, 1.200 peoples are subjected to occupational exposure, which may be present in the industrial process or in the products transported in our pipelines, e.g. industrial noise, sulfidric gas, toluene, xylene and benzene (recognized as a carcinogen according to ACGIH and Brazilian Ministry of Labour). Our PPRA (acronym in Portuguese for Occupational Exposure Prevention Program) involves the workforce and fosters health by anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of the situations that may result in injuries. Further actions include the procurement of equipment for detection of these agents not only in the air but also diluted in liquids and the introduction of state-of the- art technologies for a better process control. The priority is the acquisition of equipment for collective protection not forgetting the individual protection equipment (IPE) and the required training. Implementation of this program counted on the effective involvement of the managers, contract supervisors and HSE professionals whose main task was to advise all involved parts on the use the Risk Analysis Methods tailored for Occupational Hygiene. Furthermore, these information will be used in a info system called SD-2000 that will gather and compare Health, Hygiene e Human Resources data in order to support the professional in the management and decision making process. (author)

  12. Assessment pozzolanicity waste red ceramics produced in Valley Assu / RN; Avaliacao da atividade pozolanica dos residuos de ceramica vermelha produzidos no Vale do Assu / RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Rodolfo de Azevedo; Pereira, Arthur Ruan da Silva; Cabral, Kleber Cavalcanti; Nobrega, Andreza Kelly Costa, E-mail: rodolfo.palhares@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthurruan_rn@hotmail.com, E-mail: kleber.cabral@ufersa.edu.br, E-mail: akcn123@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas

    2016-07-01

    It is known that both the cement industry as a ceramist contribute much to the generation of environmental impacts. Be the Co2 in the atmosphere, as well as the generation of excessive waste, reaching 20%. The objective of this study is to analyze the potential pozollanic of waste from the red ceramic industries Valley Assu / RN, in order that this material can be incorporated as alternative raw material in the manufacture of ecological and similar brick, replacing partially in its composition Portland cement. Thus contributing to reducing the environmental impact produced by both the ceramics industry, such as cement. To evaluate the efficiency of pozollanic material, it was made sample preparation and then the physico-chemical characterization. After performing tests, it was noticed that the material has the minimum requirements established in standard to be considered as pozollanic material. (author)

  13. Falling hammer use evaluation for hot deformation hardness testing; Avaliacao do uso de um martelo de queda, para a determinacao da resistencia a deformacao a quente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, J.C.P.C.; Cauduro, Carlos R.; Schaeffer, Lirio [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    This work performs a evaluation of the characteristics hot leaking of a 8620 stainless steel, deformed at 870 deg C. The tools associated with the measurements was described and a comparison between the theoretical values and the values experimentally obtained from the performed tests. 5 figs., 3 refs.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella turcica: evaluation of patients with galactorrhea, amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia; Ressonancia magnetica da sela turca: avaliacao de pacientes com galactorreia, amenorreia e hiperprolactinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet M.D. dos [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Moreira, Denise Madeira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Andreiuolo, Pedro Angelo [Beneficencia Portuguesa de Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia Santa Cruz Scan

    1999-08-01

    We have selected 135 cases of patients who have done magnetic resonance imaging of sella region, carried out from September, 1991 to August, 1996, who had galactorrhea (G), amenorrhea(A), and hyperprolactinemia (H), isolated or in association. The patients were divided in seven groups, according to the presence of these symptoms and signs. All examinations were made in a private clinic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Correlating these patients with the results of the magnetic resonance images, we found 57 micro adenomas, 31 normal examinations, 22 macro adenomas, 11 pituitary hyperplasias, 7 empty sella and 7 cases included in other aspects. The micro adenoma predominated in groups 1 (GAH), 2 (GH), 3 (HA) and 5 (H), that is, in all groups whose patients had hyperprolactinemia. In macro adenomas, a bright signal on T 1-weighted images indicates pituitary apoplexy with intratumoral hemorrhage. All in all, the magnetic resonance imaging is excellent method to be used in the evaluation of patients with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. (author)

  15. Chemical treatment and biomimetic coating evaluating in zirconia-alumina ceramics; Avaliacao de tratamentos quimicos e recobrimento biomimetico em ceramicas de alumina-zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Amanda Abati

    2007-07-01

    Ceramic materials, as alumina and zirconia have been explored along the years as biomaterials application. The bio inert nature has been stimulating the development of new alternatives, as chemical treatments to improve the biological application of these ceramics. The biomimetic process of bio inert ceramics for coating apatite is based on soaking the implant in a simulated body fluid, SBF, with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma. The bioactivity of the material is related with the formation of a layer constituted of hydroxyapatite low crystalline, similar to the biological apatite. The biocompatibility associated to the structural properties of the alumina and zirconia has been stimulating the clinical use of these materials, mainly in areas of larger mechanical requests, places not recommended for bioactive hydroxyapatite, for instance. In this work samples of alumina, zirconia doped with Yttria (3% mol) and composites of alumina and zirconia doped with Yttria (3% mol) were prepared by co-precipitation method, calcinate, sintered, chemically treated with solutions of acid phosphoric and sodium hydroxide and them immersed in 1.0 M and 1.5 M SBF. The calcinate powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas adsorption (BET) and laser diffraction. The XRD results indicate that the samples are low crystalline. It was observed for BET that the samples present high specific surface area. The results of laser diffraction and SEM showed that the powders are agglomerates. The sintered samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The phases quantified by Rietveld method were: cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic of the zirconia, besides the phase alpha of the alumina. The chemical treatment with phosphoric acid didn't present a tendency of larger apatite formation in relation to the samples no chemically treated. The treatment with sodium hydroxide provoked accentuated transformation of the cubic phase for tetragonal phase and of tetragonal phase for the monoclinic phase of the zirconia. The immersion of samples in SBF provided apatite coating formation on the surfaces of the samples, identified by XRD, and the coating thickness was measured by XRF. (author)

  16. Evaluation of occupational exposure during the exploration and physical processing of monazite; Avaliacao das exposicoes ocupacionais durante as etapas de exploracao e beneficiamento fisico da monazita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Joao Torres de

    2006-07-01

    In Brazil the most important concentrations of monazite sands occur in the beaches and sandbanks that extend throughout the coast, from the State of Rio Grande do Norte down to the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Nowadays, the most important Brazilian monazite concentrations - considered as being the fourth worldwide reservoir of rare-earth elements - are located at the north seacoast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, near Buena town. At this location the Brazilian Nuclear Industries - INB - manages an industrial complex for prospecting, mining and physical separation and concentration of monazite sands. Among the elements present at the monazite sands there are the radioelements thorium and uranium, which make the monazite sand a radioactive mineral. Monazite is constituted basically of 62% in TR{sub 2}0{sub 3} (rare-earth oxides), 5,5% of thorium in Th0{sub 2} (thorium oxide) and 0,25% of uranium in U{sub 3}0{sub 8} (uranium oxide). The general objective of the present work was to estimate the occupational doses at the industrial complex for prospecting, mining and physical separation and concentration of monazite sands located at Buena, at the north of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The occupational exposures occur mainly through the inhalation of airbone dust particles of mineraIs containing thorium and uranium, during the prospection and physical separation and concentration of monazite. To evaluate the impact of the occupational exposures during the physical separation and concentration of monazite, it was necessary to evaluate the effective equivalent doses due to thorium contamination of the air and the exposures due to the daughter radionuclides from the natural series of uranium and thorium. The results obtained at the present work showed that, although occupational doses are within the annual dose limits established by the Brazilian regulatory authority - CNEN - in some of the working places within the industrial complex the concentrations of radionuclides in air are above the maximum recommended levels. (author)

  17. Evaluation of mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Ti-Mo-Fe-Sn alloys system; Avaliacao de propriedades mecanicas de ligas nanocristalinas do sistema Ti-Mo-Fe-Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, M.O.A; Vidilli, A.L.; Afonso, C.R.M., E-mail: andre.vidilli@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V, widely used in biomaterials, exhibits elastic modulus (E) of approximately 110GPa, which is significantly higher than the one of human bone (E = 10 to 30 GPa). In this project, a process of rapid solidification was utilized in 4 different alloys of Ti-Mo-Fe-Sn, in order to produce ultrafine nanocrystalline eutectic alloys, which present high strength (1800-2500 MPa), low elastic modulus (50-110 GPa) and good corrosion resistance. The alloys Ti{sub 62}Fe{sub 30}Mo{sub 8}, Ti{sub 56}Fe{sub 30}Mo{sub 8}Sn{sub 6}, Ti{sub 63}Fe{sub 23}Mo{sub 8}Sn{sub 6}, Ti{sub 60}Fe{sub 23}Mo{sub 8}Sn{sub 9} show Vickers microhardness de, respectively, 745 (1mm), 733 (1mm), 609 (1mm) e 651(1mm) HV. The characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X- ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated the presence of a β-Ti (bcc) matrix and the intermetallic TiFe and Ti{sub 3}Sn phases, and the microstructure were formed by dendrites, and eutectic constituents, which were present in the compositions Ti{sub 62}Fe{sub 30}Mo{sub 8}, Ti{sub 56}Fe{sub 30}Mo{sub 8}Sn{sub 6}, Ti{sub 63}Fe{sub 23}Mo{sub 8}Sn{sub 6}, Ti{sub 60}Fe{sub 23}Mo{sub 8}Sn{sub 9}. (author)

  18. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents; Sintese e avaliacao preliminar da atividade antibacteriana e antifungica de derivados N-acilidrazonicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachiba, Thomas Haruo; Carvalho, Bruno Demartini; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Medicamentos; Cusinato, Marina; Prado, Clara Gaviao; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches, E-mail: diogo.carvalho@unifal-mg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2012-07-01

    We describe the synthesis and evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds bearing different electron-donating groups in one of its aromatic rings, obtained using a four-step synthetic route. IC{sub 50} values against pathogenic fungi and bacteria were determined by serial microdilution. Compounds showed low activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By contrast, a derivative with a meta-oriented electron-donating group showed significant activity (IC50) against Candida albicans (17 {mu}M), C. krusei (34 {mu}M) and C. tropicalis (17 {mu}M). Results suggest this is a promising lead-compound for synthesis of potent antifungal agents. (author)

  19. Evaluation of a new irradiation left breast method in the inhalation phase; Avaliacao de uma nova metodologia de irradiacao de mama esquerda na fase de inspiracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Laura E. da; Gullo, Rafael G.; Ferreira, Diogo A.V.; Silva, Leonardo P. da, E-mail: aura.emilia.fm@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Radiation therapy is the primary therapeutic approach to breast cancer and involves significant exposure of heart and lungs, especially in cases of left breast. The implementation of a methodology to reduce the dose in these sites is important to ensure better quality of life to the patient. This work aims reduced heart and lung dose when performing the radiotherapy planning considering only the inhalation phase. Three patients with breast left present were scanning with CT during free breathing and respiratory monitoring and the planning has done on both images series. The results showed a reduction in mean heart dose of 53% on average. As for lung volumes, was obtained a mean reduction of 44.6% and 51% of the left lung which received 10 Gy and 20 Gy, respectively. This study showed that the use of the respiratory gating radiotherapy in the left breast in inhalation phase can reduce heart and lung doses. (author)

  20. Evaluation of uniformity and noise consistency test in computerized tomography; Avaliacao do teste de constancia de uniformidade e ruido em tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrafiel, Fabricio N.; Lykawka, Rochelle; Bacelar, Alexandre; Anes, Mauricio [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Alva-Sanchez, Mirko S.; Pianoschi, Thatiane [Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The quality control in computed tomography (CT) includes constancy tests concerning CT number measured in a water tank and its response as uniformity, noise and accuracy. Differences to It's performance limits and frequency established by the national legislation and the manufacturers are well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate these tests proceeding the periodicity of national legislation. The tests were conducted over a three equipment of different manufacturers. Each equipment has acquisition parameters and specific phantoms. The equipment presented adequate performance and consistency when compared their results to the limits determined by manufacturers and national legislation. Thus, it is important to evaluate these differences and tailor the testing protocols to meet the established quality requirements. (author)

  1. Evaluation to a long term remediation actions after Goiania radiological accident; Avaliacao a longo prazo das acoes de remediacao apos o acidente radiologico de Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Rio, Monica A. Pires do; Coutinho, Celia M.C.; Acar, Maria E.D.; Romeiro, Carlos H. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Ten years after the Goiania radiological accident, the results obtained by the IRD Environmental Monitoring Program are compared to the values adopted for establishing the intervention levels at the time of the accident occurrence (1987), and to the values of the parameters obtained by European countries, after the Chernobyl accident. Significant differences were observed in parameter values, particularly, those related to a long term prediction of the contamination behaviour in an urban area. This paper shows the importance of the survey for the environmental behaviour of pollutants in tropical climate conditions. (author)

  2. Evaluation of drilling fluids flow regime in annular sections; Avaliacao do regime de escoamento de fluidos de perfuracao em secoes anulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria das Gracas Pena [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Tecnologia de Perfuracao

    1990-12-31

    The determination of the transition zone between the laminar and turbulent flow regimes of particular importance in optimizing the hydraulics of drilling operations. The principal advantage which laminar flow in the annular space has in drilling operations in the avoidance of wall enlargement (wash-outs), maintaining formation integrity as much as possible. On the other hand, a lower-energy regime such as laminar flow does not provide the same cuttings-carrying capacity as that obtained when the drilling fluid is in turbulent flow. However, to be able to optimize the hydraulics it is necessary to have determined, among other parameters, the transition zone, in order to maximize the drilling rate while obtaining the hole clear of cuttings and maintaining the hole diameter constant over the whole of the section drilled. This paper presents, based on experimental results obtained on the SHS physical simulator, the transition zone expressed through the critical Reynolds numbers and those for low stable turbulence of various drilling fluids tested over the temperature range of 25-80 deg C. (author) 20 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of breast cancer through mammographies and image digital processing; Avaliacao do cancer de mama atraves de mamografias e processamento digital de imagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestana, Rita H.S.

    1996-12-31

    The state of art of image processing has provided important advances to many scientific investigation areas particularly to medical own. This work exploits the potentiality of using image processing techniques for analyzing breast phantoms and mammographies. 36 refs., 62 figs.

