WorldWideScience

Sample records for trap attributes influencing

  1. Trap attributes influencing capture of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on common bean fields Atributos da armadilha influenciam captura de Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Refinements in trap characteristics may improve ability to monitor and mass-trap beetles. Field assays were conducted in common bean fields to assess responses of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar to some trap characteristics. Golden yellow plastic cups (750 mL traps caught more D. speciosa females and males than did clear traps. Carrot slices in Petri dishes baited with Lagenaria vulagaris L. powder (cucurbitacin source - 0.28% caught more beetles than did dishes with carrot alone. Dispensers for the floral volatile attractant 1,4-dimethoxybenze were also compared. Rubber septa dispenser attracted more beetles than did control (dental wicks saturated with acetone. Captures on dental wick, starch matrix and feminine pad dispensers were intermediate and did not differ from those on rubber septa and unbaited controls. Perforated bottle traps (2000 mL, when baited with the floral attractant, caught more beetles than did window bottle traps (both traps contained L. vulgaris powder in most assessments done from two to ten days after trap placement in the field. Traps with the insecticide carbaryl captured more beetles than did traps without it, 2-4 and 8-10 days after trap placement in the field, but not in the remaining periods (0-2, 4-6 and 6-8 days. Traps baited with 1,4-dimethoxybenzene captured more beetles than did the unbaited ones in all assessments (each other day from two to ten days after trap placement in the field. Finally, similar amounts of beetles were captured using plastic bottle traps (2000 mL: perforated, window (both with cucurbitacin and sticky (without cucurbitacin traps, when were baited with the floral attractant.Refinamentos em caraterísticas de armadilhas podem incrementar sua habilidade para monitorar e capturar em massa os insetos. Experimentos foram conduzidos em lavoura de feijoeiro para verificar as respostas de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar a algumas características de armadilhas. Armadilhas de copos plástico (750 m

  2. Personal attributes influencing school burnout among graduating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questionnaires administered on participants contained scales that measured school burnout, academic self-efficacy, perception of teacher support, sex and age. The study predicted that personal attributes and demographics will significantly influence school burnout. The hypothesis was confirmed as predicted as result ...

  3. Influence of trap location on the efficiency of trapping in dendrimers and regular hyperbranched polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2013-03-07

    The trapping process in polymer systems constitutes a fundamental mechanism for various other dynamical processes taking place in these systems. In this paper, we study the trapping problem in two representative polymer networks, Cayley trees and Vicsek fractals, which separately model dendrimers and regular hyperbranched polymers. Our goal is to explore the impact of trap location on the efficiency of trapping in these two important polymer systems, with the efficiency being measured by the average trapping time (ATT) that is the average of source-to-trap mean first-passage time over every staring point in the whole networks. For Cayley trees, we derive an exact analytic formula for the ATT to an arbitrary trap node, based on which we further obtain the explicit expression of ATT for the case that the trap is uniformly distributed. For Vicsek fractals, we provide the closed-form solution for ATT to a peripheral node farthest from the central node, as well as the numerical solutions for the case when the trap is placed on other nodes. Moreover, we derive the exact formula for the ATT corresponding to the trapping problem when the trap has a uniform distribution over all nodes. Our results show that the influence of trap location on the trapping efficiency is completely different for the two polymer networks. In Cayley trees, the leading scaling of ATT increases with the shortest distance between the trap and the central node, implying that trap's position has an essential impact on the trapping efficiency; while in Vicsek fractals, the effect of location of the trap is negligible, since the dominant behavior of ATT is identical, respective of the location where the trap is placed. We also present that for all cases of trapping problems being studied, the trapping process is more efficient in Cayley trees than in Vicsek fractals. We demonstrate that all differences related to trapping in the two polymer systems are rooted in their underlying topological structures.

  4. Attribution of polar warming to human influence

    OpenAIRE

    Gillett, NP; Stone, DA; Stott, PA; Nozawa, T; Karpechko, AY; Hegerl, GC; Wehner, MF; Jones, PD

    2008-01-01

    The polar regions have long been expected to warm strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both warming and cooling trends have been observed in Antarctica, which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ...

  5. Evolutionary Influences on Attribution and Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory was applied to Reeder and Brewer's schematic theory and Trafimow's affect theory to extend this area of research with five new predictions involving affect and ability attributions, comparing morality and ability attributions, gender differences, and reaction times for affect and attribution ratings. The design included a 2 (Trait Dimension Type: HR, PR × 2 (Behavior Type: morality, ability × 2 (Valence: positive, negative × 2 (Replication: original, replication × 2 (Sex: female or male actor × 2 (Gender: female or male participant × 2 (Order: attribution portion first, affect portion first mixed design. All factors were within participants except the order and participant gender. Participants were presented with 32 different scenarios in which an actor engaged in a concrete behavior after which they made attributions and rated their affect in response to the behavior. Reaction times were measured during attribution and affect ratings. In general, the findings from the experiment supported the new predictions. Affect was related to attributions for both morality and ability related behaviors. Morality related behaviors received more extreme attribution and affect ratings than ability related behaviors. Female actors received stronger attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic morality behaviors compared to male actors. Male and female actors received similar attribution and affect ratings for diagnostic ability behaviors. Diagnostic behaviors were associated with lower reaction times than non-diagnostic behaviors. These findings demonstrate the utility of evolutionary theory in creating new hypotheses and empirical findings in the domain of attribution.

  6. Influence of trap construction on mosquito capture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Peško, Juraj; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2012), s. 209-215 ISSN 1934-7391 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : CDC miniature light traps * baited lard-can traps * mosquitoes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  7. Main attributes influencing spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreescu, N.; Ohai, D.

    1997-01-01

    All activities regarding nuclear fuel, following its discharge from the NPP, constitute the spent fuel management and are grouped in two possible back end variants, namely reprocessing (including HLW vitrification and geological disposal) and direct disposal of spent fuel. In order to select the appropriate variant it is necessary to analyse the aggregate fulfillment of the imposed requirements, particularly of the derived attributes, defined as distinguishing characteristics of the factors used in the decision making process. The main identified attributes are the following: - environmental impact, - availability of suitable sites, - non-proliferation degree, -strategy of energy, - technological complexity and technical maturity, -possible further technical improvements, - size of nuclear programme, - total costs, - public acceptance, - peculiarity of CANDU fuel. The significance of the attributes in the Romanian case, taking into consideration the present situation, as a low scenario and a high scenario corresponding to an important development of the nuclear power, after the year 2010, is presented. According to their importance the ranking of attributes is proposed . Subsequently, the ranking could be used for adequate weighing of attributes in order to realize a multi-criteria analysis and a relevant comparison of back end variants. (authors)

  8. Influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers' purchase decision. The research focused in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). The study used color, graphic design, size, printed information and shape of packaging as independent variables and consumers' purchase ...

  9. Factors influencing pheromone trap effectiveness in attracting the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted in Uganda to evaluate the influence of distance, environmental factors, trap location and trap type on catches of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in pheromone-baited traps. Marked weevils were released at recorded locations within plots. Trap

  10. Identification of deep trap energies and influences of oxygen plasma ashing on semiconductor carrier lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprowski, A; Humbel, O; Plappert, M; Krenn, H

    2015-01-01

    We have performed an analytical study of the effects of oxygen plasma ashing processes in semiconductor device fabrication and its impact on minority carrier lifetime in high voltage semiconductor devices. Our work includes a critical background study of life time killing mechanisms by deep traps imparted into the semiconductor by barrel plasma ashing. The Elymat technique provides the opportunity to measure lifetime and diffusion length of minority carriers and surface photo voltage (SPV) measurement was used to analyse influences of process parameters such as photoresist, time budget and positioning in the process chamber. It was shown that in microwave plasma processes the diffusion length changes severely with tempering at 200 °C, whereas RF-plasma processes show a significant process time-dependence. Batch tools in general suffer from a strong first wafer effect which could be correlated with the static electrical parameters of the semiconductor devices. The trap identities were detected by using deep level transient spectroscopy and the chemical species of the traps has been proven by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The deep-bandgap trap energies are reliable fingerprints of the chosen process parameters such as process time and of resist-influences. By microwave plasma processes intrinsic Fe and FeB-complex levels were identified and a good agreement with the SPV-measurement and electrical device characteristic was shown. RF-plasma processes impart levels attributed to Pt levels and an additional level, which could be identified as a trap level probably forming a complex of Pt and H. (paper)

  11. Influence of local capillary trapping on containment system effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Steven [University Of Texas At Austin, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering

    2014-03-31

    Immobilization of CO2 injected into deep subsurface storage reservoirs is a critical component of risk assessment for geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Local capillary trapping (LCT) is a recently established mode of immobilization that arises when CO2 migrates due to buoyancy through heterogeneous storage reservoirs. This project sought to assess the amount and extent of LCT expected in storage formations under a range of injection conditions, and to confirm the persistence of LCT if the seal overlying the reservoir were to lose its integrity. Numerical simulation using commercial reservoir simulation software was conducted to assess the influence of injection. Laboratory experiments, modeling and numerical simulation were conducted to assess the effect of compromised seal integrity. Bench-scale (0.6 m by 0.6 m by 0.03 m) experiments with surrogate fluids provided the first empirical confirmation of the key concepts underlying LCT: accumulation of buoyant nonwetting phase at above residual saturations beneath capillary barriers in a variety of structures, which remains immobile under normal capillary pressure gradients. Immobilization of above-residual saturations is a critical distinction between LCT and the more familiar “residual saturation trapping.” To estimate the possible extent of LCT in a storage reservoir an algorithm was developed to identify all potential local traps, given the spatial distribution of capillary entry pressure in the reservoir. The algorithm assumes that the driving force for CO2 migration can be represented as a single value of “critical capillary entry pressure” Pc,entrycrit, such that cells with capillary entry pressure greater/less than Pc,entrycrit act as barriers/potential traps during CO2 migration. At intermediate values of Pc,entrycrit, the barrier regions become more laterally extensive in the reservoir

  12. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  13. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  14. Attributing Changing Rates of Temperature Record Breaking to Anthropogenic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew D.

    2017-11-01

    Record-breaking temperatures attract attention from the media, so understanding how and why the rate of record breaking is changing may be useful in communicating the effects of climate change. A simple methodology designed for estimating the anthropogenic influence on rates of record breaking in a given time series is proposed here. The frequency of hot and cold record-breaking temperature occurrences is shown to be changing due to the anthropogenic influence on the climate. Using ensembles of model simulations with and without human-induced forcings, it is demonstrated that the effect of climate change on global record-breaking temperatures can be detected as far back as the 1930s. On local scales, a climate change signal is detected more recently at most locations. The anthropogenic influence on the increased occurrence of hot record-breaking temperatures is clearer than it is for the decreased occurrence of cold records. The approach proposed here could be applied in rapid attribution studies of record extremes to quantify the influence of climate change on the rate of record breaking in addition to the climate anomaly being studied. This application is demonstrated for the global temperature record of 2016 and the Central England temperature record in 2014.

  15. Attributing the Human Influence on Precipitation Changes over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, D.; Achutarao, K. M.; Thanigachalam, A.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in rainfall over India -much of which is received during the summer monsoon season (June-September) - influences the economy of the country as nearly 50% of the population is engaged in the agricultural sector which constitutes 17.4% of the GDP of India. The agriculture and economy of India is highly vulnerable to any changes in the monsoon rainfall is well recognised. Recent decades have seen decreasing monsoon rainfall in various parts of India. Whether these are a consequence of natural monsoon variations or are caused by specific anthropogenic factors is an important question to answer in formulating the right policy response to these changes. Understanding the physical changes is also a first step towards being able to attribute downstream impacts due to rainfall changes. We have carried out an optimal fingerprint based Detection & Attribution analysis to study the changing rainfall patterns. We make use of outputs from 7 models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) database that carried out single forcing experiments with, Natural, GHG, Anthropogenic Aerosols, and historical (All) forcings. We use multiple observational datasets of rainfall (CRU 3.22 and IMD gridded) to account for observational uncertainty to analyse seasonal (JJA and DJF) and annual mean rainfall over the 1906-2005 period. Our analysis shows the dominant role of GHG and Anthropogenic Aerosol forcings on the observed rainfall changes.

  16. Attribution of observed surface humidity changes to human influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Katharine M; Gillett, Nathan P; Jones, Philip D; Thorne, Peter W

    2007-10-11

    Water vapour is the most important contributor to the natural greenhouse effect, and the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere is expected to increase under conditions of greenhouse-gas-induced warming, leading to a significant feedback on anthropogenic climate change. Theoretical and modelling studies predict that relative humidity will remain approximately constant at the global scale as the climate warms, leading to an increase in specific humidity. Although significant increases in surface specific humidity have been identified in several regions, and on the global scale in non-homogenized data, it has not been shown whether these changes are due to natural or human influences on climate. Here we use a new quality-controlled and homogenized gridded observational data set of surface humidity, with output from a coupled climate model, to identify and explore the causes of changes in surface specific humidity over the late twentieth century. We identify a significant global-scale increase in surface specific humidity that is attributable mainly to human influence. Specific humidity is found to have increased in response to rising temperatures, with relative humidity remaining approximately constant. These changes may have important implications, because atmospheric humidity is a key variable in determining the geographical distribution and maximum intensity of precipitation, the potential maximum intensity of tropical cyclones, and human heat stress, and has important effects on the biosphere and surface hydrology.

  17. Is the capture success of orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea influenced by different baited trap designs? A case study from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Veiga Sydney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchid bees are increasingly applied on Neotropical biomonitoring and bioindication studies due to the relative easiness of sampling and identification when compared to other bee groups. A considerable number of orchid bee community studies have been adopting baited traps as a sampling method, especially for replication purposes. However, the trap attributes are variable, and hitherto no evaluation of different designs was carried out. Here, five attributes of baited traps were tested: trap volume, number of entrance holes, presence of landing platform, kind of landing platform, and fixation content. We use Mann-Whitney tests to access differences in richness and abundance capture rates for each trap design. We found that volume, number of entrance holes, and fixation content do not influence orchid bees capture. However, the design without landing platforms had a significantly higher capture rate for richness when compared with sanded landing platforms. On the other hand, analyzing the kind of landing platform, we detected a significantly higher richness and abundance for the trap with landing platforms glued with sand. Despite the fact that the effects of different designs tested here were very punctual, we consider that results from samples taken with different baited trap designs are comparable. Some adjustments on trap design can be done according to the particularities of future studies.

  18. An Experimental Investigation of Peer Influences on Adolescent Hostile Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Kim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Halligan, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Aggression in young people has been associated with a bias toward attributing hostile intent to others. However, little is known about the origin of biased social information processing. The current study explored the potential role of peer contagion in the emergence of hostile attribution in adolescents. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age…

  19. Influence of energy and duration of laser pulses on stability of dielectric nanoparticles in optical trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Quang Quy; Mai Van Luu; Hoang Dinh Hai

    2010-01-01

    In this article the gradient force of optical trap using two counter- propagating pulsed Gaussian beam and the Brownian motion in optical force field are investigated. The influence of the energy and duration time of optical pulsed Gaussian beams on stability of nano-particle in trap is simulated and discussed. (author)

  20. Influence of modulation method on using LC-traps with single-phase voltage source converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Min, Huang; Bai, Haofeng

    2015-01-01

    The switching-frequency LC-trap filter has recently been employed with high-order passive filters for Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs). This paper investigates the influence of modulation method on using the LC-traps with single-phase VSIs. Two-level (bipolar) and three-level (unipolar) modulations...... that include phase distortion and alternative phase opposition distortion methods are analyzed. Harmonic filtering performances of four LC-trap-based filters with different locations of LC-traps are compared. It is shown that the use of parallel-LC-traps in series with filter inductors, either grid...... or converter side, has a worse harmonic filtering performance than using series-LC-trap in the shunt branch. Simulations and experimental results are presented for verifications....

  1. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, TImothy C.

    2008-01-01

    It is essential that management and engineering understand the need for an availability requirement for the customer's space transportation system as it enables the meeting of his needs, goal, and objectives. There are three types of availability, e.g., operational availability, achieved availability, or inherent availability. The basic definition of availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. The major difference is the inclusiveness of the functions within the mean downtime and the mean uptime. This paper will address tIe inherent availability which only addresses the mean downtime as that mean time to repair or the time to determine the failed article, remove it, install a replacement article and verify the functionality of the repaired system. The definitions of operational availability include the replacement hardware supply or maintenance delays and other non-design factors in the mean downtime. Also with inherent availability the mean uptime will only consider the mean time between failures (other availability definitions consider this as mean time between maintenance - preventive and corrective maintenance) that requires the repair of the system to be functional. It is also essential that management and engineering understand all influencing attributes relationships to each other and to the resultant inherent availability requirement. This visibility will provide the decision makers with the understanding necessary to place constraints on the design definition for the major drivers that will determine the inherent availability, safety, reliability, maintainability, and the life cycle cost of the fielded system provided the customer. This inherent availability requirement may be driven by the need to use a multiple launch approach to placing humans on the moon or the desire to control the number of spare parts required to support long stays in either orbit or on the surface of the moon or mars. It is

  2. The Influence of Personality Attributes and Social Factors on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was a cross sectional survey research, which adopted Ex- post facto design. ... The results also revealed that personality attributes of extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, conscientiousness agreeableness and self – esteem did not significantly independently and co-jointly predict fraudulent practices among ...

  3. Influence of Product and Supplier Attributes on Hardwood Lumber Purchase Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Forbes; Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1994-01-01

    This study determined the influence of product and supplier attributes on hardwood lumber purchases by wood furniture manufacturers and investigated differences across manufacturer type, geographic region, firm size, and kiln ownership. Professional lumber buyers rated the importance and difference across suppliers of various attributes. Purchase influence scores were...

  4. Optimization of multifunnel traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): influence of size, trap coating, and color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    Field assays were conducted in southeastern and south-central Michigan in 2011 and 2012 to optimize green and purple multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps for use as a survey tool for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Larger sized (12- and 16-unit) multifunnel traps caught more beetles than their smaller-sized (4- and 8-unit) counterparts. Green traps coated with untinted (white) fluon caught almost four times as many adult A. planipennis as Rain-X and tinted (green) fluon-coated traps and almost 33 times more beetles than untreated control traps. Purple multifunnel traps generally caught much lower numbers of A. planipennis adults than green traps, and trap catch on them was not affected by differences in the type of coating applied. However, trap coating was necessary as untreated control purple traps caught significantly less beetles than traps treated with Rain-X and untinted or tinted (purple) fluon. Proportions of male beetles captured were generally much higher on green traps than on purple traps, but sex ratios were not affected by trap coating. In 2012, a new shade of purple plastic, based on a better color match to an attractive purple paint than the previously used purple, was used for trapping assays. When multifunnel traps were treated with fluon, green traps caught more A. planipennis adults than both shades of purple and a prism trap that was manufactured based on the same color match. Trap catch was not affected by diluting the fluon concentration applied to traps to 50% (1:1 mixture in water). At 10%, trap catch was significantly lowered.

  5. Influence patterns and determinant attributes in nursing home choice situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, G R; McDaniel, C D

    1985-01-01

    Factor analysis revealed that nursing home characteristics fall roughly into two categories: those relating to the care directly provided by the facility and those which are generally unrelated to the quality of care. Not all influences (doctors, discharge planners, retirement home administrators and responsible parties) respond alike to these characteristics. Therefore, a marketing mix directed uniformly to all segments may be suboptimal.

  6. Influence of grain boundary connectivity on the trapped magnetic flux of multi-seeded bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z., E-mail: zgdeng@gmail.com [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Hara, S.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulks as representatives. A coupling ratio to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside multi-seeded bulks. An averaged trapped magnetic flux density parameter was introduced. The top-seeded melt-growth process with multi-seeding technique provides a promising way to fabricate large-sized bulk superconductors in an economical way. To understand the essential characteristics of the multi-seeded bulks, the paper reports the influence of the grain boundary (GB) coupling or connectivity on the total trapped magnetic flux. The coupling ratio, the lowest trapped flux density in the GB area to the averaged top value of the two neighboring peak trapped fields, is introduced to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside a multi-seeded bulk. By the trapped flux density measurement of four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulk samples as representatives, it was found that the GB coupling plays an important role for the improvement of the total trapped magnetic flux; moreover, somewhat more significant than the widely used parameter of the peak trapped fields to evaluate the physical performance of bulk samples. This characteristic is different with the case of the well-grown single-grain bulks.

  7. Perceived Attributes of Factors Influencing Consumers’ Engagement with Electronic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Adewale Muritala

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to critically analyze the relationship between perceived attributes as factors and consumers’ engagement with electronic banking technology. A survey method was used to gather data from 200 secondary school teachers from five selected local government in South-Western part of Nigeria namely; Ibadan North, Egbeda, Ido, Ibadan North-East and Ibadan North-West Local government. Data was collected with a structured questionnaire and analyzed with several descriptive statistics to identify consumers’ engagement in electronic banking technology in Nigeria. The results of the study therefore reveals that the most common influential factors hindering consumers’ adoption of electronic banking in Nigeria are relative advantage of economic gains and non-economic gains, social character, communication behavior, trialability as well as observability. Hence, it therefore recommends that the banks should create channels through which customers’ awareness will be enhanced and employ IT trained personnel to monitor and report any fraudulent transaction in order to secure customers’ trust on safety risk/security.

  8. What teacher factors influence their attributions for children's difficulties in learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Katy; Woolfson, Lisa

    2008-12-01

    Identifying the factors that influence teacher beliefs about teaching children with learning difficulties is important for the success of inclusive education. This study explores the relationship between teachers' role, self-efficacy, attitudes towards disabled people, teaching experience and training, on teachers' attributions for children's difficulties in learning. One hundred and eighteen primary school teachers (44 general mainstream, 33 mainstream learning support, and 41 special education teachers) completed the short form of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale, the Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale (IDP), and a revised version of the Teacher Attribution Scale. Regression analysis found that teachers' role influenced stability and controllability attributions. However, for stability attributions the effect was not sustained when examined in the context of the other factors of teaching efficacy, experience, training, and attitudes towards disability. What emerged as important instead was strong feelings of sympathy towards disabled people which predicted stable attributions about learning difficulties. Experience of teaching children with additional support needs and teaching efficacy positively predicted external locus of causality attributions. Surprisingly, training was not found to have an impact on attributions. A mixed MANOVA found that mainstream teachers' controllability attributions were influenced by whether or not the child had identified learning support needs. Teacher efficacy, experience of teaching students with support needs, attitudes towards disabled people, and teachers' role all impact on teacher attributions, but no relationship with training was found. Implications for teacher training and development, and for student achievement and student self-perception are discussed.

  9. Influence of grain boundary connectivity on the trapped magnetic flux of multi-seeded bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Hara, S.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M.

    2011-09-01

    The top-seeded melt-growth process with multi-seeding technique provides a promising way to fabricate large-sized bulk superconductors in an economical way. To understand the essential characteristics of the multi-seeded bulks, the paper reports the influence of the grain boundary (GB) coupling or connectivity on the total trapped magnetic flux. The coupling ratio, the lowest trapped flux density in the GB area to the averaged top value of the two neighboring peak trapped fields, is introduced to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside a multi-seeded bulk. By the trapped flux density measurement of four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulk samples as representatives, it was found that the GB coupling plays an important role for the improvement of the total trapped magnetic flux; moreover, somewhat more significant than the widely used parameter of the peak trapped fields to evaluate the physical performance of bulk samples. This characteristic is different with the case of the well-grown single-grain bulks.

  10. The influence of lean manufacturing practices in cellular manufacturing qualifying attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Almeida Marodin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate how of lean production (LP influences to a manufacturing cell (MC performance, based on the theoretical study about the attributes that characterize a MC. It was necessary to develop the concept of MC in a socio-technical system perspective, incorporating a technical attribute, a social attribute and the elements of time, space and information to define a "real cell". The results show that most of LM practices aim to increase time and information. The rapid problem solving process and the use of minimal amount of inventory between the activities of the cell seeks to simultaneously reduces the processing time and increase the degree of information. Although influenced to a lesser degree, the organizational attribute and space element are also positively influenced by the practical application of PE.

  11. Trap array configuration influences estimates and precision of black bear density and abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay M Wilton

    Full Text Available Spatial capture-recapture (SCR models have advanced our ability to estimate population density for wide ranging animals by explicitly incorporating individual movement. Though these models are more robust to various spatial sampling designs, few studies have empirically tested different large-scale trap configurations using SCR models. We investigated how extent of trap coverage and trap spacing affects precision and accuracy of SCR parameters, implementing models using the R package secr. We tested two trapping scenarios, one spatially extensive and one intensive, using black bear (Ursus americanus DNA data from hair snare arrays in south-central Missouri, USA. We also examined the influence that adding a second, lower barbed-wire strand to snares had on quantity and spatial distribution of detections. We simulated trapping data to test bias in density estimates of each configuration under a range of density and detection parameter values. Field data showed that using multiple arrays with intensive snare coverage produced more detections of more individuals than extensive coverage. Consequently, density and detection parameters were more precise for the intensive design. Density was estimated as 1.7 bears per 100 km2 and was 5.5 times greater than that under extensive sampling. Abundance was 279 (95% CI = 193-406 bears in the 16,812 km2 study area. Excluding detections from the lower strand resulted in the loss of 35 detections, 14 unique bears, and the largest recorded movement between snares. All simulations showed low bias for density under both configurations. Results demonstrated that in low density populations with non-uniform distribution of population density, optimizing the tradeoff among snare spacing, coverage, and sample size is of critical importance to estimating parameters with high precision and accuracy. With limited resources, allocating available traps to multiple arrays with intensive trap spacing increased the amount of

  12. Influence of resistivity on energetic trapped particle-induced internal kink modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglari, H.; Chen, L.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of resistivity on energetic trapped particle-induced internal kink modes, dubbed ''fishbones'' in the literature, is explored. A general dispersion relation, which recovers the ideal theory in its appropriate limit, is derived and analyzed. An important implication of the theory for present generation fusion devices such as the Joint European Torus [Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (IAEA, London, 1984), Vol I, p.11] is that they will be stable to fishbone activity

  13. Sex, Attribution, and Severity Influence Intervention Decisions of Informal Helpers in Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Heather Frasier; Tracy, Tracy L.; Manning, Christine A.; Poisson, Chelsea A.

    2009-01-01

    Most domestic violence (DV) researchers examine professional intervention (e.g., police and nurses), but informal helpers (e.g., friends and bystanders) are critical. The authors measure undergraduates' intervention likelihood, type of involvement (i.e., contact with abuser), and the influence of attribution decisions in DV situations where the…

  14. The influence of mood on attribution (Retraction of vol 36, pg 1360, 2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramova, Y. R.; Stapel, D. A.; Lerouge, D.

    2012-01-01

    Avramova, Y.R., Stapel, D.A. & Lerouge, D. (2010). The influence of mood on attribution. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1360-1371. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167210381083) Noordewier, M.K., & Stapel, D.A. (2010). Affects of the unexpected: When inconsistency feels good (or bad).

  15. Desire or Disease? Framing Obesity to Influence Attributions of Responsibility and Policy Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Joseph; McGlone, Matthew S

    2018-02-01

    The way we describe health threats affects perceptions of severity and preferred solutions to reduce risk. Most people agree obesity is a problem, but differ in how they attribute responsibility for development and decline of the disease. We explored effects of message framing on attributions of responsibility and support for public obesity policies using a 3 × 2 factorial design. Participants read one of six versions of a health message describing the negative effects of obesity. Message frames influenced respondent attributions and their support for policies to reduce obesity. Those who read a message that assigned agency to the disease (e.g., Obesity causes health problems) endorsed genetics as the cause to a greater degree than those who read a semantically equivalent message that instead assigned agency to people (e.g., Obese people develop health problems). In contrast, assigning agency to people rather than to the disease prompted higher attributions of individual responsibility and support for public policies. Explicit message frames that directly connected responsibility for obesity to either individual or societal factors had no effect on respondent perceptions. Findings suggest explicit arguments may be less effective in shifting perceptions of health threats than arguments embedded in agentic message frames. The results demonstrate specific message features that influence how people attribute responsibility for the onset and solution of obesity.

  16. Greek Co-ops' Re-Engineering: Exploring the Influences among Organizational Attributes, Strategic Attributes, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benos, T.; Kalogeras, N.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We develop an actual classification entailing traditional vs. reengineered cooperative organizational attributes. Using this classification, we conceptualize and empirically investigate three types of relationships: a) organizational (i.e., collective ownership, control and cost/benefit

  17. Influence of trap-assisted tunneling on trap-assisted tunneling current in double gate tunnel field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jiang; Yi-Qi, Zhuang; Cong, Li; Ping, Wang; Yu-Qi, Liu

    2016-02-01

    Trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) has attracted more and more attention, because it seriously affects the sub-threshold characteristic of tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET). In this paper, we assess subthreshold performance of double gate TFET (DG-TFET) through a band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) model, including phonon-assisted scattering and acoustic surface phonons scattering. Interface state density profile (Dit) and the trap level are included in the simulation to analyze their effects on TAT current and the mechanism of gate leakage current. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61574109 and 61204092).

  18. Influence of trap-assisted tunneling on trap-assisted tunneling current in double gate tunnel field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhi; Zhuang Yi-Qi; Li Cong; Wang Ping; Liu Yu-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) has attracted more and more attention, because it seriously affects the sub-threshold characteristic of tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET). In this paper, we assess subthreshold performance of double gate TFET (DG-TFET) through a band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) model, including phonon-assisted scattering and acoustic surface phonons scattering. Interface state density profile (D it ) and the trap level are included in the simulation to analyze their effects on TAT current and the mechanism of gate leakage current. (paper)

  19. Charge trapping/de-trapping in nitrided SiO2 dielectrics and its influence on device reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambour, Kenneth; Hjalmarson, Harold; Nguyen, Duc; Kouhestani, Camron; Devine, Roderick

    2012-02-01

    Field effect devices with insulator gate dielectrics are excellent test vehicles to probe the physics of defects and charge trapping in the insulator/ semiconductor structure. p-channel field effect device reliability under negative bias stressing has been identified to originate from at least two terms: a) charged defect generation at the Si substrate/SiOxNy interface and b) charge trapping at neutral defect pre-cursors in the ``bulk'' of the SiOxNy beyond the interface. Measurements of transistor characteristics enable extraction of the two terms. We report the results of such measurements and demonstrate that short time effects are associated primarily with electric field assisted tunneling of holes from the inversion layer to neutral traps. This is confirmed by bias stressing measurements at different frequencies in the range 1 Hz to 2 MHz. First principles modeling of the tunneling/trapping phenomena is presented. K.Kambour worked under contract FA9453-08-C-0245 with the Air Force Research Laboratory/RVSE. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Influence of social class perceptions on attributions among mental health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mindi; Diestelmann, Jacob; Cole, Odessa; Keller, Abiola; Minami, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    A vignette-based study assessed the influence of social class attributions toward a hypothetical client's difficulty. 188 licensed mental health professionals who were recruited through professional listservs completed an online survey after reviewing one of two versions of a vignette describing a hypothetical client that varied based on social class cues. As expected, this sample of licensed mental health practitioners detected social class differences based on the descriptors of the hypothetical client across the two vignettes. These perceived social class differences, however, did not impact participants' attributions toward the client for causing or solving her problems, level of Global Assessment of Functioning score ascribed to the client, or willingness to work with the client. There was no evidence that participants differentially ascribed attributions based on social class. Implications and directions for future research are provided.

  1. The influences of attributes, skills and knowledge of managers on refurbishment project performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Nurfadzillah

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the momentum on the growth of national building industry shows the increasing of the demand in refurbishment works becomes a trend spreading over the Malaysia. However, the potential of these activities normally related with the complexity in technical aspect compared to new build schemes. It will be reflecting on the unsatisfactory project performance. A competent manager is required to have the appropriate attributes, skills and knowledge in able to perform all the duties associated with managing the refurbishment building projects. Therefore, this paper is to identify the most appropriate attributes, skills and knowledge that required for managers to indicate the relationship between the influences on the refurbishment projects performance. This finding is indicate the importance of development the personal attributes, skills, and knowledge of managers and adds as benefit of raising the profile and image of managers in refurbishment building industry through a dissemination of the findings.

  2. ATTRIBUTES OF FORM IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT THAT INFLUENCE PERCEIVED WALKABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Charles, Pablina Roth Suzanne Lanyi; Shepherd, Dido Tsigaridi Kathrine; Nelson, Kerrie P; Bar, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    A recent focus of design and building regulations, including form-based codes and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development rating system, has been on promoting pedestrian activity. This study assessed perceptions of walkability for residential and commercial streetscapes with different design attributes in order to inform form-based regulations and codes that aim to impact walkability. We scored 424 images on four design attributes purported to influence walkability: variation in building height, variation in building plane, presence of ground-floor windows, and presence of a street focal point. We then presented the images to 45 adults, who were asked to rate the images for walkability. The results showed that perceived walkability varied according to the degree to which a particular design attribute was present, with the presence of ground-floor windows and a street focal point most consistently associated with a space's perceived walkability. Understanding if and which design attributes are most related to walkability could allow planners and developers to focus on the most salient built-environment features influencing physical activity, as well as provide empirical scientific evidence for form-based regulations and zoning codes aimed at impacting walkabilit.

  3. Influences of packaging attributes on consumer purchase decisions for fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsimanis, Georgios; Getter, Kristin; Behe, Bridget; Harte, Janice; Almenar, Eva

    2012-10-01

    Packaging attributes are considered to have an influence on consumer purchase decisions for food and, as a consequence, also on its consumption. To improve the current minimal understanding of these influences for fresh produce, a survey instrument in the form of an online questionnaire has been developed and launched in the US. The first part of the questionnaire covers consumers' preferences for packaging convenience features, characteristics, materials, disposal method, and others for fresh produces in general, and the second focuses on attributes like price, container size, produce shelf life for a specific fresh produce, sweet cherries, to allow us to supply specific values for these factors to the participants. Cluster and conjoint analyses of responses from 292 participants reveal that specific packaging and produce attributes affect consumer purchase decisions of fresh produce in general and of sweet cherries in particular (P ≤ 0.05) and that some are population segment dependent (P ≤ 0.05). For produce packaging in general, 'extend the "best by" date' was ranked as the top convenience feature, the type of packaging material was considered to affect the food product quality (92.7%) and containers made from bio-based materials were highly appealing (3.52 out of 5.00). The most important attributes that affect the purchasing decisions of consumers regarding a specific fresh produce like sweet cherries are price (25%), shelf life (19%) and container size (17.2%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Pheromone Trap Color and Placement on Catch of Male Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato Tuber Moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the damaging pests of potatoes in both field crops and storage worldwide. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of product. Mass trapping application of synthetic pheromone has been found to be effective to control P. operculella; however, several factors have to be optimized for improving its efficiency. This experiment was carried out during the 2012 season, Ardabil province, Iran to evaluate the effectiveness of pheromone trap to capture males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. Particularly, in this experiment the influence of color (yellow, red and green, and height (ground level, 0.3 and 0.6 m of water-pan trap on males captures was tested. The results showed that green traps captured significantly (P < 0.05 more males than red and yellow traps. Water-pan traps placed at 0.6 above plant canopy captured significantly (P < 0.05 the highest number of the moths in comparison to traps placed at ground level and 0.3 m.

  5. Influence of metallurgical heterogeneities on the mechanisms of hydrogen diffusion and trapping of in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudriss, Abdelali

    2012-01-01

    A thorough investigation on the influence of several metallurgical defects on the hydrogen diffusion and trapping was conducted on nickel. This work was conducted towards two scientific orientations. A first approach was to assess the impact of intrinsic defects, especially grain boundaries and geometrically necessary dislocations on the hydrogen transport and segregation mechanisms. Combining microstructural characterizations with electrochemical permeation tests and thermal desorption spectroscopy, it has established that the grain boundaries with ordered structure called 'special grain boundaries' are preferential areas for hydrogen segregation. On the other hand, a second category of grain boundaries called 'general' or 'random' with high free volume and disordered structure are promoters for hydrogen diffusion, and they represent the main sources of the phenomena short circuit diffusion reported in the face-centered cubic materials. The second approach of this work consisted in the study of the interaction of hydrogen with the plastic deformation heterogeneities. The electrochemical permeation tests performed on microstructures obtained by deformation showed that for the traction monotonous, the equiaxed cells and walls of dislocations are the potential traps for hydrogen and they slow its transport, this latter is mainly provided by the interstitial diffusion mechanism. In addition, for fatigue microstructure, rapid diffusivity of hydrogen was recorded, and suggesting that a phenomenon similar to short-circuit diffusion is involved in the transport of hydrogen. On two approaches, the results suggest a contribution of hydrogen in the formation of vacancies. (author) [fr

  6. Individual variation in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to a food cue: influence of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchers, Kyle K; Flagel, Shelly B; O'Donnell, Elizabeth G; Woods, Leah C Solberg; Sarter, Martin; Robinson, Terry E

    2015-02-01

    There is considerable individual variation in the propensity of animals to attribute incentive salience to discrete reward cues, but to date most of this research has been conducted in male rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex influences the propensity to attribute incentive salience to a food cue, using rats from two different outbred strains (Sprague-Dawley [SD] and Heterogeneous Stock [HS]). The motivational value of a food cue was assessed in two ways: (i) by the ability of the cue to elicit approach toward it and (ii) by its ability to act as a conditioned reinforcer. We found that female SD rats acquired Pavlovian conditioned approach behavior slightly faster than males, but no sex difference was detected in HS rats, and neither strain showed a sex difference in asymptotic performance of approach behavior. Moreover, female approach behavior did not differ across estrous cycle. Compared to males, females made more active responses during the test for conditioned reinforcement, although they made more inactive responses as well. We conclude that although there are small sex differences in performance on these tasks, these are probably not due to a notable sex difference in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to a food cue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling the influence of austenitisation temperature on hydrogen trapping in Nb containing martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Peter; Rath, Markus; Kozeschnik, Ernst; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen trapping behaviour is investigated by means of thermokinetic simulations in a martensitic steel. The heat treatment consists of austenitisation followed by quenching and tempering. The model prescribes a minimum in hydrogen trapping at an austenitisation temperature of 1050 °C. Below this temperature, austenite grain boundaries are the prevailing trap, whereas niobium atoms in solid solution are the main traps above 1050 °C. The model describes precisely the experimental results

  8. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap.

  9. Extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase of chocolate milk for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng E; Lopetcharat, Kannapon; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    The consumption of milk is essential for children's heath; and flavored milk, especially chocolate milk, is often purchased to increase children's milk consumption. However, the sugar content of chocolate milk has raised health concerns. As such, it is important to understand chocolate milk extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase decisions when they are purchasing chocolate milk for their children. The objective of this study was to determine the key extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children. An online survey with a conjoint analysis design, emotions questions, and Kano questionnaire that focused on chocolate milk was conducted targeting parents. Three hundred and twelve parents participated in the survey. Parents reported positive emotions including good, good natured, happy, loving, and satisfied when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Three segments of parents were identified with subtle but distinct differences in their key preferences for chocolate milk attributes for their children. Type of sweetener was the primary driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk for children followed by fat content. Among sweetener types, natural noncaloric/nonnutritive sweeteners or sucrose were preferred over artificial sweeteners, and reduced fat was preferred over full fat or skim milk. Kano results revealed that reduced fat and sugar with an all natural label and added vitamins, minerals, and protein were attractive to the majority of parents when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Understanding the driving extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children will assist manufacturers to target extrinsic attributes that are attractive to parents for chocolate milk. This study established that sweetener type and fat content are the primary extrinsic attributes affecting parents purchase decisions when choosing chocolate milk for their children. Different segments of

  10. Influence of alpha-particles on parameters of plasma confined in open traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotaev, P.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The numerical calculations of the longitudinal motion in multi-mirror reactor have shown that the energy contribution of α-particles has substantial influence on the gain factor (the given off thermonuclear energy/ the initial imparted energy) in the temperature region 5-7 keV. The numerical technique has been developed that takes into account the radial distribution of alpha particles caused by their drag on electrons. This effect is substantial for ρ α /R ≥ 1/2 (where ρ α is alpha particles gyro radius, R is plasma radius), e.g. for Gas-Dinamic trap. In a Tandem-Mirror reactor some part of fusion alpha particles have the probability to slow down to the plasma energy, that can lead to the 'poisoning' of the reactor by the thermonuclear reaction products. The fusion alpha particles can have a strong effect on accumulation of impurities with z ≤ 15 and thermal alpha particles in TMR. (orig.)

  11. How leadership attributes influence employee loyalty in the aerospace industry: An exploratory qualitative inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Marriel

    The influence leaders have on employee loyalty in the aerospace industry was examined through exploratory, qualitative inquiry. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted to ascertain the influence of six leadership attributes on loyalty. These specific leadership attributes were addressed based on key themes from the scholarly leadership research and included communication, trust, accountability, understanding, compassion, and recognition. Data were analyzed to identify common themes and patterns among the 21 study participants. Based on the study findings, the majority of participants expressed that they want leaders to communicate--and to do so often and concisely. Participants also voiced that communication was a central component in resolving many of the problems associated with loyalty, such as clarity of direction or sense of inclusion in the organization. The central themes derived from the research include the following: (a) employee loyalty no longer exists when organizational leadership fails to challenge or empower employees or create an opportunity for growth, (b) effective leaders inspire employees by sharing the vision of an organization and including employees in the decision-making process, and (c) organizational culture, values, and effective leadership play an integral role in employee loyalty and long-term commitment to the organization.

  12. Satisfaction with Online Commercial Group Chat: The Influence of Perceived Technology Attributes, Chat Group Characteristics, and Advisor Communication Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dolen, W.M.; Dabholkar, P.A.; de Ruyter, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines online commercial group chat from a structuration theory perspective. The findings support the influence of perceived technology attributes (control, enjoyment, reliability, speed, and ease of use) and chat group characteristics (group involvement, similarity, and receptivity) on

  13. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CERTAIN BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF A LADYBEETLE COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTA TA LINNAEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShefaliSrivastava; Dmkar

    2003-01-01

    Influence of temperature on certain biological attributes of an aphidophagous ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, feeding on mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), at five different temperatures, viz. 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35℃ was investigated. Its developmental period was shortest (11.7±0.09days) at 35℃ and longest (20.6±0.35 days) at 20℃. Developmental rate increased with increase in temperature. Hatching percent, larval survival, adult emergence and growth index were maximum at 30℃ and minimumat 20℃. Oviposition period and fecundity were highest at 30℃ and lowest at 20℃. A positive linear relationship exists between temperature and developmental rate and negative correlation between the duration of immature life stages and temperature. The proportion of developmental period allocated to each immature stage was found to be similar at each temperature regime. Thus, 30℃ was found as the most suitable for C. septempunctata amongst the five temperatures tested.

  14. Can empathy, other personality attributes, and level of positive social influence in medical school identify potential leaders in medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Michalec, Barret; Veloski, J Jon; Tykocinski, Mark L

    2015-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that medical students recognized by peers as the most positive social influencers would score (1) high on measures of engaging personality attributes that are conducive to relationship building (empathy, sociability, activity, self-esteem), and (2) low on disengaging personality attributes that are detrimental to interpersonal relationships (loneliness, neuroticism, aggression-hostility, impulsive sensation seeking). The study included 666 Jefferson Medical College students who graduated in 2011-2013. Students used a peer nomination instrument to identify classmates who had a positive influence on their professional and personal development. At matriculation, these students had completed a survey that included the Jefferson Scale of Empathy and Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire short form and abridged versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and UCLA Loneliness Scale. In multivariate analyses of variance, the method of contrasted groups was used to compare the personality attributes of students nominated most frequently by their peers as positive influencers (top influencers [top 25% in their class distribution], n = 176) with those of students nominated least frequently (bottom influencers [bottom 25%], n = 171). The top influencers scored significantly higher on empathy, sociability, and activity and significantly lower on loneliness compared with the bottom influencers. However, the effect size estimates of the differences were moderate at best. The research hypotheses were partially confirmed. Positive social influencers appear to possess personality attributes conducive to relationship building, which is an important feature of effective leadership. The findings have implications for identifying and training potential leaders in medicine.

  15. Measuring the importance of attributes that influence consumer attitudes to colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Glenn P; Solomon, Michael J; Short, Leonie; Ward, Jeanette

    2003-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to rate the importance of attributes of screening for bowel cancer. Randomly selected households in central Sydney were contacted to identify men and women aged 50-70 years who were then asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire about bowel cancer screening and related issues. Seven hundred and ninety-one residents (362 men and 429 women) returned questionnaires. Respondents were asked to rate the extent to which each of 34 attributes would encourage them to participate in bowel cancer screening. The three most highly rated attributes were: if the test was recommended by their general practitioner (GP; 94% either 'strongly agreed' or 'agreed'); if the test identified early cancers (92%); and if the test would avert a premature death due to bowel cancer (90%). Having a friend or relative with bowel cancer (61%), advertising (41%) or famous people promoting the program (62%) were less influential. Respondents who were unemployed or on a pension were less likely to participate in screening than those who were employed if there was an 'out of pocket' charge of 15.00 Australian dollars (chi 2 = 7.56, 2df, P = 0.006). Respondents with higher levels of education were significantly more concerned than respondents with lower levels of education about test accuracy (chi 2 = 15.76, 2df, P < 0.001), its availability from their local chemist (chi 2 = 16.96, 2df, P < 0.001), being able to return the test kit by post (chi 2 = 21.9, 2df, P < 0.001) or deposit it with their local chemist (chi 2 = 10.0, 2df, P < 0.01). They were also less likely to be influenced by a famous person promoting bowel cancer screening (chi 2 = 18.87, 2df, P < 0.001). Our results endorse the role of the GP in bowel cancer screening. However, the study also has demonstrated that test accuracy, the convenience of the screening service and notification of test results are valued differently by subgroups in the community, according to their level of education.

  16. Influence of brand personality-marker attributes on purchasing intention: the role of emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Gianluigi; Peluso, Alessandro M; Provenzano, Mariarosaria

    2010-06-01

    Marketing researchers employ the Five-Factor Model to describe branded products using attributes of human personality. "Marker attributes" used to elicit these brand personality attributes may be related to consumers' intention to purchase. Two connected studies, carried out on two samples of 91 and 557 participants, respectively, indicated that brand personality-marker attributes predict intention to purchase, but only to the extent that such attributes are "vivid" and, in particular, when they elicit emotional responses (i.e., when they are emotionally interesting). These findings have several implications for people involved in developing strategies for advertising.

