WorldWideScience

Sample records for transversely inhomogeneous medium

  1. Effects of medium and gain inhomogeneities in unstable optical resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, C; Felsen, L B

    1977-04-01

    A previously formulated waveguide analysis of empty unstable optical resonators with finite mirrors is generalized to accommodate active media with transverse variations of refractive index and gain. The theory is developed for parallel plane mirrors and arbitrary medium inhomogeneities and is then applied to special profiles for which explicit analytical solutions can be obtained. Emphasis is placed on modifications, due to the active medium, of the edge-diffraction-dominated resonant mode behavior. It is found that even slight variations in refractive index can exert a marked influence on the resonant mode characteristics. These conclusions remain applicable also for curved mirror geometries.

  2. Traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with an inhomogeneous background

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2011-05-01

    A transversely isotropic (TI) model with a tilted symmetry axis is regarded as one of the most effective approximations to the Earth subsurface, especially for imaging purposes. However, we commonly utilize this model by setting the axis of symmetry normal to the reflector. This assumption may be accurate in many places, but deviations from this assumption will cause errors in the wavefield description. Using perturbation theory and Taylor\\'s series, I expand the solutions of the eikonal equation for 2D TI media with respect to the independent parameter θ, the angle the tilt of the axis of symmetry makes with the vertical, in a generally inhomogeneous TI background with a vertical axis of symmetry. I do an additional expansion in terms of the independent (anellipticity) parameter in a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. These new TI traveltime solutions are given by expansions in and θ with coefficients extracted from solving linear first-order partial differential equations. Pade approximations are used to enhance the accuracy of the representation by predicting the behavior of the higher-order terms of the expansion. A simplification of the expansion for homogenous media provides nonhyperbolic moveout descriptions of the traveltime for TI models that are more accurate than other recently derived approximations. In addition, for 3D media, I develop traveltime approximations using Taylor\\'s series type of expansions in the azimuth of the axis of symmetry. The coefficients of all these expansions can also provide us with the medium sensitivity gradients (Jacobian) for nonlinear tomographic-based inversion for the tilt in the symmetry axis. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S.S., E-mail: Shoukryhassan@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Manchester Metropolitan University, Dept. of Computing, Maths. and Digital Technology, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Sharaby, Y.A., E-mail: Yasser_Sharaby@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Ali, M.F.M., E-mail: dr.mona.fathy@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics: Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: ajoshi@eiu.edu [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.

  4. Traveltime approximations for inhomogeneous transversely isotropic media with a horizontal symmetry axis

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-04-30

    Traveltime information is crucial for parameter estimation, especially if the medium is described by a set of anisotropy parameters. We can efficiently estimate these parameters if we are able to relate them analytically to traveltimes, which is generally hard to do in inhomogeneous media. I develop traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with a horizontal symmetry axis (HTI) as simplified and even linear functions of the anisotropy parameters. This is accomplished by perturbing the solution of the HTI eikonal equation with respect to the anellipticity parameter, η and the azimuth of the symmetry axis (typically associated with the fracture direction) from a generally inhomogeneous, elliptically anisotropic background medium. Such a perturbation is convenient since the elliptically anisotropic information might be obtained from well velocities in HTI media. Thus, we scan for only η and the symmetry-axis azimuth. The resulting approximations can provide a reasonably accurate analytical description of the traveltime in a homogenous background compared to other published moveout equations. They also help extend the inhomogenous background isotropic or elliptically anisotropic models to an HTI one with a smoothly variable η and symmetry-axis azimuth. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  5. On accretion from an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.E.; Pringle, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Hypersonic accretion flow in two dimensions from an infinite medium which contains a small density and/or velocity gradient is considered. To first order in rsub(a)/h, where rsub(a) is the accretion radius and h the scale of the gradient, the accretion rate is unaffected and the accreted angular momentum is zero. Thus previous estimates of the amount of angular momentum accreted may severely overestimate the actual value. (author)

  6. ON ELECTROSTATIC ANALOGY OF MAGNETOSTATIC FIELD IN INHOMOGENEOUS MAGNETIZED MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Mikhailov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The application in electrostatic analogy of magnetostatics for inhomogeneous magnetized media of two known magnetization models. Methodology. A comparison of basic equations and formulas of electrostatic and magnetostatic field in immoveable isotropic inhomogeneous polarized medium for dipole model and the magnetization model by molecular currents is made. The value-analogues for dipole model of magnetization are established. Results. We have shown that the using of dipole model of magnetization is correct. There is not even formal analogy with electrostatic field in the case of using the magnetization model by molecular currents. The relation between the magnetizations for various models is obtained. It allows us to justify the using magnetization by molecular currents in electrostatic analogy. Originality. The magnetization for dipole model is introduced and the possibility of using magnetization by molecular currents in the formulas for calculating potential magnetostatic field in magnetized medium is substantiated. Practical value. The results allow to obtain correct formulation and solution of the problem of magnetostatic field calculation in inhomogeneous magnetized medium.

  7. Laser dynamics in transversely inhomogeneous plasma and its relevance to wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, V. B.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Nam, Chang Hee

    2018-05-01

    We present full set of coupled equations describing the weakly relativistic dynamics of a laser in a plasma with transverse inhomogeneity. We apply variational principle approach to obtain these coupled equations governing laser spot-size, transverse wavenumber, curvature, transverse centroid, etc. We observe that such plasma inhomogeneity can lead to stronger self-focusing. We further discuss the guiding conditions of laser in parabolic plasma channels. With the help of multi-dimensional particle in cell simulations the study is extended to the blowout regime of laser wakefield acceleration to show laser as well as self-injected electron bunch steering in plasma to generate unconventional particle trajectories. Our simulation results demonstrate that such transverse inhomogeneities due to asymmetric self focusing lead to asymmetric bubble excitation, thus inducing off-axis self-injection.

  8. Exponential Speedup of Quantum Annealing by Inhomogeneous Driving of the Transverse Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susa, Yuki; Yamashiro, Yu; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Nishimori, Hidetoshi

    2018-02-01

    We show, for quantum annealing, that a certain type of inhomogeneous driving of the transverse field erases first-order quantum phase transitions in the p-body interacting mean-field-type model with and without longitudinal random field. Since a first-order phase transition poses a serious difficulty for quantum annealing (adiabatic quantum computing) due to the exponentially small energy gap, the removal of first-order transitions means an exponential speedup of the annealing process. The present method may serve as a simple protocol for the performance enhancement of quantum annealing, complementary to non-stoquastic Hamiltonians.

  9. Diffraction of an inhomogeneous plane wave by an impedance wedge in a lossy medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manara, G

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The diffraction of an inhomogeneous plane wave by an impedance wedge embedded in a lossy medium is analyzed. The rigorous integral representation for the field is asymptotically evaluated in the context of the uniform geometrical theory...

  10. Subpicosecond pulse propagation in optical fibres with transverse and longitudinal inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Bisyarin, M A

    2003-01-01

    Short optical pulse propagation is investigated in the light guide characterized with a strong dependence of the fibre material refractive index on the radial coordinate and a weak dependence on the longitudinal coordinate, with a weak spatial bending of the light guide axis being allowed as well. A three-dimensional nonlinear wave equation used in modeling the process is solved asymptotically with respect to a small parameter setting the order of magnitude of the pulse amplitude. A relationship between the propagating modes and the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a singular Sturm-Liouville problem is elucidated. The pulse propagation is shown to be three-scale: the high-frequency carrier is modulated with the envelope which evolves in a two-scale manner and is described with a nonlinear Schroedinger equation with coefficients depending on the longitudinal coordinate. For several types of the transverse and longitudinal inhomogeneities, expressions through elementary functions are obtained for the transvers...

  11. Frequency-domain modelling of gain in pump-probe experiment by an inhomogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Oh, Sang Soon; Hess, Ortwin; Rho, Junsuk

    2018-02-01

    Introduction of a gain medium in lossy plasmonic metamaterials reduces and compensates losses or even amplifies an incident light often with nonlinear optical effect. Here, optical gain in a pump-probe experimental setup is effectively calculated in the frequency-domain by approximating a gain material as an inhomogeneous medium. Spatially varying local field amplitudes of the pump and probe beams are included in the model to reproduce the inhomogeneous gain effect, in which population inversion occurs most strongly near the surface and decays along the propagation direction. We demonstrate that transmission spectra calculated by this method agree well with finite-difference time-domain simulation results. This simplified approach of gain modelling offers an easy and reliable way to analyze wave propagation in a gain medium without nonlinear time-domain calculation.

  12. Simulating the folding of HP-sequences with a minimalist model in an inhomogeneous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, S J; González-Pérez, P P

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of protein folding is a fundamental issue in the field of the computational molecular biology. The protein folding inside the cells is performed in a highly inhomogeneous, tortuous, and correlated environment. Therefore, it is important to include in the theoretical studies the medium where the protein folding is developed. In this work we present the combination of three models to mimic the protein folding inside of an inhomogeneous medium. The models used here are Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) in 2D square arrangement, Evolutionary Algorithms (EA), and the Dual Site Bond Model (DSBM). The DSBM model is used to simulate the environment where the HP beads are folded; in this case the medium is correlated and is fractal-like. The analysis of five benchmark HP sequences shows that the inhomogeneous space provided with a given correlation length and fractal dimension plays an important role for correct folding of these sequences, which does not occur in a homogeneous space. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alfvén wave propagation through a moderate-amplitude transverse inhomogeneity in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgogno, D.; Laveder, D.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.

    2016-01-01

    Parallel propagation of a plane Alfvén wave in a moderate-amplitude Gaussian-shaped transverse inhomogeneity is studied numerically using a fluid model retaining low-frequency kinetic effects. It is shown that in such a situation, common in the solar wind where elongated pressure-balanced structures are frequently observed, phase mixing competes with wave focusing, in contrast with coronal loops or auroral regions where sharp gradients present at the edges of the inhomogeneities make phase mixing dominant. Some understanding about this competition is provided by a model based on an envelope formalism. Depending on the magnitude of the Alfvén wavelength and of the inhomogeneity transverse scale relative to the ion inertial length, various regimes can develop, ranging from the formation of localized gradients when phase mixing dominates to the development of an intense magnetic filament when focusing is stronger, with a different efficiency for the generation of magnetosonic and kinetic Alfvén waves. Electron parallel heating and parallel electric field generation are also briefly discussed.

  14. The study of the structural stability of the spiral laser beams propagation through inhomogeneous phase medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchik, Alexander A.; Muzychenko, Yana B.

    2015-06-01

    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental results of the investigation of light beams that retain their intensity structure during propagation and focusing. Spiral laser beams are a family of laser beams that preserve the structural stability up to scale and rotation with the propagation. Properties of spiral beams are of practical interest for laser technology, medicine and biotechnology. Researchers use a spiral beams for movement and manipulation of microparticles. Functionality laser manipulators can be significantly enhanced by using spiral beams whose intensity remains invariable. It is well known, that these beams has non-zero orbital angular momentum. Spiral beams have a complicated phase distribution in cross section. In this paper we investigate the structural stability of the laser beams having a spiral phase structure by passing them through an inhomogeneous phase medium. Laser beam is passed through a medium is characterized by a random distribution of phase in the range 0..2π. The modeling was performed using VirtualLab 5.0 (manufacturer LightTrans GmbH). Compared the intensity distribution of the spiral and ordinary laser beam after the passage of the inhomogeneous medium. It is shown that the spiral beams exhibit a significantly better structural stability during the passage phase heterogeneous environments than conventional laser beams. The results obtained in the simulation are tested experimentally. Experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical results.

  15. Numerical analysis of three-dimensional MHD shock interactions in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prndergast, M.; Wu, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Study of the formation and propagation of solar-originated shock waves in heliospheric space has attracted significant attention in the past decade. This attention is important because the propagation of shocks in heliospheric space has been thought of as one of the major physical processes for solar wind and cosmic ray modulations and their subsequent influence on the earth's environment. A version of the two step Lax-Wendroff difference method is used to seek solutions of the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for the study of a solar flare generated shock wave propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. 8 references

  16. Variable coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equations and travelling waves in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baby, B.V.

    1987-04-01

    The well-known Korteweg-de Vries equations with the coefficients as two arbitrary functions of the time variable, is studied in this paper. The Painleve property analysis provides the conditions on the two variable coefficients, in order to form the Lax pairs associated with this equation. The similarity analysis shows the non-existence of travelling wave solutions when the equation has variable coefficients. These results are used to show the non-existence of travelling waves in an inhomogeneous medium. (author). 33 refs

  17. Migration using a transversely isotropic medium with symmetry normal to the reflector dip

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    A transversely isotropic (TI) model in which the tilt is constrained to be normal to the dip (DTI model) allows for simplifications in the imaging and velocity model building efforts as compared to a general TI (TTI) model. Although this model cannot be represented physically in all situations, for example, in the case of conflicting dips, it handles arbitrary reflector orientations under the assumption of symmetry axis normal to the dip. Using this assumption, we obtain efficient downward continuation algorithms compared to the general TTI ones, by utilizing the reflection features of such a model. Phase-shift migration can be easily extended to approximately handle lateral inhomogeneity using, for example, the split-step approach. This is possible because, unlike the general TTI case, the DTI model reduces to VTI for zero dip. These features enable a process in which we can extract velocity information by including tools that expose inaccuracies in the velocity model in the downward continuation process. We test this model on synthetic data corresponding to a general TTI medium and show its resilience. 2011 Tariq Alkhalifah and Paul Sava.

  18. Ordering dynamics of self-propelled particles in an inhomogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rakesh; Mishra, Shradha; Puri, Sanjay

    2018-02-01

    Ordering dynamics of self-propelled particles in an inhomogeneous medium in two dimensions is studied. We write coarse-grained hydrodynamic equations of motion for density and polarisation fields in the presence of an external random disorder field, which is quenched in time. The strength of inhomogeneity is tuned from zero disorder (clean system) to large disorder. In the clean system, the polarisation field grows algebraically as LP ∼ t0.5 . The density field does not show clean power-law growth; however, it follows Lρ ∼ t0.8 approximately. In the inhomogeneous system, we find a disorder-dependent growth. For both the density and the polarisation, growth slows down with increasing strength of disorder. The polarisation shows a disorder-dependent power-law growth LP(t,Δ) ∼ t1/\\bar zP(Δ) for intermediate times. At late times, there is a crossover to logarithmic growth LP(t,Δ) ∼ (\\ln t)1/\\varphi , where φ is a disorder-independent exponent. Two-point correlation functions for the polarisation show dynamical scaling, but the density does not.

  19. Initial-value problem for the 1-D wave equation in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, Z.; Roberts, B.; Adam, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    A complete mathematical analysis of oscillations of an inhomogeneous medium described by a wave equation with a space-dependent coefficient is given. The initial-value problem is solved both by the Laplace transform and by normal-mode analysis and the equivalency of both approaches is demonstrated. The Green function of the problem is a double-valued function of the complex frequency, analytic in the upper and lower halves of the complex frequency plane (the ''physical'' sheet of its Riemann surface) with discontinuity on the whole real axis, corresponding to the continuous frequency spectrum of the physical system in question. The Green function has complex poles on analytic continuation onto the ''unphysical'' sheet of its Riemann surface. This makes it possible, by inverting the Laplace transform, to interpret the solution of the initial-value problem in terms of ''damped'' eigenmodes. The continuum eigenmodes can be constructed directly and are also recovered by integrating the Green function in the complex frequency plane along a closed contour enclosing the spectrum. Their orthogonality and completeness is proved. The solution of the initial-value problem synthesized from the continuum eigenmodes can be interpreted in terms of travelling disturbances scattered by inhomogeneity. (author)

  20. Scattering by a spherical inhomogeneity in a fluid-saturated porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A fast compressional wave incident on an inhomogeneity in a fluid-saturated porous medium will produce three scattered elastic waves: a fast compressional wave, a slow compressional wave, and a shear wave. This problem is formulated as a multipole expansion using Biot's equations of poroelasticity. The solution for the first term (n = 0) in the multipole series involves a 4 x 4 system which is solved analytically in the long-wavelength limit. All higher-order terms (n > or = 1) require the solution of a 6 x 6 system. A procedure for solving these equations by splitting the problem into a 4 x 4 system and a 2 x 2 system and then iterating is introduced. The first iterate is just the solution of the elastic wave scattering problem in the absence of fluid effects. Higher iterates include the successive perturbation effects of fluid/solid interaction

  1. Quenching of natural cyclotron instability by large amplitude monochromatic waves propagating in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Gendrin, R.

    1979-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that a long duration monochromatic wave generated by a high power VLF transmitter may quench natural magnetospheric hiss emissions over a frequency range Δf of the order of 50-150 Hz below the transmitter frequency. The authors show that this effect can be interpreted by trapping, inside the monochromatic wave, of a certain amount of particles which were contributing to the generation of hiss in the equatorial region before the transmitter was switched on. The competition between the trapping and detrapping forces (the last one being due to the inhomogeneity of the medium) is studied. They show that the frequency range Δf which is concerned by this effect is proportional to b 2 , where b is the field intensity of the monochromatic wave. Δf is also an increasing function of the transmitter frequency. (Auth.)

  2. Longitudinal waves in carbon nanotubes in the presence of transverse magnetic field and elastic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu; Liu, Hua; Yang, Jialing

    2017-09-01

    In the present paper, the coupling effect of transverse magnetic field and elastic medium on the longitudinal wave propagation along a carbon nanotube (CNT) is studied. Based on the nonlocal elasticity theory and Hamilton's principle, a unified nonlocal rod theory which takes into account the effects of small size scale, lateral inertia and radial deformation is proposed. The existing rod theories including the classic rod theory, the Rayleigh-Love theory and Rayleigh-Bishop theory for macro solids can be treated as the special cases of the present model. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type model) is used to represent the elastic medium. The influence of transverse magnetic field, Pasternak-type elastic medium and small size scale on the longitudinal wave propagation behavior of the CNT is investigated in detail. It is shown that the influences of lateral inertia and radial deformation cannot be neglected in analyzing the longitudinal wave propagation characteristics of the CNT. The results also show that the elastic medium and the transverse magnetic field will also affect the longitudinal wave dispersion behavior of the CNT significantly. The results obtained in this paper are helpful for understanding the mechanical behaviors of nanostructures embedded in an elastic medium.

  3. Migration velocity analysis using a transversely isotropic medium with tilt normal to the reflector dip

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, T.

    2010-06-13

    A transversely isotropic model in which the tilt is constrained to be normal to the dip (DTI model) allows for simplifications in the imaging and velocity model building efforts as compared to a general TTI model. Though this model, in some cases, can not be represented physically like in the case of conflicting dips, it handles all dips with the assumption of symmetry axis normal to the dip. It provides a process in which areas that meet this feature is handled properly. We use efficient downward continuation algorithms that utilizes the reflection features of such a model. For lateral inhomogeneity, phase shift migration can be easily extended to approximately handle lateral inhomogeneity, because unlike the general TTI case the DTI model reduces to VTI for zero dip. We also equip these continuation algorithms with tools that expose inaccuracies in the velocity. We test this model on synthetic data of general TTI nature and show its resilience even couping with complex models like the recently released anisotropic BP model.

  4. Inhomogeneity effects in HTS coated conductors used as resistive FCLs in medium voltage grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Daniele; Dutoit, Bertrand

    2012-09-01

    For resistive fault current limiters (RFCLs) based on high temperature superconducting coated conductors (HTS-CCs), inhomogeneity, in terms of critical current and geometrical imperfections such as stabilizer and substrate thicknesses, plays a very important role and it may limit the penetration of such devices into the electrical market. This paper presents an electrothermal model, developed in SimPowerSystem™, able to describe the transient response of HTS-CC candidates with different degrees of inhomogeneity, both in terms of critical current and of stabilizer thickness. Critical current inhomogeneity has been modeled with Gaussian distributions. The layer thicknesses used in the simulations have been chosen by fitting the temperature dependence of real tape resistances. Our approach considers relative inhomogeneity positions as well as thermal conduction along the HTS-CC length. The model is tuned using experimental measurements made on ReBaCuO coated conductors. A new dynamical thermal calibration of the model is proposed using finite element method calculations. Inhomegeneity effects with different possible faults (e.g. three phase and single phase short-circuit) are presented.

  5. Electromagnetic field representation in inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.

    1973-01-01

    Some of the basic developments in the theory of electromagnetic field representation in terms of Hertz vectors are reviewed. A solution for the field in an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium is given in terms of the two Hertz vectors. Conditions for presentation of the field in terms of uncoupled transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes, in a general orthogonal coordinate system, are derived when the permeability and permittivity tensors have only diagonal components. These conditions are compared with some known special cases.

  6. Two-dimensional perturbations of the accelerated motion of inhomogeneous gas layers and shells in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnobaev, K. V.; Kotova, G. Yu.; Tagirova, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of perturbations in a two-layer spherical shell and a plane layer with a two-step density distribution has been simulated numerically. The clumps formed by instability are shown to have qualitatively different structures, depending on the ratio of the densities in the inner and outer layers of the shell. Inhomogeneities bordered by a dense gas are formed in shells with an outwardly decreasing density. If, however, a denser gas is in the outer layer, then cores surrounded by a more rarefied material appear. These results are used to analyze the expansion of the HII region RCW 82. Since the inhomogeneities observed in the 13CO emission in the outer parts of this region have sharply delineated boundaries, our calculations argue for the model of the expansion of a shell with an outwardly decreasing density. The interaction of an accelerating shell with clumps in front of it has also been investigated. The deformations of a clump during its penetration into the shell and the formation of a groove in the shell gradually fillingwith a cold gas have been revealed. Thereafter, the shell material collapses to form a cumulative jet. As applied to the HII region RCW 82, we conclude that the existence of jets is possible if there are inhomogeneities with a scale of ˜1018 cm in the interstellar medium. The lack of data on such jet flows at the boundary of this region is an additional argument for the model where the inhomogeneous structure of the boundaries is attributable to the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  7. Surface-plasmon dispersion relation for the inhomogeneous charge-density medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsh, O.K.; Agarwal, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    The surface-plasmon dispersion relation is derived for the plane-bounded electron gas when there is an inhomogeneous charge-density distribution in the plasma. The hydrodynamical model is used. Both cphi and dcphi/dx are taken to be continuous at the surface of the slab, where cphi is the scalar potential. The dispersion relation is compared with the theoretical works of Stern and Ferrell and of Harsh and Agarwal. It is also compared with the observations of Kunz. A dispersion relation for the volume-plasmon oscillations is derived which resembles the well-known relation of Bohm and Pines

  8. Simulation study on the behavior of X-rays and gamma rays in an inhomogeneous medium using the Monte Carlo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Kenya; Kataoka, Masaaki; Kawamura, Masashi; Tamada, Shuji; Hamamoto, Ken

    1989-01-01

    A computer program based on the Monte Carlo technique was developed for the analysis of the behavior of X-rays and gamma rays in an inhomogeneous medium. The statistical weight of a photon was introduced and the survival biasing method was used for reducing the statistical error. This computer program has the mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients for 69 tissues and organs as a database file, and can be applied to various cases of inhomogeneity. The simulation and experimental results of the central axis percent-depth dose in an inhomogeneous phantom were in good agreement. This computer program will be useful for analysis on the behavior of X-rays and gamma rays in an inhomogeneous medium consisting of various tissues and organs, not only in radiotherapy treatment planning but also in diagnostic radiology and in the field treating radiation protection. (author)

  9. Enhancement of Feedback Efficiency by Active Galactic Nucleus Outflows via the Magnetic Tension Force in the Inhomogeneous Interstellar Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahina, Yuta; Ohsuga, Ken [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nomura, Mariko, E-mail: asahina@cfca.jp [Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)

    2017-05-01

    By performing three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of subrelativistic jets and disk winds propagating into the magnetized inhomogeneous interstellar medium (ISM), we investigate the magnetic effects on the active galactic nucleus feedback. Our simulations reveal that the magnetic tension force promotes the acceleration of the dense gas clouds, since the magnetic field lines, which are initially straight, bend around the gas clouds. In the jet models, the velocity dispersion of the clouds increases with an increase in the initial magnetic fields. The increment of the kinetic energy of the clouds is proportional to the initial magnetic fields, implying that the magnetic tension force increases the energy conversion efficiency from the jet to the gas clouds. Through simulations of the mildly collimated disk wind and the funnel-shaped disk wind, we confirm that such an enhancement of the energy conversion efficiency via the magnetic fields appears even if the energy is injected via the disk winds. The enhancement of the acceleration of the dense part of the magnetized ISM via the magnetic tension force will occur wherever the magnetized inhomogeneous matter is blown away.

  10. Modified geometrical optics of a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium: the anisotropy, Berry phase, and the optical Magnus effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, K Yu; Bliokh, Yu P

    2004-08-01

    We present a modification of the geometrical optics method, which allows one to properly separate the complex amplitude and the phase of the wave solution. Appling this modification to a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium, we show that in the first geometrical optics approximation the medium is weakly anisotropic. The refractive index, being dependent on the direction of the wave vector, contains the correction, which is proportional to the Berry geometric phase. Two independent eigenmodes of right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations exist in the medium. Their group velocities and phase velocities differ. The difference in the group velocities results in the shift of the rays of different polarizations (the optical Magnus effect). The difference in the phase velocities causes an increase of the Berry phase along with the interference of two modes leading to the familiar Rytov law about the rotation of the polarization plane of a wave. The theory developed suggests that both the optical Magnus effect and the Berry phase are accompanying nonlocal topological effects. In this paper the Hamilton ray equations giving a unified description for both of these phenomena have been derived and also a novel splitting effect for a ray of noncircular polarization has been predicted. Specific examples are also discussed.

  11. Radio emission from young supernova remnants - Effects of an inhomogeneous circumstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, John R.; Eilek, Jean A.; Jones, Eric M.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of young supernova remnants has been modeled using a one-dimensional hydrodynamics code. Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor fingers have been included in the code. Turbulent dynamo amplification of magnetic fields and both turbulent and shock acceleration of relativistic electrons have been included macroscopically. From this, the distribution of synchrotron luminosity in the remnant has been calculated. It is found that the radio morphology of model remnants expanding into a homogeneous medium does not agree with observations. Expansion into a circumstellar medium with many small cloudlets does produce radio shells which agree with observations. It is suggested that supernova remnants reflect the interaction of ejected matter with a cloudy circumstellar medium.

  12. Traveltime approximations for inhomogeneous HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Traveltimes information is convenient for parameter estimation especially if the medium is described by an anisotropic set of parameters. This is especially true if we could relate traveltimes analytically to these medium parameters, which is generally hard to do in inhomogeneous media. As a result, I develop traveltimes approximations for horizontaly transversely isotropic (HTI) media as simplified and even linear functions of the anisotropic parameters. This is accomplished by perturbing the solution of the HTI eikonal equation with respect to η and the azimuthal symmetry direction (usually used to describe the fracture direction) from a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. The resulting approximations can provide accurate analytical description of the traveltime in a homogenous background compared to other published moveout equations out there. These equations will allow us to readily extend the inhomogenous background elliptical anisotropic model to an HTI with a variable, but smoothly varying, η and horizontal symmetry direction values. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  13. Distribution functions for systems of charged particles in spatially inhomogeneous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrina, D.Ya. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Teoreticheskoj Fiziki)

    1984-04-01

    Equations for distribution functions of systems of charged particles in a medium with heterogeneities are investigated. In the self-consistent field approximation they are reduced to nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equations with boundary conditions on surfaces of the heterogeneities. An analogue of the subtraction procedure in quantun field theory is used in the proof of the existence of the solution.

  14. Fluctuations of pulses scattered by a layer of randomly inhomogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, O. E.; Yaroshchuk, I. O.

    1999-04-01

    We consider the problem of backscattering of a pulsed signal by a layer of a medium with random fluctuations of parameters. Various types of pulses are considered. The problem is solved using the method of statistical modeling. The statistical properties of fluctuations of the reflected signal are studied.

  15. A transversely isotropic medium with a tilted symmetry axis normal to the reflector

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2010-05-01

    The computational tools for imaging in transversely isotropic media with tilted axes of symmetry (TTI) are complex and in most cases do not have an explicit closed-form representation. Developing such tools for a TTI medium with tilt constrained to be normal to the reflector dip (DTI) reduces their complexity and allows for closed-form representations. The homogeneous-case zero-offset migration in such a medium can be performed using an isotropic operator scaled by the velocity of the medium in the tilt direction. For the nonzero-offset case, the reflection angle is always equal to the incidence angle, and thus, the velocities for the source and receiver waves at the reflection point are equal and explicitly dependent on the reflection angle. This fact allows for the development of explicit representations for angle decomposition as well as moveout formulas for analysis of extended images obtained by wave-equation migration. Although setting the tilt normal to the reflector dip may not be valid everywhere (i.e., on salt flanks), it can be used in the process of velocity model building, in which such constrains are useful and typically are used. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Electroosmotic velocity and electric conductivity in a fibrous porous medium in the transverse direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keh, Huan J; Wu, Yi Y

    2011-07-28

    The steady electroosmosis and electric conduction in a fibrous medium constructed by a homogeneous array of parallel, identical, charged, circular cylinders filled with an electrolyte solution is analytically examined. The imposed electric field is constant and normal to the axes of the cylinders. The electric double layer surrounding each dielectric cylinder may have an arbitrary thickness relative to the radius of the cylinder. A unit cell model that allows for the overlap of the double layers of adjacent cylinders is employed. The electrokinetic equations that govern the ionic concentration distributions, the electrostatic potential profile, and the fluid flow field in the electrolyte solution surrounding the charged cylinder in a cylindrical cell are linearized assuming that the system is only slightly distorted from equilibrium. Through the use of a regular perturbation method, these linearized equations are solved with the surface charge density (or zeta potential) of the cylinder as the small perturbation parameter. Analytical expressions for the electroosmotic velocity of the fluid solution and the effective electric conductivity in the array of cylinders are obtained in closed forms as functions of the porosity of the fiber matrix and other characteristics of the porous system. Comparisons of the results of the cell model with different conditions at the outer boundary of the cell are made. The cell model predicts that, under otherwise identical conditions, the electric conductivity in a porous medium composed of an array of parallel cylinders in the transverse direction in general is smaller than that of a suspension of spheres, but there are some exceptions. The effect of interactions among the cylinders or spheres on the effective conductivity can be significant under appropriate conditions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Cross Talk Analysis on Multiple Coupled Transmission Lines; (The calculation of transfer functions on multiple coupled tansmission lines in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1994-01-01

    A flow graph relating voltages and the forward and reflected propagation modes (¿ TEM) on multiple coupled transmission lines in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium is presented. This flow graph directy gives the different transfer functions, including S-parameters, in matrix form needed to calcul......A flow graph relating voltages and the forward and reflected propagation modes (¿ TEM) on multiple coupled transmission lines in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium is presented. This flow graph directy gives the different transfer functions, including S-parameters, in matrix form needed...... to calculate crosstalk on the lines. An 8 bit databus is analysed in the frequency-and time domain. This analysis shows, as expected, that crosstalk can be a problem in connection with high speed logic circuits. The same databus is also analysed using the quasi-propagation-mode method proposed by Dalby [1...

  18. Effect of active medium inhomogeneity on lasing characteristics of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the effect of quantum-dash (Qdash) inhomogeneity on the characteristics of InAs/InP Qdash laser utilizing a single state rate equation model. The inhomogeneity is assumed to follow the Gaussian approximation. From our observation, an increased in Qdash inhomogeneity results in increasing of threshold current density and redshifting of the peak lasing wavelength. The lasing linewidth of the Qdash lasers has also found to increase under large injection current, attaining a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~ 17 nm.

  19. Waves in inhomogeneous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we study wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. Examples of the classical (massless) waves we consider are acoustic waves (sound) and electromagnetic waves (light, for example). Interaction with inhomogeneities embedded in a reference medium alter the propagation direction, velocity

  20. Asymptotic study and numerical simulation of laser wave propagation in an inhomogeneous medium; Etude asymptotique et simulation numerique de la propagation laser en milieu inhomogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doumic, M

    2005-05-15

    To simulate the propagation of a monochromatic laser beam in a medium, we use the paraxial approximation of the Klein-Gordon (in the time-varying problem) and of the Maxwell (in the non time-depending case) equations. In a first part, we make an asymptotic analysis of the Klein-Gordon equation. We obtain approximated problems, either of Schroedinger or of transport-Schroedinger type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of a solution for these problems, and estimate the difference between it and the exact solution of the Klein-Gordon equation. In a second part, we study the boundary problem for the advection Schroedinger equation, and show what the boundary condition must be so that the problem on our domain should be the restriction of the problem in the whole space: such a condition is called a transparent or an absorbing boundary condition. In a third part, we use the preceding results to build a numerical resolution method, for which we prove stability and show some simulations. (author)

  1. In-medium behaviour of vector mesons and the longitudinal and transverse response functions in (e,e'p) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyeur, M.; Brown, G.E.; Rho, M.