  4. Evaluation of the potential of waste fondant glass in formulations of ceramic pasta; Avaliacao do potencial fundente do residuo de vidro em formulacoes de massas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Filho, J.E.; Santos, L.L. dos; Nascimento, R.M. do, E-mail: elsinhofilho@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Feitosa, A.O.; Dutra, R.P.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (PPCEM/UFPB), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    An increasing amount of waste generated and deposited on the environment, many unspecified decomposition with time, as is the case of the glass. Thinking about it, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the power of the flux residue on glass formulations porcelains, as a flux to feldspar replacement. This study was performed in comparison with a standard formulation. The raw materials were characterized in the diffraction X-ray fluorescence and X-ray thermal differential analysis, and determination of the technological properties of water absorption, linear contraction, ignition loss, apparent porosity and apparent specific gravity in the formulation standard and replacement of feldspar in different percentages of waste and processing conditions. Specimens of the formulations were subjected to assay of three points. Results indicate that the residue glass has the potential of being used as a flux material in the composition of the ceramic body reduces the apparent porosity and according to the technology of water absorption property. The ceramic mass standard was classified as semi-stoneware, the BIIa group, and after the addition of the residue in any of the three percentages evaluated was classified as sandstone, belonging to the group BIb.(author)

  5. Properties of altered soils by alkaline solution: contribution in the performance evaluation of repositories; Propriedades de solos alterados por solucao alcalina: contribuicao na avaliacao de desempenho de repositorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabria, Jaqueline Alves de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    The radioactive wastes from nuclear technology applications must be properly disposed in a repository, during the necessary time to ensure the human and the environment protection. The surface systems are largely considered for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, but generally require the use of engineering barriers to control the radionuclides release. An important engineering barrier is the backfill which is situated between the package and structural material, and has the functions of reducing the water infiltration and to promote the retardation of the radionuclide migration, among others. Therefore, the material to be used as backfill such as clays, cement, soils, rocks, must has good sorption, permeability and mechanical properties. The selection of the material will depend also largely on the material availability and installation design. The concrete is also used in the construction of repository, and its interaction with water induces its degradation, resulting in a high pH solution. This solution interacts with the backfilling materials promoting mineralogical alterations that results in significant changes in their key properties and performance as safety component of the repository. In this work, five Brazilian soils of Minas Gerais state, selected according to their generic characteristics along with information from Sistema Brasileiro de Classificacao de Solos (SiBCS) were investigated concerning their potential use as backfilling material in a superficial repository by the determination of retention capacity for cesium and iodine. Sorption-related parameters, used in the performance assessment of the soils, were obtained from experimental data fitting to different sorption isotherms models. The soil that showed the best sorption of Cs, was a clay soil that presented distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) of 90.5 mL.g{sup -1} and maximum sorption capacity (Q{sub max}) of 18.372 mg.g{sup -1}. Regarding the iodine, the sorption was very low for all evaluated samples (less than 20% after 10 days of equilibrium), being the best performance one, the nitosoil sample whose K{sub d} values varied from 11.78 to 63.05 mL.g{sup -1}. In a subsequent step, the clay soil, was submitted to the alkaline solution interaction, in order to investigate possible alterations on the sorption properties and hydraulic conductivity of this soil. Using the sorption parameters, obtained from data fitted isotherms, the retardation factor, R, was estimated for the samples before and after the interaction. It was demonstrated that the alkaline alteration promotes damages to sorption properties of Cs, once the R became significantly smaller (about 1000 times) after the interaction. The hydraulic conductivity in turn increased slightly (3,91x10{sup -8} cm.s{sup -1} to 5,08 x 10{sup -8} cm.s{sup -1}). It was concluded that these changes were due, mainly, to the dissolution of minerals present in the clay soil (kaolinite and quartz), associated with the incorporation of K and Ca from the alkaline solution, resulting, probably, in the formation of hydrated calcium silicate phases. Additionally, the effects of alkaline solution on the properties of a commercial bentonite were studied. Contrary to the clay soil, it was observed a gain in the sorption characteristics, with K{sub d} (Cs) increasing from 760.05 mL.g{sup -1}to 1311.80 mL.g{sup -1}and Q{sub max} from 36.32 mg.g{sup -1}to 52.13 mg.g{sup -1}, with the corresponding increase in the retardation coefficient, R. The dissolution of the clay minerals from the initial sample and the incorporation of Mg, K e Ca coming from the alkaline solution, generating smectite of different kinds, were considered as the main mineralogical changes responsible for the modifications in sorption parameters. The different behavior between the two evaluated samples, soil and bentonite, confirms that the nature and extension of changes observed, when mineral samples interact with alkaline solution, depend on the chemical/mineralogical composition of the solid material, among other factors. (author)

  6. Assessment of activity of nitrate-reducing bacterial souring control; Avaliacao da atividade de bacterias redutoras de nitrato no controle de acidificacao de reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Kally A. de; Cammarota, Magali C.; Servulo, Eliana F.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The effect of nitrate addition in relation to NRB concentration was evaluated on biogenic H{sub 2}S generation in anaerobic microcosms with produced water. A 2{sup k} factorial experimental design was performed by using as response variables nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup =}) consumption and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and sulfide (H{sub 2}S) production and as independent variables the SRB and NRB (10{sup 1} - 10{sup 7} MPN/mL) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} (127.5 - 727.5 mg/L) initial concentrations. Each condition was carried out under incubation at 30 deg C during 7, 14 and 28 days. The lowest sulfide production (0.4 - 0.8 mg/L) was achieved for 10{sup 4} MPN/mL of SRB and NRB and 427.5 mg/L nitrate. Also, a reduction of sulfide generation was obtained by nitrate addition when low SRB and NRB concentrations were established. In such condition, the produced sulfide is rather dependent of nitrate concentration. The increase of the NRB concentration has not resulted in the reduction of sulfide production, even when higher nitrate concentrations were used. (author)

  7. Geographic information systems as a tool for environmental evaluation of hydropower potential; Sistemas de informacoes geograficas como ferramenta para avaliacao ambiental de potenciais hidreletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzedzej, Maira; Correa, Fabio; Malta, Joao [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Flauzino, Barbara Karoline [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The hydropower plants are responsible for much of the energy generated in the country, there is also a large hydro potential in Brazilian rivers. This form of power generation is considered renewable and fits into the concept of sustainable development, however, social and environmental impacts from the implementation of hydropower projects are known and widely discussed, especially when it comes to large plants. In this context, study the environmental analysis of potential hydropower was incorporated at various stages of the studies implementation, in order to, identify environmental factors and that will restrict or impede construction, to obtain the best option for the environment, evaluate the role and of social and environmental impacts, contribute to improving the design and functionality of the enterprises in order to reduce overall costs, minimize conflicts and assist in preserving the environment. To fulfill these functions to a satisfactory and reliable level, it the study has increasingly used the techniques, tools and applications of Geographic Information Systems in the process of environmental assessment, since they provide procurement, integration, visualization and data analysis of natural resources, its uses and protection, offering greater security and speed in decision making. This paper presents some applications of GIS in environmental assessment processes, developed mainly in the steps of estimating hydropower potential, hydropower inventory, basic design and environmental licensing. (author)

  8. Evaluation of quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine service; Avaliacao do controle de qualidade de radiofarmacos em servico de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Jamille A. Lopes; Lira, Renata F. de, E-mail: jam_alt@hotmail.com, E-mail: renatafariasdelira@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil); Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are a type of pharmaceutical preparation associated with radionuclides with purpose of diagnosis and therapy. Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) should perform quality control of radiopharmaceuticals according to the recommendations of the manufacturer and scientific evidences accepted by the National Agency Sanitary Surveillance ( Brazilian ANVISA). This study evaluated the quality of the main radiopharmaceuticals in a NMS of the state of Pernambuco in relation to pH and radiochemical purity. The results showed that 96.8% of the radiopharmaceuticals showed radiochemical purity and all pH values were within the range recommended by the American pharmacopoeia. The study found that the quality control when inserted into the NMS, provides important data that allows exclusion of radiopharmaceuticals with low radiochemistry purity, favoring a reliable diagnosis and ensuring good radiation protection practices and biosecurity for patient and occupationally exposed individuals.

  9. Diagnosis and evaluation of surveying examination by intracranial tumor in dogs CT; Diagnostico e avaliacao topografica de neoplasias intracranianas pelo exame de TC em caes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaldini, Andre Fonseca; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Oliveira, Juliana Messias; Abreu, Felipe Andrei Suarez; Wallace, Verena; Pacheco, Eduardo Nelson da Silva, E-mail: andreromaldini@gmail.com [Hospital Santa Ines de Sao Paulo, Santana, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) revolutionized image diagnostic in veterinary medicine and currently can be considered one of the most useful tools for the imaging evaluation of intracranial tumor in dogs. Computed tomography of the brain in small animals allows visualization of intracranial tumor, compression of adjacent structures such as cerebral parenchyma, falx or lateral ventricles, and evaluate secondary hemorrhages and edema. The CT imaging provides essential information to indicate the surgical approach for a possible tumor resection or biopsy, including the correct location and boundaries structures involved, and also can be used to monitor the clinical treatment. However, only histopathological examination is able to confirm the final diagnosis. (author)

  10. Assessment in dogs tympanic bulla, through virtual tomographic endoscopy; Avaliacao de bulas timpanicas em caes, por meio da endoscopia tomografica virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Sabino, Emanuelle Guidugli, E-mail: lucianacarandina@uol.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Dogs usually have problems related to the auditory canal. For the diagnosis of these pathologies, it is necessary a physical examination and, in some cases radiographic examination and computed tomography. The tympanic bulla is not easily visualized radiographically, since there is many structures of the brain overlaying the image obtained. The computed tomography has been the technique of choice to assess this structure faithfully. A new alternative assessment of the tympanic bulla is tomographic virtual endoscopy, which allows an improvement of the image obtained through the virtual tomographic technique. This paper provides information on the use of computed tomography, and a new technique, tomographic virtual endoscopy, in order to make the improvement of these techniques, and prove the reliability of these changes in the diagnosis of ear canals of dogs. Therefore, we performed the computed tomography of the tympanic bulla on healthy animals, and later performed image reconstruction in three-dimensional (3D) mode for virtual endoscopy. (author)

  11. Development and evaluation of a high performance lubricant for industrial gears; Desenvolvimento e avaliacao de lubrificantes de alto desempenho para engrenagens industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Laura Denise Santiago de; Silva, Ademir Oliveira da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Oliveira, Adelci Menezes de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, new machines are submitted to higher efforts with smaller clearances. For them it is necessary to develop high performance lubricants in order to reduce friction, wear and emissions for internal combustion engines. In this work it was developed two lubricants, prepared with MoS{sub 2} (Molybdenum Disulfide) and LIC (Lubricant Intermetallic Compound), and they were compared to commercial oil, at the same viscosity grade ISO VG 320. The oils were tested in a four ball tribometer, at 1200 rpm, at initial temperature of 40 deg C and at 80 kgf. The friction reduction was of 13 % and 18 % for MoS{sub 2} and LIC oil, respectively. The wear was the same for all tested oils. Besides tests in the four ball machine, all oils were characterized by viscosity, demulsibility and atomic emission spectroscopy. The lubricants formulated with solids particles were considered as high performance. (author)

  12. Photoluminescence evaluation of TiO{sub 2} synthesized by Pechini method; Avaliacao da fotoluminescencia do TiO{sub 2} sintetizado pelo metodo Pechini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, D.S.; Diniz, V.C.S.; Dantas, J.; Araujo, P.M.A.G.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: dagobertoufcg@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Viana, R.S.; Junior, S.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. Quimica Fundamental; Torquato, R.A. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-07-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) stands out for use in various applications mainly due to its properties of thermal and chemical stability and its excellent optical properties. However, these properties are dependent on the type and phase morphology, which is related to the TiO{sub 2} processing method. Thus, this paper proposed to synthesize TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles by polymeric precursor method with different polymorphs, and evaluate the influence of these phases in the photoluminescent properties. For this, the stoichiometric molar proportions of citric acid:metallic cations of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1 were investigated. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, textural analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), excitation and emission spectroscopy and determination of the band gap by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The presence of anatase and rutile was confirmed by XRD in different proportions for each sample. The agglomerate size increased with the citric acid/metal cations ratio as observed by SEM. Concerning photoluminescence, the maximum intensity in the emission spectrum occurred at the wavelength of 533 nm for the 3:1 sample and the maximum intensity in the excitation spectrum occurred for the 2:1 sample at the wavelength of 451 nm. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the repeatability of dosimetric parameters of a linear accelerator beam; Avaliacao da repetibilidade de parametros dosimetricos do feixe de um acelerador linear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, Humberto A.S.; Oliveira, Harley F. de; Silva, Maelson do N.; Pavoni, Juliana F., E-mail: h.morelli@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the repeatability of symmetry and flatness of the photon beam of 6 MV linear accelerator Oncor Impression, Siemens, from the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP. In total they were collected 102 measures, weekly, through two-dimensional detector of ionization chambers, Matrixx Evolution, IBA Dosimetry, connected to a computer with software OmniProI'mrt. The isocenter of the linear accelerator was placed in the center of the sensitive volume of the detector with solid water plates above and below these. Data were collected with 100 UM, with field size 10 x 10 cm². The flatness and symmetry values were calculated by the software used. The first measurement of this work was used as reference, the others were compared with it, taking into account the values of permissible variation for these parameters. The minimum, maximum and average value were analyzed. The literature indicates that the flatness and symmetry values should not vary by more than 2 and 3%, respectively. The results of this work show that the values of these parameters for the linear accelerator study are within the permissible variations in protocols and are therefore able to appropriate clinical use. (author)

  14. Ultrasound stress measurements for API X65 pipes; Avaliacao por ultra-som das tensoes impostas em tubo API X-65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Raimundo C.; Santos, Ramon Loback Medeiros [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Marcelo S.Q.; Lamy, Carlos A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Donato, Guilherme V.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Risks of damages or even premature collapse of buried pipelines caused by their interaction with geologically unstable soils are well-established phenomena. Therefore, both monitoring and measurements of the actual loads transmitted by the soil to the pipeline are mandatory requirements, and define the necessity of developing new nondestructive techniques capable to carry out through evaluations of these loads in field. The aim of this paper has been placed on the presentation of a cutting-edge ultrasonic technology applied to stress measurements. To accomplish this purpose a series of ultrasonic tests were conducted on tensile specimens extracted from API 5L Grade X-65 steel pipe to determine its acoustic birefringence. The results have evidenced the acoustic birefringence to be a technique sufficiently consistent and, consequently, it shall be considered as a promising tool for the evaluation of the structural integrity of metallic structures in the near future. In addition, it was also observed that the use of this technique allows measuring the residual stress resulting from the pipe manufacturing process. (author)

  15. Assesment of the behavior of chitosan emulsions in the treatment of oily waters; Avaliacao do comportamento de emulsoes de quitosana no tratamento de aguas oleosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grem, Izabel Cristina S.; Almeida, Sarah M.; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: celias@ima.ufrj.br, izabelgrem@ima.ufrj.br, yuregomes@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Chitosan, due to the presence of amino and hydroxyl groups in its structure has been applied in different fields, but the use of chitosan in the treatment of oily waters is still a subject rarely addressed. Thus, emulsions of chitosan solutions in hexane or water were prepared and their behavior were evaluated in reducing the oil content in synthetic oily waters. Experimental results obtained in this initial study showed that the emulsions prepared were effective in oil removal of treated water. Moreover, we observed that this efficiency seems to be related to the droplets size distribution of chitosan solution dispersed in the nanoemulsions. (author)

  16. Evaluation of parametric and nonparametric models to predict water flow; Avaliacao entre modelos parametricos e nao parametricos para previsao de vazoes afluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, T.C.; Cruz Junior, G.; Vinhal, C. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao], Emails: thyago@eeec.ufg.br, gcruz@eeec.ufg.br, vinhal@eeec.ufg.br