  17. Irreversible traps, their influence on the embrittlement of high strength steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, I; Mansilla, G

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen (H) can be trapped in lattice defects such as vacancies, dislocations, grain boundaries and interfaces between the matrix and precipitates. The effect on the mechanical properties depends on factors inherent in materials such as the activation energy of irreversible traps (H trapped in Network Places) and its sensitivity to embrittlement. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) allows the study of those processes in which enthalpy variation occurs. The purpose is to record the difference in enthalpy change that occurs in the sample as a function of temperature or time. This work represents a study of H embrittlement of high strength steel resulfurized

  18. Indirect measurement of lymphatic absorption in CAPD patients is not influenced by trapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, D. G.; Koomen, G. C.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    The disappearance rate of intraperitoneally administered macromolecules is often used to calculate lymphatic absorption during CAPD. The possible contribution of local accumulation (trapping) of such solutes in the tissues surrounding the peritoneal cavity, leading to overestimation of lymphatic

  19. Survival or Mortality: Does Risk Attribute Framing Influence Decision-Making Behavior in a Discrete Choice Experiment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Essers, Brigitte A B; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Dirksen, Carmen D; Smit, Henriette A; de Wit, G Ardine

    2016-01-01

    To test how attribute framing in a discrete choice experiment (DCE) affects respondents' decision-making behavior and their preferences. Two versions of a DCE questionnaire containing nine choice tasks were distributed among a representative sample of the Dutch population aged 55 to 65 years. The DCE consisted of four attributes related to the decision regarding participation in genetic screening for colorectal cancer (CRC). The risk attribute included was framed positively as the probability of surviving CRC and negatively as the probability of dying from CRC. Panel mixed-logit models were used to estimate the relative importance of the attributes. The data of the positively and negatively framed DCE were compared on the basis of direct attribute ranking, dominant decision-making behavior, preferences, and importance scores. The majority (56%) of the respondents ranked survival as the most important attribute in the positively framed DCE, whereas only a minority (8%) of the respondents ranked mortality as the most important attribute in the negatively framed DCE. Respondents made dominant choices based on survival significantly more often than based on mortality. The framing of the risk attribute significantly influenced all attribute-level estimates and resulted in different preference structures among respondents in the positively and negatively framed data set. Risk framing affects how respondents value the presented risk. Positive risk framing led to increased dominant decision-making behavior, whereas negative risk framing led to risk-seeking behavior. Attribute framing should have a prominent part in the expert and focus group interviews, and different types of framing should be used in the pilot version of DCEs as well as in actual DCEs to estimate the magnitude of the effect of choosing different types of framing. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cultural Variations in Mothers' Attributions: Influence of Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Janet W. T.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The attributions made by Chinese immigrant (n = 28) and Euro-Canadian (n = 27) mothers of 5- to 9-year-old boys regarding the causes of child prosocial and problem behaviors exhibited by children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Mothers' attributions were elicited using audio-taped scenarios of…

  1. Tin Oxide Nanowires: The Influence of Trap States on Ultrafast Carrier Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zervos Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have studied the optical properties and carrier dynamics in SnO2nanowires (NWs with an average radius of 50 nm that were grown via the vapor–liquid solid method. Transient differential absorption measurements have been employed to investigate the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers in the SnO2NWs. Steady state transmission measurements revealed that the band gap of these NWs is 3.77 eV and contains two broad absorption bands. The first is located below the band edge (shallow traps and the second near the center of the band gap (deep traps. Both of these absorption bands seem to play a crucial role in the relaxation of the photogenerated carriers. Time resolved measurements suggest that the photogenerated carriers take a few picoseconds to move into the shallow trap states whereas they take ~70 ps to move from the shallow to the deep trap states. Furthermore the recombination process of electrons in these trap states with holes in the valence band takes ~2 ns. Auger recombination appears to be important at the highest fluence used in this study (500 μJ/cm2; however, it has negligible effect for fluences below 50 μJ/cm2. The Auger coefficient for the SnO2NWs was estimated to be 7.5 ± 2.5 × 10−31 cm6/s.

  2. The concept of attributes and preventions of the variables that influence the pipeline risk in the Muhlbauer Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, Alexandro G. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    There are several methods for the risk assessment and risk management applied to pipelines, among them the Muhlbauer's Method. Muhlbauer is an internationally recognized authority on pipeline risk management. The purpose of this model is to evaluate the public exposure to the risk and identify ways for management that risk in fact. The assessment is made by the attribution of quantitative values to the several items that influences in the pipeline risk. Because the ultimate goal of the risk assessment is to provide a means of risk management, it is sometimes useful to make a distinction between two types of risk variables. The risk evaluator can categorize each index risk variable as either an attribute or a prevention. This paper approaches the subject of the definition of attributes and preventions in the Muhlbauer basic model of risk assessment and also presents a classification of the variables that influence the risk in agreement with those two categories. (author)

  3. The Influence of Gender Ideology, Victim Resistance, and Spiking a Drink on Acquaintance Rape Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Smith, Danielle

    2016-02-24

    The current study examined observer's attributions about the victim and perpetrator of an alleged acquaintance rape. Participants included 504 college students from a public university in the northeastern United States who read a brief crime report and completed a series of questionnaires for course credit. While men tended to attribute more blame to the victim than women, gender ideology emerged as a stronger predictor of rape attributions, and some types of sexist beliefs were associated with greater victim blaming and others with less victim blaming. Endorsement of hostile sexism, rape myths, and heterosexual intimacy was generally associated with the attribution of greater victim culpability, as well as less perpetrator culpability, perpetrator criminality, and victim credibility. However, complementary gender differentiation was associated with greater perpetrator culpability and criminality, while protective paternalism was associated with greater victim credibility. Observers attributed lower victim culpability and greater perpetrator criminality when the victim's drink was spiked, and attributed greater perpetrator culpability when the victim verbally resisted the perpetrator's advances. Given the implications that observer attitudes can have on professional and personal support for survivors, as well as juror decision making, the ongoing examination of the complex interplay between the person and situational factors affecting attributions of rape is essential. Sexual assault prevention programs may also benefit from a psychoeducational component that targets reducing traditional gender ideology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. The influence of causal attribution of parents on developing the child enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Causal attributions are affirmed as a cognitive element able to explain emotional and motivational aspects of behaviour of some categories of adult psychiatric patients, primarily depressive ones. Theoretical and practical success of cognitive ideas in explaining the origination of depressive disorders, and in the monitoring of depressive patient treatment has led to further development of theory, but also to the attempt to apply the learning about causal attributions to various problems. Characteristic attempts are those that the problems of child abuse, children’s depression, upbringing problems, school failure, hyperactivity, enuresis, and long-term effects of different child treatment, too, are analysed from the point of view of causal attributions. By assessing parent causal attributions regarding child night urination, we wanted to establish to what extent specific attributions for child behaviour differentiate the parents of children having this problem from those parents whose children have established control. Parents were assessed in terms of four dimensions of causal attributions for child’s problem. Those are the dimensions of globality, counter-lability, internality, and the stability of the cause of child’s problem. The analysis of parent causal attributions show that mothers and fathers in both assessed groups similarly experience the cause of enuretic problems of their children. Enuresis is seen as caused by specific, internal, and instable causes. Such a system of dimensions could correspond to the belief that the main etiological factor of the enuresis is maturing. For more reliable verification of this attitude, longitudinal strategy in research is necessary, especially to comprehend whether parental attributions have been developed as an effect of persistent enuresis, or whether the enuresis is developed as an effect of parental attributions.

  5. Estimating population density for disease risk assessment: The importance of understanding the area of influence of traps using wild pigs as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy J; Leland, Bruce; Bodenchuk, Michael; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Pepin, Kim M

    2017-06-01

    Population density is a key driver of disease dynamics in wildlife populations. Accurate disease risk assessment and determination of management impacts on wildlife populations requires an ability to estimate population density alongside management actions. A common management technique for controlling wildlife populations to monitor and mitigate disease transmission risk is trapping (e.g., box traps, corral traps, drop nets). Although abundance can be estimated from trapping actions using a variety of analytical approaches, inference is limited by the spatial extent to which a trap attracts animals on the landscape. If the "area of influence" were known, abundance estimates could be converted to densities. In addition to being an important predictor of contact rate and thus disease spread, density is more informative because it is comparable across sites of different sizes. The goal of our study is to demonstrate the importance of determining the area sampled by traps (area of influence) so that density can be estimated from management-based trapping designs which do not employ a trapping grid. To provide one example of how area of influence could be calculated alongside management, we conducted a small pilot study on wild pigs (Sus scrofa) using two removal methods 1) trapping followed by 2) aerial gunning, at three sites in northeast Texas in 2015. We estimated abundance from trapping data with a removal model. We calculated empirical densities as aerial counts divided by the area searched by air (based on aerial flight tracks). We inferred the area of influence of traps by assuming consistent densities across the larger spatial scale and then solving for area impacted by the traps. Based on our pilot study we estimated the area of influence for corral traps in late summer in Texas to be ∼8.6km 2 . Future work showing the effects of behavioral and environmental factors on area of influence will help mangers obtain estimates of density from management data, and

  6. Influence of trapping potentials on the phase diagram of bosonic atoms in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampaolo, S.M.; Illuminati, F.; Mazzarella, G.; De Siena, S.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of external trapping potentials on the phase diagram of bosonic atoms in optical lattices. We introduce a generalized Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian that includes the structure of the energy levels of the trapping potential, and show that these levels are in general populated both at finite and zero temperature. We characterize the properties of the superfluid transition for this situation and compare them with those of the standard Bose-Hubbard description. We briefly discuss similar behaviors for fermionic systems

  7. The influence of causal attribution of parents on developing the child enuresis

    OpenAIRE

    Jerković Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Causal attributions are affirmed as a cognitive element able to explain emotional and motivational aspects of behaviour of some categories of adult psychiatric patients, primarily depressive ones. Theoretical and practical success of cognitive ideas in explaining the origination of depressive disorders, and in the monitoring of depressive patient treatment has led to further development of theory, but also to the attempt to apply the learning about causal attributions to various problems. Cha...

  8. Quantifying statistical uncertainty in the attribution of human influence on severe weather

    OpenAIRE

    Paciorek, CJ; Stone, DA; Wehner, MF

    2018-01-01

    © 2018 The Authors Event attribution in the context of climate change seeks to understand the role of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions on extreme weather events, either specific events or classes of events. A common approach to event attribution uses climate model output under factual (real-world) and counterfactual (world that might have been without anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions) scenarios to estimate the probabilities of the event of interest under the two scenarios. Event a...

  9. Evaluation of diffusion coefficients from composition profiles - the influence of trapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    The applicability of the Boltzmann-Matano method for evaluation of a diffusion coefficient and its concentration dependency by line profile analysis is tested on three different (model) systems. All systems involve interstitial diffusion. It is shown that the occurrence of trapping corrupts...... the applicability of the Boltzmann-Matano method....

  10. Determination of depths of multiple traps for interstitials and their influence on diffusion kinetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Shan, Y. V.; Kozeschnik, E.; Fischer, F. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2014), Art. No. 065015 ISSN 0965-0393 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-24252S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : foreign atoms * trapping enthalpy * carbon diffusion * chemical potential * thermodynamic concept Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.167, year: 2014

  11. Influence of ion implanted helium on deuterium trapping in Kh18N10T stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstolutskaya, G.D.; Ruzhitskij, V.V.; Kopanets, I.E.

    2004-01-01

    The results are presented on evolution of distribution profiles and helium and deuterium thermal desorption ion implanted in steel 18Cr10NiTi. Accumulation, trapping, retention and microstructure evolution are studied; effect helium and hydrogen simultaneous implantation on these processes is also studied

  12. Diurnal tidal currents attributed to free baroclinic coastal-trapped waves on the Pacific shelf off the southeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Akira; Isoda, Yutaka; Honda, Satoshi; Ito, Sayaka; Onitsuka, Toshihiro

    2018-04-01

    To understand the properties of tides and tidal currents on the Pacific shelf off the southeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan, we analyzed time series of 9 current meters that were moored on the shelf for 1 month to 2 years. Diurnal tidal currents such as the K1 and O1 constituents were more dominant than semi-diurnal ones by an order of magnitude. The diurnal tidal currents clearly propagated westward along the coast with a typical phase velocity of 2 m s-1 and wavelength of 200 km. Moreover, the shape and phase of the diurnal currents measured by a bottom-mounted ADCP were vertically homogeneous, except in the vicinity of the bottom boundary layer. These features were very consistent with theoretically estimated properties of free baroclinic coastal-trapped waves of the first mode. An annual (semi-annual) variation was apparent for the phase (amplitude) of the O1 tidal current, which was correlated with density stratification (intensity of an along-shelf current called the Coastal Oyashio). These possible causes are discussed in terms of the propagation and generation of coastal-trapped waves.

  13. Influence of Trap Height and Bait Type on Abundance and Species Diversity of Cerambycid Beetles Captured in Forests of East-Central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeelk, Thomas C; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-08-01

    We assessed how height of panel traps above the forest floor, and the type of trap bait used, influenced the abundance and diversity of cerambycid beetles caught in forested areas of east-central Illinois. Panel traps were suspended from branches of hardwood trees at three heights above the ground: understory (∼1.5 m), lower canopy (∼6 m), and midcanopy (∼12 m). Traps were baited with either a multispecies blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones or a fermenting bait mixture. Traps captured a total of 848 beetles of 50 species in the cerambycid subfamilies Cerambycinae, Lamiinae, Lepturinae, and Parandrinae, and one species in the closely related family Disteniidae. The species caught in highest numbers was the cerambycine Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), represented by 349 specimens. The 17 most abundant species (mean ± 1 SD: 45 ± 80 specimens per species) included 12 cerambycine and five lamiine species. Of these most abundant species, 13 (77%) were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone blend. Only the cerambycine Eburia quadrigeminata (Say) was attracted by the fermenting bait. Three species were captured primarily in understory traps, and another five species primarily in midcanopy traps. Variation among cerambycid species in their vertical distribution in forests accounted for similar overall abundances and species richness across trap height treatments. These findings suggest that trapping surveys of native communities of cerambycids, and quarantine surveillance for newly introduced exotic species, would be optimized by including a variety of trap baits and distributing traps across vertical strata of forests. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Recreational preferences of urban teenagers: the influence of cultural and environmental attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. Peterson

    1977-01-01

    The study tests the hypothesis that the recreational preferences of urban teenagers differ with age, sex, ethnicity, and measurable attributes of activity and environment. Photos of activities are used to measure preferences, and the photos are scaled for content by a detailed appraisal. The results show that sex and ethnicity modify the preference process, and that...

  15. The influence of isomer purity on trap states and performance of organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Peter J; Hayes, Jacori; Welchman, Evan; Hallani, Rawad; Pookpanratana, Sujitra J; Hacker, Christina A; Richter, Curt A; Anthony, John E; Thonhauser, Timo; Jurchescu, Oana D

    2017-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) performance is dictated by its composition and geometry, as well as the quality of the organic semiconductor (OSC) film, which strongly depends on purity and microstructure. When present, impurities and defects give rise to trap states in the bandgap of the OSC, lowering device performance. Here, 2,8-difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl)-anthradithiophene is used as a model system to study the mechanism responsible for performance degradation in OFETs due to isomer coexistence. The density of trapping states is evaluated through temperature dependent current-voltage measurements, and it is discovered that OFETs containing a mixture of syn - and anti -isomers exhibit a discrete trapping state detected as a peak located at ~ 0.4 eV above the valence-band edge, which is absent in the samples fabricated on single-isomer films. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations do not point to a significant difference in electronic band structure between individual isomers. Instead, it is proposed that the dipole moment of the syn -isomer present in the host crystal of the anti -isomer locally polarizes the neighboring molecules, inducing energetic disorder. The isomers can be separated by applying gentle mechanical vibrations during film crystallization, as confirmed by the suppression of the peak and improvement in device performance.

  16. Factors influencing capture of invasive sea lamprey in traps baited with a synthesized sex pheromone component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10−12 M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20–40 %) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (pheromone), sea lamprey may have been more responsive to a partial sex pheromone blend emitted from traps. Furthermore, we found that the largest and most consistent responses to 3kPZS were during nights early in the trapping season, when water temperatures were increasing. This may have occurred because, during periods of increasing water temperatures, sea lamprey become more active and males at large may not have begun to release sex pheromone. In general, our results are consistent with those for pheromones of invertebrates, which are most effective when pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low.

  17. The Influence of Trapped Particles on the Parametric Decay Instability of Near-Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, M.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2017-10-01

    We present quantitative measurements of a decay instability to lower frequencies of near-acoustic waves. These experiments are conducted on pure ion plasmas confined in a cylindrical Penning-Malmberg trap. The axisymmetric, standing plasma waves have near-acoustic dispersion, discretized by the axial wave number kz =mz(π /Lp) . The nonlinear coupling rates are measured between large amplitude mz = 2 (pump) waves and small amplitude mz = 1 (daughter) waves, which have a small frequency detuning Δω = 2ω1 -ω2 . Classical 3-wave parametric coupling rates are proportional to pump wave amplitude as Γ (δn2 /n0) , with oscillatory energy exchange for Γ Δω / 2 . Experiments on cold plasmas agree quantitatively for oscillatory energy exchange, and agree within a factor-of-two for decay instability rates. However, nascent theory suggest that this latter agreement is merely fortuitous, and that the instability mechanism is trapped particles. Experiments at higher temperatures show that trapped particles reduce the instability threshold below classical 3-wave theory predictions. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1414570, and DOE Grants DE-SC0002451 and DE-SC0008693. M. Affolter is supported by the DOE FES Postdoctoral Research Program administered by ORISE for the DOE. ORISE is managed by ORAU under DOE Contract Number DE-SC0014664.

  18. Does Trapping Influence Decision-Making under Ambiguity in White-Lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Siqueira da Cunha Nogueira

    Full Text Available The white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari is an endangered species whose bold anti-predator behaviour in comparison to related species may increase its vulnerability to hunting and predation. We used a judgement bias test to investigate whether captive peccaries that had recently experienced a trapping event made more 'pessimistic' decisions under ambiguity. If so, this would indicate (i that the procedure may induce a negative affective state and hence have welfare implications, and (ii that the species is able to adopt a cautious response style despite its bold phenotype. Eight individuals were trained to 'go' to a baited food bowl when a positive auditory cue (whistle; CS+ was given and to 'no-go' when a negative cue (horn A; CS- was sounded to avoid a loud sound and empty food bowl. An 'ambiguous' auditory cue (bell; CSA was presented to probe decision-making under ambiguity. Individuals were subjected to three tests in the order: T1 (control-no trap, T2 (24h after-trap procedure, and T3 (control-no trap. In each test, each animal was exposed to 10 judgement bias trials of each of the three cue types: CS+,CS-,CSA. We recorded whether animals reached the food bowl within 60s ('go' response and their response speed (m/s. The animals varied in their responses to the CSA cue depending on test type. In all tests, animals made more 'go' responses to CS+ than CSA. During control tests (T1 and T3, the peccaries showed higher proportions of 'go' responses to CSA than to CS-. In T2, however, the animals showed similar proportions of 'go' responses to CSA and CS-, treating the ambiguous cue similarly to the negative cue. There were differences in their response speed according to cue type: peccaries were faster to respond to CS+ than to CS- and CSA. Trapping thus appeared to cause a 'pessimistic' judgement bias in peccaries, which may reflect a negative affective state with implications for the welfare and management of captive individuals, and also

  19. Influence of raw material properties upon critical quality attributes of continuously produced granules and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Wickström, Henrika; Peeters, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    over a range of raw material attributes, manufacturing process options and process parameters. This fits further into the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The present study evaluates the effect of variation in critical raw material properties on the critical......-Lactose-PVP (30-67.5-2.5%) was used as model formulation. Seven different grades of theophylline were granulated. Afterward, the obtained granules were tableted. Both the characteristics of granules and tablets were determined. The results show that differences in raw material properties both affect...... quality attributes of granules and tablets, produced by a continuous from-powder-to-tablet wet granulation line. The granulation process parameters were kept constant to examine the differences in the end product quality caused by the variability of the raw materials properties only. Theophylline...

  20. Influences of Product Temperature on Emotional Responses to, and Sensory Attributes of, Coffee and Green Tea Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudya, Ragita C.; Seo, Han-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Coffee and green tea are popular beverages consumed at both hot and cold temperatures. When people consume hot beverages concurrently with other activities, they may experience at different temperatures over the period of consumption. However, there has been limited research investigating the effects of product temperatures on emotional responses and sensory attributes of beverages. This study aimed to determine whether emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, brewed coffee and green tea vary as a function of sample temperature. Using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) method, 157 participants (79 for coffee and 78 for green tea) were asked to evaluate either coffee or green tea samples served at cold (5°C), ambient (25°C), and hot (65°C) temperatures with respect to emotional responses and sensory attributes. The results showed that sample temperature could have significant influences on emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea samples. More specifically, 6 and 18 sensory attributes of coffee and green tea samples, respectively, significantly differed with sample temperature. Beverage samples evaluated at 65°C were characterized, regardless of activation/arousal level, by positive emotional responses terms and favorable sensory attributes. While beverages evaluated at 25°C were associated more with negative emotional responses with low activation/arousal, those evaluated at 5°C were more frequently characterized as having negative emotional responses with high activation/arousal. Sensory and emotional drivers of liking for both coffee and green tea differed both with sample temperature and gender. While both emotional responses and sensory attributes were identified as drivers of liking among females, only emotional responses were identified as drivers of liking among males. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that both emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea beverages can

  1. Influence of thermoluminescence trapping parameter from abundant quartz powder on equivalent dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiuyue; Wei Mingjian; Song Bo; Pan Baolin; Zhou Rui

    2014-01-01

    Glow curves of abundant quartz powder were obtained with the RGD-3B thermoluminescence (TL) reader. TL peaks with 448, 551, 654, 756 K were identified at the heating rate of 5 K/s. The activation energy, frequency factor and lifetime of trapped charge were evaluated at ambient temperature for four peaks by the method of various heating rates. Within a certain range of activation energy, the equivalent dose increases exponentially with the activation energy. The equivalent dose increases from 54 Gy to 485 Gy with the temperature from 548 K to 608 K, and it fluctuates around 531 Gy with the temperature from 608 K to 748 K. (authors)

  2. Friendship selection and friends' influence : Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, Andrea Beate

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents

  3. Influence of the shear flow on electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement in an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izotov, I. V.; Razin, S. V.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Beklemishev, A. D.; Prikhodko, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    Influence of shear flows of the dense plasma created under conditions of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) gas breakdown on the plasma confinement in the axisymmetric mirror trap (''vortex'' confinement) was studied experimentally and theoretically. A limiter with bias potential was set inside the mirror trap for plasma rotation. The limiter construction and the optimal value of the potential were chosen according to the results of the preliminary theoretical analysis. This method of ''vortex'' confinement realization in an axisymmetric mirror trap for non-equilibrium heavy-ion plasmas seems to be promising for creation of ECR multicharged ion sources with high magnetic fields, more than 1 T.

  4. Influence of the shear flow on electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement in an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, I V; Razin, S V; Sidorov, A V; Skalyga, V A; Zorin, V G; Bagryansky, P A; Beklemishev, A D; Prikhodko, V V

    2012-02-01

    Influence of shear flows of the dense plasma created under conditions of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) gas breakdown on the plasma confinement in the axisymmetric mirror trap ("vortex" confinement) was studied experimentally and theoretically. A limiter with bias potential was set inside the mirror trap for plasma rotation. The limiter construction and the optimal value of the potential were chosen according to the results of the preliminary theoretical analysis. This method of "vortex" confinement realization in an axisymmetric mirror trap for non-equilibrium heavy-ion plasmas seems to be promising for creation of ECR multicharged ion sources with high magnetic fields, more than 1 T.

  5. Predicting Days on Market: The Influence of Environmental and Home Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Culp

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the difference in the number of days a home will remain on the market based upon its environmental attributes. Using on-site inspections of 3088 home sites, the results, using two-stage least squares, show that time on market is reduced and price increased by a variety of green features such as trees, landscaping, open spaces and parks, while time on market is increased and/or price decreased by man-made obstructions such as power lines, roads near the home, train tracks,...

  6. Predicting higher selection in elite junior Australian Rules football: The influence of physical performance and anthropometric attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sam; Woods, Carl; Gastin, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To develop a physiological performance and anthropometric attribute model to predict Australian Football League draft selection. Cross-sectional observational. Data was obtained (n=4902) from three Under-18 Australian football competitions between 2010 and 2013. Players were allocated into one of the three groups, based on their highest level of selection in their final year of junior football (Australian Football League Drafted, n=292; National Championship, n=293; State-level club, n=4317). Physiological performance (vertical jumps, agility, speed and running endurance) and anthropometric (body mass and height) data were obtained. Hedge's effect sizes were calculated to assess the influence of selection-level and competition on these physical attributes, with logistic regression models constructed to discriminate Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players. Rule induction analysis was undertaken to determine a set of rules for discriminating selection-level. Effect size comparisons revealed a range of small to moderate differences between State-level club players and both other groups for all attributes, with trivial to small differences between Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players noted. Logistic regression models showed multistage fitness test, height and 20 m sprint time as the most important attributes in predicting Draft success. Rule induction analysis showed that players displaying multistage fitness test scores of >14.01 and/or 20 m sprint times of football players being recruited to the highest level of the sport. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biotic and abiotic factors influencing growth rate and production of traps by the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans when induced by Cooperia oncophora larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, J.; Wolstrup, J.; Nansen, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of experiments on corn meal agar was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in different abiotic and biotic conditions which occur in cow pats. Above a concentration of 50 parasitic larvae (L-3) cm(-2) the fungus produced a maximum...... of between 500 and 600 nets cm(-2) at 20 degrees C in 2 days on the surface of corn meal agar. There were no differences in the trap-producing capacity of three strains of D. flagrans (CIII4, CI3 and Trol A). On agar at 30 degrees and 20 degrees C, the fungus responded to Coaperia oncophora L-3 very quickly...... anaerobically. On agar, D. flagrans (CI3) did not produce trapping nets in an anaerobic atmosphere. Moreover, C. oncophora L-3 stopped migration under anaerobic conditions. When the fungal cultures were transferred to a normal aerobic atmosphere, after 1 and 2 weeks under anaerobic conditions, the C. oncophora...

  8. Influence of special attributes of zeotropic refrigerant mixtures on design and operation of vapour compression refrigeration and heat pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajapaksha, Leelananda

    2007-01-01

    The use of zeotropic refrigerant mixtures introduces a number of novel issues that affect the established design and operational practices of vapour compression systems used in refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pump applications. Two attributes; composition shift and temperature glide, associated with the phase changing process of zeotropic mixtures are the primary phenomena that bring in these issues. However, relevant researches are uncovering ways how careful system designs and selection of operational parameters allow improving the energy efficiency and the capacity of vapour compression refrigeration systems. Most of these concepts exploit the presence of composition shift and temperature glide. This paper qualitatively discusses how the mixture attributes influence the established heat exchanger design practices, performance and operation of conventional vapour compression systems. How the temperature glide and composition shift can be incorporated to improve the system performance and the efficiency are also discussed

  9. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês P. Corso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.

  10. Attribution of Anthropogenic Influence on Atmospheric Patterns Conducive to Recent Most Severe Haze Over Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Liao, Hong; Cai, Wenju; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Severe haze pollution in eastern China has caused substantial health impacts and economic loss. Conducive atmospheric conditions are important to affect occurrence of severe haze events, and circulation changes induced by future global climate warming are projected to increase the frequency of such events. However, a potential contribution of an anthropogenic influence to recent most severe haze (December 2015 and January 2013) over eastern China remains unclear. Here we show that the anthropogenic influence, which is estimated by using large ensemble runs with a climate model forced with and without anthropogenic forcings, has already increased the probability of the atmospheric patterns conducive to severe haze by at least 45% in January 2013 and 27% in December 2015, respectively. We further confirm that simulated atmospheric circulation pattern changes induced by anthropogenic influence are driven mainly by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Our results suggest that more strict reductions in pollutant emissions are needed under future anthropogenic warming.

  11. Bran characteristics influencing quality attributes of whole wheat Chinese steamed bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the variations in the characteristics of brans obtained from a pilot-scale milling of 17 soft red winter wheat varieties and their influences on the quality of whole wheat northern-style Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from blends of a base flour and brans of different w...

  12. The influence of patient gender on medical and psychology students' illness attributions: experiences with a narrative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csörsz, Ilona; Kakuk, Péter; Mills, Eszter M; Molnár, Péter; Máth, János; Csabai, Márta

    2014-05-01

    We attempted to identify whether and how the gender of the patient influences interpretations of an illness narrative. We investigated how medical and psychology undergraduates' (n = 313) views change according to the patient's gender, students' gender, and field of study. A short story about a female patient was chosen as stimulus material, and a gender-modified version with a male protagonist was created for comparison. Responses were content analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods. The female patient elicited more detailed descriptions and somatizing attributions. The gender of students had a stronger impact on responses than their field of study.

  13. Attribution of intentional causation influences the perception of observed movements: Behavioural evidence and neural correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Moore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on human agency suggests that intentional causation is associated with a subjective compression in the temporal interval between actions and their effects. That is, intentional movements and their causal effects are perceived as closer together in time than equivalent unintentional movements and their causal effects. This so-called intentional binding effect is consistently found for one’s own self-generated actions. It has also been suggested that intentional binding occurs when observing intentional movements of others. However, this evidence is undermined by limitations of the paradigm used. In the current study we aimed to overcome these limitations using a more rigorous design in combination with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to explore the neural underpinnings of intentional binding of observed movements. In particular, we aimed to identify brain areas sensitive to the interaction between intentionality and causality attributed to the observed action. Our behavioural results confirmed the occurrence of intentional binding for observed movements using this more rigorous paradigm. Our fMRI results highlighted a collection of brain regions whose activity was sensitive to the interaction between intentionality and causation. Intriguingly, these brain regions have previously been implicated in the sense of agency over one’s own movements. We discuss the implications of these results for intentional binding specifically, and the sense of agency more generally.

  14. The Influence of Package Attributes on Consumer Perception at the Market With Healthy Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Ježovičová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides findings about how packaging of healthy foods is perceived by consumers. The primary data were collected by eye-tracking using the SMI RED 250. This investigation analyzed 12 healthy products and it was completed by 50 respondents. This method was supplemented with in-depth interviews with the same respondents who participated in the eye-tracking research. A questionnaire survey (n = 261 was also a part of the research. Based on these two methods, real and declared consumer behavior can be recognized and the differences between these behaviors can be identified. The main interest was to determine which package attributes of healthy foods are the most interesting according to consumers. The research shows that the most attention in terms of information is devoted to nutritional value, food composition and also country of origin. Furthermore, the attention was focused on the most suitable packaging materials for various kinds of products as well as colors used on the packaging of these foods. The results provide valuable information to create an attractive and effective packaging of healthy products.

  15. Influence of the shape on the consumers perception of the packaging attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Vladić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaging for fast moving consumer goods (FMCG demands constant attention in order to stay competitive in modern dynamic markets. FMCG consumers do not think about the purchasing product until they enter the place of purchase. This emphasizes importance of the communication in a place of purchase. Alongside promotional banners, displays and counters, packaging can be used for this purpose. While in-store promotional banners, displays and counters represent additional cost, the packaging as the integral part of the product can be used as an important marketing tool that does not add to product cost. Thus packaging becomes an important marketing tool that does not add to product cost. Marketers, distributors and researchers as well must take into consideration the complexity of consumer behaviour to achieve desired results. Alongside graphic design, material, colour, etc. packaging shape is considered as an important tool for product differentiation and promotion. Having this in mind, it is unclear why the influence of the packaging shape on the consumer remains the least examined of all packaging characteristics. The aim of this research is to understand the influence of packaging shape design on the consumer’s perception. The survey study conducted among the consumers of the fast moving consumer goods gave clear insight into the influence of packaging shape on the perception of packaging characteristics. The results can help to improve packaging shape design in order to achieve better market impact.

  16. Attributes of seasonal home range influence choice of migratory strategy in white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Charles R.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Myers, Woodrow L.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Nelson, Gerald P.

    2018-01-01

    Partial migration is a common life-history strategy among ungulates living in seasonal environments. The decision to migrate or remain on a seasonal range may be influenced strongly by access to high-quality habitat. We evaluated the influence of access to winter habitat of high quality on the probability of a female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) migrating to a separate summer range and the effects of this decision on survival. We hypothesized that deer with home ranges of low quality in winter would have a high probability of migrating, and that survival of an individual in winter would be influenced by the quality of their home range in winter. We radiocollared 67 female white-tailed deer in 2012 and 2013 in eastern Washington, United States. We estimated home range size in winter using a kernel density estimator; we assumed the size of the home range was inversely proportional to its quality and the proportion of crop land within the home range was proportional to its quality. Odds of migrating from winter ranges increased by 3.1 per unit increase in home range size and decreased by 0.29 per unit increase in the proportion of crop land within a home range. Annual survival rate for migrants was 0.85 (SD = 0.05) and 0.84 (SD = 0.09) for residents. Our finding that an individual with a low-quality home range in winter is likely to migrate to a separate summer range accords with the hypothesis that competition for a limited amount of home ranges of high quality should result in residents having home ranges of higher quality than migrants in populations experiencing density dependence. We hypothesize that density-dependent competition for high-quality home ranges in winter may play a leading role in the selection of migration strategy by female white-tailed deer.

  17. Influence of galactooligosaccharides and modified waxy maize starch on some attributes of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Laxmi N; Sherkat, Frank; Shah, Nagendra P

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and modified waxy maize starch (MWMS) addition on the growth of starter cultures, and syneresis and firmness of low-fat yogurt during storage for 28 d at 4 °C. The control yogurt (CY) was prepared without any prebiotics. Incorporation of 2.0% (w/v) GOS improved the growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 resulting in a shorter fermentation time. There was a significant (P yogurt made with GOS (GOSY) as measured by absorbance value (0.728). Addition of GOS resulted in higher (P 0.05) difference in the firmness among the 3 types of yogurt. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Influence of baking conditions on the quality attributes of sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureta, M Micaela; Olivera, Daniela F; Salvadori, Viviana O

    2017-03-01

    Sponge cake is a sweet bakery product characterized by its aerated and soft crumb and by its thin-coloured crust. The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of baking conditions (natural or forced convection, steam injection, oven temperature from 140 ℃ to 180 ℃) on sponge cake quality. Both crust and crumb regions were characterized by means of colour development, water content, crust/crumb relation, crust thickness and crumb structure (in terms of porosity, crumb density and texture). Colour measurements allowed obtaining an accurate model for browning kinetics. Crumb water content remains almost constant, while considerable dehydration occurs in the crust. In general, no significant differences due to baking conditions were found in the instrumental quality analysis.

  19. Variability in social reasoning: The influence of attachment security on the attribution of goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Dunfield

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last half decade there has been a growing move to apply the methods and theory of cognitive development to questions regarding infants’ social understanding. Though this combination has afforded exciting opportunities to better understand our species’ unique social cognitive abilities, the resulting findings do not always lead to the same conclusions. For example, a growing body of research has found support for both universal similarity and individual differences in infants’ social reasoning about others’ responses to incomplete goals. The present research examines this apparent contradiction by assessing the influence of attachment security on the ability of university undergraduates to represent instrumental needs versus social-emotional distress. When the two varieties of goals were clearly differentiated, we observed a universally similar pattern of results (Expt. 1a/b. However, when the goals were combined, and both instrumental need and social-emotional distress were presented together, individual differences emerged (Expt. 2, 3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that by integrating the two perspectives of shared universals and individual differences, important points of contact can be revealed supporting a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the nature of human social reasoning.

  20. The influence of additives and drying methods on quality attributes of fish protein powder made from saithe (Pollachius virens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Arason, Sigurjon; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Sveinsdottir, Kolbrun

    2010-09-01

    Fish protein powder (FPP) is used in the food industry for developing formulated food products. This study investigates the feasibility of increasing the value of saithe (Pollachius virens) by producing a functional FPP. Quality attributes of spray and freeze-dried saithe surimi containing lyoprotectants were studied. A freeze-dried saithe surimi without lyoprotectants was also prepared as a control sample. The amount of protein, moisture, fat and carbohydrate in the FPPs were 745-928, 39-58, 21-32 and 10-151 g kg(-1). Quality attributes of FPPs were influenced by the two drying methods and lyoprotectants. The highest level of lipid oxidation was found in the control and the second highest in the spray-dried FPP. The spray-dried fish protein had the lowest viscosity among all FPPs. Gel-forming ability of samples with lyoprotectants was higher than that of the control. Water-binding capacity, emulsion properties and solubility of the freeze-dried fish protein containing lyoprotectants were significantly higher than spray-dried and control samples. However, functional properties of spray-dried FPP were higher than the control sample. It is feasible to develop value-added FPP from saithe surimi using spray- and freeze-drying processes, but freeze-dried FPP containing lyoprotectant had superior functional properties and stability compared with spray-dried sample. Both products might be used as functional protein ingredients in various food systems. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Influence of traps on the deuterium behaviour in the low activation martensitic steels F82H and Batman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, E.

    1997-01-01

    A time dependent permeation method is used to measure the permeability, diffusivity and solubility of deuterium in the low activation martensitic steels F82H and Batman. The measurements cover the temperature range from 373 to 743 K which includes the onset of deuterium trapping effects on diffusivity and solubility. The results are interpreted using a trapping model. The number of trap sites and their average energies for deuterium in F82H and Batman steels are determined. (orig.)

  2. Influence of traps on the deuterium behaviour in the low activation martensitic steels F82H and Batman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, E.; Perujo, A.; Benamati, G.

    1997-06-01

    A time dependent permeation method is used to measure the permeability, diffusivity and solubility of deuterium in the low activation martensitic steels F82H and Batman. The measurements cover the temperature range from 373 to 743 K which includes the onset of deuterium trapping effects on diffusivity and solubility. The results are interpreted using a trapping model. The number of trap sites and their average energies for deuterium in F82H and Batman steels are determined.

  3. Traps and transformations influencing the financial viability of tourism on private-land conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Hayley S; Cumming, Graeme S

    2018-04-01

    The ability of private conservation organizations to remain financially viable is a key factor influencing their effectiveness. One-third of financially motivated private-land conservation areas (PLCAs) surveyed in South Africa are unprofitable, raising questions about landowners' abilities to effectively adapt their business models to the socioeconomic environment. In any complex system, options for later adaptation can be constrained by starting conditions (path dependence). We tested 3 hypothesized drivers of path dependence in PLCA ecotourism and hunting business models: (H1) the initial size of a PLCA limits the number of mammalian game and thereby predators that can be sustained; (H2) initial investments in infrastructure limit the ability to introduce predators; and (H3) rainfall limits game and predator abundance. We further assessed how managing for financial stability (optimized game stocking) or ecological sustainability (allowing game to fluctuate with environmental conditions) influenced the ability to overcome path dependence. A mechanistic PLCA model based on simple ecological and financial rules was run for different initial conditions and management strategies, simulating landowner options for adapting their business model annually. Despite attempts by simulated landowners to increase profits, adopted business models after 13 years were differentiated by initial land and infrastructural assets, supporting H1 and H2. A conservation organization's initial assets can cause it to become locked into a financially vulnerable business model. In our 50-year simulation, path dependence was overcome by fewer of the landowners who facilitated natural ecological variability than those who maintained constant hunting rates and predator numbers, but the latter experienced unsustainably high game densities in low rainfall years. Management for natural variability supported long-term ecological sustainability but not shorter term socioeconomic sustainability for

  4. Factors Influencing Male Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Capture Rates in Sex Pheromone-Baited Traps on Canola in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miluch, C E; Dosdall, L M; Evenden, M L

    2014-12-01

    Optimization of male moth trapping rates in sex pheromone-baited traps plays a key role in managing Plutella xylostella (L.). We investigated various ways to increase the attractiveness of pheromone-baited traps to P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems in AB, Canada. Factors tested included pheromone blend and dose, addition of a green leaf volatile to the pheromone at different times during the season, lure type, trap color, and height. The industry standard dose of 100 μg of pheromone (four-component blend) per lure (ConTech Enterprises Inc., Delta, British Columbia [BC], Canada) captured the most moths in the two lure types tested. Traps baited with pheromone released from gray rubber septa captured more males than those baited with red rubber septa. Traps baited with lures in which Z11-16: Ac is the main component attracted significantly more moths than those in which Z11-16: Ald is the main component. The addition of the green leaf volatile, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, to pheromone at a range of doses, did not increase moth capture at any point during the canola growing season. Unpainted white traps captured significantly more male moths than pheromone-baited traps that were painted yellow. Trap height had no significant effect on moth capture. Recommendations for monitoring P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems of western Canada include using a pheromone blend with Z11-16: Ac as the main component released from gray rubber septa at a dose of 100 μg. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  5. The influence of moonlight and lunar periodicity on the efficacy of CDC light trap in sampling Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis Parrot, 1936 and other Phlebotomus sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Kirstein, Oscar David; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-02-15

    Phlebotomus orientalis is the main sandfly vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the north and northwest of Ethiopia. CDC light traps and sticky traps are commonly used for monitoring sandfly populations. However, their trapping efficiency is greatly influenced by various environmental factors including moonlight and lunar periodicity. In view of that, the current study assessed the effect of moonlight and lunar periodicity on the performance of light traps in collecting P. orientalis. Trapping of P. orientalis and other Phlebotomus spp. was conducted for 7 months between December 2012 and June 2013 using CDC light traps and sticky traps from peri-domestic and agricultural fields. Throughout the trapping periods, collections of sandfly specimens were carried out for 4 nights per month, totaling 28 trapping nights that coincided with the four lunar phases (viz., first quarter, third quarter, new and full moon) distributed in each month. In total, 13,533 sandflies of eight Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. bergeroti, P. rodhaini, P. duboscqi, P. papatasi, P. martini, P. lesleyae and P. heischi) were recorded. The predominant species was P. orientalis in both trapping sites and by both methods of collection in all lunar phases. A significant difference (P lunar phases. The highest mean number (231.13 ± 36.27 flies/trap/night) of P. orientalis was collected during the new moon phases, when the moonlight is absent. Fewer sandflies were attracted to light traps during a full moon. However, the number of P. orientalis and the other Phlebotomus spp. from sticky traps did not differ in their density among the four lunar phases (P = 0.122). Results of the current study demonstrated that the attraction and trapping efficiency of CDC light traps is largely influenced by the presence moonlight, especially during a full moon. Therefore, sampling of sandflies using light traps to estimate population density and other epidemiological studies in the field should take

  6. The influence of culture on the assessment of the importance of decision attributes ; Germany versus the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, H.; Köster, Ch.; Ulijn, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether cultural differences between Dutch and German individual actors lead to different ways of assessing the importance of decision attributes (which may or may not lead to different attribute weights). During think-aloud sessions, German and Dutch students performed an importance

  7. The influence of culture on the assessment of the importance of decision attributes; Germany versus the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.; Koster, Christoph; Ulijn, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether cultural differences between Dutch and German individual actors lead to different ways of assessing the importance of decision attributes (which may or may not lead to different attribute weights). During think-aloud sessions, German and Dutch students performed an importance

  8. Factors Influencing Students' Perceptions of Graduate Attribute Acquisition in a Multidisciplinary Honours Track in a Dutch University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Suhre, C. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the relationship between students' perceptions of teaching and learning in a multidisciplinary honours programme and their impact on graduate attributes acquisition. The study, conducted among 73 honours students in a Dutch research university, evaluates perceived improvement in graduate attributes through annually collected…

  9. What is the source of cultural differences? -- Examining the influence of thinking style on the attribution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Chun-Hui; Lien, Yunn-Wen

    2010-02-01

    The present research is intended to find out whether individuals with analytic or holistic thought have different attribution processes. Cross-cultural research has suggested that East Asians, who tend to have a holistic thought pattern, differ in cognitive process from Westerners, who tend to engage in analytic thought. However, studies that found cultural difference in attribution process may have non-equivalence problems that make it hard to interpret the causal relationship between thinking style and attribution process. The present research extends this by measuring participants' thinking style within a single culture in order to ensure equivalence on potentially confounding variables such as prior knowledge and cognitive capacity. Two experiments demonstrate that both types of thinkers have identical attribution processes and suggest different thinking styles might relate to different tendencies toward situational information, but not to the attribution process itself. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A new method for selectively enhancing hemisphere processing: voice frequency amplification influences the strength of attribute framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Michael; Seta, John J

    2012-01-01

    An attribute framing effect occurs when positive or negative associations produced by positive or negative frames are mapped onto evaluations resulting in a more favourable evaluation for the positively framed attribute. We used a new voice frequency manipulation to differentially enhance right versus left hemisphere processing. In doing so we found a strong attribute framing effect when a speaker with a low-frequency voice enhanced the contextual processing style of the right hemisphere. However, a framing effect was not obtained when a speaker with a high-frequency voice enhanced the inferential/analytical processing style of the left hemisphere. At the theoretical level our results provide evidence that the contextual processing style of the right hemisphere is especially susceptible to associative implications, such as those found in attribute framing manipulations. At the applied level we provide a simple method for altering the effectiveness of persuasion messages.