    1991-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of nucleons appear dominated by vector mesons at momentum transfers small than ∼ 1 GeV/c. It is therefore expected that measurements of quantities involving the electromagnetic form factors of nucleons embedded in nuclei will be sensitive to changes in vector meson properties arising from their interaction with the medium. Longitudinal and transverse response functions measured in quasi-elastic (e,e'p) reactions provide such data for two very different operators, the charge and the current densities. We show that a decrease of vector meson masses in the medium, consistent with present expectations about chiral symmetry restoration in nuclei, produces the quenching observed in the longitudinal response of light systems ( 3 He, 4 He) and part of this quenching for heavier nuclei 40 Ca where nuclear correlations are expected to generate an additional suppression of the longitudinal response. The transverse response is almost unchanged, in agreement with the data. Difficulties in extrating very quantitative information on the in-medium behaviour of vector mesons from (e,e'p) data are pointed out

  2. Radially inhomogeneous bounded plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri-Khatir, H.; Aghamir, F. M.

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of kinetic theory along with self-consistent field equations, the expressions for dielectric tensor of radially inhomogeneous magnetized plasma columns are obtained. The study of dielectric tensor characteristics allows the accurate analysis of the inhomogeneous properties, beyond limitations that exist in the conventional method. Through the Bessel-Fourier transformation, the localized form of material equations in a radially inhomogeneous medium are obtained. In order to verify the integrity of the model and reveal the effect of inhomogeneity, a special case of a cylindrical plasma waveguide completely filled with inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma was considered. The dispersion relation curves for four families of electromagnetic (EH and HE) and electrostatic (SC and C) modes are obtained and compared with the findings of the conventional model. The numerical analysis indicates that the inhomogeneity effect leads to coupling of electromagnetic and electrostatic modes each having different radial eigen numbers. The study also reveals that the electrostatic modes are more sensitive to inhomogeneous effects than the electromagnetic modes.

  3. Indentation theory on a half-space of transversely isotropic multi-ferroic composite medium: sliding friction effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F.; Wu, T.-H.; Li, X.-Y.

    2018-03-01

    This article aims to present a systematic indentation theory on a half-space of multi-ferroic composite medium with transverse isotropy. The effect of sliding friction between the indenter and substrate is taken into account. The cylindrical flat-ended indenter is assumed to be electrically/magnetically conducting or insulating, which leads to four sets of mixed boundary-value problems. The indentation forces in the normal and tangential directions are related to the Coulomb friction law. For each case, the integral equations governing the contact behavior are developed by means of the generalized method of potential theory, and the corresponding coupling field is obtained in terms of elementary functions. The effect of sliding on the contact behavior is investigated. Finite element method (FEM) in the context of magneto-electro-elasticity is developed to discuss the validity of the analytical solutions. The obtained analytical solutions may serve as benchmarks to various simplified analyses and numerical codes and as a guide for future experimental studies.

  4. DRIVING OUTFLOWS WITH RELATIVISTIC JETS AND THE DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK EFFICIENCY ON INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM INHOMOGENEITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the detailed physics of the feedback mechanism by relativistic active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets interacting with a two-phase fractal interstellar medium (ISM) in the kpc-scale core of galaxies using 29 three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations. The feedback efficiency, as measured by the amount of cloud dispersal generated by the jet-ISM interactions, is sensitive to the maximum size of clouds in the fractal cloud distribution but not to their volume filling factor. Feedback ceases to be efficient for Eddington ratios P jet /L edd ∼ –4 , although systems with large cloud complexes ∼> 50 pc require jets of Eddington ratio in excess of 10 –2 to disperse the clouds appreciably. Based on measurements of the bubble expansion rates in our simulations, we argue that sub-grid AGN prescriptions resulting in negative feedback in cosmological simulations without a multi-phase treatment of the ISM are good approximations if the volume filling factor of warm-phase material is less than 0.1 and the cloud complexes are smaller than ∼25 pc. We find that the acceleration of the dense embedded clouds is provided by the ram pressure of the high-velocity flow through the porous channels of the warm phase, flow that has fully entrained the shocked hot-phase gas it has swept up, and is additionally mass loaded by ablated cloud material. This mechanism transfers 10% to 40% of the jet energy to the cold and warm gas, accelerating it within a few 10 to 100 Myr to velocities that match those observed in a range of high- and low-redshift radio galaxies hosting powerful radio jets.

  5. Analysis of the traveltime sensitivity kernels for an acoustic transversely isotropic medium with a vertical axis of symmetry

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2016-02-05

    In anisotropic media, several parameters govern the propagation of the compressional waves. To correctly invert surface recorded seismic data in anisotropic media, a multi-parameter inversion is required. However, a tradeoff between parameters exists because several models can explain the same dataset. To understand these tradeoffs, diffraction/reflection and transmission-type sensitivity-kernels analyses are carried out. Such analyses can help us to choose the appropriate parameterization for inversion. In tomography, the sensitivity kernels represent the effect of a parameter along the wave path between a source and a receiver. At a given illumination angle, similarities between sensitivity kernels highlight the tradeoff between the parameters. To discuss the parameterization choice in the context of finite-frequency tomography, we compute the sensitivity kernels of the instantaneous traveltimes derived from the seismic data traces. We consider the transmission case with no encounter of an interface between a source and a receiver; with surface seismic data, this corresponds to a diving wave path. We also consider the diffraction/reflection case when the wave path is formed by two parts: one from the source to a sub-surface point and the other from the sub-surface point to the receiver. We illustrate the different parameter sensitivities for an acoustic transversely isotropic medium with a vertical axis of symmetry. The sensitivity kernels depend on the parameterization choice. By comparing different parameterizations, we explain why the parameterization with the normal moveout velocity, the anellipitic parameter η, and the δ parameter is attractive when we invert diving and reflected events recorded in an active surface seismic experiment. © 2016 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  6. Antennas in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    Antennas in Inhomogeneous Media details the methods of analyzing antennas in such inhomogeneous media. The title covers the complex geometrical configurations along with its variational formulations. The coverage of the text includes various conditions the antennas are subjected to, such as antennas in the interface between two media; antennas in compressible isotropic plasma; and linear antennas in a magnetoionic medium. The selection also covers insulated loops in lossy media; slot antennas with a stratified dielectric or isotropic plasma layers; and cavity-backed slot antennas. The book wil

  7. [Transversal problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Mendoza, A; Solano Reina, E

    1990-04-01

    In this worn we introduce the alterations of the occlusion in the horizontal level or transversal problems, in which lateral crossed bites appear, either with or without a deviation of the medium line, underlying its differential diagnostic and guide lines treatment through several different clinic cases.

  8. The electromagnetic response in a layered vertical transverse isotropic medium : A new look at an old problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunziker, J.W.; Thorbecke, J.W.; Slob, E.C.

    2014-01-01

    We determined that the electromagnetic vertical transverse isotropic response in a layered earth can be obtained by solving two equivalent scalar equations, which were for the vertical electric field and for the vertical magnetic field, involving only a scalar global reflection coefficient. Besides

  9. A domain integral equation approach for simulating two dimensional transverse electric scattering in a layered medium with a Gabor frame discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilz, R. J.; van Beurden, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    We solve the 2D transverse-electrically polarized domain-integral equation in a layered background medium by applying a Gabor frame as a projection method. This algorithm employs both a spatial and a spectral discretization of the electric field and the contrast current in the direction of the layer extent. In the spectral domain we use a representation on the complex plane that avoids the poles and branchcuts found in the Green function. Because of the special choice of the complex-plane path in the spectral domain and because of the choice to use a Gabor frame to represent functions on this path, fast algorithms based on FFTs are available to transform to and from the spectral domain, yielding an O (Nlog ⁡ N) scaling in computation time.

  10. S-wave propagating in an anisotropic inhomogeneous elastic medium under the influence of gravity, initial stress, electric and magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakar Rajneesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of gravity, initial stress, non-homogeneity, electric and magnetic field on the propagation of shear waves in an anisotropic incompressible medium. Various graphs are plotted to show the effect of direction of propagation, the anisotropy, magnetic field, electric field, non-homogeneity of the medium and the initial stress on shear waves. The dispersion equations for shear waves are obtained and discussed for different cases. In fact, in the absence of various material parameters, these equations are in agreement with the classical results for isotropic medium.

  11. Local principles of wave propagation in inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingold, Harry; She, Jianming; Zorumski, William E.

    1993-01-01

    Four local principles are proven for waves propagating in a layered medium with a variable wave speed. These principles are (1) that inhomogeneities increase the amplitude of waves generated by a source of fixed strength, (2) that inhomogeneities reduce spatial oscillation, or increase the wavelength, (3) that inhomogeneities decrease transmission, or increase reflection, and (4) that transmission increases monotonically with frequency. Definitions of inhomogeneity, local wave function, and local reflection and transmission coefficients are made as a basis for stating these principles.

  12. Collisions of Two Spatial Solitons in Inhomogeneous Nonlinear Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Weiping; Yi Lin; Yang Zhengping; Xie Ruihua; Milivoj, Belic; Chen Goong

    2008-01-01

    Collisions of spatial solitons occurring in the nonlinear Schroeinger equation with harmonic potential are studied, using conservation laws and the split-step Fourier method. We find an analytical solution for the separation distance between the spatial solitons in an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium when the light beam is self-trapped in the transverse dimension. In the self-focusing nonlinear media the spatial solitons can be transmitted stably, and the interaction between spatial solitons is enhanced due to the linear focusing effect (and also diminished for the linear defocusing effect). In the self-defocusing nonlinear media, in the absence of self-trapping or in the presence of linear self-defocusing, no transmission of stable spatial solitons is possible. However, in such media the linear focusing effect can be exactly compensated, and the spatial solitons can propagate through

  13. Stable dissipative optical vortex clusters by inhomogeneous effective diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huishan; Lai, Shiquan; Qui, Yunli; Zhu, Xing; Xie, Jianing; Mihalache, Dumitru; He, Yingji

    2017-10-30

    We numerically show the generation of robust vortex clusters embedded in a two-dimensional beam propagating in a dissipative medium described by the generic cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with an inhomogeneous effective diffusion term, which is asymmetrical in the two transverse directions and periodically modulated in the longitudinal direction. We show the generation of stable optical vortex clusters for different values of the winding number (topological charge) of the input optical beam. We have found that the number of individual vortex solitons that form the robust vortex cluster is equal to the winding number of the input beam. We have obtained the relationships between the amplitudes and oscillation periods of the inhomogeneous effective diffusion and the cubic gain and diffusion (viscosity) parameters, which depict the regions of existence and stability of vortex clusters. The obtained results offer a method to form robust vortex clusters embedded in two-dimensional optical beams, and we envisage potential applications in the area of structured light.

  14. Interplay between diffraction and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase in inhomogeneously twisted anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisha, Chandroth P.; Alberucci, Alessandro; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Assanto, Gaetano

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the propagation of an electromagnetic field in an inhomogeneously anisotropic material where the optic axis is rotated in the transverse plane but is invariant along the propagation direction. In such a configuration, the evolution of an electromagnetic wave packet is governed by the Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP), which is responsible for the appearance of an effective photonic potential. In a recent paper [ACS Photon. 3, 2249 (2016), 10.1021/acsphotonics.6b00700] we demonstrated that the effective potential supports transverse confinement. Here we find the profile of the quasimodes and show that the photonic potential arises from the Kapitza effect of light. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations, accounting for the medium birefringence. Finally, we analyze in detail a configuration able to support nonleaky guided modes.

  15. Collapse arresting in an inhomogeneous quintic nonlinear Schrodinger model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1999-01-01

    Collapse of (1 + 1)-dimensional beams in the inhomogeneous one-dimensional quintic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is analyzed both numerically and analytically. It is shown that in the vicinity of a narrow attractive inhomogeneity, the collapse of beams in which the homogeneous medium would blow up...

  16. Inflation in inhomogeneous cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetta, E.; Sakellariadou, M.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the onset of inflation in an inhomogeneous, asymptotically Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe coupled to a scalar inflaton field. We consider a three-parameter family of inhomogeneous Cauchy data, for which we can solve analytically the constraint equations. Inflation only occurs if the Cauchy data are homogeneous over several horizon lengths

  17. Effects of nanoscale density inhomogeneities on shearing fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben, Dalton,; Peter, Daivis,; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that density inhomogeneities at the solid-liquid interface can have a strong effect on the velocity profile of a nanoconfined fluid in planar Poiseuille flow. However, it is difficult to control the density inhomogeneities induced by solid walls, making this type of system...... unsuitable for a comprehensive study of the effect on density inhomogeneity on nanofluidic flow. In this paper, we employ an external force compatible with periodic boundary conditions to induce the density variation, which greatly simplifies the problem when compared to flow in nonperiodic nanoconfined...... systems. Using the sinusoidal transverse force method to produce shearing velocity profiles and the sinusoidal longitudinal force method to produce inhomogeneous density profiles, we are able to observe the interactions between the two property inhomogeneities at the level of individual Fourier components...

  18. Multicolour Observations, Inhomogeneity & Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hellaby, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We propose a method of testing source evolution theories that is independent of the effects of inhomogeneity, and thus complementary to other studies of evolution. It is suitable for large scale sky surveys, and the new generation of large telescopes. In an earlier paper it was shown that basic cosmological observations - luminosity versus redshift, area distance versus redshift and number counts versus redshift - cannot separate the effects of cosmic inhomogeneity, cosmic evolution and sourc...

  19. Transversity 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Vincenzo; Ratcliffe, Philip G.

    Introduction. Purpose and status of the Italian Transversity Project / F. Bradamante -- Opening lecture. Transversity / M. Anselmino -- Experimental lectures. Azimuthal single-spin asymmetries from polarized and unpolarized hydrogen targets at HERMES / G. Schnell (for the HERMES Collaboration). Collins and Sivers asymmetries on the deuteron from COMPASS data / I. Horn (for the COMPASS Collaboration). First measurement of interference fragmentation on a transversely polarized hydrogen target / P. B. van der Nat (for the HERMES Collaboration). Two-hadron asymmetries at the COMPASS experiment / A. Mielech (for the COMPASS Collaboration). Measurements of chiral-odd fragmentation functions at Belle / R. Seidl ... [et al.]. Lambda asymmetries / A. Ferrero (for the COMPASS Collaboration). Transverse spin at PHENIX: results and prospects / C. Aidala (for the PHENIX Collaboration). Transverse spin and RHIC / L. Bland. Studies of transverse spin effects at JLab / H. Avakian ... [et al.] (for the CLAS Collaboration). Neutron transversity at Jefferson Lab / J. P. Chen ... [et al.] (for the Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration). PAX: polarized antiproton experiments / M. Contalbrigo. Single and double spin N-N interactions at GSI / M. Maggiora (for the ASSIA Collaboration). Spin filtering in storage rings / N. N. Nikolaev & F. F. Pavlov -- Theory lectures. Single-spin asymmetries and transversity in QCD / S. J. Brodsky. The relativistic hydrogen atom: a theoretical laboratory for structure functions / X. Artru & K. Benhizia. GPD's and SSA's / M. Burkardt. Time reversal odd distribution functions in chiral models / A. Drago. Soffer bound and transverse spin densities from lattice QCD / M. Diehl ... [et al.]. Single-spin asymmetries and Qiu-Sterman effect(s) / A. Bacchetta. Sivers function: SIDIS data, fits and predictions / M. Anselmino ... [et al.]. Twist-3 effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering / M. Schlegel, K. Goeke & A. Metz. Quark and gluon Sivers functions / I

  20. On the penetration of solar wind inhomogeneities into the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, V.P.; Senatorov, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were used as a basis to study the process of interaction between solar wind inhomogeneities and the Earth's magnetosphere. The given inhomogeneity represents a lump of plasma characterized by an increased concentration of particles (nsub(e) approximately 20-30 cm -3 ), a discrete form (characteristic dimensions of the lump are inferior to the magnetosphere diameter) and the velocity v approximately 350 km/s. It is shown that there is the possibility of penetration of solar wind inhomogeneities inside the Earth's magnetosphere because of the appearance in the inhomogeneity of an electric field of transverse polarization. The said process is a possible mechanism of the formation of the magnetopshere entrance layer

  1. Mapped Chebyshev Pseudo-Spectral Method for Simulating the Shear Wave Propagation in the Plane of Symmetry of a Transversely Isotropic Viscoelastic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Bo; Brigham, John C.; McGough, Robert J.; Greenleaf, James F.; Urban, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    Shear wave elastography is a versatile technique that is being applied to many organs. However, in tissues that exhibit anisotropic material properties, special care must be taken to estimate shear wave propagation accurately and efficiently. A two-dimensional simulation method is implemented to simulate the shear wave propagation in the plane of symmetry in transversely isotropic viscoelastic media. The method uses a mapped Chebyshev pseudo-spectral method to calculate the spatial derivatives and an Adams-Bashforth-Moulton integrator with variable step sizes for time marching. The boundaries of the two-dimensional domain are surrounded by perfectly matched layers (PML) to approximate an infinite domain and minimize reflection errors. In an earlier work, we proposed a solution for estimating the apparent shear wave elasticity and viscosity of the spatial group velocity as a function of rotation angle through a low frequency approximation by a Taylor expansion. With the solver implemented in MATLAB, the simulated results in this paper match well with the theory. Compared to the finite element method (FEM) simulations we used before, the pseudo-spectral solver consumes less memory and is faster and achieves better accuracy. PMID:27221812

  2. The impulsive motion of a flat plate in a viscoelastic fluid in the presence of a transverse magnetic field and porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, A.K.; Varshney, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in porous medium near a wall suddenly set in motion has been studied for a particular class of non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids. For the description of such a fluid one has used the Rivlin-Ericksen constitutive equation, only the first three material constants have been taken into consideration. It is observed that velocity increases with increasing of porosity constant. Due to the presence of elastic property of these elasticoviscous fluids smaller velocities are observed in a thin liquid layer than that for the Newtonian fluids whereas effect of elastic forces beyond this thin liquid layer is just reverse but decreases with the increases of elasticity in the presence of constant magnetic field. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig

  3. Inhomogeneous non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Christian T; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method to probe higher-order correlators of the primordial density field through the inhomogeneity of local non-Gaussian parameters, such as f_NL, measured within smaller patches of the sky. Correlators between n-point functions measured in one patch of the sky and k-point functions measured in another patch depend upon the (n+k)-point functions over the entire sky. The inhomogeneity of non-Gaussian parameters may be a feasible way to detect or constrain higher-order correlators in local models of non-Gaussianity, as well as to distinguish between single and multiple-source scenarios for generating the primordial density perturbation, and more generally to probe the details of inflationary physics.

  4. Diffusion in inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Ziogas, Vaios

    2017-12-01

    We consider the transport of conserved charges in spatially inhomogeneous quantum systems with a discrete lattice symmetry. We analyze the retarded two-point functions involving the charges and the associated currents at long wavelengths, compared to the scale of the lattice, and, when the dc conductivities are finite, extract the hydrodynamic modes associated with diffusion of the charges. We show that the dispersion relations of these modes are related to the eigenvalues of a specific matrix constructed from the dc conductivities and certain thermodynamic susceptibilities, thus obtaining generalized Einstein relations. We illustrate these general results in the specific context of relativistic hydrodynamics where translation invariance is broken using spatially inhomogeneous and periodic deformations of the stress tensor and the conserved U (1 ) currents. Equivalently, this corresponds to considering hydrodynamics on a curved manifold, with a spatially periodic metric and chemical potential, and we obtain the dispersion relations for the heat and charge diffusive modes.

  5. Transverse myelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, M.J.; Motaghedi, B.; Robitaille, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Transverse myelitis is a known complication of radiation treatment for carcinoma of the heat and neck. In a five year period, 1970 to 1975, 120 patients with head and neck cancer received radiation as part of their treatment in this hospital. A review of the records of these patients showed only two cases of myelitis, an incidence of about 2%. This paper reviews the clinical syndrome; treatment and preventive measures are discussed and a survey of the literature is presented

  6. Mapping of moveout in tilted transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2013-09-09

    The computation of traveltimes in a transverse isotropic medium with a tilted symmetry axis tilted transversely isotropic is very important both for modelling and inversion. We develop a simple analytical procedure to map the traveltime function from a transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (vertical transversely isotropic) to a tilted transversely isotropic medium by applying point-by-point mapping of the traveltime function. This approach can be used for kinematic modelling and inversion in layered tilted transversely isotropic media. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  7. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. I. Sinusoidally driven shear and sinusoidally driven inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Dalton, Benjamin A; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D

    2015-06-01

    We present theoretical expressions for the density, strain rate, and shear pressure profiles in strongly inhomogeneous fluids undergoing steady shear flow with periodic boundary conditions. The expressions that we obtain take the form of truncated functional expansions. In these functional expansions, the independent variables are the spatially sinusoidal longitudinal and transverse forces that we apply in nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. The longitudinal force produces strong density inhomogeneity, and the transverse force produces sinusoidal shear. The functional expansions define new material properties, the response functions, which characterize the system's nonlocal response to the longitudinal force and the transverse force. We find that the sinusoidal longitudinal force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of density inhomogeneity, also modulates the strain rate and shear pressure profiles. Likewise, we find that the sinusoidal transverse force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of sinusoidal shear flow, can also modify the density. These cross couplings between density inhomogeneity and shear flow are also characterized by nonlocal response functions. We conduct nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations to calculate all of the response functions needed to describe the response of the system for weak shear flow in the presence of strong density inhomogeneity up to the third order in the functional expansion. The response functions are then substituted directly into the truncated functional expansions and used to predict the density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. The results are compared to the directly evaluated profiles from molecular-dynamics simulations, and we find that the predicted profiles from the truncated functional expansions are in excellent agreement with the directly computed density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles.

  8. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. I. Sinusoidally driven shear and sinusoidally driven inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiy, Kirill S.; Dalton, Benjamin A.; Daivis, Peter J.; Todd, B. D.

    2015-06-01

    We present theoretical expressions for the density, strain rate, and shear pressure profiles in strongly inhomogeneous fluids undergoing steady shear flow with periodic boundary conditions. The expressions that we obtain take the form of truncated functional expansions. In these functional expansions, the independent variables are the spatially sinusoidal longitudinal and transverse forces that we apply in nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. The longitudinal force produces strong density inhomogeneity, and the transverse force produces sinusoidal shear. The functional expansions define new material properties, the response functions, which characterize the system's nonlocal response to the longitudinal force and the transverse force. We find that the sinusoidal longitudinal force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of density inhomogeneity, also modulates the strain rate and shear pressure profiles. Likewise, we find that the sinusoidal transverse force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of sinusoidal shear flow, can also modify the density. These cross couplings between density inhomogeneity and shear flow are also characterized by nonlocal response functions. We conduct nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations to calculate all of the response functions needed to describe the response of the system for weak shear flow in the presence of strong density inhomogeneity up to the third order in the functional expansion. The response functions are then substituted directly into the truncated functional expansions and used to predict the density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. The results are compared to the directly evaluated profiles from molecular-dynamics simulations, and we find that the predicted profiles from the truncated functional expansions are in excellent agreement with the directly computed density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles.

  9. Evaluation of the photocathode laser transverse distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saisa-ard, Chaipattana [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Chiang Mai Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand); Krasilnikov, Mikhail; Vashchenko, Grygorii [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Many years experience of electron source developments at the photo injector test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) show that the photocathode laser is the one of major tools to produce high brightness electron beams. The transverse distribution of the laser on the photocathode plays a significant role in the high brightness photo injector optimization. However, the imperfections in the laser beam profile according to the deviation from a radially homogeneous profile directly result in transversely distorted charged particle distributions. This includes inhomogeneous core as well as transverse halo which is due to not sharp edges around the core. The laser transverse distribution is measured at PITZ using a virtual cathode:this is a CCD camera located at the position which is optically equivalent to the photocathode position (so called virtual cathode). An algorithm is developed for the evaluation of the experimentally obtained transverse profiles. It fits a flat-top or an inhomogeneous rotational symmetric core with exponentially decaying tails to an experimental distribution. The MATLAB script with implemented algorithm is applied to a set of measured transverse laser distributions. Results of the analysis will be presented.

  10. Inhomogeneous compact extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronnikov, K.A. [Center of Gravity and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, 46 Ozyornaya st., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation); Budaev, R.I.; Grobov, A.V.; Dmitriev, A.E.; Rubin, Sergey G., E-mail: kb20@yandex.ru, E-mail: buday48@mail.ru, E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com, E-mail: alexdintras@mail.ru, E-mail: sergeirubin@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    We show that an inhomogeneous compact extra space possesses two necessary features— their existence does not contradict the observable value of the cosmological constant Λ{sub 4} in pure f ( R ) theory, and the extra dimensions are stable relative to the 'radion mode' of perturbations, the only mode considered. For a two-dimensional extra space, both analytical and numerical solutions for the metric are found, able to provide a zero or arbitrarily small Λ{sub 4}. A no-go theorem has also been proved, that maximally symmetric compact extra spaces are inconsistent with 4D Minkowski space in the framework of pure f ( R ) gravity.

  11. The inhomogeneous Suslov problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Naranjo, Luis C., E-mail: luis@mym.iimas.unam.mx [Departamento de Matemáticas y Mecánica, IIMAS-UNAM, Apdo Postal 20-726, Mexico City 01000 (Mexico); Maciejewski, Andrzej J., E-mail: andrzej.j.maciejewski@gmail.com [J. Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland); Marrero, Juan C., E-mail: jcmarrero@ull.edu.es [ULL-CSIC, Geometría Diferencial y Mecánica Geométrica, Departamento de Matemática Fundamental, Facultad de Matemáticas, Universidad de la Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Przybylska, Maria, E-mail: M.Przybylska@if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland)

    2014-06-27

    We consider the Suslov problem of nonholonomic rigid body motion with inhomogeneous constraints. We show that if the direction along which the Suslov constraint is enforced is perpendicular to a principal axis of inertia of the body, then the reduced equations are integrable and, in the generic case, possess a smooth invariant measure. Interestingly, in this generic case, the first integral that permits integration is transcendental and the density of the invariant measure depends on the angular velocities. We also study the Painlevé property of the solutions. - Highlights: • We consider the Suslov problem of nonholonomic rigid body motion with inhomogeneous constraints. • We study the problem in detail for a particular choice of the parameters that has a clear physical interpretation. • We show that the equations of motion possess an invariant measure whose density depends on the velocity variables. • We show that the reduced system is integrable due to the existence of a transcendental first integral. • We study the Painlevé property of the solutions.

  12. Transverse feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelis, K; Sladen, Jonathan P H; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    The aim of these MD's was to set up the transverse feedback for damping in both planes, and to test the charge normalization and gain compensation. The latter is intended to reduce the gain of the feedback for small oscillations in order to improve compatibility with the Q loop. All work was done with 2 x 4 bunches, family A. In the first two MD's the feedback was set up for damping in both planes with charge normalization. In the third, gain compensation was commissioned in the vertical plane with Qv' set to -2. It was found either to increase the level of the m = 0 mode or to leave it unchanged. Under these conditions 6mA total current was accumulated.

  13. Transverse damper

    CERN Document Server

    Höfle, W

    2012-01-01

    Plans for the operation of the transverse damper in 2012 at bunch spacings of 50 ns and 25 ns and at increased collision energy will be reviewed. The increased energy and the experience that will be gained at 25 ns are very important to define any upgrades that may be necessary for the high luminosity operation at 7 TeV after LS1. This means that the available parameter space must be probed in 2012 which in particular includes a higher feedback gain in the ramp and with colliding beams. Limits for the feedback gain for the current system will be outlined. The potential benefits of running with higher feedback gain for a better emittance preservation will be stressed and weighed against the operational difficulties and the potential impact of noise in the damper system. A plan for re-commissiong at 50 ns and 25 ns for operation at 4 TeV will be outlined.

  14. Collapse arresting in an inhomogeneous two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2001-01-01

    Collapse of (2 + 1)-dimensional beams in the inhomogeneous two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is analyzed numerically and analytically. It is shown that in the vicinity of a narrow attractive inhomogeneity, the collapse of beams that in a homogeneous medium would collapse may...

  15. Quantifying inhomogeneity in fractal sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Jonathan M.; Todd, Mike

    2018-04-01

    An inhomogeneous fractal set is one which exhibits different scaling behaviour at different points. The Assouad dimension of a set is a quantity which finds the ‘most difficult location and scale’ at which to cover the set and its difference from box dimension can be thought of as a first-level overall measure of how inhomogeneous the set is. For the next level of analysis, we develop a quantitative theory of inhomogeneity by considering the measure of the set of points around which the set exhibits a given level of inhomogeneity at a certain scale. For a set of examples, a family of -invariant subsets of the 2-torus, we show that this quantity satisfies a large deviations principle. We compare members of this family, demonstrating how the rate function gives us a deeper understanding of their inhomogeneity.

  16. Acceleration of near-field scattering from an inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    represents the ever ignored part of the scatter- ing studies. Otherwise, this study is a comple- mentary supplement to the far-field scattering approximations. 2. First order scattering theory. A finite volume weak inhomogeneity is consid- ered in an isotropic elastic homogeneous medium of Lame's moduli λo,µo and density ρo.

  17. Scanning anisotropy parameters in horizontal transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil

    2016-10-12

    The horizontal transversely isotropic model, with arbitrary symmetry axis orientation, is the simplest effective representative that explains the azimuthal behaviour of seismic data. Estimating the anisotropy parameters of this model is important in reservoir characterisation, specifically in terms of fracture delineation. We propose a travel-time-based approach to estimate the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ of a horizontal transversely isotropic medium, given an inhomogeneous elliptic background model (which might be obtained from velocity analysis and well velocities). This is accomplished through a Taylor\\'s series expansion of the travel-time solution (of the eikonal equation) as a function of parameter η and azimuth angle ϕ. The accuracy of the travel time expansion is enhanced by the use of Shanks transform. This results in an accurate approximation of the solution of the non-linear eikonal equation and provides a mechanism to scan simultaneously for the best fitting effective parameters η and ϕ, without the need for repetitive modelling of travel times. The analysis of the travel time sensitivity to parameters η and ϕ reveals that travel times are more sensitive to η than to the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ. Thus, η is better constrained from travel times than the azimuth. Moreover, the two-parameter scan in the homogeneous case shows that errors in the background model affect the estimation of η and ϕ differently. While a gradual increase in errors in the background model leads to increasing errors in η, inaccuracies in ϕ, on the other hand, depend on the background model errors. We also propose a layer-stripping method valid for a stack of arbitrary oriented symmetry axis horizontal transversely isotropic layers to convert the effective parameters to the interval layer values.

  18. Transverse linear and orbital angular momenta of beam waves and propagation in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnotskii, Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    For paraxial propagation of scalar waves, the classic electromagnetic theory definition of transverse linear (TLM) and orbital angular (OAM) momenta of the beam wave are represented in terms of the coherence function. We show in examples that neither is the presence of optical vortices necessary for the intrinsic OAM, nor does the presence of optical vortices warrant the non-zero intrinsic OAM. The OAM is analyzed for homogeneously coherent and twisted partially coherent beam waves. A twisted Gaussian beam has an intrinsic OAM with a per-unit power value that can be continuously changed by varying the twist parameters. Using the parabolic propagation equation for the coherence function, we show that both the total TLM and OAM are conserved for the free-space propagation, but not for propagation in an inhomogeneous medium. In the presence of the random inhomogeneous medium, the total TLM and OAM are conserved in average, but the OAM fluctuations grow with the propagation path. This growth is slower for beams with rotation-symmetric irradiance.

  19. Single transverse mode protein laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Itir Bakis; Min, Kyungtaek; Umar, Muhammad; Bahmani Jalali, Houman; Begar, Efe; Conkar, Deniz; Firat Karalar, Elif Nur; Kim, Sunghwan; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2017-12-01

    Here, we report a single transverse mode distributed feedback (DFB) protein laser. The gain medium that is composed of enhanced green fluorescent protein in a silk fibroin matrix yields a waveguiding gain layer on a DFB resonator. The thin TiO2 layer on the quartz grating improves optical feedback due to the increased effective refractive index. The protein laser shows a single transverse mode lasing at the wavelength of 520 nm with the threshold level of 92.1 μJ/ mm2.

  20. Ray tracing for inhomogeneous media applied to the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gonzalez, G.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.; Juarez-Salazar, R.

    2017-08-01

    Inhomogeneous or gradient index media exhibit a refractive index varying with the position. This kind of media are very interesting because they can be found in both synthetic as well as real life optical devices such as the human lens. In this work we present the development of a computational tool for ray tracing in refractive optical systems. Particularly, the human eye is used as the optical system under study. An inhomogeneous medium with similar characteristics to the human lens is introduced and modeled by the so-called slices method. The useful of our proposal is illustrated by several graphical results.

  1. Imaging of transverse cracks in austenitic welds with RT-SAFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, C.; Kolkoori, S. R.; Rahman, M.-U.; Prager, J.

    2014-02-01

    The synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) is an imaging technique commonly used in ultrasonic inspection. In order to apply SAFT to the inspection of austenitic welds, the inhomogeneous anisotropic nature of the weld structure has to be taken into account. A suitable approach to accomplish this, is to couple the SAFT-algorithm with a ray tracing program (RT-SAFT). While SAFT-imaging of cracks in austenitic welds by use of ray tracing has been carried out before, all attempts so far were limited to longitudinal cracks which usually allows a treatment as 2-dimensional problem. In case of transverse cracks, a full 3-dimensional ray tracing is necessary in order to perform a SAFT-reconstruction. In this paper, we give an outline of our attempts to reconstruct images of transverse cracks in austenitic welds, utilizing 3-dimensional ray tracing and a layered structure model derived from an empirical model of grain orientations in welds. We present results of this RT-SAFT on experimental data taken from transverse cracks in different austenitic welds, which show that size and position of the cracks can be estimated with good accuracy, and compare them to images obtained by assuming an isotropic homogeneous medium which corresponds to the application of the classical SAFT-algorithm.