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a methodology to carry out the seasonal stream flow forecasting using database of average monthly inflows of one Brazilian hydroelectric plant located at Grande, Tocantins, Paranaiba, Sao Francisco and Iguacu river's. The model is based on the Adaptive Network Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), the non-parametric model. The performance of this model was compared with a periodic autoregressive model, the parametric model. The results show that the forecasting errors of the non-parametric model considered are significantly lower than the parametric model. (author)

  17. Radiographic and tomographic study of the elbow joint in dogs; Avaliacao morfologica e morfometrica da articulacao umerorradioulnar em caes atraves de exames radiograficos e por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendyk-Grunkraut, Alessandra; Martin, Claudia M.; Souza, Alexandre N.A.; Patricio, Geni Cristina F.; Lorigados, Carla A.B.; Matera, Julia M.; Fonseca-Pinto, Ana C.B.C., E-mail: anacarol@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMVZ/USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2017-02-15

    Elbow dysplasia disease includes an united anconeal process, fragmented medial coronoid process, osteochondrosis of humeral trochlea, articular incongruity and degenerative joint disease. The aim of this study was to present detailed morphologic and morphometric aspects of the elbow joint in dog in clinical and correlate with radiographic and tomographic (CT) exam. Inter-observer variation for articular incongruity measurements by CT, comparative analysis in the radiographic exam, angle in ulnar notch and its comparative analysis between radiographic and tomographic agreement examination in 44 elbow of dogs with different ages were evaluated. The statistics analyses included the kappa coefficient and interclass correlation and Fischer's test and McNemar's test. It was evidenced that individual performance of each radiographic incidence had poor agreement with the tomographic exam, suggesting that the accomplishment of more than two radiograph views are needed. There was no agreement between the three evaluators in the ulnar notch angle at radiographic and tomographic exams. However, there was good/moderate agreement for articular incongruity measurement in the sagittal plane between evaluators. It was possible to conclude that none of the five radiographic incidences was better than the others for radiographic analysis because each incidence had a better identification of a particular elbow compartment; measurements at the tomographic exam to evaluate radioulnar incongruity had no reproductiveness in the frontal plane, but in sagittal plan had a good/moderate agreement between observers and the angle in ulnar notch presented no repeatability at radiographic exam and no reproductiveness at tomographic exam. (author)

  18. Interstitial pulmonary alterations in visceral leishmaniasis: evaluation with high-resolution computed tomography; Alteracoes pulmonares intersticiais na leishmaniose visceral: avaliacao pela tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Norma Selma Santos; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, also called kala-azar, is a disease caused by a protozoan, the Leishmania donovani chagasi, that comprises reticuloendothelial system with involvement of the liver, spleen and bone marrow. It is endemic in some areas of northeastern Brazil and other countries of Latin America and Africa. The pathogenesis is related to the immunologic system of patients that present with the inability to activate the phagocytosis of the macrophages. As occurs in the liver and kidneys, the lungs are also involved with interstitial abnormalities caused by Leishmania that are not dependent upon the presence of the parasite. The histopathologic changes described are the involvement of inter alveolar septal in three different phases, irregularly and diffusely throughout the whole pulmonary parenchyma. This work analyzed high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax in 17 patients with visceral leishmaniasis in order to detect and characterize the abnormalities described in the anatomo pathologic findings reported in the literature. The HRCT is being used to evaluate chronic interstitial lung disease in a good correlation with histologic findings. The most common findings detected by HRCT were the reticular opacities that include peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and interlobular septal thickening an ground-glass opacity. The HRCT suggests that similar changes to that found in alveolar structures may occur in the secondary pulmonary lobule and that the involvement in the parenchymal interstitium represents the findings reported by pathological studies in visceral leishmaniasis. (author)

  19. Metrological evaluation of petroleum, his derivatives, natural gas and alcohol flow computers; Avaliacao metrologica de computadores de vazao de petroleo, seus derivados, gas natural e alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, A.F.; Callegario, E. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil)], Emails: afo@puc-rio.br, callegario@puc-rio.br; Ferreira, A.; Pinheiro, J.A.; Oliveira, T.B.V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: andref@petrobras.com.br, jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This work presents results of petroleum flow computers, his derivatives, natural gas and alcohol, used on fiscal measurements, appropriation and custodial transfer system. It is intended that the used proceed give subsides for the model approval and verify initially the flow computers, besides the periodic verification of installed flow computers. The test procedures are focused at the algorithm deviations, at the A/D (analog - digital) and D/D (digital-digital)conversion deviations, simulating static pressure transmitters, pressure differential, temperature, specific mass, BSW (Basic Sediment and Waste), and at the pulse counting deviations of the flow computer. The presented methodology is based on specific document for certification and initial verification of flow computers for the WELMEC (European Cooperation in Legal Metrology), and improved to attend the measurement requirements in Brazil. The test show various no conformities among the performance of tested flow computers compared with allowed values by the developed procedure.

  20. Control loop performance evaluation and diagnostic in the oil refining process; Avaliacao de desempenho e diagnostico das malhas de controle no processo de refino de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Regina Lucia de A.; Pavanelli, Paula E. [Chemtech, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Filipe Costa Pinto dos R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Maua, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Capuava (RECAP)

    2008-07-01

    Management Assets has been a theme treated with growing priority and importance by Processes Industry. Control loops are important assets to guarantee the security and operational stability of processes when they present a good performance. Usually there are a large number of control loops in processes units and their initial investment and maintenance costs are expensive. Human evaluation of control loops, in a non-systematic way, does not identify all the problems that can degrade regulatory control performance, and this the main reason to use systematic monitoring and evaluation techniques and software tools necessary to keep loops efficient. This work describes the continuous activity of monitoring and evaluation of the control systems of a petroleum refinery. Depending on some performance indexes, the loops are prioritized and some actions are taken (valve maintenance or tuning adjustment) to improve control loop performance and to avoid the reduction of product quality, raw material and utilities waste and even unit shutdown. (author)

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias das praias da Grande Vitoria, ES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 21}'4Bi, the {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 2}'1{sup 2}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the concentration of {sup 40}K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K. {sup 226}Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. {sup 232}Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. {sup 40}K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. Calculation of the radium equivalent and the external hazard index showed two distinct groups. In the first one, for the majority of the beaches, the radium equivalent activities are in the range from 15 +- 6 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 257 +- 18 Bq.kg{sup -1}, below the lower limit of 370 Bq.kg{sup -1} recommended by OECD for the safe use of building materials and external hazard index was below the acceptable limit of 1 suggested by UNSCEAR. In the second one, for Setibinha, Curva da Jurema, South and Central locations of Camburi and Areia Preta beaches, the radium equivalent results are in the range from 820 +- 40 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 11200 +- 580 Bq.kg{sup -1}, exceeding 2 to 30 times the recommended minimum value for safe application in the civil construction industry and the external hazard index surpassed almost 3 to 40 times the UNSCEAR suggested limit. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the degree of dispersion of organoclay on nanocomposites with PP/EPDM; Avaliacao do grau de dispersao de argilas organofilicas em nanocompositos de PP/EPDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, F.C.F.; Oliveira, M.G., E-mail: fernanda.braga@int.gov.b [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (DPCM/INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Processamento e Caracterizacao de Materiais; Furtado, C.R.G. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Nanocomposites of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) composed by PP/EPDM 1/1 blend and organoclay were obtained by the melt intercalation in an internal chamber mix. Initially, a masterbatch of maleinized polypropylene (PP-MA) and clay modified with alkyl ammonium salt in the ratio 3:1 was prepared, and then, added to TPE matrix to obtain loads of 2,5; 5 and 7 wt% of clay in the nanocomposite. The dispersion degree of clay in TPE matrix was evaluated by X-ray diffraction and parallel plate rheometry. The intercalation/exfoliate degree or the degree of dispersion varied with clay content, as observed by X-ray diffraction. This behavior was confirmed by the profile of the curves of elastic modulus versus frequency, which presented different slopes in the region of low frequency, due to the presence of clay and PP-MA. (author)

  3. Evaluation of impact strength of polyamide 6/bentonite clay nanocomposites; Avaliacao da resistencia mecanica sob impacto de nanocompositos de poliamida 6/argila bentonitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Rene A.; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Medeirosa, Vanessa da N., E-mail: rene@cct.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Pessan, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Nanocomposites of polymer/clay have had much attention in recent years, particularly those developed with layered silicates due to the need of engineering materials more efficient than pure polymers for certain applications. The level of exfoliation of layered silicates in crystalline structure of polymer matrices has been studied and has been observed that they affect the crystalline behavior and the physical and mechanical properties. In this study, nanocomposites of polyamide 6 were obtained by the melt intercalation method, using a regional bentonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt in an amount of 3% by weight. XRD results showed that incorporation of salt among the layers of clay, making it organophilic and obtaining exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structures. The impact properties of the nanocomposites showed inferior in relation to pure polyamide, in other words, lost of toughness. (author)

  4. Evaluation of thermoplastic starch/MMT nanocomposites by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); Avaliacao de nanocompositos de amido termoplastico e argila por RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, D.; Rodrigues, Tiago C.A.F.; Resck, I.S.; Sales, M.J.A., E-mail: danielas@unb.b [Universidade de Brasilia (LabPol/UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Pesquisa em Polimeros

    2010-07-01

    Starch has been studied for replace petrochemical plastics for short shelf life. However, the starch films have limitations: sensitivity to moisture and poor mechanical strength. This can be improved by incorporating loads such as montmorillonite, forming nanocomposites. Nanocomposites were prepared with 1, 3, 5 and 10% of montmorillonite, using vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizers. The NMR spectra of oils are similar, but the intensities of the signals varying with the proportion of fatty acids. The molar mass of the oils was also calculated by NMR. The spectrum of CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR for starch presented a duplet in 97 and 98 ppm, on the amorphous domains of C-1, indicating a crystal type A. The spectra of the nanocomposites are similar to those of starch and oils. No new peaks appear, suggesting that there are no strong chemical bonds between components. (author)

  5. Chemical properties of gutta-percha endodontic filling material: investigation of five commercial brands; Propriedades quimicas de cones de guta-percha: avaliacao de diferentes marcas comerciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, Joao Batista A.; Paula, Regina C.M.; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: juniorquim@yahoo.com.br; rpaula@dqoi.ufc.br; judith@dqoi.ufc.br; Gurgel Filho, Eduardo; Teixeira, Fabricio B [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia.Dept. de Odontologia Restauradora]. E-mail: gurgeleduardo@aol.com

    2001-07-01

    Chemical composition e thermal stability of five brands of gutta-percha endodontic filling material were investigated. Samples with higher amount of organic materials possess higher thermal stability. Investigation of gutta-percha polymer extracted from the endodontic filling by IR and NMR shows that the polymer is predominantly trans-polyisoprene. The thermal stability and molar mass were similar for four brands, however the 'Tanari' brand has got lower molar mass value than the other ones. (author)

  6. Appreciation of environmental risks analysis methodologies in the offshore well drilling activities; Analise de metodologias na avaliacao de riscos ambientais relacionados as atividades de perfuracao de pocos maritimos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampolli, Daniella M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, the projects of products and processes are supposed to integrate environmental risks criteria, in addition to their inherent operation impacts. Industrial activities, in general, generate risks to the environment, and, in case of incidents occurrence, many of the possible consequences can be translated into serious impacts. The Risk Analysis is destined to act as a decision tool in the environmental area, and therefore, the use of one of these during the project phase of an enterprise becomes important, aiming the guarantee of the system reliability. The present article has the purpose of analyzing methodologies that are being employed for the environmental risk analysis, as well as usual procedures applied in the oil industry, specially for the offshore wells drilling, evaluating and discussing their peculiarities and possible improvement. It was intended to obtain a general overview of risk analysis methodologies, with the objective of verifying the existence of some characteristics that would positively contribute for the knowledge of the inherent risks in the activities of petroleum installations, where this kind of learning is something extremely technically necessary and legally mandatory. (author)

  7. Method for evaluating natural gas demand scenarios (Demangas Project); Metodologia para avaliacao de cenarios de demanda pelo gas natural (Projeto Demangas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Luis Antonio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas de Transportes; Santos, Gilberto T. dos; Silva, Silvio C. da; Ribeiro, Jose Luis D.; Fogliatto, Flavio S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Otimizacao de Produtos e Processos

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology developed for the evaluation of the existing and potential market for natural gas in the industrial, automotive, residential and commercial sectors of Rio Grande do Sul. The methodology is based upon a marketing research framework and consists of the definition of the problem; application of qualitative, quantitative and stated-preference enquiries; review of the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice; and, also, interviews with specialists. The methodology is consolidated in four software that enable the simulation of different demand scenarios of natural gas up to the year 2010. The development of this methodology comprised the participation of more than 1,000 potential users of natural gas and allowed the state company in charge of distributing natural gas to: structure the problem of forecasting the consumption of natural gas within a new context of competition in the energy industry; help the formulation of the strategic plan of the company with regard to investment strategies and incrementing the number of clients; and propose marketing efforts to promote the adoption of natural gas as an alternative energy source. (author)

  8. Bone injuries in the post-traumatic knee: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging; Comprometimento osseo do joelho pos-trauma: avaliacao pela ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Grossi, Carla Martins [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Santos, Alair Augusto S.M.D. dos [Hospital Santa Cruz, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents the results of 50 patients with trauma of the knee submitted to magnetic resonance imaging in the period of January 1996 to December 1997. The appearance and incidence of the main bone lesions were evaluated and correlated with the mechanisms of aggression and with clinical data. Associated lesions were also evaluated. Bone contusions were the most commonly findings encountered and were observed in 38 patients (76%). Osteochondral fractures occurred in five patients (10%) and bone fractures were detected in five patients (10%), of which two were associated with contusions in other adjoining bone compartments. Chondromalacia of the patella was observed only in two patients (4%). We concluded that magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice for the diagnosis of bone lesions in patients with trauma of the knee. (author)

  9. Assessment and epidemiology of Chagas' disease in patients treated in Araguaina - Tocantins; Avaliacao e epidemiologia da cardiopatia chagasica em pacientes atendidos em Araguaina - Tocantins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Valeria Rita