  11. Factors influencing students’ perceptions of graduate attribute acquisition in a multidisciplinary honours track in a Dutch university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.P.W.A.; Suhre, C.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the relationship between students’ perceptions of teaching and learning in a multidisciplinary honours programme and their impact on graduate attributes acquisition. The study, conducted among 73 honours students in a Dutch research university, evaluates perceived improvement in

  12. Integrating sensory evaluation in adaptive conjoint analysis to elaborate the conflicting influence of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppert, Karin; Mai, Robert; Zahn, Susann; Hoffmann, Stefan; Rohm, Harald

    2012-12-01

    Sensory properties and packaging information are factors which considerably contribute to food choice. We present a new methodology in which sensory preference testing was integrated in adaptive conjoint analysis. By simultaneous variation of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on identical levels, this procedure allows assessing the importance of attribute/level combinations on product selection. In a set-up with nine pair-wise comparisons and four subsequent calibration assessments, 101 young consumers evaluated vanilla yoghurt which was varied in fat content (four levels), sugar content (two levels) and flavour intensity (two levels); the same attribute/level combinations were also presented as extrinsic information. The results indicate that the evaluation of a particular attribute may largely diverge in intrinsic and in extrinsic processing. We noticed from our utility values that, for example, the acceptance of yoghurt increases with an increasing level of the actual fat content, whereas acceptance diminishes when a high fat content is labelled on the product. This article further implicates that neglecting these diverging relationships may lead to an over- or underestimation of the importance of an attribute for food choice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How do health information and sensory attributes influence consumer choice for dairy products? Evidence from a field experiment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, A.D.; Beuving, J.J.; Ruben, R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The research aims to examine the effect of health information and sensory attributes on consumer’s propensity to upgrade and their willingness to pay for pasteurized milk in Ethiopia. Design/methodology/approach: We used a framed market experiment with 160 participants in 14 central

  14. How do health information and sensory attributes influence consumer choice for dairy products? Evidence from a field experiment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, Alemayehu Dekeba; Beuving, Joost; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of health information and sensory attributes on consumer’s propensity to upgrade and their willingness to pay (WTP) for pasteurized milk in Ethiopia. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a framed market experiment with 160

  15. Habitat selection in a rocky landscape: experimentally decoupling the influence of retreat site attributes from that of landscape features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Croak

    Full Text Available Organisms selecting retreat sites may evaluate not only the quality of the specific shelter, but also the proximity of that site to resources in the surrounding area. Distinguishing between habitat selection at these two spatial scales is complicated by co-variation among microhabitat factors (i.e., the attributes of individual retreat sites often correlate with their proximity to landscape features. Disentangling this co-variation may facilitate the restoration or conservation of threatened systems. To experimentally examine the role of landscape attributes in determining retreat-site quality for saxicolous ectotherms, we deployed 198 identical artificial rocks in open (sun-exposed sites on sandstone outcrops in southeastern Australia, and recorded faunal usage of those retreat sites over the next 29 months. Several landscape-scale attributes were associated with occupancy of experimental rocks, but different features were important for different species. For example, endangered broad-headed snakes (Hoplocephalus bungaroides preferred retreat sites close to cliff edges, flat rock spiders (Hemicloea major preferred small outcrops, and velvet geckos (Oedura lesueurii preferred rocks close to the cliff edge with higher-than-average sun exposure. Standardized retreat sites can provide robust experimental data on the effects of landscape-scale attributes on retreat site selection, revealing interspecific divergences among sympatric taxa that use similar habitats.

  16. Survival or Mortality : Does Risk Attribute Framing Influence Decision-Making Behavior in a Discrete Choice Experiment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Essers, Brigitte A B; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Dirksen, Carmen D; Smit, Henriette A; de Wit, G Ardine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test how attribute framing in a discrete choice experiment (DCE) affects respondents' decision-making behavior and their preferences. METHODS: Two versions of a DCE questionnaire containing nine choice tasks were distributed among a representative sample of the Dutch population aged 55

  17. Trapped antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, E., E-mail: eoin.butler@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Andresen, G. B. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Ashkezari, M. D. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, W. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Bowe, P. D. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Cesar, C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Chapman, S. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, D. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, J. S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, W. N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayden, M. E. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Humphries, A. J. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only {approx}1 T ({approx}0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be 'born' inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 10{sup 4} times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been trapped for at least 172 ms and then released-the first instance of a purely antimatter atomic system confined for any length of time (Andresen et al., Nature 468:673, 2010). We present a description of the main components of the ALPHA traps and detectors that were key to realising this result. We discuss how the antihydrogen atoms were identified and how they were discriminated from the background processes. Since the results published in Andresen et al. (Nature 468:673, 2010), refinements in the antihydrogen production technique have allowed many more antihydrogen atoms to be trapped, and held for much longer times. We have identified antihydrogen atoms that have been trapped for at least 1,000 s in the apparatus (Andresen et al., Nature Physics 7:558, 2011). This is more than sufficient time to interrogate the atoms spectroscopically, as well as to ensure that they have relaxed to their ground state.

  18. Success/failure condition influences attribution of control, negative affect, and shame among patients with depression in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Si-Ning; Zainal, Hani; Tang, Catherine S; Tong, Eddie M; Ho, Cyrus S; Ho, Roger C

    2017-08-02

    There remains a paucity of research on control attribution and depression within Asian populations. This study examines: (1) Success/Failure condition as a moderator between depression and negative affect or shame, and (2) differences in control attribution between patients with depression and healthy controls in Singapore. Seventy one patients with depression and 71 healthy controls went through a digit-span memory task where they were randomized into either the Success or Failure condition. Participants in the Success condition had to memorize and recall 5-digit strings, while participants in the Failure condition did the same for 12-digit strings. They then completed self-report measures of negative affect, shame, and attribution of control. One-way ANCOVA was performed to examine task condition as a moderator of association between mental health status and post-task negative affect or shame. Test of simple effects was carried out on significant interactions. Sign test and Mann-Whitney U test were employed to investigate differences in attribution of control. Mental health status and Success/Failure condition had significant effects on reported negative affect and shame. Healthy controls reported less post-task negative affect and shame in the Success than in the Failure condition while patients with depression reported similar levels of post-task negative affect and shame in both conditions. However, these differences were not significant in the test of simple effects. In addition, healthy controls felt a stronger sense of personal control in success than in failure and were more likely to blame external factors in failure than in success. Conversely, patients with depression were more inclined to credit external factors in success than in failure and ascribed greater personal control in failure than in success. The results suggest that successful conditions may not necessitate the reduction of negative affect in Asians with depression, indicating possible

  19. Optical traps with geometric aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roichman, Yael; Waldron, Alex; Gardel, Emily; Grier, David G.

    2006-01-01

    We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on the in-plane performance of optical traps by studying the dynamics of trapped colloidal spheres in deliberately distorted holographic optical tweezers. The lateral stiffness of the traps turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts of coma, astigmatism, and spherical aberration. Moreover holographic aberration correction enables us to compensate inherent shortcomings in the optical train, thereby adaptively improving its performance. We also demonstrate the effects of geometric aberrations on the intensity profiles of optical vortices, whose readily measured deformations suggest a method for rapidly estimating and correcting geometric aberrations in holographic trapping systems

  20. Gluon attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, T.

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of the attributes of gluons, deducible from experimental data. Particular attention is given to the photon-gluon fusion model of charm leptoproduction. The agreement with QCD and theoretical prejudice is qualitatively good

  1. Perceptions of plagiarisers: The influence of target physical attractiveness, transgression severity, and sex on attributions of guilt and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Arthey, Elizabeth; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-09-01

    The attractiveness-leniency effect (ALE) suggests that physically attractive targets are less likely to be perceived as guilty compared to less attractive targets. Here, we tested the ALE in relation to attributions of students who have committed plagiarism. British adults (N=165) were shown one of eight vignette-photograph pairings varying in target sex (female/male), physical attractiveness (high/low), and transgression severity (serious/minor), and provided attributions of guilt and severity of punishment. Analyses of variance revealed significant interactions between attractiveness and transgression severity for both dependent measures. Attractive targets were perceived as guiltier and deserving of more severe punishments in the serious transgression condition, but there was no significant difference between attractive and less attractive targets in the minor transgression condition. These results are discussed in terms of a reverse attribution bias, in which attractive individuals are judged more negatively when they fail to live up to higher standards of conduct. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quasi-Linear Evolution of Trapped Electron Fluxes Under the Influence of Realistic Whistler-Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, O. V.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of fluxes of energetic trapped electrons as a function of geomagnetic activity is investigated using brand new statistical models of chorus waves derived from Cluster observations in the radiation belts. The new wave models provide the distributions of wave power and wave-normal angle with latitude as a function of either Dst or Kp indices. Lifetimes and energization of energetic electrons are examined, as well as the relevant uncertainties related to some of the wave models implicit assumptions.From the presented results, different implications concerning the characterization of relativistic flux enhancements and losses are provided.

  3. An axis-specific rotational rainbow in the direct scatter of formaldehyde from Au(111) and its influence on trapping probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G Barratt; Krüger, Bastian C; Meyer, Sven; Kandratsenka, Alexander; Wodtke, Alec M; Schäfer, Tim

    2017-08-02

    The conversion of translational to rotational motion often plays a major role in the trapping of small molecules at surfaces, a crucial first step for a wide variety chemical processes that occur at gas-surface interfaces. However, to date most quantum-state resolved surface scattering experiments have been performed on diatomic molecules, and little detailed information is available about how the structure of nonlinear polyatomic molecules influences the mechanisms for energy exchange with surfaces. In the current work, we employ a new rotationally resolved 1 + 1' resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) scheme to measure the rotational distribution in formaldehyde molecules directly scattered from the Au(111) surface at incidence kinetic energies in the range 0.3-1.2 eV. The results indicate a pronounced propensity to excite a-axis rotation (twirling) rather than b- or c-axis rotation (tumbling or cartwheeling), and are consistent with a rotational rainbow scattering model. Classical trajectory calculations suggest that the effect arises-to zeroth order-from the three-dimensional shape of the molecule (steric effects). Analysis suggests that the high degree of rotational excitation has a substantial influence on the trapping probability of formaldehyde at incidence translational energies above 0.5 eV.

  4. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on volatile compounds and physicochemical and antioxidant attributes of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Calderón, Marta; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2010-04-28

    The effects of modified atmosphere packaging on volatile compound content and physicochemical and antioxidant attributes of Gold cultivar fresh-cut pineapples were assessed throughout storage at 5 degrees C. Fresh-cut pineapple pieces were packed under LO (low oxygen, 12% O(2), 1% CO(2)), AIR (20.9% O(2)) and HO (high oxygen, 38% O(2)) headspace atmospheres. Methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, and methyl hexanoate were the most abundant volatiles regardless of the packaging atmosphere and days of storage; whereas most odor active volatiles were methyl and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone and ethyl hexanoate. Physicochemical attributes of pineapple did not significantly vary, whereas vitamin C content and total antioxidant capacity were lower for fresh-cut pineapple in HO (488 +/- 38 mg/100 mg(fw) and 54.4 +/- 5.7%, respectively) than for LO and AIR packages. Storage life of fresh-cut pineapple was limited to 14 days by volatile compounds losses and fermentation processes.

  5. Influence of the inductor shape, and the magnetization processes on a trapped magnetic flux in a superconducting bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gony, B., E-mail: bashar.gony@univ-lorraine.fr; Linares, R.; Lin, Q.; Berger, K.; Douine, B.; Leveque, J.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We tested two inductors: vortex coil and system of three coils. • The system of three coils is better than the vortex coil. • We presented and compared two processes of PFM method. • Similar results were found for the two processes. - Abstract: In this paper, we study the form of the inductor for producing a magnetic field in a superconductor bulk by using a method of PFM (Pulsed Field Magnetization). We tested two inductors: vortex coil and system of three coils, where we found the best results with the system of three coils. After that, we presented two processes for trapping a magnetic field in the bulk: direct magnetization and successive magnetization where we found similar results.

  6. Ripple Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    3 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the margin of a lava flow on a cratered plain in the Athabasca Vallis region of Mars. Remarkably, the cratered plain in this scene is essentially free of bright, windblown ripples. Conversely, the lava flow apparently acted as a trap for windblown materials, illustrated by the presence of the light-toned, wave-like texture over much of the flow. That the lava flow surface trapped windblown sand and granules better than the cratered plain indicates that the flow surface has a rougher texture at a scale too small to resolve in this image. Location near: 10.7oN, 204.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  7. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  8. Technical attributes, health attribute, consumer attributes and their roles in adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Luo, Meifen; Nie, Rui; Zhang, Yan

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to explore factors influencing the healthcare wearable technology adoption intention from perspectives of technical attributes (perceived convenience, perceived irreplaceability, perceived credibility and perceived usefulness), health attribute (health belief) and consumer attributes (consumer innovativeness, conspicuous consumption, informational reference group influence and gender difference). By integrating technology acceptance model, health belief model, snob effect and conformity and reference group theory, hypotheses and research model are proposed. The empirical investigation (N=436) collects research data through questionnaire. Results show that the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology is influenced by technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes simultaneously. For technical attributes, perceived convenience and perceived credibility both positively affect perceived usefulness, and perceived usefulness influences adoption intention. The relation between perceived irreplaceability and perceived usefulness is only supported by males. For health attribute, health belief affects perceived usefulness for females. For consumer attributes, conspicuous consumption and informational reference group influence can significantly moderate the relation between perceived usefulness and adoption intention and the relation between consumer innovativeness and adoption intention respectively. What's more, consumer innovativeness significantly affects adoption intention for males. This paper aims to discuss technical attributes, health attribute and consumer attributes and their roles in the adoption intention of healthcare wearable technology. Findings may provide enlightenment to differentiate product developing and marketing strategies and provide some implications for clinical medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, E; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jonsell, S; Jørgensen, L V; Kemp, S L; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ∼1 T (∼0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be ‘born’ inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 104 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been ...

  10. Attributing Hacks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ziqi; Smola, Alexander J.; Soska, Kyle; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Zheng, Qinghua; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm for estimating the provenance of hacks on websites. That is, given properties of sites and the temporal occurrence of attacks, we are able to attribute individual attacks to joint causes and vulnerabilities, as well as estimating the evolution of these vulnerabilities over time. Specifically, we use hazard regression with a time-varying additive hazard function parameterized in a generalized linear form. The activation coefficients on each feature are co...

  11. Influence of Freeze Concentration Technique on Aromatic and Phenolic Compounds, Color Attributes, and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Yan; Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yong; Wang, Fang; Li, Jing-Ming

    2017-06-02

    Red wines produced in the Xinjiang region of China possess poor color density, and lack fruity notes and elegance. The freeze concentration technique, as a well-established concentration method for liquid food systems, was applied to the Cabernet Sauvignon ( Vitis vinifera L.) wine-making process, aiming to investigate its effect on wine quality improvement. Results showed that the freeze concentration treatment did not significantly alter the physicochemical properties of the wine, except for an increase of glycerol and alcoholic content. This technique increased ester contents, as well as decreasing the amount of volatile acids. Higher alcohol contents were also increased, but within an acceptable content range. All taken into consideration, the freeze concentration treated wine showed better fragrance characters according to sensory evaluation. The non-anthocyanin composition was altered by this application, however, the difference disappeared after the aging process. Fortunately, sensory evaluation showed that the treated wine possessed better mouthfeel properties. Anthocyanin contents were enhanced, and effectively stabilized the fresh wine color attributes, resulting in an improvement in appearance of the treated wine. All results considered, it can be concluded that freeze concentration treatment could be a good choice to improve wine quality.

  12. Influence of low Gamma Irradiation Doses And Weed Control On Faba Bean (VICIA FABA L.) Yield Attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, I.A.A; Abd El Hameed, I.M

    2013-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out in an administration field at Belbees district, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during two successive winter seasons (2007⁄08-2008⁄09). The study aimed to investigate the effect of four gamma irradiation doses (un irradiated seeds as a control, 10,20 and 30 Gy)and five treatments of weed management practices 1- Un weeded (control), 2- Two hand hoeings at 21 and 42 days after sowing, 3- prometryn, commercially known as Gizagared,, sprayed at pre-emergence with rate of 1 Kg⁄300 liters⁄fad. 4-Bentazon 48⁒, commercially known as Basagran 48⁒ ,sprayed at pre-emergence with the rate of 500 Cm 3 ⁄200 ;liters water⁄fad. Sprayed at pre-emergence. 5-48⁒ sprayed at pre-emergence with the rate of 500 cm 3 ⁄200 liters water⁄fad. On yield and yield attributes of faba bean. Results indicate that :1- Gamma irradiation with the lowest dose of 10 Gy, gave high values for plant height (112.54 cm) and number of pods⁄plant (12.22), while the highest gamma irradiation dose of 30 Gy, resulted in high values for number of seeds⁄pod (4.52), number of seeds⁄plant (52.3) , seed weight (g)⁄plant, 100- seeds weight (79.79 g), seed yield (11.39 ardab⁄fad) and straw yield (ton⁄fad). The lowest values for each of the aforementioned traits were obtained in non irradiated treatment in the combined analysis 2- Weed control by hand hoeing twice (after 21 and 24 DAS) gave the highest values for each of the aforementioned traits, followed by spraying both herbicides., prometryn + bentazon 48⁒ followed by sole herbicide Bentazon 48⁒ and sole prometryn, while unweeded treatment gave the lowest values for the respective order, in the combined analysis.

  13. 'Manage and mitigate punitive regulatory measures, enhance the corporate image, influence public policy': industry efforts to shape understanding of tobacco-attributable deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Carrillo Botero, Natalia; Novotny, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    Deforestation due to tobacco farming began to raise concerns in the mid 1970s. Over the next 40 years, tobacco growing increased significantly and shifted markedly to low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of deforestation caused by tobacco farming reached 4 % globally by the early 2000s, although substantially higher in countries such as China (18 %), Zimbabwe (20 %), Malawi (26 %) and Bangladesh (>30 %). Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have argued that tobacco-attributable deforestation is not a serious problem, and that the industry has addressed the issue through corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. After reviewing the existing scholarly literature on tobacco and deforestation, we analysed industry sources of public information to understand how the industry framed deforestation, its key causes, and policy responses. To analyse industry strategies between the 1970s and early 2000s to shape understanding of deforestation caused by tobacco farming and curing, the Truth Tobacco Documents Library was systematically searched. The above sources were compiled and triangulated, thematically and chronologically, to derive a narrative of how the industry has framed the problem of, and solutions to, tobacco-attributable deforestation. The industry sought to undermine responses to tobacco-attributable deforestation by emphasising the economic benefits of production in LMICs, blaming alternative causes, and claiming successful forestation efforts. To support these tactics, the industry lobbied at the national and international levels, commissioned research, and colluded through front groups. There was a lack of effective action to address tobacco-attributable deforestation, and indeed an escalation of the problem, during this period. The findings suggest the need for independent data on the varied environmental impacts of the tobacco industry, awareness of how the industry seeks to work with environmental researchers and groups to

  14. Evaluation of the HadGEM3-A simulations in view of detection and attribution of human influence on extreme events in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautard, Robert; Christidis, Nikolaos; Ciavarella, Andrew; Alvarez-Castro, Carmen; Bellprat, Omar; Christiansen, Bo; Colfescu, Ioana; Cowan, Tim; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Eden, Jonathan; Hauser, Mathias; Hegerl, Gabriele; Hempelmann, Nils; Klehmet, Katharina; Lott, Fraser; Nangini, Cathy; Orth, René; Radanovics, Sabine; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Stott, Peter; Tett, Simon; Wilcox, Laura; Yiou, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    A detailed analysis is carried out to assess the HadGEM3-A global atmospheric model skill in simulating extreme temperatures, precipitation and storm surges in Europe in the view of their attribution to human influence. The analysis is performed based on an ensemble of 15 atmospheric simulations forced with observed sea surface temperature of the 54 year period 1960-2013. These simulations, together with dual simulations without human influence in the forcing, are intended to be used in weather and climate event attribution. The analysis investigates the main processes leading to extreme events, including atmospheric circulation patterns, their links with temperature extremes, land-atmosphere and troposphere-stratosphere interactions. It also compares observed and simulated variability, trends and generalized extreme value theory parameters for temperature and precipitation. One of the most striking findings is the ability of the model to capture North-Atlantic atmospheric weather regimes as obtained from a cluster analysis of sea level pressure fields. The model also reproduces the main observed weather patterns responsible for temperature and precipitation extreme events. However, biases are found in many physical processes. Slightly excessive drying may be the cause of an overestimated summer interannual variability and too intense heat waves, especially in central/northern Europe. However, this does not seem to hinder proper simulation of summer temperature trends. Cold extremes appear well simulated, as well as the underlying blocking frequency and stratosphere-troposphere interactions. Extreme precipitation amounts are overestimated and too variable. The atmospheric conditions leading to storm surges were also examined in the Baltics region. There, simulated weather conditions appear not to be leading to strong enough storm surges, but winds were found in very good agreement with reanalyses. The performance in reproducing atmospheric weather patterns

  15. Scrotal circumference: A predictor of testosterone concentration and certain attributes of seminal vesicles influencing buffalo male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmood

    2018-06-01

    evolutionary relationship which is lacking in buffalo. Conclusion: The present findings established a significant positive correlation of SC with that of other fertility parameters related to SVs weight and its secretions: Fructose, citric acid, and protein (inclusive of BSPs sequenced full length, and testosterone. Therefore, the present integrated approach along with certain semen quality attributes reflecting epididymis function could be used as a predictive fertility marker for grading and selection of breeding bulls and their progenies to develop outstanding bull mother farm.

  16. Belief in a just world, social influence and illness attributions: evidence of a just world boomerang effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Todd; Alexander, Sheldon; Firestone, Ira; Lebreton, James M

    2009-03-01

    Characteristics of individuals and illnesses can both influence receptivity to preventative health messages. We examined whether receptivity to health messages depends on interactions between illness characteristics and dispositional concern for justice. Participants considered the preventability of six illnesses after exposure to a message that manipulated personal responsibility for illness. Paradoxically, participants with strong just world beliefs reported greater preventability for less preventable illnesses, such as brain cancer, when exposed to an unpreventable health message. In parallel, participants with low justice beliefs reported less preventability for lung cancer when exposed to a preventable message. This just world boomerang effect suggests that individual dispositions and illness characteristics can interact in ways that can produce either acquiescence or opposition to persuasive health messages.

  17. Influence of Japanese consumer gender and age on sensory attributes and preference (a case study on deep-fried peanuts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Detailed exploration of sensory perception as well as preference across gender and age for a certain food is very useful for developing a vendible food commodity related to physiological and psychological motivation for food preference. Sensory tests including color, sweetness, bitterness, fried peanut aroma, textural preference and overall liking of deep-fried peanuts with varying frying time (2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min) at 150 °C were carried out using 417 healthy Japanese consumers. To determine the influence of gender and age on sensory evaluation, systematic statistical analysis including one-way analysis of variance, polynomial regression analysis and multiple regression analysis was conducted using the collected data. The results indicated that females were more sensitive to bitterness than males. This may affect sensory preference; female subjects favored peanuts prepared with a shorter frying time more than male subjects did. With advancing age, textural preference played a more important role in overall preference. Older subjects liked deeper-fried peanuts, which are more brittle, more than younger subjects did. In the present study, systematic statistical analysis based on collected sensory evaluation data using deep-fried peanuts was conducted and the tendency of sensory perception and preference across gender and age was clarified. These results may be useful for engineering optimal strategies to target specific segments to gain greater acceptance in the market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Landscape-level movement patterns by lions in western Serengeti: comparing the influence of inter-specific competitors, habitat attributes and prey availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Andrew M; Bukombe, John K; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Mduma, Simon A R; Fryxell, John M

    2016-01-01

    Where apex predators move on the landscape influences ecosystem structure and function and is therefore key to effective landscape-level management and species-specific conservation. However the factors underlying predator distribution patterns within functional ecosystems are poorly understood. Predator movement should be sensitive to the spatial patterns of inter-specific competitors, spatial variation in prey density, and landscape attributes that increase individual prey vulnerability. We investigated the relative role of these fundamental factors on seasonal resource utilization by a globally endangered apex carnivore, the African lion (Panthera leo) in Tanzania's Serengeti National Park. Lion space use was represented by novel landscape-level, modified utilization distributions (termed "localized density distributions") created from telemetry relocations of individual lions from multiple neighbouring prides. Spatial patterns of inter-specific competitors were similarly determined from telemetry re-locations of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), this system's primary competitor for lions; prey distribution was derived from 18 months of detailed census data; and remote sensing data was used to represent relevant habitat attributes. Lion space use was consistently influenced by landscape attributes that increase individual prey vulnerability to predation. Wet season activity, when available prey were scarce, was concentrated near embankments, which provide ambush opportunities, and dry season activity, when available prey were abundant, near remaining water sources where prey occurrence is predictable. Lion space use patterns were positively associated with areas of high prey biomass, but only in the prey abundant dry season. Finally, at the broad scale of this analysis, lion and hyena space use was positively correlated in the comparatively prey-rich dry season and unrelated in the wet season, suggesting lion movement was unconstrained by the spatial patterns

  19. Masticatory sensory-motor changes after an experimental chewing test influenced by pain catastrophizing and neck-pain-related disability in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Touche, Roy; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Pardo-Montero, Joaquín; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2015-03-05

    Recent research has shown a relationship of craniomandibular disability with neck-pain-related disability has been shown. However, there is still insufficient information demonstrating the influence of neck pain and disability in the sensory-motor activity in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neck-pain-related disability on masticatory sensory-motor variables. An experimental case-control study investigated 83 patients with headache attributed to TMD and 39 healthy controls. Patients were grouped according to their scores on the neck disability index (NDI) (mild and moderate neck disability). Initial assessment included the pain catastrophizing scale and the Headache Impact Test-6. The protocol consisted of baseline measurements of pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO). Individuals were asked to perform the provocation chewing test, and measurements were taken immediately after and 24 hours later. During the test, patients were assessed for subjective feelings of fatigue (VAFS) and pain intensity. VAFS was higher at 6 minutes (mean 51.7; 95% CI: 50.15-53.26) and 24 hours after (21.08; 95% CI: 18.6-23.5) for the group showing moderate neck disability compared with the mild neck disability group (6 minutes, 44.16; 95% CI 42.65-45.67/ 24 hours after, 14.3; 95% CI: 11.9-16.7) and the control group. The analysis shows a decrease in the pain-free MMO only in the group of moderate disability 24 hours after the test. PPTs of the trigeminal region decreased immediately in all groups, whereas at 24 hours, a decrease was observed in only the groups of patients. PPTs of the cervical region decreased in only the group with moderate neck disability 24 hours after the test. The strongest negative correlation was found between pain-free MMO immediately after the test and NDI in both the mild (r = -0.49) and moderate (r = -0.54) neck disability

  20. The influence of positron trapping at vacancies on a pattern of the Fermi surface of #betta#-brass studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfeld, B.; Chabik, S.; Pajak, J.

    1982-01-01

    Angular correlations of positron annihilation quanta (ACPAQ) have been measured for differently oriented monocrystalline samples of the ordered #betta#-brass under conditions permitting the neglecting of the trapping of positrons at vacancies as well as in the case when almost all the positrons annihilate being trapped at vacancies. It has been shown that trapping of positrons at vacancies can make the observation of the directional anisotropy in electron momentum distribution impossible. (Auth.)

  1. Influence of yeast strain, canopy management, and site on the volatile composition and sensory attributes of cabernet sauvignon wines from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Anthony L; Boss, Paul K; Heymann, Hildegarde; Solomon, Peter S; Trengove, Robert D

    2011-04-13

    Understanding what factors are the major influences on wine composition will assist in the successful management of grape composition in the vineyard and/or variables in the winery to produce wines with specific sensory attributes. A recently developed analytical method [headspace solid-phase microextraction comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry] was employed to analyze over 350 volatile compounds in research scale wines and was combined with descriptive sensory analysis. Both compositional and sensory results showed significant differences among the wines, and in many cases, multiple factors influenced the abundance of wine volatile compounds. Site had the most significant influence on sensory scores and wine composition, followed by canopy management. Unexpectedly, yeast strain had no significant sensory effect despite the fact that a number of volatile compounds were significantly different in the wines made from different strains. PLS analysis, combining the sensory and chemical analyses, also supports the concept of volatile compound interactions contributing to the aroma characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

  2. Capture of melon flies, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a food-baited Multilure trap: influence of distance, diet, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many countries operate trapping programs to detect invasions of pestiferous fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae). Surveillance relies heavily on traps baited with male lures, which, while powerful, have limited effectiveness, because (i) they are sex-specific and (ii) males of some species do no...

  3. There is no magic fruit fly trap: multiple biological factors influence the response of adult Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) individuals to MultiLure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2009-02-01

    Field-cage experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of MultiLure traps (Better World MFG Inc., Fresno, CA) baited with NuLure (Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corp., Hanover, PA) or BioLure (Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR) in capturing individually marked Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), of both sexes. Experimental treatments involved wild and laboratory-reared flies of varying ages (2-4 and 15-18 d) and dietary histories (sugar only, open fruit, open fruit plus chicken feces, and hydrolyzed protein mixed with sugar). Data were divided into two parts: total captures over a 24-h period and trap visits/landings, entrances into interior of trap ,and effective captures (i.e., drowning in liquid bait or water) over a 5-h detailed observation period (0600-1100 hours). The response to the two baits varied by fly species, gender, physiological state, age, and strain. Importantly, there were several highly significant interactions among these factors, underlining the complex nature of the response. The two baits differed in attractiveness for A. obliqua but not A. ludens. The effect of strain (wild versus laboratory flies) was significant for A. ludens but not A. obliqua. For effect of dietary history, adults of both species, irrespective of sex, were significantly less responsive to both baits when fed on a mixture of protein and sugar when compared with adults fed the other diets. Finally, we confirmed previous observations indicating that McPhail-type traps are quite inefficient. Considering the total 24-h fly tenure in the cage, and independent of bait treatment and fly type (i.e., strain, adult diet, gender and age), of a total of 2,880 A. obliqua and 2,880 A. ludens adults released into the field cages over the entire study (15 replicates), only 564 (19.6%) and 174 (6%) individuals, respectively, were effectively caught. When only considering the 5-h detailed

  4. Globalisation Trapped

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Caraça

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The promise of making society progress through the direct applications of science was finally fulfilled in the mid-20th century. Science progressed immensely, propelled by the effects of the two world wars. The first science-based technologies saw the daylight during the 1940s and their transformative power was such that neither the military, nor subsequently the markets, allowed science to return intact to its curiosity-driven nest. Technoscience was born then and (being progressively pulled away from curiosity-driven science was able to grow enormously, erecting a formidable structure of networks of institutions that impacted decisively on the economy. It is a paradox, or maybe a trap, that the fulfillment of science’s solemn promise of ‘transforming nature’ means seeing ourselves and our Western societies entangled in crises after crises with no clear outcome in view. A redistribution of geopolitical power is under way, along with the deployment of information and communication technologies, forcing dominant structures to oscillate, as knowledge about organization and methods, marketing, design, and software begins to challenge the role of technoscience as the main vector of economic growth and wealth accumulation. What ought to be done?

  5. The influence of direct compression powder blend transfer method from the container to the tablet press on product critical quality attributes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teżyk, Michał; Jakubowska, Emilia; Milczewska, Kasylda; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Voelkel, Adam; Lulek, Janina

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the gravitational powder blend loading method to the tablet press and manual loading in terms of their influence on tablets' critical quality attributes (CQA). The results of the study can be of practical relevance to the pharmaceutical industry in the area of direct compression of low-dose formulations, which could be prone to content uniformity (CU) issues. In the preliminary study, particle size distribution (PSD) and surface energy of raw materials were determined using laser diffraction method and inverse gas chromatography, respectively. For trials purpose, a formulation containing two pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was used. Tablet samples were collected during the compression progress to analyze their CQAs, namely assay and CU. Results obtained during trials indicate that tested direct compression powder blend is sensitive to applied powder handling method. Mild increase in both APIs content was observed during manual scooping. Gravitational approach (based on discharge into the drum) resulted in a decrease in CU, which is connected to a more pronounced assay increase at the end of tableting than in the case of manual loading. The correct design of blend transfer over single unit processes is an important issue and should be investigated during the development phase since it may influence the final product CQAs. The manual scooping method, although simplistic, can be a temporary solution to improve the results of API's content and uniformity when compared to industrial gravitational transfer.

  6. Are sensory attributes and acceptance influenced by nutritional and health claims of low-sodium salami? Preliminary study with Brazilian consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Aurélio de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The first contact between consumers and the food product is usually the packaging and it’s labelling. Therefore, it is the primary means to generate consumer’s expectations. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of nutritional and health claims on acceptance of salami with reduced sodium content, aimed at finding guidance for the product reformulation. Sixt y consumers evaluated four samples of salami. The overall acceptance was evaluated using a nine - point hedonic scale, and the attributes color, tenderness, characteristic flavor and salt content, were evaluated by 7 – point just - about - right (JAR scale. For the expectation test, overall liking of salami with reduced sodium content was evaluated by consumers under three conditions : (1 blind test (B; (2 expectation generated by nutritional and health claims (E, and (3 consumers re - tasted the salami having the nutrition and health claims available (R. Student’s t - tests performed on data indicated no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the mean acceptance under the blind (B and real (R conditions, although expectation ratings (E were significantly higher than (B (p ≤ 0.05. However, linear regression of (R - B x (E - B ratings revealed a major assimilation effect of expectation, especially under negative disconfirmation (E > B. Contrast effect was also observed, but to a lesser extent . The results showed that saltiness attribute was not decisive in decreased acceptance according to the JAR scale, but it was relevant in the aftertaste generated by adding salt substitutes. Finally, nutritional and health claims had little effect on consumer ac ceptance.

  7. Cryogenic surface ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermayr, M.

    2015-01-01

    Microfabricated surface traps are a promising architecture to realize a scalable quantum computer based on trapped ions. In principle, hundreds or thousands of surface traps can be located on a single substrate in order to provide large arrays of interacting ions. To this end, trap designs and fabrication methods are required that provide scalable, stable and reproducible ion traps. This work presents a novel surface-trap design developed for cryogenic applications. Intrinsic silicon is used as the substrate material of the traps. The well-developed microfabrication and structuring methods of silicon are utilized to create simple and reproducible traps. The traps were tested and characterized in a cryogenic setup. Ions could be trapped and their life time and motional heating were investigated. Long ion lifetimes of several hours were observed and the measured heating rates were reproducibly low at around 1 phonon per second at a trap frequency of 1 MHz. (author) [de

  8. Influence of climatic conditions on the distribution, abundance and activity of Agriotes lineatus L. adults in sex pheromone traps in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozina, Antonela; Čačija, Maja; Igrc Barčić, Jasminka; Bažok, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this work were: (i) to determine the distribution and abundance of Agriotes lineatus, (ii) correlate the abundance with the prevailing climatic conditions to establish how temperature and rainfall are influencing the dominance, and (iii) to determine the activity characteristics of the adults. Investigations were conducted in 17 fields grouped in four regions characterized by different climatic conditions. Using sex pheromone traps the most important Agriotes species ( A. lineatus L., A. sputator L., A. obscurus L., A. brevis Cand. and A. ustulatus Schall.) were collected. The monitoring period for A. brevis, A. sputator, A. lineatus and A. obscurus was from the 18th to the 32nd, and for A. ustulatus from the 23rd to the 32nd week of the year. A total of 61,247 individuals Agriotes were captured, of which 24,916 individuals were A. lineatus. Abundance and dominance of A. lineatus were significantly higher in the region of Zagreb compared to other regions. Moving east, rainfall decreased and temperatures increased and associated with that the abundance and dominance indices were lower. It was determined that the abundance of A. lineatus was negatively correlated with average air temperature ( r = -0.5201; p < 0.0001). Compared to earlier data from the region of Zagreb the dominance index decreased. This might be a result of climate change as established average yearly temperature in these regions increased for 1.04 °C compared to the average data for the period 1961-1990. Other potentially damaging Agriotes species ( A. brevis and A. ustulatus) were also present in high abundances in some micro-regions.

  9. Effect of trapping on transport coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvik, I.; Herman, P.

    1990-10-01

    Influence of a trap (sink) on an exciton transfer in molecular aggregates is investigated. Memory functions entering the generalized master equations are calculated. The presence of the sink changes their analytical form. We used the sink in trimer as example to show that for large trapping rate parameters the rest of the system is decoupled from the sink. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  10. Positron-trapping mechanism at dislocations in Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Carlos; Linderoth, Søren; Diego, Nieves de

    1987-01-01

    the average lifetime and the intensity of the long component decrease with increasing temperature. The experimental results are very well described in terms of a generalized trapping model where it is assumed that positrons become trapped in deep traps (jogs) via shallow traps (dislocation lines......). The temperature dependence of the positron-lifetime spectra below 120 K is attributed to the temperature dependence of the trapping rate to the dislocation line. The experimental results have demonstrated that detrapping processes from the dislocation line take place above 120 K. The positron binding energy...

  11. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap......, our results indicate that pitfall traps are the most efficient for capturing shrews: not only do they have a higher efficiency (yield), but the taxonomic diversity of shrews is also higher when pitfall traps are used....

  12. Effect of trap position on the efficiency of trapping in treelike scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongzhi; Lin Yuan; Ma Youjun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that the role and impact of nodes on dynamical processes in scale-free networks are not homogenous, because of the presence of highly connected nodes at the tail of their power-law degree distribution. In this paper, we explore the influence of different nodes as traps on the trapping efficiency of the trapping problem taking place on scale-free networks. To this end, we study in detail the trapping problem in two families of deterministically growing scale-free networks with treelike structure: one family is non-fractal, the other is fractal. In the first part of this work, we attack a special case of random walks on the two network families with a perfect trap located at a hub, i.e. node with the highest degree. The second study addresses the case with trap distributed uniformly over all nodes in the networks. For these two cases, we compute analytically the mean trapping time (MTT), a quantitative indicator characterizing the trapping efficiency of the trapping process. We show that in the non-fractal scale-free networks the MTT for both cases follows different scalings with the network order (number of network nodes), implying that trap's position has a significant effect on the trapping efficiency. In contrast, it is presented that for both cases in the fractal scale-free networks, the two leading scalings exhibit the same dependence on the network order, suggesting that the location of trap has no essential impact on the trapping efficiency. We also show that for both cases of the trapping problem, the trapping efficiency is more efficient in the non-fractal scale-free networks than in their fractal counterparts.

  13. Simulation and measurement of complete dye sensitised solar cells: including the influence of trapping, electrolyte, oxidised dyes and light intensity on steady state and transient device behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Piers R F; Anderson, Assaf Y; Durrant, James R; O'Regan, Brian C

    2011-04-07

    A numerical model of the dye sensitised solar cell (DSSC) is used to assess the importance of different loss pathways under various operational conditions. Based on our current understanding, the simulation describes the processes of injection, regeneration, recombination and transport of electrons, oxidised dye molecules and electrolyte within complete devices to give both time dependent and independent descriptions of performance. The results indicate that the flux of electrons lost from the nanocrystalline TiO(2) film is typically at least twice as large under conditions equivalent to 1 sun relative to dark conditions at matched TiO(2) charge concentration. This is in agreement with experimental observations (Barnes et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. [DOI: 10.1039/c0cp01855d]). The simulated difference in recombination flux is shown to be due to variation in the concentration profile of electron accepting species in the TiO(2) pores between light and dark conditions and to recombination to oxidised dyes in the light. The model is able to easily incorporate non-ideal behaviour of a cell such as the variation of open circuit potential with light intensity and non-first order recombination of conduction band electrons. The time dependent simulations, described by the multiple trapping model of electron transport and recombination, show good agreement with both small and large transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements at open circuit, including photovoltage rise measurements. The simulation of photovoltage rise also suggests the possibility of assessing the interfacial resistance between the TiO(2) and substrate. When cells with a short diffusion length relative to film thickness were modelled, the simulated small perturbation photocurrent transients at short circuit (but not open circuit) yielded significantly higher effective diffusion coefficients than expected from the mean concentration of electrons and the electrolyte in the cell. This implies that

  14. Trapping of Rydberg atoms in tight magnetic microtraps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boetes, A.Q.G.; Skannrup, R.V.; Naber, J.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.

    2018-01-01

    We explore the possibility to trap Rydberg atoms in tightly confining magnetic microtraps. The trapping frequencies for Rydberg atoms are expected to be influenced strongly by magnetic-field gradients. We show that there are regimes where Rydberg atoms can be trapped. Moreover, we show that

  15. St. Croix trap study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains detailed information about the catch from 600 trap stations around St. Croix. Data fields include species caught, size data, trap location...

  16. Angular trap for macroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksyonov, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    Properties of angular macroparticle traps were investigated in this work. These properties are required to design vacuum arc plasma filters. The correlation between trap geometry parameters and its ability to absorb macroparticles were found. Calculations allow one to predict the behaviour of filtering abilities of separators which contain such traps in their design. Recommendations regarding the use of angular traps in filters of different builds are given.

  17. Remote Sensing Applied to the Study of Fire Regime Attributes and Their Influence on Post-Fire Greenness Recovery in Pine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Fernández-García

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to analyze the relationship between fire regime attributes and the post-fire greenness recovery of fire-prone pine ecosystems over the short (2-year and medium (5-year term after a large wildfire, using both a single and a combined fire regime attribute approach. We characterized the spatial (fire size, temporal (number of fires, fire recurrence, and return interval, and magnitude (burn severity of the last fire fire regime attributes throughout a 40-year period with a long-time series of Landsat imagery and ancillary data. The burn severity of the last fire was measured by the dNBR (difference of the Normalized Burn Ratio spectral index, and classified according to the ground reference values of the CBI (Composite Burn Index. Post-fire greenness recovery was obtained through the difference of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index between pre- and post-fire Landsat scenes. The relationship between fire regime attributes (single attributes: fire recurrence, fire return interval, and burn severity; combined attributes: fire recurrence-burn severity and fire return interval-burn severity and post-fire greenness recovery was evaluated using linear models. The results indicated that all the single and combined attributes significantly affected greenness recovery. The single attribute approach showed that high recurrence, short return interval and low severity situations had the highest vegetation greenness recovery. The combined attribute approach allowed us to identify a wider variety of post-fire greenness recovery situations than the single attribute one. Over the short term, high recurrence as well as short return interval scenarios showed the best post-fire greenness recovery independently of burn severity, while over the medium term, high recurrence combined with low severity was the most recovered scenario. This novel combined attribute approach (temporal plus magnitude could be of great value to forest managers in the

  18. Attribution and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2010-01-01

    , in turn, influence behavior. Dufwenberg and Kirchsteiger [Dufwenberg, M., Kirchsteiger, G., 2004. A theory of sequential reciprocity. Games Econ. Behav. 47 (2), 268-298] formalize this empirical finding in their ‘theory of sequential reciprocity'. This paper extends their analysis by moves of chance. More...... precisely, an extended framework is presented which allows for the analysis of strategic interactions of reciprocal agents in situations in which material outcomes also depend on chance. Moves of chance influence the attribution of responsibilities, people's perceptions about the (un)kindness of others and......, hence, their reciprocal behavior. Furthermore, with the help of two applications it is demonstrated how this framework can be used to explain experimental findings showing that people react very differently in outcomewise-identical situations depending on the moves of chance involved....

  19. Influence of V/III growth flux ratio on trap states in m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Hurni, C. A.; Speck, J. S.; Ringel, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) were utilized to investigate the behavior of deep states in m-plane, n-type GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH 3 -MBE) as a function of systematically varied V/III growth flux ratios. Levels were detected at E C - 0.14 eV, E C - 0.21 eV, E C - 0.26 eV, E C - 0.62 eV, E C - 0.67 eV, E C - 2.65 eV, and E C - 3.31 eV, with the concentrations of several traps exhibiting systematic dependencies on V/III ratio. The DLTS spectra are dominated by traps at E C - 0.14 eV and E C - 0.67 eV, whose concentrations decreased monotonically with increasing V/III ratio and decreasing oxygen impurity concentration, and by a trap at E C - 0.21 eV that revealed no dependence of its concentration on growth conditions, suggestive of different physical origins. Higher concentrations of deeper trap states detected by DLOS with activation energies of E C - 2.65 eV and E C - 3.31 eV in each sample did not display measureable sensitivity to the intentionally varied V/III ratio, necessitating further study on reducing these deep traps through growth optimization for maximizing material quality of NH 3 -MBE grown m-plane GaN.

  20. Pregnancy eating attributes study (PEAS): a cohort study examining behavioral and environmental influences on diet and weight change in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Burger, Kyle; Faith, Myles; Liu, Aiyi

    2016-01-01

    The rising prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity and excessive gestational weight gain poses a serious public health concern due to the contribution of these factors to increased risk of negative health outcomes for both mother and child. Scant intervention research has indicated moderate short-term improvement in maternal diet and gestational weight gain, with little evidence of long-term behavior change, in parallel with findings from interventions outside of pregnancy. Recent laboratory-based findings from neuroscience implicate aberrant reward processing of food at the brain level ("food reward sensitivity," the between-individual variation in the response to food stimuli) as a contributor to eating beyond energy needs. However, scant research has examined the influence of these processes on weight change in population-based settings, and the relevance of these processes to pregnancy-related weight change has not been explored. The purpose of the Pregnancy Eating Attributes Study (PEAS) is to examine the role of food reward sensitivity in maternal diet and weight change during pregnancy and postpartum. The study examines the interplay of food reward sensitivity with behavioral control, home food environment, and related aspects of eating behavior in the context of weight-related biomedical, psychosocial, genetic and behavioral factors including physical activity, stress, sleep and depression. Women of varying baseline weight status (n = 450) are enrolled early in pregnancy and followed, along with their infants, until 1 year postpartum. Assessments occur during each trimester of pregnancy, and postpartum at approximately 2 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months. Maternal food reward, self-control, home food environment, eating behaviors, dietary intake, health behaviors, and anthropometrics are assessed along with maternal and infant clinical and biological data, infant anthropometrics, and feeding practices. Primary exposures of interest include food

  1. Attribution Theory and Crisis Intervention Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilbeck, William M.

    It was proposed that existing therapeutic procedures may influence attributions about emotional states. Therefore an attributional analysis of crisis intervention, a model of community-based, short-term consultation, was presented. This analysis suggested that crisis intervention provides attributionally-relevant information about both the source…

  2. Body-related state shame and guilt in women: do causal attributions mediate the influence of physical self-concept and shame and guilt proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Peter R E; Brune, Sara M; Kowalski, Kent C; Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    Guided by the process model of self-conscious emotions, this study examined whether physical self-concept (PSC) and shame and guilt proneness were associated with body-related self-conscious emotions of state shame and guilt and if these relationships were mediated by attributions of stability, globality, and controllability. Female participants (N=284; Mean age=20.6±1.9 years) completed measures of PSC and shame and guilt proneness before reading a hypothetical scenario. Participants completed measures of attributions and state shame and guilt in response to the scenario. Significant relationships were noted between state shame and attributions of globality and controllability, and shame proneness, guilt proneness, and PSC. Similar relationships, with the additional predictor of stability, were found for state guilt. Mediation analysis partially supported the process model hypotheses for shame. Results indicate PSC and shame proneness are important in predicting body-related emotions, but the role of specific attributions are still unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of the spatial distribution of traps using space-charge-limited current measurements in an organic single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuñ a, Javier; Xie, Wei; Salleo, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    bias), which does not exhibit injection-limited current in the measured voltage range. This behavior is attributed to an asymmetric distribution of trap states in the semiconductor, specifically, a distribution of traps located near the top contact

  4. Influência de sistemas de plantio e armadilha adesiva na incidência de Frankliniella williamsi Hood na cultura do milho = Influence of planting systems and adhesive trap on the incidence of Frankliniella williamsi Hood in crop maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Albuquerque

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar a influência de diferentes sistemas de plantio de milho e o efeito de armadilha adesiva na incidência de Frankliniella williamsi Hood. Os tratamentos consistiram no plantio direto do milho sobre aveia dessecada com glyphosate, aveia tombada, aveia roçada e plantas daninhas, aveia incorporada e plantio convencional. Alguns tratamentos foram associados a armadilha adesiva de coloração azul, colocada horizontalmente no centro da parcela. Verificou-se que tanto a presença de armadilha quanto os diferentes sistemas de plantio influíram significativamente na infestação das plantas de milho pelo tripes, sendo que os tratamentos “aveia dessecada” e “aveia roçada e plantas daninhas” apresentaram menor incidência do inseto, com esse efeito diminuindo com o desenvolvimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate the influence of different systems of corn planting and the effect of adhesive trap on the incidence ofFrankliniella williamsi. The treatments consisted of sowing the corn seed directly on oats dried by glyphosate, tilt oats, cut oats and weeds, incorporated oats, and also conventional planting. Some treatments were associated with adhesive trap of blue coloration, puthorizontally in the center of the plot. Results showed that the presence of traps, as well as the different planting systems influenced significantly on the thrips infestation, and the treatmentswith "dry oats" and "cut oats and weeds" presented smaller incidence of the insect with a decreasing effect along the plants growth.