  2. Spatial Control of Photoemitted Electron Beams using a Micro-Lens-Array Transverse-Shaping Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Northern Illinois U.; Qiang, G. [Tsinghua U., Beijing, Dept. Eng. Phys.; Ha, G. [POSTECH; Wisniewski, E. [Argonne (main); Piot, P. [NIU, DeKalb; Power, J. G. [Argonne (main); Gai, W. [Argonne (main)

    2017-07-24

    A common issue encountered in photoemission electron sources used in electron accelerators is the transverse inhomogeneity of the laser distribution resulting from the laser-amplification process and often use of frequency up conversion in nonlinear crystals. A inhomogeneous laser distribution on the photocathode produces charged beams with lower beam quality. In this paper, we explore the possible use of microlens arrays (fly-eye light condensers) to dramatically improve the transverse uniformity of the drive laser pulse on UV photocathodes. We also demonstrate the use of such microlens arrays to generate transversely-modulated electron beams and present a possible application to diagnose the properties of a magnetized beam.

  3. Parametric instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear coupling of three waves in a plasma is considered. One of the waves is assumed large and constant; its amplitude is the parameter of the parametric instability. The spatial-temporal evolution of the other two waves is treated theoretically, in one dimension, by analytic methods and by direct numerical integration of the basic equations. Various monotonic forms of inhomogeneity are considered; agreement with previous work is found and new results are established. Nonmonotonic inhomogeneities are considered, in the form of turbulence and, as a model problem, in the form of a simple sinusoidal modulation. Relatively small amounts of nonmonotonic inhomogeneity, in the presence of a linear density gradient, are found to destabilize the well-known convective saturation, absolute growth occurring instead. (U.S.)

  4. The influence of inhomogeneities on the dose distribution of fast electrons in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windemuth, M.

    1985-01-01

    Simple models are used to make a principal comparison between measured fast-electron dose distributions behind tissue inhomogeneities and those calculated by means of an irradiation planning system. The different organs were represented by water (for muscle), by cork (for the lungs) and by graphite (for bone). Corresponding to their density, inhomogeneities result, in principle, in a dose shift to a greater or smaller body depth which is correctly considered by the irradiation planning system. However, electron scattering transversal to beam direction will occur behind inhomogeneity edges which, in general, are not covered by the irradiation planning system, but which result in dose distributions deviating strongly from those expected as due to the shift. This is the reason for the limited accuracy of irradiation planning systems in complicated inhomogeneity distribution. The thesis demonstrates those cases which justify irradiation planning and those cases where they are not a reliable basis for irradiation. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Multiple scattering theory of radiative transfer in inhomogeneous atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanal, M.

    1973-01-01

    In this paper we treat the multiple scattering theory of radiative transfer in plane-parallel inhomogeneous atmospheres. The treatment presented here may be adopted to model atmospheres characterized by an optical depth dependent coherent scattering phase function. For the purpose of illustration we consider the semi-infinite medium in which the absorption property of the atmosphere is characterized by an exponential function. The methodology employed here is the extension of the case treated previously by the author for homogeneous atmospheres.

  6. Inhomogeneous microstructural growth by irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishan, K.; Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper we discuss the development of heterogeneous microstructure for uniform irradiation conditions. It is shown that microstructural inhomogeneities on a scale of 0.1 μm can develop purely from kinematic considerations because of the basic structure of the rate equations used...

  7. Effective medium theories of inhomogeneous media from modern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    In the study of disordered alloys, theorists have stated the physics of the problem in terms of an integral equation and analyzed this equation by techniques developed in the quantum mechanical theory of scattering. The application of the scattering theory approach to the computation of the effective dielectric constant of a polycrystal is discussed. The problem is framed in the form of an integral equation. Several well-known intuitive approximations are recovered, and the connection of the approximations to perturbation theory is indicated

  8. Two-point paraxial traveltimes in an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Iversen, E.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 189, č. 3 (2012), s. 1597-1610 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/0117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : body waves * seismic anisotropy * theoretical seismology * wave propagation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.853, year: 2012

  9. Inhomogeneous Markov point processes by transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Nielsen, Linda Stougaard

    2000-01-01

    We construct parametrized models for point processes, allowing for both inhomogeneity and interaction. The inhomogeneity is obtained by applying parametrized transformations to homogeneous Markov point processes. An interesting model class, which can be constructed by this transformation approach......, is that of exponential inhomogeneous Markov point processes. Statistical inference For such processes is discussed in some detail....

  10. Inhomogeneous Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, J. F.; Kajino, T.; Mathews, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    We reanalyze the allowed parameters for inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis in light of the WMAP constraints on the baryon-to-photon ratio and a recent measurement which has set the neutron lifetime to be 878.5 +/- 0.7 +/- 0.3 seconds. For a set baryon-to-photon ratio the new lifetime reduces the mass fraction of He4 by 0.0015 but does not significantly change the abundances of other isotopes. This enlarges the region of concordance between He4 and deuterium in the parameter space of the b...

  11. Effective elastic properties of matrix composites with transversely-isotropic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevostianov, Igor; Yilmaz, Nadir [New Mexico State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Kushch, Vladimir [Ukraine National Academy of Science, Inst. for Superhard Materials, Kiev (Ukraine); Levin, Valery [Institute Mexicano Del Petroleo, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    The present work addresses the problem of calculation of the macroscopic effective elastic properties of composites containing transversely isotropic phases. As a first step, the contribution of a single inhomogeneity to the effective elastic properties is quantified. Relevant stiffness and compliance contribution tensors are derived for spheroidal inhomogeneities. The limiting cases of spherical, penny-shaped and cylindrical shapes are discussed in detail. The property contribution tensors are used to derive the effective elastic moduli of composite materials formed by transversely isotropic phases in two approximations: non-interaction approximation and effective field method. The results are compared with elastic moduli of quasi-random composites. (Author)

  12. Large scale inhomogeneities and the cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Meszaros, A.

    1984-12-01

    The compatibility of cosmologic principles and possible large scale inhomogeneities of the Universe is discussed. It seems that the strongest symmetry principle which is still compatible with reasonable inhomogeneities, is a full conformal symmetry in the 3-space defined by the cosmological velocity field, but even in such a case, the standard model is isolated from the inhomogeneous ones when the whole evolution is considered. (author)

  13. Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - ditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for. Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect ...

  14. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    , the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy....... Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities...

  15. Quantum effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a horizontal inhomogeneous rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshoudy, G. A.

    2009-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied analytically in inhomogeneous plasma rotating uniformly in an external transverse magnetic field. The influence of the quantum mechanism is considered. For a stratified layer the linear growth rate is obtained. Some special cases that isolate the effect of various parameters on the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed. It is shown that for some cases, the presence of the external transverse magnetic field beside the quantum effect will bring about more stability on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  16. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...... non-linear fracture mechanics. The results indicated a good correlation between theory and tests. Furthermore, the model is suggested as theoretical base for determining load capacity of bonded anchorages with transverse pressure, in externally reinforced concrete structures....

  17. Estimating functions for inhomogeneous Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Estimation methods are reviewed for inhomogeneous Cox processes with tractable first and second order properties. We illustrate the various suggestions by means of data examples.......Estimation methods are reviewed for inhomogeneous Cox processes with tractable first and second order properties. We illustrate the various suggestions by means of data examples....

  18. Inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation with prime constraints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    50

    constraints. In the present paper, we study an inhomogeneous version of the problem. Inhomogeneous Diophantine .... Our strategy is to split the interval [1,N] into subintervals [P, P µ] and sum up over the. P's in the end. Accordingly, we restrict p to the interval P ≤ p < Pµ with Pµ ≤ N. We then obtain a lower bound for (6) by ...

  19. Mapping of moveout in a TTI medium

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2012-01-01

    To compute moveout in a transversely isotropic medium with tilted symmetry axis is a very complicated problem. We propose to split this problem into two parts. First, to compute the moveout in a corresponding VTI medium. Second, to map the computed moveout to a TTI medium.

  20. Transverse beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    2006-01-01

    This contribution describes the transverse dynamics of particles in a synchrotron. It builds on other contributions to the General Accelerator School for definitions of transport matrices and lattice functions. After a discussion of the conservation laws which govern emittance, the effects of closed orbit distortion and other field errors are treated. A number of practical methods of measuring the transverse behaviour of particles are outlined.

  1. Reducing the impact of inhomogeneous broadening on quantum dot based electromagnetically induced transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Slow light based on electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot medium is investigated theoretically. Three schemes, , V, and Λ, are compared and it is shown that the V-scheme gives a group velocity that is more than three orders of magnitude smaller...

  2. A scheme comparison of Autler-Townes based slow light in inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method to achieve significant optical signal delays exploiting the effect of Autler–Townes splitting (ATS) in an inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot medium. The absorption and slowdown effects are compared for three schemes i.e., Ξ, V, and Λ, corresponding to different excitation...

  3. Collisionless emission of radiation by an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejerovich, B.Eh.

    1976-01-01

    Collisionless emission of radiation by an inhomogeneous plasma due to the finite motion of charges in the field of external forces and collective interaction forces is studied. The intensity of the radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the transverse dimensions of the plasma. It apparently makes the main contribution to the radiation from a vacuum spark and other relativitstic beams compressed to a small size by collective interaction forces. The intensity of the collisionless radiation is calculated by taking into account Fermi statistics of the electrons. The spectral radiance in the low frequency range increases with frequency, reaches a maximum at the frequency of the finite motion of the emitters and then decreases. Measurement of collisionless radiation emission by a plasma compressed to a small size by the pinch effect is a natural way of diagnosing the plasma

  4. Superconductivity in an Inhomogeneous Bundle of Metallic and Semiconducting Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Grigorenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism for inhomogeneous systems, we have studied superconducting properties of a bundle of packed carbon nanotubes, making a triangular lattice in the bundle's transverse cross-section. The bundle consists of a mixture of metallic and doped semiconducting nanotubes, which have different critical transition temperatures. We investigate how a spatially averaged superconducting order parameter and the critical transition temperature depend on the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes in the bundle. Our simulations suggest that the superconductivity in the bundle will be suppressed when the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes will be less than 0.5, which is the percolation threshold for a two-dimensional triangular lattice.

  5. Transverse and Longitudinal proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Pryianka; Chand, Hum; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-04-01

    With close pairs (˜1.5arcmin) of quasars (QSOs), absorption in the spectra of a background quasar in the vicinity of a foreground quasar can be used to study the environment of the latter quasar at kpc-Mpc scales. For this we used a sample of 205 quasar pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky-Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) in the redshift range of 2.5 to 3.5 by studying their H I Ly-α absorption. We study the environment of QSOs both in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse direction by carrying out a statistical comparison of the Ly-α absorption lines in the quasar vicinity to that of the absorption lines caused by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). This comparison was done with IGM, matched in absorption redshift and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to that of the proximity region. In contrast to the measurements along the line-of-sight, the regions transverse to the quasars exhibit enhanced H I Ly-α absorption. This discrepancy can either be interpreted as due to an anisotropic emission from the quasars or as a consequence of their finite lifetime.

  6. Scattering and emission from inhomogeneous vegetation canopy and alien target beneath by using three-dimensional vector radiative transfer (3D-VRT) equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yaqiu; Liang Zichang

    2005-01-01

    To solve the 3D-VRT equation for the model of spatially inhomogeneous scatter media, the finite enclosure of the scatter media is geometrically divided, in both vertical z and transversal (x,y) directions, to form very thin multi-boxes. The zeroth order emission, first-order Mueller matrix of each thin box and an iterative approach of high-order radiative transfer are applied to derive high-order scattering and emission of whole inhomogeneous scatter media. Numerical results of polarized brightness temperature at microwave frequency and under different radiometer resolutions from inhomogeneous scatter model such as vegetation canopy and alien target beneath canopy are simulated and discussed

  7. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. II. Sinusoidally driven shear and multisinusoidal inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Benjamin A; Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D

    2015-07-01

    We use molecular-dynamics computer simulations to investigate the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure responses of a simple model atomic fluid to transverse and longitudinal external forces. We have previously introduced a response function formalism for describing the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles in an atomic fluid when it is perturbed by a combination of longitudinal and transverse external forces that are independent of time and have a simple sinusoidal spatial variation. In this paper, we extend the application of the previously introduced formalism to consider the case of a longitudinal force composed of multiple sinusoidal components in combination with a single-component sinusoidal transverse force. We find that additional harmonics are excited in the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles due to couplings between the force components. By analyzing the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles in Fourier space, we are able to evaluate the Fourier coefficients of the response functions, which now have additional components describing the coupling relationships. Having evaluated the Fourier coefficients of the response functions, we are then able to accurately predict the density, velocity, and shear-pressure profiles for fluids that are under the influence of a longitudinal force composed of two or three sinusoidal components combined with a single-component sinusoidal transverse force. We also find that in the case of a multisinusoidal longitudinal force, it is sufficient to include only pairwise couplings between different longitudinal force components. This means that it is unnecessary to include couplings between three or more force components in the case of a longitudinal force composed of many Fourier components, and this paves the way for a highly accurate but tractable treatment of nonlocal transport phenomena in fluids with density and strain-rate inhomogeneities on the molecular length scale.

  8. Morphology of atmospheric transparent inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Frank D.; Peterson, William A.; Hines, John R.; Drexler, James J.; Soules, David B.; Waldie, Arthur H.; Qualtrough, John A.

    1990-09-01

    Observations are presented displaying the evolution of transparent inhomogeneities in the natural atmosphere. All results are for horizontal paths in the first few meters above ground level. Measurements were taken using both a schlieren optical system capable of sensing fine scale gradients of refractive index and an optical system sensing the fine structure of intensity scintillation over various path lengths. Laser sources were utilized for both systems, and a full description of the two optical systems is included. The schlieren system employs two high quality 10-in-diameter mirrors to produce the illuminated working section. Trade-offs between this and other schlieren optical system configurations are discussed. The intensity scintillation measurements were taken with a collimated laser beam projected on a target board. System characteristics including the CCD camera, sampled frame rates, exposure times, and data processing are discussed. The central problem addressed in this study is to identify the conditions when G. Taylor's "frozen turbulence" hypothesis is justified. The optically derived results are compared to results from previous studies using tower, aircraft, and tethered balloon measurements. Analyses presented include histograms, three-dimensional displays, contour maps of features, and frame subtraction schemes. Simultaneous measurements of integrated path and point measurements of the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2), and wind , are included in the results.

  9. Holographic confinement in inhomogeneous backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marolf, Donald; Wien, Jason [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2016-08-02

    As noted by Witten, compactifying a d-dimensional holographic CFT on an S{sup 1} gives a class of (d−1)-dimensional confining theories with gravity duals. The prototypical bulk solution dual to the ground state is a double Wick rotation of the AdS{sub d+1} Schwarzschild black hole known as the AdS soliton. We generalize such examples by allowing slow variations in the size of the S{sup 1}, and thus in the confinement scale. Coefficients governing the second order response of the system are computed for 3≤d≤8 using a derivative expansion closely related to the fluid-gravity correspondence. The primary physical results are that i) gauge-theory flux tubes tend to align orthogonal to gradients and along the eigenvector of the Hessian with the lowest eigenvalue, ii) flux tubes aligned orthogonal to gradients are attracted to gradients for d≤6 but repelled by gradients for d≥7, iii) flux tubes are repelled by regions where the second derivative along the tube is large and positive but are attracted to regions where the eigenvalues of the Hessian are large and positive in directions orthogonal to the tube, and iv) for d>3, inhomogeneities act to raise the total energy of the confining vacuum above its zeroth order value.

  10. The transverse spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artru, X. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this introduction, which is far from exhaustive, was to give an overview on the richness of transverse spin quantity and its differences in comparison with helicity. From the experimental point of view, the physics of quark transversity in deep inelastic reaction is still practically unexplored. This situation will certainly change rapidly, with planned experiments at DESY (HERMES), Brookhaven (RHIC) and CERN (COMPAS), but there is a long way before knowing the transversity distribution, {delta}q(x), as precisely as the helicity distribution, {delta}q(x), now. Unless polarized anti-proton beams become feasible, experiments probing quark transversity will rely mainly on 'quark polarimeters', like {lambda}'s or the Collins effect. These polarimeters will have to be calibrated at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. The Collins polarimeter will by the way allow the flavor decomposition of {delta}q(x), using mesons of various charging and strangeness. Quark polarimetry is by itself an interesting topic of non-perturbative QCD, and may teach us something about the breaking of chiral symmetry. Let us recall that, if chiral symmetry were unbroken, transversity would be undefined. The transversity physics program is not at all a 'remake' of the helicity one. Helicity and transversity probe rather different aspects of the hadron structure. Differences between {delta}q(x) and {delta}q(x) will reveal non-relativistic effects in the baryon wave function. Also {delta}q(x) does not couples to gluon distributions, thus it is free from anomaly. In that respect it is a more clean probe than {delta}q(x). In fact, the combination of helicity and transversity measurements will perhaps be the most interesting. Polarized parton densities taking only the helicity degree of freedom are almost 'classical'. Quantum aspects of spin correlations, like violation of Bell's inequality, can be found only when varying the spin quantification axis

  11. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust collapse in higher ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider a collapsing spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust cloud in higher dimensional space-time. We show that the central singularity of collapse can be a strong curvature or a weak curvature naked singularity depending on the initial density distribution.

  12. Nonequilibrium Green's functions approach to inhomogeneous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Balzer, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a self-contained introduction to non-equilibrium quantum particle dynamics for inhomogeneous systems, including a survey of recent breakthroughs pioneered by the authors and others. The approach is based on real-time Green's functions.

  13. Ehrenfest force in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisakyan, A.N.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Samojlov, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    The Ehrenfest force in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is calculated. It is shown that there exist such (very rare) topologically nontrivial physical situations when the Gauss theorem in its classic formulation fails and, as a consequence, apart from the usual Lorentz force an additional, purely imaginary force acts on the charged particle. This force arises only in inhomogeneous magnetic fields of special configurations, has a purely quantum origin, and disappears in the classical limit

  14. Inhomogeneous inflation: The initial-value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, P.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Matzner, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    We present a spatially three-dimensional study for solving the initial-value problem in general relativity for inhomogeneous cosmologies. We use York's conformal approach to solve the constraint equations of Einstein's field equations for scalar field sources and find the initial data which will be used in the evolution. This work constitutes the first stage in the development of a code to analyze the effects of matter and spacetime inhomogeneities on inflation

  15. Contact instabilities of anisotropic and inhomogeneous soft elastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Gaurav; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2012-02-01

    Anisotropy plays important roles in various biological phenomena such as adhesion of geckos and grasshoppers enabled by the attachment pods having hierarchical structures like thin longitudinal setae connected with threads mimicked by anisotropic films. We study the contact instability of a transversely isotropic thin elastic film when it comes in contact proximity of another surface. In the present study we investigate the contact stability of a thin incompressible transversely isotropic film by performing linear stability analysis. Based on the linear stability analysis, we show that an approaching contactor renders the film unstable. The critical wavelength of the instability is a function of the total film thickness and the ratio of the Young's modulus in the longitudinal direction and the shear modulus in the plane containing the longitudinal axis. We also analyze the stability of a thin gradient film that is elastically inhomogeneous across its thickness. Compared to a homogeneous elastic film, it becomes unstable with a longer wavelength when the film becomes softer in going from the surface to the substrate.

  16. Perturbed soliton excitations in inhomogeneous DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, M.; Vasumathi, V.

    2005-05-01

    We study nonlinear dynamics of inhomogeneous DNA double helical chain under dynamic plane-base rotator model by considering angular rotation of bases in a plane normal to the helical axis. The DNA dynamics in this case is found to be governed by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation when taking into account the interstrand hydrogen bonding energy and intrastrand inhomogeneous stacking energy and making an analogy with the Heisenberg model of the Hamiltonian for an inhomogeneous anisotropic spin ladder with ferromagnetic legs and antiferromagentic rung coupling. In the homogeneous limit the dynamics is governed by the kink-antikink soliton of the sine-Gordon equation which represents the formation of open state configuration in DNA double helix. The effect of inhomogeneity in stacking energy in the form of localized and periodic variations on the formation of open states in DNA is studied under perturbation. The perturbed soliton is obtained using a multiple scale soliton perturbation theory by solving the associated linear eigen value problem and constructing the complete set of eigen functions. The inhomogeneity in stacking energy is found to modulate the width and speed of the soliton depending on the nature of inhomogeneity. Also it introduces fluctuations in the form of train of pulses or periodic oscillation in the open state configuration (author)

  17. Noninterceptive transverse beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.; Minerbo, G.N.; Teel, L.E. Jr.; Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The transverse emittance properties of a high-current linear accelerator may be measured by using TV cameras sensitive to the visible radiation emitted following beam interactions with residual gas. This paper describes the TV system being used to measure emittances for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project

  18. Three-dimensional distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities at the Nankai trough seismogenic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2012-12-01

    inhomogeneities) are the same overt the Nankai trough, but random inhomogeneities at smaller wavenumber shows anomalously large values at the southwestern part of Hyuga-nada and Kii-channel. Anomaly at Hyuga-nada is almost located at the subducted Kyushu Palau ridge. Similar random inhomogeneities were imaged near the remnant of ancient arc in the northern Izu-Bonin arc (Takahashi et al. 2011). We speculate these random inhomogeneities reflect the remnant of ancient volcanic activities. These results imply that random inhomogeneities at Kii-channel are possibly related to the subducted seamount, and that random inhomogeneities are useful to discuss the medium characteristics in subduction zone.

  19. Transverse flow of kaons in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng Yu Ming; Fuchs, C; Faessler, A; Xiao Wu; Hua Da Ping; Yan Yu Peng

    2002-01-01

    The transverse flow of positively charged kaons from heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energy is investigated within the framework of the quantum molecular dynamics model. The calculated results show that the experimental data are only consistent with those including the kaon mean-field potential from the chiral Lagrangian. This indicates that the transverse flow pattern of kaons is a useful probe of the kaon potential in a nuclear medium

  20. Critical-temperature inhomogeneities and resistivity rounding in copper oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maza, J.; Vidal, F.

    1991-01-01

    By using effective-medium approaches, we obtain the onset of the electrical-resistivity rounding, above the normal-superconducting transition, associated with inhomogeneities of the mean-field critical temperature T c0 at scales larger than the superconducting correlation length. These results are compared with available data in single-crystal and single-phase (to within 4%) polycrystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ samples. This comparison shows that the measured resistivity rounding cannot be explained by these types of local T c0 inhomogeneities. Complementarily, our calculations allow us to check some proposals on T c0 inhomogeneities associated with local sample strains or oxygen-content variations. The interplay between T c0 inhomogeneities and superconducting order-parameter fluctuations (SCOPF) leads to the conclusion that in the mean-field-like region (MFR) above the superconducting transition, the T c0 inhomogeneity contribution to the measured resistivity rounding in high-quality (single-phase) cuprate oxide superconductors is negligible. In contrast, our analysis confirms that in the MFR these effects may be explained quantitatively on the grounds of the Lawrence-Doniach theory for SCOPF

  1. Large transverse momentum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1977-09-01

    It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references

  2. Transverse tomography and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leer, J.W.H.

    1982-01-01

    This study was intended to delineate the indications for radiotherapy treatment-planning with the help of computerized axial tomography (C.T.) and transverse analog tomography (T.A.T.). Radiotherapy localisation procedures with the conventional method (simulator), with the CT-scanner and with the transverse analog tomograph (T.A.T., Simtomix, Oldelft) were compared. As criterium for evaluation differences in reconstruction drawing based on these methods were used. A certain method was judged ''superior'' to another if the delineation of the target volume was more accurate, if a better impression was gained of the site of (for irradiation) organs at risk, or if the localisation could only be performed with that method. The selected group of patients consisted of 120 patients for whom a reconstruction drawing in the transverse plane was made according to the treatment philosophy. In this group CT-assisted localisation was judged on 68 occasions superior to the conventional method. In a number of cases it was found that a ''standard'' change in a standard target volume, on the base of augmented anatomical knowledge, made the conventional method sufficient. The use of CT-scanner for treatment planning was estimated. For ca. 270/1000 new patients a CT-scan is helpful (diagnostic scan), for 140 of them the scan is necessary (planning scan). The quality of the anatomical information obtained with the T.A.T. does not yet fall within acceptable limits, but progress has been made. (Auth.)

  3. Determination of the tissue inhomogeneity correction in high dose rate Brachytherapy for Iridium-192 source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlanka Ravikumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brachytherapy treatment planning, the effects of tissue heterogeneities are commonly neglected due to lack of accurate, general and fast three-dimensional (3D dose-computational algorithms. In performing dose calculations, it is assumed that the tumor and surrounding tissues constitute a uniform, homogeneous medium equivalent to water. In the recent past, three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT based treatment planning for Brachytherapy applications has been popularly adopted. However, most of the current commercially available planning systems do not provide the heterogeneity corrections for Brachytherapy dosimetry. In the present study, we have measured and quantified the impact of inhomogeneity caused by different tissues with a 0.015 cc ion chamber. Measurements were carried out in wax phantom which was employed to measure the heterogeneity. Iridium-192 (192 Ir source from high dose rate (HDR Brachytherapy machine was used as the radiation source. The reduction of dose due to tissue inhomogeneity was measured as the ratio of dose measured with different types of inhomogeneity (bone, spleen, liver, muscle and lung to dose measured with homogeneous medium for different distances. It was observed that different tissues attenuate differently, with bone tissue showing maximum attenuation value and lung tissue resulting minimum value and rest of the tissues giving values lying in between those of bone and lung. It was also found that inhomogeneity at short distance is considerably more than that at larger distances.

  4. AdS null deformations with inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, K.

    2012-12-01

    We study AdS×X null deformations arising as near horizon limits of D3-brane analogs of inhomogeneous plane waves. Restricting to normalizable deformations for the AdS5 case, these generically correspond in the dual field theory to super Yang-Mills states with light cone momentum density T++ varying spatially, the homogeneous case studied in [K. Narayan, arXiv:1202.5935] corresponding to uniform T++. All of these preserve some supersymmetry. Generically these inhomogeneous solutions exhibit analogs of horizons in the interior where a timelike Killing vector becomes null. From the point of view of x+-dimensional reduction, the circle pinches off on these horizon loci in the interior. We discuss similar inhomogeneous solutions with asymptotically Lifshitz boundary conditions, as well as aspects of Lifshitz singularities in string constructions involving anti-de Sitter null deformations. We also briefly discuss holographic entanglement entropy for some of these.

  5. Search for inhomogeneous phases in fermionic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jens; Finkbeiner, Stefan; Karbstein, Felix; Roscher, Dietrich

    2015-06-01

    We revisit the Gross-Neveu model with N fermion flavors in 1 +1 dimensions and compute its phase diagram at finite temperature and chemical potential in the large-N limit. To this end, we double the number of fermion degrees of freedom in a specific way which allows us to detect inhomogeneous phases in an efficient manner. We show analytically that this "fermion doubling trick" predicts correctly the position of the boundary between the chirally symmetric phase and the phase with broken chiral symmetry. Most importantly, we find that the emergence of an inhomogeneous ground state is predicted correctly. We critically analyze our approach based on this trick and discuss its applicability to other theories, such as fermionic models in higher dimensions, where it may be used to guide the search for inhomogeneous phases.

  6. Inhomogeneous Markov Models for Describing Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Emil Banning; Møller, Jan K.; Morales, Juan Miguel

    2017-01-01

    . Specifically, an inhomogeneous Markov model that captures the diurnal variation in the use of a vehicle is presented. The model is defined by the time-varying probabilities of starting and ending a trip, and is justified due to the uncertainty associated with the use of the vehicle. The model is fitted to data...... collected from the actual utilization of a vehicle. Inhomogeneous Markov models imply a large number of parameters. The number of parameters in the proposed model is reduced using B-splines....

  7. On electromagnetic field problems in inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media is of practical interest in general scattering and propagation problems and in the study of lenses. For certain types of inhomogeneities, the fields may be represented in terms of two scalars. In a general orthogonal coordinate system, these potentials satisfy second order differential equations. Exact solutions of these equations are known only for a few particular cases and in general, an approximate or numerical technique must be employed. The present work reviews and generalizes some of the main methods of attack of the problem. The results are presented in a form appropriate for numerical computation.

  8. Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

    2008-10-31

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.

  9. A hybrid optimization method for biplanar transverse gradient coil design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Feng; Tang Xin; Jin Zhe; Jiang Zhongde; Shen Yifei; Meng Bin; Zu Donglin; Wang Weimin

    2007-01-01

    The optimization of transverse gradient coils is one of the fundamental problems in designing magnetic resonance imaging gradient systems. A new approach is presented in this paper to optimize the transverse gradient coils' performance. First, in the traditional spherical harmonic target field method, high order coefficients, which are commonly ignored, are used in the first stage of the optimization process to give better homogeneity. Then, some cosine terms are introduced into the series expansion of stream function. These new terms provide simulated annealing optimization with new freedoms. Comparison between the traditional method and the optimized method shows that the inhomogeneity in the region of interest can be reduced from 5.03% to 1.39%, the coil efficiency increased from 3.83 to 6.31 mT m -1 A -1 and the minimum distance of these discrete coils raised from 1.54 to 3.16 mm

  10. Inhomogeneities in high energy photon beams used in radiotherapy. Experimental and theoretical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappas, K.

    1986-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the influence of the human body inhomogeneities on the dose distribution for high energy photons beams used in Radiotherapy. It consists in an experimental part and a theoretical analysis leading to original models of calculation. We study essentially, - the beam quality of the machines used and its influence on some basic dosimetric quantities and on the response of an ionization chamber. - The dose perturbation due to off-axis heterogeneous volumes at off-axis points of measurement; a model is suggested to take into account the perturbation of the multiple scatter. The perturbation of the dose in the transition region, between water equivalent medium and heterogeneous medium (air) is also investigated. The last part is devoted to computer applications of the proposed correction methods and to a comparison between the different computerized treatment planning systems which take into account of inhomogeneities [fr

  11. Carbon nanotubes in an inhomogeneous transverse magnetic field: exactly solvable model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubský, Vít; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 11 (2014), s. 115307 ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR GPP203/11/P038 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * dirac equation * magnetic field * finite-gap system Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.583, year: 2014

  12. Figures of transversality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I explore how prenatal screening is imbricated within state agendas, aspirations, and imaginings in contemporary Vietnam. In an effort to develop new ethnographic tropes for understanding the formation called "the state," I argue for a phenomenological take that emphasizes its...... affective and embodied aspects. Seeing the anomalous fetus as a "figure of transversality," as a critical focus for powerful imaginings and desires, I show how state–society relations in Vietnam are suffused by visceral affectivity and moral engagement. In the realm of reproduction, intense sentiments...... of anxiety, dread, desire, ambition, and hope tie together the state and its citizens, animating individual aspirations as well as national population policies....

  13. Scattering of inhomogeneous circularly polarized optical field and mechanical manifestation of the internal energy flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekshaev, A. Ya; Angelsky, O. V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Mie theory and on the incident beam model via superposition of two plane waves, we analyze numerically the momentum flux of the field scattered by a spherical, nonmagnetic microparticle placed within the spatially inhomogeneous circularly polarized paraxial light beam. The asymmetry...... between the forward- and backward-scattered momentum fluxes in the Rayleigh scattering regime appears due to the spin part of the internal energy flow in the incident beam. The transverse ponderomotive forces exerted on dielectric and conducting particles of different sizes are calculated and special...

  14. Inhomogeneities in sheared ultrathin lubricating films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manias, E; Hadziioannou, G; ten Brinke, G.

    1996-01-01

    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulations have been used to study nanoscopically confined oligomer films under shear. Beyond the well-known density layering across such films, other structural and dynamical inhomogeneities exist across such films and are discussed here. When these films

  15. Inhomogeneous Pre-Big Bang String Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziano, G.

    1997-01-01

    An inhomogeneous version of Pre--Big Bang cosmology emerges, within string theory, from quite generic initial conditions, provided they lie deeply inside the weak-coupling, low-curvature regime. Large-scale homogeneity, flatness, and isotropy appear naturally as late-time outcomes of such an evolution.

  16. Generalized Eck peak in inhomogeneous Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistul, Mikhail V.; Giuliani, Gabriele F.

    1997-02-01

    In inhomogeneous Josephson junctions the Eck peak characterizing the current-voltage characteristics is predicted to be replaced by a rather different yet prominent feature whose location and shape strongly depend on the strength of the applied magnetic field and the spatial correlations of the associated distorted Abrikosov flux lattice.

  17. No hair theorem for inhomogeneous cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, L.G.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    We show that under very general conditions any inhomogeneous cosmological model with a positive cosmological constant, that can be described in a synchronous reference system will tend asymptotically in time towards the de Sitter solution. This is shown to be relevant in the context of inflationary models as it makes inflation very weakly dependent on initial conditions. 8 refs

  18. Manifestations of Magnetic Field Inhomogeneities Lawrence Rudnick

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Both observations and simulations reveal large inhomo- geneities in magnetic field distributions in diffuse plasmas. Incorporating these inhomogeneities into various calculations can significantly change the inferred physical conditions. In extragalactic sources, e.g., these can compromise analyses of spectral ...

  19. Effective permittivity of finite inhomogeneous objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghunathan, S.B.; Budko, N.V.

    2010-01-01

    A generalization of the S-parameter retrieval method for finite three-dimensional inhomogeneous objects under arbitrary illumination and observation conditions is presented. The effective permittivity of such objects may be rigorously defined as a solution of a nonlinear inverse scattering problem.

  20. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust collapse in higher ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider a collapsing spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust cloud in higher dimensional space-time. ... The existence of strong curvature naked singularities in gravitational collapse of spherically symmetric space-times ... where an over dot denotes partial derivative with respect to t. The functions F(r) and f(r).