    2010-07-01

    Chagas disease (AD) was described by Carlos Chagas in 1909. It is caused by a parasite T. cruzi, transmitted by bugs, by blood transfusion, vertical and orally. The DC has two phases: acute and chronic. The evolution to the cardiac form occurs in about 30% of chronic cases and is the largest cause of mortality in chronic Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to Chagas' disease in patients of Tocantins, compared with other heart patients and asymptomatic from the standpoint of non-invasive exams using radiant energies such as echocardiography and ECG and RX. The descriptive study included 80 patients, 20 chronic form of Chagas disease, 20 indeterminate, 20 with other heart diseases, and 20 controls. There was a prevalence of 9.5% of chagasic patients treated in outpatient cardiology at Araguaina Tocantins, and 7.3% in chronic and 2.21% in the indeterminate. Of the chronic patients in the study 50% had mega esophagus and megacolon 4 (20%). Most patients had no family history of AD, nor was a smoker or drinker. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities found refer to driving. The evaluation of ICT, the chronic chagasic showed that increased by 40% of patients, 40% had esophageal changes and 20% of patients had megacolon s. The echocardiogram was abnormal in 42%). 27% of patients had EF below 55% changed. Changes in segmental contractility and Asynchrony septum were found in 80% of chronic Chagas disease. In 80% of the patients was observed diastolic dysfunction. The valvular changes occurred in 75%. Electrocardiographic abnormalities occurred in 80% of patients with CCC, while the other heart had ECG changes. Arterial hypertension had an incidence of 45% in patients with CCC and 40% in FCI. The systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction was more prevalent in groups that had an abnormal ECG and arrhythmia. Observed that the group of chagasic decreased ejection fraction is correlated to a higher incidence of arrhythmias besides diastolic dysfunction and related increased atrio-left, ICT correlates with LV size and EF and LA. The abnormal ECG also are related to the dysfunction. (author)

  10. Radiometer evaluation of X-rays equipment in the region of Aracatuba, Sao Paulo, Brazil;Avaliacao radiometrica de raios-X na regiao de Aracatuba, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Kanezawa, Jorge S. [Centro de Ensino e Tecnologia de Aracatuba (CETEA), SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts of radiation protection to guide the health care professionals who use equipment emitting ionizing radiation on the correct handling of the beams of radiation. Radiometric evaluations were conducted in 1665 in X-ray equipment, installed in dental surgeries and clinics, hospitals and radiology services, during the years 1996 to 2003 in the region of Aracatuba. Tests of radiometry are presented as a technical report where the parameters are quantified physical and radiological verifying its compliance with the established by legislation. The distribution of reports by type of unit shows that the vast majority of equipment is of periapical dental x-rays (72%), 25% of equipment is medical equipment for radiology and 3% is dental equipment panoramic model (orthodontic documentation). Among the physical parameters analyzed, the length of the browser was showing more variance compared to the required by law, this fact may also contribute to gaps in the rate of the radiation dose and the size of field in the skin of the patient, the that can easily be resolved simply to replace the piece at the outlet of the head. During the completion of visits to services, it also noted a gap in the training of professionals who operate this equipment emitting radiation, warning of the need for specific training in the area. (author)

  11. Assessment of natural radioactivity in wall paints of commercial use in Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em tintas de uso comercial no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Leandro Milhomens da

    2016-11-01

    Natural radioactivity in soils, rocks and construction materials, due to {sup 40}K and the natural series of {sup 232}Th and {sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, is the main contribution to external exposure in mankind. In this work, activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra ({sup 238}U series), {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K were determined for 50 white latex wall paints samples, commercialized in Brazil, namely 15 Economic quality samples, 15 Standard quality samples and 20 Premium quality samples and for a single titanium dioxide sample. The samples were tightly sealed and stored for a minimum period of 30 days, to reach the radioactive secular equilibrium from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series, then measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration was determined using the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi for {sup 232}Th. The {sup 4}'0K activity concentration was determined by its single transition of 1460.8 keV. Self attenuation correction factors of the samples whose densities are higher than 1.0 g.cm{sup -3}, were determined and used to make the necessary corrections. The radiological indices radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), activity concentration index (I{sub γ}), internal exposure risk index (H{sub in}) and external exposure risk index (H{sub ex}) and also the absorbed dose rate (D) and annual effective dose (D{sub ef}) were calculated from the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The activity concentration values for {sup 226}Ra ranged from under the minimum detectable activity to 38.7 Bq.kg{sup -1}, for {sup 232}Th from under the minimum detectable activity to 101.2 Bq.kg{sup -1} and for {sup 40}K from under the minimum detectable activity to 256 Bq.kg{sup -1}. Ra{sub eq} ranged from 1.41 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 203 Bq.kg{sup -1}, I{sub γ} ranged from 0.0047 to 0.720, H{sub in} from 0.0076 to 0.653 and H{sub ex} from 0.0038 to 0.549. The absorbed dose rate ranged from 0.170 nGy.h{sup -1} and 21.3 nGy.h{sup -1} and the annual effective dose ranged from 0.83 μSv and 104.2 μSv. The results show that the activity concentrations of the wall paints studied in this work are below the recommended limits by Hassan et al. for Ra{sub eq} (370 Bq.kg{sup -1}), by European Commission for I{sub γ} (limit of 2 for superficial materials) and by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for H{sub in} and H{sub ex} (both with limit of 1), for all the 50 samples, assuring the safety of these wall paints with respect to radiological protection. (author)

  12. Renewability emergy index calculation in the evaluation of the sustainability of a national economy; Calculo do indice de renovabillidade emergetica na avaliacao da sustentabilidade de uma economia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siche Jara, Raul Benito [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, La Libertad (Peru). Fac. de Ciencias Agropecuarias. Escuela de Ingenieria Agroindustrial], e-mail: Siche.J.R@gmail.com; Ortega Rodriguez, Enrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Ecologica e Informatica Aplicada], e-mail: ortega@fea.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the emergy methodology was used to analyze the sustainability of the Peruvian economic system. The resources (natural and not natural) and importations had been accounting in units of solar emergy using data of the Peruvian economy for the year 2004. Emergy is an energy measure based in the contribution of the resources and its influence, defined as the energy of a type required producing a flow or storage of another type. The focus of this study is the calculation of the emergy index call 'renewability' (REN), considered as a general measure of the ecological sustainability. In a long period, only systems or processes with high REN are sustainable. This index is calculated by the accounting of the resources renewed used in the economy in emergy units (2.17E+23 seJ) and divided by emergy total that enters to the economic system (6.93E+23 seJ), resulting a REN of 0.31. The renewable resources that use Peru almost represent 20% of the total of renewable resources available in the system. The great amount of renewable resources that Peru can potentially use was calculated in 11.44E+23 seJ, meaning that the system can be more sustainable if the economy is based on increasing the use of renewable resources and to diminish the use of non-renewable resources and imported resources. These data show that Peru has a relatively sustainable economy that can improve or get worse, depending of its politics in the use of resources. (author)

  13. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations;Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em materiais utilizados em restauracoes dentarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Mireia Florencio

    2009-07-01

    This work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations (Titanium, Amalgam, Resin Composite and Glass Ionomer) aiming the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, arising when the teeth are restored within in the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to X-ray beams of 6 MV from a linear accelerator, VARIAN 2100C model. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence techniques to compare the chemical composition before and after the irradiation. The sample were submitted to Geiger-Mueller detectors and the ionization chambers in order to verify any residual radiation in the samples. The samples were also analyzed by gamma spectrometry by a Germanium detector. These tests were performed to determine small changes in the composition in the samples due to the radiation interaction. The results of this study may encourage the development of new research for alternative materials in dental restorations that can contribute to improve the quality of life of those patients with tumors of the mouth. (author)

  14. Synthesis optimization of calcium aluminate cement phases for biomedical applications; Avaliacao da sintese das fases de cimento de aluminato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, T.L.; Santos, G.L.; Oliveira, I.R. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pandolfelli, V.C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been studied as a potential material for applications in the areas of health such as, endodontics and bone reconstruction. These studies have been based on commercial products consisting of a mixture of phases. Improvements can be attained by investigating the synthesis routes of CAC aiming the proper balance between the phases and the control of impurities that may impair its performance for biomedical applications. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the CAC synthesis routes in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaCO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO systems, as well as the phase characterization attained by means of X ray analysis. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO route enabled the production of the target phases (CA, CA{sub 2}, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) with a higher purity compared to the Al2O3-CaCO3 one. As a result the particular properties of these phases can be evaluated to define a more suitable composition that results in better properties for an endodontic cement and other applications. (author)

  15. Study and evaluation of radiometry in photo therapeutic treatment of the neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia; Estudo e avaliacao da radiometria no tratamento fototerapico da hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caly, Jose Pucci

    2009-07-01

    Phototherapy is a procedure established more than 50 years ago in the treatment of the newborn jaundice. However there is no a standard method to quantify the photo therapeutic dose in published clinical studies, hindering the comparison of previous studies on photo therapeutic effectiveness, as well as the establishment of safe and predictable doses. The photo therapeutic dose depends, among other factors, on the effective mean irradiance produced by the photo therapeutic unit. There are no standard procedures, however, neither to quantify the effective irradiance, nor to estimate the mean effective irradiance. As a consequence, large measurement variations in a same photo therapeutic unit are observed using different commercially available radiometers, as a consequence of the vast diversity of spectral responsivities of the instruments. An objective of this work was to adapt and to apply the bases of the wideband ultraviolet radiometry to quantify the available irradiance from photo therapeutic units, establishing procedures that allow us to compare measured irradiances from different sources, using radiometers presenting different spectral responsivities. Another objective was to characterize samples of photo therapeutic units commonly used, focusing the problem of the estimation of the effective mean irradiance from photo therapeutic units, proposing a method to estimate of the effective irradiance from focused sources. The experimental results allow us to conclude that it is not only necessary to standardize the photo therapeutic radiometry, but also the method of estimation of the effective mean irradiance. (author)

  16. Evaluation of X ray attenuation by means of radiographic images; Avaliacao da atenuacao da radiacao X por meio de imagens radiograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Frieda Saicla, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paredes, Ramon S.C., E-mail: ramon@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.co [Faculdade de Tecnologia Camoes (FATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza, Gabriel Pinto de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper's main goal is to adopt a qualitative methodology to evaluate the attenuation of x-radiation through X-ray images in polymeric materials plus residual lead. To determinate the images it was initially used an experimental setup at the Laboratory for Materials Diagnostics LACTEC. These results correspond to a more qualitative analysis, even with quantitative answers. Through analysis of radiographic images we can measure the intensity of radiation that goes through the plate, making possible to establish a relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the thickness of the material. (author)

  17. Imaging of acquired non-traumatic cochlear lesions: iconographic essay; Avaliacao por imagem das lesoes cocleares adquiridas (nao-traumaticas): ensaio iconografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Gonzaga, Juliana Gontijo [Clinica Axial - Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: cidbh@cidbh.com.br; marcelogarcia@superig.com.br

    2006-04-15

    Different non-traumatic acquired cochlear lesions are shown in this article with imaging methods. They may be responsible for neuro sensorial hearing loss or vertigo. The method of choice is computed tomography when evaluating the osseous labyrinth whereas magnetic resonance imaging has superior resolution in the studies of the membranaceous labyrinth. (author)

  18. Sintering evaluation of spinel MA nanostructured obtained via synthesis of combustion in solution; Avaliacao da sinterizacao de espinelio MA nanoestruturado obtido via combustao em solucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitor, P.A.M.; Braganca, S.R.; Bergmann, C.P., E-mail: pedroaugusto89@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LACER/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos

    2016-07-01

    Specimens were shaped from powders of spinel MA (MgAl2O4) obtained via synthesis combustion in solution (SCS) from the trio chemical precursor aluminum nitrate, magnesium nitrate and sucrose in water, and then sintered at different temperatures between 1350 and 1650 ° C. Were evaluated the physical properties (density, porosity, water absorption and linear shrinkage), mechanical (flexural 4 points), and the microstructures (SEM) as a function of sintering temperature. The densification increased with growing the value of the sintering temperature, wherein the temperature to 1650 ° C had the highest flexural strength and higher elastic modulus: 51.33 (± 6.83) and 26.16 MPa (± 5.06) GPa respectively. The study confirmed the microstructure of the densification of the particles, confirming the purity and nature of nanometric powders obtained via the SCS. (author)

  19. Preliminary results of the evaluation of biomass use as energy sources; Resultados preliminares da avaliacao do uso de biomassas como fontes de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha Ferreira, Leo da; Tourinho, Octavio A.F. [Instituto de Planejamento Economico e Social (IPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas

    1985-12-31

    This article discusses the preliminary results of the BIOMASSA model of IPEA with emphasis on three aspects: temporal and spatial crop mix patterns along the analysis horizon; evaluation of the social cost of alcohol fuel ; and the impact of alcohol production on the balance of payments. It concludes that the PROALCOOL increases domestic costs, but the impact on the balance of payments is positive and substantial. (author). 8 tabs

  20. Evaluation of the efficiency of injection of polyacrylamide in different reservoir-rock samples; Avaliacao da eficiencia de injecao de poliacrilamida em diferentes amostras de rocha-reservatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelino, Cleuton P.; Valentim, Adriano C.M.; Medeiros, Ana Catarina R. de; Girao, Joaquim H.S.; Barcia, Rosangela B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Water soluble polymers have been used extensively in the petroleum recovery, due to their ability in increasing the viscosity of the injection water and to reduce water/oil mobility ratio and the water relative permeability in the reservoir. This reduction acts favorably as a secondary effect, and it reestablishes part of the pressure in the reservoir after the flow of the polymer, causing a correction of the injection profile in the wells through the restructuring of the resident fluids in the porous media. Nevertheless, some parameters influence the improve of this mechanism, such as petrophysics properties, chemical composition of the rock, adsorption, resistance factor and the residual resistance factor. Many paper in the area of polymers applied to the enhanced petroleum recovery indicate a high efficiency in the injection of different partially hydrolysed polyacrylamides, in different concentrations, or even in different injection conditions, as: temperature, flow, among others. In this work it was evaluated the behavior and efficiency of partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide flooding on outcrop cores from Botucatu, Rio Bonito, Clashach and Assu, using core flow tests and computer simulations. (author)

  1. A phantom for assessing the personal dose equivalent, H{sub P}(10); Um fantoma para a avaliacao do equivalente de dose pessoal, H{sub P}(10).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, C.; Filho, J.A [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Santos, M.A.P.; Filho, L.C.G., E-mail: chsantoro@gmail.com, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: l.filho@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Characteristics of a phantom designed to evaluate the personal dose equivalent, H{sub P}(10), and appropriate for photographic dosimetry are presented. It is called HP(10) phantom due to cavities constructed to insert dosimetric films at a depth of 10 mm. The H{sub P}(10) phantom is irradiated with ionizing radiation energy, E, from 45 to 1250 keV, with doses ranging from 0.2 to 50 mSv. It is positioned in the direction α = 0 °, and the radiation field focusing perpendicular to its front surface. So, are established calibration curves of dosimeters in the position conventionally true and quantities H{sub P}(10). It made a comparison between the responses obtained with the H{sub P}(10) phantom and responses obtained when using the calibration procedure recommended by ISO dosimeters. The ISO recommends getting the air kerma, Ka, for photons at test point of the radiation field by an ionization chamber. And through conversion coefficients, h{sub pK} (10; E, α), becomes the air kerma for H{sub P}(10). The ISO 4037-3 recommendation has been studied by researchers to ensure that the low energy spectral differences occur in radiation fields which are generated by various X-ray equipment, and induce changes in the percentages of conversion coefficients on the order of 10% to 90% . On the basis of the recommendations ISO, this article develops phantom able to assess the dose to the influence of scattering and absorption of radiation, its implications with respect to dosimetry, providing improvement in the assessment of doses. (author)