  5. Ion Trap Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    variations of ion traps, including (1) the cylindrically symmetric 3D ring trap; (2) the linear trap with a combination of cavity QED; (#) the symmetric...concepts of quantum information. The major demonstration has been the test of a Bell inequality as demonstrated by Rowe et al. [50] and a decoherence...famous physics experiment [62]. Wolfgang Paul demonstrated a similar apparatus during his Nobel Prize speech [63]. This device is hyperbolic- parabolic

  6. Towards trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, L V; Bertsche, W; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the last few years in the nascent field of antihydrogen physics. The next big step forward is expected to be the trapping of the formed antihydrogen atoms using a magnetic multipole trap. ALPHA is a new international project that started to take data in 2006 at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator facility. The primary goal of ALPHA is stable trapping of cold antihydrogen atoms to facilitate measurements of its properties. We discuss the status of the ALPHA project and the prospects for antihydrogen trapping.

  7. Influence of diets with silage from forage plants adapted to the semi-arid conditions on lamb quality and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Carvalho, G G P; Santos, E M; Araújo, G G L; Gois, G C; Rebouças, R A; Leão, A G; Santos, S A; Oliveira, J S; Leite, L C; Araújo, M L G M L; Cirne, L G A; Silva, R R; Carvalho, B M A

    2017-02-01

    Quality and sensory attributes of meat from 32 mixed-breed Santa Inês lambs fed diets composed of four silages with old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind), buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium), and Pornunça (Manihot sp.) were evaluated. Meat from lambs fed diet containing old man saltbush silage (Pcooking loss. Of the sensory attributes evaluated in the Longissimus lumborum muscle of the lambs, color and juiciness did not differ (P>0.05). However, the silages led to differences (Plambs that consumed old man saltbush silage and lower in the meat from those fed buffelgrass silage. Diets formulated with buffelgrass silage for sheep reduce meat production. Based on the results for carcass weight and meat quality, old man saltbush and pornunça are better silages for finishing sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Versatile electrostatic trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhoven, J.; Bethlem, H.L.; Schnell, M.; Meijer, G.

    2006-01-01

    A four electrode electrostatic trap geometry is demonstrated that can be used to combine a dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole field. A cold packet of ND315 molecules is confined in both a purely quadrupolar and hexapolar trapping field and additionally, a dipole field is added to a hexapole field to

  9. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  10. Comparative lifecycle assessment of alternatives for waste management in Rio de Janeiro - Investigating the influence of an attributional or consequential approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad Saraiva, A; Souza, R G; Valle, R A B

    2017-10-01

    The environmental impacts from three management alternatives for organic fraction of municipal solid waste were compared using lifecycle assessment methodology. The alternatives (sanitary landfill, selective collection of organic waste for anaerobic digestion and anaerobic digestion after post-separation of organic waste) were modelled applying an attributional as well as consequential approach, in parallel with the aim of identifying if and how these approaches can affect results and conclusions. The marginal processes identified in the consequential modelling were in general associated with higher environmental impacts than average processes modelled with an attributional approach. As all investigated waste management alternatives result in net-substitution of energy and in some cases also materials, the consequential modelling resulted in lower absolute environmental impacts in five of the seven environmental impact categories assessed in the study. In three of these, the chosen modelling approach can alter the hierarchy between compared waste management alternatives. This indicates a risk of underestimating potential benefits from efficient energy recovery from waste when applying attributional modelling in contexts in which electricity provision historically has been dominated by technologies presenting rather low environmental impacts, but where projections point at increasing impacts from electricity provision in coming years. Thus, in the present case study, the chosen approach affects both absolute and relative results from the comparison. However, results were largely related to the processes identified as affected by investigated changes, and not merely the chosen modelling approach. The processes actually affected by future choices between different waste management alternatives are intrinsically uncertain. The study demonstrates the benefits of applying different assumptions regarding the processes affected by investigated choices - both for provision

  11. Attribution In Influence: Relative Power And The Use Of Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    word of mouth to mass media and motion pictures. The JUSPAO messaging effort operated under five specified PSYOP Objectives: 1.) To impress upon the...in railroad cars and stations, in taverns, and by word of mouth .”53 Because carrying a large number of printed products was cumbersome for an...campaign through social media to support their actions. Deeper investigation of their efforts exposed “troll armies” made up of paid or bot personas

  12. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Michael

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation. The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  13. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. . Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D 2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. . Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  14. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, M

    2004-07-01

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. . Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D{sub 2} molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. . Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  15. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  16. Trapping radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, H.-J.; Blaum, K.

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning

  17. Influence of inter-annual environmental variability on chrysophyte cyst assemblages: insight from a 2-years sediment trap study in lakes from northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Hernández-Almeida

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative paleonvironmental studies using transfer functions are developed from training sets. However, changes in some variables (e.g., climatic can be difficult to identify from short-term monitoring (e.g., less than one year. Here, we present the study of the chrysophyte cyst assemblages from sediment traps deployed during two consecutive years (November 2011-November 2013 in 14 lakes from Northern Poland. The studied lakes are distributed along a W-E climatological gradient, with very different physical, chemical and morphological characteristics, and land-uses. Field surveys were carried out to recover the sediment trap material during autumn, along with the measurement of several environmental variables (nutrients, major water ions, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a. During the study, one year experienced mild seasonal changes in air temperature (November 2011-November 2012; TS1, typical of oceanic climate, while the other year was characterized by colder winter and spring (November 2012-November 2013; TS2, and higher summer temperatures, more characteristic of continental climate. Other environmental variables (e.g., nutrients did not show great changes between both years. Multivariate statistical analyses (RDA and DCA were performed on individual TS1 and TS2 datasets. Water chemistry and nutrients (pH, TN and TP explained the largest portion of the variance of the chrysophyte data for the individual years. However, analyses of the combined TS1 and TS2 datasets show that strong changes between summer and autumn (warm period, ice-free period with thermal stratification and winter and spring (cold period, ice-cover period play the most important role in the inter-annual variability in the chrysophyte assemblages. We show how inter-annual sampling maximizes ecological gradients of interest, particularly in regions with large environmental diversity, and low climatic variability. This methodology could help to identify

  18. Capillary pressure - saturation relations in quartz and carbonate sands: Limitations for correlating capillary and wettability influences on air, oil, and supercritical CO2 trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Wang, S.; Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Kim, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Capillary pressure (Pc) - saturation (Sw) relations are essential for predicting equilibrium and flow of immiscible fluid pairs in soils and deeper geologic formations. In systems that are difficult to measure, behavior is often estimated based on capillary scaling of easily measured Pc-Sw relations (e.g., air-water, and oil-water), yet the reliability of such approximations needs to be examined. In this study, seventeen sets of brine drainage and imbibition curves were measured with air-brine, decane-brine, and supercritical (sc) CO2-brine in homogeneous quartz and carbonate sands, using porous plate systems under ambient (0.1 MPa, 23 °C) and reservoir (12.0 MPa, 45 °C) conditions. Comparisons between these measurements showed significant differences in residual nonwetting phase saturation, Snw,r. Through applying capillary scaling, changes in interfacial properties were indicated, particularly wettability. With respect to the residual trapping of the nonwetting phases, Snwr, CO2 > Snwr, decane > Snwr, air. Decane-brine and scCO2-brine Pc-Sw curves deviated significantly from predictions assuming hydrophilic interactions. Moreover, neither the scaled capillary behavior nor Snw,r for scCO2-brine were well represented by decane-brine, apparently because of differences in wettability and viscosities, indicating limitations for using decane (and other organic liquids) as a surrogate fluid in studies intended to apply to geological carbon sequestration. Thus, challenges remain in applying scaling for predicting capillary trapping and multiphase displacement processes across such diverse fields as vadose zone hydrology, enhanced oil recovery, and geologic carbon sequestration.

  19. Extending Attribution Theory: Considering Students' Perceived Control of the Attribution Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Evan J.; Husman, Jenefer

    2017-01-01

    Research in attribution theory has shown that students' causal thinking profoundly affects their learning and motivational outcomes. Very few studies, however, have explored how students' attribution-related beliefs influence the causal thought process. The present study used the perceived control of the attribution process (PCAP) model to examine…

  20. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  1. Changes in growth and yield attributes of two selected maize varieties as influenced by application of chemical (npk) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers in pala (chad) grown field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridine, W.; Ngakou, A.; Mbaiguinam, M.; Namba, F.; Anna, P

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted in Pala, region of the Mayo-Kebi West division, in a contribution to improve maize production in Chad. The work was oriented towards the evaluation of the interactions between chemical (NPK) and organic (bat's manure) fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of TZEE-W and IB selected maize varieties. The experimental design was a (5x2)x4 factorial design in which the main factor was the proportion of organic/chemical fertilizer (%), and the maize variety as the secondary factor, comprising the following six treatments repeated four times: control (T0) with 0 % NPK and 0 % bat's manure; T1 with 100% NPK; T2 with 100% bat's manure; T3 with 75% NPK and 25% bat's manure; T4 with 75% bat's manure and 25% NPK; T5 with 50% bat's manure and 50% NPK. Results show a variation in experimental soils pH of treatments from 5.91 to 7.92, depending on the proportion of the fertilizers applied. There were significant yield differences among treatments, as well as maize varieties. The 50% NPK+50% bat's manure was found as the best treatment to significantly (p<0.0001) enhance the yield of IB (51.2 t/ha) and TZEE-W (37.9 t/ha) maize varieties compared to their respective controls (7.25 t/ha and 6.76 t/ha). These results suggest that the combination at equal proportion of NPK and bat's manure could be recommended to sustainably improve maize production in Pala-Chad, thus with a considerable alleviation of the pollution risks that have been attributed to chemical fertilizer. (author)

  2. Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstätter, B.; Schüppert, K.; Casabone, B.; Friebe, K.; Stute, A.; Northup, T. E.; McClung, A.; Schmidt, P. O.; Deutsch, C.; Reichel, J.; Blatt, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present and characterize fiber mirrors and a miniaturized ion-trap design developed to integrate a fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity (FFPC) with a linear Paul trap for use in cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions. Our fiber-mirror fabrication process not only enables the construction of FFPCs with small mode volumes, but also allows us to minimize the influence of the dielectric fiber mirrors on the trapped-ion pseudopotential. We discuss the effect of clipping losses for long FFPCs and the effect of angular and lateral displacements on the coupling efficiencies between cavity and fiber. Optical profilometry allows us to determine the radii of curvature and ellipticities of the fiber mirrors. From finesse measurements, we infer a single-atom cooperativity of up to 12 for FFPCs longer than 200 μm in length; comparison to cavities constructed with reference substrate mirrors produced in the same coating run indicates that our FFPCs have similar scattering losses. We characterize the birefringence of our fiber mirrors, finding that careful fiber-mirror selection enables us to construct FFPCs with degenerate polarization modes. As FFPCs are novel devices, we describe procedures developed for handling, aligning, and cleaning them. We discuss experiments to anneal fiber mirrors and explore the influence of the atmosphere under which annealing occurs on coating losses, finding that annealing under vacuum increases the losses for our reference substrate mirrors. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that these losses may be attributable to oxygen depletion in the mirror coating. Special design considerations enable us to introduce a FFPC into a trapped ion setup. Our unique linear Paul trap design provides clearance for such a cavity and is miniaturized to shield trapped ions from the dielectric fiber mirrors. We numerically calculate the trap potential in the absence of fibers. In the experiment additional electrodes can be used to compensate

  3. Free radicals trapped in polyethylene matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, S.; Maeda, M.; Hori, Y.; Kashiwabara, H.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of alkyl radicals were found to be trapped in irradiated crystals grown from polyethylene solution. One of them corresponds to the broad sextet pattern of the e.s.r. spectrum and the other corresponds to the sharp sextet pattern. The free radicals attributed to the broad sextet began to disappear at a lower temperature than the temperature at which the free radicals attributed to the sharp sextet disappeared. When butadiene molecules were brought into contact with the specimen, the decay of the free radicals corresponding to the broad sextet was accelerated. When the specimen was subjected to fuming nitric acid treatment, no broad sextet was observed. The mat of the crystals was aligned so that the c-axes of its crystallites were perpendicular to its surface. The broad sextet showed no anisotropy when the angle between the direction of applied magnetic field and that of the c-axis of the crystallite was varied. On the other hand, the sharp component of the spectrum showed apparent anisotropy. It can be concluded that the broad component comes from the free radicals trapped in the lamellar surface and the sharp component is attributed to the free radicals trapped in the inner part of the crystallite. (author)

  4. Energy distributions of an ion in a radio-frequency trap immersed in a buffer gas under the influence of additional external forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, I.; Willitsch, S.

    2018-04-01

    An ion held in a radio-frequency trap interacting with a uniform buffer gas of neutral atoms develops a steady-state energy distribution characterized by a power-law tail at high energies instead of the exponential decay characteristic of thermal equilibrium. We have previously shown that the Tsallis statistics frequently used as an empirical model for this distribution is a good approximation when the ion is heated due to a combination of micromotion interruption and exchange of kinetic energy with the buffer gas [Rouse and Willitsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 143401 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.143401]. Here, we extend our treatment to include the heating due to additional motion of the ion caused by external forces, including the "excess micromotion" induced by uniform electric fields and rf phase offsets. We show that this also leads to a Tsallis distribution with a potentially different power-law exponent from that observed in the absence of this additional forced motion, with the difference increasing as the ratio of the mass of the neutral atoms to that of the ion decreases. Our results indicate that unless the excess micromotion is minimized to a very high degree, then even a system with very light neutrals and a heavy ion does not exhibit a thermal distribution.

  5. Trapping and Probing Antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan [UC Berkeley and LBNL

    2013-03-27

    Precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen is a promising path to sensitive tests of CPT symmetry. The most direct route to achieve this goal is to create and probe antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap. Antihydrogen has been synthesized and trapped for 1000s at CERN by the ALPHA Collaboration. Some of the challenges associated with achieving these milestones will be discussed, including mixing cryogenic positron and antiproton plasmas to synthesize antihydrogen with kinetic energy less than the trap potential of .5K. Recent experiments in which hyperfine transitions were resonantly induced with microwaves will be presented. The opportunity for gravitational measurements in traps based on detailed studies of antihydrogen dynamics will be described. The talk will conclude with a discussion future antihydrogen research that will use a new experimental apparatus, ALPHA-I.

  6. EBIT trapping program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.R.; Beck, B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Church, D.; DeWitt, D.; Knapp, D.K.; Marrs, R.E.; Schneider, D.; Schweikhard, L.

    1993-01-01

    The LLNL electron beam ion trap provides the world's only source of stationary highly charged ions up to bare U. This unique capability makes many new atomic and nuclear physics experiments possible. (orig.)

  7. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  8. Biases in Drosophila melanogaster protein trap screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Ilka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to localise or follow endogenous proteins in real time in vivo is of tremendous utility for cell biology or systems biology studies. Protein trap screens utilise the random genomic insertion of a transposon-borne artificial reporter exon (e.g. encoding the green fluorescent protein, GFP into an intron of an endogenous gene to generate a fluorescent fusion protein. Despite recent efforts aimed at achieving comprehensive coverage of the genes encoded in the Drosophila genome, the repertoire of genes that yield protein traps is still small. Results We analysed the collection of available protein trap lines in Drosophila melanogaster and identified potential biases that are likely to restrict genome coverage in protein trap screens. The protein trap screens investigated here primarily used P-element vectors and thus exhibit some of the same positional biases associated with this transposon that are evident from the comprehensive Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. We further found that protein trap target genes usually exhibit broad and persistent expression during embryonic development, which is likely to facilitate better detection. In addition, we investigated the likely influence of the GFP exon on host protein structure and found that protein trap insertions have a significant bias for exon-exon boundaries that encode disordered protein regions. 38.8% of GFP insertions land in disordered protein regions compared with only 23.4% in the case of non-trapping P-element insertions landing in coding sequence introns (p -4. Interestingly, even in cases where protein domains are predicted, protein trap insertions frequently occur in regions encoding surface exposed areas that are likely to be functionally neutral. Considering the various biases observed, we predict that less than one third of intron-containing genes are likely to be amenable to trapping by the existing methods. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that the

  9. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (Pgoats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (Pgoats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (Pgoats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05) while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon. PMID:27138001

  10. Search For Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B.; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D.; Bray, Crystal C.; Butler, Eoin; Cesar, Claudio L.; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C.; Gill, David R.; Hangst, Jeffrey S.; Hardy, Walter N.; Hayano, Ryugo S.; Hayden, Michael E.; Humphries, Andrew J.; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Jorgensen, Lars V.; Kurchaninov, Lenoid; Lambo, Ricardo; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Nasr, Sarah Seif El; Silveira, Daniel M.; So, Chukman; Storey, James W.; Thompson, Robert I.; van der Werf, Dirk P.; Wilding, Dean; Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experiment to search for trapped antihydrogen atoms with the ALPHA antihydrogen trap at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. Sensitive diagnostics of the temperatures, sizes, and densities of the trapped antiproton and positron plasmas have been developed, which in turn permitted development of techniques to precisely and reproducibly control the initial experimental parameters. The use of a position-sensitive annihilation vertex detector, together with the capability of controllably quenching the superconducting magnetic minimum trap, enabled us to carry out a high-sensitivity and low-background search for trapped synthesised antihydrogen atoms. We aim to identify the annihilations of antihydrogen atoms held for at least 130 ms in the trap before being released over ~30 ms. After a three-week experimental run in 2009 involving mixing of 10^7 antiprotons with 1.3 10^9 positrons to produce 6 10^5 antihydrogen atoms, we have identified six antiproton annihilation events that are consist...

  11. Does SW Monsoon Influence Total Suspended Matter Flux into the Arabian Sea?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, B.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    Seasonal enhancement in the flux of total suspended matter (TSM) has been attributed to climatology of the SW monsoon (SWM) in time-series trap experiments conducted in the Arabian Sea. To determine the influence of climate on TSM flux, synoptic...

  12. Epigeal Fauna and Soil Chemical Attributes in Grazing and Regeneration Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ribeiro Nogueira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of natural pasture and spontaneous regeneration on soil chemical properties and epigeal fauna community using a secondary Atlantic Forest as reference. The study areas were located in Passa Vinte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. In each study area, pitfall traps were used to sample epigeal fauna in the dry and rainy seasons. Earth samples were collected at a depth of 0-5 cm in the dry and rainy seasons for analysis of chemical attributes. The pasture and regeneration areas showed an overall activity of epigeal fauna and functional groups similar to the forest area. However, the diversity evaluated by the Shannon and Pielou evenness indices and the total richness were lower than the observed in the forest. The best fertility attributes were observed in the forest and pasture areas.

  13. Influence of polysaccharide-based edible coatings as carriers of prebiotic fibers on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María V; Ponce, Alejandra G; Moreira, María R

    2018-05-01

    Little information is available regarding the effect of dietary fibers added into edible coatings on quality attributes of ready-to-eat fruits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium alginate (AL) and chitosan (CH) edible coatings enriched with four different dietary fibers (apple fiber, orange fiber, inulin and oligofructose) on microbiological, nutritional, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of ready-to-eat fresh blueberries stored for 18 days at 5 °C. The most encouraging results were found for CH coatings (with and without fibers) which significantly inhibited the growth of mesophilic bacteria and yeasts/molds (reductions up to 1.9 log CFU g -1 ), reduced decay rate by more than 50%, enhanced antioxidant properties, retained fruit firmness, delayed off-odor development and improved overall visual quality of blueberries. Oligofructose and orange fiber added to CH coatings enhanced antioxidant properties of fruits and allowed higher reductions in yeast/mold counts compared to the use of CH alone. CH-based coatings enriched with inulin, oligofructose and apple fiber extended sensory shelf life of blueberries by 6 days. AL coatings (with and without fiber) allowed delaying fungal decay and also retaining antioxidant properties but did not improve the microbiological and sensory quality of fruits. The results proved that fiber-enriched CH treatments allowed the maintenance of freshness and the improvement of the quality of ready-to-eat blueberries. It might be an interesting option to offer consumers a healthy product with prebiotic potential and an extended shelf life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  15. Production of extracellular traps against Aspergillus fumigatus in vitro and in infected lung tissue is dependent on invading neutrophils and influenced by hydrophobin RodA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bruns

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important airborne fungal pathogen causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Macrophages and neutrophils are known to kill conidia, whereas hyphae are killed mainly by neutrophils. Since hyphae are too large to be engulfed, neutrophils possess an array of extracellular killing mechanisms including the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs consisting of nuclear DNA decorated with fungicidal proteins. However, until now NET formation in response to A. fumigatus has only been demonstrated in vitro, the importance of neutrophils for their production in vivo is unclear and the molecular mechanisms of the fungus to defend against NET formation are unknown. Here, we show that human neutrophils produce NETs in vitro when encountering A. fumigatus. In time-lapse movies NET production was a highly dynamic process which, however, was only exhibited by a sub-population of cells. NETosis was maximal against hyphae, but reduced against resting and swollen conidia. In a newly developed mouse model we could then demonstrate the existence and measure the kinetics of NET formation in vivo by 2-photon microscopy of Aspergillus-infected lungs. We also observed the enormous dynamics of neutrophils within the lung and their ability to interact with and phagocytose fungal elements in situ. Furthermore, systemic neutrophil depletion in mice almost completely inhibited NET formation in lungs, thus directly linking the immigration of neutrophils with NET formation in vivo. By using fungal mutants and purified proteins we demonstrate that hydrophobin RodA, a surface protein making conidia immunologically inert, led to reduced NET formation of neutrophils encountering Aspergillus fungal elements. NET-dependent killing of Aspergillus-hyphae could be demonstrated at later time-points, but was only moderate. Thus, these data establish that NET formation occurs in vivo during host defence against A

  16. Influences of Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from Grease Trap as Binder on Rheological and Solvent Extraction Behavior in SS316L Metal Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with rheological and solvent extraction behavior of stainless steel 316L feedstocks using Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from grease traps as binder components along with Polypropylene (PP copolymer as a backbone binder. Optimal binder formulation and effect of solvent extraction variables on green compacts are being analyzed. Four binder formulations based on volumetric ratio/weight fraction between PP and RWFO being mixed with 60% volumetric powder loading of SS316L powder each as feedstock. The rheological analysis are based on viscosity, shear rate, temperature, activation energy, flow behavior index, and moldability index. The optimal feedstock formulation will be injected to form green compact to undergo the solvent extraction process. Solvent extraction variables are based on solvent temperature which are 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C with different organic solvents of n-hexane and n-heptane. Analysis of the weight loss percentage and diffusion coefficient is done on the green compact during the solvent extraction process. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC is used to confirm the extraction of the RWFO in green compacts. It is found that all binder fractions exhibit pseudoplastic behavior or shear thinning where the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. After considering the factors that affect the rheological characteristic of the binder formulation, feedstock with binder formulation of 20/20 volumetric ratio between PP and RWFO rise as the optimal binder. It is found that the n-hexane solvent requires less time for extracting the RWFO at the temperature of 60 °C as proved by its diffusion coefficient.

  17. Management of Cosmopolites sordidus and Metamasius hemipterus in banana by pheromone-based mass trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpizar, D; Fallas, M; Oehlschlager, A C; Gonzalez, L M

    2012-03-01

    Mass trapping Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using a pheromone-baited pitfall trap and Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using a pheromone-sugarcane-baited open gallon trap was conducted in commercial banana. Four traps for each insect per hectare were placed in each of two 5-hectare plots of banana. Two additional 5-hectare plots were designated as controls and treated according to the plantation protocol. Capture rates of C. sordidus and M. hemipterus declined by >75 % over 10-12 months. In the banana growing region studied, corm damage was due primarily to C. sordidus, while only a minor amount of damage was attributable to M. hemipterus. Corm damage reduction in trapping plots was, thus, attributed primarily to C. sordidus trapping. In trapping plots, corm damage decreased by 61-64 % during the experiment. Banana bunch weights increased 23 % relative to control plots after 11-12 months of trapping. Fruit diameter did not vary between bunches harvested from trapping plots vs. control plots. Plant vigor, however, as determined by stem circumference at one meter above ground increased in plots with traps compared to control plots. Trapping for C. sordidus in two plantations of over 200 hectares each, reduced corm damage 62-86 % relative to pre-trapping levels. Insecticide control measures in place when the experiment commenced resulted in about 20-30 % corm damage, while use of pheromone trapping to manage C. sordidus lowered corm damage to 10 % or less. It is estimated that the increase in value of increased yield obtained in this trial (23 %) is about $4,240 USD per year per hectare, while the cost of pheromone trapping is approximately $185 USD per year per hectare. The trapping program becomes revenue neutral if bunch weights increase by an average of 1 % per year of trapping. Approximately 10 % of all plantation area in Costa Rica use the pheromone trapping system described here. The system also is used in Martinique

  18. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component...

  19. Performance improvement of charge trap flash memory by using a composition-modulated high-k trapping layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhen-Jie; Li Rong; Yin Jiang

    2013-01-01

    A composition-modulated (HfO 2 ) x (Al 2 O3) 1−x charge trapping layer is proposed for charge trap flash memory by controlling the Al atom content to form a peak and valley shaped band gap. It is found that the memory device using the composition-modulated (HfO 2 ) x (Al 2 O 3 ) 1−x as the charge trapping layer exhibits a larger memory window of 11.5 V, improves data retention even at high temperature, and enhances the program/erase speed. Improvements of the memory characteristics are attributed to the special band-gap structure resulting from the composition-modulated trapping layer. Therefore, the composition-modulated charge trapping layer may be useful in future nonvolatile flash memory device application. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  20. Factors Relating to Staff Attributions of Control over Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Jennifer A.; Phillips, Neil; Rose, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has suggested that severity of intellectual disability (ID) and topography of behaviour may influence staff causal attributions regarding challenging behaviour. Subsequently, these causal attributions may influence helping behaviours. This study investigated the relationship between attributions of control over…

  1. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  2. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford's nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list

  3. Influence of carvacrol and thymol on the physiological attributes, enterotoxin production and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (CAR and thymol (THY on some physiological characteristics and on the modulation of the secretion of some staphylococcal virulence factors, that is, coagulase and enterotoxin. This study also investigated possible mechanisms for the establishment of the anti-staphylococcal activity of these compounds. Sublethal concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 µL/mL of CAR and THY inhibited the activity of the enzymes coagulase and lipase and led to a decrease in salt tolerance. At the tested sublethal concentrations, both CAR and THY led to a total suppression of enterotoxin production. The loss of a 260-nm-absorbing material and an efflux of potassium ions occurred immediately after the addition of CAR and THY at 0.6 and 1.2 µL/mL and increased up to 120 min of exposure. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to CAR and THY (0.6 µL/mL revealed that individual cells appeared to be deformed, with projections of cellular material. The observations of leakage of cellular material and an altered cell surface suggest that gross damage to a cell's cytoplasmic membrane, which results in a disruption in protein secretion, could be responsible for the anti-staphylococcal properties of CAR and THY.

  4. Physics with Trapped Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Michael

    2017-04-01

    For more than a decade antihydrogen atoms have been formed by mixing antiprotons and positrons held in arrangements of charged particle (Penning) traps. More recently, magnetic minimum neutral atom traps have been superimposed upon the anti-atom production region, promoting the trapping of a small quantity of the antihydrogen yield. We will review these advances, and describe some of the first physics experiments performed on anrtihydrogen including the observation of the two-photon 1S-2S transition, invesigation of the charge neutrailty of the anti-atom and studies of the ground state hyperfine splitting. We will discuss the physics motivations for undertaking these experiments and describe some near-future initiatives.

  5. Attributional and relational processing in pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGarlick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Six pigeons were trained using a matching-to-sample procedure where sample and rewarded comparisons matched on both attributional (color and relational (horizontal or vertical orientation dimensions. Probes then evaluated the pigeons’ preference to comparisons that varied in these dimensions. A strong preference was found for the attribute of color. The discrimination was not found to transfer to novel colors, however, suggesting that a general color rule had not been learned. Further, when color could not be used to guide responding, some influence of other attributional cues such as shape, but not relational cues, was found. We conclude that pigeons based their performance on attributional properties of but not on relational properties between elements in our matching-to-sample procedure.. Future studies should look at examining other attributes to compare attributional versus relational processing.

  6. Ion trap device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-26

    An ion trap device is disclosed. The device includes a series of electrodes that define an ion flow path. A radio frequency (RF) field is applied to the series of electrodes such that each electrode is phase shifted approximately 180 degrees from an adjacent electrode. A DC voltage is superimposed with the RF field to create a DC gradient to drive ions in the direction of the gradient. A second RF field or DC voltage is applied to selectively trap and release the ions from the device. Further, the device may be gridless and utilized at high pressure.

  7. Asymmetric ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Alexander, Michael L.; Follansbee, James C.

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  8. Quality Attribute Design Primitives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, Len

    2000-01-01

    This report focuses on the quality attribute aspects of mechanisms. An architectural mechanism is a 'structure whereby objects collaborate to provide some behavior that satisfies a requirement of the problem...

  9. Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.

  10. Experimental apparatus to test air trap valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos De Lucca, Y. de F.; de Aquino, G. A.; Filho, J. G. D.

    2010-08-01

    It is known that the presence of trapped air within water distribution pipes can lead to irregular operation or even damage to the distribution systems and their components. The presence of trapped air may occur while the pipes are being filled with water, or while the pumping systems are in operation. The formation of large air pockets can produce the water hammer phenomenon, the instability and the loss of pressure in the water distribution networks. As a result, it can overload the pumps, increase the consumption of electricity, and damage the pumping system. In order to avoid its formation, all of the trapped air should be removed through "air trap valves". In Brazil, manufacturers frequently have unreliable sizing charts, which cause malfunctioning of the "air trap valves". The result of these malfunctions causes accidents of substantial damage. The construction of a test facility will provide a foundation of technical information that will be used to help make decisions when designing a system of pipelines where "air trap valves" are used. To achieve this, all of the valve characteristics (geometric, mechanic, hydraulic and dynamic) should be determined. This paper aims to describe and analyze the experimental apparatus and test procedure to be used to test "air trap valves". The experimental apparatus and test facility will be located at the University of Campinas, Brazil at the College of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics laboratory. The experimental apparatus will be comprised of various components (pumps, steel pipes, butterfly valves to control the discharge, flow meter and reservoirs) and instrumentation (pressure transducers, anemometer and proximity sensor). It should be emphasized that all theoretical and experimental procedures should be defined while taking into consideration flow parameters and fluid properties that influence the tests.

  11. Experimental apparatus to test air trap valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos De Lucca, Y de F [CTH-DAEE-USP/FAAP/UNICAMP (Brazil); Aquino, G A de [SABESP/UNICAMP (Brazil); Filho, J G D, E-mail: yvone.lucca@gmail.co [Water Resources Department, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein, 951, Cidade Universitaria-Barao Geraldo-Campinas, S.P., 13083-852 (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    It is known that the presence of trapped air within water distribution pipes can lead to irregular operation or even damage to the distribution systems and their components. The presence of trapped air may occur while the pipes are being filled with water, or while the pumping systems are in operation. The formation of large air pockets can produce the water hammer phenomenon, the instability and the loss of pressure in the water distribution networks. As a result, it can overload the pumps, increase the consumption of electricity, and damage the pumping system. In order to avoid its formation, all of the trapped air should be removed through 'air trap valves'. In Brazil, manufacturers frequently have unreliable sizing charts, which cause malfunctioning of the 'air trap valves'. The result of these malfunctions causes accidents of substantial damage. The construction of a test facility will provide a foundation of technical information that will be used to help make decisions when designing a system of pipelines where 'air trap valves' are used. To achieve this, all of the valve characteristics (geometric, mechanic, hydraulic and dynamic) should be determined. This paper aims to describe and analyze the experimental apparatus and test procedure to be used to test 'air trap valves'. The experimental apparatus and test facility will be located at the University of Campinas, Brazil at the College of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics laboratory. The experimental apparatus will be comprised of various components (pumps, steel pipes, butterfly valves to control the discharge, flow meter and reservoirs) and instrumentation (pressure transducers, anemometer and proximity sensor). It should be emphasized that all theoretical and experimental procedures should be defined while taking into consideration flow parameters and fluid properties that influence the tests.

  12. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO 2 as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe

  13. Redesigning octopus traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In order to minimise the identified problems in the actual traps, the present work proposes a new design with the aim of reducing the volume and weight during transport, and also during onshore storage. Alternative materials to avoid corrosion and formation of encrustations were also proposed.

  14. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  15. Correlation of interface states/border traps and threshold voltage shift on AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tian-Li, E-mail: Tian-Li.Wu@imec.be; Groeseneken, Guido [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Marcon, Denis; De Jaeger, Brice; Lin, H. C.; Franco, Jacopo; Stoffels, Steve; Van Hove, Marleen; Decoutere, Stefaan [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Bakeroot, Benoit [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Centre for Microsystems Technology, Ghent University, 9052 Gent (Belgium); Roelofs, Robin [ASM, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, three electrical techniques (frequency dependent conductance analysis, AC transconductance (AC-g{sub m}), and positive gate bias stress) were used to evaluate three different gate dielectrics (Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) for AlGaN/GaN Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistors. From these measurements, the interface state density (D{sub it}), the amount of border traps, and the threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) shift during a positive gate bias stress can be obtained. The results show that the V{sub TH} shift during a positive gate bias stress is highly correlated to not only interface states but also border traps in the dielectric. A physical model is proposed describing that electrons can be trapped by both interface states and border traps. Therefore, in order to minimize the V{sub TH} shift during a positive gate bias stress, the gate dielectric needs to have a lower interface state density and less border traps. However, the results also show that the commonly used frequency dependent conductance analysis technique to extract D{sub it} needs to be cautiously used since the resulting value might be influenced by the border traps and, vice versa, i.e., the g{sub m} dispersion commonly attributed to border traps might be influenced by interface states.

  16. [Trapping techniques for Solenopsis invicta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-song; Zhang, Qiang; Zhuang, Yiong-lin; Li, Gui-wen; Ji, Lin-peng; Wang, Jian-guo; Dai, Hua-guo

    2007-06-01

    A field study was made to investigate the trapping effects of different attractants, traps, and wind directions on Solenopsis invicta. The results showed that among the test attractants, TB1 (50 g fishmeal, 40 g peptone, 10 ml 10% sucrose water solution and 20 ml soybean oil) had the best effect, followed by TB2 (ham), TB6 (100 g cornmeal and 20 ml soybean oil) and TB4 (10 ml 10% sucrose water solution, 100 g sugarcane powder and 20 ml soybean oil), with a mean capture efficiency being 77.6, 58.7, 29 and 7.7 individuals per trap, respectively. No S. invicta was trapped with TB3 (10 ml 10% sucrose water solution, 100 g cornmeal and 20 ml soybean oil) and TB5 (honey). Tube trap was superior to dish trap, with a trapping efficiency of 75.2 and 35 individuals per trap, respectively. The attractants had better effects in leeward than in windward.

  17. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trapped...... in air using a 1064 nm laser. The positions visited by the trapped gold nano-particle were quantified using a quadrant photo diode placed in the back focal plane. The time traces were analyzed and the trapping stiffness characterizing gold aerosol trapping determined and compared to aerosol trapping...... of nanometer sized silica and polystyrene particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that gold nano-particles trap more strongly in air than similarly sized polystyrene and silica particles. We found that, in a certain power range, the trapping strength of polystyrene particles is linearly decreasing...

  18. Influência dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft Influence of soil attributes on quality of Pinus taeda wood for cellulose Kraft production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Rigatto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os efeitos dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft, em áreas da Klabin, em Telêmaco Borba-PR. Foram estudados oito sítios com árvores de 12 anos de idade, selecionados pelo tipo de solo, textura e vegetação primária. Para caracterização dos sítios foram realizadas coletas de amostras em três horizontes, tendo sido coletadas amostras indeformadas e compostas, analisando-se as seguintes variáveis no solo: densidade global, porosidade total, macroporosidade, disponibilidade de água, fertilidade e granulometria. Selecionaram-se cinco árvores médias por sítio, nas quais foram medidos as alturas total e comercial e o DAP e retirados discos, sendo este material ensaiado quanto a densidade básica, composição química, características morfológicas dos traqueídeos e produção de celulose Kraft. Com relação às propriedades da madeira, os atributos físicos do solo demonstraram ter maior influência. De modo geral, as madeiras provenientes de sítios com texturas mais argilosas apresentaram menores valores de densidade básica; maiores teores de extrativos e lignina; menores teores de holocelulose e celulose; traqueídeos mais curtos, mais largos, com paredes mais finas e com diâmetros do lúmen maiores; e menor rendimento em celulose. A partir destes resultados, concluiu-se ser possível a previsão de propriedades da polpa através da análise das características da madeira associada às condições edáficas reinantes.To meet the increasing demand for forest products, much of the future timber supply will come from trees grown in managed plantations. This work was carried out to analyze the effects of soil attributes on Pinus taeda wood quality to produce Kraft cellulose at Klabin Parana Cellulose Co., in Telêmaco Borba, PR, Brazil. The study focused on the influence of soil attributes on the anatomical, physical and chemical wood

  19. Attribution of climate extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Shepherd, Theodore G.

    2015-08-01

    There is a tremendous desire to attribute causes to weather and climate events that is often challenging from a physical standpoint. Headlines attributing an event solely to either human-induced climate change or natural variability can be misleading when both are invariably in play. The conventional attribution framework struggles with dynamically driven extremes because of the small signal-to-noise ratios and often uncertain nature of the forced changes. Here, we suggest that a different framing is desirable, which asks why such extremes unfold the way they do. Specifically, we suggest that it is more useful to regard the extreme circulation regime or weather event as being largely unaffected by climate change, and question whether known changes in the climate system's thermodynamic state affected the impact of the particular event. Some examples briefly illustrated include 'snowmaggedon' in February 2010, superstorm Sandy in October 2012 and supertyphoon Haiyan in November 2013, and, in more detail, the Boulder floods of September 2013, all of which were influenced by high sea surface temperatures that had a discernible human component.

  20. Mosquito Traps: An Innovative, Environmentally Friendly Technique to Control Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Poulin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO2 and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, the two species targeted by Bti spraying, was, respectively, 74% and 98%. Traps were less efficient against Anopheles hyrcanus (46%, which was more attracted by lactic acid than octenol lures based on previous tests. Nearly 300,000 mosquitoes from nine species were captured, with large variations among traps, emphasizing that trap performance is also influenced by surrounding factors. Environmental impact, based on the proportion of non-target insects captured, was mostly limited to small chironomids attracted by street lights. The breeding success of a house martin colony was not significantly affected by trap use, in contrast to Bti spraying. Our experiment confirms that the deployment of mosquito traps can offer a cost-effective alternative to Bti spraying for protecting local populations from mosquito nuisance in sensitive natural areas.

  1. Effect of traps and defects on high temperature performance of Ge channel junctionless nanowire transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanchuan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of traps and defects on high temperature performance of p-type germanium-on-insulator (GOI based junctionless nanowire transistors (JNTs at temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 K. Temperature dependence of the main electrical parameters, such as drive current (Ion, leakage current (Ioff, threshold voltage (Vt, transconductance (Gm and subthreshold slope (SS are extracted and compared with the reported results of conventional inversion mode (IM MOSFETs and Si based JNTs. The results show that the high interface trap density (Dit and defects can degrade high temperature reliability of GOI based JNTs significantly, in terms of Ioff, Vt variation, Gm-max and SS values. The Ioff is much more dependent on temperature than Ion and mainly affected by trap-assisted-tunneling (TAT current. The Vt variation with temperature is larger than that for IM MOSFETs and SOI based JNTs, which can be mostly attributed to the high Dit. The high Dit can also induce high SS values. The maximum Gm has a weak dependence on temperature and is significantly influenced by neutral defects scattering. Limiting the Dit and neutral defect densities is critical for the reliability of GOI based JNTs working at high temperatures.

  2. Recombination in Perovskite Solar Cells : Significance of Grain Boundaries, Interface Traps, and Defect Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherkar, Tejas; Momblona, Cristina; Gil-Escrig, Lidon; Avila, Jorge; Sessolo, Michele; Bolink, Henk J.; Koster, Lambert

    2017-01-01

    Trap-assisted recombination, despite being lower as compared with traditional inorganic solar cells, is still the dominant recombination mechanism in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and limits their efficiency. We investigate the attributes of the primary trap-assisted recombination channels (grain

  3. Escaping the tolerance trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, S.; Madan, V.

    1994-01-01

    In order to examine the implications of the weakening of OPEC's responsiveness in adjusting its production levels, this paper explicitly incorporates rigidity in the quantity adjustment mechanism, thereby extending previous research which assumed smooth quantity adjustments. The rigidity is manifested in a tolerance range for the discrepancy between the declared target price and that of the market. This environment gives rise to a 'tolerance trap' which impedes the convergence process and inevitably brings the market to a standstill before its reaches the targeted price and revenue objectives. OPEC's reaction to the standstill has important implications for the achievement of the target-based equilibrium and for the potential collapse of the market price. This paper examines OPEC's policy options in the tolerance trap and reveals that the optional policy in order to break this impasse and move closer to the equilibrium point is gradually to reduce output and not to flood the market. (Author)

  4. Trapped Ion Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    Qubits can be encoded in clock states of trapped ions. These states are well isolated from the environment resulting in long coherence times [1] while enabling efficient high-fidelity qubit interactions mediated by the Coulomb coupled motion of the ions in the trap. Quantum states can be prepared with high fidelity and measured efficiently using fluorescence detection. State preparation and detection with 99.93% fidelity have been realized in multiple systems [1,2]. Single qubit gates have been demonstrated below rigorous fault-tolerance thresholds [1,3]. Two qubit gates have been realized with more than 99.9% fidelity [4,5]. Quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on systems of 5 to 15 qubits [6–8].

  5. Trapped electrons in irradiated single crystals of polyhydroxy compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, H.C.; Budzinski, E.E.; Freund, H.G.; Potter, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The intermolecular trapping of electrons has been observed in single crystals of dulcitol and L(+) arabinose x-irradiated at 4.2 0 K. Attribution of a major component of the ESR absorption to trapped electrons is based upon the character of the hyperfine pattern, which arises from multiple anisotropic hyperfine interactions with exchangeable protons, and on the g value of the absorption, which is always less than the free spin value. The removal of the trapped electron absorption upon irradiation with visible light has also been demonstrated. In these experiments all of the electrons are trapped in identical sites. This circumstance provides some important advantages in the study of the factors affecting the stabilization of charge in an environment of polarizable molecules

  6. Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    John Paley. (2017). Phenomenology as Qualitative Research: A Critical Analysis of Meaning Attribution. ... basic philosophical nature of phenomenological meaning and inquiry, and that he not ... In keeping with the title of my book, Researching. Lived Experience ...... a quantitative social science that can make generalizing.

  7. Main designations and attributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the main designations and attributions of the LNMRI - Brazilian National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, the Cooperative Center in Radiation Protection and Medical Preparations for Accidents with Radiation; the Treaty for fully banning of nuclear tests and the Regional Center for Training of IAEA

  8. Sediment Trapping in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Ralston, David K.

    2018-01-01

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments. Here, we use a transport decomposition to present processes that lead to convergent SPM transport, and review trapping mechanisms that lead to ETMs at the landward limit of the salt intrusion, in the freshwater zone, at topographic transitions, and by lateral processes within the cross section. We use model simulations of example estuaries to demonstrate the complex concurrence of ETM formation mechanisms. We also discuss how changes in SPM trapping mechanisms, often caused by direct human interference, can lead to the generation of hyperturbid estuaries.

  9. Attributional "Tunnel Vision" in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa; Moritz, Steffen; Schneider, Brooke; Bierbrodt, Julia; Nagel, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to examine the profile of interpersonal attributions in BPD. We hypothesized that patients show more mono-causal and internal attributions than healthy controls. A revised version of the Internal, Personal, Situational and Attributions Questionnaire was assessed in 30 BPD patients and 30 healthy controls. BPD patients and controls differed significantly in their attributional pattern. Patients displayed more mono-causal inferences, that is, they had difficulties considering alternative explanatory factors. For negative events, patients made more internal attributions compared to healthy controls. We concluded that mono-causal "trapped" thinking might contribute to (interpersonal) problems in BPD patients by fostering impulsive consequential behaviors, for example, harming one's self or others. A self-blaming tendency likely promotes depressive symptoms and low self-esteem.