  1. Anomalous transient behavior from an inhomogeneous initial optical vortex density

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inhomogeneous optical vortex densities can be produced in stochastic optical fields by a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of speckle fields. During subsequent propagation, the inhomogeneity in the vortex density decays away...

  2. Transverse section scanning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  3. Inhomogeneities from quantum collapse scheme without inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cañate, Pedro, E-mail: pedro.canate@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Sudarsky, Daniel, E-mail: sudarsky@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-04-09

    In this work, we consider the problem of the emergence of seeds of cosmic structure in the framework of the non-inflationary model proposed by Hollands and Wald. In particular, we consider a modification to that proposal designed to account for breaking the symmetries of the initial quantum state, leading to the generation of the primordial inhomogeneities. This new ingredient is described in terms of a spontaneous reduction of the wave function. We investigate under which conditions one can recover an essentially scale free spectrum of primordial inhomogeneities, and which are the dominant deviations that arise in the model as a consequence of the introduction of the collapse of the quantum state into that scenario.

  4. Inhomogeneities from quantum collapse scheme without inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R.; Cañate, Pedro; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we consider the problem of the emergence of seeds of cosmic structure in the framework of the non-inflationary model proposed by Hollands and Wald. In particular, we consider a modification to that proposal designed to account for breaking the symmetries of the initial quantum state, leading to the generation of the primordial inhomogeneities. This new ingredient is described in terms of a spontaneous reduction of the wave function. We investigate under which conditions one can recover an essentially scale free spectrum of primordial inhomogeneities, and which are the dominant deviations that arise in the model as a consequence of the introduction of the collapse of the quantum state into that scenario

  5. Inhomogeneities from quantum collapse scheme without inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. Bengochea

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we consider the problem of the emergence of seeds of cosmic structure in the framework of the non-inflationary model proposed by Hollands and Wald. In particular, we consider a modification to that proposal designed to account for breaking the symmetries of the initial quantum state, leading to the generation of the primordial inhomogeneities. This new ingredient is described in terms of a spontaneous reduction of the wave function. We investigate under which conditions one can recover an essentially scale free spectrum of primordial inhomogeneities, and which are the dominant deviations that arise in the model as a consequence of the introduction of the collapse of the quantum state into that scenario.

  6. Cosmic acceleration driven by mirage inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galfard, Christophe [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Germani, Cristiano [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Kehagias, Alex [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece)

    2006-03-21

    A cosmological model based on an inhomogeneous D3-brane moving in an AdS{sub 5} x S{sub 5} bulk is introduced. Although there are no special points in the bulk, the brane universe has a centre and is isotropic around it. The model has an accelerating expansion and its effective cosmological constant is inversely proportional to the distance from the centre, giving a possible geometrical origin for the smallness of a present-day cosmological constant. Besides, if our model is considered as an alternative of early-time acceleration, it is shown that the early stage accelerating phase ends in a dust-dominated FRW homogeneous universe. Mirage-driven acceleration thus provides a dark matter component for the brane universe final state. We finally show that the model fulfils the current constraints on inhomogeneities.

  7. Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, P M; Crowley, B J B; Gericke, D O; Regan, S P; Gregori, G

    2016-04-12

    Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems.

  8. Simultaneous use of linear and nonlinear gradients for B1+ inhomogeneity correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Koray; Atalar, Ergin

    2017-09-01

    The simultaneous use of linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (L-SEMs) and nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields (N-SEMs) in B 1 + inhomogeneity problems is formulated and demonstrated with both simulations and experiments. Independent excitation k-space variables for N-SEMs are formulated for the simultaneous use of L-SEMs and N-SEMs by assuming a small tip angle. The formulation shows that, when N-SEMs are considered as an independent excitation k-space variable, numerous different k-space trajectories and frequency weightings differing in dimension, length, and energy can be designed for a given target transverse magnetization distribution. The advantage of simultaneous use of L-SEMs and N-SEMs is demonstrated by B 1 + inhomogeneity correction with spoke excitation. To fully utilize the independent k-space formulations, global optimizations are performed for 1D, 2D RF power limited, and 2D RF power unlimited simulations and experiments. Three different cases are compared: L-SEMs alone, N-SEMs alone, and both used simultaneously. In all cases, the simultaneous use of L-SEMs and N-SEMs leads to a decreased standard deviation in the ROI compared with using only L-SEMs or N-SEMs. The simultaneous use of L-SEMs and N-SEMs results in better B 1 + inhomogeneity correction than using only L-SEMs or N-SEMs due to the increased number of degrees of freedom. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. CFAR data fusion center with inhomogeneous receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Fusté, Antonio; Broquetas Ibars, Antoni

    1992-01-01

    Detection systems with distributed sensors and data fusion are increasingly used by surveillance systems. A system formed by N inhomogeneous constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors (cell-averaging (CA) and ordered statistic (OS) CFAR detectors) is studied. A recursive formulation of an algorithm that permits a fixed level of false alarms in the data fusion center is presented, to set the optimum individual threshold levels in the CFAR receivers and the optimum `K out of N' decision rule in...

  10. Cliques in dense inhomogenous random graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Martin; Hladký, Jan; Máthé, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), s. 275-314 ISSN 1042-9832 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : inhomogeneous random graphs * clique number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.243, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary. wiley .com/doi/10.1002/rsa.20715/abstract

  11. Cliques in dense inhomogenous random graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Martin; Hladký, Jan; Máthé, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), s. 275-314 ISSN 1042-9832 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : inhomogeneous random graphs * clique number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.243, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rsa.20715/abstract

  12. Diffusion MRI: Mitigation of Magnetic Field Inhomogeneities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcon, P.; Bartušek, Karel; Dokoupil, Zdeněk; Gescheidtová, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2012), s. 205-212 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP102/11/0318; GA ČR GAP102/12/1104 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : correction * diffusion * inhomogeneity * eddy currents * magnetic resonance Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2012

  13. Diffraction Coefficients of a Semi-Infinite Planar Crack Embedded in a Transversely-Isotropic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautesen, A.; Fradkin, L.; Zernov, V.

    2007-03-01

    We develop a semi-analytical procedure for calculating the diffraction coefficients for cracks perpendicular to the symmetry axis of a transversely-isotropic medium. The problem is of interest in the mathematical modeling of NDE (non-destructive evaluation) of austenitic steels, which are found in claddings and other welds in the nuclear reactors and can be modelled as transversely isotropic.

  14. Effect of magnetic field on the propagation of quasi-transverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transverse waves in a nonlinear perfectly conducting nonhomogeneous elastic medium in the presence of a uniform magnetic field transverse to the direction of wave propagation. Different types of figures have been drawn to exhibit the distortion of ...

  15. Inhomogeneities and the Modeling of Radio Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björnsson, C.-I.; Keshavarzi, S. T., E-mail: bjornsson@astro.su.se [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE–106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-05-20

    Observations of radio supernovae (SNe) often exhibit characteristics not readily accounted for by a homogeneous, spherically symmetric synchrotron model; e.g., flat-topped spectra/light curves. It is shown that many of these deviations from the standard model can be attributed to an inhomogeneous source structure. When inhomogeneities are present, the deduced radius of the source and, hence, the shock velocity, is sensitive to the details of the modeling. As the inhomogeneities are likely to result from the same mechanism that amplify the magnetic field, a comparison between observations and the detailed numerical simulations now under way may prove mutually beneficial. It is argued that the radio emission in Type Ib/c SNe has a small volume filling factor and comes from a narrow region associated with the forward shock, while the radio emission region in SN 1993J (Type IIb) is determined by the extent of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability emanating from the contact discontinuity. Attention is also drawn to the similarities between radio SNe and the structural properties of SN remnants.

  16. Process Modeling With Inhomogeneous Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machorro, R.; Macleod, H. A.; Jacobson, M. R.

    1986-12-01

    Designers of optical multilayer coatings commonly assume that the individual layers will be ideally homogeneous and isotropic. In practice, it is very difficult to control the conditions involved in the complex evaporation process sufficiently to produce such ideal films. Clearly, changes in process parameters, such as evaporation rate, chamber pressure, and substrate temperature, affect the microstructure of the growing film, frequently producing inhomogeneity in structure or composition. In many cases, these effects are interdependent, further complicating the situation. However, this process can be simulated on powerful, interactive, and accessible microcomputers. In this work, we present such a model and apply it to estimate the influence of an inhomogeneous layer on multilayer performance. Presently, the program simulates film growth, thermal expansion and contraction, and thickness monitoring procedures, and includes the effects of uncertainty in these parameters or noise. Although the model is being developed to cover very general cases, we restrict the present discussion to isotropic and nondispersive quarterwave layers to understand the particular effects of inhomogeneity. We studied several coating designs and related results and tolerances to variations in evaporation conditions. The model is composed of several modular subprograms, is written in Fortran, and is executed on an IBM-PC with 640 K of memory. The results can be presented in graphic form on a monochrome monitor. We are currently installing and implementing color capability to improve the clarity of the multidimensional output.

  17. Wealth inhomogeneity applied to crash rate theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    A crash rate theory based on corporate economic utility maximization is applied to individual behavior in U.S. and German motorway death rates, by using wealth inhomogeneity data in ten-percentile bins to account for variations of utility maximization in the population. Germany and the U.S. have similar median wealth figures, a well-known indicator of accident risk, but different motorway death rates. It is found that inhomogeneity in roughly the 10(th) to 30(th) percentile, not revealed by popular measures such as the Gini index which focus on differences at the higher percentiles, provides a satisfactory explanation of the data. The inhomogeneity analysis reduces data disparity from a factor of 2.88 to 1.75 as compared with median wealth assumed homogeneity, and further to 1.09 with average wealth assumed homogeneity. The first reduction from 2.88 to 1.75 is attributable to inequality at lower percentiles and suggests it may be as important in indicating socioeconomic risk as extremes in the upper percentile ranges, and that therefore the U.S. socioeconomic risk may be higher than generally realized.

  18. Rotational inhomogeneities from pre-big bang?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the rotational inhomogeneities is investigated in the specific framework of four-dimensional pre-big bang models. While minimal (dilaton-driven) scenarios do not lead to rotational fluctuations, in the case of non-minimal (string-driven) models, fluid sources are present in the pre-big bang phase. The rotational modes of the geometry, coupled to the divergenceless part of the velocity field, can then be amplified depending upon the value of the barotropic index of the perfect fluids. In the light of a possible production of rotational inhomogeneities, solutions describing the coupled evolution of the dilaton field and of the fluid sources are scrutinized in both the string and Einstein frames. In semi-realistic scenarios, where the curvature divergences are regularized by means of a non-local dilaton potential, the rotational inhomogeneities are amplified during the pre-big bang phase but they decay later on. Similar analyses can also be performed when a contraction occurs directly in the string frame metric

  19. Inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy and big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmire, Scott E.; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    We examine big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in the case of inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy, in the limit where the fluctuations are sufficiently small on large length scales that the present-day element abundances are homogeneous. We consider two representative cases: degeneracy of the electron neutrino alone and equal chemical potentials for all three neutrinos. We use a linear programming method to constrain an arbitrary distribution of the chemical potentials. For the current set of (highly restrictive) limits on the primordial element abundances, homogeneous neutrino degeneracy barely changes the allowed range of the baryon-to-photon ratio η. Inhomogeneous degeneracy allows for little change in the lower bound on η, but the upper bound in this case can be as large as η=1.1x10 -8 (only ν e degeneracy) or η=1.0x10 -9 (equal degeneracies for all three neutrinos). For the case of inhomogeneous neutrino degeneracy, we show that there is no BBN upper bound on the neutrino energy density, which is bounded in this case only by limits from structure formation and the cosmic microwave background. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  20. Structural elucidation of inhomogeneous lignins from bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jia-Long; Sun, Shao-Long; Xue, Bai-Liang; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of the inhomogeneous molecular structure of lignin from bamboo is a prerequisite for promoting the "biorefinery" technologies of the bamboo feedstock. A mild and successive method for fractionating native lignin from bamboo species was proposed in the present study. The molecular structure and structural inhomogeneity of the isolated lignin polymers were comprehensively investigated by elemental analysis, carbohydrate analysis, state-of-the-art NMR and analytical pyrolysis techniques (quantitative (13)C NMR, (13)C-DEPT 135 NMR, 2D-HSQC NMR, (31)P NMR, and pyrolysis-GC-MS). The results showed that the proposed method is effective for extracting lignin from bamboo. NMR results showed that syringyl (S) was the predominant unit in bamboo lignin over guaiacyl (G) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units. In addition, the lignin was associated with p-coumarates and ferulates via ester and ether bonds, respectively. Moreover, various substructures, such as β-O-4, β-β, β-5, β-1, and α,β-diaryl ether linkages, were identified and quantified by NMR techniques. Based on the results obtained, a proposed schematic diagram of structural heterogeneity of the lignin polymers extracted from the bamboo is presented. In short, well-defined inhomogeneous structures of native lignin from bamboo will facilitate further applications of bamboo in current biorefineries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rotational inhomogeneities from pre-big bang?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2005-01-21

    The evolution of the rotational inhomogeneities is investigated in the specific framework of four-dimensional pre-big bang models. While minimal (dilaton-driven) scenarios do not lead to rotational fluctuations, in the case of non-minimal (string-driven) models, fluid sources are present in the pre-big bang phase. The rotational modes of the geometry, coupled to the divergenceless part of the velocity field, can then be amplified depending upon the value of the barotropic index of the perfect fluids. In the light of a possible production of rotational inhomogeneities, solutions describing the coupled evolution of the dilaton field and of the fluid sources are scrutinized in both the string and Einstein frames. In semi-realistic scenarios, where the curvature divergences are regularized by means of a non-local dilaton potential, the rotational inhomogeneities are amplified during the pre-big bang phase but they decay later on. Similar analyses can also be performed when a contraction occurs directly in the string frame metric.

  2. Degradation of the Bragg peak due to inhomogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urie, M; Goitein, M; Holley, W R; Chen, G T

    1986-01-01

    The rapid fall-off of dose at the end of range of heavy charged particle beams has the potential in therapeutic applications of sparing critical structures just distal to the target volume. Here we explored the effects of highly inhomogeneous regions on this desirable depth-dose characteristic. The proton depth-dose distribution behind a lucite-air interface parallel to the beam was bimodal, indicating the presence of two groups of protons with different residual ranges, creating a step-like depth-dose distribution at the end of range. The residual ranges became more spread out as the interface was angled at 3 degrees, and still more at 6 degrees, to the direction of the beam. A second experiment showed little significant effect on the distal depth-dose of protons having passed through a mosaic of teflon and lucite. Anatomic studies demonstrated significant effects of complex fine inhomogeneities on the end of range characteristics. Monoenergetic protons passing through the petrous ridges and mastoid air cells in the base of skull showed a dramatic degradation of the distal Bragg peak. In beams with spread out Bragg peaks passing through regions of the base of skull, the distal fall-off from 90 to 20% dose was increased from its nominal 6 to well over 32 mm. Heavy ions showed a corresponding degradation in their ends of range. In the worst case in the base of skull region, a monoenergetic neon beam showed a broadening of the full width at half maximum of the Bragg peak to over 15 mm (compared with 4 mm in a homogeneous unit density medium). A similar effect was found with carbon ions in the abdomen, where the full width at half maximum of the Bragg peak (nominally 5.5 mm) was found to be greater than 25 mm behind gas-soft-tissue interfaces. We address the implications of these data for dose computation with heavy charged particles.

  3. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  4. On Electron Hole Evolution in Inhomogeneous Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzichev, I.; Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.

    2017-12-01

    Electron holes (EHs) are the stationary localized non-linear structures in phase space existing due to an electron population trapped within EH electrostatic potential. EHs were found to be a common phenomenon in the Earth's magnetosphere. Such structures were observed in reconnecting current sheets, injection fronts in the outer radiation belt, and in many other situations. EHs usually propagate along magnetic field lines with velocities about electron thermal velocity, are localized on the scale of about 4-10 Debye lengths, and have the field amplitude up to hundreds of mV/m. Generation of these structures, evolution, and their role in relaxation of instabilities and energy dissipation, particle energization, supporting large-scale potential drops is under active investigation. In this report, we present the results of 1.5D gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell simulations of the EH evolution in plasmas with inhomogeneous magnetic field and inhomogeneous density. Our calculations show that the inhomogeneity has a critical effect on the EH dynamics. EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. During the deceleration of EH, the potential drop (weak double layer) along EH is generated. Such a potential drop might be experimentally observable even for single EH in the reconnecting current sheets. The same holds for the propagation in the plasma with inhomogeneous density. For some parameters of the system, the deceleration results in the turning of the hole. The interesting feature of this process is that the turning point depends only on the EH parameters, being independent of the average inhomogeneity scale. Our calculations also demonstrate the significant difference between "quasi-particle" concept and real evolution of the hole. Indeed, the EH is accelerated (decelerated) faster than it follows from a quasi-particle energy conservation law. It indicates

  5. Fluting Modes in Transversely Nonuniform Solar Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic waves of different types are frequently observed in magnetic flux tubes of the solar atmosphere and are often modeled using simple models. In the standard flux tube model made of a straight uniform tube with an abrupt boundary, transverse wave modes are classified according to their azimuthal wavenumber, m. Sausage (m = 0) and kink (m = 1) modes produce pulsations of the cross section and transverse oscillations of tube axis, respectively. Both sausage and kink modes have been observed in the solar atmosphere. Fluting (m≥slant 2) modes produce perturbations that are essentially confined around the boundary of the tube, I.e., they have a strong surface-like character. Unlike sausage and kink modes, the detection of fluting modes remains elusive. Here we show that the inclusion of transverse inhomogeneity in the flux tube model dramatically affects the properties of fluting modes. Even in a thin tube, kink and fluting modes are no longer degenerate in frequency when the tube has a smooth boundary. In addition, fluting modes become heavily damped by resonant absorption in a timescale shorter than the oscillation period. The perturbations loose their global shape and their distinctive surface-like appearance. As a consequence of that, we argue that nonuniform flux tubes with smooth boundaries may not be able to support fluting-like perturbations as coherent, global modes.

  6. Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bound values for Hall conductivity under quantum Hall effect (QHE) conditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect conditions.

  7. Spectroscopy and Raman imaging of inhomogeneous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at developing methodologies in Raman spectroscopy and imaging. After reviewing the statistical instruments which allow treating giant amount of data (multivariate analysis and classification), the study is applied to two families of well-known materials which are used as models for testing the limits of the implemented developments. The first family is a series of carbon materials pyrolyzed at various temperatures and exhibiting inhomogeneities at a nm scale which is suitable for Raman-X-ray diffraction combination. Another results concern the polishing effect on carbon structure. Since it is found to induce Raman artifacts leading to the overestimation of the local structural disorder, a method based on the use of the G band width is therefore proposed in order to evaluate the crystallite size in both unpolished and polished nano-graphites. The second class of materials presents inhomogeneities at higher (micrometric) scales by the example of uranium dioxide ceramics. Being well adapted in terms of spatial scale, Raman imaging is thus used for probing their surfaces. Data processing is implemented via an approach combining the multivariate (principal component) analysis and the classical fitting procedure with Lorentzian profiles. The interpretation of results is supported via electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) analysis which enables us to distinguish the orientation effects of ceramic grains from other underlying contributions. The last ones are mainly localized at the grain boundaries, that is testified by the appearance of a specific Raman mode. Their origin seems to be caused by stoichiometric oxygen variations or impurities, as well as strain inhomogeneities. The perspectives of this work include both the implementation of other mathematical methods and in-depth analysis of UO 2 structure damaged by irradiation (anisotropic effects, role of grain boundaries). (author) [fr

  8. Fluctuations and transport in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, W.M.; Chen, L.

    1979-11-01

    A formalism is developed for calculating the equilibrium fluctuation level in an inhomogeneous plasma. This formalism is applied to the collisionless drift wave in a sheared magnetic field. The fluctuation level is found to be anomalously large due to both the presence of weakly damped normal modes and convective amplification. As the magnetic shear is reduced, the steady-state fluctuation spectrum is found to increase both in coherence and in amplitude. The transport associated with this mode is evaluated. The diffusion coefficient is found to scale as D is proportional to B 2 /nT/sup 1/2/

  9. Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.

  10. Fusion Reaction Rate in an Inhomogeneous Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, S.; Fisch, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The local fusion rate, obtained from the assumption that the distribution is a local Maxwellian, is inaccurate if mean-free-paths of fusing particles are not sufficiently small compared with the inhomogeneity length of the plasma. We calculate the first order correction of P0 in terms of the small spatial gradient and obtain a non-local modification of P(sub)0 in a shock region when the gradient is not small. Use is made of the fact that the fusion reaction cross section has a relatively sharp peak as a function of energy

  11. Inhomogeneous Stripe Phase Revisited for Surface Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykin, Victor; Gor'kov, Lev P.

    2002-11-01

    We consider 2D surface superconductivity in high magnetic fields parallel to the surface. We demonstrate that the spin-orbit interaction at the surface changes the properties of the inhomogeneous superconducting Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell (LOFF) state that develops above fields given by the paramagnetic criterion. Strong spin-orbit interaction significantly broadens the range of existence of the LOFF phase, which takes the form of periodic superconducting stripes running along the field direction on the surface, leading to the anisotropy of its properties. Our results provide a tool for studying surface superconductivity as a function of doping.

  12. Waves in inhomogeneous plasma of cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1966-01-01

    The conductivity tensor of a hot and inhomogeneous plasma has been calculated for a cylindrical geometry using Vlasov equations. The method used consists in a perturbation method involving the first integrals of the unperturbed movement. The conductivity tensor will be particularly useful for dealing with stability problems. In the case of a cold plasma the wave equation giving the electric fields as a function of the radius is obtained. This equation shows the existence of resonant layers which lead to an absorption analogous to the Landau absorption in a hot plasma. (author) [fr

  13. OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, John T. Jr.; Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-01-01

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  14. OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giblin, John T. Jr. [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 N College Road Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D. [CERCA/ISO, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  15. Transverse correlations in multiphoton entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jianming; Rubin, Morton H.; Shih Yanhua

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the transverse correlation in multiphoton entanglement. The generalization of quantum ghost imaging is extended to the N-photon state. The Klyshko's two-photon advanced-wave picture is generalized to the N-photon case

  16. Acoustic Streaming and Its Suppression in Inhomogeneous Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Qiu, Wei; Augustsson, Per

    2018-01-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in an inhomogeneous fluid with variations in density and compressibility. In a homogeneous fluid this streaming results from dissipation in the boundary layers (Rayleigh streaming). We show...... that in an inhomogeneous fluid, an additional nondissipative force density acts on the fluid to stabilize particular inhomogeneity configurations, which markedly alters and even suppresses the streaming flows. Our theoretical and numerical analysis of the phenomenon is supported by ultrasound experiments performed...

  17. Acoustic Streaming and Its Suppression in Inhomogeneous Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Jonas T; Qiu, Wei; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik

    2018-02-02

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in an inhomogeneous fluid with variations in density and compressibility. In a homogeneous fluid this streaming results from dissipation in the boundary layers (Rayleigh streaming). We show that in an inhomogeneous fluid, an additional nondissipative force density acts on the fluid to stabilize particular inhomogeneity configurations, which markedly alters and even suppresses the streaming flows. Our theoretical and numerical analysis of the phenomenon is supported by ultrasound experiments performed with inhomogeneous aqueous iodixanol solutions in a glass-silicon microchip.

  18. The effect of inhomogeneity of microstructure on ducility in superplasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manonukul, A.; Dunne, F.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element cell models have been developed to represent inhomogeneous grain size fields that occur in commercial Ti-6Al-4V. The models are used to investigate the influence of microstructure on superplastic stress-strain behaviour, inhomogeneity of deformation, and on ductility in superplastic deformation. It is shown that increasing the level of initial microstructural inhomogeneity leads to increasing flow stress for given strain, and that the microstructural inhomogeneity leads to inhomogeneous deformation. As superplasticity proceeds, the level of microstructural inhomogeneity diminishes, but the inhomogeneity itself is preserved during the deformation. It is shown that the inhomogeneity of microstructure leads to strain localisation which increases in severity with deformation until material necking and failure occur. Increasing the initial microstructural inhomogeneity is shown to lead to a decrease in ductility, but the effect diminishes for grain size ranges in excess of 30 μm. An empirical relationship is presented that relates the ductility to the initial grain size range through a power law. (orig.)

  19. Nonlinear acoustics of micro-inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Veniamin E.; Ostrovsky, Lev A.; Soustova, Irina A.; Sutin, Aleksandr M.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic waves can interact in micro-inhomogeneous media much more intensively than in homogeneous media. This has been repeatedly observed in experiments with ground species, marine sediments, porous materials and metals. This paper considers two models of such media which seem to be applicable to the description of these results. One of them is based on the consideration of nonlinear sound scattering by separate spherical cavities in liquids and solids. The second model is based on the phenomenological stress-deformation relation in solids with microplasticity which often has hysteresis (heritage) properties associated with the micro-inhomogeneities. In metals, for example, it is caused by the movement of dislocations. Different nonlinear effects in such media (harmonic and combination frequency generation, nonlinear, variations of resonance frequency amplitude-dependent losses) are considered. Some results of experiments with metallic resonators supporting the theory developed here are also presented. These mechanisms may determine the nonlinear properties of real soils and rocks summarized in a table given in the paper.

  20. Turbulent structure of stably stratified inhomogeneous flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Oaki

    2018-04-01

    Effects of buoyancy force stabilizing disturbances are investigated on the inhomogeneous flow where disturbances are dispersed from the turbulent to non-turbulent field in the direction perpendicular to the gravity force. Attaching the fringe region, where disturbances are excited by the artificial body force, a Fourier spectral method is used for the inhomogeneous flow stirred at one side of the cuboid computational box. As a result, it is found that the turbulent kinetic energy is dispersed as layered structures elongated in the streamwise direction through the vibrating motion. A close look at the layered structures shows that they are flanked by colder fluids at the top and hotter fluids at the bottom, and hence vertically compressed and horizontally expanded by the buoyancy related to the countergradient heat flux, though they are punctuated by the vertical expansion of fluids at the forefront of the layered structures, which is related to the downgradient heat flux, indicating that the layered structures are gravity currents. However, the phase between temperature fluctuations and vertical velocity is shifted by π/2 rad, indicating that temperature fluctuations are generated by the propagation of internal gravity waves.

  1. Microstructural evolution in inhomogeneous elastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, H.J.; Leo, P.H.; Lowengrub, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    We simulate the diffusional evolution of microstructures produced by solid state diffusional transformations in elastically stressed binary alloys in two dimensions. The microstructure consists of arbitrarily shaped precipitates embedded coherently in an infinite matrix. The precipitate and matrix are taken to be elastically isotropic, although they may have different elastic constants (elastically inhomogeneous). Both far-field applied strains and mismatch strains between the phases are considered. The diffusion and elastic fields are calculated using the boundary integral method, together with a small scale preconditioner to remove ill-conditioning. The precipitate-matrix interfaces are tracked using a nonstiff time updating method. The numerical method is spectrally accurate and efficient. Simulations of a single precipitate indicate that precipitate shapes depend strongly on the mass flux into the system as well as on the elastic fields. Growing shapes (positive mass flux) are dendritic while equilibrium shapes (zero mass flux) are squarish. Simulations of multiparticle systems show complicated interactions between precipitate morphology and the overall development of microstructure (i.e., precipitate alignment, translation, merging, and coarsening). In both single and multiple particle simulations, the details of the microstructural evolution depend strongly o the elastic inhomogeneity, misfit strain, and applied fields. 57 refs., 24 figs

  2. Quantum electrodynamics of inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Adrian E.R.; Lombardo, Fernando C. [Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-02-01

    In this work we calculate the closed time path generating functional for the electromagnetic (EM) field interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. For this purpose, we first find a general expression for the electromagnetic field's influence action from the interaction of the field with a composite environment consisting in the quantum polarization degrees of freedom in each point of space, at arbitrary temperatures, connected to thermal baths. Then we evaluate the generating functional for the gauge field, in the temporal gauge, by implementing the Faddeev-Popov procedure. Finally, through the point-splitting technique, we calculate closed expressions for the energy, the Poynting vector, and the Maxwell tensor in terms of the Hadamard propagator. We show that all the quantities have contributions from the field's initial conditions and also from the matter degrees of freedom. Throughout the whole work we discuss how the gauge invariance must be treated in the formalism when the EM-field is interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. We study the electrodynamics in the temporal gauge, obtaining the EM-field's equation and a residual condition. Finally we analyze the case of the EM-field in bulk material and also discuss several general implications of our results in relation with the Casimir physics in a non-equilibrium scenario. (orig.)

  3. Robustness of inflation to inhomogeneous initial conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clough, Katy; Lim, Eugene A. [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, Kings College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); DiNunno, Brandon S.; Fischler, Willy; Flauger, Raphael; Paban, Sonia, E-mail: katy.clough@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com, E-mail: bsd86@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: fischler@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: flauger@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: paban@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We consider the effects of inhomogeneous initial conditions in both the scalar field profile and the extrinsic curvature on different inflationary models. In particular, we compare the robustness of small field inflation to that of large field inflation, using numerical simulations with Einstein gravity in 3+1 dimensions. We find that small field inflation can fail in the presence of subdominant gradient energies, suggesting that it is much less robust to inhomogeneities than large field inflation, which withstands dominant gradient energies. However, we also show that small field inflation can be successful even if some regions of spacetime start out in the region of the potential that does not support inflation. In the large field case, we confirm previous results that inflation is robust if the inflaton occupies the inflationary part of the potential. Furthermore, we show that increasing initial scalar gradients will not form sufficiently massive inflation-ending black holes if the initial hypersurface is approximately flat. Finally, we consider the large field case with a varying extrinsic curvature K , such that some regions are initially collapsing. We find that this may again lead to local black holes, but overall the spacetime remains inflationary if the spacetime is open, which confirms previous theoretical studies.

  4. Shock-acceleration of a pair of gas inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Nunez, Jose Alonso; Reese, Daniel; Oakley, Jason; Rothamer, David; Bonazza, Riccardo

    2014-11-01

    A shock wave moving through the interstellar medium distorts density inhomogeneities through the deposition of baroclinic vorticity. This process is modeled experimentally in a shock tube for a two-bubble interaction. A planar shock wave in nitrogen traverses two soap-film bubbles filled with argon. The two bubbles share an axis that is orthogonal to the shock wave and are separated from one another by a distance of approximately one bubble diameter. Atomization of the soap-film by the shock wave results in dispersal of droplets that are imaged using Mie scattering with a laser sheet through the bubble axis. Initial condition images of the bubbles in free-fall (no holder) are taken using a high-speed camera and then two post-shock images are obtained with two laser pulses and two cameras. The first post-shock image is of the early time compression stage when the sphere has become ellipsoidal, and the second image shows the emergence of vortex rings which have evolved due to vorticity depostion by the shock wave. Bubble morphology is characterized with length scale measurements.

  5. Surge of plasma waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhassine, Mohammed

    1985-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis addresses the propagation of waves in a plasma. It presents the equation of propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a plasma without magnetic field, and analyses the propagation in an inhomogeneous medium. The second part addresses the wave-particle interaction: interaction between electrons and an electromagnetic wave, between electrons and an electrostatic wave (trapping), and between electrons and a localised electric field. The third chapter presents the analytic theory of oscillations of a cold plasma (macroscopic equations in Lagrangian coordinates, analytic solution before surge). The next chapter discusses physical interpretations before the wave surge, after the wave surge, and about energy exchange (within or outside of resonance). Numerical simulations and their results are then reported and discussed. The sixth chapter addresses the case of an electrostatic wave surge in a hot plasma. It notably addresses the following aspects: equivalence between the description of moments and the Waterbag model, interaction between non linearity and thermal effects, variation of electric field amplitude with temperature. Results of numerical simulations are presented, and the last part addresses experimental predictions for microwaves-plasma interaction and laser-matter interaction [fr

  6. Thermographic investigation of heat source in transversely isotropic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valès, B.; Munoz, V.; Welemane, H.; Pastor, M.-L.; Trajin, B.; Perrin, M.; Cantarel, A.; Karama, M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of heat sources from infrared thermographic measures on anisotropic CFRP (Carbon-Fibre Reinforced Composites). Such procedure combines the data processing of the thermal signal, especially as spatial and temporal derivation quantities involved in the heat equation are notably affected by the measurement noise, and the determination of thermo-physical properties of the material, especially to account for the anisotropic conductivity behavior of the material. A comparative analysis of different filtering techniques is done to define a filtering method able to decrease the noise while keeping the useful features of the signal. Then, we use a homogenization scheme based on single-inhomogeneity solutions of Eshelby to derive the transversely isotropic thermal conductivity tensor.

  7. Transverse Matching Techniques for the SNS Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon Dong Oh; Danilov, Viatcheslav V

    2005-01-01

    It is crucial to minimize beam loss and machine activation by obtaining optimal transverse matching for a high-intensity linear accelerator such as the Spallation Neutron Source linac. For matching the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) to Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL), there are four wire-scanners installed in series in CCL module 1 as proposed by the author.* A series of measurements was conducted to minimize envelope breathing and the results are presented here. As an independent approach, Chu et al is developing an application based on another technique by estimating rms emittance using the wire scanner profile data.** For matching the Medium Energy Beam Transport Line to the DTL, a technique of minimizing rms emittance was used and emittance data show that tail is minimized as well.

  8. Moessbauer spectroscopy of locally inhomogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusakov, V. S.; Kadyrzhanov, K. K.