  2. Characterization and evaluation of residue 'grits' of the cellulose industry; Caracterizacao e avaliacao do resisduo 'grits' da industria de celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destefani, A.Z.; Santos, M.M.; Holanda, J.N.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados

    2010-07-01

    The cellulose industry generates huge amounts of solid waste residue called 'grits'. These wastes have been willing over time in landfills near the mills. However, this type of disposal is not environmentally friendly and can cause degradation and environmental pollution. In addition, environmental legislation increasingly severe and the high costs of landfill have led the search for new alternatives for final disposition of this abundant waste. In this context, this study is to characterize waste grits, generated by the cellulose industry in the region of Aracruz-ES. The residue samples were characterized in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal analysis (DTA and TGA). The characterization of the residual 'grits' demonstrated its potential as a feedstock for production of soil-cement bricks. (author)

  3. An evaluation of the potential impacts of the 'gas aid'; Uma avaliacao dos impactos potenciais do 'auxilio gas'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biazotto, Ana Lidia; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

    2004-07-01

    In May of 2001, the prices to the final consumer of GLP were set free in the whole country; this procedure had the intention, to continue process of deregulation in the fuel sector, in accord with the Oil Law. The release of the prices of sale and shipping subsidies elimination, along with the elimination of the crossed subsidy, required the adoption of a 'gas aid' social program, aimed to guarantee the low profit families necessities attendance that would pay the additional fuel costs. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the gas aid program as its covering level and the economic and distributive efficiency. The study encloses the metropolitans regions investigated in the IBGE Family Budget Research of 1996. With base in the previously identification of the potential beneficiary of the program, and with them consumption profile, it was possible to evaluate the potential impact of the withdrawal of the subsidy in the hypothesis of the family be or not beneficiary of the program. Assuming that the targeting is perfect, it is compared the transference politics to the low profit families in relation to the previous politics of subsidize crossed. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the morphological alteration of the root surface radiated with a diode laser; Avaliacao da alteracao morfologica da superficie cimentaria irradiada com laser de diodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, Mauricio

    2003-07-01

    The diode laser has been studied for periodontal therapy, as much for removal of calculus as for microbial reduction of periodontal pockets, as well as the visible analgesic effects and biomodulation capacity. For this reason the purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological alteration of the root surface after radiation with the diode laser, 808 nm through analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides this, to verify the temperature variations caused during the radiation, a thermometer put into the dentinal wall of the root canal was used. In all, 18 teeth were used, 15 of which for the SEM study, and the other 3 were used to temperature variation analysis. The 25 samples were scraped on the root surface and planed with manual instruments. The other 5 were not subjected to any type of treatment. This, 6 groups of 5 samples each were formed. Control Group C whose samples had not received any treatment; Control Group C 1 was only scraped and polished conventionally with Hu-Friedy Gracey curettes 5 and 6; the other samples groups L1, L2, L3, L4 were radiated by diode laser using parameters of power 1,0 W; 1,2 W; 1,4 W; and 1,6 W respectively, 2 times for 10 seconds with 20 seconds intervals between each radiation in continuous mode. The results with relation to the increase of temperature in the interior of the root canal demonstrated that there was an increase of more than 5 degree Celsius. The results of the scanning electron microscope analysis of Control Group C demonstrated great irregularity and ridges on the root surface, with the presence of a dentine layer. Control Group C1 presented a similar aspect to Group L 1's, smoother and more homogeneous surface. Groups L2, L3, and L4 presented scratches alternating with smoother areas showing that fiber contacted the surface of the sample. The results reconfirmed the necessity of further studies using diode laser, with a beam of light emitted in an interrupted mode to improve the control of the increase of temperature during radiation, and probably followed by a new scraping and root polishing with conventional instruments in an attempt to obtain a smoother and more homogeneous root surface. (author)

  5. Evaluation of bioactivity in vitro of endodontic calcium aluminate cement; Avaliacao da bioatividade in vitro de cimento endodontico a base de aluminato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, I.R.; Andrade, T.L.; Santos, G.L., E-mail: ivonero@univap.br [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pandolfelli, V.C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Bioactivity is referred to as the capacity of a material to develop a stable bond with living tissue via the deposition of hydroxyapatite. Materials which exhibit this property can be used to repair diseased or damaged bone tissue and can be designed to remain in situ indefinitely. An indication of bioactivity can be obtained by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of a substrate in simulated body fluids (SBF) in vitro. Therefore, set samples of calcium aluminate endodontic cement were maintained in contact with SBF solutions (Kokubo and Rigo) and their surfaces were later evaluated by means of SEM, EDX and DRX. Measurements of pH and ionic conductivity were also carried out for SBF solutions in contact with set samples of endodontic cement. The ideal conditions of precipitation were obtained in SBF Rigo been observed a surface layer with spherical morphology characteristic of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite.(author)

  6. Proposal for a technical-economic and environmental evaluation projects for distributed generation; Proposta de avaliacao tecnica-economica-ambiental para projetos de geracao distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Marcio Zamboti [Universidade Severino Sombra, Vassouras, RJ (Brazil); Gouvea, Marcos Roberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The multi discipline effects in engineering projects, mainly in those of infrastructure, have extended the borders of research to not only evaluate them of the conventional point of view, economic and technical, but also environmental and social. On the other hand, the investor who traditionally searched alternatives only considering the economic and financial performance currently is taken to analyze also the social and environmental aspects. The model described in this paper is a solution proposal to evaluate the merit of an enterprise of distributed generation of thermal origin, considering the economic, social and environmental aspects, using merit indexes that quantify, directly, economic aspects as capital return tax and operating income eliminates, as well as social factors like the impact in the education, health, income and employment rates and still, it verifies the attendance of the environmental restrictions. The solution presented brings a simple and clear form to attribute a merit degree of aggregate to the alternatives to embed distributed generation, considering the intensity of the subjective social responsibility of the investor. The presented model is an important contribution to stimulate a form to evaluate and to prioritize the multi discipline implementation to a distributed generation enterprise, also being able, to be used as financial index or other incentives of the sort. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the impacts of the gas aid program in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos impactos do programa do auxilio-gas no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Thiago Pamplona [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEARP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the coverage and the economic impact of the Federal Government Program Aid Gas (Auxilio Gas) , started in the year of 2002. The evaluation covers only the state of Sao Paulo, using as source the Research of Familiar Budgets of IBGE 2002/2003. To evaluate the coverage of 'Aid-Gas' the targeted population is compared with the population that effectively received the benefit. To evaluate the economic impact of the program a test of significance of dummy variable that differentiate weight gas consumption on income for those attended by the program, controlled by Working-Leser function that models the covariates of gas expenses. A low coverage of the program was evidenced, only 32,098 families had received the benefit (4,01%) out of 786.929 families targeted group, those with per capita income was inferior the half minimum wage. The economic impact had mixed results. In one hand program beneficiaries would spend a larger percentage of income with gas consumption than those not reached; on the other hand, they would have access larger quantities of the product. If the food consumption and the gas consumption are correlated, and the families not benefited by the program are rationed, it is possible to confirm that the introduction of the program would increase welfare of families. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the inflammatory activity in chronic osteomyelitis. Contribution of the scintigraphy with polyclonal antibodies; Avaliacao de atividade inflamatoria em osteomielite cronica. Contribuicao da cintilografia com anticorpos policlonais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit

    1996-07-01

    Active chronic osteomyelitis or complicating osteomyelitis (superimposed on diseases that changes the normal bone structure fractures, post-surgery, prosthesis) can be difficult to diagnose by anatomic radiological imaging modalities, like plain radiograph and CT. These diseases frequently cause also increased bone remodeling, leading to nonspecific uptake of Tc-99m-bone scan agents and gallium-67. New radiopharmaceuticals with greater inflammation/infection avidity and specificity are being developed, including the nonspecific polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) labeled with technetium-99. Tc-99m-IgG may be available as a ready to use kit, with no reported side effects, low patient absorbed radiation dose and low cost. The mechanism of IgG uptake at the inflammation site has not been fully elucidated yet. Specific (receptor linking, physico-chemical immunoglobulin properties) and nonspecific mechanisms (enhanced vascular permeability and macromolecular exudate) has been suggested. IgG scintigraphy results are affected by the isotope, labeling procedure adopted and characteristics of the inflammatory focus. Nineteen patients with suspected osteomyelitis (active chronic osteomyelitis or violated bone osteomyelitis) were studied by Tc-99m-IgG scintigraphy (directly labeled polyclonal immunoglobulin, Sandoglobuilina - Sandoz). All patients also underwent standard three-phase bone scintigraphy using methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m-MDP), gallium-67 scintigraphy and plain radiographs. Infection was found in 8 sites. Sensitivity and specificity for Tc-99m-MDP, gallium-67 and Tc 99m-IgG scintigraphy were, respectively, 88 and 36%, 75 and 73%,88 and 82%. All patients with false positive IgG scintigraphies had previous surgery. Other current scintigraphic procedures used in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis are also reviewed. (author)

  9. Evaluation of ultrasonic technique to characterize the concentration of boric acid in liquid medium; Avaliacao de tecnica ultrassonica para medida de concentracao de acido borico em meio liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, Richard Yuzo Ramida

    2015-06-01

    This dissertation is to analyze the viability of using ultrasonic technique to characterize the concentration of boric acid in liquid medium non-invasively, therefore, ultrasonic tests were performed relating different boric acid concentrations with the travel time of the ultrasonic wave, also were evaluated factors able to mask the characterization of these concentrations by ultrasonic technique. The results showed that the ultrasonic technique allows the characterization of boric acid concentrations in liquid medium in very simple terms by the ultrasonic wave travel time, requiring further studies in complex conditions. (author)

  10. The use of MATLAB-SIMULINK for evaluation of thermal building behavior; O uso do MATLAB-SIMULINK para avaliacao do comportamento termico de ambientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Nathan; Oliveira, Gustavo H.C.; Araujo, Humberto X. de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas Termicos]|[Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Automacao e Sistemas]. E-mail: nmendes@ccet.pucpr.br; oliv@ ccet.pucpr.br; araujo@ ccet.pucpr.br

    2000-07-01

    We describe a mathematical model applied to both building thermal analysis and control systems design. We use a lumped approach to model the room air temperature and a multi-layer model for the building envelope. The capacitance model allows to study the transient analysis of room air temperature when it is submitted to sinusoidal variation of external air temperature, representing a case study for the city of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. To evaluate the building performance with thermal parameters, we use MATLAB/SIMULINK. In the results section, we show the influences of thermal capacitance on the building air temperature and energy consumption and the advantages of using MATLAB/SIMULINK in building thermal and energy analysis as well. (author)

  11. Thermal analysis of Brazilian standards proposals for social residential buildings; Avaliacao termica das propostas de normas brasileiras para edificacoes de interesse social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilkin, Pedro [Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijui, RSA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Estatistica e Matematica]. E-mail: dilkin@main.unijui.tche.br; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a critical analysis of national proposals of standards for the thermal performance of simple residential buildings. A review of some international standards is performed together with the description of the national proposals of standards, and a prototype of a house is assembled, following each one of the texts. Results are displayed and the prototypes are simulated using the TRNSYS environment, concerning winter and summer periods of Porto Alegre. Finally, the national proposal that achieved the best performance is improved by means new simulations. (author)

  12. Evaluation of maximum absorbed dose for accompanying patients in nuclear medicine establishments; Avaliacao da dose maxima absorvida por acompanhantes de pacientes em servicos de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Geovanna; Amaral, Ademir; Hazin, Clivis A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lima, Ricardo A.; Nogueira, Maria S. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lopes, Ferdinand [Centro de Medicina Nuclear de Pernambuco (CEMUPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Centro de Medicina Nuclear

    2001-07-01

    In nuclear medicine, radioisotopes are bound to various pharmaceuticals for use in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. These unsealed sources are administered in various forms to patients, who remain radioactive for hours or days, and represent a source of potential radiation exposure for others. Thus, in nuclear medicine departments, radiation protection of workers and members of the public (especially persons accompanying patients) must consider this exposure. In this study, thermoluminescent dosimeters were given to various persons who were accompanying patients in two nuclear medicine departments in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Exposure results are given, and issues regarding exposure conditions and times for members of the public in these departments are discussed. (author)

  13. Comparative evaluation of hybrid systems of natural gas cogeneration and sugar cane bagasse; Avaliacao comparativa de sistemas hibridos de cogeracao a gas natutral e bagaco de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Leonardo Moneci; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: leonardo.zamboni@poli.usp.br; atribess@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The consumption of electricity in Brazil and mainly in the State of Sao Paulo is increasing gradually. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential is practically exhausted and the government has no resources for such new investments. One solution is the construction of thermo electrical plants with the use of the natural gas and sugar cane bagasse. The natural gas has the advantage of being available in great amount and less pollutant. And the sugar cane bagasse, besides being a by-product of low value, does not cause a global pollution. The work consists of the determination of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced. For such, thermo economic analysis with electricity and steam production costs evaluation in exergetic basis, was accomplished. In the evaluations the consumption of natural gas and the costs of the sugar cane bagasse were varied. The results show that the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using natural gas and burning sugar cane bagasse in the recovery boiler presents the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation (even not being the cycle with larger exergetic efficiency). On the other hand, for a natural gas cost of 140 US$/t and a cost of sugar cane bagasse superior to 10,50 US$/t the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using only natural gas (and, therefore not burning or gasifying sugar cane bagasse) presented the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation. (author)

  14. Powder addition assessment of manganese residue ceramic matrix coating; Avaliacao da adicao do po de residuo de manganes em matriz ceramica para revestimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, A.C.R. da; Santos, O.C.; Leao, M.A., E-mail: arangel-ma@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), BA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The use of recycled materials in the composition of new products follows the production's worldwide trending, meeting new technological requirements and environmental concerns. This work aims to utilize the residue of manganese dust on ceramic mass for the production of ceramic coating. The raw materials were characterized by both x-ray fluorescence and diffraction. The powder residue added to clay in the percentage of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% (measured in weight) was compressed by a uniaxial pressing of 30MPa and the sintering temperatures were 900°, 1000° and 1100°. The samples were analysed in relation to flexural strength, bulk density, water absorption and linear shrinkage. The microstructural variation was also analysed by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The results showed that there is a viability for the production of porcelain ceramic coating (A3 and A4 formulations) and stoneware (A2 formulation) according to the specification of technical standards. author)

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood; Avaliacao textural por ressonancia magnetica dos tumores da fossa posterior em criancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joelson Alves dos; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lacerda, Maria Teresa Carvalho de; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: joelson_alves@ig.com.br; Matsushita, Hamilton [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia

    2004-08-01

    Objective: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis. (author)