  10. Stable Trapping of Multielectron Helium Bubbles in a Paul Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. M.; Vadakkumbatt, V.; Pal, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-06-01

    In a recent experiment, we have used a linear Paul trap to store and study multielectron bubbles (MEBs) in liquid helium. MEBs have a charge-to-mass ratio (between 10^{-4} and 10^{-2} C/kg) which is several orders of magnitude smaller than ions (between 10^6 and 10^8 C/kg) studied in traditional ion traps. In addition, MEBs experience significant drag force while moving through the liquid. As a result, the experimental parameters for stable trapping of MEBs, such as magnitude and frequency of the applied electric fields, are very different from those used in typical ion trap experiments. The purpose of this paper is to model the motion of MEBs inside a linear Paul trap in liquid helium, determine the range of working parameters of the trap, and compare the results with experiments.

  11. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  12. Atom trap trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-01-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual 85 Kr and 81 Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10 -11 and 10 -13 , respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications

  13. Magnetic traps with a sperical separatrix: Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregood, B.P.; Lehnert, B.

    1979-11-01

    A review is given on the features of magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix, with special emphesis on Tornado spiral coil configurations. The confinement and heating of static plasmas in Tornado traps is treated, including the topology of the magnetic field structure, the magneto-mechanical properties of the magnetic coil system, as well as the particle orbits and plasma behaviour in these traps. In additio, the mode of rotating plasma operation by crossed electric and magnetic fields is being described. The results of experiments on static and rotating plasmas are summarized, and conclusions are drawn about future possibilities of Tornado traps for the creation and containment of hot plasmas. (author)

  14. Magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix: Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregood, B.P.; Lehnert, B.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given on the features of magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix, with special emphasis on Tornado spiral coil configurations. The confinement and heating of static plasms in Tornado traps is treated, including the topology of the magnetic field structure, the magneto-mechanical properties of the magnetic coil system, as well as the particle orbits and plasma behaviour in these traps. In addition, the mode of rotating plasma operation by crossed electric and magnetic fields is described. The results of experiments on static and rotating plasmas are summarized, and conclusions are drawn about future possibilities of Tornado traps in the creation and containment of hot plasmas. (orig.)

  15. Characteristics of trapped electrons and electron traps in single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzinski, E.E.; Potter, W.R.; Potienko, G.; Box, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Two additional carbohydrates are reported whose crystal structures trap electrons intermolecularly in single crystals x irradiated at low temperature, namely sucrose and rhamnose. Five carbohydrate and polyhydroxy compounds are now known which exhibit this phenomenon. The following characteristics of the phenomenon were investigated: (1) the hyperfine couplings of the electron with protons of the polarized hydroxy groups forming the trap; (2) the distances between these protons and the trapped electron; (3) the spin density of the electron at the protons and (4) the relative stabilities of the electron trapped in various crystal structures

  16. Light effect in photoionization of traps in GaN MESFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arabshahi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trapping of hot electron behavior by trap centers located in buffer layer of a wurtzite phase GaN MESFET has been simulated using an ensemble Monte Carlo simulation. The results of the simulation show that the trap centers are responsible for current collapse in GaN MESFET at low temperatures. These electrical traps degrade the performance of the device at low temperature. On the opposite, a light-induced increase in the trap-limited drain current, results from the photoionization of trapped carriers and their return to the channel under the influence of the built in electric field associated with the trapped charge distribution. The simulated device geometries and doping are matched to the nominal parameters described for the experimental structures as closely as possible, and the predicted drain current and other electrical characteristics for the simulated device including trapping center effects show close agreement with the available experimental data.

  17. Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Achim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+ show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ− and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

  18. Exploring Attribution Theory and Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: This activity can be used in a wide range of classes, including interpersonal communication, introduction to communication, and small group communication. Objectives: After completing this activity, students should be able to: (1) define attribution theory, personality attribution, situational attribution, and attribution bias; (2)…

  19. Space-charge effects in Penning ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porobić, T.; Beck, M.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Couratin, C.; Finlay, P.; Knecht, A.; Fabian, X.; Friedag, P.; Fléchard, X.; Liénard, E.; Ban, G.; Zákoucký, D.; Soti, G.; Van Gorp, S.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Wursten, E.; Severijns, N.

    2015-06-01

    The influence of space-charge on ion cyclotron resonances and magnetron eigenfrequency in a gas-filled Penning ion trap has been investigated. Off-line measurements with K39+ using the cooling trap of the WITCH retardation spectrometer-based setup at ISOLDE/CERN were performed. Experimental ion cyclotron resonances were compared with ab initio Coulomb simulations and found to be in agreement. As an important systematic effect of the WITCH experiment, the magnetron eigenfrequency of the ion cloud was studied under increasing space-charge conditions. Finally, the helium buffer gas pressure in the Penning trap was determined by comparing experimental cooling rates with simulations.

  20. ATRAP - Progress Towards Trapped Antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzonka, D.; Goldenbaum, F.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E.A.; Storry, C.H.; Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Lesage, D.; Levitt, B.; Speck, A.; Haensch, T.W.; Pittner, H.; Walz, J.

    2005-01-01

    The ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aims for a test of the CPT invariance by a high precision comparison of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen and the antihydrogen atom.Antihydrogen production is routinely operated at ATRAP and detailed studies have been performed in order to optimize the production efficiency of useful antihydrogen.For high precision measurements of atomic transitions cold antihydrogen in the ground state is required which must be trapped due to the low number of available antihydrogen atoms compared to the cold hydrogen beam used for hydrogen spectroscopy. To ensure a reasonable antihydrogen trapping efficiency a magnetic trap has to be superposed the nested Penning trap. First trapping tests of charged particles within a combined magnetic/Penning trap have started at ATRAP

  1. ATRAP Progress Towards Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Grzonka, D; Gabrielse, G; Goldenbaum, F; Hänsch, T W; Hessels, E A; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Oelert, W; Pittner, H; Sefzick, T; Speck, A; Storry, C H; Walz, J; Zhang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aims for a test of the CPT invariance by a high precision comparison of the 1s‐2s transition in the hydrogen and the antihydrogen atom. Antihydrogen production is routinely operated at ATRAP and detailed studies have been performed in order to optimize the production efficiency of useful antihydrogen. For high precision measurements of atomic transitions cold antihydrogen in the ground state is required which must be trapped due to the low number of available antihydrogen atoms compared to the cold hydrogen beam used for hydrogen spectroscopy. To ensure a reasonable antihydrogen trapping efficiency a magnetic trap has to be superposed the nested Penning trap. First trapping tests of charged particles within a combined magnetic/Penning trap have started at ATRAP.

  2. Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Katherine [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-31

    A report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concludes it is now possible to estimate the influence of climate change on some types of extreme events. The science of extreme event attribution has advanced rapidly in recent years, giving new insight to the ways that human-caused climate change can influence the magnitude or frequency of some extreme weather events. This report examines the current state of science of extreme weather attribution, and identifies ways to move the science forward to improve attribution capabilities. Confidence is strongest in attributing types of extreme events that are influenced by climate change through a well-understood physical mechanism, such as, the more frequent heat waves that are closely connected to human-caused global temperature increases, the report finds. Confidence is lower for other types of events, such as hurricanes, whose relationship to climate change is more complex and less understood at present. For any extreme event, the results of attribution studies hinge on how questions about the event's causes are posed, and on the data, modeling approaches, and statistical tools chosen for the analysis.

  3. Fundamental(ist) attribution error: Protestants are dispositionally focused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yexin Jessica; Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B; Williams, Melissa J; Knowles, Eric D; Chen, Zhansheng

    2012-02-01

    Attribution theory has long enjoyed a prominent role in social psychological research, yet religious influences on attribution have not been well studied. We theorized and tested the hypothesis that Protestants would endorse internal attributions to a greater extent than would Catholics, because Protestantism focuses on the inward condition of the soul. In Study 1, Protestants made more internal, but not external, attributions than did Catholics. This effect survived controlling for Protestant work ethic, need for structure, and intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. Study 2 showed that the Protestant-Catholic difference in internal attributions was significantly mediated by Protestants' greater belief in a soul. In Study 3, priming religion increased belief in a soul for Protestants but not for Catholics. Finally, Study 4 found that experimentally strengthening belief in a soul increased dispositional attributions among Protestants but did not change situational attributions. These studies expand the understanding of cultural differences in attributions by demonstrating a distinct effect of religion on dispositional attributions.

  4. Calibration of optically trapped nanotools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carberry, D M; Simpson, S H; Grieve, J A; Hanna, S; Miles, M J [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wang, Y; Schaefer, H; Steinhart, M [Institute for Chemistry, University of Osnabrueck, Osnabrueck (Germany); Bowman, R; Gibson, G M; Padgett, M J, E-mail: m.j.miles@bristol.ac.uk [SUPA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Science Road, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-30

    Holographically trapped nanotools can be used in a novel form of force microscopy. By measuring the displacement of the tool in the optical traps, the contact force experienced by the probe can be inferred. In the following paper we experimentally demonstrate the calibration of such a device and show that its behaviour is independent of small changes in the relative position of the optical traps. Furthermore, we explore more general aspects of the thermal motion of the tool.

  5. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  6. New Method for Shallow and Deep Trap Distribution Analysis in Oil Impregnated Insulation Paper Based on the Space Charge Detrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Space charge has close relation with the trap distribution in the insulation material. The phenomenon of charges trapping and detrapping has attracted significant attention in recent years. Space charge and trap parameters are effective parameters for assessing the ageing condition of the insulation material qualitatively. In this paper, a new method for calculating trap distribution based on the double exponential fitting analysis of charge decay process and its application on characterizing the trap distribution of oil impregnated insulation paper was investigated. When compared with the common first order exponential fitting analysis method, the improved dual-level trap method could obtain the energy level range and density of both shallow traps and deep traps, simultaneously. Space charge decay process analysis of the insulation paper immersed with new oil and aged oil shows that the improved trap distribution calculation method can distinguish the physical defects and chemical defects. The trap density shows an increasing trend with the oil ageing, especially for the deep traps mainly related to chemical defects. The greater the energy could be filled by the traps, the larger amount of charges could be trapped, especially under higher electric field strength. The deep trap energy level and trap density could be used to characterize ageing. When one evaluates the ageing condition of oil-paper insulation using trap distribution parameters, the influence of oil performance should not be ignored.

  7. A live-trap and trapping technique for fossorial mammals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mammals. G.C. Hickman. An effective live-trap was designed for Cryptomys hottentotus .... that there is an animal in the burrow system, and to lessen the likelihood of the .... the further testing and modification of existing trap types. Not only is it ...

  8. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers : Exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H. T.; Mandoc, M. M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  9. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers: exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H.T.; Mandoc, M.M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  10. Influência de formas do relevo em atributos físicos de um latossolo sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar Influence of the relief forms on physical attributes of an oxisol cropped with sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane de Figueiredo Brito

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os atributos físicos do solo variam em função das formas do relevo e sofrem influência da mineralogia da fração argila e do manejo da cultura de cana-de-açúcar, podendo interferir no processo de compactação do solo. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o estado dos atributos físicos em diferentes formas do relevo em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico argiloso sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar. A área apresenta duas formas de relevo: uma côncava, que ocorre nas posições mais elevadas, e uma linear, constituída pelos segmentos ombro, escarpa, meia encosta e encosta inferior. As amostras de solo foram coletadas durante o ciclo da cultura, nas camadas de 0,00-0,15m, 0,15-0,30m e 0,30-0,45m, para determinação do teor de matéria orgânica e dos seguintes atributos físicos: densidade do solo, porosidade total, macroporosidade, microporosidade, resistência do solo à penetração e teor de água no solo. A mineralogia mais gibbsítica e o maior teor de matéria orgânica, encontrada na forma de relevo côncava e de segmento ombro, proporciona menores valores de densidade do solo, de resistência do solo à penetração e de microporosidade e maiores valores de macroporosidade e de porosidade total do que a mineralogia mais caulinítica, encontrada nos demais segmentos da forma linear.The physical attributes of the soil vary according to the relief forms and suffer from the mineralogy of the clay fraction and the management of the sugarcane culture, being able to influence the soil compaction process. This research was developed in Jaboticabal-SP, aiming at evaluating the behavior of physical attributes in different relief forms in an oxisol cropped with sugarcane. The area presents two relief forms (concave and linear, the concave one, that occurs at the highest positions, and the linear one, consisting of shoulder, scarp, stocking lean and inferior lean segments. The samples soil were collected during the sugarcane

  11. Atributos físicos do solo sob diferentes preparos e coberturas influenciados pela distribuição de poros Soil physical attributes under different tillage systems and cover crops, as influenced by pore distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurâimi de Q. Cunha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho se propõe avaliar a influência da distribuição de poros sobre alguns atributos físicos do solo sob semeadura direta (SD e preparo convencional (PC, cultivado com diferentes culturas de cobertura, no sistema de produção orgânica de feijão e milho. O trabalho foi conduzido em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Em novembro de 2003 foram instalados quatro experimentos, dois em SD e dois em PC, um em cada manejo com feijão e o outro com milho. Foram comparados em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, crotalária, guandu, mucuna-preta, sorgo e pousio. Amostragens de solo das parcelas e de uma mata próxima foram realizadas nas profundidades de 0-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m, em novembro de 2007, para determinação do teor de matéria orgânica (M.O. e de atributos físicos do solo. O uso do solo sob vegetação de cerrado para a produção agrícola, independentemente do sistema de cultivo, resultou em redução na porosidade total (Pt, macroporosidade (Mp e capacidade de aeração do solo (CAS. Os atributos físicos do solo foram afetados favoravelmente pela M.O. As variações em Pt, Mp, CAS e capacidade de água disponível do solo podem ser explicadas pela variação na distribuição do tamanho de poros do solo, principalmente daqueles com ∅ > 0,075 mm.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of pore distribution on some physical attributes of soil under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT systems, cultivated with different cover crops, in organic production of common bean and corn. The work was carried out in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, on an Oxisol. In November 2003 four experiments were installed, two of them under NT and the other two under CT. In each soil tillage system, an experiment was conducted with corn and another with common bean. Sunn hemp, pigeon pea, velvet bean, sorghum, and fallow were compared in a randomized block design, with four replications. Samples were

  12. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  13. Detection of trapped antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hydomako, Richard [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2013-02-01

    A landmark thesis describing the first ever trapping of antihydrogen atoms in CERN's ALPHA apparatus. Opens the way to crucial tests of fundamental theories. Nominated as an outstanding contribution by the University of Calgary. In 2010, the ALPHA collaboration achieved a first for mankind: the stable, long-term storage of atomic antimatter, a project carried out a the Antiproton Decelerator facility at CERN. A crucial element of this observation was a dedicated silicon vertexing detector used to identify and analyze antihydrogen annihilations. This thesis reports the methods used to reconstruct the annihilation location. Specifically, the methods used to identify and extrapolate charged particle tracks and estimate the originating annihilation location are outlined. Finally, the experimental results demonstrating the first-ever magnetic confinement of antihydrogen atoms are presented. These results rely heavily on the silicon detector, and as such, the role of the annihilation vertex reconstruction is emphasized.

  14. Quality Attribute Techniques Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Yin Kia; Zhu, Liming; Staples, Mark

    The quality of software is achieved during its development. Development teams use various techniques to investigate, evaluate and control potential quality problems in their systems. These “Quality Attribute Techniques” target specific product qualities such as safety or security. This paper proposes a framework to capture important characteristics of these techniques. The framework is intended to support process tailoring, by facilitating the selection of techniques for inclusion into process models that target specific product qualities. We use risk management as a theory to accommodate techniques for many product qualities and lifecycle phases. Safety techniques have motivated the framework, and safety and performance techniques have been used to evaluate the framework. The evaluation demonstrates the ability of quality risk management to cover the development lifecycle and to accommodate two different product qualities. We identify advantages and limitations of the framework, and discuss future research on the framework.

  15. Flux trapping in superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, C.; Bolore, M.; Bonin, B.; Charrier, J.P.; Daillant, B.; Gratadour, J.; Koechlin, F.; Safa, H.

    1992-01-01

    The flux trapped in various field cooled Nb and Pb samples has been measured. For ambient fields smaller than 3 Gauss, 100% of the flux is trapped. The consequences of this result on the behavior of superconducting RF cavities are discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  16. Injection into electron plasma traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgadze, Vladimir; Pasquini, Thomas A.; Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Computational studies and experimental measurements of plasma injection into a Malmberg-Penning trap reveal that the number of trapped particles can be an order of magnitude higher than predicted by a simple estimates based on a ballistic trapping model. Enhanced trapping is associated with a rich nonlinear dynamics generated by the space-charge forces of the evolving trapped electron density. A particle-in-cell simulation is used to identify the physical mechanisms that lead to the increase in trapped electrons. The simulations initially show strong two-stream interactions between the electrons emitted from the cathode and those reflected off the end plug of the trap. This is followed by virtual cathode oscillations near the injection region. As electrons are trapped, the initially hollow longitudinal phase-space is filled, and the transverse radial density profile evolves so that the plasma potential matches that of the cathode. Simple theoretical arguments are given that describe the different dynamical regimes. Good agreement is found between simulation and theory

  17. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  18. Electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms is a new branch of applied physics that has potential for application in many areas. The authors present an introduction to laser cooling and magnetic trapping. Some basic ideas and fundamental limitations are discussed, and the first successful experiments are reviewed. Trapping a neutral object depends on the interaction between an inhomogeneous electromagnetic field and a multiple moment that results in the exchange of kinetic for potential energy. In neutral atom traps, the potential energy must be stored as internal atomic energy, resulting in two immediate and extremely important consequences. First, the atomic energy levels will necessarily shift as the atoms move in the trap, and, second, practical traps for ground state neutral atoms atr necessarily very shallow compared to thermal energy. This small depth also dictates stringent vacuum requirements because a trapped atom cannot survive a single collision with a thermal energy background gas molecule. Neutral trapping, therefore, depends on substantial cooling of a thermal atomic sample and is inextricably connected with the cooling process

  19. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  20. Trapped surfaces in spherical stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, P.; Malec, E.; O'Murchadha, N.

    1988-01-01

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of trapped surfaces in spherically symmetric spacetimes. These conditions show that the formation of trapped surfaces depends on both the degree of concentration and the average flow of the matter. The result can be considered as a partial validation of the cosmic-censorship hypothesis

  1. Spin resonance with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Ch; Balzer, Ch; Hannemann, T; Mintert, F; Neuhauser, W; Reiss, D; Toschek, P E [Institut fuer Laser-Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-03-14

    A modified ion trap is described where experiments (in particular related to quantum information processing) that usually require optical radiation can be carried out using microwave or radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Instead of applying the usual methods for coherent manipulation of trapped ions, a string of ions in such a modified trap can be treated like a molecule in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments taking advantage of spin-spin coupling. The collection of trapped ions can be viewed as an N-qubit molecule with adjustable spin-spin coupling constants. Given N identically prepared quantum mechanical two-level systems (qubits), the optimal strategy to estimate their quantum state requires collective measurements. Using the ground state hyperfine levels of electrodynamically trapped {sup 171}Yb{sup +}, we have implemented an adaptive algorithm for state estimation involving sequential measurements on arbitrary qubit states.

  2. Spin resonance with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, Ch; Balzer, Ch; Hannemann, T; Mintert, F; Neuhauser, W; Reiss, D; Toschek, P E

    2003-01-01

    A modified ion trap is described where experiments (in particular related to quantum information processing) that usually require optical radiation can be carried out using microwave or radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Instead of applying the usual methods for coherent manipulation of trapped ions, a string of ions in such a modified trap can be treated like a molecule in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments taking advantage of spin-spin coupling. The collection of trapped ions can be viewed as an N-qubit molecule with adjustable spin-spin coupling constants. Given N identically prepared quantum mechanical two-level systems (qubits), the optimal strategy to estimate their quantum state requires collective measurements. Using the ground state hyperfine levels of electrodynamically trapped 171 Yb + , we have implemented an adaptive algorithm for state estimation involving sequential measurements on arbitrary qubit states

  3. Nonlinear spectroscopy of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlawin, Frank; Gessner, Manuel; Mukamel, Shaul; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy employs a series of laser pulses to interrogate dynamics in large interacting many-body systems, and it has become a highly successful method for experiments in chemical physics. Current quantum optical experiments approach system sizes and levels of complexity that require the development of efficient techniques to assess spectral and dynamical features with scalable experimental overhead. However, established methods from optical spectroscopy of macroscopic ensembles cannot be applied straightforwardly to few-atom systems. Based on the ideas proposed in M. Gessner et al., (arXiv:1312.3365), we develop a diagrammatic approach to construct nonlinear measurement protocols for controlled quantum systems, and we discuss experimental implementations with trapped ion technology in detail. These methods, in combination with distinct features of ultracold-matter systems, allow us to monitor and analyze excitation dynamics in both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. They are independent of system size, and they can therefore reliably probe systems in which, e.g., quantum state tomography becomes prohibitively expensive. We propose signals that can probe steady-state currents, detect the influence of anharmonicities on phonon transport, and identify signatures of chaotic dynamics near a quantum phase transition in an Ising-type spin chain.

  4. Evaluation of chromatic cues for trapping Bactrocera tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Ma, Huabo; Niu, Liming; Han, Dongyin; Zhang, Fangping; Chen, Junyu; Fu, Yueguan

    2017-01-01

    Trapping technology based on chromatic cues is an important strategy in controlling Tephritidae (fruit flies). The objectives of this present study were to evaluate the preference of Bactrocera tau for different chromatic cues, and to explore an easy method to print and reproduce coloured paper. Chromatic cues significantly affected the preference of adult B. tau. Wavelengths in the 515-604 nm range were the suitable wavelengths for trapping B. tau. Different-day-old B. tau had different colour preferences. Virtual wavelengths of 595 nm (yellow) and 568 nm (yellowish green) were the optimum wavelengths for trapping 5-7-day-old B. tau and 30-32-day-old B. tau respectively. The trap type and height significantly influenced B. tau attraction efficiency. The number of B. tau on coloured traps hung perpendicular to plant rows was not significantly higher than the number on traps hung parallel to plant rows. The quantisation of colour on the basis of Bruton's wavelength to RGB function can serve as an alternative method for printing and reproducing coloured paper, but a corrected equation should be established between the theoretical wavelength and actual wavelength of coloured paper. Results show that a compound paper coloured yellow (595 nm) and yellowish green (568 nm) installed at 60 and 90 cm above the ground shows the maximum effect for trapping B. tau. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Use of seismic attributes for sediment classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Radomille Santana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study to understand the relationships between seismic attributes extracted from 2D high-resolution seismic data and the seafloor's sediments of the surveyed area. As seismic attributes are features highly influenced by the medium through which the seismic waves are propagated, the authors can assume that it would be possible to characterise the geological nature of the seafloor by using these attributes. Herein, a survey was performed on the continental margin of the South Shetland Islands in Antarctica, where both 2D high-resolution seismic data and sediment gravity cores samples were simultaneously acquired. A computational script was written to extract the seismic attributes from the data, which have been statistically analysed with clustering analyses, such as principal components analysis, dendrograms and k-means classification. The extracted seismic attributes are the amplitude, the instantaneous phase, the instantaneous frequency, the envelope, the time derivative of the envelope, the second derivative of the envelope and the acceleration of phase. Statistical evaluation showed that geological classification of the seafloor's sediments is possible by associating these attributes according to their coherence. The methodologies here developed seem to be appropriate for glacio-marine environment and coarse-to-medium silt sediment found in the study area and may be applied to other regions in the same geological conditions.

  6. Evaluating potential sources of variation in Chironomidae catch rates on sticky traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua T.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2016-01-01

    Sticky traps are a convenient tool for assessing adult aquatic insect population dynamics, but there are many practical questions about how trap sampling artefacts may affect observed results. Utilising study sites on the Colorado River and two smaller streams in northern Arizona, USA, we evaluated whether catch rates and sex ratios of Chironomidae, a ubiquitous aquatic insect, were affected by spraying traps with insecticide, placing traps at different heights above ground, and placing traps at different locations within a terrestrial habitat patch. We also evaluated temporal variation in Chironomidae counts monthly over a 9-month growing season. We found no significant variation in catch rates or sex ratios between traps treated versus untreated with insecticide, nor between traps placed at the upstream or downstream end of a terrestrial habitat patch. Traps placed near ground level did have significantly higher catch rates than traps placed at 1.5 m, although sex ratios were similar across heights. Chironomidae abundance and sex ratios also varied from month-to-month and seemed to be related to climatic conditions. Our results inform future sticky trap studies by demonstrating that trap height, but not insecticide treatment or precise trap placement within a habitat patch, is an important source of variation influencing catch rates.

  7. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  8. Attribute correlates of hospital outpatient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueckeberg, H F; Hubbert, A

    1995-01-01

    Customer satisfaction (patient satisfaction) with hospital outpatient or ambulatory services is an important factor in influencing patient patronage and loyalty. Based on an empirical study, this article examines the attributes of the ambulatory care experience which were significantly associated with the level of satisfaction resulting from the most recent hospital ambulatory visit. This study focuses on identifying attributes of ambulatory services. This article brings to the health care marketing literature information on ambulatory satisfaction comparable to that which has been contributed to the literature regarding satisfaction with physician and hospital experiences.

  9. Cluster Based Vector Attribute Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiwanuka, Fred N.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological attribute filters operate on images based on properties or attributes of connected components. Until recently, attribute filtering was based on a single global threshold on a scalar property to remove or retain objects. A single threshold struggles in case no single property or

  10. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, G; Rice, S P; Millett, J

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the degree of contrast and (iii) observation of prey capture by D. rotundifolia to determine the effects of colour on prey capture. Prey were not attracted to green traps and were deterred from red traps. There was no evidence that camouflaged traps caught more prey. For D. rotundifolia, there was a relationship between trap colour and prey capture. However, trap colour may be confounded with other leaf traits. Thus, we conclude that for D. rotundifolia, red trap colour does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

  11. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  12. Atributos biológicos do solo sob influência da cobertura vegetal e do sistema de manejo Soil biological attributes influenced by cover crops and management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozaniel Batista da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Valente bean cultivar, under irrigation, was cultivated. Sowing was performed on June 16, 2005 and the harvest on September 19, 2005. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0-10 cm, in November 2004 (before cover crops planting, June 2005 (before dry bean planting and July 2005 (at dry bean flowering. Evaluations of basal respiration, carbon and nitrogen of microbial biomass, microbial/organic carbon ratio, microbial/total nitrogen ratio and metabolic quotient were performed. Soil biological attributes were influenced by cover crops, soil management and sampling time.

  13. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  14. Status of THe-Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian; Eronen, Tommi; Hoecker, Martin; Ketter, Jochen; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    THe-Trap (short for Tritium-{sup 3}He Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass-ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10{sup -11}. The ratio is of relevance for the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN), which aims to measure the electron anti-neutrino mass, by measuring the shape of the β-decay energy spectrum close to its endpoint. An independent measurement of the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass-ratio pins down this endpoint, and thus will help to determine the systematics of KATRIN. The trap setup consists of two Penning-traps: One trap for precision measurements, the other trap for ion storage. Ideally, the trap content will be periodically switched, which reduces the time between the measurements of the two ions' motional frequencies. In 2012, a mass ratio measurement of {sup 12}C{sup 4+} to {sup 14}N{sup 5+} was performed to characterize systematic effects of the traps. This measurement yielded a accuracy of 10{sup -9}. Further investigations revealed that a major reason for the modest accuracy is the large axial amplitude of ∼100 μm, compared to a ideal case of 3 μm at 4 K. In addition, relative magnetic fluctuations at a 3 x 10{sup -10} level on a 10 h timescale need to be significantly improved. In this contribution, the aforementioned findings and further systematic studies will be presented.

  15. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  16. SURVEY OF THE ENTOMOFAUNA THROUGH LUMINOUS TRAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Andrade Neto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for forest-based raw materials for energy, construction, paper pulp and the pressure to comply with legal requirements concerning environmental legislation, for example, the replacement of the permanent preservation area, legal reserve and recovery of degraded area, leads to encourage the production of healthy seedlings in a health status to do not compromise their future production. The present study aimed to survey the entomofauna population using the “Luiz de Queiroz” model of luminous trap, with white and red fluorescent lamps. The experiment was conducted at the nursery “Flora Sinop” in Sinop – MT. The survey was conducted weekly between the months of April to July 2010, totaling 4 months sand, 32 samples collected. The orders Hemiptera and Coleoptera showed the highest number of individuals captured, either in attraction with white or red light. It was captured 10.089 individuals, 9.339 collected under the influence of white light, representing 92,56%, and 750 with red light, only 7,44% of the total. The white light luminous trap possessed greater efficiency in the attraction of insects when compared with the red light trap.

  17. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  18. Trapped ion mode in toroidally rotating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1995-04-01

    The influence of radially sheared toroidal flows on the Trapped Ion Mode (TIM) is investigated using a two-dimensional eigenmode code. These radially extended toroidal microinstabilities could significantly influence the interpretation of confinement scaling trends and associated fluctuation properties observed in recent tokamak experiments. In the present analysis, the electrostatic drift kinetic equation is obtained from the general nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in rotating plasmas. In the long perpendicular wavelength limit k τ ρ bi much-lt 1, where ρ bi is the average trapped-ion banana width, the resulting eigenmode equation becomes a coupled system of second order differential equations nmo for the poloidal harmonics. These equations are solved using finite element methods. Numerical results from the analysis of low and medium toroidal mode number instabilities are presented using representative TFTR L-mode input parameters. To illustrate the effects of mode coupling, a case is presented where the poloidal mode coupling is suppressed. The influence of toroidal rotation on a TFTR L-mode shot is also analyzed by including a beam species with considerable larger temperature. A discussion of the numerical results is presented

  19. Urban fall traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia de Almeida Valsecchi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the repercussion of falls in the elderly peoplewho live in the city of São Paulo and address - though synthetically- some questions regarding the city and its relation to aging and thequality of life of the elderly. Methods: This is a qualitative study. As fordata collection, “in-depth individual interviews” were applied. Selectionof subjects was guided by a procedure named as “network”. Results:Ten interviews were performed, nine with elderly individuals who werevictims of falls and one with a public authority representative. Dataresulting from interviews confirmed that significant changes occurin live of the elderly, who are victims of what has been called “urbantraps”, and that, by extrapolating mobility and dependence contexts,invade feelings, emotions and desires. The inappropriate environmentprovided by the city of São Paulo is confirmed by absence of adequateurban planning and lack of commitment of public authorities. It alsorevealed that the particular way of being old and living an elderlylife, in addition to right to citizenship, is reflected by major or lesserdifficulties imposed to the elderly to fight for their rights and have theirpublic space respected. Conclusion: The city of São Paulo is not anideal locus for an older person to live in. To the traps that are found inpublic places one can add those that are found in private places andthat contribute to the hard experience of falls among the elderly, anexperience that is sometimes fatal. In Brazil, the attention is basicallyfocused on the consequences of falls and not on prevention, by meansof urban planning that should meet the needs of the most vulnerablegroups - the physically disabled and the elderly.

  20. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    these traps.

  1. Sawteeth stabilization by energetic trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.; Edery, D.; Garbet, X.; Roubin, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of a possible stabilization of sawteeth by a population of energetic ions is performed by using the Lagrangian of the electromagnetic perturbation. It is shown that the trapped component of such a population has a small influence compared to that of the passing component. The stabilization threshold is calculated assuming a non linear regime in the q=1 resonant layer. The energetic population must create a stable tearing structure if the average curvature effect on thermal particles in the layer is small. However, this effect decreases the actual threshold

  2. Charged particle traps II applications

    CERN Document Server

    Werth, Günther; Major, Fouad G

    2009-01-01

    This, the second volume of Charged Particle Traps, is devoted to applications, complementing the first volume’s comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice of charged particle traps, their many variants and refinements. In recent years, applications of far reaching importance have emerged ranging from the ultra-precise mass determinations of elementary particles and their antiparticles and short-lived isotopes, to high-resolution Zeeman spectroscopy on multiply-charged ions, to microwave and optical spectroscopy, some involving "forbidden" transitions from metastable states of such high resolution that optical frequency standards are realized by locking lasers to them. Further the potential application of trapped ions to quantum computing is explored, based on the extraordinary quantum state coherence made possible by the particle isolation. Consideration is given to the Paul and Penning traps as potential quantum information processors.

  3. Holes in magneto electrostatic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.

    1996-01-01

    We observe that in magneto electrostatic confinement (MEC) devices the magnetic surfaces are not always equipotentials. The lack of symmetry in the equipotential surfaces can result in holes in MEC plasma traps. (author)

  4. Trapping Triatominae in Silvatic Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireau François

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale trials of a trapping system designed to collect silvatic Triatominae are reported. Live-baited adhesive traps were tested in various ecosystems and different triatomine habitats (arboreal and terrestrial. The trials were always successful, with a rate of positive habitats generally over 20% and reaching 48.4% for palm trees of the Amazon basin. Eleven species of Triatominae belonging to the three genera of public health importance (Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus were captured. This trapping system provides an effective way to detect the presence of triatomines in terrestrial and arboreal silvatic habitats and represents a promising tool for ecological studies. Various lines of research are contemplated to improve the performance of this trapping system.

  5. Influence of deep traps in the Tl response of ZrO{sub 2} + PTFE; Influencia de las trampas profundas en la respuesta Tl de ZrO{sub 2} + PTFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.; Falcony G, C.; Martinez S, E.; Garcia H, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work are presented the results from investigating the processes related with the defects produced by ionizing radiation in ZrO{sub 2}. It is established an hypothesis which pretends to explain the phenomena that implicates the manifestation of Tl peaks in the brightness curve due to electron removal from the surface traps to the deep traps, through the thermo-transference process, where the excitonic process correspond to the F centers. During the experimental process it was observed this effect through the peaks running in Tl curve. These peaks are presented at 220 and 360 Centigrade for the material without any previous thermal treatment; while that in the samples thermally treated at 100 Centigrade during 1 minute it is observed a slipping in the first peak from 220 to 280 Centigrade, while the second stays in 360 Centigrade. (Author)

  6. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  7. Status of THe-trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketter, Jochen; Eronen, Tommi; Hoecker, Martin; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Originally developed at the University of Washington and relocated to the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in 2008, the Penning-trap spectrometer THe-Trap is specially tailored for a {sup 3}H/{sup 3}He mass-ratio measurement, from which the Q-value of the beta-decay of {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He can be derived. Improving the current best value by at least an order of magnitude will provide an important independent test parameter for the determination of the electron-antineutrino's mass by the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). However, Penning-trap mass spectrometry has to be pushed to its limits in a dedicated experiment for a sufficiently accurate mass-ratio measurement with a relative uncertainty of 10{sup -11}. Unlike the closed-envelope, single-trap predecessor, the new spectrometer features an external ion source, owing to the radioactive nature of tritium, and two traps in order to speed up the measurement cycle. While the double-trap technique holds great promise, it also calls for more intricate procedures, such as ion transfer. Details about the recent progress of the experiment are given.

  8. The effects of deep trap population on the thermoluminescence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukihara, E.G. E-mail: yukihara@thor.phy.okstate.edu; Whitley, V.H.; Polf, J.C.; Klein, D.M.; McKeever, S.W.S.; Akselrod, A.E.; Akselrod, M.S

    2003-12-01

    The influence of deep traps on the 450 K thermoluminescence (TL) peak of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C is studied. Depending upon the sample and on the degree of deep trap filling, features such as the TL width, area and height can vary considerably. These effects are interpreted to be due to: (a) sensitivity changes introduced by competition mechanisms involving deep electron and hole traps, and (b) the multiple component nature of the 450 K TL peak. The influence of the deep traps on the TL was studied using different excitation sources (beta irradiation or UV illumination), and step annealing procedures. Optical absorption measurements were used to monitor the concentration of F- and F{sup +}-centers. The data lead to the suggestion that the competing deep traps which become unstable at {approx}800-875 K are hole traps, and that the competing deep traps which become unstable at {approx}1100-1200 K are electron traps. Both the dose response of the TL signal and the TL sensitivity are shown to be influenced by sensitization and desensitization processes caused by the filling of deep electron and hole traps, respectively. Changes in the TL peak at low doses were also shown to be connected to the degree of filling of deep traps, emphasizing the influence of deep trap concentration and dose history of each sample in determining the TL properties of the material. Implications of these results for the optically stimulated luminescence properties are also discussed.

  9. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Attribute clustering has been previously employed to detect statistical dependence between subsets of variables. We propose a novel attribute clustering algorithm motivated by research of complex networks, called the Star Discovery algorithm. The algorithm partitions and indirectly discards...... inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  10. Online Game Addiction among Chinese College Students Measurement and Attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqiong; Li, Zhitian

    2009-01-01

    This study made an initial attempt to measure and attribute online game addiction among Chinese college students. We generated three factors of online game addiction: Control Disorder, Conflict, and Injury, as well as proposed a comprehensive model that attributed online game addiction to three groups of driving forces: environmental influences (most significant), characteristics of online games, and personal reasons.

  11. Effects of oxide traps, interface traps, and ''border traps'' on metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Reber, R.A. Jr.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Riewe, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    We have identified several features of the 1/f noise and radiation response of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices that are difficult to explain with standard defect models. To address this issue, and in response to ambiguities in the literature, we have developed a revised nomenclature for defects in MOS devices that clearly distinguishes the language used to describe the physical location of defects from that used to describe their electrical response. In this nomenclature, ''oxide traps'' are simply defects in the SiO 2 layer of the MOS structure, and ''interface traps'' are defects at the Si/SiO 2 interface. Nothing is presumed about how either type of defect communicates with the underlying Si. Electrically, ''fixed states'' are defined as trap levels that do not communicate with the Si on the time scale of the measurements, but ''switching states'' can exchange charge with the Si. Fixed states presumably are oxide traps in most types of measurements, but switching states can either be interface traps or near-interfacial oxide traps that can communicate with the Si, i.e., ''border traps'' [D. M. Fleetwood, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-39, 269 (1992)]. The effective density of border traps depends on the time scale and bias conditions of the measurements. We show the revised nomenclature can provide focus to discussions of the buildup and annealing of radiation-induced charge in non-radiation-hardened MOS transistors, and to changes in the 1/f noise of MOS devices through irradiation and elevated-temperature annealing

  12. Trapping, self-trapping and the polaron family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneham, A M; Gavartin, J; Shluger, A L; Kimmel, A V; Ramo, D Munoz; Roennow, H M; Aeppli, G; Renner, C

    2007-01-01

    The earliest ideas of the polaron recognized that the coupling of an electron to ionic vibrations would affect its apparent mass and could effectively immobilize the carrier (self-trapping). We discuss how these basic ideas have been generalized to recognize new materials and new phenomena. First, there is an interplay between self-trapping and trapping associated with defects or with fluctuations in an amorphous solid. In high dielectric constant oxides, like HfO 2 , this leads to oxygen vacancies having as many as five charge states. In colossal magnetoresistance manganites, this interplay makes possible the scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) observation of polarons. Second, excitons can self-trap and, by doing so, localize energy in ways that can modify the material properties. Third, new materials introduce new features, with polaron-related ideas emerging for uranium dioxide, gate dielectric oxides, Jahn-Teller systems, semiconducting polymers and biological systems. The phonon modes that initiate self-trapping can be quite different from the longitudinal optic modes usually assumed to dominate. Fourth, there are new phenomena, like possible magnetism in simple oxides, or with the evolution of short-lived polarons, like muons or excitons. The central idea remains that of a particle whose properties are modified by polarizing or deforming its host solid, sometimes profoundly. However, some of the simpler standard assumptions can give a limited, indeed misleading, description of real systems, with qualitative inconsistencies. We discuss representative cases for which theory and experiment can be compared in detail

  13. Psycho-social attributes of elite African women volleyball players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psycho-social attributes of elite African women volleyball players. ... 78% of them were influenced by family members to play volleyball, 81% continued to play the game due to success, and 64% envisaged that ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Theoretical characterization on the size-dependent electron and hole trapping activity of chloride-passivated CdSe nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yingqi; Cui, Xianhui; Zhang, Li; Xie, Yujuan; Yang, Mingli

    2018-04-01

    Ligand passivation is often used to suppress the surface trap states of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) for their continuous photoluminescence output. The suppression process is related to the electrophilic/nucleophilic activity of surface atoms that varies with the structure and size of QD and the electron donating/accepting nature of ligand. Based on first-principles-based descriptors and cluster models, the electrophilic/nucleophilic activities of bare and chloride-coated CdSe clusters were studied to reveal the suppression mechanism of Cl-passivated QDs and compared to experimental observations. The surface atoms of bare clusters have higher activity than inner atoms and their activity decreases with cluster size. In the ligand-coated clusters, the Cd atom remains as the electrophilic site, while the nucleophilic site of Se atoms is replaced by Cl atoms. The activities of Cd and Cl atoms in the coated clusters are, however, remarkably weaker than those in bare clusters. Cluster size, dangling atoms, ligand coverage, electronegativity of ligand atoms, and solvent (water) were found to have considerable influence on the activity of surface atoms. The suppression of surface trap states in Cl-passivated QDs was attributed to the reduction of electrophilic/nucleophilic activity of Cd/Se/Cl atoms. Both saturation to under-coordinated surface atoms and proper selection for the electron donating/accepting strength of ligands are crucial for eliminating the charge carrier traps. Our calculations predicted a similar suppressing effect of chloride ligands with experiments and provided a simple but effective approach to assess the charge carrier trapping behaviors of semiconductor QDs.

  15. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2012-01-08

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  16. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Liang, Cai; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  17. Comparisons of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pheromone traps with and without kill strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, C P C; Armstrong, J S; Spurgeon, D W; Duke, S

    2009-02-01

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), eradication programs typically equip pheromone traps with an insecticide-impregnated kill strip. These strips are intended to kill captured insects, thereby simplifying trap servicing and reducing the loss of weevils from predation and escape. However, the effectiveness of kill strips has not been extensively evaluated. We examined the influences of kill strips on weevil captures, trap servicing, and the incidences of weevil predation and trap obstruction (e.g., by spider webs). Evaluations were conducted weekly during three different production periods (pre- to early-, late-, and postseason) of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., to represent different environmental conditions and weevil population levels. Within each period, mean weekly captures of weevils in traps with and without kill strips were statistically similar. On average, traps with kill strips took 9 s longer to service than traps without kill strips, but statistical differences were only detected during the late-season period. Overall, the mean weekly proportion of traps with evidence of weevil predation or trap obstruction was significantly lower for traps with kill strips (0.25) than for traps without kill strips (0.37). However, this reduction in the frequency of weevil predation or trap obstruction was too small to produce a corresponding increase in the numbers of weevils captured. In light of these findings, the use of kill strips is likely unnecessary in eradication programs, but may be a consideration in situations when the numbers of deployed traps are reduced and chronic problems with weevil predation or trap obstruction exist.

  18. SOA: A Quality Attribute Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    in software engineering from CMU. 6June 2011 Twitter #seiwebinar © 2011 Carnegie Mellon University Agenda Service -Oriented Architecture and... Software Architecture: Review Service -Orientation and Quality Attributes Summary and Future Challenges 7June 2011 Twitter #seiwebinar © 2011...Architecture and Software Architecture: Review Service -Orientation and Quality Attributes Summary and Future Challenges Review 10June 2011 Twitter

  19. Particle trapping in stimulated scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.J.; Heikkinen, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Particle trapping effects on stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are investigated. A time and space dependent model assumes a Maxwellian plasma which is taken to be homogeneous in the interaction region. Ion trapping has a rather weak effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering and large reflectivities are obtained even in strong trapping regime. Stimulated Raman scattering is considerably reduced by electron trapping. Typically 15-20 times larger laser intensities are required to obtain same reflectivity levels than without trapping. (author)

  20. Calcium Atom Trap for Atom Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kwang Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Han, Jae Min; Kim, Taek Soo; Cha, Yong Ho; Lim, Gwon; Jeong, Do Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Trace isotope analysis has been an important role in science, archaeological dating, geology, biology and nuclear industry. Artificially produced fission products such as Sr-90, Cs-135 and Kr-85 can be released to the environment when nuclear accident occurs and the reprocessing factory operates. Thus, the analysis of them has been of interest in nuclear industry. But it is difficult to detect them due to low natural abundance less then 10-10. The ultra-trace radio isotopes have been analyzed by the radio-chemical method, accelerator mass spectrometer, and laser based method. The radiochemical method has been used in the nuclear industry. But this method has disadvantages of long measurement time for long lived radioisotopes and toxic chemical process for the purification. The accelerator mass spectrometer has high isotope selectivity, but the system is huge and it has the isobar effects. The laser based method, such as RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry) is a basically isobar-effect free method. Recently, ATTA (Atom Trap Trace Analysis), one of the laser based method, has been successfully demonstrated sufficient isotope selectivity with small system size. It has been applied for the detection of Kr-81 and Kr-85. However, it is not suitable for real sample detection, because it requires steady atomic beam generation during detection and is not allowed simultaneous detection of other isotopes. Therefore, we proposed the coupled method of Atom Trap and Mass Spectrometer. It consists of three parts, neutral atom trap, ionization and mass spectrometer. In this paper, we present the demonstration of the magneto-optical trap of neutral calcium. We discuss the isotope selective characteristics of the MOT (Magneto Optical Trap) of calcium by the fluorescence measurement. In addition, the frequency stabilization of the trap beam will be presented

  1. Nonlinear trapped electron mode and anomalous heat transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaw, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    We take the phenomenological point of view that the anomalous electron thermal conductivity produced by the non-linear trapped electron mode should also influence the stability properties of the mode itself. Using a model equation, we show that this effect makes the mode self-stabilizing. A simple expression for the anomalous thermal conductivity is derived, and its scaling properties are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Retraction of "The influence of mood on attribution," "Affects of the unexpected: When inconsistency feels good (or bad)," "Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: The differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping," "Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms," and "Event accessibility and context effects in causal inference: Judgment of a different order".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The following five articles have been retracted from Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and the Editor and the publisher of the journal: Avramova, Y.R., Stapel, D.A. & Lerouge, D. (2010). The influence of mood on attribution. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1360-1371. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167210381083) Noordewier, M.K., & Stapel, D.A. (2010). Affects of the unexpected: When inconsistency feels good (or bad). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 642-654. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167209357746 ) Van den Bos, A., & Stapel, D.A. (2009). Why people stereotype affects how they stereotype: The differential influence of comprehension goals and self-enhancement goals on stereotyping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(1), 101-113 (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167208325773) Joly, J.F., Stapel, D.A., & Lindenberg, S.M. (2008). Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(8), 1047-1056 (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167208318401) Stapel, D. A., & Spears, R. (1996). Event accessibility and context effects in causal inference: Judgment of a different order. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 979-992. (Original DOI: 10.1177/01461672962210001).