    2004-01-01

    Substances with characteristic local inhomogeneities - with different from position to position neighborhood and properties of like atoms - gain recently increased scientific attention and wide practical application. We would call a system locally inhomogeneous if atoms in the system are in non-equivalent atomic locations and reveal different properties. Such systems are, first of all, variable composition phases, amorphous, multi-phase, admixture, defect and other systems. LIS are most convenient model objects for studies of structure, charge, and spin atomic states, interatomic interactions, relations between matter properties and its local characteristics as well as for studies of diffusion kinetics, phase formation, crystallization and atomic ordering; all that explains considerable scientific interest in such LIS. Such systems find their practical application due to wide spectrum of useful, and sometimes unique, properties that can be controlled varying character and degree of local inhomogeneity. Moessbauer spectroscopy is one of the most effective methods for investigation of LIS. Local character of obtained information combined with information on cooperative phenomena makes it possible to run investigations impossible for other methods. Moessbauer spectroscopy may provide with abundant information on peculiarities of macro- and microscopic state of matter including that for materials without regular structure. At the same time, analysis, processing and interpretation of Moessbauer spectra for LIS (that are sets of a large amount of partial spectra) face considerable difficulties. Development of computer technique is accompanied with development of mathematical methods used for obtaining physical information from experimental data. The methods make it possible to improve considerably, with some available a priori information, effectiveness of the research. Utilization of up-to-date mathematical methods in Moessbauer spectroscopy requires not only adaptation

  9. Transverse correlation: An efficient transverse flow estimator - initial results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Henze, Lasse; Kortbek, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Color flow mapping has become an important clinical tool, for diagnosing a wide range of vascular diseases. Only the velocity component along the ultrasonic beam is estimated, so to find the actual blood velocity, the beam to flow angle has to be known. Because of the unpredictable nature...... for estimating the transverse velocity component. The method measures the transverse velocity component by estimating the transit time of the blood between two parallel lines beamformed in receive. The method has been investigated using simulations performed with Field II. Using 15 emissions per estimate...

  10. Investigation of Transverse Oscillation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the axial component of the blood velocity vector, which is a significant limitation when vessels nearly parallel to the skin surface are scanned. The transverse oscillation method (TO) overcomes this limitation by introducing a transverse oscillat......Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the axial component of the blood velocity vector, which is a significant limitation when vessels nearly parallel to the skin surface are scanned. The transverse oscillation method (TO) overcomes this limitation by introducing a transverse...... II. A virtual linear array transducer with center frequency 7 MHz and 128 active elements is created, and a virtual blood vessel of radius 6.4 mm is simulated. The performance of the TO method is found around an initial point in the parameter space. The parameters varied are: flow angle, transmit...... focus depth, receive apodization, pulse length, transverse wave length, number of emissions, signal to noise ratio, and type of echo canceling filter used. Using the experimental scanner RASMUS, the performance of the TO method is evaluated. An experimental flowrig is used to create laminar parabolic...

  11. STABILITY AND NATURAL VIBRATIONS OF INHOMOGENEOUS SHELLS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE STRESS STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov V.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the problem of developing a unified methodology based on the efficient numerical analysis of problems of stability and natural vibrations of a wide class of inhomogeneous shells, thin and medium thickness. In problems of its natural vibrations takes into account the presence of a pre-stressed state of the structure from the action of static loads, which significantly affect the spectrum of natural vibrations and allows determining the bifurcation point and the value of the critical force of buckling by dynamic criteria.

  12. Variational Method of the Theory of Plasticity for Inhomogeneous and Composite Bodies at Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenzadeh, R. Yu.; Sevdimaliyev, Yu. M.

    2016-03-01

    For a three-dimensional theory, a variational method of mixed type is developed to determine the stress-strain state of inhomogeneous anisotropic elastoplastic bodies under the action of neutron fluxes in the case of small strains. It is assumed that the physicomechanical characteristics of the medium depend on the radiation dose. The principle proposed is based on independent variation of the velocity fields of displacements and stresses. A modification of the variational theorem to the case of a composite material in a heterogeneous environment where different phases (inclusions) are clearly expressed is given.

  13. Computing the Coulomb interaction in inhomogeneous dielectric media via a local electrostatics lattice algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenberger, F; Holm, C

    2014-12-01

    The local approach to computing electrostatic interactions proposed by Maggs and adapted by Rottler and Pasichnyk for molecular-dynamics simulations is extended to situations where the dielectric background medium is inhomogeneous. We furthermore correct a problem of the original algorithm related to the correct treatment of the global dipole moment, provide an error estimate for the accuracy of the algorithm, and suggest a different form of the treatment of the self-energy problem. Our implementation is highly scalable on many cores, and we have validated and compared its performance against theoretical predictions and simulation data obtained by other algorithmic approaches.

  14. Baryon inhomogeneities due to cosmic string wakes at the quark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These inhomogeneities survive up to the nucleosynthesis epoch if they are separated by a distance of at least a few metres. In this work we present a model where large sheets of these inhomogeneities separated by a distance of a few km are formed by cosmic string wakes during the quark–hadron transition. The effect of ...

  15. Baryon inhomogeneities due to cosmic string wakes at the quark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baryon inhomogeneities due to cosmic string wakes at the quark–hadron transition. BISWANATH LAYEK, SOMA SANYAL and AJIT M SRIVASTAVA. Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751 005, India. Abstract. Baryon inhomogeneities generated during the quark–hadron transition may alter the abundances of light elements ...

  16. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously doped fiber couplers. Ajit Kumar. Theoretical aspects of optical solitons Volume 57 Issue 5-6 November-December 2001 pp 969-979 ... Switching between the bistable soliton states in a doubly and inhomogeneously doped fiber system is studied numerically.

  17. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dec. 2001 physics pp. 969–979. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously doped fiber couplers. AJIT KUMAR. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India. Abstract. Switching between the bistable soliton states in a doubly and inhomogeneously doped.

  18. MRI intensity inhomogeneity correction by combining intensity and spatial information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovk, Uros; Pernus, Franjo; Likar, Bostjan

    2004-01-01

    We propose a novel fully automated method for retrospective correction of intensity inhomogeneity, which is an undesired phenomenon in many automatic image analysis tasks, especially if quantitative analysis is the final goal. Besides most commonly used intensity features, additional spatial image features are incorporated to improve inhomogeneity correction and to make it more dynamic, so that local intensity variations can be corrected more efficiently. The proposed method is a four-step iterative procedure in which a non-parametric inhomogeneity correction is conducted. First, the probability distribution of image intensities and corresponding second derivatives is obtained. Second, intensity correction forces, condensing the probability distribution along the intensity feature, are computed for each voxel. Third, the inhomogeneity correction field is estimated by regularization of all voxel forces, and fourth, the corresponding partial inhomogeneity correction is performed. The degree of inhomogeneity correction dynamics is determined by the size of regularization kernel. The method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on simulated and real MR brain images. The obtained results show that the proposed method does not corrupt inhomogeneity-free images and successfully corrects intensity inhomogeneity artefacts even if these are more dynamic

  19. The thermoelectric properties of inhomogeneous holographic lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,Prince Consort Rd, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-09

    We consider inhomogeneous, periodic, holographic lattices of D=4 Einstein-Maxwell theory. We show that the DC thermoelectric conductivity matrix can be expressed analytically in terms of the horizon data of the corresponding black hole solution. We numerically construct such black hole solutions for lattices consisting of one, two and ten wave-numbers. We numerically determine the AC electric conductivity which reveals Drude physics as well as resonances associated with sound modes. No evidence for an intermediate frequency scaling regime is found. All of the monochromatic lattice black holes that we have constructed exhibit scaling behaviour at low temperatures which is consistent with the appearance of AdS{sub 2}×ℝ{sup 2} in the far IR at T=0.

  20. Origin of Inhomogeneity in Glass Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The homogeneity of a glass plays a crucial role in many applications as the inhomogeneities can provide local changes in mechanical properties, optical properties, and thermal expansion coefficient. Homogeneity is not a single property of the glass, instead, it consists of several factors...... such as bubbles, striae, trace element concentration, undissolved species, and crystallised species. As it is not possible to address all the factors in a single study, this work focuses on one of the major factors: chemical striae. Up to now, the quantification of chemical striae in glasses, particularly......, in less transparent glasses, has been a challenge due to the lack of an applicable method. In this study, we have established a simple and accurate method for quantifying the extent of the striae, which is based on the scanning and picture processing through the Fourier transformation. By performing...

  1. Physical controls on orographic cirrus inhomogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Kay

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical depth distributions (P(σ are a useful measure of radiatively important cirrus (Ci inhomogeneity. Yet, the relationship between P(σ and underlying cloud physical processes remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the influence of homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing processes, ice particle growth and fallout, and mesoscale vertical velocity fluctuations on P(σ shape during an orographic Ci event. We evaluate Lagrangian Ci evolution along kinematic trajectories from a mesoscale weather model (MM5 using an adiabatic parcel model with binned ice microphysics. Although the presence of ice nuclei increased model cloud cover, our results highlight the importance of homogeneous freezing and mesoscale vertical velocity variability in controlling Ci P(σ shape along realistic upper tropospheric trajectories.

  2. Inhomogeneous LOFF phase revisited for surface superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykin, Victor; Gor'kov, Lev P.

    2003-03-01

    We consider 2D surface superconductivity in high magnetic fields parallel to the surface. We demonstrate that the spin-orbit interaction at the surface changes the properties of the inhomogeneous superconducting Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell state that develops above fields given by the paramagnetic criterion. Strong spin-orbit interaction significantly broadens the range of existence of the LOFF phase, which takes the form of periodic superconducting stripes running along the field direction on the surface, leading to the anisotropy of its properties. We also discuss this problem for the d-wave pairing to indicate the possibility of a re-orientation transition as the magnetic field direction is rotated in the plane parallel to the surface. Our results provide a tool for studying surface superconductivity This work was supported in part by NHMFL through the NSF Cooperative agreement No. DMR-9521035 and the State of Florida, in part (VB) by the University of Tennessee.

  3. Measurable inhomogeneities in stock trading volume flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortines, A. A. G.; Riera, R.; Anteneodo, C.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the statistics of volumes of shares traded in stock markets. We show that the stochastic process of trading volumes can be understood on the basis of a mixed Poisson process at the microscopic time level. The beta distribution of the second kind (also known as q-gamma distribution), that has been proposed to describe empirical volume histograms, naturally results from our analysis. In particular, the shape of the distribution at small volumes is governed by the degree of granularity in the trading process, while the exponent controlling the tail is a measure of the inhomogeneities in market activity. Furthermore, the present case furnishes empirical evidence of how power law probability distributions can arise as a consequence of a fluctuating intrinsic parameter.

  4. Problem of time in slightly inhomogeneous cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Edward

    2016-07-01

    The problem of time (PoT) is a multi-faceted conceptual incompatibility between various areas of Theoretical Physics. While usually stated as between GR and QM, in fact 8/9ths of it is already present at the classical level. Thus we adopt a ‘top-down’ classical and then quantum approach. I consider a local resolution to the PoT that is Machian, which was previously realized for relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution has three levels: classical, semiclassical and combined semiclassical-histories-records. This article’s specific model is a slightly inhomogeneous cosmology considered for now at the classical level. This is motivated by how the inhomogeneous fluctuations that underlie structure formation—galaxies and CMB hotspots—might have been seeded by quantum cosmological fluctuations, as magnified by some inflationary mechanism. In particular, I consider the perturbations about {{{S}}}3 case of this involving up to second order, which has a number of parallels with the Halliwell-Hawking model but has a number of conceptual differences and useful upgrades. The article’s main features are that the elimination part of the model’s thin sandwich is straightforward, but the modewise split of the constraints fail to be first-class constraints. Thus the elimination part only arises as an intermediate geometry between superspace and Riem. The reduced geometries have surprising singularities influenced by the matter content of the Universe, though the N-body problem anticipates these with its collinear singularities. I also give a ‘basis set’ of Kuchař beables for this model arena.

  5. Inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction: Current status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Korzyński, Mikołaj

    Astronomical observations reveal hierarchical structures in the universe, from galaxies, groups of galaxies, clusters and superclusters, to filaments and voids. On the largest scales, it seems that some kind of statistical homogeneity can be observed. As a result, modern cosmological models are based on spatially homogeneous and isotropic solutions of the Einstein equations, and the evolution of the universe is approximated by the Friedmann equations. In parallel to standard homogeneous cosmology, the field of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction is being developed. This field investigates whether small scale inhomogeneities via nonlinear effects can backreact and alter the properties of the universe on its largest scales, leading to a non-Friedmannian evolution. This paper presents the current status of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction. It also discusses future prospects of the field of inhomogeneous cosmology, which is based on a survey of 50 academics working in the field of inhomogeneous cosmology.

  6. Modeling Transverse Chemotaxis in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Valdés-Parada, F. J.; Wood, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    The movement of microorganisms toward a chemical attractant (chemotaxis) has been shown to aid in subsurface contaminant degradation and enhanced oil recovery. However, chemotaxis is inherently a pore scale process that must be upscaled to arrive at continuum scale models for field applications. In this work, the method of volume averaging is used to upscale the microscale chemotactic microbial transport equations in order to obtain the corresponding macroscale models for the mass balance of bacteria and the chemical attractant to which they respond. As a first approach, cellular growth/death and consumption of the attractant by chemical reaction are assumed to be negligible with respect to convective and diffusive transport mechanisms. Two effective medium coefficients are introduced in the model, namely a total motility tensor and a total velocity vector. Under certain conditions, it is shown that the coefficients can differ considerably from the values corresponding to non-chemotactic transport. The model is validated by comparing the predicted transverse motility coefficients and concentration profiles to those measured within an engineered porous medium. For the concentration profiles, we introduced a lag that accounts for the difference between the arrival time of the microorganisms and the their chemotactic response to the attractant.

  7. Resonant Magnetization Tunneling in Molecular Magnets: Where is the Inhomogeneous Broadening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, M. P.

    1998-03-01

    Since the discovery(J. R. Friedman, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 3830 (1996) of resonant magnetization tunneling in the molecular magnet Mn_12 there has been intense research into the underlying mechanism of tunneling. Most current theories( V. Dobrovitski and A. Zvezdin, Europhys. Lett. 38), 377 (1997); L. Gunther, Europhys. Lett. 39, 1 (1997); D Garanin and E. Chudnovsky, Phys. Rev. B 56, 11102 (1997). suggest that a local internal (hyperfine or dipole) field transverse to the easy magnetization axis induces tunneling. These theories predict a resonance width orders of magnitude smaller than that actually observed. This discrepancy is attributed to inhomogeneous broadening of the resonance by the random internal fields. We present a detailed study of the tunnel resonance lineshape and show that it is Lorentzian, suggesting it has a deeper physical origin. Since the hyperfine fields are believed to be comparable to the observed width, it is surprising that there is no Gaussian broadening.

  8. Transverse permeability of woven fabrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Akkerman, Remko; Loendersloot, Richard; van den Berg, S.

    2008-01-01

    The transverse permeability is an essential input in describing the consolidation process of CETEX® laminates. A two-dimensional, finite difference based, Stokes flow solver has been developed to determine the mesoscopic permeability of arbitrary fabric structures. The use of a multigrid solver

  9. Characterization of discontinuities in an argillaceous medium (Tournemire site): key questions related to safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera Nunez, J. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    2001-07-01

    The safety assessment of deep radioactive waste disposal in argillaceous medium concerns the evaluation of the possibilities and transfer processes through this geological barrier. Generally, this material is characterized by a very low permeability. However, faults and fractures may affect this medium and consequently it is important to analyse the transfer possibilities along these discontinuities. The first phase of this evaluation is the detection or survey of the fractures, and the second one is the evaluation of their hydraulic properties. A discontinuity is not a synonymous of fluid transfer, which in turn may be inhomogeneous along the same fracture. The well-compacted Tournemire argillaceous medium (argilites and marls) is affected by some faults and fractures of natural (tectonic) and artificial (excavation) origin. The natural fractures are of different scales: major regional faults that limit blocks, secondary fault and fractured zones that affect the blocks, and local fractures and micro-fractures. These discontinuities are studied from the surface analyses, transversal boreholes and drifts. Geophysical methods are tested to detect these discontinuities to different scales. The present-day fluids are shown in some fractured sectors that allow us to analyse the possibilities of fluid transfer along these discontinuities. The fracture analyses show that permeability or transmissivity properties may change along the discontinuities. A decametric fluid transfer is shown along some fractures; however, their integration in a larger scale is not yet analysed. It is necessary to understand how the transfer in the near field may be connected to the possible far field transfer, or these transfers are not possible through the argillaceous medium. (author)

  10. Characterization of discontinuities in an argillaceous medium (Tournemire site): key questions related to safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera Nunez, J.

    2001-01-01

    The safety assessment of deep radioactive waste disposal in argillaceous medium concerns the evaluation of the possibilities and transfer processes through this geological barrier. Generally, this material is characterized by a very low permeability. However, faults and fractures may affect this medium and consequently it is important to analyse the transfer possibilities along these discontinuities. The first phase of this evaluation is the detection or survey of the fractures, and the second one is the evaluation of their hydraulic properties. A discontinuity is not a synonymous of fluid transfer, which in turn may be inhomogeneous along the same fracture. The well-compacted Tournemire argillaceous medium (argilites and marls) is affected by some faults and fractures of natural (tectonic) and artificial (excavation) origin. The natural fractures are of different scales: major regional faults that limit blocks, secondary fault and fractured zones that affect the blocks, and local fractures and micro-fractures. These discontinuities are studied from the surface analyses, transversal boreholes and drifts. Geophysical methods are tested to detect these discontinuities to different scales. The present-day fluids are shown in some fractured sectors that allow us to analyse the possibilities of fluid transfer along these discontinuities. The fracture analyses show that permeability or transmissivity properties may change along the discontinuities. A decametric fluid transfer is shown along some fractures; however, their integration in a larger scale is not yet analysed. It is necessary to understand how the transfer in the near field may be connected to the possible far field transfer, or these transfers are not possible through the argillaceous medium. (author)

  11. An application of fractional calculus to anomalous diffusion and imaging in inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Salvatore

    In recent years several studies have shown that field transport phenomena in media with non-homogeneous properties are characterized by unconventional behaviors. These processes, usually denoted as anomalous transport phenomena, are accurately described by fractional order mathematical models, whereas the classical integer order models fail to capture their properties. There are several examples of anomalous diffusion throughout the different fields of physics, such as wave propagation and diffusion processes in viscoelastic and heterogeneous media (e.g. soil, porous materials, etc.) fluid flow in porous media, non classical heat transfer. In particular, the diffusion processes in heterogeneous materials have shown to develop anomalous features characterized by non-local behavior due to the onset of long-range interactions. While integer order transport models are not able to explain these effects, fractional order models have shown to be able to capture these phenomena. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the occurrence of anomalous transport mechanisms associated to wave-like fields propagating in highly scattering media and to diffusive fields propagating in inhomogeneous media. Anomalous diffusion models are applicable to complex and inhomogeneous environments where classical diffusion theory ceases to be valid. Anomalous diffusion shows a nonlinear time dependence for the mean-squared displacement, and predicts stretched exponential decay for the temporal evolution of the system response. These unique characteristics of anomalous diffusion enable to probe complex media, with an approach that is not permitted by classical diffusion imaging. The behavior of the initial wave-like field turning into a diffused one will be governed by a classical or anomalous diffusive mechanism depending on the density of the medium. In this work this conversion phenomenon will be studied via a combination of stochastic molecular and fractional continuum models in order to

  12. Evolution of vacuum bubbles embedded in inhomogeneous spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannia, Florencia Anabella Teppa; Bergliaffa, Santiago Esteban Perez

    2017-01-01

    We study the propagation of bubbles of new vacuum in a radially inhomogeneous background filled with dust or radiation, and including a cosmological constant, as a first step in the analysis of the influence of inhomogeneities in the evolution of an inflating region. We also compare the cases with dust and radiation backgrounds and show that the evolution of the bubble in radiation environments is notably different from that in the corresponding dust cases, both for homogeneous and inhomogeneous ambients, leading to appreciable differences in the evolution of the proper radius of the bubble.

  13. ISM stripping from cluster galaxies and inhomogeneities in cooling flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam; Bregman, Joel N.; Sarazin, Craig L.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of the x ray surface brightness profiles of cluster cooling flows suggest that the mass flow rate decreases towards the center of the cluster. It is often suggested that this decrease results from thermal instabilities, in which denser blobs of gas cool rapidly and drop below x ray emitting temperatures. If the seeds for the thermal instabilities are entropy perturbations, these perturbations must enter the flow already in the nonlinear regime. Otherwise, the blobs would take too long to cool. Here, researchers suggest that such nonlinear perturbations might start as blobs of interstellar gas which are stripped out of cluster galaxies. Assuming that most of the gas produced by stellar mass loss in cluster galaxies is stripped from the galaxies, the total rate of such stripping is roughly M sub Interstellar Matter (ISM) approx. 100 solar mass yr(-1). It is interesting that the typical rates of cooling in cluster cooling flows are M sub cool approx. 100 solar mass yr(-1). Thus, it is possible that a substantial portion of the cooling gas originates as blobs of interstellar gas stripped from galaxies. The magnetic fields within and outside of the low entropy perturbations can help to maintain their identities, both by suppressing thermal conduction and through the dynamical effects of magnetic tension. One significant question concerning this scenario is: Why are cooling flows seen only in a fraction of clusters, although one would expect gas stripping to be very common. It may be that the density perturbations only survive and cool efficiently in clusters with a very high intracluster gas density and with the focusing effect of a central dominant galaxy. Inhomogeneities in the intracluster medium caused by the stripping of interstellar gas from galaxies can have a number of other effects on clusters. For example, these density fluctuations may disrupt the propagation of radio jets through the intracluster gas, and this may be one mechanism for producing Wide

  14. Microinstabilities in a moderately inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    We describe the onset of plasma instability due to heat conduction in a fully ionized hydrogen plasma with small temperature, pressure, and electric potential gradients. The effect of these gradients on plasma stability depends on a single inhomogeneity parameter B/sub t/, which is a measure of the ratio of the electron mean free path to the scale height of the plasma. A large value of vertical-barB/sub t/vertical-bar indicates that the plasma is collisionless. We find the least value of vertical-barB/sub t/vertical-bar needed to produce instability for the range of electron to hydrogen ion temperature ratios T and ion to magnetic pressure ratios β/sub i/, relevant to the solar wind and other plasmas. The wave parameters of the first unstable modes (the modes which become unstable for the least value of vertical-barB/sub t/vertical-bar) are described. The fast mode is the first unstable mode at high β/sub i/, the intermediate mode is the first unstable mode at low β/sub i/, and low temperature ratios, and the slow mode is the first unstable mode at low β/sub i/ and higher temperature ratios

  15. Special Features of Structure Formation in Pipes from Medium-Carbon Low-Alloy Steel 32G2F Under Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A. I.; Belikov, S. V.; Musikhin, S. A.; Burmasov, S. P.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Special features of formation of structure and properties of seamless pipes from medium-carbon low-alloy steel for oil and gas applications are considered and associated with chemical inhomogeneity of the metal of the pipes.

  16. Introduction to Transverse Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we give an introduction to the transverse dynamics of the particles in a synchrotron or storage ring. The emphasis is more on qualitative understanding rather than on mathematical correctness, and a number of simulations are used to demonstrate the physical behaviour of the particles. Starting from the basic principles of how to design the geometry of the ring, we review the transverse motion of the particles, motivate the equation of motion, and show the solutions for typical storage ring elements. Following the usual treatment in the literature, we present a second way to describe the particle beam, using the concept of the emittance of the particle ensemble and the beta function, which reflects the overall focusing properties of the ring. The adiabatic shrinking due to Liouville's theorem is discussed as well as dispersive effects in the most simple case.

  17. Transversal Lines of the Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Onghena

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The Transversal Lines of the Debates gathers for publication the presentations of the scholars invited to the seminar. In the papers, Yolanda Onghena observes that the evolution from the cultural to the inter-cultural travels along four axes: the relations between cultureand society; the processes of change within identity-based dynamics; the representations of the Other; and, interculturality. Throughout the presentations and subsequent debates, whenever the different participants referred to aspects of the cultural identity problematic--”angst”, “obsession”, “deficit”, manipulation”, and others, these same participants in the Transversal Lines of the Debates also showed that, in certain areas, an optimistic viewpoint is not out of the question.

  18. TRANSVERSALITY AND INTERDISCIPLINARY DISCUSSION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... e o lo g ic a l S tu d ie s http://www.hts.org.za. HTS. Original Research. A rtic le #. 9. 1. 0. (page number not for citation purposes). TRANSVERSALITY ... mentorship. An interview with a mentor and mentee was used as a local, real narrative in the process. In the final section, the author reflected upon his own ...

  19. An oscillation criterion for inhomogeneous Stieltjes integro-differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. El-Sayed

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to give an oscillation theorem for inhomogeneous Stieltjes integro-differential equation of the form p(tx′+∫atx(sdσ=f(t. The paper generalizes the author's work [2].

  20. Thermal quantum discord of spins in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinliang; Mi Yingjuan; Zhang Jian; Song Heshan

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with the thermal entanglement, we study the quantum discord and classical correlation in a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that the effects of the external magnetic fields, including the uniform and inhomogeneous magnetic fields, on the thermal entanglement, quantum discord and classical correlation behave differently in various aspects, which depend on system temperature and model type. We can tune the inhomogeneous magnetic field to enhance the entanglement or classical correlation and meanwhile decrease the quantum discord. In addition, taking into account the inhomogeneous magnetic field, the sudden change in the behaviour of quantum discord still survives, which can detect the critical points of quantum phase transitions at finite temperature, but not for a uniform magnetic field.

  1. Damping of Slow Magnetoacoustic Waves in an Inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aschwanden. 2004b; Nakariakov 2003). In this paper, we will study the dissipation of slow MHD waves in an inhomogeneous, compressible, and low-β coronal loop plasma through viscosity and thermal conduction. The paper is organized as follows.

  2. Large linear magnetoresistivity in strongly inhomogeneous planar and layered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgadaev, S.A.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2005-01-01

    Explicit expressions for magnetoresistance R of planar and layered strongly inhomogeneous two-phase systems are obtained, using exact dual transformation, connecting effective conductivities of in-plane isotropic two-phase systems with and without magnetic field. These expressions allow to describe the magnetoresistance of various inhomogeneous media at arbitrary concentrations x and magnetic fields H. All expressions show large linear magnetoresistance effect with different dependencies on the phase concentrations. The corresponding plots of the x- and H-dependencies of R(x,H) are represented for various values, respectively, of magnetic field and concentrations at some values of inhomogeneity parameter. The obtained results show a remarkable similarity with the existing experimental data on linear magnetoresistance in silver chalcogenides Ag 2+δ Se. A possible physical explanation of this similarity is proposed. It is shown that the random, stripe type, structures of inhomogeneities are the most suitable for a fabrication of magnetic sensors and a storage of information at room temperatures

  3. Effects of Roughness and Thermal Inhomogeneities on Urban Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernando, H

    2004-01-01

    ... from regional to personal scales. The project described herein was supported by the Army Research Office in support of those efforts, especially to study the effects of topographic and thermal inhomogeneities on urban-scale flows...

  4. Track and vertex fitting in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.C.; Saxon, D.H.

    1983-05-01

    Methods have been developed for fitting tracks and vertices in an inhomogeneous magnetic field for the PT55 Experiment at Nimrod. Details of the methods, including the correction for E x B effects, are given. (author)

  5. Calculations and measurements of β-ray attenuation for determining density in an inhomogenous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, T.G.; Mackinnon, J.G.; Frisch, A.F.; Jenkins, R.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A model for the distribution of tobacco strands in a cigarette is proposed to explain the discrepancy between density as measured by weight and volume and that as measured by β-ray attenuation and to explain the large deviation of the β-ray measurements from the mean value. The parameters which contribute to this uncertainty are slope of the β-ray attenuation curve, the mean path length through the mass element, and the material volume fraction. (author)

  6. Summation integrals for a Green function in a 3-D inhomogeneous anisotropic medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2014), s. 131-158 ISSN 2336-3827 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/0117 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Gaussian beam summation integrals * Maslov-Chapman integrals * target surface * dynamic ray tracing Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  7. Detection of Buried Inhomogeneous Elliptic Cylinders by a Memetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Caorsi, Salvatore; Massa, Andrea; Pastorino, Matteo; Raffetto, Mirco; Randazzo, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    The application of a global optimization procedure to the detection of buried inhomogeneities is studied in the present paper. The object inhomogeneities are schematized as multilayer infinite dielectric cylinders with elliptic cross sections. An efficient recursive analytical procedure is used for the forward scattering computation. A functional is constructed in which the field is expressed in series solution of Mathieu functions. Starting by the input scattered data, the iterative minimiza...

  8. Dynamics of inhomogeneous populations and global demography models

    OpenAIRE

    Karev, Georgy P.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic theory of inhomogeneous populations developed during the last decade predicts several essential new dynamic regimes applicable even to the well-known, simple population models. We show that, in an inhomogeneous population with a distributed reproduction coefficient, the entire initial distribution of the coefficient should be used to investigate real population dynamics. In the general case, neither the average rate of growth nor the variance or any finite number of moments of the...

  9. Nonlinear interaction of waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istomin, Ya.N.

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear wave processes in a weakly inhomogeneous plasma are considered. A quasilinear equation is derived which takes into account the effect of the waves on resonance particles, provided that the inhomogeneity appreciably affects the nature of the resonance interaction. Three-wave interaction is investigated under the same conditions. As an example, the nonlinear interaction in a relativistic plasma moving along a strong curvilinear magnetic field is considered

  10. Radio frequency conductivity of plasma in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae; Nishikawa, Kyoji; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Kimitaka.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlocal conductivity tensor is obtained to study the kinetic effects on propagation and absorption of radio frequency (rf) waves in dispersive plasmas. Generalized linear propagator in the presence of the inhomogeneity of magnetic field strength along the field line is calculated. The influence of the inhomogeneity to the rf wave-energy deposition is found to be appreciable. Application to toroidal plasmas is shown. (author)

  11. Love waves in a structure with an inhomogeneous layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaryan, K.B.; Piliposyan, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of the propagation of Love type waves in a structure consisting of a finite inhomogeneous layer sandwiched between two isotropic homogeneous half spaces is investigated. Two types of inhomogeneity are considered. It is shown that in one case the amplitude of vibrations in the middle layer is a sinusoidal function of distance from the plane of symmetry, but that in the other case it may be non-sinusoidal for certain values of the parameters of the problem

  12. Radio wave propagation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field of the solar corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyakov, V.V.; Zlotnik, E.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    Various types of linear coupling between ordinary and extra-ordinary waves in the coronal plasma with the inhomogeneous magnetic field and the effect of this phenomenon upon the polarization characteristics of solar radio emission are considered. A qualitative analysis of the wave equation indicates that in a rarefied plasma the coupling effects can be displayed in a sufficiently weak magnetic field or at the angles between the magnetic field and the direction of wave propagation close enough to zero or π/2. The wave coupling parameter are found for these three cases. The radio wave propagation through the region with a quasi-transverse magnetic field and through the neutral current sheet is discussed more in detail. A qualitative picture of coupling in such a layer is supported by a numerical solution of the ''quasi-isotropic approximation'' equations. The role of the coupling effects in formation of polarization characteristics of different components of solar radio emission has been investigated. For cm wave range, the polarization is essentially dependent on the conditions in the region of the transverse magnetic field

  13. Minimum weight design of inhomogeneous rotating discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahed, Hamid; Farshi, Behrooz; Bidabadi, Jalal

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous applications for gas turbine discs in the aerospace industry such as in turbojet engines. These discs normally work under high temperatures while subjected to high angular velocities. Minimizing the weight of such items in aerospace applications results in benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. High speed of rotation causes large centrifugal forces in a disc and simultaneous application of high temperatures reduces disc material strength. Thus, the latter effects tend to increase deformations of the disc under the applied loads. In order to obtain a reliable disc analysis and arrive at the corresponding correct stress distribution, solutions should consider changes in material properties due to the temperature field throughout the disc. To achieve this goal, an inhomogeneous disc model with variable thickness is considered. Using the variable material properties method, stresses are obtained for the disc under rotation and a steady temperature field. In this paper this is done by modelling the rotating disc as a series of rings of different but constant properties. The optimum disc profile is arrived at by sequentially proportioning the thicknesses of each ring to satisfy the stress requirements. This method vis-a-vis a mathematical programming procedure for optimization shows several advantages. Firstly, it is simple iterative proportioning in each design cycle not requiring involved mathematical operations. Secondly, due to its simplicity it alleviates the necessity of certain simplifications that are common in so-called rigorous mathematical procedures. The results obtained, compared to those published in the literature show agreement and superiority. A further advantage of the proposed method is the independence of the end results from the initially assumed point in the iterative design routine, unlike most methods published so far

  14. Transversals in non-discrete groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The concept of 'topological right transversal' is introduced to study right transversals in topological groups. Given any right quasigroup S with a Tychonoff topol- ogy T , it is proved that there exists a Hausdorff topological group in which S can be embedded algebraically and topologically as a right transversal of a ...

  15. Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belagola D Sathyanarayana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature. Aims: We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions. Results: One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Females (80% predominated over males. Most patients were of 15-45 years age group (70%. Majority of the transverse nasal lesions were classical transverse nasal groove (39% and others included transverse nasal line (28%, strip (28%, ridge (4% and loop (1%. Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Conclusions: Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions. Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis.