  16. Evaluation of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and collagen by Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Avaliacao da polivinilpirrolidona e do colageno por ressonancia magnetica nuclear de baixo campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paula de M.; Tavares, Maria I.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano]. E-mail: pmcosta@ima.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    Blends of natural and synthetic polymers represent a new class of materials with better mechanical properties and biocompatibility than those of the single components. Collagen and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) are well known for their important biological properties. The blending of collagen with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) makes it possible to obtain new materials in which strong interactions between the synthetic and biological components occur. Do to the excellent biocompatibility of these polymers, this blend has been much studied intending biomedical applications. And a one technique that can provide important information on molecular mobility, compatibility and even evaluate the interactions that can occur with these polymers is the Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Thus, the purpose of this work is to evaluate collagen and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. From the values of relaxation times obtained, we can conclude that these materials have different interactions, and different mobility domains, confirming the heterogeneity and complexity of these materials. (author)

  17. Chemical and microbiological assessments of the multi mixture treated by gamma radiation; Avaliacao quimica e microbiologica da multimistura tratada por irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Cinthia Graciele

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the multi mixture have being used since the eighties as an alternative against severe infantile malnutrition of the poorest population. However, its use is still reason of controversies mainly due to: the presence of anti nutritional factors, the microbiological quality and the nutritional value. Considering the routine use of multi mixture in the region, this work aimed to evaluate samples of multi mixture were collected in the metropolitan area of the City of Belo Horizonte/MG for determining the anti nutritional factors (phytic and oxalic acids), the microbiological quality, the centesimal and mineral composition, and still the induced effect in these factors of the gamma radiation. For the analyses, the samples passed by the process of gamma irradiation at doses of: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy and then were evaluated anti nutritional factors (phytic acid and oxalic), the microbiological quality (yeasts and molds, Salmonella, Coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, coliform to 45 deg C) to full percentage (moisture, ash, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and the efficiency of the method of Paramagnetic Electronic Resonance (EPR) in the detection of irradiated samples. The mineral composition of the samples was carried out by the irradiation by Neutronic Activation. The methods used were searched in literature. The obtained results suggest that the concentration of the phytic and oxalic acids can not be appropriated for the children with severe nutritional deficit and that it would be necessary additional control in their daily ingestion due to the absorption of essential minerals. In general the samples had presented acceptable microbiological quality for consumption, except by one of it. The data of the centesimal and mineral composition, in the usually recommended portions, showed lower concentration than recommended for children. Any significant alteration in phytic and oxalic acids as well as in the centesimal composition were detected after gamma irradiation. The electronic paramagnetic resonance can be detected irradiated samples. (author)

  18. Evaluation of absorbed radiation dose in mammography using Monte Carlo simulation; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em mamografia usando simulacao Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Bruno L.; Tomal, Alessandra [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2016-07-01

    Mammography is the main tool for breast cancer diagnosis, and it is based on the use of X-rays to obtain images. However, the glandular tissue present within the breast is highly sensitive to ionizing radiation, and therefore requires strict quality control in order to minimize the absorbed dose. The quantification of the absorbed dose in the breast tissue can be done by using Monte Carlo simulation, which allows a detailed study of the deposition of energy in different regions of the breast. Besides, the results obtained from the simulation can be associated with experimental data and provide values of dose interest, such as the dose deposited in glandular tissue. (author)

  19. Development of a irradiator for brachytherapy: preliminary evaluation of accuracy and repeatability; Desenvolvimento de um irradiador para braquiterapia: avaliacao preliminar de precisao e repetibilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damaso, Renato S.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: damaso@nuclear.ufmg.br; campos@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    Brachytherapy is a technique of treatment for cancer which that provides the placement of sources near the tumor region, reducing the exposure of healthy regions. We are developing a project of a irradiator that move several discrete gamma sources assembled on the extremity of flexible shafts. The irradiator has the capacity to achieve the individual placement of the sources automatically, reducing the radiation exposure of the clinical body. The equipment is constituted by a mechanic body which produces the displacement of the shafts, a shielding cylinder repository of sources and electronic system of monitoring and control. The present work illustrates the use of the equipment to simulate the placement of sources foreseen in clinical treatment for cancer by intracavitary or interstitial brachytherapy. Precision and repeatability of placement will be discussed. (author)

  20. Exergy and thermoeconomic evaluation of hydrogen production from natural gas; Avaliacao exergetica e termo-economica da producao de hidrogenio a partir do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Flavio Eduardo da [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2008-07-01

    Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is the natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. This paper presents exergy and thermoeconomic analysis of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm{sup 3} of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.(author)

  1. Economic and financial evaluation of the wind power project in Northeast region, Brazil; Avaliacao economico-financeira de projeto de central eolica na regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Paulo Glicio da; Lima, Maria Angela de Queiroz; Melo Junior, Adalberto de Bastos [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (DFPL/CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div. de Planejamento Economico-Financeiro], Emails: paulogr@chesf.gov.br, angelq@chesf.gov.br, adalbert@chesf.gov.br; Bezerra, Pedro; Bittencourt, Rogerio [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (DEFA/CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div. de Projetos de Fontes Alternativas], E-mails: pbezerra@chesf.gov.br, rogeriob@chesf.gov.br

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the analysis of economic and financial feasibility of using wind power in the Northeast region for electric power production, considering the new electricity sector model. The case study presented here refers to the design of a 50 MW Wind Farm in the region, based on preliminary data from wind collected in the period from 1993 to 1995. Some programs were used to evaluate this project: ALWIN, which estimates the potential for wind energy production; NEWAVE for determination operating marginal costs and generation plants values and ANAFIN, for economic and financial evaluation of the project, using scenarios, through the deterministic and probabilistic analysis.

  2. Evaluation of homogeneity and dose conformity in IMRT planning in prostate radiotherapy; Avaliacao da homogeneidade e conformidade de dose em planejamentos de IMRT de prostata em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Juliane S.; Leidens, Matheus; Estacio, Daniela R., E-mail: juliane.lopes@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Razera, Ricardo A.Z.; Streck, Elaine E.; Silva, Ana M.M. da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the dose distribution homogeneity and conformity of radiation therapy plans of prostate cancer using IMRT. Data from 34 treatment plans of Hospital Sao Lucas of PUCRS, where those plans were executed, were retrospectively analyzed. All of them were done with 6MV X-rays from a linear accelerator CLINAC IX, and the prescription doses varied between 60 and 74 Gy. Analyses showing the homogeneity and conformity indices for the dose distribution of those plans were made. During these analyses, some comparisons with the traditional radiation therapy planning technic, the 3D-CRT, were discussed. The results showed that there is no correlation between the prescribed dose and the homogeneity and conformity indices, indicating that IMRT works very well even for higher doses. Furthermore, a comparison between the results obtained and the recommendations of ICRU 83 was carried out. It has also been observed that the indices were really close to the ideal values. 82.4% of the cases showed a difference below 5% of the ideal value for the index of conformity, and 88.2% showed a difference below 10% for the homogeneity index. Concluding, it is possible to confirm the quality of the analyzed radiation therapy plans of prostate cancer using IMRT. (author)

  3. Dosimetric evaluation in mammary glands radiotherapy using expansive prosthesis with magnetic valve; Avaliacao dosimetrica de tratamentos de radioterapia de mama usando proteses expansivas com valvula magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizar, J.C.; Pavoni, J.F.; Baffa, O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Krutman, Y. [Rabin Medical Center (RMC), (Israel)

    2016-07-01

    This work aims to verify the influence on dose distribution that the expansive prosthesis (SILIMED/470), containing a magnetic valve, generates in radiotherapy postoperative treatment of patients who have undergone mastectomy. (author)

  4. Importance of evaluation of uncertainties on the measurement of natural gas and petroleum volumes; Importancia da avaliacao das incertezas na medicao dos volumes de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Jose Alberto Pinheiro da; Oliveira, Thiago Barra Vidal de; Mata, Josaphat Dias da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br, josaphat@petrobras.com.br; Val, Luiz Gustavo do [Instituto de Qualidade e Metrologia (IQM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: gdoval.iqm@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The measurement is considered as the 'cash register' of the enterprises, increasing the accuracy and the exigence at each step when come close to the delivery points, where the 0.1 % of differences are discussed. The work presents the approach used in the evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the volumes obtained of petroleum and natural gas at the processes of production in Brazil, and in the international level as well.

  5. Technique applied in the evaluation of the UFCC reactor at Refinaria Alberto Pasqualini (REFAP), PETROBRAS; Tecnicas utilizadas na avaliacao do reator da UFCC da REFAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascaes, Ronesio da Silva [PETROBRAS (Brazil) Refinaria Alberto Pasqualini

    1994-01-01

    Main problems found in the maintenance of the Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) unity, searches of metal alteration properties, metallographic evaluations, failures and micro-structures alterations are presented. Micrographic analysis of the structural samples, the methodology to detect the failures and physical and chemical essays utilized in the inspection are also reported 13 refs., 64 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Evaluation of testosterone serum levels in testicular interstitial fluid under thyroxine influence; Avaliacao da testosterona no fluido intersticial testicular sob influencia da tiroxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Isvania Maria S. da; Pereira, Simey de L.S.; Souza, Grace Mary L.; Carvalho, Elaine F.M.B.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J. de A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Silveira, Maria de Fatima G. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia; Lima Filho, Guilherme L. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Nazare da Mata, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Formacao de Professores

    2000-07-01

    The thyroid hormones possibly exert a reciprocal action between testicular steroids and Sertoli's cells during the premature period. This work aims to evaluate thyroxine effect on testosterone serum levels and in the testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) in rats. Wistar males rats, 22 days old, 80g of body weight, were induced to hyperthyroidism with thyroxine (20{mu}g/kg) in periods of 5, 10, 15 and 20 consecutive days. After the treatment the animals were weighed and sacrificed for blood and testis collection. From the blood serum and from the TIF drained from the testis were performed testes in order to obtain testosterone attached to {sup 125} I with a specific activity of 36,86 MBq/ig. The results have shown a testosterone significant lineal increase in both - serum and TIF - in the group treated with thyroxine as a time function. In the control group, testosterone levels remained low in both serum and TIF dosages. As a result, we were able to verify that the testosterone levels could be modified by thyroxine in serum and TIF. And so, it could affect luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in hypophysis. (author)

  7. Ecotoxicological assessment of sediments from Tiete river between Salesopolis and Suzano, SP (Brazil); Avaliacao ecotoxicologica de sedimentos do rio Tiete, entre os municipios de Salesopolis e Suzano, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegre, Gabriel Fonseca

    2009-07-01

    Once introduced into the aquatic environment, many substances can bind or be adsorbed by organic particles in suspension. Depending on the river morphology and hydrological conditions, these particles in suspension containing the contaminants can be deposited along its course, becoming part of the bottom sediments, making them actual sinks and often a source of contamination for the water column and benthic organisms. In the assessment of water, sediment has been one of the most important indicators of the contamination levels in aquatic ecosystems, representing the deposition of contaminants in the environment that occurred over the years and even decades. The Tiete River cross the Sao Paulo state, however, in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, the river shows the most severe degradation. In the region of Salesopolis, the waters of the Tiete River are used for public supply, but across the city of Mogi das Cruzes the water quality decreases significantly. Considering the importance of the Tiete river and the sediment for the aquatic biota, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of the sediment at five points along the Tiete river, between the cities of Salesopolis and Suzano, Sao Paulo. Four sampling were carried out: two in the summer (rainy season) and two in winter (dry season). The whole sediment was assessed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia, respectively, the elutriate was assessed by chronic toxicity test using C. dubia, while the porewater was evaluated by acute toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri. Samples of river water were also evaluated for chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia. The quantification of metals and hydrocarbons in sediment samples was also carried out in order to correlate the biological effects with the chemical contamination. The obtained results with the whole sediment test indicate Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano cities as the most toxic sites and also as the sites with the highest concentrations of heavy metals. The tests with aqueous phases (elutriate and porewater) indicated the site located in Biritiba-Mirim as the most problematic. High concentrations of hydrocarbons were also found in this site, as well as in another site located in Biritiba-Mirim. The Ponte Nova reservoir site showed toxicity in a few occasions, and it is the only site where high concentrations of contaminants was observed. The results showed a gradient of toxicity and contamination that increases according to the distance from the reservoir (P0) and with the proximity of populated and industrialized cities. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the aging of polymeric drilling fluids to oil wells; Avaliacao do envelhecimento de fluidos de perfuracao polimericos para pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, K.V.; Amorim, L.V. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Mecanica, UAEM/CCT - UFCG], e-mail: kassie@dem.ufcg.edu.br; Leite, R.S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Graduacao Engenharia de Materiais; Lira, H.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais, UAEMa/ CCT - UFCG

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the aging of polymeric drilling fluids to oil wells, from the rheological, filtration and lubricity properties in the temperatures 100 degree F ({approx} 38 degree C) and 150 degree F ({approx} 66 degree C). The results had been compared with a standard fluid used for the oil industry and had evidenced that the polymeric fluids had presented good thermal stability, presenting a small reduction in the rheological properties and better values of lubricity coefficient that a reference fluid. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the chemical modifications in petroleum asphalt cement with the addition of polypropylene; Avaliacao das modificacoes quimicas no cimento asfaltico de petroleo com a adicao de polipropileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, C.P.; Sales, M.J.A.; Resck, I.S., E-mail: mjsales@unb.b [Universidade de Brasilia (LabPol/UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Pesquisa em Polimeros; Farias, M.M.; Souza, M.V.R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental

    2010-07-01

    Studies show that the common distress mode in the Brazilian highway network are fatigue cracks and plastic deformation, which are associated with the type of material used in the pavement layers, structural project, excessive traffic load and weathering. To minimize these defects, research on modifiers such as polymers, added to asphalt binders have been developed to provide physical, chemical and rheological improvement. This paper investigates chemical modifications of the binders with the addition of PP by FTIR, NMR and DSC. FTIR spectra of pure and modified binder showed no differences in absorption. NMR analysis showed no strong chemical bonds between the binder and PP. DSC curve of PP showed a melting temperature of 160 deg C ({Delta}H = 94J/g) and the pure binder presented an endothermic transition between 20 and 40 deg C ({Delta}H = 2J/g). In the DSC curves of mixtures, these transitions are not significant, indicating possible interactions between asphalt binder and PP. (author)

  10. Evaluation of nano emulsion containing asphaltenes dispersant additive in dehydration of oil; Avaliacao de nanoemulsoes contendo aditivo dispersante de asfaltenos na desidratacao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Priscila F. de; Rodrigues, Jessica S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/ Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: prisfrias@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Due to the problem of the formation of emulsions type water-oil during oil production, new alternatives of the breakdown of these emulsions have been proposed over the years. Several polymers have been used to destabilize these emulsions and among them are those based on polyphenylene ether. The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions type oil / water, where an asphaltenes dispersant additive was dissolved in dispersed phase in order to evaluate them as a new alternative in the breakdown of oil emulsions. The nanoemulsions were prepared in the presence of surfactant based on polyoxide using a high pressure homogenizer (HPH). We obtained stable nanoemulsions for more than 30 days in the presence or absence of additive. These nanoemulsions were effective in water /oil phase separation, and the nanoemulsion containing the dispersant additive provided a faster separation of these phases. (author)