  3. Neutral atom traps of radioactives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques offer the promise of improving several broad classes of experiments with radioactive isotopes. In nuclear β decay, neutrino spectroscopy from beta-recoil coincidences, along with highly polarized samples, enable experiments to search for non-Standard Model interactions, test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, and search for new sources of time reversal violation. Ongoing efforts at TRIUMF, Los Alamos and Berkeley will be highlighted. The traps also offer bright sources for Doppler-free spectroscopy, particularly in high-Z atoms where precision measurements could measure the strength of weak neutral nucleon-nucleon and electron-nucleon interactions. Physics with francium atoms has been vigorously pursued at Stony Brook. Several facilities plan work with radioactive atom traps; concrete plans and efforts at KVI Groningen and Legnaro will be among those summarized. Contributions to the multidisciplinary field of trace analysis will be left up to other presenters

  4. Neutral atom traps of radioactives

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, J A

    2003-01-01

    Neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques offer the promise of improving several broad classes of experiments with radioactive isotopes. In nuclear beta decay, neutrino spectroscopy from beta-recoil coincidences, along with highly polarized samples, enable experiments to search for non-Standard Model interactions, test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, and search for new sources of time reversal violation. Ongoing efforts at TRIUMF, Los Alamos and Berkeley will be highlighted. The traps also offer bright sources for Doppler-free spectroscopy, particularly in high-Z atoms where precision measurements could measure the strength of weak neutral nucleon-nucleon and electron-nucleon interactions. Physics with francium atoms has been vigorously pursued at Stony Brook. Several facilities plan work with radioactive atom traps; concrete plans and efforts at KVI Groningen and Legnaro will be among those summarized. Contributions to the multidisciplinary field of trace analysis will be left...

  5. Trapped atoms along nanophotonic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Brian; Kim, May; Chang, Tzu-Han; Hung, Chen-Lung

    2017-04-01

    Many-body systems subject to long-range interactions have remained a very challenging topic experimentally. Ultracold atoms trapped in extreme proximity to the surface of nanophotonic structures provides a dynamic system combining the strong atom-atom interactions mediated by guided mode photons with the exquisite control implemented with trapped atom systems. The hybrid system promises pair-wise tunability of long-range interactions between atomic pseudo spins, allowing studies of quantum magnetism extending far beyond nearest neighbor interactions. In this talk, we will discuss our current status developing high quality nanophotonic ring resonators, engineered on CMOS compatible optical chips with integrated nanostructures that, in combination with a side illuminating beam, can realize stable atom traps approximately 100nm above the surface. We will report on our progress towards loading arrays of cold atoms near the surface of these structures and studying atom-atom interaction mediated by photons with high cooperativity.

  6. Optical Forces on Non-Spherical Nanoparticles Trapped by Optical Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan Ahmed, Dewan; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2011-07-01

    Numerical simulations of a solid-core polymer waveguide structure were performed to calculate the trapping efficiencies of particles with nanoscale dimensions smaller than the wavelength of the trapping beam. A three-dimensional (3-D) finite element method was employed to calculate the electromagnetic field. The inlet and outlet boundary conditions were obtained using an eigenvalue solver to determine the guided and evanescent mode profiles. The Maxwell stress tensor was considered for the calculation of the transverse and downward trapping efficiencies. A particle at the center of the waveguide showed minimal transverse trapping efficiency and maximal downward trapping efficiency. This trend gradually reversed as the particle moved away from the center of the waveguide. Particles with larger surface areas exhibited higher trapping efficiencies and tended to be trapped near the waveguide. Particles displaced from the wave input tended to be trapped at the waveguide surface. Simulation of an ellipsoidal particle showed that the orientation of the major axis along the waveguide's lateral z-coordinate significantly influenced the trapping efficiency. The particle dimensions along the z-coordinate were more critical than the gap distance (vertical displacement from the floor of the waveguide) between the ellipsoid particle and the waveguide. The present model was validated using the available results reported in the literature for different trapping efficiencies.

  7. High-k shallow traps observed by charge pumping with varying discharging times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Lo, Wen-Hung; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Wang, Bin-Wei; Cao, Xi-Xin; Chen, Hua-Mao; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Chen, Tsai-Fu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of falling time and base level time on high-k bulk shallow traps measured by charge pumping technique in n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with HfO 2 /metal gate stacks. N T -V high level characteristic curves with different duty ratios indicate that the electron detrapping time dominates the value of N T for extra contribution of I cp traps. N T is the number of traps, and I cp is charge pumping current. By fitting discharge formula at different temperatures, the results show that extra contribution of I cp traps at high voltage are in fact high-k bulk shallow traps. This is also verified through a comparison of different interlayer thicknesses and different Ti x N 1−x metal gate concentrations. Next, N T -V high level characteristic curves with different falling times (t falling time ) and base level times (t base level ) show that extra contribution of I cp traps decrease with an increase in t falling time . By fitting discharge formula for different t falling time , the results show that electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps first discharge to the channel and then to source and drain during t falling time . This current cannot be measured by the charge pumping technique. Subsequent measurements of N T by charge pumping technique at t base level reveal a remainder of electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps

  8. Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong

    2015-03-01

    Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.

  9. Quantized motion of trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a theoretical and numerical study of the preparation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in the external and internal degrees of freedom of trapped ions. In its first part, this thesis proposes and investigates schemes for generating several nonclassical states for the quantized vibrational motion of a trapped ion. Based on dark state preparation specific laser excitation configurations are presented which, given appropriately chosen initial states, realize the desired motional states in the steady-state, indicated by the cessation of the fluorescence emitted by the ion. The focus is on the SU(1,1) intelligent states in both their single- and two-mode realization, corresponding to one- and two-dimensional motion of the ion. The presented schemes are also studied numerically using a Monte-Carlo state-vector method. The second part of the thesis describes how two vibrational degrees of freedom of a single trapped ion can be coupled through the action of suitably chosen laser excitation. Concentrating on a two-dimensional ion trap with dissimilar vibrational frequencies a variety of quantized two-mode couplings are derived. The focus is on a linear coupling that takes excitations from one mode to another. It is demonstrated how this can result in a state rotation, in which it is possible to coherently transfer the motional state of the ion between orthogonal directions without prior knowledge of that motional state. The third part of this thesis presents a new efficient method for generating maximally entangled internal states of a collection of trapped ions. The method is deterministic and independent of the number of ions in the trap. As the essential element of the scheme a mechanism for the realization of a controlled NOT operation that can operate on multiple ions is proposed. The potential application of the scheme for high-precision frequency standards is explored. (author)

  10. Open trap with ambipolar mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, G.I.; Zakajdakov, V.V.; Kishinevskij, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    Results of numerical calculations on the behaviour of a thermonuclear plasma, allowing for α-particles in a trap with longitudinal confinement of the main ions by ambipolar electric fields are presented. This trap is formed by connecting two small-volume ''mirrortrons'' to an ordinary open trap. Into the extreme mirrortrons, approximately 1-MeV ions are introduced continuously by ionization of atomic beams on the plasma, and approximately 10-keV ions are similarly introduced into the main central region of the trap. By a suitable choice of injection currents, the plasma density established in the extreme mirrortrons is higher than in the central region. As a result of the quasi-neutrality condition, a longitudinal ambipolar field forming a potential well not only for electrons but also for the central ions is formed in the plasma. When the depth of the well for the central ions is much greater than their temperature, their life-time considerably exceeds the time of confinement by the magnetic mirrors. As a result, the plasma density is constant over the entire length of the central mirrortron, including the regions near the mirrors, and an ambipolar field is formed only in the extreme mirrortrons. The distribution of central ions and ambipolar potential in the extreme mirrortrons is uniquely determined by the density distribution of fast extreme ions. It is shown in the present study that an amplification coefficient Q as high as desired can, in principle, be reached in the trap under consideration, allowing for α-particles. However, this requires high magnetic fields in the mirrors and a sufficient length of the central mirrotron. It is shown that for moderate values of Q=3-8, it is desirable not to confine the central fast α-particles. To achieve a coefficient of Q=5, it is necessary to create fields of 250 kG in the mirrors, and the length of the trap must not be greater than 100 m. (author)

  11. Semantic attributes based texture generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Huifang; Gan, Yanhai; Qi, Lin; Dong, Junyu; Madessa, Amanuel Hirpa

    2018-04-01

    Semantic attributes are commonly used for texture description. They can be used to describe the information of a texture, such as patterns, textons, distributions, brightness, and so on. Generally speaking, semantic attributes are more concrete descriptors than perceptual features. Therefore, it is practical to generate texture images from semantic attributes. In this paper, we propose to generate high-quality texture images from semantic attributes. Over the last two decades, several works have been done on texture synthesis and generation. Most of them focusing on example-based texture synthesis and procedural texture generation. Semantic attributes based texture generation still deserves more devotion. Gan et al. proposed a useful joint model for perception driven texture generation. However, perceptual features are nonobjective spatial statistics used by humans to distinguish different textures in pre-attentive situations. To give more describing information about texture appearance, semantic attributes which are more in line with human description habits are desired. In this paper, we use sigmoid cross entropy loss in an auxiliary model to provide enough information for a generator. Consequently, the discriminator is released from the relatively intractable mission of figuring out the joint distribution of condition vectors and samples. To demonstrate the validity of our method, we compare our method to Gan et al.'s method on generating textures by designing experiments on PTD and DTD. All experimental results show that our model can generate textures from semantic attributes.

  12. Trapping effects in exciton motion in the framework of CTRW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvik, I.; Herman, P.

    1990-10-01

    Influence of a trap (sink) on an exciton transfer in molecular aggregates is investigated. Pausing time distribution functions φ p m (t) and probability densities Q mn (t) on the continuous time random walk theory are calculated from memory functions entering the generalized master equations. The presence of the sink changes their analytical form. We used trimmer as example to show that only for large trapping rates pausing time distribution functions become nonnegative. Only in this case they could be used in Monte Carlo modelling. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs

  13. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples....

  14. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Malia F; Morris, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people's behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person's actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture's influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes.

  15. Ion trap architectures and new directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverns, James D.; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2017-12-01

    Trapped ion technology has seen advances in performance, robustness and versatility over the last decade. With increasing numbers of trapped ion groups worldwide, a myriad of trap architectures are currently in use. Applications of trapped ions include: quantum simulation, computing and networking, time standards and fundamental studies in quantum dynamics. Design of such traps is driven by these various research aims, but some universally desirable properties have lead to the development of ion trap foundries. Additionally, the excellent control achievable with trapped ions and the ability to do photonic readout has allowed progress on quantum networking using entanglement between remotely situated ion-based nodes. Here, we present a selection of trap architectures currently in use by the community and present their most salient characteristics, identifying features particularly suited for quantum networking. We also discuss our own in-house research efforts aimed at long-distance trapped ion networking.

  16. Artificial covering on trap nests improves the colonization of trap-nesting wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Hisatomo; Kevan, Peter G.; Viana, Blandina Felipe; Silva, Fabiana O.; Buck, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 225-229 To evaluate the role that a trap-nest cover might have on sampling methodologies, the abundance of each species of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and the parasitism rate in a Canadian forest were compared between artificially covered and uncovered traps. Of trap tubes exposed at eight forest sites in six trap-nest boxes, 531 trap tubes were occupied and 1216 individuals of 12 wasp species of four predatory families, Vespidae (Eumeninae), Crabronidae...

  17. Quality attributes for mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, João M.; Ferreira, André Leite

    2016-01-01

    A mobile application is a type of software application developed to run on a mobile device. The chapter discusses the main characteristics of mobile devices, since they have a great impact on mobile applications. It also presents the classification of mobile applications according to two main types: native and web-based applications. Finally, this chapter identifies the most relevant types of quality attributes for mobile applications. It shows that the relevant quality attributes for mobile ...

  18. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Michael A [Albuquerque, NM; Blain, Matthew G [Albuquerque, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM; Linker, Kevin L [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  19. Characteristics of trapped proton anisotropy at Space Station Freedom altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Watts, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The ionizing radiation dose for spacecraft in low-Earth orbit (LEO) is produced mainly by protons trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. Current data bases describing this trapped radiation environment assume the protons to have an isotropic angular distribution, although the fluxes are actually highly anisotropic in LEO. The general nature of this directionality is understood theoretically and has been observed by several satellites. The anisotropy of the trapped proton exposure has not been an important practical consideration for most previous LEO missions because the random spacecraft orientation during passage through the radiation belt 'averages out' the anisotropy. Thus, in spite of the actual exposure anisotropy, cumulative radiation effects over many orbits can be predicted as if the environment were isotropic when the spacecraft orientation is variable during exposure. However, Space Station Freedom will be gravity gradient stabilized to reduce drag, and, due to this fixed orientation, the cumulative incident proton flux will remain anisotropic. The anisotropy could potentially influence several aspects of Space Station design and operation, such as the appropriate location for radiation sensitive components and experiments, location of workstations and sleeping quarters, and the design and placement of radiation monitors. Also, on-board mass could possible be utilized to counteract the anisotropy effects and reduce the dose exposure. Until recently only omnidirectional data bases for the trapped proton environment were available. However, a method to predict orbit-average, angular dependent ('vector') trapped proton flux spectra has been developed from the standard omnidirectional trapped proton data bases. This method was used to characterize the trapped proton anisotropy for the Space Station orbit (28.5 degree inclination, circular) in terms of its dependence on altitude, solar cycle modulation (solar minimum vs. solar maximum), shielding thickness

  20. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  1. Asymmetric Penning trap coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernandez, David J.

    2010-01-01

    By using a matrix technique, which allows to identify directly the ladder operators, the coherent states of the asymmetric Penning trap are derived as eigenstates of the appropriate annihilation operators. They are compared with those obtained through the displacement operator method.

  2. Indeterminacy, sunspots, and development traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodyan, Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, 1-2 (2005), s. 159-185 ISSN 0165-1889 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : indeterminacy * development trap * stochastic stability Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jedc.2003.04.011

  3. Efficiency of subaquatic light traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ditrich, Tomáš; Čihák, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 3 (2017), s. 171-184 ISSN 0165-0424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29857S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Heteroptera * Diptera * light trap Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 0.524, year: 2016

  4. The rise of trapped populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April T Humble

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As border security increases and borders become less permeable, cross-border migration is becoming increasingly difficult, selective and dangerous. Growing numbers of people are becoming trapped in their own countries or in transit countries, or being forced to roam border areas, unable to access legal protection or basic social necessities.

  5. Magnetic trapping of Rydberg atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niestadt, D.; Naber, J.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic trapping is a well-established technique for ground state atoms. We seek to extend this concept to Rydberg atoms. Rydberg atoms are important for current visions of quantum simulators that will be used in the near future to simulate and analyse quantum problems. Current efforts in Amsterdam

  6. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeffner, H.; Roos, C.F.; Blatt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum computers hold the promise of solving certain computational tasks much more efficiently than classical computers. We review recent experimental advances towards a quantum computer with trapped ions. In particular, various implementations of qubits, quantum gates and some key experiments are discussed. Furthermore, we review some implementations of quantum algorithms such as a deterministic teleportation of quantum information and an error correction scheme

  7. Al2O3 influence on structural, elastic, thermal properties of Yb(3+) doped Ba-La-tellurite glass: evidence of reduction in self-radiation trapping at 1μm emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Biswas, K; Sontakke, A D; Gupta, G; Ghosh, D; Annapurna, K

    2014-12-10

    Ba-La-tellurite glasses doped with Yb(3+) ions have been prepared through melt quenching technique by modifying their composition with the inclusion of varied concentration of Al2O3 to elucidate its effects on glass structural, elastic, thermal properties and Yb(3+) ion NIR luminescence performance. The FTIR spectral analysis indicates Al2O3 addition is promoting the conversion of BOs from NBOs which have been generated during the process of depolymerisation of main glass forming TeO4 units. The elastic properties of the glass revealed an improved rigidity of the glass network on addition of Al2O3. In concurrence to this, differential thermal analysis showed an increase in glass transition temperature with improved thermal stability factor. Also, Yb(3+) fluorescence dynamics demonstrated that, Al2O3 inclusion helps in restraining the detrimental radiation trapping of ∼1μm emission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tornado type closed magnetic trap for an ECR source

    CERN Document Server

    Abramova, K B; Voronin, A V; Zorin, V G

    1999-01-01

    We propose to use a Tornado type closed magnetic trap for creation of a source of mul-ticharged ions with plasma heating by microwave radiation. Plasma loss in closed traps is deter-mined by diffusion across the magnetic field, which increases substantially plasma confinement time as compared to the classical mirror trap [1]. We propose to extract ions with the aid of additional coils which partially destroy the closed structure of the magnetic lines in the trap, but don not influence the total confinement time. This allows for producing a controlled plasma flux that depends on the magnetic field of the additional coil. The Tornado trap also possesses merits such as an opportunity to produce high magnetic fields up to 3 T, which makes possible heating and confinement of plasma with a high density of electrons; plasma stability to magneto-hydrodynamic perturbations because the magnetic field structure corresponds to the "min B" configuration; and relatively low costs. All estimates and calculations were carrie...

  9. Particle trapping and hopping in an optofluidic fishnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y. Z.; Xiong, S.; Zhang, Y.; Chin, L. K.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, T. N.; Liu, A. Q.

    2017-08-01

    Particle jumping between optical potentials has attracted much attention owing to its extensive involvement in many physical and biological experiments. In some circumstances, particle jumping indicates escaping from the optical trap, which is an issue people are trying to avoid. Nevertheless, particle jumping can facilitate the individual trap in each laser spot in the optical lattice and enable sorting and delivery of nanoparticles. Particle hopping has not been seen in fluid because Fluidic drag force dramatically reduce the dwell time of particle or break the potential well. Here, we observe particle hopping in the microchannel by three reasons, e.g., particle collision or aggregation, light disturbing by pretrapped particle and fake trapping position. We show that commonly ignored particle influence to the light could create a new isolated trapping position, where particle hops to the adjacent potential well. The hopping happens in an optofluidic fishnet which is comprised of discrete hotspots enabling 2D patterning of particles in the flow stream for the first time. We also achieve a 2D patterning of cryptosporidium in the microchannel. Our observed particle hopping in the flow stream completes the family of particle kinetics in potential wells and inspires new interests in the particle disturbed optical trapping. The 2D patterning of particles benefits the parallel study of biological samples in the flow stream and have potential on cell sorting and drug delivery.

  10. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one or...

  11. Small relief shape variations influence spatial variability of soil chemical attributes Pequenas variações das formas de relevo influenciam a variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar Menezes de Souza

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Soils with small variations in relief and under the same management system present differentiated spatial variabilities of their attributes. This variability is a function of soil position in the landscape, even if the relief has little expression. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of relief shape and depth on spatial variability of soil chemical attributes in a Typic Hapludox cultivated with sugar cane at two landscape compartments. Soil samples were collected in the intercrossing points of a grid, in the traffic line, at 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths, comprising a set of 100 georeferenced points. The spatial variabilities of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, cation exchange capacity and base saturation were quantified. Small relief shape variations lead to differentiated variability in soil chemical attributes as indicated by the dependence on pedoform found for chemical attributes at both 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths. Because of the higher variability, it is advisable to collect large number of samples in areas with concave and convex shapes. Combining relief shapes and geostatistics allows the determination of areas with different spatial variability for soil chemical attributes.Solos submetidos ao mesmo sistema de manejo em locais com pequena variação de relevo, manifestam variabilidade espacial diferenciada de seus atributos. Esta variabilidade é condicionada pela posição dos solos na paisagem ou no declive, mesmo que o relevo seja de pequena expressão. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da forma do relevo na variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos em um latossolo cultivado com cana-de-açúcar em dois compartimentos da paisagem. Os solos foram amostrados nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha, com intervalos regulares de 10 m, perfazendo um total de 100 pontos, nas profundidades de 0-0,2 m e 0,6-0,8 m. Foi avaliado a variabilidade espacial do pH, fósforo (P, potássio (K, cálcio (Ca, magnésio (Mg, acidez

  12. Scaling ion traps for quantum computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a chipscale, multi-zone, surface electrode ion trap is reported. The modular design and fabrication techniques used are anticipated to advance scalability of ion trap quantum computing architectures...

  13. Servo control of an optical trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Kurt D; Cole, Daniel G; Clark, Robert L

    2007-08-01

    A versatile optical trap has been constructed to control the position of trapped objects and ultimately to apply specified forces using feedback control. While the design, development, and use of optical traps has been extensive and feedback control has played a critical role in pushing the state of the art, few comprehensive examinations of feedback control of optical traps have been undertaken. Furthermore, as the requirements are pushed to ever smaller distances and forces, the performance of optical traps reaches limits. It is well understood that feedback control can result in both positive and negative effects in controlled systems. We give an analysis of the trapping limits as well as introducing an optical trap with a feedback control scheme that dramatically improves an optical trap's sensitivity at low frequencies.

  14. Two-baffle trap for macroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksyonov, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, properties of two-baffle macroparticle traps were investigated. These properties are needed for designing and optimization of vacuum arc plasma filters. The dependencies between trap geometry parameters and its ability to absorb macroparticles were found. Calculations made allow one to predict the behaviour of filtering abilities of separators containing such traps in their design. Recommendations regarding the use of two-baffle traps in filters of different builds are given

  15. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  16. Trapped field recovery of bulk superconductor magnets by static field magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z., E-mail: zigang@kaiyodai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    A series of initial trapped fields after ZFC or FC magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. It is possible and easy to recover the lost trapped field and regain the best trapped field performance as before. In the re-magnetization process, the initial magnetic flux inside the bulk magnets will help to recover the trapped field. The optimum recovery field is recommended to be 2.5 times the saturation field of the bulk at LN2 temperature. Thanks to the trapped field of bulk high-temperature superconductors, they can be used as field-pole magnets in the high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machines. For example, an output power of 10 kW at 720 rpm was realized by an average trapped field of 0.56 T of eight melt-textured GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (Gd-123) bulks at liquid nitrogen temperature in TUMSAT in 2004. Similarly to the HTS machines involving 1G or 2G wires, the trapped field of the bulk is possibly sensitive and even can be attenuated by the AC component field during the operation. Hence, it is necessary to recover the trapped field once being decreased to some extent in the practical application. From this point, we have investigated the trapped field recovery of HTS bulk magnets by static field magnetization in the paper. A series of different initial trapped fields after zero-field-cooling or field-cooling magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. By comparing the trapped field peak and its distribution, the trapped field was found to be able to recover by the static field magnetization method with a stronger excitation field and the initial trapped flux inside the bulk also has an influence on the recovery process. The optimum recovery field was found to be about 2.5 times the saturated trapped field of the bulk at liquid nitrogen temperature, by which the bulk can regain the former best trapped field performance.

  17. Cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Morigi, Giovanna; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules is theoretically investigated for the case in which the infrared transition between two rovibrational states is used as a cycling transition. The molecules are assumed to be trapped either by a radiofrequency or optical trapping

  18. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrester, Tavis; O'Brien, Tim; Fegraus, Eric; Jansen, P.A.; Palmer, Jonathan; Kays, Roland; Ahumada, Jorge; Stern, Beth; McShea, William

    2016-01-01

    Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an

  19. A Chance for Attributable Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, Hans J; Müller, Thomas

    Can we sensibly attribute some of the happenings in our world to the agency of some of the things around us? We do this all the time, but there are conceptual challenges purporting to show that attributable agency, and specifically one of its most important subspecies, human free agency, is incoherent. We address these challenges in a novel way: rather than merely rebutting specific arguments, we discuss a concrete model that we claim positively illustrates attributable agency in an indeterministic setting. The model, recently introduced by one of the authors in the context of artificial intelligence, shows that an agent with a sufficiently complex memory organization can employ indeterministic happenings in a meaningful way. We claim that these considerations successfully counter arguments against the coherence of libertarian (indeterminism-based) free will.

  20. Stability of aerosol droplets in Bessel beam optical traps under constant and pulsed external forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Grégory; Esat, Kıvanç; Hartweg, Sebastian; Cremer, Johannes; Chasovskikh, Egor; Signorell, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    We report on the dynamics of aerosol droplets in optical traps under the influence of additional constant and pulsed external forces. Experimental results are compared with simulations of the three-dimensional droplet dynamics for two types of optical traps, the counter-propagating Bessel beam (CPBB) trap and the quadruple Bessel beam (QBB) trap. Under the influence of a constant gas flow (constant external force), the QBB trap is found to be more stable compared with the CPBB trap. By contrast, under pulsed laser excitation with laser pulse durations of nanoseconds (pulsed external force), the type of trap is of minor importance for the droplet stability. It typically needs pulsed laser forces that are several orders of magnitude higher than the optical forces to induce escape of the droplet from the trap. If the droplet strongly absorbs the pulsed laser light, these escape forces can be strongly reduced. The lower stability of absorbing droplets is a result of secondary thermal processes that cause droplet escape

  1. Stability of aerosol droplets in Bessel beam optical traps under constant and pulsed external forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Grégory; Esat, Kıvanç; Hartweg, Sebastian; Cremer, Johannes; Chasovskikh, Egor; Signorell, Ruth, E-mail: rsignorell@ethz.ch [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-04-21

    We report on the dynamics of aerosol droplets in optical traps under the influence of additional constant and pulsed external forces. Experimental results are compared with simulations of the three-dimensional droplet dynamics for two types of optical traps, the counter-propagating Bessel beam (CPBB) trap and the quadruple Bessel beam (QBB) trap. Under the influence of a constant gas flow (constant external force), the QBB trap is found to be more stable compared with the CPBB trap. By contrast, under pulsed laser excitation with laser pulse durations of nanoseconds (pulsed external force), the type of trap is of minor importance for the droplet stability. It typically needs pulsed laser forces that are several orders of magnitude higher than the optical forces to induce escape of the droplet from the trap. If the droplet strongly absorbs the pulsed laser light, these escape forces can be strongly reduced. The lower stability of absorbing droplets is a result of secondary thermal processes that cause droplet escape.

  2. Stability of aerosol droplets in Bessel beam optical traps under constant and pulsed external forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Grégory; Esat, Kıvanç; Hartweg, Sebastian; Cremer, Johannes; Chasovskikh, Egor; Signorell, Ruth

    2015-04-21

    We report on the dynamics of aerosol droplets in optical traps under the influence of additional constant and pulsed external forces. Experimental results are compared with simulations of the three-dimensional droplet dynamics for two types of optical traps, the counter-propagating Bessel beam (CPBB) trap and the quadruple Bessel beam (QBB) trap. Under the influence of a constant gas flow (constant external force), the QBB trap is found to be more stable compared with the CPBB trap. By contrast, under pulsed laser excitation with laser pulse durations of nanoseconds (pulsed external force), the type of trap is of minor importance for the droplet stability. It typically needs pulsed laser forces that are several orders of magnitude higher than the optical forces to induce escape of the droplet from the trap. If the droplet strongly absorbs the pulsed laser light, these escape forces can be strongly reduced. The lower stability of absorbing droplets is a result of secondary thermal processes that cause droplet escape.

  3. Stability of aerosol droplets in Bessel beam optical traps under constant and pulsed external forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Grégory; Esat, Kıvanç; Hartweg, Sebastian; Cremer, Johannes; Chasovskikh, Egor; Signorell, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    We report on the dynamics of aerosol droplets in optical traps under the influence of additional constant and pulsed external forces. Experimental results are compared with simulations of the three-dimensional droplet dynamics for two types of optical traps, the counter-propagating Bessel beam (CPBB) trap and the quadruple Bessel beam (QBB) trap. Under the influence of a constant gas flow (constant external force), the QBB trap is found to be more stable compared with the CPBB trap. By contrast, under pulsed laser excitation with laser pulse durations of nanoseconds (pulsed external force), the type of trap is of minor importance for the droplet stability. It typically needs pulsed laser forces that are several orders of magnitude higher than the optical forces to induce escape of the droplet from the trap. If the droplet strongly absorbs the pulsed laser light, these escape forces can be strongly reduced. The lower stability of absorbing droplets is a result of secondary thermal processes that cause droplet escape.

  4. Trapped field recovery of bulk superconductor magnets by static field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M.

    2011-11-01

    Thanks to the trapped field of bulk high-temperature superconductors, they can be used as field-pole magnets in the high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machines. For example, an output power of 10 kW at 720 rpm was realized by an average trapped field of 0.56 T of eight melt-textured GdBa2Cu3Oy (Gd-123) bulks at liquid nitrogen temperature in TUMSAT in 2004. Similarly to the HTS machines involving 1G or 2G wires, the trapped field of the bulk is possibly sensitive and even can be attenuated by the AC component field during the operation. Hence, it is necessary to recover the trapped field once being decreased to some extent in the practical application. From this point, we have investigated the trapped field recovery of HTS bulk magnets by static field magnetization in the paper. A series of different initial trapped fields after zero-field-cooling or field-cooling magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. By comparing the trapped field peak and its distribution, the trapped field was found to be able to recover by the static field magnetization method with a stronger excitation field and the initial trapped flux inside the bulk also has an influence on the recovery process. The optimum recovery field was found to be about 2.5 times the saturated trapped field of the bulk at liquid nitrogen temperature, by which the bulk can regain the former best trapped field performance.

  5. Absorption spectra of trapped holes in anatase TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zawadzki, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    absorption spectroscopy (TAS), but the understanding of the optical absorption due to trapped carriers in TiO2 is incomplete. On the basis of the generalized Δ self-consistent field density functional theory (Δ-SCF DFT) calculations, we attribute the experimentally observed absorption band at 430-550 nm...

  6. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, Wolfgang; Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  7. Trapping and spectroscopy of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, Claudio Lenz

    1997-01-01

    I review the results and techniques used by the MIT H↑ group to achieve a fractional resolution of 2 parts in 10 12 in the 1S-2S transition in hydrogen [Cesar, D. Fried, T. Killian, A. Polcyn, J. Sandberg, I.A. Yu, T. Greytak, D. Kleppner and J. Doyle, Two-photon spectroscopy of trapped atomic hydrogen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 255.] With some improvements, this system should deliver 100 times higher resolution with an improved signal count rate getting us closer to an old advertised goal of a precision of 1 part in 10 18 . While these developments are very important for the proposed test of the CPT theorem through the comparison with anti-hydrogen, some of the techniques used with hydrogen are not applicable to anti-hydrogen and I discuss some difficulties and alternatives for the trapping and spectroscopy of anti-hydrogen

  8. Centrifugal trapping in the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Delcourt

    Full Text Available Particles leaving the neutral sheet in the distant magnetotail at times display adiabatic trajectory sequences characterized by an inflection toward the equator and subsequent mirroring in its vicinity. We demonstrate that this low-latitude mirroring results primarily from a centrifugal deceleration due to the fast direction-changing E×B drift. This effect which we refer to as "centrifugal trapping" appears both in guiding centre and full particle treatments. It thus does not directly relate to nonadiabatic motion. However, pitch angle scattering due to nonadiabatic neutral sheet interaction does play a role in reducing the parallel speed of the particles. We show that centrifugal trapping is an important mechanism for the confinement of the slowest (typically below the equatorial E×B drift speed plasma sheet populations to the midplane vicinity.

  9. Centrifugal trapping in the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Delcourt

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Particles leaving the neutral sheet in the distant magnetotail at times display adiabatic trajectory sequences characterized by an inflection toward the equator and subsequent mirroring in its vicinity. We demonstrate that this low-latitude mirroring results primarily from a centrifugal deceleration due to the fast direction-changing E×B drift. This effect which we refer to as "centrifugal trapping" appears both in guiding centre and full particle treatments. It thus does not directly relate to nonadiabatic motion. However, pitch angle scattering due to nonadiabatic neutral sheet interaction does play a role in reducing the parallel speed of the particles. We show that centrifugal trapping is an important mechanism for the confinement of the slowest (typically below the equatorial E×B drift speed plasma sheet populations to the midplane vicinity.

  10. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  11. Optical trapping for analytical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C; Dholakia, Kishan

    2012-02-01

    We describe the exciting advances of using optical trapping in the field of analytical biotechnology. This technique has opened up opportunities to manipulate biological particles at the single cell or even at subcellular levels which has allowed an insight into the physical and chemical mechanisms of many biological processes. The ability of this technique to manipulate microparticles and measure pico-Newton forces has found several applications such as understanding the dynamics of biological macromolecules, cell-cell interactions and the micro-rheology of both cells and fluids. Furthermore we may probe and analyse the biological world when combining trapping with analytical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy and imaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Strong trapping and slow diffusion of helium in a tungsten grain boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin-Xin [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Niu, Liang-Liang, E-mail: nliangli@umich.edu [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wang, Shaoqing [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2017-04-15

    We have investigated the segregation, trapping and diffusion of He in a ∑3<110>{111} W grain boundary (GB) using combined techniques of ab initio and classical atomistic simulations. We show that, with an average segregation energy of −3.20 eV, the strong He trapping can be attributed to a GB interstitial trapping or a vacancy trapping mechanism, while an average energy barrier of 1.97 eV leads to a slow diffusion of He in the GB plane. We further reveal by molecular dynamics simulations that the He diffusion will be dictated by GB migration through the motion of GB disconnections. Interestingly, we also observe a He-induced GB structural transition in classical simulations. The present work suggests that the GB does not provide fast transport channel for He, providing useful reference for the possible application of polycrystalline W under He irradiation in advanced nuclear fusion reactors.

  13. Manipulation and light-induced agglomeration of carbon nanotubes through optical trapping of attached silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chao; Zhang Yi; Gu, Claire; Seballos, Leo; Zhang, Jin Z

    2008-01-01

    A simple experimental method has been demonstrated for manipulating multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bundles through the optical trapping of attached silver nanoparticles (SNPs). In our experiments, without the SNPs, the MWCNTs cannot be trapped due to their irregular shapes and large aspect ratio. However, when mixed with SNPs, the MWCNTs can be successfully trapped along with the SNPs using a TEM 00 mode laser at 532 nm. This is attributed to the optical trapping of the SNPs and attractive interaction or binding between the SNPs and MWCNTs due to electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Therefore, optical manipulation of MWCNT bundles is achieved through the manipulation of the attached silver nanoparticles/aggregates. In addition, we have observed the phenomenon of light-induced further agglomeration of SNPs/MWCNTs which could potentially be exploited for fabricating patterned MWCNT films for future nanoscale devices and other applications

  14. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  15. Antihydrogen Formation, Dynamics and Trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Eoin; Charlton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Antihydrogen, the simplest pure-antimatter atomic system, holds the promise of direct tests of matter-antimatter equivalence and CPT invariance, two of the outstanding unanswered questions in modern physics. Antihydrogen is now routinely produced in charged-particle traps through the combination of plasmas of antiprotons and positrons, but the atoms escape and are destroyed in a minuscule fraction of a second. The focus of this work is the production of a sample of cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic atom trap. This poses an extreme challenge, because the state-of-the-art atom traps are only approximately 0.5 K deep for ground-state antihydrogen atoms, much shallower than the energies of particles stored in the plasmas. This thesis will outline the main parts of the ALPHA experiment, with an overview of the important physical processes at work. Antihydrogen production techniques will be described, and an analysis of the spatial annihilation distribution to give indications of the temperature and binding ene...

  16. Changing US Attributes After CS-US Pairings Changes CS-Attribute-Assessments: Evidence for CS-US Associations in Attribute Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förderer, Sabine; Unkelbach, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Attribute Conditioning (AC) refers to people's changed assessments of stimuli's (CSs) attributes due to repeated pairing with stimuli (USs) possessing these attributes; for example, when an athletic person (US) is paired with a neutral person (CS), the neutral person is judged to be more athletic after the pairing. We hypothesize that this AC effect is due to CSs' associations with USs rather than direct associations with attributes. Three experiments test this hypothesis by changing US attributes after CS-US pairings. Experiments 1 and 2 conditioned athleticism by pairing neutral men (CSs) with athletic and non-athletic USs. Post-conditioning, USs' athleticism was reversed, which systematically influenced participants' assessment of CS athleticism. Experiment 3 conditioned athleticism and changed USs' musicality after CS-US pairings. This post-conditioning change affected musicality assessments of CSs but did not influence athleticism-assessments. The results indicate that AC effects are based on an associative CS-US-attribute structure. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. Temperature and phase-space density of a cold atom cloud in a quadrupole magnetic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, S. P.; Mishra, S. R.; Tiwari, S. K.; Rawat, H. S. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    2014-08-15

    We present studies on modifications in the temperature, number density and phase-space density when a laser-cooled atom cloud from optical molasses is trapped in a quadrupole magnetic trap. Theoretically, for a given temperature and size of the cloud from the molasses, the phase-space density in the magnetic trap is shown first to increase with increasing magnetic field gradient and then to decrease with it after attaining a maximum value at an optimum value of the magnetic-field gradient. The experimentally-measured variation in the phase-space density in the magnetic trap with changing magnetic field gradient is shown to exhibit a similar trend. However, the experimentally-measured values of the number density and the phase-space density are much lower than the theoretically-predicted values. This is attributed to the experimentally-observed temperature in the magnetic trap being higher than the theoretically-predicted temperature. Nevertheless, these studies can be useful for setting a higher phase-space density in the trap by establishing an optimal value of the field gradient for a quadrupole magnetic trap.

  18. Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirste, Moritz; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard; Sartakov, Boris G.

    2009-01-01

    Nonadiabatic transitions are known to be major loss channels for atoms in magnetic traps but have thus far not been experimentally reported upon for trapped molecules. We have observed and quantified losses due to nonadiabatic transitions for three isotopologues of ammonia in electrostatic traps by comparing the trapping times in traps with a zero and a nonzero electric field at the center. Nonadiabatic transitions are seen to dominate the overall loss rate even for the present samples that are at relatively high temperatures of 30 mK. It is anticipated that losses due to nonadiabatic transitions in electric fields are omnipresent in ongoing experiments on cold molecules.

  19. Attribute Obfuscation with Gradient Reversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmery, Chris; Manjavacas, Enrique; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in computational stylometry have demonstrated that automatically inferring quite an extensive set of personal attributes from text alone (e.g. gender, age, education, socio-economic status, mental health issues) is not only feasible, but can often rely on little supervision. This

  20. k-visit Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Skyum, S.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar is k-visit for some k. Furthermore, it is shown that given a well-defined grammar G and an integer k, it is decidable whether G is k-visit. Finally it is shown that the k-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations...

  1. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lourembam Surjit

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social…

  2. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...

  3. Sognenavne, Albertslund Kommune (3 artikler). trap.dk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kællerød, Lars-Jakob Harding

    2019-01-01

    Artikler til Trap Danmarks netpublikation trap.dk Sognenavnene Herstedvester, Herstedøster og Opstandelseskirkens Sogn......Artikler til Trap Danmarks netpublikation trap.dk Sognenavnene Herstedvester, Herstedøster og Opstandelseskirkens Sogn...

  4. Effects of attribute framing on cognitive processing and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvaas, Bård; Selart, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Whereas there is extensive documentation that attribute framing influences the content of people’s thought, we generally know less about how it affects the processes assumed to precede those thoughts. While existing explanations for attribute framing effects rely completely on valence-based associative processing, the results obtained in the present study are also consistent with the notion that negative framing stimulates more effortful and thorough information processing than positive frami...

  5. Algae commensal community in Genlisea traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wołowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The community of algae occurring in Genlisea traps and on the external traps surface in laboratory conditions were studied. A total of 29 taxa were found inside the traps, with abundant diatoms, green algae (Chlamydophyceae and four morphotypes of chrysophytes stomatocysts. One morphotype is described as new for science. There are two ways of algae getting into Genlisea traps. The majority of those recorded inside the traps, are mobile; swimming freely by flagella or moving exuding mucilage like diatoms being ablate to colonize the traps themselves. Another possibility is transport of algae by invertebrates such as mites and crustaceans. In any case algae in the Genlisea traps come from the surrounding environment. Two dominant groups of algae (Chladymonas div. and diatoms in the trap environment, show ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoseters. We suggest that algae in carnivorous plant traps can compete with plant (host for organic phosphate (phosphomonoseters. From the spectrum and ecological requirements of algal species found in the traps, environment inside the traps seems to be acidic. However, further studies are needed to test the relations between algae and carnivorous plants both in laboratory conditions and in the natural environment. All the reported taxa are described briefly and documented with 74 LM and SEM micrographs.

  6. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Research Laboratory of Electronics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M., E-mail: jsage@ll.mit.edu; Chiaverini, J., E-mail: john.chiaverini@ll.mit.edu [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  7. Trapping Dust to Form Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Growing a planet from a dust grain is hard work! A new study explores how vortices in protoplanetary disks can assist this process.When Dust Growth FailsTop: ALMA image of the protoplanetary disk of V1247 Orionis, with different emission components labeled. Bottom: Synthetic image constructed from the best-fit model. [Kraus et al. 2017]Gradual accretion onto a seed particle seems like a reasonable way to grow a planet from a grain of dust; after all, planetary embryos orbit within dusty protoplanetary disks, which provides them with plenty of fuel to accrete so they can grow. Theres a challenge to this picture, though: the radial drift problem.The radial drift problem acknowledges that, as growing dust grains orbit within the disk, the drag force on them continues to grow as well. For large enough dust grains perhaps around 1 millimeter the drag force will cause the grains orbits to decay, and the particles drift into the star before they are able to grow into planetesimals and planets.A Close-Up Look with ALMASo how do we overcome the radial drift problem in order to form planets? A commonly proposed mechanism is dust trapping, in which long-lived vortices in the disk trap the dust particles, preventing them from falling inwards. This allows the particles to persist for millions of years long enough to grow beyond the radial drift barrier.Observationally, these dust-trapping vortices should have signatures: we would expect to see, at millimeter wavelengths, specific bright, asymmetric structures where the trapping occurs in protoplanetary disks. Such disk structures have been difficult to spot with past instrumentation, but the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has made some new observations of the disk V1247 Orionis that might be just what were looking for.Schematic of the authors model for the disk of V1247 Orionis. [Kraus et al. 2017]Trapped in a Vortex?ALMAs observations of V1247 Orionis are reported by a team of scientists led by Stefan

  8. Trapped

    OpenAIRE

    Storvik, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the Muslim Sunni Women in the city of Tripoli- Lebanon perceive the the inequity in the rights of women in terms of those of men within the Personal Status codes practiced today in the Sunni Muslim Sharīʻa Courts in the country. Lebanese women and men in general are subject to an imbalanced patronage as a result of the patriarchal conditions dominating the Lebanese society and its various communities. This project further explores the factors that have led to the failu...

  9. Disorder Improves Light Absorption in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells with Hybrid Light Trapping Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic simulation study on the impact of disorder in thin film silicon solar cells with hybrid light trapping structure. For the periodical structures introducing certain randomness in some parameters, the nanophotonic light trapping effect is demonstrated to be superior to their periodic counterparts. The nanophotonic light trapping effect can be associated with the increased modes induced by the structural disorders. Our study is a systematic proof that certain disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light trapping concepts in thin film solar cells. The result is relevant to the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasiperiodic textures. The random effect on the shape of the pattern (position, height, and radius investigated in this paper could be a good approach to estimate the influence of experimental inaccuracies for periodic or quasi-periodic structures.

  10. Organizational Attributes, Market Growth, and Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that organizational attributes affect product innovation. Extending this literature, this article delimits two general categories of organizational attributes and relates them to product innovation. Organizational attributes can be either control oriented or flexibility

  11. Influence of the charge trap density distribution in a gate insulator on the positive-bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungtaek; Kim, Choong-Ki; Lee, Myung Keun; Bang, Tewook; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Choi, Kyung Cheol, E-mail: shkp@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: kyungcc@kaist.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Hee Ko, E-mail: shkp@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: kyungcc@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Material Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-02

    We investigated the positive-bias stress (PBS) instability of thin film transistors (TFTs) composed of different types of first-gate insulators, which serve as a protection layer of the active surface. Two different deposition methods, i.e., the thermal atomic layer deposition (THALD) and plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were applied for the deposition of the first GI. When THALD was used to deposit the GI, amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs showed superior stability characteristics under PBS. For example, the threshold voltage shift (ΔV{sub th}) was 0 V even after a PBS time (t{sub stress}) of 3000 s under a gate voltage (V{sub G}) condition of 5 V (with an electrical field of 1.25 MV/cm). On the other hand, when the first GI was deposited by PEALD, the ΔV{sub th} value of a-IGZO TFTs was 0.82 V after undergoing an identical amount of PBS. In order to interpret the disparate ΔV{sub th} values resulting from PBS quantitatively, the average oxide charge trap density (N{sub T}) in the GI and its spatial distribution were investigated through low-frequency noise characterizations. A higher N{sub T} resulted during in the PEALD type GI than in the THALD case. Specifically, the PEALD process on a-IGZO layer surface led to an increasing trend of N{sub T} near the GI/a-IGZO interface compared to bulk GI owing to oxygen plasma damage on the a-IGZO surface.

  12. Influence of the charge trap density distribution in a gate insulator on the positive-bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eungtaek; Kim, Choong-Ki; Lee, Myung Keun; Bang, Tewook; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Park, Sang-Hee Ko

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the positive-bias stress (PBS) instability of thin film transistors (TFTs) composed of different types of first-gate insulators, which serve as a protection layer of the active surface. Two different deposition methods, i.e., the thermal atomic layer deposition (THALD) and plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) of Al_2O_3, were applied for the deposition of the first GI. When THALD was used to deposit the GI, amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs showed superior stability characteristics under PBS. For example, the threshold voltage shift (ΔV_t_h) was 0 V even after a PBS time (t_s_t_r_e_s_s) of 3000 s under a gate voltage (V_G) condition of 5 V (with an electrical field of 1.25 MV/cm). On the other hand, when the first GI was deposited by PEALD, the ΔV_t_h value of a-IGZO TFTs was 0.82 V after undergoing an identical amount of PBS. In order to interpret the disparate ΔV_t_h values resulting from PBS quantitatively, the average oxide charge trap density (N_T) in the GI and its spatial distribution were investigated through low-frequency noise characterizations. A higher N_T resulted during in the PEALD type GI than in the THALD case. Specifically, the PEALD process on a-IGZO layer surface led to an increasing trend of N_T near the GI/a-IGZO interface compared to bulk GI owing to oxygen plasma damage on the a-IGZO surface.