  16. Transversity of quarks in a nucleon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The transversity distribution of quarks in a nucleon is one of the three fundamental distributions, that characterize nucleon's properties in hard scattering processes at leading twist (twist 2). It measures the distribution of quark transverse spin in a nucleon polarized transverse to its (infinite) momentum. It is a chiral-odd ...

  17. Nonlinear real index of refraction variations of a gas medium due to a monochromatic radiation near resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, J.I.C.

    1982-01-01

    The nonlinear real index of refraction variations of a gas medium due to a strong monochromatic radiation causing saturation effects is calculated. The gas is supposed to be composed of two-level molecules with which the external field is nearly resonant. It is assumed homogeneous (hard collisions, spontaneous decay) and inhomogeneous (Doppler effect) broadening mechanisms acting on the real index of refraction of the medium. The nonlinear dispersion of the medium is studied as a function of the detuning frequencies, saturation conditions and for various ratios between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous linewidths. In particular, the modification of the index of refraction due to saturation effects are emphasized. (Author) [pt

  18. Filamentary fragmentation in a turbulent medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hubber, D. A.

    2017-06-01

    We present the results of smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations investigating the evolution and fragmentation of filaments that are accreting from a turbulent medium. We show that the presence of turbulence and the resulting inhomogeneities in the accretion flow play a significant role in the fragmentation process. Filaments that experience a weakly turbulent accretion flow fragment in a two-tier hierarchical fashion, similar to the fragmentation pattern seen in the Orion Integral Shaped Filament. Increasing the energy in the turbulent velocity field results in more sub-structure within the filaments, and one sees a shift from gravity-dominated fragmentation to turbulence-dominated fragmentation. The sub-structure formed in the filaments is elongated and roughly parallel to the longitudinal axis of the filament, similar to the fibres seen in observations of Taurus, and suggests that the fray and fragment scenario is a possible mechanism for the production of fibres. We show that the formation of these fibre-like structures is linked to the vorticity of the velocity field inside the filament and the filament's accretion from an inhomogeneous medium. Moreover, we find that accretion is able to drive and sustain roughly sonic levels of turbulence inside the filaments, but is not able to prevent radial collapse once the filaments become supercritical. However, the supercritical filaments that contain fibre-like structures do not collapse radially, suggesting that fibrous filaments may not necessarily become radially unstable once they reach the critical line-density.

  19. Diffraction traveltime approximation for TI media with an inhomogeneous background

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2013-09-01

    Diffractions in seismic data contain valuable information that can help improve our modeling capability for better imaging of the subsurface. They are especially useful for anisotropic media because they inherently possess a wide range of dips necessary to resolve the angular dependence of velocity. We develop a scheme for diffraction traveltime computations based on perturbation of the anellipticity anisotropy parameter for transversely isotropic media with tilted axis of symmetry (TTI). The expansion, therefore, uses an elliptically anisotropic medium with tilt as the background model. This formulation has advantages on two fronts: first, it alleviates the computational complexity associated with solving the TTI eikonal equation, and second, it provides a mechanism to scan for the best-fitting anellipticity parameter η without the need for repetitive modeling of traveltimes, because the traveltime coefficients of the expansion are independent of the perturbed parameter η. The accuracy of such an expansion is further enhanced by the use of Shanks transform. We established the effectiveness of the proposed formulation with tests on a homogeneous TTI model and complex media such as the Marmousi and BP models.

  20. A comparative study of ray tracing and CIVA simulation for ultrasonic examination of anisotropic inhomogeneous austenitic welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkoori, S. R.; Shokouhi, P.; Hoehne, C.; Rahman, M.-U.; Kreutzbruck, M.; Prager, J.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic examination of anisotropic inhomogeneous austenitic welds is challenging, because of the columnar grain structure of the weld leads to beam skewing and splitting. Modeling tools play an important role in understanding the ultrasound field propagation and optimization of experimental parameters during the ultrasonic testing of austenitic welds as well as the interpretation of the test results. In this contribution, an efficient theoretical model based on the ray tracing concepts is developed to calculate the ultrasonic fields in inhomogeneous austenitic welds quantitatively. The developed model determines the ultrasound fields by taking into account the directivity of the ray source, the inhomogenity of the weld as well as ray transmission coefficients. Directivity of the ray source in columnar grained austenitic materials (including layback orientation) is obtained in three dimensions based on Lamb's reciprocity theorem. Ray energy reflection and transmission coefficients at an interface between two general columnar grained austenitic materials are calculated in three dimensions. The ray tracing model predictions on inhomogeneous austenitic weld material are compared against those from CIVA, a commercial non-destructive modeling and simulation tool. The ultrasonic modeling tools in CIVA are based on semi-analytical solutions. For beam propagation simulation, a so-called "pencil method" is used, which involves modeling the probe as a set of individual source points, each radiating "a bundle" of diverging rays into the medium and integrating those elementary contributions. Inhomogenity in the weld region is approximated by mapping the grain orientations on weld macrograph. Simulation results for ultrasonic field profiles for an austenitic weld are shown to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results.

  1. Features of the energy structure of acoustic fields in the ocean with two-dimensional random inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, O. E.; Yaroshchuk, I. O.

    2017-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the analytic study and numerical simulation of mid-frequency acoustic signal propagation in a two-dimensional inhomogeneous random shallow-water medium. The study was carried out by the cross section method (local modes). We present original theoretical estimates for the behavior of the average acoustic field intensity and show that at different distances, the features of propagation loss behavior are determined by the intensity of fluctuations and their horizontal scale and depend on the initial regular parameters, such as the emission frequency and size of sound losses in the bottom. We establish analytically that for the considered waveguide and sound frequency parameters, mode coupling effect has a local character and weakly influences the statistics. We establish that the specific form of the spatial spectrum of sound velocity inhomogeneities for the statistical patterns of the field intensity is insignificant during observations in the range of shallow-water distances of practical interest.

  2. Noninterceptive transverse-beam measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.; Minerbo, G.N.; Mottershead, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Totally noninterceptive techniques for accurate measurement of transverse beam distributions are required for high-current continuous wave (cw) linacs, such as the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator. Sensors responding to visible radiation from beam interactions with residual gas and computer algorithms reconstructing spatial and phase space distributions have been implemented. This paper reports on early measurements of the beam from the injector of the prototype FMIT facility at Los Alamos. The first section indicates hardware setup and performance whereas the second section describes the data-processing software. The third section outlines the resultant measurements and further developments are discussed in the fourth section

  3. Entropy and transverse section reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A new approach to the reconstruction of a transverse section using projection data from multiple views incorporates the concept of maximum entropy. The principle of maximizing information entropy embodies the assurance of minimizing bias or prejudice in the reconstruction. Using maximum entropy is a necessary condition for the reconstructed image. This entropy criterion is most appropriate for 3-D reconstruction of objects from projections where the system is underdetermined or the data are limited statistically. This is the case in nuclear medicine time limitations in patient studies do not yield sufficient projections

  4. SECTIONING METHOD APPLICATION AT ELLIPSOMETRY OF INHOMOGENEOUS REFLECTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gorlyak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of application peculiarities of ellipsometry methods and UF spectrophotometry at mechanical and chemical processing of optical engineering surface elements made of quartz glass. Ellipsometer LEF–3M–1, spectrophotometer SF–26 and interferometer MII–4 are used as experiment tools; they obtain widely known technical characteristics. Polarization characteristics of reflected light beam were measured by ellipsometry method; spectrophotometry method was used for measuring radiation transmission factor in UF spectrum area; by interference method surface layer thickness at quartz glass etching was measured. A method for HF–sectioning of inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass is developed based on ellipsometry equation for reflection system «inhomogeneous layer – inhomogeneous padding». The method makes it possible to carry out the measuring and analysis of optical characteristics for inhomogeneous layers system on inhomogeneous padding and to reconstruct optical profile of surface layers at quartz glass chemical processing. For definition of refractive index change along the layer depth, approximation of experimental values for polarization characteristics of homogeneous layers system is used. Inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass consists of an area (with thickness up to 20 nm and layer refractive index less than refractive index for quartz glass and an area (with thickness up to 0,1 μm and layer refractive index larger than refractive index for quartz glass. Ellipsometry and photometry methods are used for definition of technological conditions and optical characteristics of inhomogeneous layers at quartz glass chemical processing for optical elements with minimum radiation losses in UF spectrum area.

  5. Novel self-similar rotating solutions of nonideal transverse magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, M.; Sadooghi, N.

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of electromagnetic and thermodynamic fields in a nonideal fluid is studied in the framework of ultrarelativistic transverse magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), which is essentially characterized by electric and magnetic fields being transverse to the fluid velocity and translational invariance in the transverse plane. Extending the method of self-similar solutions of relativistic hydrodynamics to the case of nonconserved charges, the differential equations of nonideal transverse MHD are solved, and two novel sets of self-similar solutions are derived. The first set turns out to be a boost-invariant and exact solution, which is characterized by nonrotating electric and magnetic fields. The second set is a nonboost-invariant solution, which is characterized by rotating electric and magnetic fields. The rotation occurs with increasing rapidity η , as the angular velocity is defined by ω0≡∂ζ/∂η =∂ϕ/∂η , with ζ and ϕ being the angles of local electric and magnetic vectors with respect to a certain fixed axis in the transverse plane. For both sets of solutions, the electric and magnetic fields are either parallel or antiparallel to each other in the local rest frame of the fluid. Performing a complete numerical analysis, the effects of finite electric conductivity as well as electric and magnetic susceptibilities of the medium on the evolution of rotating and nonrotating MHD solutions are explored, and the interplay between the angular velocity ω0 and these quantities is scrutinized. The lifetime of electromagnetic fields and the evolution of the temperature of the electromagnetized fluid are shown to be affected by ω0.

  6. Two-point paraxial traveltime formula for inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic media: Tests of accuracy

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2013-09-01

    On several simple models of isotropic and anisotropic media, we have studied the accuracy of the two-point paraxial traveltime formula designed for the approximate calculation of the traveltime between points S\\' and R\\' located in the vicinity of points S and R on a reference ray. The reference ray may be situated in a 3D inhomogeneous isotropic or anisotropic medium with or without smooth curved interfaces. The twopoint paraxial traveltime formula has the form of the Taylor expansion of the two-point traveltime with respect to spatial Cartesian coordinates up to quadratic terms at points S and R on the reference ray. The constant term and the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined from quantities obtained from ray tracing and linear dynamic ray tracing along the reference ray. The use of linear dynamic ray tracing allows the evaluation of the quadratic terms in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media and, as shown by examples, it extends the region of accurate results around the reference ray between S and R (and even outside this interval) obtained with the linear terms only. Although the formula may be used for very general 3D models, we concentrated on simple 2D models of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic (~8% and ~20% anisotropy) media only. On tests, in which we estimated twopoint traveltimes between a shifted source and a system of shifted receivers, we found that the formula may yield more accurate results than the numerical solution of an eikonal-based differential equation. The tests also indicated that the accuracy of the formula depends primarily on the length and the curvature of the reference ray and only weakly depends on anisotropy. The greater is the curvature of the reference ray, the narrower its vicinity, in which the formula yields accurate results.

  7. Experimental investigation of transverse flow estimation using transverse oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the blood velocity component parallel to the ultrasound beam. Introducing a laterally oscillating field gives signals from which the transverse velocity component can be estimated using 2:1 parallel receive beamformers. To yield the performance...... perpendicular to the ultrasound beam. The velocity profile of the blood is parabolic, and the speed of the blood in the center of the vessel is 1.1 m/s. An extended autocorrelation algorithm is used for velocity estimation for 310 trials, each containing 32 beamformed signals. The velocity can be estimated.......0% and the relative mean standard deviation is found to be 9.8%. With the Compuflow 1000 programmable flow pump a color flow mode image is produced of the experimental setup for a parabolic flow. Also the flow of the human femoralis is reproduced and it is found that the characteristics of the flow can be estimated....

  8. Effect of tissue inhomogeneities on external radiation therapy dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siler, W.; Dymytryshak, C.

    1966-01-01

    While considerable attention has been paid to the use of computers in the calculation of radiation therapy dose distributions, little work has been done on the effects of body inhomogeneities on the dose distributions. The usual assumptions for computer calculations are two in number: first, that the surface of the patient is flat and perpendicular to the centre line of the X-ray beam; and second, that the patient is homogeneous and water equivalent. Hallden et al. (1963) have a published a method which permits the surface of the patient, while still flat, to meet the centre-line of the X-ray beam at oblique angles; Mauderli and Fitzgerald (1964) allow for patient curvature, as does Clifton (1964). The problem of correction for inhomogeneities has received less attention; the only working programme known to the authors which corrects for these effects is that of Siler et al. (1964). The scarcity of computer programmes for dealing with inhomogeneities reflects, we believe, a corresponding lack of theoretical and experimental work in this field. While attention has been paid to the inhomogeneity problem by such workers as Dutriex et al. (1959), Bahr et al. (1964), the very early work of Spiers, and the electron beam work of Laughlin (1964), much of this work is not directly applicable to the effect of gross tissue inhomogeneities on the overall radiation therapy dose distributions

  9. Inhomogeneity in microstructure and mechanical properties during twist extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, Sh. Vakili [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eivani, A.R., E-mail: aeivani@iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, H.R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzaei, M. [Material Engineering Group, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In the present paper, the effect of twist extrusion (TE) on the variations of hardness and tensile properties in commercial pure copper is investigated. It is found that hardness, yield and ultimate tensile strength of the alloy increased by increasing distance from the center of the sample after one pass TE. Similar consequences are observed when the second pass of deformation is considered. This is attributed to inhomogeneity of deformation and the higher strain imposed on the material at the peripheral regions. It should be noted that the inhomogeneity is increased at the second pass when route A of deformation is utilized and reduces by utilization of route D. This has as a well-established effect on the development of microstructure throughout the cross section of the samples. In fact, it is found that the microstructure at the peripheral regions is more significantly deformed leading to higher dislocation density and extensive subgrain formation. In addition, it is found that at the second pass using route A, inhomogeneity of deformation and microstructure increases. However, less inhomogeneity is observed when route D is utilized which is in line with the hardness and tensile test results. In the end, it is concluded that depending on the aim of the SPD process, if more homogeneous deformation and microstructure is required, route D is recommended and route A should be utilized in case if maximum inhomogeneity is desirable.

  10. Kink and Sausage Modes in Nonuniform Magnetic Slabs with Continuous Transverse Density Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Li, Bo; Chen, Shao-Xia; Guo, Ming-Zhe

    2015-11-01

    We examine the influence of a continuous density structuring transverse to coronal slabs on the dispersive properties of fundamental standing kink and sausage modes supported therein. We derive generic dispersion relations (DRs) governing linear fast waves in pressureless straight slabs with general transverse density distributions, and focus on cases where the density inhomogeneity takes place in a layer of arbitrary width and in arbitrary form. The physical relevance of the solutions to the DRs is demonstrated by the corresponding time-dependent computations. For all profiles examined, the lowest order kink modes are trapped regardless of longitudinal wavenumber k. A continuous density distribution introduces a difference to their periods of ≲13% when k is the observed range relative to the case where the density profile takes a step function form. Sausage modes and other branches of kink modes are leaky at small k, and their periods and damping times are heavily influenced by how the transverse density profile is prescribed, in particular the length scale. These modes have sufficiently high quality to be observable only for physical parameters representative of flare loops. We conclude that while the simpler DR pertinent to a step function profile can be used for the lowest order kink modes, the detailed information on the transverse density structuring needs to be incorporated into studies of sausage modes and higher order kink modes.

  11. KINK AND SAUSAGE MODES IN NONUNIFORM MAGNETIC SLABS WITH CONTINUOUS TRANSVERSE DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hui; Li, Bo; Chen, Shao-Xia; Guo, Ming-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    We examine the influence of a continuous density structuring transverse to coronal slabs on the dispersive properties of fundamental standing kink and sausage modes supported therein. We derive generic dispersion relations (DRs) governing linear fast waves in pressureless straight slabs with general transverse density distributions, and focus on cases where the density inhomogeneity takes place in a layer of arbitrary width and in arbitrary form. The physical relevance of the solutions to the DRs is demonstrated by the corresponding time-dependent computations. For all profiles examined, the lowest order kink modes are trapped regardless of longitudinal wavenumber k. A continuous density distribution introduces a difference to their periods of ≲13% when k is the observed range relative to the case where the density profile takes a step function form. Sausage modes and other branches of kink modes are leaky at small k, and their periods and damping times are heavily influenced by how the transverse density profile is prescribed, in particular the length scale. These modes have sufficiently high quality to be observable only for physical parameters representative of flare loops. We conclude that while the simpler DR pertinent to a step function profile can be used for the lowest order kink modes, the detailed information on the transverse density structuring needs to be incorporated into studies of sausage modes and higher order kink modes

  12. Peculiarities of the fundamental mode structure in stable-resonator lasers upon spatially inhomogeneous amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunkov, Mikhail V; Kostryukov, P V; Telegin, L S; Tunkin, V G; Yakovlev, D V

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the fundamental mode of a laser is calculated by the iteration Fox-Li method in the case of inhomogeneous unsaturated amplification produced by axially symmetric longitudinal pumping. The calculation is performed for different parameters g 1 and g 2 of the resonator within the entire stability region. It is shown that in the case of inhomogeneous amplification, the fundamental mode considerably deviates from the Gaussian mode of an empty resonator only in the so-called critical configurations of the resonator, when the quantity [arccos(g 1 g 2 ) 1/2 ]/π is zero or takes a number of values expressed by irreducible fractions m/n. For the Fresnel number N F = 9, configurations with m/n = 1/2, 2/5, 3/8, 1/3, 3/10, 1/4, 1/5, 1/6, 1/8, and 1/10 are pronounced. As N F increases, the number of critical configurations increases. The expansion in a system of Laguerre-Gaussian beams shows that the fundamental mode in critical configurations is formed by a set of beams with certain radial indices p phased in the active medium. (resonators. modes)

  13. A study of low-dimensional inhomogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo Leon, Yesenia

    2009-01-01

    While the properties of homogeneous one-dimensional systems, even with disorder, are relatively well-understood, very little is known about the properties of strongly interacting inhomogeneous systems. Their high-energy physics is determined by the underlying chemistry which, in the atomic scale, introduces Coulomb correlations and local potentials. On the other hand, at large length scales, the physics has to be described by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) model. In order to establish a connection between the low-energy TLL and the quasi-one-dimensional systems synthesized in the laboratory, we investigate the density-density correlation function in inhomogeneous one-dimensional systems in the asymptotic region. To investigate homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous systems, we use the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present results for ground state properties, such as the density-density correlation function and the parameter K c , which characterizes its decay at large distances. (orig.)

  14. A study of low-dimensional inhomogeneous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo Leon, Yesenia

    2009-01-15

    While the properties of homogeneous one-dimensional systems, even with disorder, are relatively well-understood, very little is known about the properties of strongly interacting inhomogeneous systems. Their high-energy physics is determined by the underlying chemistry which, in the atomic scale, introduces Coulomb correlations and local potentials. On the other hand, at large length scales, the physics has to be described by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) model. In order to establish a connection between the low-energy TLL and the quasi-one-dimensional systems synthesized in the laboratory, we investigate the density-density correlation function in inhomogeneous one-dimensional systems in the asymptotic region. To investigate homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous systems, we use the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present results for ground state properties, such as the density-density correlation function and the parameter K{sub c}, which characterizes its decay at large distances. (orig.)

  15. Assessment of dose inhomogeneity at target level by in vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leunens, G.; Verstraete, J.; Dutreix, A.; Schueren, E. van der

    1992-01-01

    Inhomogeneity of dose delivered to the target volume due to irregular body surface and tissue densities remains in many cases unknown, since dose distribution is calculated for most radiation treatments in only one transverse section and assuming the patient to be water equivalent. In this study transmission and target absorbed dose homogeneity is assessed for 11 head-and-neck cancer treatments by in vivo measurements with silicon diodes. Besides the dose to specification point, the dose delivered to 2-4 off-axis points in midline sagittal plane is estimated from entrance and exit dose measurements. Simultaneously made portal films allow to identify anatomical structures passed by the beam before reaching exit diode. Mean deviation from expected transmission is -6.8% for bone, +6% for air cavities and -2.5% for soft tissue. At midplane, mean deviations from expected target dose are respectively -3.5%, +2.3% and -1.9%. Deviations from prescribed dose are larger than 5% in 12/39 target points. Accuracy requirements in target dose delivery of plus or minus 5%, as proposed by ICRU, cannot be fulfilled in 7/11 patients and is mostly due to irregular body contour and tissue densities. as only a limited number of points are considered, inhomogeneity in dose delivered throughout whole irradiated volume is underestimated, as is illustrated from exit dose profiles obtained from portal image. Besides its tremendous value as a quality assurance procedure, in vivo dose measurements are shown to be a valid method for assessing dose delivered to irradiated tissues when dose computations are assumed to be inaccurate or even impossible in current practice. (author). 21 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  17. Resolution enhancement of slam using transverse wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Dae Sik; Moon, Gun; Kim, Young H.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Since the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM Image In the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode.

  18. Longitudinal and transverse wake potentials in SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Wilson, P.

    1980-01-01

    In a machine with short bunches of high peak currents, such as the SLAC collider, one needs to know the longitudinal wake potential, for the higher mode losses, and the transverse wake potential, since, for bunches passing slightly off axis, the induced transverse forces will tend to cause beam break up. The longitudinal and transverse wakes of the SLAC structure presented here, were calculated by computer using the modal method, and including an analytic extension for higher modes. (Auth.)

  19. Laparoscopic colectomy for transverse colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmora, O; Bar-Dayan, A; Khaikin, M; Lebeydev, A; Shabtai, M; Ayalon, A; Rosin, D

    2010-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma is technically demanding and was excluded from most of the large trials of laparoscopic colectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and outcome of laparoscopic resection of carcinoma of the transverse colon. A retrospective review was performed to identify patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These patients were compared to patients who had laparoscopic resection for right and sigmoid colon carcinoma. In addition, they were compared to a historical series of patients who underwent open resection for transverse colon cancer. A total of 22 patients underwent laparoscopic resection for transverse colon carcinoma. Sixty-eight patients operated for right colon cancer and 64 operated for sigmoid colon cancer served as comparison groups. Twenty-four patients were identified for the historical open group. Intraoperative complications occurred in 4.5% of patients with transverse colon cancer compared to 5.9% (P = 1.0) and 7.8% (P = 1.0) of patients with right and sigmoid colon cancer, respectively. The early postoperative complication rate was 45, 50 (P = 1.0), and 37.5% (P = 0.22) in the three groups, respectively. Conversion was required in 1 (5%) patient in the laparoscopic transverse colon group. The conversion rate and late complications were not significantly different in the three groups. There was no significant difference in the number of lymph nodes harvested in the laparoscopic and open groups. Operative time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic transverse colectomy group when compared to all other groups (P = 0.001, 0.008, and transverse colectomy, respectively). The results of laparoscopic colon resection for transverse colon carcinoma are comparable to the results of laparoscopic resection of right or sigmoid colon cancer and open resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These results suggest that laparoscopic resection of transverse

  20. Large transverse momentum behavior of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquereaux, Robert; De Rafael, Eduardo.

    1977-05-01

    The large transverse momentum behavior of Compton scattering and Moeller scattering in Quantum Electrodynamics; and of elastic quark-quark scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics are examined in perturbation theory. The results strongly suggest that the large transverse momentum regime in gauge theories is governed by a differential equation of the Callan-Symanzik type with a suitable momentum dependent anomalous dimension term. An explicit solution for the quark-quark elastic scattering amplitude at large transverse momentum is given

  1. Deuteron transverse densities in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Chakrabarti, Dipankar [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Zhao, Xingbo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-05-15

    We investigate the transverse charge density in the longitudinally as well as transversely polarized deuteron using the recent empirical description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in the framework of holographic QCD. The predictions of the holographic QCD are compared with the results of a standard phenomenological parameterization. In addition, we evaluate GPDs and the gravitational form factors for the deuteron. The longitudinal momentum densities are also investigated in the transverse plane. (orig.)

  2. Transverse thermal magnetoresistance of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newrock, R.S.; Maxfield, B.W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of extensive thermal magnetoresistance measurements on single-crystal and polycrystalline specimens of potassium having residual resistance ratios (RRR) ranging from 1100 to 5300. Measurements were made between 2 and 9 0 K for magnetic fields up to 1.8 T. The observed thermal magnetoresistance cannot be understood on the basis of either semiclassical theories or from the electrical magnetoresistance and the Wiedemann-Franz law. A number of relationships are observed between the thermal and electrical magnetoresistances, many of which are not immediately obvious when comparing direct experimental observations. The thermal magnetoresistance W(T,H) is given reasonably well by W(T,H)T = W(T,0)T + AH + BH 2 , where both A and B are temperature-dependent coefficients. Results show that A = A 0 + A 1 T 3 , while B(T) cannot be expressed as any simple power law. A 0 is dependent on the RRR, while A 1 is independent of the RRR. Two relationships are found between corresponding coefficients in the electrical and thermal magnetoresistance: (i) the Wiedmann--Franz law relates A 0 to the Kohler slope of the electrical magnetoresistance and (ii) the temperature-dependent portions of the electrical and thermal Kohler slopes are both proportional to the electron--phonon scattering contribution to the corresponding zero-field resistance. The latter provides evidence that inelastic scattering is very important in determining the temperature-dependent linear magnetoresistances. Part, but by no means all, of the quadratic thermal resistance is accounted for by lattice thermal conduction. It is concluded that at least a portion of the anomalous electrical and thermal magnetoresistances is due to intrinsic causes and not inhomogeneities or other macroscopic defects

  3. Image transport through a disordered optical fibre mediated by transverse Anderson localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasi, Salman; Frazier, Ryan J; Koch, Karl W; Hawkins, Thomas; Ballato, John; Mafi, Arash

    2014-02-25

    Transverse Anderson localization of light allows localized optical-beam-transport through a transversely disordered and longitudinally invariant medium. Its successful implementation in disordered optical fibres recently resulted in the propagation of localized beams of radii comparable to that of conventional optical fibres. Here we demonstrate optical image transport using transverse Anderson localization of light. The image transport quality obtained in the polymer disordered optical fibre is comparable to or better than some of the best commercially available multicore image fibres with less pixelation and higher contrast. It is argued that considerable improvement in image transport quality can be obtained in a disordered fibre made from a glass matrix with near wavelength-size randomly distributed air-holes with an air-hole fill-fraction of 50%. Our results open the way to device-level implementation of the transverse Anderson localization of light with potential applications in biological and medical imaging.

  4. Image transport through a disordered optical fibre mediated by transverse Anderson localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasi, Salman; Frazier, Ryan J.; Koch, Karl W.; Hawkins, Thomas; Ballato, John; Mafi, Arash

    2014-02-01

    Transverse Anderson localization of light allows localized optical-beam-transport through a transversely disordered and longitudinally invariant medium. Its successful implementation in disordered optical fibres recently resulted in the propagation of localized beams of radii comparable to that of conventional optical fibres. Here we demonstrate optical image transport using transverse Anderson localization of light. The image transport quality obtained in the polymer disordered optical fibre is comparable to or better than some of the best commercially available multicore image fibres with less pixelation and higher contrast. It is argued that considerable improvement in image transport quality can be obtained in a disordered fibre made from a glass matrix with near wavelength-size randomly distributed air-holes with an air-hole fill-fraction of 50%. Our results open the way to device-level implementation of the transverse Anderson localization of light with potential applications in biological and medical imaging.

  5. Nonlinear acoustic waves in micro-inhomogeneous solids

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarov, Veniamin

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear Acoustic Waves in Micro-inhomogeneous Solids covers the broad and dynamic branch of nonlinear acoustics, presenting a wide variety of different phenomena from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The introductory chapters, written in the style of graduate-level textbook, present a review of the main achievements of classic nonlinear acoustics of homogeneous media. This enables readers to gain insight into nonlinear wave processes in homogeneous and micro-inhomogeneous solids and compare it within the framework of the book. The subsequent eight chapters covering: Physical m

  6. Parallel application of plasma equilibrium fitting based on inhomogeneous platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Min; Zhang Jinhua; Chen Liaoyuan; Li Yongge; Pan Wei; Pan Li

    2008-01-01

    An online analysis and online display platform EFIT, which is based on the equilibrium-fitting mode, is inducted in this paper. This application can realize large data transportation between inhomogeneous platforms by designing a communication mechanism using sockets. It spends approximately one minute to complete the equilibrium fitting reconstruction by using a finite state machine to describe the management node and several node computers of cluster system to fulfill the parallel computation, this satisfies the online display during the discharge interval. An effective communication model between inhomogeneous platforms is provided, which could transport the computing results from Linux platform to Windows platform for online analysis and display. (authors)

  7. Baryon inhomogeneity from the cosmic quark-hadron phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurki-Suonio, H.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the generation of inhomogeneity in the baryon-number density during the cosmic quark-hadron phase transition. We use a simple model with thin-wall phase boundaries and ideal-gas equations of state. The nucleation of the phase transition introduces a new distance scale into the universe which will be the scale of the generated inhomogeneity. We review the estimate of this scale. During the transition baryon number is likely to collect onto a layer at the phase boundary. These layers may in the end be deposited as small regions of very high baryon density. 21 refs., 1 fig

  8. Phase mixing and surface wave decay in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cally, P.S.; Sedlacek, Z.

    1992-02-01

    The decay rate is calculated of an Alfven or plasma surface wave propagating along an inhomogeneous layer of plasma. The inhomogeneous profile is thin and odd, but otherwise arbitrary. The wave's decay rate is determined using two fundamentally different methods, the integral-differential equation approach of Sedlacek and the Fourier expansion technique of Cally, and found by both to depend only on the slope of the Alfven or plasma frequency profile at the r esonant point , and not on other details of its shape. The result is verified numerically. This problem represents a good example with which to compare and contrast the two methods. (author) 3 figs., 7 refs

  9. Reflection of oblique electron thermal modes in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sanuki, H.

    1980-04-01

    In an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma, reflection of an oblique electron thermal mode radiated from a local source is investigated experimentally and theoretically near the electron plasma frequency layer. The experimental observation of reflection in the lower plasma density region than the f sub(p)-layer is found to be in qualitative accord with the theoretical reflection, which is obtained from a kinetic theory in an inhomogeneous magnetoplasma. The reflection of the thermal mode is also compared with that of an electromagnetic mode at the f sub(p)-layer. (author)

  10. Deep and clear optical imaging of thick inhomogeneous samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Jorand

    Full Text Available Inhomogeneity in thick biological specimens results in poor imaging by light microscopy, which deteriorates as the focal plane moves deeper into the specimen. Here, we have combined selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM with wavefront sensor adaptive optics (wao. Our waoSPIM is based on a direct wavefront measure using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and fluorescent beads as point source emitters. We demonstrate the use of this waoSPIM method to correct distortions in three-dimensional biological imaging and to improve the quality of images from deep within thick inhomogeneous samples.

  11. Deep and clear optical imaging of thick inhomogeneous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorand, Raphael; Le Corre, Gwénaële; Andilla, Jordi; Maandhui, Amina; Frongia, Céline; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard; Lorenzo, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    Inhomogeneity in thick biological specimens results in poor imaging by light microscopy, which deteriorates as the focal plane moves deeper into the specimen. Here, we have combined selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) with wavefront sensor adaptive optics (wao). Our waoSPIM is based on a direct wavefront measure using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and fluorescent beads as point source emitters. We demonstrate the use of this waoSPIM method to correct distortions in three-dimensional biological imaging and to improve the quality of images from deep within thick inhomogeneous samples.

  12. Optical bistability in the oscillation of an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-three-level laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junhai; Tian, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical modeling analysis is presented to study the optical bistability exhibited in the oscillation of an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-three-level laser. All the major characteristics of optical bistability depend on two normalized parameters, f and x a , which are defined by f = I sat,a /I sat,m and x a = 2α a0 p a /δ and are related to measurable properties of the laser medium. In comparison with the case of a homogeneously broadened laser, the essential condition for the occurrence of such bistability, f a /(x a + 1), turns out to be the same, whereas the intensities at the up- and down-thresholds are substantially increased and the bistability range is reduced. (paper)

  13. Inverse random source scattering for the Helmholtz equation in inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chen, Chuchu; Li, Peijun

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an inverse random source scattering problem in an inhomogeneous background medium. The wave propagation is modeled by the stochastic Helmholtz equation with the source driven by additive white noise. The goal is to reconstruct the statistical properties of the random source such as the mean and variance from the boundary measurement of the radiated random wave field at multiple frequencies. Both the direct and inverse problems are considered. We show that the direct problem has a unique mild solution by a constructive proof. For the inverse problem, we derive Fredholm integral equations, which connect the boundary measurement of the radiated wave field with the unknown source function. A regularized block Kaczmarz method is developed to solve the ill-posed integral equations. Numerical experiments are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Physics of thermal waves in homogeneous and inhomogeneous (two-layer) samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, Yuriy G.; Cruz, Gerardo G. de la [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV del I.P.N., Apartado Postal 14-740, 073000, D.F. (Mexico); Logvinov, Georgiy N. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESIME Culhuacan, Av. Santa Ana 1000, Col. San Francisco, C.D. 04430, D.F., Culhuacan (Mexico); Lopez, Gabino Espejo [CICATA-IPN, Garcia Obeso 306, Col. Centro 58000, Mor., Mich. (Mexico)

    2003-01-01

    Thermal waves produced by a periodic heat generation in homogeneous and inhomogeneous solids are examined from the theoretical point of view. The analysis is done for boundary conditions, thermal wave attenuation in a non-dissipate medium and the physical meaning of ''reflected thermal waves''. Separately it is discussed the comparison with electromagnetic waves. A new approach is suggested for calculation effective thermal conductivity and effective thermal diffusivity in two-layer structures within the frames of photothermal experiments. It is shown that the effective parameters depend on the physical properties of separate layers and interface, the manner of measuring these parameters, and the points of measuring. (authors)

  15. Dependence of inhomogeneous vibrational linewidth broadening on attractive forces from local liquid number densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, S.M.; Harris, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of inhomogeneous vibrational linewidth broadening on attractive forces form slowly varying local liquid number densities is examined. The recently developed Schweizer--Chandler theory of vibrational dephasing is used to compute absolute inhomogeneous broadening linewidths. The computed linewidths are compared to measured inhomogeneous broadening linewidths determined using picosecond vibrational dephasing experiments. There is a similarity between correlations of the Schweizer--Chandler and George--Auweter--Harris predicted inhomogeneous broadening linewidths and the measured inhomogeneous broadening linewidths. For the methyl stretches under investigation, this correspondence suggests that the width of the number density distribution in the liquid determines the relative inhomogeneous broadening magnitudes

  16. Olefin Ring Closing Metathesis and Hydrosilylation Reaction in Aqueous Medium by Grubbs Second Generation Ruthenium Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grubbs second generation ruthenium catalyst was shown to catalyze various olefin ring closing metathesis and hydrosilylation reactions in aqueous medium. Reactions proceeded in pure water without any additives or co-solvents, in a short period of time. We found that inhomogen...