  11. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de estados da regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Wellington Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4{sup th} 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator {sup 99M}o-{sup 99m}Tc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  12. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminium 7050 peen forming processed; Avaliacao da tensao residual em aluminio 7050 conformado pelo processo peen forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.R. de; Lima, N.B., E-mail: rolivier@ipen.b, E-mail: nblima@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, A.P.V.; Goncalves, M., E-mail: anapaola@ipt.b, E-mail: mgoncalves@ipt.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {Psi} method. (author)

  13. Evaluation by instrumented indentation of the damage caused by gamma radiation on polymeric materials; Avaliacao por indentacao instrumentada dos danos causados pela radiacao gama em materiais polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M.P.; Azevedo, E.C.; Miquelin, C.A.; Soboll, D.S., E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DAFIS/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Several materials with densities close to water are used as phantoms in dosimetry. Such materials are damaged because they are exposed to radiation, the surface layers suffer the largest changes. This damage can be assessed by instrumented indentation. This paper investigates the variations in hardness and elastic modulus of samples of polymethyl-methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polyacetal and polypropylene before and after being irradiated with gamma radiation dose 500 Gy, using a Nanoindeter XP, with applied loads between 1 mN and 400 mN. The results are discussed correlating the variations in the mechanical properties of polymers with their applications. (author)

  14. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates; Utilizacao da tomografia computadorizada quantitativa como teste de resistencia para avaliacao de placas osseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Freitas, P.M.C. [Escola de Veterinaria - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  15. Microstructural evaluation of a varistor block utilized in high voltage surge arresters; Avaliacao microestrutural de um bloco varistor utilizado em para-raios de alta tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J.M. de; Dias, R.; Furtado, J.G. de M., E-mail: jma_ime@yahoo.com.b [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Assuncao, F.C.R. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Varistor is a semiconductor ceramic device characterized to have a high non-linear electrical resistance, it is used as active element of surge arresters with purpose of protecting of electro-electronics systems. Its properties are directly dependents of chemical composition and microstructural characteristics, such as grain size, porosity, twins and phases distribution. This work has the objective to characterize microstructurally a commercial varistor block of ZnO used in high voltage surge arrest and from this characterization to infer aspects about of its electrical macroscopic performance. DRX and SEM-EDS were used for microstructural analysis. The microstructural evaluation allows pointing the critical points of microstructure and, suggest relevant aspects to the improvement of commercial varistor microstructure, optimizing the electrothermal behavior of the device. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the optical quality of compound parabolic concentrator solar collectors; Avaliacao da qualidade otica de coletores solares concentradores parabolicos compostos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, P.O.; Krenzinger, A. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    1990-12-31

    This work presents a simulation of solar compound parabolic concentrators using the ray tracing technique. The program can be used as a computer aided design and quality control applications for parabolic mirrors. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Stresses and residual stresses optical measurements systems evaluation; Avaliacao de sistemas opticos de medicao de tensoes e tensoes residuais em dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto Filho, Flavio Tito; Goncalves Junior, Armando Albertazzi [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Metrologia e Automatizacao (LABMETRO)

    2004-07-01

    There is always a constant concern about the pipelines' integrity. An important control parameter is the level of total mechanical stresses acting over the pipeline. However, the loading and residual stresses acting on a pipeline are not measured in the field as much as necessary. Technical difficulties and the high cost of the nowadays techniques and the hostile measurement conditions are the main reason for that. An alternative method has been developed at the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) since 1992. A new optical measurement device is used to measure strains, mechanical stresses and residual stresses acting over the structure. A metrological and functional evaluation of this system is the main focus of this paper. (author)

  18. Evaluation of operational management in the oil terminals using human factor indicator; Avaliacao da gestao operacional em terminais com o uso do indicador de fator humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, George L.D. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Gilson Brito Alves [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). LATEC. Mestrado Profissional em Sistemas de Gestao

    2005-07-01

    This research has as objective to analyze the continuous improvement in a management system at TRANSPETRO in Madre de Deus Terminal (BA), environment and occupational health, particularly in the reduction of the accident levels. We consider relevant in this research the effective implementation of the human factor that includes the boarding of the work system relating them it three points: individual activities, organizational processes of work and activities, emphasizing the management of these resources and the communication between them. The case study it was make in a company of logistic of fuels. The methodology was lead through bibliographical research and applied closed questionnaire (adaptation's baseline API 770 - Manager's Guide to Reducing Human Errors Improving - Improving in the Process Industries) in 2003 and 2005 with the manager, coordinators, supervisors, operators and others technician. Were analyzed results of the company in management security and occupational health, such as: pointers of the tax of frequency of accidents with and without removal, volume of leaked product and results of internal and external audits. We conclude that the importance of the human factor in the Safety Management that propitiated significant progress in the organization during the development of the research. (author)

  19. Probabilistic distributions of wind velocity for the evaluation of the wind power potential; Distribuicoes probabilisticas de velocidades do vento para avaliacao do potencial energetico eolico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramini, Elisa Zanuncio

    1986-10-01

    The theoretical model of wind speed distributions allow valuable information about the probability of events relative to the variable in study eliminating the necessity of a new experiment. The most used distributions has been the Weibull and the Rayleigh. These distributions are examined in the present investigation, as well as the exponential, gamma, chi square and lognormal distributions. Three years of hourly averages wind data recorded from a anemometer setting at the city of Ataliba Leonel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used. Using wind speed distribution the theoretical relative frequency was calculated from the distributions which have been examined. Results from the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test allow to conclude that the lognormal distribution fit better the wind speed data, followed by the gamma and Rayleigh distributions. Using the lognormal probability density function the yearly energy output from a wind generator installed in the side was calculated. 30 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of phytotoxic activity of {alpha}-Santonin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade fitotoxica de derivados da {alpha}-Santonina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Elson S.; Barbosa, Luiz C.A.; Saliba, William A.; Arantes, Francisco F.P.; Demuner, Antonio J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: elson@ufv.br; Silva, Antonio A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia

    2009-07-01

    Mixtures of {alpha}-Santonin and various solvents were irradiated by either high or low pressure mercury lamps. The photochemical reactions afforded lumisantonin (11) (76% in acetonitrile), (3 S,3a S,9{beta}S)-3,6,6-trimethyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydronafto[1,2-b]furan-2,7({eta}6,9{beta}{eta}) dione (12) (100% in acetonitrile), 10{alpha}-acetoxy-3-oxo-1,7{alpha}H{eta},6,11{alpha}a{eta}-guaia-4-en-6,12-oli= de (8) (26% in acetic acid), 10{alpha}-hydroxy-3-oxo-1,7{alpha}a{eta},6,11{alpha}{eta}-guaia-4-en-6,12-olid= e (10) (32%) and (E)-3-((3 S,3a S,7{alpha}S)-3-methyl-2-oxo-6-(propan-2-ylidene)hexahydrobenzofuran- 7 - (7{alpha}{eta})-ylidene)propanoic acid (9) (44%) (in water/ acetic acid 1:1, v/v). Lactone 12 was also prepared by irradiation of lumisantonin in diethyl ether. Lactones 8 and 10 were converted, respectively, into the 10 {alpha}-acetoxy-3{alpha}-hydroxy-1,7{alpha}H,6,11{alpha}H-guaia-4-en-6,12-olid= e (13) (87%) and 3a,10a-dihydroxy-1,7{alpha}H,6,11{alpha}H-guaia-4-en-6,12-olide (14) (75%) by sodium borohydride reduction. The effects of the compounds on the development of radicle of Sorghum bicolor and Cucumis sativus were evaluated. (author)

  1. Water drilling fluids: evaluation of lubricity and clay swelling control; Fluidos de perfuracao a base de agua: avaliacao de lubricidade e controle de inchamento de argilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Thiago de Freitas; Arruda, Jefferson Teixeira; Medeiros, Ana Catarina; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    During the oil well drilling, drilling fluids are used in order to transport the cuttings until the surface. This fluid is also responsible for the mechanical sustentation of the well walls, the control of undesirable production of fluids in the formation, the lubricity and the cooling of the bit. The drilling fluids based on water are extensively applied due to their lower cost, thermal stability, biodegradability, easiness of pumping and treatment, resulting in smaller environmental impacts. However, some situations, such as hydrophilic shale drilling, request the use of additives to avoid the hydration of them and, consequently, the tool imprisonment or migration (filtration) of the drilling fluids into the rock. The goal of this work was to develop and test formulations of water-base drilling fluids with high capacity of inhibition of clay swelling and lubricity, obtaining drillings with larger penetration rate and calipers without enlargements. The results showed that the appropriate combination of commonly used commercial products can promote the obtaining of fluids with equal or better performance than those used by world companies. (author)

  2. Economic evaluation of organic deposition inhibition treatment: case study; Avaliacao economica de tratamentos de inibicao de deposicao organica: estudo de casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechuga, Fernanda Curty; Seidl, Peter Rudolf; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Lucas, Elizabete Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas

    2008-07-01

    During the production process the temperature and pressure decrease along the well, that generate an increase in viscosity, changes in the composition of the oil and chemical changes in the balance of oil. These changes in the balance may lead to precipitation and deposition of organic components of heavy oil. These occurrences cause serious economic consequences. To solve problems related to organic deposition, it is proposed some actions to prevent the formation of these deposits. Chemical additives interfere in precipitation of paraffins and aggregation of asphaltenes, increasing stability. This paper aims to examine, in economic terms, treatments prevention in different wells by the mechanism of inhibition of organic deposition by the action of chemical additives. The methodology applied for the economic analysis was the return on investment (ROI - Return-on-investments) that could estimate when there was an economic gain in problems of organic deposition treated with chemical additives. The results showed that if these wells use prevention methods it could get a return of more than $ 100.00 per dollar invested in treatment, which would be beneficial, since these treatments increase the production of oil and reduce the idle time in wells. (author)

  3. Evaluation of glycerol derivative as emulsifier for oil based drilling fluids; Avaliacao de derivados de glicerina como emulsificante para fluidos de perfuracao de base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Susan A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Cavalcanti, Milena Y.; Rodrigues Junior, Jorge; Lachter, Elizabeth R.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In view of the growing search for new applications for the surplus glycerine of biodiesel production, the use of a glycerine derivative as emulsifier in oil based muds is proposed in this work. Glycerine monooleate was synthesized through esterification reaction, and characterized by NMR{sup 13}C. Its applicability as emulsifier was verified through electric stability tests performed on inverted phase drilling fluids. The obtained results were compared with two formulations containing different emulsifiers (sorbitol monooleate and trimethylolpropane monooleate). It was also evaluated the rheological properties of the formulated fluids through standard tests. It was verified that the fluid that contained the glycerine derivative showed considerably better electric stability results than the other systems. It also presented rheological properties similar to the ones shown by the system that contained the commercial emulsifier (sorbitol monooleate). Thus, it was found that glycerine monooleate is a potential substitute to the currently emulsifiers (author)

  4. Pipeline integrity evaluation: 10 years experience at Campos basin; Avaliacao de integridade de dutos submarinos de transferencia: 10 anos de atividades na Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Sergio Ibaje Oliveira; Franzoi, Aldo Renato [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    PETROBRAS E and P department (up-stream segment) had assigned first contract for pipeline inspection using smart pigs in 1995. Up to this time only TRANSPETRO (down-stream segment) had an experience with those inspections mainly focused on first generation tools. On this contract, it was first time required high resolution tools, which had bigger defect detection capability and sizing accuracy as advantages but with higher cost. It was regarded necessary due to high costs involved on a virtual sub sea survey or repair. The investment was regarded fair as there is no way to establish correlation digs as well as normally done after on shore pipelines surveys. Actually the first internal inspection was carried out in 1997. From this period it has been realized the enormous importance on verifying all platforms installations and all procedures involving cleaning runs. We have taken many lessons from these inspections. Commissioning using all kinds of cleaning pigs (some was invented) that could be specially contracted on scaling removing jobs; diesel batch to make easy US pigs inspection, cleaning steps that should be gradual to allow receiving of debris without disturbing platforms process efficiency; special tools designed in-house to meet some specific installations requirements as limited pigability; were some issues that demanded efforts on this period. PETROBRAS/E and P through its Campos Basin Production Unit has been strongly involved on looking for solutions to keep its sub sea pipeline net integrity; a strategic asset that will guarantee the Brazilian development on oil and gas production. (author)

  5. Development of test objects for image quality evaluation of digital mammography; Desenvolvimento de objetos de teste para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vitor Nascimento de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Mammography is the image exam called 'gold standard' for early detection of breast cancer. 111 Brazil, more than eight million mammograms are carried out per year. With the advancement of technology, the digital systems CR and DR for this diagnostic modality have been increasingly implemented, replacing the conventional screen-film system, which brought environmental problems, like the disposal of chemical waste, and is also responsible for the rejection of radiographic films with processing artifacts. Digital systems, besides not experiencing the problem of environmental pollution, are still capable of image processing, allowing a much lower rejection rate when compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the determination of an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent on the image quality of the examination. To ensure the reliability of the images produced by these systems, it is necessary to evaluate them on a regular basis. Unfortunately, there is no regulation in Brazil about the Quality Assurance of these systems. The aim of this study was to develop a set of test objects that allow the evaluation of some parameters of image quality of these systems, such as field image uniformity, the linearity between the air Kerma incident on detector and the mean pixel value (MPV) of the image, the spatial resolution of the system through the modulation transfer function (MTF) and also to suggest an object to be applied in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). In order to test the objects. 10 mammography centers were evaluated, seven with CR systems and three with the DR systems. To evaluate the linearity, besides the test objects high sensitivity dosimeters were necessary to be used, namely LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL dosimeters. The use of these dosimeters was recommended in order to minimize the time required to perform the tests and to decrease the number of exposures needed. For evaluation of digital images in DICOM format, the software {sup O}BJ{sub I}QJeduced{sup ,} version 3.0, was used. It was developed by the team of Prof.. Dr. Nicholas Marshall at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. The results were very promising, leaving opened the possibility of future work as the optimization of the correction factors and uncertainties for the dosimeters as well as the applicability of the test objects in evaluating the image quality of digital systems across the country. (author)

  6. Determination and environmental estimation of NORMs in marine sediment environment of offshore platforms; Determinacao e avaliacao ambiental de NORMs em sedimento marinho entorno de plataformas offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegueria, Sergio F. Jerez, E-mail: sfjerez@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Analitica; Godoy, Jose M., E-mail: rccampos@puc-rio.br, E-mail: jmgodoy@puc-rio.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The natural radioactive materials (NORM known as) are found in the earth's crust, and during the process of production of oil and gas are concentrated in the produced water and the fouling (scale) pipes used for extraction. The production of oil and gas from produced water comes, comprising: forming water (water naturally present in the well ); injection water , usually sea water previously injected into the well to maintaining the pressure while the oil is removed; and water condensed in some cases of gas production. A high radioactivity of {sup 226}Ra (natural grade of {sup 238}U) and {sup 228}Ra (from the natural series of {sup 232}Th) is detected in produced water due to the high solubility of radio in formation water as uranium and thorium, which are insoluble in this medium, remain the rock matrix. The study was conducted in the area of offshore oil production in the state of Rio de January and included the determination of uranium, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 228}Ra in marine sediment near the points of discharge of produced water from oil platforms. After the pre-treatment and digestion of samples, the determination of the natural uranium was performed on a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP -MS). The activities of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined by high resolution gamma spectrometry through {sup 214}Bi and {sup 228}Ac , respectively. And in the case of {sup 210}Pb, a correction was made for self-absorption employing an external source of this radionuclide. The results showed that there is no impact in sediments in the vicinity of the studied platforms.