  13. Attribution style, theory and empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Krohn, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Master i læring i komplekse systemer Attribution theory is a long-standing and widely discussed theory that addresses individuals’ explanation of causes of events. People attribute events of success and failure individually. Previous studies indicate that performance in sporting events may be improved by changing individuals’ attribution style. Article one describes attribution and attribution theory as state of the art. The article addresses the most important findings within attribution ...

  14. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  15. Status and outlook of CHIP-TRAP: The Central Michigan University high precision Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, M.; Bryce, R. A.; Hawks, P.; Gamage, N. D.; Hunt, C.; Kandegedara, R. M. E. B.; Ratnayake, I. S.; Sharp, L.

    2016-06-01

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP) that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m / q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  16. Discriminating between antihydrogen and mirror-trapped antiprotons in a minimum-B trap

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Kurchaninov, L; Jonsell, S; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-01-01

    Recently, antihydrogen atoms were trapped at CERN in a magnetic minimum (minimum-B) trap formed by superconducting octupole and mirror magnet coils. The trapped antiatoms were detected by rapidly turning off these magnets, thereby eliminating the magnetic minimum and releasing any antiatoms contained in the trap. Once released, these antiatoms quickly hit the trap wall, whereupon the positrons and antiprotons in the antiatoms annihilated. The antiproton annihilations produce easily detected signals; we used these signals to prove that we trapped antihydrogen. However, our technique could be confounded by mirror-trapped antiprotons, which would produce seemingly-identical annihilation signals upon hitting the trap wall. In this paper, we discuss possible sources of mirror-trapped antiprotons and show that antihydrogen and antiprotons can be readily distinguished, often with the aid of applied electric fields, by analyzing the annihilation locations and times. We further discuss the general properties of antipr...

  17. Photo-reactive charge trapping memory based on lanthanide complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiaqing; Lo, Wai-Sum; Zhou, Li; Sun, Qi-Jun; Chan, Chi-Fai; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Yan, Yan; Wong, Wing-Tak; Wong, Ka-Leung; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Traditional utilization of photo-induced excitons is popularly but restricted in the fields of photovoltaic devices as well as photodetectors, and efforts on broadening its function have always been attempted. However, rare reports are available on organic field effect transistor (OFET) memory employing photo-induced charges. Here, we demonstrate an OFET memory containing a novel organic lanthanide complex Eu(tta)3ppta (Eu(tta)3 = Europium(III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, ppta = 2-phenyl-4,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine), in which the photo-induced charges can be successfully trapped and detrapped. The luminescent complex emits intense red emission upon ultraviolet (UV) light excitation and serves as a trapping element of holes injected from the pentacene semiconductor layer. Memory window can be significantly enlarged by light-assisted programming and erasing procedures, during which the photo-induced excitons in the semiconductor layer are separated by voltage bias. The enhancement of memory window is attributed to the increasing number of photo-induced excitons by the UV light. The charges are stored in this luminescent complex for at least 104 s after withdrawing voltage bias. The present study on photo-assisted novel memory may motivate the research on a new type of light tunable charge trapping photo-reactive memory devices.

  18. Temporal context for authorship attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Dalum; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    A study of temporal aspects of authorship attribution - a task which aims to distinguish automatically between texts written by different authors by measuring textual features. This task is important in a number of areas, including plagiarism detection in secondary education, which we study...... world data from Danish secondary school students show 84% prediction accuracy when using all available material and 71.9% prediction accuracy when using only the five most recent writing samples from each student....

  19. Attribution methodologies for mobility impacts

    OpenAIRE

    KOTELNIKOVA WEILER, Natalia; LEURENT, Fabien; POULHES, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Motorized transportation modes all consume energy and emit local pollutants ? chemical and noise. Congestion can also be considered as a local pollution caused by some emitters onto some receivers. Various methods have been designed to evaluate impacts and relate them to emitters and/or receivers. Called ?attribution? in environmental evaluation or ?imputation? in economic analysis, these schemes? purpose is to identify the causes of impacts and to design management or compensation schemes to...

  20. Zirconium-barrier cladding attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, H.S.; Rand, R.A.; Tucker, R.P.; Cheng, B.; Adamson, R.B.; Davies, J.H.; Armijo, J.S.; Wisner, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    This metallurgical study of Zr-barrier fuel cladding evaluates the importance of three salient attributes: (1) metallurgical bond between the zirconium liner and the Zircaloy substrate, (2) liner thickness (roughly 10% of the total cladding wall), and (3) softness (purity). The effect that each of these attributes has on the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) resistance of the Zr-barrier fuel was studied by a combination of analytical model calculations and laboratory experiments using an expanding mandrel technique. Each of the attributes is shown to contribute to PCI resistance. The effect of the zirconium liner on fuel behavior during off-normal events in which steam comes in contact with the zirconium surface was studied experimentally. Simulations of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) showed that the behavior of Zr-barrier cladding is virtually indistinguishable from that of conventional Zircaloy cladding. If steam contacts the zirconium liner surface through a cladding perforation and the fuel rod is operated under normal power conditions, the zirconium liner is oxidized more rapidly than is Zircaloy, but the oxidation rate returns to the rate of Zircaloy oxidation when the oxide phase reaches the zirconium-Zircaloy metallurgical bond

  1. Social attribution in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldershaw, Anna; DeJong, Hannah; Hambrook, David; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2018-05-01

    People with anorexia nervosa (AN) report socioemotional difficulties; however, measurement has been criticised for lacking ecological validity and the state or trait nature of difficulties remains unclear. Participants (n = 122) were recruited across 3 groups: people who are currently ill with AN (n = 40); people who recovered (RecAN, n = 18); healthy-control participants (n = 64). Participants completed clinical questionnaires and the Social Attribution Task. The Social Attribution Task involves describing an animation of moving shapes, scored for number of propositions offered, accuracy, and social relevance. Groups were compared cross-sectionally. Those with current AN were assessed prepsychological and postpsychological treatments. People with AN provided fewer propositions than other groups and fewer salient social attributions than healthy-control participants. Those who recovered scored intermediately and not significantly different from either group. Following treatment, people with AN demonstrated (nonsignificant) improvements, and no significance between group differences were observed. Findings suggest difficulties for people with AN in providing spontaneous social narrative and in identifying social salience. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  2. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourembam Surjit Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social expertise. Meetei used proverbs as an important aspect of verbal discourses within the socio-cultural and ethno-civilization contexts in which skills, knowledge, ideas, emotion, and experiences are communicating. The language used in proverbs reflects the Meetei’s status of life, food habits, belief systems, philosophy, cultural and social orientations. At the same time, various meanings attribute in Meetei proverbs in the forms of figurative, witty, pithy, didactic etc. The construction of these forms are grammatically insightful thereby creating spaces for a whole range of possibilities for investigating the features, functions and structure of verbal inflectional markers occurred in Meetei proverbial sentences. Keywords: Proverbs, morphosemantics, features of lexical items, attributes of meanings and language

  3. Portable Pbars, traps that travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Hynes, M.V.; Picklesimer, A.

    1987-10-01

    The advent of antiproton research utilizing relatively small scale storage devices for very large numbers of these particles opens the possibility of transporting these devices to a research site removed from the accelerator center that produced the antiprotons. Such a portable source of antiprotons could open many new areas of research and make antiprotons available to a new research community. At present antiprotons are available at energies down to 1 MeV. From a portable source these particles can be made available at energies ranging from several tens of kilovolts down to a few millielectron volts. These low energies are in the domain of interest to the atomic and condensed matter physicist. In addition such a source can be used as an injector for an accelerator which could increase the energy domain even further. Moreover, the availability of such a source at a university will open research with antiprotons to a broader range of students than possible at a centralized research facility. This report focuses on the use of ion traps, in particular cylindrical traps, for the antiproton storage device. These devices store the charged antiprotons in a combination of electric and magnet fields. At high enough density and low enough temperature the charged cloud will be susceptible to plasma instabilities. Present day ion trap work is just starting to explore this domain. Our assessment of feasibility is based on what could be done with present day technology and what future technology could achieve. We conclude our report with a radiation safety study that shows that about 10 11 antiprotons can be transported safely, however the federal guidelines for this transport must be reviewed in detail. More antiprotons than this will require special transportation arrangements. 28 refs., 8 figs

  4. Trapping molecules in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkse, PW.H.; Junglen, T.; Rieger, T.; Rangwala, S.A.; Windpassinger, P.; Rempe, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Cold molecules offer a new testing ground for quantum-physical effects in nature. For example, producing slow beams of large molecules could push experiments studying the boundary between quantum interference and classical particles up towards ever heavier particles. Moreover, cold molecules, in particular YbF, seem an attractive way to narrow down the constraints on the value of the electron dipole moment and finally, quantum information processing using chains of cold polar molecules or vibrational states in molecules have been proposed. All these proposals rely on advanced production and trapping techniques, most of which are still under development. Therefore, novel production and trapping techniques for cold molecules could offer new possibilities not found in previous methods. Electric traps hold promise for deep trap potentials for neutral molecules. Recently we have demonstrated two-dimensional trapping of polar molecules in a four-wire guide using electrostatic and electrodynamic trapping techniques. Filled from a thermal effusive source, such a guide will deliver a beam of slow molecules, which is an ideal source for interferometry experiments with large molecules, for instance. Here we report about the extension of this work to three-dimensional trapping. Polar molecules with a positive Stark shift can be trapped in the minimum of an electrostatic field. We have successfully tested a large volume electrostatic trap for ND3 molecules. A special feature of this trap is that it can be loaded continuously from an electrostatic guide, at a temperature of a few hundred mK. (author)

  5. Introduced species as evolutionary traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Sherman, P.W.; Blossey, B.; Runge, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species can alter environments in such a way that normal behavioural decision-making rules of native species are no longer adaptive. The evolutionary trap concept provides a useful framework for predicting and managing the impact of harmful invasive species. We discuss how native species can respond to changes in their selective regime via evolution or learning. We also propose novel management strategies to promote the long-term co-existence of native and introduced species in cases where the eradication of the latter is either economically or biologically unrealistic.

  6. Gyrotactic trapping: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, S.

    2016-04-01

    Gyrotactic trapping is a mechanism proposed by Durham et al. ["Disruption of vertical motility by shear triggers formation of thin Phytoplankton layers," Science 323, 1067-1070 (2009)] to explain the formation of thin phytoplankton layer just below the ocean surface. This mechanism is examined numerically using a rational model based on the generalized Taylor dispersion theory. The crucial role of sedimentation speed in the thin layer formation is demonstrated. The effects of variation in different parameters on the thin layer formation are also investigated.

  7. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  8. Bose condensation in (random traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Zagrebnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.

  9. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Steven J; Haider, L Jamila; Engström, Gustav; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-05-01

    The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to "push" the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required. First, we review commonly observed or assumed social-ecological relationships in rural development contexts, focusing on economic, biophysical, and cultural aspects of poverty. Second, we develop a classification of poverty alleviation strategies using insights from resilience research on social-ecological change. Last, we use these advances to develop stylized, multidimensional poverty trap models. The models show that (i) interventions that ignore nature and culture can reinforce poverty (particularly in agrobiodiverse landscapes), (ii) transformative change can instead open new pathways for poverty alleviation, and (iii) asset inputs may be effective in other contexts (for example, where resource degradation and poverty are tightly interlinked). Our model-based approach and insights offer a systematic way to review the consequences of the causal mechanisms that characterize poverty traps in different agricultural contexts and identify appropriate strategies for rural development challenges.

  10. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Steven J.; Haider, L. Jamila; Engström, Gustav; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-01-01

    The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to “push” the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required. First, we review commonly observed or assumed social-ecological relationships in rural development contexts, focusing on economic, biophysical, and cultural aspects of poverty. Second, we develop a classification of poverty alleviation strategies using insights from resilience research on social-ecological change. Last, we use these advances to develop stylized, multidimensional poverty trap models. The models show that (i) interventions that ignore nature and culture can reinforce poverty (particularly in agrobiodiverse landscapes), (ii) transformative change can instead open new pathways for poverty alleviation, and (iii) asset inputs may be effective in other contexts (for example, where resource degradation and poverty are tightly interlinked). Our model-based approach and insights offer a systematic way to review the consequences of the causal mechanisms that characterize poverty traps in different agricultural contexts and identify appropriate strategies for rural development challenges. PMID:28508077

  11. Trap Generation Dynamics in Photo-Oxidised DEH Doped Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Goldie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of polyester films doped with a hole transport molecule, p-diethylaminobenzaldehyde-1,1'-diphenylhydrazone (DEH, have been systematically exposed to ultraviolet radiation with a peak wavelength of about 375 nm. The electronic performance of the films, evaluated using time-of-flight and space-charge current injection methods, is observed to continuously degrade with increasing ultraviolet exposure. The degradation is attributed to photo cyclic oxidation of DEH that results in the creation of indazole (IND molecules which function as bulk hole traps. A proposed model for the generation dynamics of the IND traps is capable of describing both the reduction in current injection and the associated time-of-flight hole mobility provided around 1% of the DEH population produce highly reactive photo-excited states which are completely converted to indazole during the UV exposure period. The rapid reaction of these states is incompatible with bulk oxygen diffusion-reaction kinetics within the films and is attributed to the creation of excited states within the reaction radius of soluble oxygen. It is suggested that encapsulation strategies to preserve the electronic integrity of the films should accordingly focus upon limiting the critical supply of oxygen for photo cyclic reaction.

  12. CrossRef Space-charge effects in Penning ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Porobić, T; Breitenfeldt, M; Couratin, C; Finlay, P; Knecht, A; Fabian, X; Friedag, P; Fléchard, X; Liénard, E; Ban, G; Zákoucký, D; Soti, G; Van Gorp, S; Weinheimer, Ch; Wursten, E; Severijns, N

    2015-01-01

    The influence of space-charge on ion cyclotron resonances and magnetron eigenfrequency in a gas-filled Penning ion trap has been investigated. Off-line measurements with View the MathML source using the cooling trap of the WITCH retardation spectrometer-based setup at ISOLDE/CERN were performed. Experimental ion cyclotron resonances were compared with ab initio Coulomb simulations and found to be in agreement. As an important systematic effect of the WITCH experiment, the magnetron eigenfrequency of the ion cloud was studied under increasing space-charge conditions. Finally, the helium buffer gas pressure in the Penning trap was determined by comparing experimental cooling rates with simulations.

  13. Progress at THe-trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, Martin; Eronen, Tommi; Ketter, Jochen; Schuh, Marc; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    THe-Trap is a Penning-trap mass spectrometry experiment that is currently being set up to measure the atomic mass ratio of tritium and helium-3 with a relative uncertainty of 10{sup -11}. In 2013, the experiment's first high-precision mass ratio measurement was performed on the ions {sup 12}C{sup 4+} and {sup 16}O{sup 5+}. The carbon-12/oxygen-16 mass ratio is one of the most precisely determined mass ratios and serves as a benchmark for the experiment. This measurement reached a statistical uncertainty of 6.3 . 10{sup -11} and was limited by systematic frequency shifts due to too high motional amplitudes. In the following service cycle, the experiment was modified to address the shortcomings that were discovered in the 2013 ratio measurements. This talk summarizes the results of the 2013 measurements and introduces the upgrades to the experiment, including a new amplifier, a modified ion source, and an improved vacuum system.

  14. Dynamic array of dark optical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, V.R.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Glückstad, J.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic array of dark optical traps is generated for simultaneous trapping and arbitrary manipulation of multiple low-index microstructures. The dynamic intensity patterns forming the dark optical trap arrays are generated using a nearly loss-less phase-to-intensity conversion of a phase......-encoded coherent light source. Two-dimensional input phase distributions corresponding to the trapping patterns are encoded using a computer-programmable spatial light modulator, enabling each trap to be shaped and moved arbitrarily within the plane of observation. We demonstrate the generation of multiple dark...... optical traps for simultaneous manipulation of hollow "air-filled" glass microspheres suspended in an aqueous medium. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  15. Development and Validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhan; Kogan, Steven M

    2017-07-01

    The present study describes the development and validation of the Masculine Attributes Questionnaire (MAQ). The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretically and empirically grounded measure of masculine attributes for sexual health research with African American young men. Consistent with Whitehead's theory, the MAQ items were hypothesized to comprise two components representing reputation-based and respect-based attributes. The sample included 505 African American men aged 19 to 22 years ( M = 20.29, SD = 1.10) living in resource-poor communities in the rural South. Convergent and discriminant validity of the MAQ were assessed by examining the associations of masculinity attributes with psychosocial factors. Criterion validity was assessed by examining the extent to which the MAQ subscales predicted sexual risk behavior outcomes. Consistent with study hypotheses, the MAQ was composed of (a) reputation-based attributes oriented toward sexual prowess, toughness, and authority-defying behavior and (b) respect-based attributes oriented toward economic independence, socially approved levels of hard work and education, and committed romantic relationships. Reputation-based attributes were associated positively with street code and negatively related to academic orientation, vocational engagement, and self-regulation, whereas respect-based attributes were associated positively with academic and vocational orientations and self-regulation. Finally, reputation-based attributes predicted sexual risk behaviors including concurrent sexual partnerships, multiple sexual partners, marijuana use, and incarceration, net of the influence of respect-based attributes. The development of the MAQ provides a new measure that permits systematic quantitative investigation of the associations between African American men's masculinity ideology and sexual risk behavior.

  16. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  17. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say, can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench spp. bicolor trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops (with or without pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Similarly, in 2006, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops and pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Thus, the combination of the sorghum trap crop and pheromone traps effectively suppressed dispersal of E. servus into cotton. Inclusion of pheromone traps with trap crops potentially offers additional benefits, including: (1 reducing the density of E. servus adults in a trap crop, especially females, to possibly decrease the local population over time and reduce the overwintering population, (2 reducing dispersal of E. servus adults from the trap crop into cotton, and (3 potentially attracting more dispersing E. servus adults into a trap crop during a period of time when preferred food is not prevalent in the landscape.

  18. Diffusion to finite-size traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    The survival probability of a random-walking particle is derived for hopping in a random distribution of traps of arbitrary radius and concentration. The single-center approximation is shown to be valid for times of physical interest even when the fraction of volume occupied by traps approaches unity. The theory is based on computation of the number of different potential trap regions sampled in a random walk and is confirmed by simulations on a simple-cubic lattice

  19. Radiation induced leakage due to stochastic charge trapping in isolation layers of nanoscale MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrev, G. I.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Pershenkov, V. S.

    2008-03-01

    The sensitivity of sub-100 nm devices to microdose effects, which can be considered as intermediate case between cumulative total dose and single event errors, is investigated. A detailed study of radiation-induced leakage due to stochastic charge trapping in irradiated planar and nonplanar devices is developed. The influence of High-K insulators on nanoscale ICs reliability is discussed. Low critical values of trapped charge demonstrate a high sensitivity to single event effect.

  20. Photoconductivity and bleaching of trapped electrons at 770C in irradiated methylcyclohexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolivo, G.; Gaeumann, T.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the wavelength and intensity of the bleaching radiation on the thermoluminescence, thermoconductivity, optical absorption and photoconductivity of the methylcyclohexane, protonated and deuterated, was studied. The energy level scheme of the trapped electron in this alkane is very similar to that found in MTHF and 3-MP. The rate of bleaching of the trapped electrons is less in the deuterated product. (U.K.)

  1. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieman, F.J.

    1979-10-01

    An experimental apparatus for obtaining the optical spectra of molecular ions is described. The experimental technique includes the use of three dimensional ion trapping, laser induced fluorescence, and gated photon counting methods. The ions, which are produced by electron impact, are confined in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap of cylindrical design. Because the quadrupole ion trap allows mass selection of the molecular ion desired for study, the analysis of the spectra obtained is greatly simplified. The ion trap also confines the ions to a region easily probed by a laser beam. 18 references

  2. Active stabilization of ion trap radiofrequency potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K. G.; Wong-Campos, J. D.; Restelli, A.; Landsman, K. A.; Neyenhuis, B.; Mizrahi, J.; Monroe, C. [Joint Quantum Institute and University of Maryland Department of Physics, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We actively stabilize the harmonic oscillation frequency of a laser-cooled atomic ion confined in a radiofrequency (rf) Paul trap by sampling and rectifying the high voltage rf applied to the trap electrodes. We are able to stabilize the 1 MHz atomic oscillation frequency to be better than 10 Hz or 10 ppm. This represents a suppression of ambient noise on the rf circuit by 34 dB. This technique could impact the sensitivity of ion trap mass spectrometry and the fidelity of quantum operations in ion trap quantum information applications.

  3. How to detect trap cluster systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandowski, Arkadiusz

    2008-01-01

    Spatially correlated traps and recombination centres (trap-recombination centre pairs and larger clusters) are responsible for many anomalous phenomena that are difficult to explain in the framework of both classical models, i.e. model of localized transitions (LT) and the simple trap model (STM), even with a number of discrete energy levels. However, these 'anomalous' effects may provide a good platform for identifying trap cluster systems. This paper considers selected cluster-type effects, mainly relating to an anomalous dependence of TL on absorbed dose in the system of isolated clusters (ICs). Some consequences for interacting cluster (IAC) systems, involving both localized and delocalized transitions occurring simultaneously, are also discussed

  4. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieman, F.J.

    1979-10-01

    An experimental apparatus for obtaining the optical spectra of molecular ions is described. The experimental technique includes the use of three dimensional ion trapping, laser induced fluorescence, and gated photon counting methods. The ions, which are produced by electron impact, are confined in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap of cylindrical design. Because the quadrupole ion trap allows mass selection of the molecular ion desired for study, the analysis of the spectra obtained is greatly simplified. The ion trap also confines the ions to a region easily probed by a laser beam. 18 references.

  5. Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julian; Lambrecht, Alexander; Weckesser, Pascal; Debatin, Markus; Karpa, Leon; Schaetz, Tobias

    2018-04-01

    The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.

  6. High Optical Access Trap 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-26

    The High Optical Access (HOA) trap was designed in collaboration with the Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer (MUSIQC) team, funded along with Sandia National Laboratories through IARPA's Multi Qubit Coherent Operations (MQCO) program. The design of version 1 of the HOA trap was completed in September 2012 and initial devices were completed and packaged in February 2013. The second version of the High Optical Access Trap (HOA-2) was completed in September 2014 and is available at IARPA's disposal.

  7. Laser cooling and trapping of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.

    1995-01-01

    The basic ideas of laser cooling and atom trapping will be discussed. These techniques have applications in spectroscopy, metrology, nuclear physics, biophysics, geophysics, and polymer science. (author)

  8. Enhancement in the photodetection of ZnO nanowires by introducing surface-roughness-induced traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woojin; Jo, Gunho; Hong, Woong-Ki; Yoon, Jongwon; Choe, Minhyeok; Ji, Yongsung; Kim, Geunjin; Kahng, Yung Ho; Lee, Kwanghee; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Sangchul; Wang, Deli

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the enhanced photoresponse of ZnO nanowire transistors that was introduced with surface-roughness-induced traps by a simple chemical treatment with isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The enhanced photoresponse of IPA-treated ZnO nanowire devices is attributed to an increase in adsorbed oxygen on IPA-induced surface traps. The results of this study revealed that IPA-treated ZnO nanowire devices displayed higher photocurrent gains and faster photoswitching speed than transistors containing unmodified ZnO nanowires. Thus, chemical treatment with IPA can be a useful method for improving the photoresponse of ZnO nanowire devices.

  9. Evidence for shallow positron traps in a neutron-irradiated Al single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, P.J.; MacKenzie, I.K.; Lynn, K.G.; West, R.N.; Snead, C.L. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Variable energy positrons have been used to determine the dependence on temperature of positron diffusion out of a neutron-irradiated single crystal of Al. The results are interpreted in the context of a one-dimensional diffusion model which includes bulk annihilations as well as trapping at voids and other microstructural defects in the bulk material by way of a removal rate kappa/sub eff/ of freely diffusing positrons. The data show a strongly negative dependence on temperature below 125 0 K for kappa/sub eff/, indicating the presence of some additional phenomenon which we attribute to positron localization in shallow, presumably radiation-induced, traps in the crystal

  10. Safety significance of ATR passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: 1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, 2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and 3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond to most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models and results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system)

  11. Perception of risk and the attribution of responsibility for accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Laura N

    2014-03-01

    Accidents, one often hears, "happen"; we accept, and even expect, that they will be part of daily life. But in situations in which injury or death result, judgments of responsibility become critical. How might our perceptions of risk influence the ways in which we allocate responsibility for an accident? Drawing from attribution and risk perception theory, this study investigates how perceived controllability and desirability of risk, in addition to perceived danger and recreational risk-taking, relate to attributions of responsibility for the cause of unintentional injury in a unique setting: U.S. national parks. Three parks, Mount Rainier, Olympic, and Delaware Water Gap, provide the setting for this survey-based study, which considers how park visitors (N = 447) attribute responsibility for the cause of a hypothetical visitor accident. Results suggest that respondents tended to make more internal (i.e., related to characteristics of the victim), rather than external (i.e., related to characteristics of the park, or park management) attributions. As respondents viewed park-related risk as controllable, they were more likely to attribute the cause of the accident to the victim. Moreover, among other significant variables, having experienced a similar accident predicted lower internal causal attribution. Opportunities for future research linking risk perception and attribution variables, as well as practical implications for the management of public outdoor settings, are presented. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Laser-cooling and electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.D.; Migdall, A.L.; Metcalf, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently it has been impossible to confine and trap neutral atoms using electromagnetic fields. While many proposals for such traps exist, the small potential energy depth of the traps and the high kinetic energy of available atoms prevented trapping. We review various schemes for atom trapping, the advances in laser cooling of atomic beams which have now made trapping possible, and the successful magnetic trapping of cold sodium atoms

  13. Postdetonation nuclear debris for attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, A J; Zeissler, C J; Newbury, D E; Davis, J; Lindstrom, R M

    2010-11-23

    On the morning of July 16, 1945, the first atomic bomb was exploded in New Mexico on the White Sands Proving Ground. The device was a plutonium implosion device similar to the device that destroyed Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9 of that same year. Recently, with the enactment of US public law 111-140, the "Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act," scientists in the government and academia have been able, in earnest, to consider what type of forensic-style information may be obtained after a nuclear detonation. To conduct a robust attribution process for an exploded device placed by a nonstate actor, forensic analysis must yield information about not only the nuclear material in the device but about other materials that went into its construction. We have performed an investigation of glassed ground debris from the first nuclear test showing correlations among multiple analytical techniques. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence, obtainable only through microanalysis, that secondary materials used in the device can be identified and positively associated with the nuclear material.

  14. A MOX fuel attribute monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, Mary; Jordan, David V.; Barnett, Debra S.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Pearce, Stephen K.

    2007-01-01

    Euratom performs safeguards monitoring of Fresh MOX fuel for domestic power production in the European Union. Video cameras monitor the reactor storage ponds. If video surveillance is lost for a certain amount of time a measurement is required to verify that no fuel was diverted. The attribute measurement to verify the continued presence of MOX fuel is neutron emission. Ideally this measurement would be made without moving or handling the fuel rod assembly. A prototype attribute measurement system was made using scintillating neutron sensitive glass waveguides developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Short lengths (5-20 cm) of the neutron sensitive fiber were mechanically spliced to 15 m lengths of commercial high numerical aperture fiber optic cable (Ceramoptec Optran Ultra 0.44). The light detector is a Hamamatsu R7400P photomultiplier tube. An electronics package was built to use the sensors with a GBS Elektronik MCA-166 multichannel analyzer and user interface. The MCA-166 is the system most commonly used by Euratom inspectors. It can also be run from a laptop computer using Maestro (Ortec) or other software. A MCNP model was made to compare to measurements made with several neutron sources including NIST traceable 252 Cf

  15. Floodplain trapping and cycling compared to streambank erosion of sediment and nutrients in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Jaimie; Noe, Gregory; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Schenk, Edward R.

    2018-01-01

    Floodplains and streambanks can positively and negatively influence downstream water quality through interacting geomorphic and biogeochemical processes. Few studies have measured those processes in agricultural watersheds. We measured inputs (floodplain sedimentation and dissolved inorganic loading), cycling (floodplain soil nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P] mineralization), and losses (bank erosion) of sediment, N, and P longitudinally in stream reaches of Smith Creek, an agricultural watershed in the Valley and Ridge physiographic province. All study reaches were net depositional (floodplain deposition > bank erosion), had high N and P sedimentation and loading rates to the floodplain, high soil concentrations of N and P, and high rates of floodplain soil N and P mineralization. High sediment, N, and P inputs to floodplains are attributed to agricultural activity in the region. Rates of P mineralization were much greater than those measured in other studies of nontidal floodplains that used the same method. Floodplain connectivity and sediment deposition decreased longitudinally, contrary to patterns in most watersheds. The net trapping function of Smith Creek floodplains indicates a benefit to water quality. Further research is needed to determine if future decreases in floodplain deposition, continued bank erosion, and the potential for nitrate leaching from nutrient-enriched floodplain soils could pose a long-term source of sediment and nutrients to downstream rivers.

  16. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Orientation and Distance From Brush Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-04-01

    Eradication programs for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) rely on pheromone-baited traps to trigger insecticide treatments and monitor program progress. A key objective of monitoring in these programs is the timely detection of incipient weevil populations to limit or prevent re-infestation. Therefore, improvements in the effectiveness of trapping would enhance efforts to achieve and maintain eradication. Association of pheromone traps with woodlots and other prominent vegetation are reported to increase captures of weevils, but the spatial scale over which this effect occurs is unknown. The influences of trap distance (0, 10, and 20 m) and orientation (leeward or windward) to brush lines on boll weevil captures were examined during three noncropping seasons (October to February) in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Differences in numbers of captured weevils and in the probability of capture between traps at 10 or 20 m from brush, although often statistically significant, were generally small and variable. Variations in boll weevil population levels, wind directions, and wind speeds apparently contributed to this variability. In contrast, traps closely associated with brush (0 m) generally captured larger numbers of weevils, and offered a higher probability of weevil capture compared with traps away from brush. These increases in the probability of weevil capture were as high as 30%. Such increases in the ability of traps to detect low-level boll weevil populations indicate trap placement with respect to prominent vegetation is an important consideration in maximizing the effectiveness of trap-based monitoring for the boll weevil.

  17. High-k shallow traps observed by charge pumping with varying discharging times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lu, Ying-Hsin; Lo, Wen-Hung; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Wang, Bin-Wei; Cao, Xi-Xin [Department of Embedded System Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, P.R.China (China); Chen, Hua-Mao [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Chen, Tsai-Fu [Device Department, United Microelectronics Corporation, Tainan Science Park, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-07

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of falling time and base level time on high-k bulk shallow traps measured by charge pumping technique in n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with HfO{sub 2}/metal gate stacks. N{sub T}-V{sub high} {sub level} characteristic curves with different duty ratios indicate that the electron detrapping time dominates the value of N{sub T} for extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps. N{sub T} is the number of traps, and I{sub cp} is charge pumping current. By fitting discharge formula at different temperatures, the results show that extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps at high voltage are in fact high-k bulk shallow traps. This is also verified through a comparison of different interlayer thicknesses and different Ti{sub x}N{sub 1−x} metal gate concentrations. Next, N{sub T}-V{sub high} {sub level} characteristic curves with different falling times (t{sub falling} {sub time}) and base level times (t{sub base} {sub level}) show that extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps decrease with an increase in t{sub falling} {sub time}. By fitting discharge formula for different t{sub falling} {sub time}, the results show that electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps first discharge to the channel and then to source and drain during t{sub falling} {sub time}. This current cannot be measured by the charge pumping technique. Subsequent measurements of N{sub T} by charge pumping technique at t{sub base} {sub level} reveal a remainder of electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps.

  18. Computational Modeling of Blood Flow in the TrapEase Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M A; Henshaw, W D; Wang, S L

    2008-02-04

    To evaluate the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase vena cava filter using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics, including simulated thrombi of multiple shapes, sizes, and trapping positions. The study was performed to identify potential areas of recirculation and stagnation and areas in which trapped thrombi may influence intrafilter thrombosis. Computer models of the TrapEase filter, thrombi (volumes ranging from 0.25mL to 2mL, 3 different shapes), and a 23mm diameter cava were constructed. The hemodynamics of steady-state flow at Reynolds number 600 was examined for the unoccluded and partially occluded filter. Axial velocity contours and wall shear stresses were computed. Flow in the unoccluded TrapEase filter experienced minimal disruption, except near the superior and inferior tips where low velocity flow was observed. For spherical thrombi in the superior trapping position, stagnant and recirculating flow was observed downstream of the thrombus; the volume of stagnant flow and the peak wall shear stress increased monotonically with thrombus volume. For inferiorly trapped spherical thrombi, marked disruption to the flow was observed along the cava wall ipsilateral to the thrombus and in the interior of the filter. Spherically shaped thrombus produced a lower peak wall shear stress than conically shaped thrombus and a larger peak stress than ellipsoidal thrombus. We have designed and constructed a computer model of the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase IVC filter with varying shapes, sizes, and positions of thrombi. The computer model offers several advantages over in vitro techniques including: improved resolution, ease of evaluating different thrombus sizes and shapes, and easy adaptation for new filter designs and flow parameters. Results from the model also support a previously reported finding from photochromic experiments that suggest the inferior trapping position of the TrapEase IVC filter leads to an intra-filter region of recirculating

  19. Marketing Cooperatives' Re-engineering: Influences among Organizational Attributes, Strategic Attributes & Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benos, T.; Kalogeras, N.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper we expand the agribusiness co-op literature by studying the re-engineering process of marketing cooperatives (co-ops). More specifically we discuss and empirically examine organizational innovations adopted by marketing co-ops in Greece. We hypothesize three types of

  20. Secretion Trap Tagging of Secreted and Membrane-Spanning Proteins Using Arabidopsis Gene Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Groover; Joseph R. Fontana; Juana M. Arroyo; Cristina Yordan; W. Richard McCombie; Robert A. Martienssen

    2003-01-01

    Secreted and membrane-spanning proteins play fundamental roles in plant development but pose challenges for genetic identification and characterization. We describe a "secretion trap" screen for gene trap insertions in genes encoding proteins routed through the secretory pathway. The gene trap transposon encodes a ß-glucuronidase reporter enzyme...

  1. Influência social, atribuição de causalidade e julgamentos de responsabilidade e justiça Social influence, attribution of causality, and judgments of responsibility and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos anteriores demonstraram que comportamento antinormativo, causado por influência social derivada dos poderes de recompensa, informação e referência, é percebido como mais interno e mais controlável, e seu autor visto como mais responsável, do que quando ele deriva dos poderes de conhecimento, legitimidade ou coerção. Esta pesquisa constitui uma réplica desses estudos, acrescida de refinamento metodológico para a equalização da força das bases de poder, e de investigação do efeito da influência decorrente dessas bases nos julgamentos de justiça da punição ao autor. Participaram 84 universitários, metade na condição de desfecho positivo e metade na de desfecho negativo. Os resultados replicaram achados anteriores e revelaram que punição severa é considerada mais justa quando a transgressão resulta das bases de poder que eliciam comportamentos percebidos como mais internos e controláveis. Discutem-se os resultados em termos de sua relevância para melhor entendimento de fenômenos como obediência, dissonância cognitiva, comportamento criminoso e justiça retributiva.Previous studies have convincingly demonstrated that transgressional behavior caused by social influence based on reward, informational and referent power is perceived as more internal and more controllable, and the perpetrator seen as more responsible, than similar behavior caused by the use of expert, legitimate or coercive power. This research replicates these studies, adds a methodological refinement by equalizing the strength of power bases, and investigates the effect of power bases on judgments of justice of the punishment applied to the transgression. Eighty four College students served as participants, randomly assigned to two experimental conditions (Good Outcome and Bad Outcome Conditions. The results replicated those found in previous studies and showed that severe punishment is considered more fair when the transgression results from

  2. Limiting Conditions of the "Physical Attractiveness Stereotype": Attributions about Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Subjects, reading a profile of a couple filing for divorce, made attributions about responsibility, financial settlement, future behavior, and personality traits. Reasons for divorce, physical attractiveness of husband and wife, and sex of subject were varied. Attractiveness strongly influenced personality ratings. Reason for divorce was related…

  3. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  4. Discourse Model Representation of Referential and Attributive Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kristine H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    Manipulated shared knowledge and focus on specific entities, the verb in the sentence, and whether the description was definite or indefinite. Each factor influenced interpretation of the description. Confirmed that changing verbs alone affected reference choice. Indicated that both referentially and attributively introduced entities are…

  5. An Attributional Theory of Achievement Motivation and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Bernard

    1985-01-01

    This article advances an attributional theory of motivation and emotion, with achievement strivings as the theoretical focus. Causes of success and failure share three common properties: locus, stability, and controllability. Stability of causes influences changes in expectancy of success. Expectancy and affect guide motivated behavior.…

  6. The effect of extrinsic attributes on liking of cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, E M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2016-01-01

    Preference mapping studies with cottage cheese have demonstrated that cottage cheese liking is influenced by flavor, texture, curd size, and dressing content. However, extrinsic factors such as package, label claims, and brand name may also influence liking and have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of package attributes and brand on the liking of cottage cheese. A conjoint survey with Kano analysis (n=460) was conducted to explore the effect of extrinsic attributes (brand, label claim, milkfat content, and price) on liking. Following the survey, 150 consumers evaluated intrinsic attributes of 7 cottage cheeses with and without brand information in a 2-d crossover design. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Milkfat content and price had the highest influence on liking by conjoint analysis. Cottage cheese with 2% milkfat and a low price was preferred. Specific label claims such as "excellent source of calcium (>10%)" were more attractive to consumers than "low sodium" or "extra creamy." Branding influenced overall liking and purchase intent for cottage cheeses to differing degrees. For national brands, acceptance scores were enhanced in the presence of the brand. An all-natural claim was more appealing than organic by conjoint analysis and this result was also confirmed with consumer acceptance testing. Findings from this study can help manufacturers, as well as food marketers, better target their products and brands with attributes that drive consumer choice. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mothers' Self- Evaluation, Attribution in Parenting and Coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of mother's self- evaluation, attribution in parenting and coping strategies on children's (age 2-6 years) externalizing behaviour. Two hundred (200) nursing mothers with a mean age of 30.25, (SD 10.67) years were randomly selected for the study. Data was collected using ...

  8. Long charged macromolecule in an entropic trap with rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamasakhlisov, Yevgeni Sh; Hayryan, Shura; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2012-11-01

    The kinetics of the flux of a charged macromolecular solution through an environment of changing geometry with wide and constricted regions is investigated analytically. A model device consisting of alternating deep and shallow slits known as an "entropic trap" is used to represent the environment. The flux is supported by the external electrostatic field. The "wormlike chain" model is used for the macromolecule (dsDNA in the present study). The chain entropy in both the deep and the shallow slits, the work by the electric field, and the energy of the elastic bending of the chain are taken into account accurately. Based on the calculated free energy, the kinetics and the scaling behavior of the chain escaping from the entropic trap are studied. We find that the escape process occurs in two kinetic stages with different time scales and discuss the possible influence of the surface roughness. The scope of the accuracy of the proposed model is discussed.

  9. Nanophotonic light-trapping theory for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zongfu; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui [Stanford University, Ginzton Lab, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Conventional light-trapping theory, based on a ray-optics approach, was developed for standard thick photovoltaic cells. The classical theory established an upper limit for possible absorption enhancement in this context and provided a design strategy for reaching this limit. This theory has become the foundation for light management in bulk silicon PV cells, and has had enormous influence on the optical design of solar cells in general. This theory, however, is not applicable in the nanophotonic regime. Here we develop a statistical temporal coupled-mode theory of light trapping based on a rigorous electromagnetic approach. Our theory reveals that the standard limit can be substantially surpassed when optical modes in the active layer are confined to deep-subwavelength scale, opening new avenues for highly efficient next-generation solar cells. (orig.)

  10. The critical attributes of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C A

    1992-11-01

    The final decade of this century is a period of unprecedented change that by all indicators will continue unabated well into the next millennium. This article explored some elemental and immutable truths about leadership, management, communication, and negotiation essential to organizational success, particularly during periods of accelerated change. The case is made for a level of integrity, ethical conduct, and self-control to match the technical competence essential for managerial success in a technologically intensive work environment. These attributes and skills coupled with a widening scope of institutional vision are critical to sustained leadership and growth in an unstable world. Those without these abilities will be diminished in their capacity to communicate or negotiate. Hence, they will be thwarted or powerless to create task attraction, to effect change, or to promote excellence. These lessons are applicable to the dynamic changes occurring within the health care industrial complex, including health information management.

  11. Inelastic collision rates of trapped metastable hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landhuis, D; Matos, L; Moss, SC; Steinberger, JK; Vant, K; Willmann, L; Greytak, TJ; Kleppner, D

    We report the first detailed decay studies of trapped metastable (2S) hydrogen. By two-photon excitation of ultracold H samples, we have produced clouds of at least 5x10(7) magnetically trapped 2S atoms at densities greater than 4x10(10) cm(-3) and temperatures below 100 muK. At these densities and

  12. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  13. Modes of oscillation in radiofrequency Paul traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landa, H.; Reznik, B.; Drewsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the time-dependent dynamics of ion crystals in radiofrequency traps. The problem of stable trapping of general threedimensional crystals is considered and the validity of the pseudopotential approximation is discussed. We analytically derive the micromotion amplitude of the ions...

  14. Spin polarized atom traps and fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1994-10-01

    Plans are described to couple a neutral atom trap to an upgraded version of TRIUMF's TISOL on-line mass separator. The unique properties of trapped and cooled atoms promise improvements of some symmetry tests of the Standard Model of the electroweak and strong interactions. (author). 33 refs., 3 figs

  15. Astroturf seed traps for studying hydrochory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, M; Geertsema, J; Chang, ER; Veeneklaas, RM; Carey, PD; Bakker, JP

    1. Astroturf mats can effectively trap diaspores dispersed by tidal water. 2. Within four tidal inundations, up to 745 propagules per m(2) and between three and eight different species per astroturf mat were trapped. Overall, 15 different species were collected on the astroturf mats, 10 of which

  16. An Experimental Analysis of Social Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechner, Kevin C.

    1977-01-01

    Social traps, such as the overgrazing of pasturelands, overpopulation, and the extinction of species, are situations where individuals in a group respond for their own advantage in a manner damaging to the group. Alaboratory analog was devised to simulate conditions that produce social traps. The intent was to cause an immediate positive…

  17. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  18. Collective excitations of harmonically trapped ideal gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schaeybroeck, B.; Lazarides, A.

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the collective excitations of an ideal gas confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We give an exact solution to the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation; as expected for a single-component system, the associated mode frequencies are integer multiples of the trapping frequency. We show

  19. Lobster trap detection at the Saba Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    According to previous studies and anecdotal evidence there are a lot of lost lobster traps at the Saba Bank. One study estimated the loss to be between 210 and 795 lobster traps per year. The Saba Bank is an approximately 2,200 km2 submerged area and spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is one of the

  20. Cryptography, quantum computation and trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard J.

    1998-03-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  1. Review of statistical analysis of trapped gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    A review was conducted of trapped gas estimates in Hanford waste tanks. Tank waste levels were found to correlate with barometric pressure changes giving the possibility to infer amounts of trapped gas. Previous models of the tank waste level were extended to include other phenomena such as evaporation in a more complete description of tank level changes

  2. Modified semiclassical approximation for trapped Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    A generalization of the semiclassical approximation is suggested allowing for an essential extension of its region of applicability. In particular, it becomes possible to describe Bose-Einstein condensation of a trapped gas in low-dimensional traps and in traps of low confining dimensions, for which the standard semiclassical approximation is not applicable. The result of the modified approach is shown to coincide with purely quantum-mechanical calculations for harmonic traps, including the one-dimensional harmonic trap. The advantage of the semiclassical approximation is in its simplicity and generality. Power-law potentials of arbitrary powers are considered. The effective thermodynamic limit is defined for any confining dimension. The behavior of the specific heat, isothermal compressibility, and density fluctuations is analyzed, with an emphasis on low confining dimensions, where the usual semiclassical method fails. The peculiarities of the thermodynamic characteristics in the effective thermodynamic limit are discussed

  3. Magnetic trapping of cold bromine atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennick, C J; Lam, J; Doherty, W G; Softley, T P

    2014-01-17

    Magnetic trapping of bromine atoms at temperatures in the millikelvin regime is demonstrated for the first time. The atoms are produced by photodissociation of Br2 molecules in a molecular beam. The lab-frame velocity of Br atoms is controlled by the wavelength and polarization of the photodissociation laser. Careful selection of the wavelength results in one of the pair of atoms having sufficient velocity to exactly cancel that of the parent molecule, and it remains stationary in the lab frame. A trap is formed at the null point between two opposing neodymium permanent magnets. Dissociation of molecules at the field minimum results in the slowest fraction of photofragments remaining trapped. After the ballistic escape of the fastest atoms, the trapped slow atoms are lost only by elastic collisions with the chamber background gas. The measured loss rate is consistent with estimates of the total cross section for only those collisions transferring sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the trapping potential.

  4. Cold trap disposed within a tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability and the durability of cold traps by simplifying the structure and recycling liquid metals without using electromagnetic pumps. Constitution: The reactor container is partitioned by an intermediate container enhousing primary recycling pumps and cold traps. The inlet and the exit for the liquid metal of each cold trap are opened to the outside and the inside of the intermediate container respectively. In such a structure, the pressure difference between the inside and the outside of the intermediate container is exerted on the cold traps due to the exhaust pressure of the recycling pumps in which the liquid metal flowing into the cold traps is purified through filters, cooled and then discharged from the exit to the cold plenum. In this way, liquid metal can be recycled without using an electromagnetic pump whose reliability has not yet been established. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. The Aarhus Ion Micro-Trap Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Nielsen, Otto; Poulsen, Gregers

    As part of our involvement in the EU MICROTRAP project, we have designed, manufactured and assembled a micro-scale ion trap with integrated optical fibers. These prealigned fibers will allow delivering cooling laser light to single ions. Therefore, such a trap will not require any direct optical...... and installed in an ultra high vacuum chamber, which includes an ablation oven for all-optical loading of the trap [2]. The next steps on the project are to demonstrate the operation of the micro-trap and the cooling of ions using fiber delivered light. [1] D. Grant, Development of Micro-Scale Ion traps, Master...... Thesis (2008). [2] R.J. Hendricks, D.M. Grant, P.F. Herskind, A. Dantan and M. Drewsen, An all-optical ion-loading technique for scalable microtrap architectures, Applied Physics B, 88, 507 (2007)....