  17. Sausage Waves in Transversely Nonuniform Monolithic Coronal Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate fast sausage waves in a monolithic coronal magnetic tube, modeled as a local density inhomogeneity with a continuous radial profile. This work is a natural extension of our previous results, obtained for a slab loop model for the case of cylindrical geometry. Using Kneser’s oscillating theorem, we provided the criteria for the existence of trapped and leaky wave regimes as a function of the profile features. For a number of density profiles there are only trapped modes for the entire range of longitudinal wave numbers. The phase speed of these modes tends toward the external Alfvén speed in the long wavelength limit. The generalized results were supported by the analytic solution of the wave equation for the specific density profiles. The approximate Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin solutions allowed us to obtain the desired dispersion relations and to study their properties as a function of the profile parameters. The multicomponent quasi-periodic pulsations in flaring loops, observed on 2001 May 2 and 2002 July 3, are interpreted in terms of the transversely fundamental trapped fast sausage mode with several longitudinal harmonics in a smooth coronal waveguide.

  18. SAUSAGE WAVES IN TRANSVERSELY NONUNIFORM MONOLITHIC CORONAL TUBES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate fast sausage waves in a monolithic coronal magnetic tube, modeled as a local density inhomogeneity with a continuous radial profile. This work is a natural extension of our previous results, obtained for a slab loop model for the case of cylindrical geometry. Using Kneser’s oscillating theorem, we provided the criteria for the existence of trapped and leaky wave regimes as a function of the profile features. For a number of density profiles there are only trapped modes for the entire range of longitudinal wave numbers. The phase speed of these modes tends toward the external Alfvén speed in the long wavelength limit. The generalized results were supported by the analytic solution of the wave equation for the specific density profiles. The approximate Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin solutions allowed us to obtain the desired dispersion relations and to study their properties as a function of the profile parameters. The multicomponent quasi-periodic pulsations in flaring loops, observed on 2001 May 2 and 2002 July 3, are interpreted in terms of the transversely fundamental trapped fast sausage mode with several longitudinal harmonics in a smooth coronal waveguide

  19. Charmonium propagation through a dense medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeliovich B.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of a colourless c̄c dipole propagating with a large momentum through a hot medium originates from two sources, Debye screening (melting, and inelastic collisions with surrounding scattering centres (absorption. The former never terminates completely production of a bound charmonium in heavy ion collisions, even at very high temperatures. The latter, is controlled my the magnitude of the dipole cross section, related to the transport coefficient, which is the rate of transverse momentum broadening in the medium. A novel procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schrödinger equation is developed, which allows to calculate the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. A novel mechanism of charmonium regeneration in a dense medium is proposed.

  20. Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We present a theory for the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields on time scales that are slow compared to the acoustic oscillation period. The acoustic force density depends on gradients in the density and compressibility of the fluid. For microfluidic systems...

  1. Jeans instability of an inhomogeneous streaming dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The dynamics of a self-gravitating unmagnetized, inhomogeneous, streaming dusty plasma is studied in the present work. The presence of the shear flow causes the coupling between gravitational and electrostatic forces. In the absence of self-gravity, the fluctuations in the plasma may grow at the expense of the ...

  2. Acceleration of near-field scattering from an inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    field wave (from an impulsive point force) at a radially inhomogeneous volume element. These integrals are solved further ... shell from source, receiver, its thickness and its position relative to the direction of impulsive force. 1. Introduction. The factors ...... dΩ (= dχdφ), are computed through summation method. To study the ...

  3. Full-wave solution of short impulses in inhomogeneous plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/064/02/0249-0268. Keywords. Wave propagation; electromagnetic theory; impulses in plasma. Abstract. In this paper the problem of real impulse propagation in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media will be presented on a fundamentally new, general, theoretical way.

  4. Mechanism for an absolute parametric instability of an inhomogeneous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipenko, V. I.; Budnikov, V. N.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Romanchuk, I. A.; Simonchik, L. V.

    1984-05-01

    The structure of plasma oscillations in a region of parametric spatial amplification has been studied experimentally for the first time. A new mechanism for an absolute parametric instability has been observed. This mechanism operates when a pump wave with a spatial structure more complicated than a plane wave propagates through a plasma which is inhomogeneous along more than one dimension.

  5. Lower hybrid waves instability in a velocity–sheared inhomogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electrostatic linear kinetic analysis of velocity-sheared inhomogeneous charged dust streaming parallel to a magnetic field in plasma is presented. Excited mode and the growth rates are derived in the lower hybrid-like mode regime, with collisional effects included. In the case where the drift velocity u is very small the ...

  6. Inhomogeneous magnetic field in AdS/CFT superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Wen-Yu

    2008-01-01

    We study the holographically dual description of superconductor in (2+1)-dimensions in the presence of inhomogeneous magnetic field and observe that there exists type I and type II superconductor. A new feature of type changing is observed for type I superconductor near critical temperature.

  7. Material inhomogeneities and their evolution a geometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    Presents a unified treatment of the inhomogeneity theory using some of the tools of modern differential geometry. This book deals with the geometrical description of uniform bodies and their homogeneity conditions. It also develops a theory of material evolution and discusses its relevance in various applied contexts.

  8. Scattering of a spherical pulse from a small inhomogeneity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    In the case of vertical seismic profiling, where source and receiver arrangements are favourable for receiving the wide-angle scattered waves, the seis- mic wave scattering has vast possibilities of appli- cation. The modelling of waves scattered by a small inhomogeneity has taken a variety of approaches. The basis for any ...

  9. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally Bound ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-16

    Apr 16, 2012 ... Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in the Astronomical Unit. Hideyoshi ... Newtonian (PPN) approximation, β and γ are tightly constrained to the value of general relativity, i.e., β = γ = 1. ... method to describe the large-scale inhomogeneity of the Universe. Therefore, it would be ...

  10. Jeans instability of an inhomogeneous streaming dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of a self-gravitating unmagnetized, inhomogeneous, streaming dusty plasma is studied in the present work. The presence of the shear flow causes the coupling between gravitational and electrostatic forces. In the absence of self-gravity, the fluctuations in the plasma may grow at the expense of the density ...

  11. Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.

    1991-07-01

    Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.

  12. Ion-acoustic solitons in multispecies spatially inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ion-acoustic solitons are investigated in the spatially inhomogeneous plasma having electrons-positrons and ions. The soliton characteristics are described by Korteweg-de Vries equation which has an additional term. The density and temperature of different species play an important role for the amplitude and width of the ...

  13. Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    in the interplay between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings are measured. Based on these experiments, a coherent control model describing the optical fringe contrast using different detection schemes, such as photoluminescence or four-wave mixing, is established. Significant spectral modulation...

  14. Ion-acoustic solitons in multispecies spatially inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Ion-acoustic solitons are investigated in the spatially inhomogeneous plasma having electrons–positrons and ions. The soliton characteristics are described by. Korteweg–de Vries equation which has an additional term. The density and temperature of different species play an important role for the amplitude and ...

  15. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous bianisotropic media: Wave propagation and light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Shalin, Alexander S.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    We develop a technique for finding closed-form expressions for electromagnetic fields in radially inhomogeneous bianisotropic media, both the solutions of the Maxwell equations and material tensors being defined by the set of auxiliary two-dimensional matrices. The approach is applied to determine...

  16. Larmor radius expansion for the inhomogeneous plasma dielectric tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaviani, M.

    1984-01-01

    A larmour radius expansion for the dielectric tensor of an inhomogeneous plasma with perpendicular gradients is derived directly from the relativistic Vlasov equation. Various wave equations are derived from relevant radio frequency heating problems together with a generalized Poynting theorem. The validity of Kadomtev's assumption is discussed

  17. Measurements of weak localization of graphene in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvall, N.; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Yurgens, A.

    2015-01-01

    attribute this to the inhomogeneous field caused by vortices in the superconductor. The deviation, which depends on the carrier concentration in graphene, can be tuned by the gate voltage. In addition, collective vortex motion, known as vortex avalanches, is observed through magnetoresistance measurements...

  18. Flux and polarization signals of spatially inhomogeneous gaseous exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karalidi, T.; Stam, D.M.; Guirado, D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We present numerically calculated, disk-integrated, spectropolarimetric signals of starlight that is reflected by vertically and horizontally inhomogeneous gaseous exoplanets. We include various spatial features that are present on Solar System’s gaseous planets: belts and zones, cyclonic

  19. Electron-Bernstein Waves in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, R. J.; Frederiksen, Å.; Pécseli, Hans

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of small amplitude electron-Bernstein waves in different inhomogeneous magnetic field geometries is investigated experimentally. Wave propagation towards both cut-offs and resonances are considered. The experimental results are supported by a numerical ray-tracing analysis. Spatia...

  20. Influence of temperature inhomogeneity on product profile of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Influence of temperature inhomogeneity on product profile of reactions occurring within zeolites. ¶. A V ANIL KUMAR1, S YASHONATH1,2* and G ANANTHAKRISHNA2,3. 1Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, 2Centre for Condensed Matter. Theory, and 3Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science,.

  1. Multiple solutions for inhomogeneous nonlinear elliptic problems arising in astrophyiscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Calahorrano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Using variational methods we prove the existence and multiplicity of solutions for some nonlinear inhomogeneous elliptic problems on a bounded domain in $mathbb{R}^n$, with $ngeq 2$ and a smooth boundary, and when the domain is $mathbb{R}_+^n$

  2. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally Bound ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 33; Issue 2. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in the Astronomical Unit. Hideyoshi Arakida. Volume 33 Issue 2 June 2012 pp 201-211 ...

  3. Scattering of a spherical pulse from a small inhomogeneity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    receiving the wide-angle scattered waves, the seis- mic wave scattering has vast possibilities of appli- cation. The modelling of waves scattered by a small inhomogeneity has taken a variety of approaches. The basis for any advanced scattering theory is the elastic wave scattering by a single inclusion in a homogeneous ...

  4. An inhomogeneous wave equation and non-linear Diophantine approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beresnevich, V.; Dodson, M. M.; Kristensen, S.

    2008-01-01

    A non-linear Diophantine condition involving perfect squares and arising from an inhomogeneous wave equation on the torus guarantees the existence of a smooth solution. The exceptional set associated with the failure of the Diophantine condition and hence of the existence of a smooth solution...

  5. Inhomogeneous Spin Diffusion in Traps with Cold Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The spin diusion and damped oscillations are studied in the collision of two spin polarized clouds of cold atoms with resonant interactions. The strong density dependence of the diusion coecient leads to inhomogeneous spin diusion that changes from central to surface spin ow as the temperature...

  6. One-dimensional diffusion model in an Inhomogeneous region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fedotov, I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model is developed to describe atomic diffusion in a graphite tube atomizer for electrothermal atomic adsorption spectrometry. The underlying idea of the model is the solution of an inhomogeneous one-dimensional diffusion equation...

  7. Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy in the Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... -body numerical simulations of an inhomogeneous Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE) of the solar neighbourhood with a high temporal resolution are presented. The solar annular ring is divided into distinct spatial grids of area ∼ 1–2 kpc2. Each grid evolves distinctly in terms of star formation and ...

  8. Full-wave solution of short impulses in inhomogeneous plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Space Research Group, Eötvös University, Geophysical Department, H-1518, Budapest,. P.O. Box 32, Hungary. E-mail: ... The application of the method of inhomogeneous basic modes (MIBM) and the complete full-wave solution of ...... form (C3), and a result of this deduction is the known Stokes equation (eq. (9.58) in [4]).

  9. Impulsively Generated Sausage Waves in Coronal Tubes with Transversally Continuous Structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Li, Bo; Chen, Shao-Xia; Xiong, Ming; Guo, Ming-Zhe

    2016-12-01

    The frequency dependence of the longitudinal group speeds of trapped sausage waves plays an important role in determining impulsively generated wave trains, which have often been invoked to account for quasi-periodic signals in coronal loops. We examine how the group speeds ({v}{gr}) depend on angular frequency (ω) for sausage modes in pressureless coronal tubes with continuous transverse density distributions by solving the dispersion relation pertinent to the case where the density inhomogeneity of arbitrary form occurs in a transition layer of arbitrary thickness. We find that in addition to the transverse lengthscale l and density contrast {ρ }{{I}}/{ρ }{{e}}, the group speed behavior also depends on the detailed form of the density inhomogeneity. For parabolic profiles, {v}{gr} always decreases with ω first before increasing again, as happens for the much studied top-hat profiles. For linear profiles, however, the behavior of the ω -{v}{gr} curves is more complex. When {ρ }{{I}}/{ρ }{{e}}≲ 6, the curves become monotonical for large values of l. On the other hand, for higher density contrasts, a local maximum {v}{gr}\\max exists in addition to a local minimum {v}{gr}\\min when coronal tubes are diffuse. With time-dependent computations, we show that the different behavior of group speed curves, the characteristic speeds {v}{gr}\\min and {v}{gr}\\max in particular, is reflected in the temporal evolution and Morlet spectra of impulsively generated wave trains. We conclude that the observed quasi-periodic wave trains not only can be employed to probe such key parameters as density contrasts and profile steepness, but also have the potential to discriminate between the unknown forms of the transverse density distribution.

  10. Evolution of the helicity and transversity Transverse-Momentum-Dependent parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokudin, Alexei [JLAB; Bacchetta, Alessandro [INFN-PAVIA

    2013-07-01

    We examine the QCD evolution of the helicity and transversity parton distribution functions when including also their dependence on transverse momentum. Using an appropriate definition of these polarized transverse momentum distributions (TMDs), we describe their dependence on the factorization scale and rapidity cutoff, which is essential for phenomenological applications.

  11. No generalized transverse momentum dependent factorization in the hadroproduction of high transverse momentum hadrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, T.C.; Mulders, P.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    It has by now been established that standard QCD factorization using transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions fails in hadroproduction of nearly back-to-back hadrons with high transverse momentum. The essential problem is that gauge-invariant transverse momentum dependent parton

  12. Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles produced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We assume that the transverse momentum distributions of identified particles measured in final state are contributed by a few energy sources which can be regarded as partons or quarks in the interacting system. The particle is contributed by each source with gluons which have transverse momentum distributions in an ...

  13. Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions are of significance for the analysis of azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, as well as for the overall physical understanding of the distribution of transversely polarized quarks in unpolarized hadrons. In this context we also ...

  14. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p (T) broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large

  15. Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Collaboration [2] describes correlations of the intrinsic quark transverse momen- tum and the transverse nucleon ..... These results are in agreement with the large Nc predictions [41], Bag. Model results reported in [42], ..... work is supported by a grant from the US Department of Energy under contract. DE-FG02-07ER41460.

  16. Anaesthetic considerations in patients with transverse myelitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transverse myelitis is an acute or subacute inflammatory disorder involving the spinal cord. Clinical signs are due to the involvement of the ascending and descending tracts in the transverse plane of the spinal cord. The most common cause is autoimmune. These patients may present with various clinical findings with ...

  17. MRI in acute transverse myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtaas, S. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital Lund (Sweden)); Basibueyuek, N. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital Lund (Sweden)); Fredriksson, K. (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital Lund (Sweden))

    1993-03-01

    The MRI examinations of seven patients with acute transverse myelopathy (ATM) were analysed. The patients were examined 2-5 times during the course of their disease with short and long TR/TE spin-echo sequences in the sagittal projection. A previous history of autoimmune disorder and/or signs of infection at the onset of ATM were present in all cases. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed local synthesis of immunoglobulin in the nervours system in three cases and signs of infectious myelitis in one. During the acute phase four patients had local enlargement of the cord and all had increased signal on long TR/TE sequences. The outcome was grave in the majority of patients and there seemed to be a correlation between the degree of cord enlargement, persistence of increased signal intensity and limited recovery. Atrophy and remaining high signal intensity were noted on late MRI patients with poor outcome. In one patient with probable anterior spinal artery occlusion, cavitation of the cord was seen. (orig.)

  18. Visualization of air and metal inhomogeneities in phantoms irradiated by carbon ion beams using prompt secondary ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaa, T; Reinhart, M; Hartmann, B; Jakubek, J; Soukup, P; Jäkel, O; Martišíková, M

    2017-06-01

    Non-invasive methods for monitoring of the therapeutic ion beam extension in the patient are desired in order to handle deteriorations of the dose distribution related to changes of the patient geometry. In carbon ion radiotherapy, secondary light ions represent one of potential sources of information about the dose distribution in the irradiated target. The capability to detect range-changing inhomogeneities inside of an otherwise homogeneous phantom, based on single track measurements, is addressed in this paper. Air and stainless steel inhomogeneities, with PMMA equivalent thickness of 10mm and 4.8mm respectively, were inserted into a PMMA-phantom at different positions in depth. Irradiations of the phantom with therapeutic carbon ion pencil beams were performed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center. Tracks of single secondary ions escaping the phantom under irradiation were detected with a pixelized semiconductor detector Timepix. The statistical relevance of the found differences between the track distributions with and without inhomogeneities was evaluated. Measured shifts of the distal edge and changes in the fragmentation probability make the presence of inhomogeneities inserted into the traversed medium detectable for both, 10mm air cavities and 1mm thick stainless steel. Moreover, the method was shown to be sensitive also on their position in the observed body, even when localized behind the Bragg-peak. The presented results demonstrate experimentally, that the method using distributions of single secondary ion tracks is sensitive to the changes of homogeneity of the traversed material for the studied geometries of the target. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transverse spin dependent azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2011-01-01

    In semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on a transversely polarized target eight target transverse spin-dependent azimuthal modulations are allowed. In the QCD parton model half of these asymmetries can be interpreted within the leading order approach and the other four are twist-three contributions. The first two leading twist asymmetries extracted by HERMES and COMPASS experiments are related: one to the transversity distribution and the Collins effect, the other to the Sivers distribution function. These results triggered a lot of interest in the past few years and allowed the first extractions of the transversity and the Sivers distribution functions of nucleon. The remaining six asymmetries were obtained by the COMPASS experiment using a 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and transversely polarized deuteron and proton targets. Here we review preliminary results from COMPASS proton data of 2007.

  20. Lung Volume, Breathing Pattern and Ventilation Inhomogeneity in Preterm and Term Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latzin, Philipp; Roth, Stefan; Thamrin, Cindy; Hutten, Gerard J.; Pramana, Isabelle; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Casaulta, Carmen; Nelle, Matthias; Riedel, Thomas; Frey, Urs

    2009-01-01

    Background: Morphological changes in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have functional consequences on lung volume, ventilation inhomogeneity and respiratory mechanics. Although some studies have shown lower lung volumes and increased ventilation inhomogeneity in BPD infants,

  1. Inhomogeneity of methane emissions from a dairy waste lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Richard H; Boehm, Matthew T

    2015-11-01

    Methane (CH4) is the dominant greenhouse gas emitted by animal agriculture manure. Since the gas is relatively insoluble in water, it is concentrated in discrete bubbles that rise through waste lagoons and burst at the surface. This results in lagoon emissions that are inhomogeneous in both space and time. Emissions from a midwestern dairy waste lagoon were measured over 2 weeks to evaluate the spatial homogeneity of the source emissions and to compare two methods for measuring this inhomogeneous emission. Emissions were determined using an inverse dispersion model based on CH4 concentrations measured both by a single scanning tunable diode laser (TDL) aimed at a series of reflectors and by flame ionization detection (FID) gas chromatography on line-sampled air. Emissions were best estimated using scanned TDL concentrations over relatively short optical paths that collectively span the entire cross-wind width of the source, so as to provide both the best capture of discrete plumes from the bursting bubbles on the lagoon surface and the best detection of CH4 background concentrations. The lagoon emissions during the study were spatially inhomogeneous at hourly time scales. Partitioning the inhomogeneous source into two source regions reduced the estimated emissions of the overall lagoon by 57% but increased the variability. Consequently, it is important to assess the homogeneity of a source prior to measurements and final emissions calculation. Plans for measuring methane emissions from waste lagoons must take into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the source strength. The assumption of emission source homogeneity for a low-solubility gas such as CH4 emitted from an animal waste lagoon can result in significant emission overestimates. The entire breadth and length of the area source must be measured, preferably with multiple optical paths, for the detection of discrete plumes from the different emitting regions and for determining the background concentration

  2. Measurement of the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity using optical fiber DTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vašinek, Vladimir; Smira, Pavel; Nasswettrova, Andrea; Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav

    2014-06-01

    Researcher's teams were dealing with the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity problem since the microwaves were used. One possible way, how to measure electromagnetic field is the measurement on inhomogeneous temperature distribution on the irradiated sample, which can cause problems as in other material processing, so in the undesirable change of properties and even security. Inhomogeneity of electromagnetic field is specific by creating spots with higher or lower temperature called "hot spots". This inhomogeneity strongly affects the temperature distribution in the cross section of the material and its resultant heating. Given the impossibility of using classical electronic devices with metal temperature sensors were various indirect methods used in the past. This paper deals with experimental measurement of the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity (2.45 GHz) using the optical fiber DTS. The greatest advantage of this sensor system is just in using of the optical fiber (electromagnetic resistance, small size, safety using in inflammable and explosive area, easy installation). Due to these properties of the optical fiber sensor it's possible to measure the temperature of the sample in real time. These sensor are able to measure the temperature along the fiber, in some cases they use nonlinear effect in optical fiber (Raman nonlinear effect). The verification of non-homogeneity consists in experimental measuring of the temperature distribution within the wooden sample. The method is based on heat exchange in an isolated system where wooden sample serves as an absorber of the irradiated energy. To identify locations with different power density was used DTS system, based on nonlinear phenomena in optical fibers.

  3. The transverse acetabular ligament: optimizing version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverland, David

    2010-09-07

    In total hip arthroplasty (THA), excessive retroversion is associated with posterior instability, anterior impingement, and resultant groin pain. Excessive anteversion can lead to anterior instability and posterior impingement. The transverse acetabular ligament straddles the inferior limit of the bony acetabulum. It is a strong load-bearing structure and, in the normal hip, in association with the labrum, provides part of the load-bearing surface for the femoral head. It is our hypothesis that the transverse acetabular ligament defines normal version for the acetabulum. In Belfast, we found that using the transverse acetabular ligament helped reduce our primary dislocation rate from 3.7% to 1%. The key is good intraoperative exposure. A grading of 1 to 4 was based on 1000 consecutive cases: (1) normal transverse acetabular ligament easily visible on exposure of the acetabulum, 49%; (2) covered by soft tissue, 35.1%--cleared by blunt dissection; (3) covered by osteophytes, 15.6%--cleared using an acetabular reamer; (4) no transverse acetabular ligament identified, 0.3%. As can be seen, the transverse acetabular ligament is only immediately visible in 49% of cases. In the other 51%, soft tissue or bone must be cleared to define the ligament. The advantages of the transverse acetabular ligament are many. It is independent of patient positioning. The cup version can be individualized by the patient. The surgeon can avoid estimating version angle of 15° to 20° intraoperatively. It is easy to teach and consistently present. It is valuable in minimally invasive surgery. Using the transverse acetabular ligament provides an acceptable dislocation rate with the posterior approach. If the cup is cradled by the transverse acetabular ligament, it helps restore acetabular joint center. However, the transverse acetabular ligament does not help with inclination. We recommend 35° of operative inclination when using the posterior approach. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Analysis of MUSIC-type imaging functional for single, thin electromagnetic inhomogeneity in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzes the well-known MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm to identify unknown support of thin penetrable electromagnetic inhomogeneity from scattered field data collected within the so-called multi-static response matrix in limited-view inverse scattering problems. The mathematical theories of MUSIC are partially discovered, e.g., in the full-view problem, for an unknown target of dielectric contrast or a perfectly conducting crack with the Dirichlet boundary condition (Transverse Magnetic-TM polarization) and so on. Hence, we perform further research to analyze the MUSIC-type imaging functional and to certify some well-known but theoretically unexplained phenomena. For this purpose, we establish a relationship between the MUSIC imaging functional and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This relationship is based on the rigorous asymptotic expansion formula in the existence of a thin inhomogeneity with a smooth supporting curve. Various results of numerical simulation are presented in order to support the identified structure of MUSIC. Although a priori information of the target is needed, we suggest a least condition of range of incident and observation directions to apply MUSIC in the limited-view problem.

  5. Enhancement of electron energy during vacuum laser acceleration in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saberi, H.; Maraghechi, B., E-mail: behrouz@aut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the effect of a stationary inhomogeneous magnetic field on the electron acceleration by a high intensity Gaussian laser pulse is investigated. A focused TEM (0,0) laser mode with linear polarization in the transverse x-direction that propagates along the z-axis is considered. The magnetic field is assumed to be stationary in time, but varies longitudinally in space. A linear spatial profile for the magnetic field is adopted. In other words, the axial magnetic field increases linearly in the z-direction up to an optimum point z{sub m} and then becomes constant with magnitude equal to that at z{sub m}. Three-dimensional single-particle simulations are performed to find the energy and trajectory of the electron. The electron rotates around and stays near the z-axis. It is shown that with a proper choice of the magnetic field parameters, the electron will be trapped at the focus of the laser pulse. Because of the cyclotron resonance, the electron receives enough energy from the laser fields to be accelerated to relativistic energies. Using numerical simulations, the criteria for optimum regime of the acceleration mechanism is found. With the optimized parameters, an electron initially at rest located at the origin achieves final energy of γ=802. The dynamics of a distribution of off-axis electrons are also investigated in which shows that high energy electrons with small energy and spatial spread can be obtained.

  6. The Fine Transverse Structure of a Vortex Flow Beyond the Edge of a Disc Rotating in a Stratified Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Bardakov, R. N.

    2018-02-01

    By the methods of schlieren visualization, the evolution of elements of the fine structure of transverse vortex loops formed in the circular vortex behind the edge of a disk rotating in a continuously stratified fluid is traced for the first time. An inhomogeneous distribution of the density of a table-salt solution in a basin was formed by the continuous-squeezing method. The development of periodic perturbations at the outer boundary of the circular vortex and their transformation at the vortex-loop vertex are traced. A slow change in the angular size of the structural elements in the supercritical-flow mode is noted.

  7. Efficient characterization of inhomogeneity in contraction strain pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Christina M; Mulligan, Lawrence J; Criscione, John C

    2012-05-01

    Cardiac dyssynchrony often accompanies patients with heart failure (HF) and can lead to an increase in mortality rate. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to provide substantial benefits to the HF population with ventricular dyssynchrony; however, there still exists a group of patients who do not respond to this treatment. In order to better understand patient response to CRT, it is necessary to quantitatively characterize both electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony. The quantification of mechanical dyssynchrony via characterization of contraction strain field inhomogeneity is the focus of this modeling investigation. Raw data from a 3D finite element (FE) model were received from Roy Kerckhoffs et al. and analyzed in MATLAB. The FE model consisted of canine left and right ventricles coupled to a closed circulation with the effects of the pericardium acting as a pressure on the epicardial surface. For each of three simulations (normal synchronous, SYNC, right ventricular apical pacing, RVA, and left ventricular free wall pacing, LVFW) the Gauss point locations and values were used to generate lookup tables (LUTs) with each entry representing a location in the heart. In essence, we employed piecewise cubic interpolation to generate a fine point cloud (LUTs) from a course point cloud (Gauss points). Strain was calculated in the fiber direction and was then displayed in multiple ways to better characterize strain inhomogeneity. By plotting average strain and standard deviation over time, the point of maximum contraction and the point of maximal inhomogeneity were found for each simulation. Strain values were organized into seven strain bins to show operative strain ranges and extent of inhomogeneity throughout the heart wall. In order to visualize strain propagation, magnitude, and inhomogeneity over time, we created 2D area maps displaying strain over the entire cardiac cycle. To visualize spatial strain distribution at the time point of maximum

  8. Directional Transverse Oscillation Vector Flow Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2017-01-01

    A method for estimating vector velocities using transverse oscillation (TO) combined with directional beamforming is presented. In Directional Transverse Oscillation (DTO) a normal focused field is emitted and the received signals are beamformed in the lateral direction transverse to the ultrasound...... beam to increase the amount of data for vector velocity estimation. The approach is self-calibrating as the lateral oscillation period is estimated from the directional signal through a Fourier transform to yield quantitative velocity results over a large range of depths. The approach was extensively...

  9. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode

  10. Scaling properties of the transverse mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    2002-01-01

    Motivated from the formation of an initial state of gluon-saturated matter, we discuss scaling relations for the transverse mass spectra at BNL's relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We show on linear plots, that the transverse mass spectra for various hadrons can be described by an universal function in m t . The transverse mass spectra for different centralities can be rescaled into each other. Finally, we demonstrate that m t -scaling is also present in proton-antiproton collider data and compare it to m t -scaling at RHIC. (orig.)

  11. Role of anisotropy and inhomogeneity on the instability due to viscosity stratification of Poiseuille flow in a porous channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, R.; Chattopadhyay, Geetanjali; Millet, Severine

    2017-11-01

    Understanding of stability characteristics of two-fluids system in confined complex geometries is crucial in industrial applications and natural phenomena. This study is motivated by the necessity to understand possible drag reduction using superhydrophobic surfaces or liquid-infused surfaces or surfaces with complex features which can be modeled as porous substrates with appropriate properties. A linear stability analysis of Poiseuille flow of viscosity-stratified two-layer immiscible fluids system in a porous channel with anisotropic and inhomogeneous permeability is analyzed. The flow in the porous medium is governed by the generalized Darcy model with Beavers-Joseph condition at the interface of the liquid-porous layers. The resulting generalized eigenvalue problem is solved numerically and the temporal linear stability analysis shows the existence of three distinct modes of instability; a porous mode, an interface mode and a shear mode. The influence of the variations in anisotropic and inhomogeneous properties of the porous medium on the interface and shear mode instabilities is assessed.The study reveals a possibility of controlling instabilities in two-layer flows in a rigid channel by designing a wall of the channel as a porous surface with appropriate properties.

  12. The Prediction of Wave Competitions in Inhomogeneous Brusselator Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xiao-Hua; Dong Yun-Xia; Huang Xiao-Qing; Li Ning

    2015-01-01

    The competition of waves has remained a hot topic in physics over the past few decades, especially the area of pattern control. Because of improved understanding of various dynamic behaviors, many practical applications have sprung up recently. The prediction of wave competitions is also very important and quite useful in these fields. This paper considers the behaviors of wave competitions in simple, inhomogeneous media which is modeled by Brusselator equations. We present a simple rule to judge the results of wave competitions utilizing the dispersion relation curves and the waves coming from different wave sources. Moreover, this rule can also be used to predict the results of wave propagation. It provides methods of obtaining the desired waves with given frequencies in inhomogeneous media. All our results are concluded and verified by computer simulations. (paper)

  13. Generation of indirect combustion noise by compositional inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Luca; O'Brien, Jeff; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    The generation of indirect combustion noise in nozzles and turbine stages is commonly attributed to temperature inhomogeneities and vorticity fluctuations. Here, compositional inhomogeneities in a multi-component gas mixture are shown to produce indirect noise both theoretically and numerically. The chemical potential function is introduced as an additional acoustic source mechanism. The contribution of the compositional noise is compared to the entropy noise and direct noise by considering subsonic, supersonic and shocked nozzles downstream of the combustor exit. It is shown that the compositional noise is dependent on the local mixture composition and can exceed entropy noise for fuel-lean conditions and supersonic/shocked nozzle flows. This suggests that compositional indirect combustion noise may require consideration with the implementation of advanced combustion concepts in gas turbines, including low-emissions combustors, high-power-density engine cores, or compact burners.

  14. UWB Microwave Imaging for Breast Tumor Detection in Inhomogeneous Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenyi; Zhou, Beibei; Zheng, Zhaowen; Wang, Gang

    2005-01-01

    Inhomogeneous breast tissue has a strong scattering effect when the breast is illuminated by a detecting signal. This effect influences the tumor's response signal and makes the imaging result worse. This paper presents an efficient imaging approach to detect breast tumor in inhomogeneous tissue. We separated the transmitter and receiver to lower the rigorous request for antenna design. An ultra wideband microwave pulse was transmitted into the breast and the backscatter signal was received by each antenna in an array. The transmitter was set at four different locations sequently and four-group backscatter data were received and added together as the response signal from the tumor. Results of signal processing demonstrate that this method is superior to the previous methods and can localize the tumor efficiently.