  7. Sensory evaluation of black beans submitted to gamma radiation from Cobalt-60; Avaliacao sensorial de feijao preto submetido a radiacao de Cobalto-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet, E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Entomologia e Irradiacao de Alimentos

    2005-04-15

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the sensory aspects of black beans submitted to gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. The study involved eight panelists, between 17 to 23 years old, who were selected and trained for the descriptive analysis of appearance, aroma, flavor and texture. The panelists analyzed alterations of appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of non-irradiated and irradiated black beans with doses 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10kGy. The results were analyzed by test F, ANOVA and the Tukey test (5%), with the use of computers and the sensory analysis software Compusense Five and SAS. The results showed that irradiated samples decreased the bitter flavor, accentuated color and brightness and samples non-irradiated dry texture. The radiation treatment is a good method for conservation of black beans in doses evaluated in this study.(author)

  8. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation;Avaliacao do palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processado por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-07-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  9. Dose evaluation in medical staff during diagnostics procedures in interventional radiology; Avaliacao da dose na equipe medica durante procedimentos diagnoticos de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Rosa, Maria E.D.; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Moura, Regina [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: bacchim@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2014-08-15

    Studies show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the radiation exposure levels of medical staff in diagnostic interventional radiology procedures. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were placed in different regions of the physician body. When comparing with reference dose levels, the maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. This information is essential to ensure the radiological protection of those professionals. (author)

  10. Computed tomography of mast cell tumors in dogs: assessment before and after chemotherapy; Tomografia computadorizada de mastocitomas em caes: avaliacao pre e pos-tratamento quimioterapico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorigados, Carla A.B.; Matera, Julia Maria; Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Macedo, Thais R., E-mail: clorigados@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMVZ/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia; Coppi, Antonio A.; Ladd, Fernando V.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LSSCA/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Lab. de Estereologia Estocastica e Anatomia Quimica; Souza, Vanessa A.F. de [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Curso de Medicina Veterinaria

    2013-11-15

    Nineteen dogs with mast cell tumors treated with chemotherapy were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). Were evaluated aspects related to contours, attenuation, postcontrast enhancement and presence of cleavage with adjacent structures. The RECIST criteria and volumetric measurement of lesions were performed to assess the response to treatment. The mast cell tumors presented a homogeneous or heterogeneous attenuation, presented more frequently a well delineated and regular contours and moderate enhancement after intravenous administration of the iodinated contrast media. The methods RECIST and volumetric measurements showed an excellent agreement to the classification of therapeutic response, providing a good parameter of the response to treatment. The CT examination proved to be useful in the delimitation of the tumor and an important tool for planning of surgical margins. (author)

  11. Evaluation of quality control tools for patients submitted to IMRT; Avaliacao das ferramentas de controle da qualidade para pacientes submetidos ao IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavor, Milton; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Silva, Marco A., E-mail: miltonlavor@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-04-15

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently being implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical practice. This paper proposes a methodology for quality control and presents the results and evaluations of the data obtained from the proposed methodology. Ionization chamber and two-dimensional array detector were performed in IMRT treatment planning in order to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of ±3% dose difference and ±3mm distance to agreement. As a result and review of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about ±5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This work can establish action levels required for quality control program proposed and implemented in the Department of Radiotherapy - Hospital das Clinicas in Sao Paulo that allows an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multi leaf collimator. (author)

  12. Methodology for probability of failure assessment of offshore pipelines; Metodologia qualitativa de avaliacao da probabilidade de falha de dutos rigidos submarinos estaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzi Filho, Mario [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In this study it is presented a methodology for assessing the likelihood of failure for every failure mechanism defined for carbon steel static offshore pipelines. This methodology is aimed to comply with the Integrity Management policy established by the Company. Decision trees are used for the development of the methodology and the evaluation of the extent and the significance of these failure mechanisms. Decision trees enable also the visualization of the logical structure of algorithms which eventually will be used in risk assessment software. The benefits of the proposed methodology are presented and it is recommended that it be tested on static offshore pipelines installed in different assets for validation. (author)

  13. Evaluation of absorbed radiation dose rate in a didactic X-ray equipment; Avaliacao da taxa de dose absorvida em um equipamento de raios-X didatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Phelipe Amaral Ferreira; Perini, Ana Paula; Neves, Lucio Pereira, E-mail: lucio.neves@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-07-01

    This work was performed in order to create a new didactic experiment in the X-ray apparatus of PHYWE, where the saturation current was obtained through a free air ionization chamber. The values of saturation currents were obtained in two ways. Initially, the anodic DDP was kept constant and the anodic current was varied. In the second way, the anodic current was kept constant while the anodic DDP was varied. Therefore, we were able to evaluate the dependence of the absolved dose rate in relation to the DDP and the tube current. (author)

  14. Covering localization, mapping and evaluation of ducts, using Pipeline Current Mapper Methods (PCM); Localizacao, mapeamento e avaliacao de revestimento de dutos, utilizando o metodo Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Antonio Jorge [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Esteio Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., together with the PETROBRAS - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., comes accomplishing the Location, Geo positioning, Mapping and Inspection of the Coating in more than 5.000 km of pipes in several areas of the country. The works come being executed seeking the obtaining of the real position of Ducts (They-Built) and the conditions in that meets the coating of the same ones. The risings base on the method Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM), using the equipment of production of Radio detection to locate and to inspect the conditions of the coating. This work presents the results, analyses, precision, benefits and difficulties found during the execution of the surveying. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the reconstruction method and effect of partial volume in brain scintiscanning; Avaliacao do metodo de reconstrucao e efeito do volume parcial em cintilografia cerebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Monica Araujo

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, on which occurs a progressive and irreversible destruction of neurons. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 35.6 million people are living with dementia, being recommended that governments prioritize early diagnosis techniques. Laboratory and psychological tests for cognitive assessment are conducted and further complemented by neurological imaging from nuclear medicine exams in order to establish an accurate diagnosis. The image quality evaluation and reconstruction process effects are important tools in clinical routine. In the present work, these quality parameters were studied, and the effects of partial volume (PVE) for lesions of different sizes and geometries that are attributed to the limited resolution of the equipment. In dementia diagnosis, this effect can be confused with intake losses due to cerebral cortex atrophy. The evaluation was conducted by two phantoms of different shapes as suggested by (a) American College of Radiology (ACR) and (b) National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) for Contrast, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) and Recovery Coefficient (RC) calculation versus lesions shape and size. Technetium-99m radionuclide was used in a local brain scintigraphy protocol, for proportions lesion to background of 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 8:1 and 10:1. Fourteen reconstruction methods were used for each concentration applying different filters and algorithms. Before the analysis of all image properties, the conclusion is that the predominant effect is the partial volume, leading to errors of measurement of more than 80%. Furthermore, it was demonstrate that the most effective method of reconstruction is FBP with Metz filter, providing better contrast and contrast to noise ratio results. In addition, this method shows the best Recovery Coefficients correction for each lesion. The ACR phantom showed the best results assigned to a more precise reconstruction of a cylinder, which does not occur with spherical lesions in the NEMA simulator. The obtained RC values can be applied to correct the lesions quantification for different sizes and intake relations, assisting medical staff in the quantification process and an accurate diagnosis. Each Nuclear Medicine Service should establish its own RC levels to improve quality of the service provided to the population. (author)

  16. Assessment of low density polyethylene characteristics for hazardous waste immobilization; Avaliacao das caracteristicas do polietileno de baixa densidade visando a imobilizacao de rejeitos perigosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Stela; Carvalho, Larissa Lara de; Pacheco, Graziella Rajao Cota; Oliveira, Tania Valeria de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Pacheco, Raquel R. Janot [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper analyses the properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) to allow choosing the more suitable to be used as matrices for radioactive and hazardous waste immobilization. Four virgin and recycled LDPE, with different melting index, were evaluated by extrusion and compressive strength tests. A preliminary immobilization test has been carried out using a simulated waste and one of the evaluated polymers and the homogeneity of the final waste product was determinate by the analysis of the material density. (author)

  17. Development of a pilot molecular distillation unit; Desenvolvimento de unidade de destilacao molecular nacional e aplicacao na avaliacao de petroleos extrapesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Erica Roberta Lovo da; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Batistella, Cesar Benedito [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Medina, Lilian Carmem [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the importance and the need in studies with heavy and extra heavy petroleums and their residues, it was designed and built up by the oil research group of LOPCA/LDPS/FEQ/UNICAMP, in partnership with the Laboratory of Valuation Processes of CENPES / PETROBRAS, a pilot plant of falling film molecular distiller (national prototype), where some specific operational facilities were introduced. This project resulted in a suitable system for distillation of products of high molecular weight and thermally sensitive, without degradation of them. This work aims the achievement of distillate fractions of atmospheric residue 400 deg C+, using the new molecular distillation equipment. The experiments were carried out according to factorial design to assess the significant process variables in the molecular distillation prototype. The results showed that the evaporator temperature has high influence on the process and the feed flow rate has minimum influence, as it is desired. Additionally, the equipment showed easy handing operation, high operational stability and results varying around 1%. (author)

  18. Evaluation of thermoluminescent BeO samples in standard radiotherapy beams; Avaliacao de amostras termoluminescentes de BeO em feixes padroes de radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, Daniela P.; Silva, Jonas O.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: daniela.piai.groppo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Beryllium oxide thermoluminescent samples were evaluated in standard radiotherapy beams of low energy. Results for response reproducibility, dose-response curve and energy dependence were obtained. The lower detection limit was determined. The pellets of BeO showed their usefulness for beam dosimetry. (author)

  19. Use of different simulators to quality evaluation of image quality in digital mammography; Utilizacao de diferentes simuladores na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Leslie S.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail: leslie@ird.gov.br, E-mail: celia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Luis A.G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: luisalexandregm@hotmail.com, E-mail: cea71@yahoo.com.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the digital images were acquired with different exposure simulators to evaluate the quality of the image, noting the tumor mass detection, microcalcification fiber and representing regions of interest during mammography. The technical parameters of exposure depends on the thickness and composition of the breast, thus affecting the dose and image quality. The simulators were used: ACR, SBP 1054, BREAST PHANTOM CIRS and for evaluation of image quality, as well as measures kerma incident on the entrance surface (Ki) and calculating the mean glandular dose (MGD)

  20. Atmospheric emissions as a tool in evaluation of sustainability research in oil industry; Emissao atmosferica como uma ferramenta na avaliacao do desenvolvimento sustentavel na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanella, Nicolas P.; Baich, Paulo R.M.; Machado, Maria I. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work is directly to analysis of atmosphere surrounding Ipiranga Refinery; witch is located in the city of Rio Grande, in estate of Rio Grande do Sul. The refinery is surrounded by neighborhood, witch are impacted by atmospheric emissions of refinery. The objective of this work is correlating the refinery to the inhabitants that lives near the refinery, using an environmental sustainability index. This work will be achieve by analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) bounded in particulate matter with diameter of 100 {mu}m (PTS), the acquisition of health data on the city hospitals and correlation of this data with PAH concentrations in Particulate Matter. The Samples were obtain by FEPAM, witch have three samples sites in the center of city. The samples was obtained by a High Volume Sampler equipped with quartz fiber filters. The meteorological data important to this work, like wind direction and speed, will be obtain in Meteorological Station on FURG. The results expect to this work are the quantification of PAH bounded with PM-100 and the quantification of PAH emitted by Ipiranga Refinery. And possibly, to correlate this data to made the Environmental Sustainability index. (author)

  1. Kerma rate evaluation in the air in a room interventional cardiology; Avaliacao da taxa de Kerma no ar em uma sala de cardiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br, E-mail: renata.luz@pucrs.br [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: bruna.frohlich@acad.pucrs.br, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the number of interventional cardiology procedures is increasing. However, due to the long time of fluoroscopy in these procedures, care teams can receive high doses of radiation. The radiation scattered by the patient is not uniform, and their assessment is of utmost importance. This study aimed to estimate and map the kerma rate in the air at the time of the gonads, in an interventional cardiology room, seeking to optimize the dose absorbed by individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. For data collection, the room was divided into quadrants of 1m{sup 2}, totaling 40 collection points. The simulator was positioned so that its entry surface was located in the interventional reference point. Were chosen the conditions that simulate angiography and angioplasty procedures performed in the service. The data were obtained for height of 1 meter, gonad region. The results obtained for kerma rates in air, in quadrants, show that higher measured values was in the vicinity of the X-ray tube. Has been found that the medical staff are more exposed, because of its location during the procedure, around the table. The law of the inverse square distance of the farthest points of the X-ray tube were verified.

  2. Evaluation of the capacity of heavy metal adsorption in exfoliated vermiculite; Avaliacao da capacidade de adsorcao de metal pesado em vermiculitas esfoliadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.F.; Silva, P.S.; Hanken, R.B.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Raposo, C.M.O., E-mail: raposo@dmg.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAMG/UFCG), Bodocongo, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Mineracao e Geologia

    2009-07-01

    Many groups from modern society have seen with attention the issues of pollutants, generally present in nature, those same that have caused irreversible damages to the environment. The Vermiculite, a phyllosilicate, with t-o-t structure, have high interlamelar charge, has been studied as cationic exchanger, whose application when exfoliated, are increased. This work has the objective of evaluate the absorption capacity of chromium (III), in different concentrations, in high, slim and medium concentrations of exfoliated vermiculites. The results obtained from the characterization by spectroscopy in infrared and by diffraction of x-ray from prepared solids showed important variations in the quantity of adsorbed metal in order the size of the concentrated particles. (author)

  3. Method for evaluating the applicability and application rate wastes in soil; Metodo para avaliacao da aplicabilidade e taxa de aplicacao de residuos em solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhares, Monica Moreira [Partime (Brazil); Seabra, Paulo Negrais [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1991-01-01

    Land treatment of refinery solid wastes has been practiced in the last few years by some PETROBRAS refineries. The biodegradation process is dynamic and complex, and incorrect monitoring may destroy the potential of the soil. Due to great differences both in terms of soils and of residues, each case must be monitored individually. We therefore developed a monitoring method for land farming systems based on the impact of the waste on indigenous soil microbial populations. The method is extremely simple, requiring only a gas chromatograph to evaluate the CO{sub 2} evolution, and can detect possible causes for low efficiency biodegradation processes. Conditions should then be altered, to ensure adequate functioning of the system.The method also allows for determination of the applicability of candidate wastes and of acceptable waste application rates in soil. (author) 2 refs., 7 figs.

  4. The National program of the production and use of biodiesel and strategic environmental assessmen