  6. Impurity trapped excitons under high hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Marek

    2013-09-01

    Paper summarizes the results on pressure effect on energies of the 4fn → 4fn and 4fn-15d1 → 4fn transitions as well as influence of pressure on anomalous luminescence in Lnα+ doped oxides and fluorides. A model of impurity trapped exciton (ITE) was developed. Two types of ITE were considered. The first where a hole is localized at the Lnα+ ion (creation of Ln(α+1)+) and an electron is attracted by Coulomb potential at Rydberg-like states and the second where an electron captured at the Lnα+ ion (creation of Ln(α-1)+) and a hole is attracted by Coulomb potential at Rydberg-like states. Paper presents detailed analysis of nonlinear changes of energy of anomalous luminescence of BaxSr1-xF2:Eu2+ (x > 0.3) and LiBaF3:Eu2+, and relate them to ITE-4f65d1 states mixing.

  7. A Linear Ion Trap with an Expanded Inscribed Diameter to Improve Optical Access for Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Stokes, Chris; Ferzoco, Alessandra

    2018-02-01

    We report a custom-geometry linear ion trap designed for fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions at ambient to cryogenic temperatures. Laser-induced fluorescence from trapped ions is collected from between the trapping rods, orthogonal to the excitation laser that runs along the axis of the linear ion trap. To increase optical access to the ion cloud, the diameter of the round trapping rods is 80% of the inscribed diameter, rather than the roughly 110% used to approximate purely quadrupolar electric fields. To encompass as much of the ion cloud as possible, the first collection optic has a 25.4 mm diameter and a numerical aperture of 0.6. The choice of geometry and collection optics yields 107 detected photons/s from trapped rhodamine 6G ions. The trap is coupled to a closed-cycle helium refrigerator, which in combination with two 50 Ohm heaters enables temperature control to below 25 K on the rod electrodes. The purpose of the instrument is to broaden the applicability of fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions to cases where photon emission is a minority relaxation pathway. Such studies are important to understand how the microenvironment of a chromophore influences excited state charge transfer processes.

  8. The hidden traps in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J S; Keeney, R L; Raiffa, H

    1998-01-01

    Bad decisions can often be traced back to the way the decisions were made--the alternatives were not clearly defined, the right information was not collected, the costs and benefits were not accurately weighted. But sometimes the fault lies not in the decision-making process but rather in the mind of the decision maker. The way the human brain works can sabotage the choices we make. John Hammond, Ralph Keeney, and Howard Raiffa examine eight psychological traps that are particularly likely to affect the way we make business decisions: The anchoring trap leads us to give disproportionate weight to the first information we receive. The statusquo trap biases us toward maintaining the current situation--even when better alternatives exist. The sunk-cost trap inclines us to perpetuate the mistakes of the past. The confirming-evidence trap leads us to seek out information supporting an existing predilection and to discount opposing information. The framing trap occurs when we misstate a problem, undermining the entire decision-making process. The overconfidence trap makes us overestimate the accuracy of our forecasts. The prudence trap leads us to be overcautious when we make estimates about uncertain events. And the recallability trap leads us to give undue weight to recent, dramatic events. The best way to avoid all the traps is awareness--forewarned is forearmed. But executives can also take other simple steps to protect themselves and their organizations from the various kinds of mental lapses. The authors show how to take action to ensure that important business decisions are sound and reliable.

  9. Use of Early Ripening Cultivars to Avoid Infestation and Mass Trapping to Manage Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericales: Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Emily; Koski, Carissa; Barsoian, Olivia; Faubert, Heather; Cowles, Richard S; Alm, Steven R

    2014-10-01

    Use of early ripening highbush blueberry cultivars to avoid infestation and mass trapping were evaluated for managing spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Fourteen highbush blueberry cultivars were sampled for spotted wing drosophila infestation. Most 'Earliblue', 'Bluetta', and 'Collins' fruit were harvested before spotted wing drosophila oviposition commenced, and so escaped injury. Most fruit from 'Bluejay', 'Blueray', and 'Bluehaven' were also harvested before the first week of August, after which spotted wing drosophila activity led to high levels of blueberry infestation. In a separate experiment, damage to cultivars was related to the week in which fruit were harvested, with greater damage to fruit observed as the season progressed. Attractant traps placed within blueberry bushes increased nearby berry infestation by 5%, irrespective of cultivar and harvest date. The significant linear reduction in infestation with increasing distance from the attractant trap suggests that traps are influencing fly behavior to at least 5.5 m. Insecticides applied to the exterior of traps, compared with untreated traps, revealed that only 10-30% of flies visiting traps enter the traps and drown. Low trap efficiency may jeopardize surrounding fruits by increasing local spotted wing drosophila activity. To protect crops, traps for mass trapping should be placed in a perimeter outside fruit fields and insecticides need to be applied to the surface of traps or on nearby fruit to function as an attract-and-kill strategy. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  10. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  11. Employability attributes and personality preferences of postgraduate business management students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Potgieter

    2013-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between employees’ employability attributes (as the Employability Attributes Scale measures them and their personality preferences (as the Myers-Briggs Type indicator, Form M, measures them. Motivation for the study: There seems to be a paucity of information about how employees’ personality preferences relate to their employability attributes in South Africa’s multicultural organisational context. Research design, approach and method: The authors conducted a quantitative survey. It involved a non-probability sample of 304 early career adults enrolled for an Honour’s degree in business management in an open distance learning higher education institution. They used correlational statistics and multiple regression analyses to analyse the data. Main findings: The authors observed a number of significant relationships between the participants’ personality preferences and their employability attributes. Practical/managerial implications: Career counsellors and human resource practitioners need to recognise how employees’ personality preferences influence their employability attributes in the management of their career development and employability. Contribution/value add: The findings add to the existing career literature on the career metacompetencies that influence employees’ employability. They also provide valuable information that organisations can use for career development support and counselling practices in the contemporary world of work.

  12. Soft-type trap-induced degradation of MoS2 field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hoon; Ryu, Min-Yeul; Lee, Kook Jin; Park, So Jeong; Choi, Jun Hee; Lee, Byung-Chul; Kim, Wungyeon; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2018-06-01

    The practical applicability of electronic devices is largely determined by the reliability of field effect transistors (FETs), necessitating constant searches for new and better-performing semiconductors. We investigated the stress-induced degradation of MoS2 multilayer FETs, revealing a steady decrease of drain current by 56% from the initial value after 30 min. The drain current recovers to the initial state when the transistor is completely turned off, indicating the roles of soft-traps in the apparent degradation. The noise current power spectrum follows the model of carrier number fluctuation–correlated mobility fluctuation (CNF–CMF) regardless of stress time. However, the reduction of the drain current was well fitted to the increase of the trap density based on the CNF–CMF model, attributing the presence of the soft-type traps of dielectric oxides to the degradation of the MoS2 FETs.

  13. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in tetrahedral amorphous carbon: carrier trapping versus electron-hole recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpene, E; Mancini, E; Dallera, C; Schwen, D; Ronning, C; Silvestri, S De

    2007-01-01

    We report the investigation of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by means of femtosecond time-resolved reflectivity. We estimated the electron-phonon relaxation time of a few hundred femtoseconds and we observed that under low optical excitation photo-generated carriers decay according to two distinct mechanisms attributed to trapping by defect states and direct electron-hole recombination. With high excitation, when photo-carrier and trap densities are comparable, a unique temporal evolution develops, as the time dependence of the trapping process becomes degenerate with the electron-hole recombination. This experimental evidence highlights the role of defects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics and is not specific to this particular form of carbon, but has general validity for amorphous and disordered semiconductors

  14. Improved light trapping in polymer solar cells by light diffusion ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Yu-Chiang; Lin, Yun-Hsuan; Lin, Ching-Yi; Li, Husan-De; Zhan, Fu-Min; Huang, Yu-Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Light trapping is an important issue for solar cells to increase optical path length and optical absorption. In this work, a light trapping structure was realized for polymer solar cells by utilizing light diffusion ink which is conventionally used in display backlighting. The light scattering particles in the ink cause the deflection of light, and the number of these particles coated on a glass substrate determines the light transmission and scattering characteristics. It was observed that the short-circuit current density did not decrease with decreasing transmittance, but it increased to a highest value at an optimized transmittance. This behaviour is attributed to the trapping of scattered light in the photoactive layer. (paper)

  15. Attribution of extreme weather and climate-related events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Peter A; Christidis, Nikolaos; Otto, Friederike E L; Sun, Ying; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Vautard, Robert; von Storch, Hans; Walton, Peter; Yiou, Pascal; Zwiers, Francis W

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather and climate-related events occur in a particular place, by definition, infrequently. It is therefore challenging to detect systematic changes in their occurrence given the relative shortness of observational records. However, there is a clear interest from outside the climate science community in the extent to which recent damaging extreme events can be linked to human-induced climate change or natural climate variability. Event attribution studies seek to determine to what extent anthropogenic climate change has altered the probability or magnitude of particular events. They have shown clear evidence for human influence having increased the probability of many extremely warm seasonal temperatures and reduced the probability of extremely cold seasonal temperatures in many parts of the world. The evidence for human influence on the probability of extreme precipitation events, droughts, and storms is more mixed. Although the science of event attribution has developed rapidly in recent years, geographical coverage of events remains patchy and based on the interests and capabilities of individual research groups. The development of operational event attribution would allow a more timely and methodical production of attribution assessments than currently obtained on an ad hoc basis. For event attribution assessments to be most useful, remaining scientific uncertainties need to be robustly assessed and the results clearly communicated. This requires the continuing development of methodologies to assess the reliability of event attribution results and further work to understand the potential utility of event attribution for stakeholder groups and decision makers. WIREs Clim Change 2016, 7:23-41. doi: 10.1002/wcc.380 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  16. Choice attributes in restaurant services: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derli Luís Angnes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are about one million of bars and restaurants that generate around six millions of jobs in Brazil. Among the most important reasons to choose a restaurant are the service attributes. Attributes are judgments the client makes about the performance and quality of the service provided. The identification of restaurant choice attributes is important in order to propose a higher value to services and to make marketing strategies. This article aims to identify the choice attributes of service quality in restaurants. The methodology employed was a qualitative exploratory study based on interviews made using the critical incident technique. It was used a sample of 72 restaurant customers. The content analysis technique was used to treat and analyze the critical incidents obtained in the interviews. The result obtained was a relation of 615 critical incidents, which after being analyzed generated a list of 27 attributes that influence customer’s choice and customer’s evaluation of service quality provided in restaurants. The identified attributes can subsidize and contribute to improvement of future research and studies in the academic environment, besides contributing for the management of restaurants business.

  17. The effect of iterative reconstruction on computed tomography assessment of emphysema, air trapping and airway dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mets, Onno M.; Willemink, Martin J.; Kort, Freek P.L. de; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de [UMC Utrecht, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 85500, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mol, Christian P. [Utrecht University Medical Center, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [Groningen University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Prokop, Mathias [Nijmegen University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    To determine the influence of iterative reconstruction (IR) on quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements of emphysema, air trapping, and airway wall and lumen dimensions, compared to filtered back-projection (FBP). Inspiratory and expiratory chest CTs of 75 patients (37 male, 38 female; mean age 64.0 {+-} 5.7 years) were reconstructed using FBP and IR. CT emphysema, CT air trapping and airway dimensions of a segmental bronchus were quantified using several commonly used quantification methods. The two algorithms were compared using the concordance correlation coefficient (p{sub c}) and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Only the E/I-ratio{sub MLD} as a measure of CT air trapping and airway dimensions showed no significant differences between the algorithms, whereas all CT emphysema and the other CT air trapping measures were significantly different at IR when compared to FBP (P < 0.001). The evaluated IR algorithm significantly influences quantitative CT measures in the assessment of emphysema and air trapping. However, the E/I-ratio{sub MLD} as a measure of CT air trapping, as well as the airway measurements, is unaffected by this reconstruction method. Quantitative CT of the lungs should be performed with careful attention to the CT protocol, especially when iterative reconstruction is introduced. (orig.)

  18. Influence of Co or Ce addition on the NOx storage and sulfur-resistance performance of the lean-burn NOx trap catalyst Pt/K/TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Zhiqiang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Applied Catalysis Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Meng, Ming, E-mail: mengm@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Applied Catalysis Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tsubaki, Noritatsu [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama city, Toyama 930 8555 (Japan); He Junjun; Wang Gang; Li Xingang; Zhou Xiaoyan [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Applied Catalysis Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The Pt/K/TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts promoted by Co or Ce were prepared by successive impregnation or mechanically mixing method. The influence of Co or Ce addition on the NOx storage and sulfur-resistance performance of the catalyst was investigated carefully. The techniques of XRD, FT-IR, in-situ DRIFTS, H{sub 2}-TPR and XPS were employed for catalyst characterization. The Co or Ce addition can greatly improve the NOx storage capacity of Pt/K/TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} due to the enhanced oxidation ability and the release of more K sites. Ce addition induces higher K/Ti atomic ratio and larger NOx storage capacity as compared with Co addition. After sulfation and regeneration, the promoted catalysts shows more or less decreased NSC than Pt/K/TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} due to the formation of more sulfates, especially for the Co-promoted catalysts, which possess better oxidation ability and facilitate the formation of large sulfates. The effect of Ce addition on Pt/K/TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} largely depends on the addition mode. The high oxidation ability and the high K/Ti ratio of the mechanically prepared Ce-promoted catalyst make it still possess considerable NOx storage capacity (NSC) of 142 {mu}mol/g after sulfation and regeneration. With the decrease of sulfur content in fuels, the Co- and Ce-promoted catalysts possessing large NOx storage capacity, will be applicable to the purification of lean-burn NOx.

  19. Influence of defects on diamond detection properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromson, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    This work focuses on the study of the influence of defects on the detection properties of diamond. Devices are fabricated using natural as well as synthetic diamond samples grown using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Optical studies with infrared and Raman spectrometry are used to characterise the material properties as well as thermoluminescence and thermally stimulated current measurements. These thermally stimulated analyses reveal the presence of several trapping levels with emission temperatures below or near room temperature as well as an important level near 550 K. The influence of these defects on the alpha and X-ray detector responses is studied as a function of the initial state of the detectors (thermal treatment, irradiation) and of the measurement conditions (time, temperature). The results show a significant correlation between the charged state of traps, namely filled or empty and the response of the detectors. It appears that filling and emptying the traps respectively enhances the sensitivity and stability of detection devices to be used at room temperature and decreases the detection properties at higher temperature. Localised measurements are also used to study the spatial inhomogeneity of natural and CVD diamond samples from the 2D mapping of the detector responses. Non uniformity are attributed to a non-isotropic distribution of defects in natural diamonds. By comparing the detector responses to the topographical map of CVD samples a correlation appears between grains and grain boundaries with the variation of the detector sensitivity. Devices fabricated for detection applications with CVD samples are presented and namely for the monitoring and profiling of synchrotron beams as well as dose rate measurements in harsh environments. (author) [fr

  20. Attributes and descriptors for building performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopikrishnan

    2017-12-01

    In order to obtain the right feedback in levels of satisfaction with respect to these attributes, there is a need to have appropriate descriptors for incorporation in a survey instrument. This paper identifies attributes that indicate building performance and provides simple description of these attributes based on which items can be generated for a questionnaire. Such items can enable any user/occupant to easily understand the characteristics of these attributes and offer an objective feedback during questionnaire survey.

  1. Deep cooling of optically trapped atoms implemented by magnetic levitation without transverse confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Zhou, Tianwei; Zhai, Yueyang; Xiang, Jinggang; Luan, Tian; Huang, Qi; Yang, Shifeng; Xiong, Wei; Chen, Xuzong

    2017-05-01

    We report a setup for the deep cooling of atoms in an optical trap. The deep cooling is implemented by eliminating the influence of gravity using specially constructed magnetic coils. Compared to the conventional method of generating a magnetic levitating force, the lower trap frequency achieved in our setup provides a lower limit of temperature and more freedoms to Bose gases with a simpler solution. A final temperature as low as ˜ 6 nK is achieved in the optical trap, and the atomic density is decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude during the second stage of evaporative cooling. This deep cooling of optically trapped atoms holds promise for many applications, such as atomic interferometers, atomic gyroscopes, and magnetometers, as well as many basic scientific research directions, such as quantum simulations and atom optics.

  2. I think, therefore I am: a twin study of attributional style in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Eley, Thalia C

    2006-07-01

    Parenting factors may be important to the development of attributional style in adolescence, which in turn relates to depression symptoms. These relationships have mainly been considered in terms of social risk mechanisms, and little is known about the role of genetic influences. Self-reported measures of attributional style, depression symptoms and parental disciplinary styles were administered to over 1300 adolescent twin and sibling pairs. Model-fitting techniques were used to examine the role of genetic and environmental influences. Moderate genetic influences on attributional style were demonstrated, and furthermore, its association with depression reflected considerable genetic effects. Familial factors were implicated in the association between attributional style and punitive parenting, although genetic from shared environmental causes could not be distinguished. Our results demonstrate that attributional style is influenced by genetic, as well as social factors. Implications for aetiological pathways integrating cognitive, genetic and social factors on adolescent depression are discussed.

  3. Culturally Responsive: Exploring the Attributes of Islamic Health Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohd Khairie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the attributes (basis and values of faith-based communication strategy on health communication. Eight series of focus group studies on Muslim community were conducted to gather the data. The finding makes abundantly clear that the tawhidic (the belief in Oneness of God conception significantly determine the effectiveness of Islamic communication message. In addition, there were another six themes that contributes to Islamic health communication attributes which may influence the receiver’s attitudes and behaviours. The insights of this paper may contribute to the further development of health promotion strategies for Muslims community.

  4. Laser trapping of radioactive francium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, G.D.; Orozco, L.A.; Simsarian, J.E.; Shi, W.; Zhao, W.Z.

    1997-01-01

    The difficult problem of quickly slowing and cooling nuclear reaction products so that they can be injected into a laser trap has been solved by several groups and there are now strong efforts to work with the trapped atoms. The atoms are confined in the trap to a small spatial volume of the order of 1 mm 3 , but more importantly, they are also confined in velocity, which makes them an ideal sample for spectroscopic measurements with other lasers. We have recently trapped radioactive francium and have embarked on a program to further study the francium atom as a prelude to a test of the Standard Model analogous to previous work with Cs. Our sample of 3 min 210 Fr now contains over 20 000 atoms, and is readily visible with an ordinary TV camera. We work on-line with the accelerator, and continuously load the trap to replace losses due to decay and collisions with background gas. We have maintained a sample of Fr atoms in the trap for over 10 hours, with occasional adjustment of the trapping laser frequency to account for drifts. The proposed test of the Standard Model will require accurate calculation of its atomic properties. We are currently testing these calculations by measuring other predicted quantities. (orig.)

  5. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavis Forrester

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an open data standard for storing and sharing camera trap data, developed by experts from a variety of organizations. The standard captures information necessary to share data between projects and offers a foundation for collecting the more detailed data needed for advanced analysis. The data standard captures information about study design, the type of camera used, and the location and species names for all detections in a standardized way. This information is critical for accurately assessing results from individual camera trapping projects and for combining data from multiple studies for meta-analysis. This data standard is an important step in aligning camera trapping surveys with best practices in data-intensive science. Ecology is moving rapidly into the realm of big data, and central data repositories are becoming a critical tool and are emerging for camera trap data. This data standard will help researchers standardize data terms, align past data to new repositories, and provide a framework for utilizing data across repositories and research projects to advance animal ecology and conservation.

  6. Single-molecule dynamics in nanofabricated traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam

    2009-03-01

    The Anti-Brownian Electrokinetic trap (ABEL trap) provides a means to immobilize a single fluorescent molecule in solution, without surface attachment chemistry. The ABEL trap works by tracking the Brownian motion of a single molecule, and applying feedback electric fields to induce an electrokinetic motion that approximately cancels the Brownian motion. We present a new design for the ABEL trap that allows smaller molecules to be trapped and more information to be extracted from the dynamics of a single molecule than was previously possible. In particular, we present strategies for extracting dynamically fluctuating mobilities and diffusion coefficients, as a means to probe dynamic changes in molecular charge and shape. If one trapped molecule is good, many trapped molecules are better. An array of single molecules in solution, each immobilized without surface attachment chemistry, provides an ideal test-bed for single-molecule analyses of intramolecular dynamics and intermolecular interactions. We present a technology for creating such an array, using a fused silica plate with nanofabricated dimples and a removable cover for sealing single molecules within the dimples. With this device one can watch the shape fluctuations of single molecules of DNA or study cooperative interactions in weakly associating protein complexes.

  7. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J

    2013-01-02

    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers.

  8. Dependence of the trapping regions with the radial electric field in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the electric field upon the radial and angular distributions of trapped ions of energies between 0.1 and 1 keV in TJ-II is analysed. Near the magnetic axis, with moderate electric fields, the trapped fraction increases for negative potentials and decreases for positive ones. Nevertheless for high potentials this decreasing for positive sign can be reversed. Near the plasma periphery trapping is affected only for high potentials and always increases, independently of the potential sign. The sensibility to negative potentials is always higher than for the positive ones. These trapping changes are almost uniform in poloidal and toroidal angular profiles and affect mainly to marginally trapped or passing particles. Nevertheless for high potentials or energie the resonances modify this behaviour and inhibit the increasing of trapping in the outer side or the torus. For the locally trapped population fraction a steady decrease with the potential appears independently of the sign, except very near the magnetic axis or the plasma periphery. The global result of all these partial effects is the presence of a wide trapping minimum for moderate positive electric potential, potential that increases with the ion energy as well as a strong increase for high electric fields of either sign, more visible for negative potentials and high energies. For the locally trapped population a steady decrease with potential appears independently of the sign. All these effects can be explained by the combined action of the appearance and elimination of radial magnetic barriers and of the electric field resonances. (Author)

  9. Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Schmidt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.

  10. Laser trapping of 21Na atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian.

    1994-09-01

    This thesis describes an experiment in which about four thousand radioactive 21 Na (t l/2 = 22 sec) atoms were trapped in a magneto-optical trap with laser beams. Trapped 21 Na atoms can be used as a beta source in a precision measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter of the decay of 21 Na → 21 Ne + Β + + v e , which is a promising way to search for an anomalous right-handed current coupling in charged weak interactions. Although the number o trapped atoms that we have achieved is still about two orders of magnitude lower than what is needed to conduct a measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter at 1% of precision level, the result of this experiment proved the feasibility of trapping short-lived radioactive atoms. In this experiment, 21 Na atoms were produced by bombarding 24 Mg with protons of 25 MeV at the 88 in. Cyclotron of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A few recently developed techniques of laser manipulation of neutral atoms were applied in this experiment. The 21 Na atoms emerging from a heated oven were first transversely cooled. As a result, the on-axis atomic beam intensity was increased by a factor of 16. The atoms in the beam were then slowed down from thermal speed by applying Zeeman-tuned slowing technique, and subsequently loaded into a magneto-optical trap at the end of the slowing path. The last two chapters of this thesis present two studies on the magneto-optical trap of sodium atoms. In particular, the mechanisms of magneto-optical traps at various laser frequencies and the collisional loss mechanisms of these traps were examined

  11. An atom trap relying on optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyer, P.; Lemonde, P.; Ben Dahan, M.; Michaud, A.; Salomon, C.; Dalibard, J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated a new radiation pressure trap which relies on optical pumping and does not require any magnetic field. It employs six circularly polarized divergent beams and works on the red of a J g →J e = J g + 1 atomic transition with J g ≥1/2. We have demonstrated this trap with cesium atoms from a vapour cell using the 852 nm J g = 4→J e = 5 resonance transition. The trap contained up to 3.10 7 atoms in a cloud of 1/√e radius of 330 μm. (orig.)

  12. Phase-controlled coherent population trapping in superconducting quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guang-Ling; Wang Yi-Ping; Chen Ai-Xi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the influences of the-applied-field phases and amplitudes on the coherent population trapping behavior in superconducting quantum circuits. Based on the interactions of the microwave fields with a single Δ-type three-level fluxonium qubit, the coherent population trapping could be obtainable and it is very sensitive to the relative phase and amplitudes of the applied fields. When the relative phase is tuned to 0 or π, the maximal atomic coherence is present and coherent population trapping occurs. While for the choice of π/2, the atomic coherence becomes weak. Meanwhile, for the fixed relative phase π/2, the value of coherence would decrease with the increase of Rabi frequency of the external field coupled with two lower levels. The responsible physical mechanism is quantum interference induced by the control fields, which is indicated in the dressed-state representation. The microwave coherent phenomenon is present in our scheme, which will have potential applications in optical communication and nonlinear optics in solid-state devices. (paper)

  13. Regression to Causality : Regression-style presentation influences causal attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordacconi, Mats Joe; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2014-01-01

    of equivalent results presented as either regression models or as a test of two sample means. Our experiment shows that the subjects who were presented with results as estimates from a regression model were more inclined to interpret these results causally. Our experiment implies that scholars using regression...... models – one of the primary vehicles for analyzing statistical results in political science – encourage causal interpretation. Specifically, we demonstrate that presenting observational results in a regression model, rather than as a simple comparison of means, makes causal interpretation of the results...... more likely. Our experiment drew on a sample of 235 university students from three different social science degree programs (political science, sociology and economics), all of whom had received substantial training in statistics. The subjects were asked to compare and evaluate the validity...

  14. Detecting and attributing an anthropogenic influence on climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santer, B D; Taylor, K E [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore (United States); Jones, P D [East Anglia Univ. (United States). Climatic Research Unit; Wigley, T M.L. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder (United States); Penner, J E [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore (United States). Global Climate Research Div.; Cubasch, U [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    A pattern correlation statistic is used, R(t), to compare the observed pattern temperature change with that predicted by the equilibrium model results with carbon dioxide and sulphate aerosols forcing. The results indicate that in JJA and SON the pattern of changes is showing similarities with the observations. The significance of the trends in R(t) is assessed, using the century-long control integrations of two coupled ocean atmosphere GCMs. Although results are robust to both model integrations there are doubts whether such models adequately represent the full range of natural variability on the century timescale when compared with paleoclimatic data. (author)

  15. Influence of environmental variations on physiological attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High degree of adaptability, wide range of climatic conditions, high photosynthetic capacity, maximum stomatal conductance and efficient hydraulic mechanism allow sunflower crop to be productive in broad range of environments. Combined effects of environmental factors not only modify plant phenology but also cause ...

  16. Project manager attributes influencing project success in the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    success criteria for building projects in Ghana and concluded that the “current and ... qualifications, profession, leadership style and project team ... and expectations of project management competence between ... 1.d. Sense of teamwork ...

  17. Influence of environmental variations on physiological attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... tors, those partitioned the photosynthates in achenes. Variation in climatic factors affects photosynthesis and transpiration in different ways on crop plant (Abbate et al., 2004; Baydar and Erbas, 2005). In most plants, as a direct response to temperature, the photosynthetic rate is low at extreme low and high ...

  18. Detecting and attributing an anthropogenic influence on climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santer, B.D.; Taylor, K.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore (United States); Jones, P.D. [East Anglia Univ. (United States). Climatic Research Unit; Wigley, T.M.L. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder (United States); Penner, J.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore (United States). Global Climate Research Div.; Cubasch, U. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    A pattern correlation statistic is used, R(t), to compare the observed pattern temperature change with that predicted by the equilibrium model results with carbon dioxide and sulphate aerosols forcing. The results indicate that in JJA and SON the pattern of changes is showing similarities with the observations. The significance of the trends in R(t) is assessed, using the century-long control integrations of two coupled ocean atmosphere GCMs. Although results are robust to both model integrations there are doubts whether such models adequately represent the full range of natural variability on the century timescale when compared with paleoclimatic data. (author)

  19. Medfly female attractant trapping studies in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeronimo, F.; Rendon, P.; Villatoro, C.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted from 1994 - 1998 to test the attractiveness of combinations of food-based chemicals for C. capitata (medfly) in Guatemala. Most studies were done in coffee. The 1995 studies, using the FA-2 attractants (ammonium acetate and putrescine) showed that this combination was attractive for females and had potential for use in conjunction with a SIT program. The 1996 studies at three elevations demonstrated that, in general, these attractants, when used in either the Open Bottom Dry Trap (OBDT), Closed Bottom Dry Trap (CBDT), or International Pheromone's McPhail Trap (IPMT) performed better than the Jumbo McPhail trap (JMT) baited with NuLure and borax (NU+B) for capture of feral females. At the high elevation (1400 m), the IPMT with FA-2 and OBDT with FA-2 were best; at the middle elevation (1100 m), the ORDT, IPMT, and CBDT with FA-2 were best; and at low elevations (659 m), the IPMT with FA-2, JMT with NU+B and ORDT with FA-2 were equal in performance. At the middle elevation, using sterile flies, the OBDT with FA-2 worked best. When experiments were carried out in pear, the traps using the FA-2 attractants captured more female flies than the JMT, NU+B, but not significantly more. During the 1997 trials, a third component, trimethylamine was added to the two component lure (FA-3). This attractant was tested in a number of locally produced traps using 2 I soft drink bottles with different color bottoms. The dry versions of the traps contained a yellow sticky insert. All study sites were at low elevation 600 - 650 m, in coffee, testing both sterile and feral flies. With the feral flies during the first phase of the study at finca San Carlos, there were no significant differences between treatments, at finca San Luis, the clear local trap with sticky insert and the green local trap with sticky insert were best, and at finca Valapraiso, the green local trap with yellow sticky insert and yellow local trap with sticky insert captured more flies

  20. An open-access platform for camera-trapping data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario César Lavariega

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In southern Mexico, local communities have been playing important roles in the design and collection of wildlife data through camera-trapping in community-based monitoring of biodiversity projects. However, the methods used to store the data have limited their use in matters of decision-making and research. Thus, we present the Platform for Community-based Monitoring of Biodiversity (PCMB, a repository, which allows storage, visualization, and downloading of photographs captured by community-based monitoring of biodiversity projects in protected areas of southern Mexico. The platform was developed using agile software development with extensive interaction between computer scientists and biologists. System development included gathering data, design, built, database and attributes creation, and quality control. The PCMB currently contains 28,180 images of 6478 animals (69.4% mammals and 30.3% birds. Of the 32 species of mammals recorded in 18 PA since 2012, approximately a quarter of all photographs were of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Platforms permitting access to camera-trapping data are a valuable step in opening access to data of biodiversity; the PCMB is a practical new tool for wildlife management and research with data generated through local participation. Thus, this work encourages research on the data generated through the community-based monitoring of biodiversity projects in protected areas, to provide an important information infrastructure for effective management and conservation of wildlife.

  1. BOGDAŁÓW SEDIMENT TRAP OF DIRTY WATERS AS AN ECO-HYDROLOGICAL OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Gilewska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sediment traps of dirty waters are, generally speaking, temporary hydrotechnical constructions associated with the purification of mine waters from mineral-organic suspensions. Once coal mining is finished and artificial supplies are cut off, such sediment traps – depending on hydrological and hydrotechnical conditions – undergo drainage or are utilised as water reservoirs. Drained sediment traps most commonly go through a period of self-generated reclamation – renaturalisation and become, similarly to water reservoirs, eco-hydrological objects. Bearing in mind the fact that the role of sediment traps is cleaning dirty waters, it seemed advisable to recognise the properties of sediments accumulated in them and to assess their impact on the arising plant communities. Two years after its closure, the entire area of the sediment trap (16 ha was subjected to soil science and phytosociological investigation. Differentiated moisture content and soil conditions of the sediment tank surface were favourable for the settlement of various species characterised by differing site requirements which conferred a completely new quality to this post-industrial land and its biodiversity. The invasion of herbaceous and woody plants indicates that despite the function of sediment tank played earlier in the brown coalmine infrastructure, the material which was accumulated in it provided a favourable habitat for the development of plant cover. It may be assumed that it can be attributed to a significant admixture of brown coal.

  2. Spin Trapping Radicals from Lipid Oxidation in Liposomes in the Presence of Flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, N.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions of four structurally related flavonoids - quercetin, rutin, morin and catechin with peroxyl radicals using liposome/N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) and liposome -(4-pyridyl-N-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN)-spin trap systems have been studied through spin trapping ESR. Results obtained were different from that of conjugated diene analysis experiments, where lag phases indicated radical scavenging activity of all the flavonoids. No clear lag phase was observed in ESR experiments under same conditions. In the presence of flavonoids decreasing ESR signals of spin adducts in PBN, while no or negligibly smaller spin adducts with POBN system were observed which may be attributed to the possibility that spin traps interacted with free radicals. Experiments with buffer/spin trap systems without liposome revealed that spin adducts were only stable with catechin and destroyed by quercetin, rutin and morin in buffer/spin trap systems. These results further assured that quercetin, rutin and morin not only interacted with peroxyl radicals but also with spin adducts. (author)

  3. Electronic relaxation of deep bulk trap and interface state in ZnO ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yan; Li Sheng-Tao; Ding Can; Cheng Peng-Fei

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the electronic relaxation of deep bulk trap and interface state in ZnO ceramics based on dielectric spectra measured in a wide range of temperature, frequency and bias, in addition to the steady state response. It discusses the nature of net current flowing over the barrier affected by interface state, and then obtains temperature-dependent barrier height by approximate calculation from steady I—V (current—voltage) characteristics. Additional conductance and capacitance arising from deep bulk trap relaxation are calculated based on the displacement of the cross point between deep bulk trap and Fermi level under small AC signal. From the resonances due to deep bulk trap relaxation on dielectric spectra, the activation energies are obtained as 0.22 eV and 0.35 eV, which are consistent with the electronic levels of the main defect interstitial Zn and vacancy oxygen in the depletion layer. Under moderate bias, another resonance due to interface relaxation is shown on the dielectric spectra. The DC-like conductance is also observed in high temperature region on dielectric spectra, and the activation energy is much smaller than the barrier height in steady state condition, which is attributed to the displacement current coming from the shallow bulk trap relaxation or other factors. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  4. Private information alone can trigger trapping of ant colonies in local feeding optima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Salmane, Anete K; Klampfleuthner, Felicia A M; Heinze, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Ant colonies are famous for using trail pheromones to make collective decisions. Trail pheromone systems are characterised by positive feedback, which results in rapid collective decision making. However, in an iconic experiment, ants were shown to become 'trapped' in exploiting a poor food source, if it was discovered earlier. This has conventionally been explained by the established pheromone trail becoming too strong for new trails to compete. However, many social insects have a well-developed memory, and private information often overrules conflicting social information. Thus, route memory could also explain this collective 'trapping' effect. Here, we disentangled the effects of social and private information in two 'trapping' experiments: one in which ants were presented with a good and a poor food source, and one in which ants were presented with a long and a short path to the same food source. We found that private information is sufficient to trigger trapping in selecting the poorer of two food sources, and may be sufficient to cause it altogether. Memories did not trigger trapping in the shortest path experiment, probably because sufficiently detailed memories did not form. The fact that collective decisions can be triggered by private information alone may require other collective patterns previously attributed solely to social information use to be reconsidered. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Experimental demonstration and visual observation of dust trapping in an electron storage ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Tanimoto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sudden decreases in the beam lifetime, which are attributed to the dust trappings, sometimes occur at the electron storage ring Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR. Since these dust events cause difficulties in user operations, we have been carefully observing this phenomenon for many years. Our observations indicated that the dust trappings could be caused by electric discharges in vacuum ducts. In order to demonstrate this hypothesis experimentally, we designed a new vacuum device that intentionally generates electric discharges and installed it in PF-AR. Using this device, we could repeatedly induce sudden decreases in the beam lifetime because of the generated electric discharge. We also detected decreases in the beam lifetime caused by mechanical movement of the electrodes in the device. Moreover, we could visually observe the dust trapping phenomenon; the trapped dust particle was observed by two video cameras and appeared as a luminous body that resembled a shooting star. This was the first direct observation of a luminous dust particle trapped by the electron beam.

  6. Estimating Preferences for Wood Products with Environmental Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaji Sakagami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation and forest degradation are serious problems for the global environment; as a result, sustainable forest management and forest certification have become important. In this study, using a choice experiment, we investigated, on the demand side, consumers’ preferences and willingness to pay (WTP for certified wood products that attempt to address public concerns regarding deforestation and forest degradation. Specifically, we investigated how estimates of consumers’ preferences and WTP were influenced by product attributes such as quality, certification, and price. To the authors’ knowledge, few studies of this kind have been conducted, particularly in Japan. The study’s main finding was that Japanese consumers were willing to pay a premium for certified wood products with attributes related to sustainable forest management; most preferred were products with attributes related to preserving biodiversity. These findings indicate that consumers are willing to pay a premium for products that contribute to solving the problems of deforestation and forest degradation.

  7. Sex differences in perceived attributes of computer-mediated communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B

    2003-02-01

    Researchers have pointed to the influence of sex with respect to the attributes of the computer medium. The author elaborates upon possible sex differences in reference to perceived attributes of the computer medium, i.e., Richness, Accessibility, Velocity, Interactivity, Plasticity, and Immediacy. Data from both a pilot and main study are reported and interpreted. The pilot study included 78 participants, while the main study involved 211. The independent samples were composed of Communication Studies students enrolled at two Mid-Atlantic universities. Nine items with anchors of 1: strongly disagree and 7: strongly agree were taken from the 2000 Computer Mediated Communication Competence Scale of Spitzberg to assess the attributes of computer-mediated interaction. The results indicate that women scored higher than men on perceptions of Accessibility, Velocity, Interactivity, and Immediacy.

  8. Observation of String Ion Cloud in a Linear RF Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramaki, M.; Kameyama, S.; Kono, A.; Sakawa, Y.; Shoji, T.

    2009-01-01

    We aim to study the effect of the long-range correlation among ions on their statistical characteristics using ion clouds confined in a linear rf ion trap. It is important to keep the ion cloud in one dimension, where the influence of the rf heating is negligible, for the detailed research on the effect of the Coulomb interaction on the statistical characteristics of the ion cloud. In this paper, the method of the generation of an ideal ion string is proposed. We also briefly report the performances of our experimental equipment and the preliminary results of generation of ideal 1D ion cloud.

  9. Dissipative trapped ion instability in PLT and INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, A.; Shimizu, K.; Ogasawara, M.

    1983-06-01

    The generation conditions of the dissipative trapped ion instability (DTII) are investigated for the parameters of PLT and INTOR. The finite banana width effect is taken into account in the dispersion relation. The conditions are greatly influenced by the impurities. Though the plasmas are well in the banana regime in bothe PLT and INTOR, DTII is not excited for Zsub(eff) = 3.5, and excited but it has negative growth rate for Zsub(eff) = 1.5, where Zsub(eff) is the effective charge number. Only for the pure case (Zsub(eff) = 1.0), the growth rate has small positive value in INTOR. (author)

  10. Self-generated zonal flows in the plasma turbulence driven by trapped-ion and trapped-electron instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.; Collard, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS - Université de Lorraine, 54 506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width and electron temperature. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. First, an analytical equation giving the predicted level of zonal flows is derived from the quasi-neutrality equation of our model, as a function of the density fluctuation levels and the banana widths. Then, the influence of the banana width on the number of zonal flows occurring in the system is studied using the gyrokinetic code. Finally, the impact of the temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i} on the reduction of zonal flows is shown and a close link is highlighted between reduction and different gyro-and-bounce-average ion and electron density fluctuation levels. This reduction is found to be due to the amplitudes of gyro-and-bounce-average density perturbations n{sub e} and n{sub i} gradually becoming closer, which is in agreement with the analytical results given by the quasi-neutrality equation.

  11. Separation of effects of oxide-trapped charge and interface-trapped charge on mobility in irradiated power MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupac, D.; Galloway, K.F.; Khosropour, P.; Anderson, S.R.; Schrimpf, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    An effective approach to separating the effects of oxide-trapped charge and interface-trapped charge on mobility degradation in irradiated MOSFETs is demonstrated. It is based on analyzing mobility data sets which have different functional relationships between the radiation-induced-oxide-trapped charge and interface-trapped charge. Separation of effects of oxide-trapped charge and interface-trapped charge is possible only if these two trapped charge components are not linearly dependent. A significant contribution of oxide-trapped charge to mobility degradation is demonstrated and quantified

  12. Radionuclide trap for liquid metal cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1978-10-01

    At liquid metal cooled reactor operating temperatures, radioactive corrosion product transport and deposition in the primary system will be sufficiently high to limit access time for maintenance of system components. A radionuclide trap has been developed to aid in controlling radioactivity transport. This is a device which is located above the reactor core and which acts as a getter, physically immobilizing radioactive corrosion products, particularly 54 Mn. Nickel is the getter material used. It is most effective at temperatures above 450 0 C and effectiveness increases with increasing temperature. Prototype traps have been tested in sodium loops for 40,000 hours at reactor primary temperatures and sodium velocities. Several possible in-reactor trap sites were considered but a location within the top of each driver assembly was chosen as the most convenient and effective. In this position the trap is changed each time fuel is changed

  13. Comments on 'Generation of Deccan Trap magmas'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging)1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Comments on 'Generation of Deccan Trap magmas' by Gautam Sen ... Department of Geology & Geophysics, School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology (SOEST), University of .... Mahoney J J, Sheth H C, Chandrasekharan D and Peng Z.

  14. AEgIS antihydrogen production trap

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    During technical stop 2017 the AEgIS experiment was open for upgrades and maintenance. We had the opportunity to take some 360 images from inside and see where antiprotons are ¨trapped¨ and anti-Hydrogen produced.

  15. Vapour trap development and operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansing, W.; Kirchner, G.; Menck, J.

    1977-01-01

    Sodium aerosols have the unpleasant characteristic that they deposit at places with low temperature level. This effect can be utilized when sodium aerosols are to be trapped at places which are determined beforehand. Thus vapour traps were developed which can filter sodium vapour from the cover gas. By this means the necessity was eliminated to heat all gas lines and gas systems with trace heaters just as all sodium lines are heated. It was of special interest for the INTERATOM to develop vapour traps which must not be changed or cleaned after a certain limited operating period. The vapour traps were supposed to enable maintenance free operation, i.e. they were to operate 'self cleaning'

  16. ATRAP on the way to trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Grzonka, D; Gabrielse, G; Goldenbaum, F; Hänsch, T W; Hessels, E A; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Oelert, W; Pittner, H; Sefzick, T; Speck, A; Storry, C H; Walz, J; Zhang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aims for a test of the CPT invariance by a high precision comparison of the 1s‐2s transition in the hydrogen and the antihydrogen atom. Antihydrogen production is routinely operated at ATRAP and detailed studies have been performed in order to optimize the production efficiency of useful antihydrogen. The shape parameters of the antiproton and positron clouds, the n‐state distribution of the produced Rydberg antihydrogen atoms and the antihydrogen velocity have been studied. Furthermore an alternative method of laser controlled antihydrogen production was successfully applied. For high precision measurements of atomic transitions cold antihydrogen in the ground state is required which must be trapped due to the low number of available antihydrogen atoms compared to the cold hydrogen beam used for hydrogen spectroscopy. To ensure a reasonable antihydrogen trapping efficiency a magnetic trap has to be superposed the nested Penning trap. First trappi...

  17. Defect trapping of deuterium implanted in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Y.; Kakeno, M.; Yamada, K.; Hioki, T.; Kawamoto, J.

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of deuterium implanted in Al was studied by the D( 3 He,p) 4 He and the D(d,p)T nuclear reactions. Changes of the depth profiles of the deuterium after heat treatments indicated that the implanted deuterium was trapped by the defect produced during the deuterium implantation and the release probability of the trapped deuterium increased as the specimen temperature was raised. Assuming a thermal equilibrium locally in the region of high defect concentration, the trapping energy of deuterium in Al was determined to be 0.12eV. Since the release probability for the single crystal was considerably larger than that for the polycrystal specimens, the deuterium was considered to be strongly trapped in the grain boundaries. Distributions of displaced Al atoms and the recovery of the lattice damage by annealing were measured by the channelling technique. (author)

  18. Curious behavior of optically trapped neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, C.; Walker, T.; Sesko, D.; Monroe, C.

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the behavior of clouds of neutral atoms contained in a spontaneous force optical trap. Because of the low temperatures of the atoms ( 5 atoms. These include the expansion of the cloud as the number is increased and dramatic changes in the distribution of the atoms at higher numbers. We can explain much of the collective behavior using a simple model that includes a 1/r 2 force between the atoms arising from the multiple scattering of photons. Finally, we discuss the optical trapping of atoms directly from a low pressure vapor in a small glass cell. We have used these optically trapped atoms to load a magnetostatic trap in the same cell. This provided a high density sample of atoms with a temperature of less than 2 μK

  19. Whistler wave trapping in a density crest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, H.; Niki, H.; Inutake, M.; Takeda, S.

    1979-11-01

    The linear trapping process of whistler waves in a field-aligned density crest is investigated theoretically and experimentally below ω = ωsub(c)/2 (half gyrofrequency). The conditions of the crest trapping are derived in terms of the frequency ω/ωsub(c), the incident wave-normal angle theta sub(i), and the density ratio n sub(i)/n sub(o), where n sub(i) and n sub(o) denote the density at the incident point and that at the ridge, respectively. The oscillation length of the trapped ray path is calculated for a parabolic density profile. The experiment on antenna-excited whistler wave has been performed in a large magnetized plasma with the density crest. The phase and amplitude profile of the whistler wave is measured along and across the crest. The measurement has verified characteristic behaviors of the crest trapping. (author)

  20. Methods in mooring deep sea sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.; Fernando, V.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Janakiraman, G.

    The experience gained during the process of deployment and retrieval of nearly 39 sets of deep sea sediment trap moorings on various ships like FS Sonne, ORV Sagarkanya and DSV Nand Rachit are outlined. The various problems encountered...