  15. Effects of dipole magnet inhomogeneities on the beam ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Colman, J.; Levine, M.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.; Ward, T.; Grand, P.

    1986-01-01

    The RAYTRACE computer code has been modified to accept magnetic fields measured in the median plane of a dipole magnet. This modification allows one to study the effects of a non-ideal dipole magnet on the beam ellipsoid (as defined by the TRANSPORT code manual). The effects on the beam ellipsoid are due to: field inhomogeneities in the interior region of the dipole, and discrepancies from design conditions of the magnetic field values in the fringe field region. The results of the RAYTRACE code calculations based on experimentally measured fields will be compared with the results derived using both an ideal (no inhomogeneities) dipole with SCOFF boundaries and an ideal dipole with perfect (according to design) fringe fields

  16. Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. ...... simulations on both a linear four-point probe array on a large circular disc and a van der Pauw square geometry. Furthermore, the results also agree well with Náhlík et al. published experimental results for physical holes in a circular copper foil disc.......We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. We...

  17. Magnetization reversal of ferromagnetic nanoparticles under inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Joonyeon; Yi, Hyunjung; Cheol Koo, Hyun; Mironov, V.L.; Gribkov, B.A.; Fraerman, A.A.; Gusev, S.A.; Vdovichev, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated remagnetization processes in ferromagnetic nanoparticles under inhomogeneous magnetic field induced by the tip of magnetic force microscope (MFM) in both theoretical and empirical ways. Systematic MFM observations were carried out on arrays of submicron-sized elliptical ferromagnetic particles of Co and FeCr with different sizes and periods. It clearly reveals the distribution of remanent magnetization and processes of local remagnetization of individual ferromagnetic particles. Modeling of remagnetization processes in ferromagnetic nanoparticles under magnetic field induced by MFM probe was performed on the base of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for magnetization. MFM-induced inhomogeneous magnetic field is very effective to control the magnetic state of individual ferromagnetic nanoparticles as well as to create different distribution of magnetic field in array of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

  18. General solution to inhomogeneous dephasing and smooth pulse dynamical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Junkai; Deng, Xiu-Hao; Russo, Antonio; Barnes, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    In order to achieve the high-fidelity quantum control needed for a broad range of quantum information technologies, reducing the effects of noise and system inhomogeneities is an essential task. It is well known that a system can be decoupled from noise or made insensitive to inhomogeneous dephasing dynamically by using carefully designed pulse sequences based on square or delta-function waveforms such as Hahn spin echo or CPMG. However, such ideal pulses are often challenging to implement experimentally with high fidelity. Here, we uncover a new geometrical framework for visualizing all possible driving fields, which enables one to generate an unlimited number of smooth, experimentally feasible pulses that perform dynamical decoupling or dynamically corrected gates to arbitrarily high order. We demonstrate that this scheme can significantly enhance the fidelity of single-qubit operations in the presence of noise and when realistic limitations on pulse rise times and amplitudes are taken into account.

  19. Determination of critical exponents of inhomogeneous Gd films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Rivera, A., E-mail: arosalesr@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Salazar, N.A. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Hovorka, O.; Idigoras, O.; Berger, A. [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    The role of inhomogeneity on the critical behavior is studied for non-epitaxial Gd films. For this purpose, the film inhomogeneity was varied experimentally by annealing otherwise identical samples at different temperatures T{sub AN}=200, 400, and 500 Degree-Sign C. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) was used for magnetization M vs. T measurements at different external fields H. A method based upon the linear superposition of different sample parts having different Curie temperatures T{sub C} was used to extract the critical exponents and the intrinsic distribution of Curie temperatures. We found that this method allows extracting reliable values of the critical exponents for all annealing temperatures, which enabled us to study the effects of disorder onto the universality class of Gd films.

  20. Determination of critical exponents of inhomogeneous Gd films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales-Rivera, A.; Salazar, N.A.; Hovorka, O.; Idigoras, O.; Berger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The role of inhomogeneity on the critical behavior is studied for non-epitaxial Gd films. For this purpose, the film inhomogeneity was varied experimentally by annealing otherwise identical samples at different temperatures T AN =200, 400, and 500 °C. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) was used for magnetization M vs. T measurements at different external fields H. A method based upon the linear superposition of different sample parts having different Curie temperatures T C was used to extract the critical exponents and the intrinsic distribution of Curie temperatures. We found that this method allows extracting reliable values of the critical exponents for all annealing temperatures, which enabled us to study the effects of disorder onto the universality class of Gd films.

  1. Inhomogeneity of surface magnetic field over a NdFeB guideway and its influence on levitation force of the HTS bulk maglev system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Longcai [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China)]. E-mail: zhlcai2000@163.com; Wang Jiasu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China); He Qingyong [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhang Jianghua [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang Suyu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, P.O. Box 152, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2007-08-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle system was one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. The NdFeB guideway in this system was composed of many NdFeB permanent magnets and screws, so the air gaps (airgaps) between two permanent magnets and the screws would result in the inhomogeneity of the surface magnetic field. In this paper, we studied the magnetic inhomogeneity over the permanent magnet guideway (PMG) used in high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system and its influence on the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Firstly, we measured the transverse magnetic field above the airgap, the screw and the place under where there was no airgap and screw. It was found that the magnetic field 10 mm above the guideway was roughly uniform. Secondly, we investigated the influence of the magnetic inhomogeneity of the PMG on levitation force of the bulk superconductor. From the experiment results, we found that the influence was very small, and would be ignored. Therefore, we could conclude that the PMG made by this method satisfied the requirements of the HTS maglev vehicle system in a quasi-static state.

  2. On the motion of incompressible inhomogeneous Euler-Korteweg fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulíček, M.; Feireisl, Eduard; Málek, J.; Shvydkoy, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2010), s. 497-515 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06052; GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Korteweg fluid * inhomogeneous Euler fluid * Korteweg stress * local-in-time well-posedness * smooth solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=5226

  3. Two-step estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Guan, Yongtao

    This paper is concerned with parameter estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes with a regression model for the intensity function and tractable second order properties (K-function). Regression parameters are estimated using a Poisson likelihood score estimating function and in a seco...... step minimum contrast estimation is applied for the residual clustering parameters. Asymptotic normality of parameter estimates is established under certain mixing conditions and we exemplify how the results may be applied in ecological studies of rain forests....

  4. Pair creation in inhomogeneous fields from worldline instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, Gerald V.; Schubert, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We show how to do semiclassical nonperturbative computations within the worldline approach to quantum field theory using ''worldline instantons''. These worldline instantons are classical solutions to the Euclidean worldline loop equations of motion, and are closed spacetime loops parametrized by the proper-time. Specifically, we compute the imaginary part of the one loop effective action in scalar and spinor QED using worldline instantons, for a wide class of inhomogeneous electric field backgrounds

  5. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, A.; Cesareo, R.; Buccolieri, G.; Donativi, M.; Palama, F.; Quarta, S.; De Nunzio, G.; Brunetti, A.; Marabelli, M.; Santamaria, U.

    2005-01-01

    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the 'Raphael's stanze'

  6. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesareo, R. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari (Italy)]. E-mail: cesareo@uniss.it; Buccolieri, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Donativi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Palama, F. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Quarta, S. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); De Nunzio, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Marabelli, M. [Istituto Centrale del Restauro, P.zza S. Francesco di Paola, 00184 Rome (Italy); Santamaria, U. [Laboratori dei Musei Vaticani, Citta del Vaticano, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the 'Raphael's stanze'.

  7. Inhomogeneous effects in the quantum free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piovella, N.; Bonifacio, R.

    2006-01-01

    We include inhomogeneous effects in the quantum model of a free electron laser taking into account the initial energy spread of the electron beam. From a linear analysis, we obtain a generalized dispersion relation, from which the exponential gain can be explicitly calculated. We determine the maximum allowed initial energy spread in the quantum exponential regime and we discuss the limit of large energy spread

  8. Inhomogeneous critical nonlinear Schroedinger equations with a harmonic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Daomin; Han Pigong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Cauchy problem of the inhomogeneous nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a harmonic potential: i∂ t u=-div(f(x)∇u)+|x| 2 u-k(x)|u| 4/N u, x is an element of R N , N≥1, which models the remarkable Bose-Einstein condensation. We discuss the existence and nonexistence results and investigate the limiting profile of blow-up solutions with critical mass.

  9. Matrix product solution of an inhomogeneous multi-species TASEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Mallick, Kirone

    2013-03-01

    We study a multi-species exclusion process with inhomogeneous hopping rates and find a matrix product representation for the stationary state of this model. The matrices belong to the tensor algebra of the fundamental quadratic algebra associated with the exclusion process. We show that our matrix product representation is equivalent to a graphical construction proposed by Ayyer and Linusson (2012 arXiv:1206.0316), which generalizes an earlier probabilistic construction due to Ferrari and Martin (2007 Ann. Prob. 35 807).

  10. Constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    The discussion of constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions includes the structure of hard scattering models, dimensional counting rules for large transverse momentum reactions, dimensional counting and exclusive processes, the deuteron form factor, applications to inclusive reactions, predictions for meson and photon beams, the charge-cubed test for the e/sup +-/p → e/sup +-/γX asymmetry, the quasi-elastic peak in inclusive hadronic reactions, correlations, and the multiplicity bump at large transverse momentum. Also covered are the partition method for bound state calculations, proofs of dimensional counting, minimal neutralization and quark--quark scattering, the development of the constituent interchange model, and the A dependence of high transverse momentum reactions

  11. Transverse steering of two-component beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murin, B.P.; Bondarev, B.U.; Durkin, A.P.; Lomize, L.G.; Soloviev, L.Yu.; Fedotov, A.P.

    Coherent transverse oscillations are considered which occur during simultaneous acceleration of proton and H - beams due to arbitrary displacements in elements of the focusing channel. To suppress these oscillations, a beam adjustment station is proposed, in which each quadrupole lens of two doublets is provided with a special dipole component of the magnetic field. These steering elements, together with the beam transverse position monitors, permit steering the transverse position of beams of opposite signs in both transverse planes. The number of steering stations needed is chosen, and some algorithms for control are discussed. It is shown that some of the control algorithms will permit not only the suppression of coherent oscillations, but a decrease in the radius and emittance of the beam

  12. Simulated models of inhomogeneous broadening in perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Jeffery A.; Park, Tyler; Stufflebeam, Michael; Evenson, W.; Matheson, P.; Zacate, M. O.

    2008-10-01

    All real crystals have defects such as impurities and vacancies which affect their properties. In perturbed angular correlation (PAC), these defects produce damping of the correlation signal in time and broadening of the frequency spectrum. This broadening is termed ``inhomogeneous broadening'' since it is due to the inhomogeneities (i.e. defects) in the crystal. We have simulated PAC spectra for various concentrations (0.1% to 15%) of randomly distributed defects with a near-neighbor vacancy in simple cubic and face-centered cubic crystal structures. For every particular set of defects, the randomly distributed defects and the near-neighbor vacancy together produce a net electric field gradient (EFG), from which we obtain the PAC spectrum. We then average PAC spectra to study the effects of defect concentration and crystal structure on inhomogeneous broadening as an aid to analyzing experimental data. This work will be applied initially to broadened PAC data from β-Mn, Al-doped β-Mn, and Sr2RuO4.

  13. COMMENT: Comment on `Inhomogeneities and birefringence in quartz'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Grégoire, P.; Luk'yanchuk, I.

    1999-10-01

    We comment on the role of the novel incommensurate elongated-triangle (ELT) phase in the huge light scattering in quartz at small angles that was observed more than 40 years ago at the icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/>-icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> phase transition and was associated with optical inhomogeneities of unknown nature. The relation of these inhomogeneities with the differently oriented ferroelastic blocks of the ELT phase proposed by us and co-workers in a previous publication was misinterpreted and criticized in a recent article by Aslanyan et al (Aslanyan T E, Shigenari T and Abe K 1998 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10 4577), who claimed also that the lock-in occurs at qicons/Journals/Common/neq" ALT="neq" ALIGN="TOP"/>0. Responding to their criticism, we claim that the ELT blocks do have ferroelastic properties which induce the inhomogeneities of optical indices and that the lock-in occurs at q = 0.

  14. Laser pulse propagation in inhomogeneous magnetoplasma channels and wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B. S.; Jain, Archana; Jaiman, N. K.; Gupta, D. N.; Jang, D. G.; Suk, H.; Kulagin, V. V.

    2014-02-01

    Wakefield excitation in a preformed inhomogeneous parabolic plasma channel by an intense relativistic (≃1019 W/cm2) circularly polarized Gaussian laser pulse is investigated analytically and numerically in the presence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. A three dimensional envelope equation for the evolution of the laser pulse is derived, which includes the effect of the nonparaxial and applied external magnetic field. A relation for the channel radius with the laser spot size is derived and examines numerically to see the external magnetic field effect. It is observed that the channel radius depends on the applied external magnetic field. An analytical expression for the wakefield is derived and validated with the help of a two dimensional particle in cell (2D PIC) simulation code. It is shown that the electromagnetic nature of the wakes in an inhomogeneous plasma channel makes their excitation nonlocal, which results in change of fields with time and external magnetic field due to phase mixing of the plasma oscillations with spatially varying frequencies. The magnetic field effect on perturbation of the plasma density and decreasing length is also analyzed numerically. In addition, it has been shown that the electron energy gain in the inhomogeneous parabolic magnetoplasma channel can be increased significantly compared with the homogeneous plasma channel.

  15. Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples are very well characterized and understood in samples with uniform internal magnetic fields. More recently interest has shifted to the study of magnetization modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields. The present work shows that under the magnetostatic approximation and for samples of arbitrary shape and/or arbitrary inhomogeneous internal magnetic fields the modes can be classified as elliptic or hyperbolic, and their associated frequency spectrum can be delimited. This results from the analysis of the character of the second order partial differential equation for the magnetostatic potential under these general conditions. In general, a sample with an inhomogeneous internal field and at a given frequency, may have regions of elliptic and hyperbolic character separated by a boundary. In the elliptic regions the magnetostatic modes have a smooth monotonic character (generally decaying form the surfaces (a ``tunneling'' behavior)) and in hyperbolic regions an oscillatory wave-like character. A simple local criterion distinguishes hyperbolic from elliptic regions: the sign of a susceptibility parameter. This study shows that one may control to some extent magnetostatic modes via external fields or geometry. R.E.A. acknowledges Financiamiento Basal para Centros Cientificos y Tecnologicos de Excelencia under Project No. FB 0807 (Chile), Grant No. ICM P10-061-F by Fondo de Innovacion para la Competitividad-MINECON, and Proyecto Fondecyt 1130192.

  16. Control of inhomogeneous materials strength by method of acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Носов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous connection between the results of acoustic emission control and the strength of materials makes acoustic-emission diagnosis ineffective and actualizes the problem of strength and metrological heterogeneity. Inhomogeneity is some deviation from a certain norm. The real object is always heterogeneous, homogeneity is an assumption that simplifies the image of the object and the solution of the tasks associated with it. The need to consider heterogeneity is due to the need to clarify a particular task and is a transition to a more complex level of research. Accounting for heterogeneity requires the definition of its type, criterion and method of evaluation. The type of heterogeneity depends on the problem being solved and should be related to the property that determines the function of the real object, the criterion should be informative, and the way of its evaluation is non-destructive. The complexity of predicting the behavior of heterogeneous materials necessitates the modeling of the destructive process that determines the operability, the formulation of the inhomogeneity criterion, the interpretation of the Kaiser effect, as showing inhomogeneity of the phenomenon of non-reproduction of acoustic emission (AE activity upon repeated loading of the examined object.The article gives an example of modeling strength and metrological heterogeneity, analyzes and estimates the informative effect of the Kaiser effect on the danger degree of state of diagnosed object from the positions of the micromechanical model of time dependencies of AE parameters recorded during loading of structural materials and technical objects.

  17. Electron-positron pair production in inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlfürst, C.

    2015-01-01

    The process of electron-positron pair production is investigated within the phase-space Wigner formalism. The similarities between atomic ionization and pair production for homogeneous, but time-dependent linearly polarized electric fields are examined mainly in the regime of multiphoton absorption (field-dependent threshold, above-threshold pair production). Characteristic signatures in the particle spectra are identified (effective mass, channel closing). The non-monotonic dependence of the particle yield on the carrier frequency is discussed as well. The investigations are then extended to spatially inhomogeneous electric fields. New effects arising due to the spatial dependence of the effective mass are discussed in terms of a semi-classical interpretation. An increase in the normalized particle yield is found for various field configurations.Pair production in inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields is also studied. The influence of a time-dependent spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field on the momentum spectrum and the particle yield is investigated. The Lorentz invariants are identified to be crucial in order to understand pair production by strong electric fields in the presence of strong magnetic fields. (author) [de

  18. Elliptic flow coefficients from transverse momentum conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdak, Adam; Ma, Guo-Liang

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the k -particle (k =2 ,4 ,6 ,8 ) azimuthal cumulants resulting from the conservation of transverse momentum. We find that c2{k } >0 and, depending on the transverse momenta, c2{k } can reach substantial values even for a relatively large number of particles. The impact of our results on the understanding of the onset of collectivity in small systems is emphasized.

  19. Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence on the geo......Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...

  20. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  1. Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.

  2. Transverse structure of the QCD string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Harvey B.

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of the transverse structure of the QCD string is discussed. We formulate a conjecture as to how the stress-energy tensor of the underlying gauge theory couples to the string degrees of freedom. A consequence of the conjecture is that the energy density and the longitudinal-stress operators measure the distribution of the transverse position of the string, to leading order in the string fluctuations, whereas the transverse-stress operator does not. We interpret recent numerical measurements of the transverse size of the confining string and show that the difference of the energy and longitudinal-stress operators is a particularly natural probe at next-to-leading order. Second, we derive the constraints imposed by open-closed string duality on the transverse structure of the string. We show that a total of three independent ''gravitational'' form factors characterize the transverse profile of the closed string, and obtain the interpretation of recent effective string theory calculations: the square radius of a closed string of length β defined from the slope of its gravitational form factor, is given by (d-1/2πσ)log(β/4r 0 ) in d space dimensions. This is to be compared with the well-known result that the width of the open string at midpoint grows as (d-1/2πσ)log(r/r 0 ). We also obtain predictions for transition form factors among closed-string states.

  3. A Study of Large Transverse Momentum Phenomena

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment studies the structure of those p-p and @*-p collisions which are characterized by a very high transverse momentum flow in the central region. Some specific items studied are:\\\\ \\\\ \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is shared by charged and neutral hadron (``jets''). Transverse momentum distribution, correlations and momentum balance for such events. \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is mostly carried by one identified particle. Quantum number dependence and quantum number correlations of the high transverse momentum events. \\item -~~Structure of events containing large transverse momentum leptons or lepton pairs or direct photons. \\end{enumerate}.sk -~~Study of low momentum electrons and photons. -~~Search for gluonium states. -~~Search for new and rare particles. \\\\ \\\\ A conventional C-type magnet with a 0.5 T field in the direction of the beams together with a 42-layer cylindrical drift chamber detector is used for momentum analysi...

  4. Reduced Description Method in Dynamic Theory of Particles Interacting with Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolayenko, S.O.; Slyusarenko, Yu.V.

    2007-01-01

    We consider spatially inhomogeneous states of particles, weakly interacting with hydrodynamic medium involving Bogolyubov reduced description method. It has been shown that such a system has both kinetic and hydrodynamic stages of evolution. The coupled system of equations of motion for this evolution stage is obtained. The transition from kinetic to hydrodynamic stage of evolution for particles interacting with medium has been also studied. Consequently we obtained a system of equations, which completely describes the evolution of the system on hydrodynamic stage. These equations can describe such systems as neutrons propagating in hydrodynamic medium without multiplication and capture

  5. New ways to access the transverse spin content of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiyad, M El; Pire, B; Szymanowski, L; Wallon, S

    2011-01-01

    We first describe a new way to access the chiral odd transversity parton distribution in the proton through the photoproduction of lepton pairs. The basic ingredient is the interference of the usual Bethe-Heitler or Drell-Yan amplitudes with the amplitude of a process, where the photon couples to quarks through its chiral-odd distribution amplitude, which is normalized to the magnetic susceptibility of the QCD vacuum. We also show how the chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive electro - or photoproduction process of a meson pair with a large invariant mass and when the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum. We calculate perturbatively the scattering amplitude at leading order, both in the high energy domain which may be accessed in electron-ion colliders and in the medium energy range. Estimated rates are encouraging.

  6. A cracked beam or plate transversely loaded by a stamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nied, H. F.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the problem of an infinite elastic beam or a plate containing a crack is considered. The medium is loaded transversely through a stamp which may be rigid or elastic. The problem is a coupled crack-contact problem which cannot be solved by treating the crack and contact problems separately and by using a superposition technique. First the Green's functions for the general case are obtained. Then the integral equations for a cracked infinite strip loaded by a frictionless stamp are obtained. With the question of fracture in mind, the primary interest in the paper has been in calculating the stress intensity factors. The results are given for a rigid flat stamp with sharp edges and for an elastic curved stamp. The effect of friction at the supports on the stress intensity factors is also studied and a numerical example is given.

  7. A direct sampling method to an inverse medium scattering problem

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi

    2012-01-10

    In this work we present a novel sampling method for time harmonic inverse medium scattering problems. It provides a simple tool to directly estimate the shape of the unknown scatterers (inhomogeneous media), and it is applicable even when the measured data are only available for one or two incident directions. A mathematical derivation is provided for its validation. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations are presented, which show that the method is accurate even with a few sets of scattered field data, computationally efficient, and very robust with respect to noises in the data. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y., E-mail: k.bliokh@gmail.com [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nonlinear Physics Centre, RSPhysE, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Nori, Franco [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2015-08-26

    We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin  angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin–direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.

  9. Hadrons in medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium properties of hadrons. I discuss the relevant symmetries of QCD and how they might affect the observed hadron properties. I then discuss at length the observable consequences of in-medium changes of hadronic properties in reactions with ...

  10. Medium is the message

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; Ritzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    "The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), in his book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). In this book, McLuhan examines the impact of media on societies and human relations, arguing for the primacy of the medium -

  11. Underwater sound scattering and absorption by a coated infinite plate with attached periodically located inhomogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanni; Huang, Hai; Zheng, Jing; Pan, Jie

    2015-11-01

    This paper extends previous work of Zhang and Pan [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(4), 2082-2096 (2013)] on sound scattering and absorption by an underwater coated plate with a single attached distributed-inhomogeneity to that with periodically located distributed-inhomogeneities. A comparison is made among cases of a plate without inhomogeneities, a plate with inhomogeneities, and one with inhomogeneities ignoring the mutual coupling. Results show that coupling of the structural waves scattered by the inhomogeneities plays an important role in modifying the sound absorption and scattering of surface sound pressure, especially at low frequencies and/or the resonance frequencies of the trapped modes of the plate. The sound absorption of the plate is dependent on the distance between the adjacent inhomogeneities, the length of the inhomogeneity, and the angle of the incident sound. On the surface of the inhomogeneities, the scattered/total sound pressure is generally enhanced. On the surface in between the inhomogeneities, the pressure is also enhanced at low frequencies but is nearly unchanged at higher frequencies. Results also show that the coupling-induced variation of scattered/total pressure is significant only at the resonance frequencies of the global modes and trapped modes. The surface normal velocity is presented to explain the coupling-induced variations in the vibration and pressure fields.

  12. Comparison of extended hemicolectomy versus transverse colectomy in patients with cancer of the transverse colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rongen, I; Damhuis, R A M; van der Hoeven, J A B; Plaisier, P W

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of the transverse colon is rare and postoperative mortality tends to be high. Standard surgical treatment involves either extended hemicolectomy or transverse colectomy, depending on the location of the tumour. The aim of the present study was to compare postoperative mortality and five-year survival between these types of surgery. For this observational study, data on patients with a tumour of the transverse colon, treated by open resection in the Dordrecht Hospital from 1989 through 2003, were derived from the database of the regional cancer registry. Information on type of resection, tumour stage, complications, postoperative mortality (30-day) and survival was abstracted from the medical files. Patients with multi-organ surgery, (sub)total colectomy or stage IV disease were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total series of 103 patients. Transverse colectomy comprised one third of operations, predominantly involving partial resections. Postoperative mortality was 6% (2/34) after transverse colectomy and 7% (5/69) after extended hemicolectomy. Five-year survival was slightly higher for the hemicolectomy group (61% versus 50%), but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.34). Our results confirm the high postoperative risk after surgery for cancer of the transverse colon and show that this risk does not depend on the type of surgery. Considering the satisfactory results after partial transverse colectomy, segmental resections may be considered as an option for the treatment of localised tumours of the transverse colon.

  13. Inhomogeneous target-dose distributions: a dimension more for optimization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersem, Werner R.T. de; Derycke, Sylvie; Colle, Christophe O.; Wagter, Carlos de; Neve, Wilfried J. de

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if the use of inhomogeneous target-dose distributions, obtained by 3D conformal radiotherapy plans with or without beam intensity modulation, offers the possibility to decrease indices of toxicity to normal tissues and/or increase indices of tumor control stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Ten patients with stage III NSCLC were planned using a conventional 3D technique and a technique involving noncoplanar beam intensity modulation (BIM). Two planning target volumes (PTVs) were defined: PTV1 included macroscopic tumor volume and PTV2 included macroscopic and microscopic tumor volume. Virtual simulation defined the beam shapes and incidences as well as the wedge orientations (3D) and segment outlines (BIM). Weights of wedged beams, unwedged beams, and segments were determined by optimization using an objective function with a biological and a physical component. The biological component included tumor control probability (TCP) for PTV1 (TCP1), PTV2 (TCP2), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for lung, spinal cord, and heart. The physical component included the maximum and minimum dose as well as the standard deviation of the dose at PTV1. The most inhomogeneous target-dose distributions were obtained by using only the biological component of the objective function (biological optimization). By enabling the physical component in addition to the biological component, PTV1 inhomogeneity was reduced (biophysical optimization). As indices for toxicity to normal tissues, NTCP-values as well as maximum doses or dose levels to relevant fractions of the organ's volume were used. As indices for tumor control, TCP-values as well as minimum doses to the PTVs were used. Results: When optimization was performed with the biophysical as compared to the biological objective function, the PTV1 inhomogeneity decreased from 13 (8-23)% to 4 (2-9)% for the 3D-(p = 0.00009) and from 44 (33-56)% to 20 (9-34)% for the BIM

  14. Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves

    KAUST Repository

    Armaroli, Andrea

    2009-11-03

    We investigate the impact of nonlocality, owing to diffusive behavior, on transverse instabilities of a dark stripe propagating in a defocusing cubic medium. The nonlocal response turns out to have a strongly stabilizing effect both in the case of a single soliton input and in the regime where dispersive shock waves develop (multisoliton regime). Such conclusions are supported by the linear stability analysis and numerical simulation of the propagation. © 2009 The American Physical Society.

  15. NMR, MRI, and spectroscopic MRI in inhomogeneous fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, Vasiliki; Pines, Alexander; Martin, Rachel W; Franck, John; Reimer, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-24

    A method for locally creating effectively homogeneous or "clean" magnetic field gradients (of high uniformity) for imaging (with NMR, MRI, or spectroscopic MRI) both in in-situ and ex-situ systems with high degrees of inhomogeneous field strength. THe method of imaging comprises: a) providing a functional approximation of an inhomogeneous static magnetic field strength B.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}) at a spatial position {right arrow over (r)}; b) providing a temporal functional approximation of {right arrow over (G)}.sub.shim(t) with i basis functions and j variables for each basis function, resulting in v.sub.ij variables; c) providing a measured value .OMEGA., which is an temporally accumulated dephasing due to the inhomogeneities of B.sub.0({right arrow over(r)}); and d) minimizing a difference in the local dephasing angle .phi.({right arrow over (r)},t)=.gamma..intg..sub.0.sup.t{square root over (|{right arrow over (B)}.sub.1({right arrow over (r)},t')|.sup.2+({right arrow over (r)}{right arrow over (G)}.sub.shimG.sub.shim(t')+.parallel.{right arrow over (B)}.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}).parallel..DELTA..omega.({right arrow over (r)},t'/.gamma/).sup.2)}dt'-.OMEGA. by varying the v.sub.ij variables to form a set of minimized v.sub.ij variables. The method requires calibration of the static fields prior to minimization, but may thereafter be implemented without such calibration, may be used in open or closed systems, and potentially portable systems.

  16. Error inhomogeneity in the computation of spherical mean displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuezhong; Hu, Banghui; Huang, Hong; Wang, Ju; Zeng, Gang; Tan, Yanke; Zou, Li

    2017-12-01

    The traditional method for computing the mean displacement in latitude-longitude coordinates is a spherical meridional-zonal resultant displacement method (MRDM), which regards the displacement as the resultant vector of the meridional and zonal displacement components. However, there are inhomogeneity and singularity in the computation error of the MRDM, especially at high latitudes. Using the NCEP/NCAR long-term monthly mean wind and idealized wind fields, the inhomogeneity in the MRDM was accessed by using a great circle displacement computing method (GCDM) for non-iterative cases. The MRDM and GCDM were also compared for iteration cases by taking the trajectories from a three-time level reference method as the real trajectories. In the horizontal direction, the GCDM assumes that an air particle moves along its locating great circle and that the magnitude of the displacement equals the arc length of the great circle. The inhomogeneity of the MRDM is evaluated in terms of the horizontal distance error from the products of wind speed, lapse time, and angle difference from the GCDM displacement orient. The non-iterative results show that the mean horizontal displacement computed through the MRDM has both computational and analytical errors. The displacement error of the MRDM depends on the wind speed, wind direction, and the departure latitude of the air particle. It increases with the wind speed and the departure latitude. The displacement magnitude error has a four-wave pattern and the displacement direction error has a two-wave feature in the definition range of the wind direction. The iterative result shows that the displacement magnitude error and angle error of the MRDM and GCDM with respect to the reference method increase with the lapse time and have similar distribution patterns. The mean magnitude error and the angle error of the MRDM are nearly twice as large as those of the GCDM.

  17. Possibilities for reduction of transverse projected emittances by partial removal of transverse to longitudinal beam correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balandin, V.; Decking, W.; Golubeva, N.

    2014-09-01

    We show that if in the particle beam there are linear correlations between energy of particles and their transverse positions and momenta (linear beam dispersions), then the transverse projected emittances always can be reduced by letting the beam to pass through magnetostatic system with specially chosen nonzero lattice dispersions. The maximum possible reduction of the transverse projected emittances occurs when all beam dispersions are zeroed, and the values of the lattice dispersions required for that are completely defined by the values of the beam dispersions and the beam rms energy spread and are independent from any other second-order central beam moments. Besides that, we prove that, alternatively, one can also use the lattice dispersions to remove linear correlations between longitudinal positions of particles and their transverse coordinates (linear beam tilts), but in this situation solution for the lattice dispersions is nonunique and the reduction of the transverse projected emittances is not guaranteed.

  18. Spin versus helicity in processes involving transversity

    CERN Document Server

    Mekhfi, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We construct the spin formalism in order to deal in a direct and natural way with processes involving transversity which are now of increasing popularity. The helicity formalism which is more appropriate for collision processes of definite helicity has been so far used also to manage processes with transversity, but at the price of computing numerous helicity amplitudes generally involving unnecessary kinematical variables.In a second step we work out the correspondence between both formalisms and retrieve in another way all results of the helicity formalism but in simpler forms.We then compute certain processes for comparison.A special process:the quark dipole magnetic moment is shown to be exclusively treated within the spin formalism as it is directly related to the transverse spin of the quark inside the baryon.

  19. Transversely Compressed- and Restrained Shear Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    2013-01-01

    Anchorage of FRP strengthening systems where the deformation perpendicular to the FRP material is restrained or a compressive force is applied on the strengthening, seems to provide ductility, increased utilization of the FRP and failure modes which can be controlled through the anchorage method....... This paper presents theoretical model which can predict the response of transversely compressed and restrained single- and double lap shear joints. The interface material model is based on a cohesive law in the shear-slip plane with a descending branch and a uniform frictional stress added due...... to the friction in the crack, emanating from the transverse pressure or restraint. The theoretical model is compared with experimental results from transversely compressed single- and double shear joints. Also theoretical predictions of a mechanical integrated sleeve-wedge anchorage load capacity are carried out...

  20. Associated transverse energy in hadronic jet production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesini, G.; Webber, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the ''pedestal height'' in hadronic jet production, i.e., the mean transverse energy per unit of rapidity accompanying a high-transverse-energy jet. We find that perturbative QCD, supplemented by a Monte Carlo estimate of higher-order corrections and a soft underlying event structure similar to that of minimum-bias collisions, can account for the observed pedestal height and its dependence on jet transverse energy. We propose a way of separating the hard pedestal contribution from that of the underlying event by measuring the quantity , which is one-half the absolute difference of the pedestal heights on the two sides of the jet. This quantity is dominated by the hard QCD component, whereas = - is dominated by the soft underlying event. We also discuss the differential distribution of pedestal height and the charged multiplicity in the pedestal

  1. Dynamic modeling of presence of occupants using inhomogeneous Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Iversen, Anne; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    on inhomogeneous Markov chains with where the transition probabilities are estimated using generalized linear models with polynomials, B-splines, and a filter of passed observations as inputs. For treating the dispersion of the data series, a hierarchical model structure is used where one model is for low presence......Occupancy modeling is a necessary step towards reliable simulation of energy consumption in buildings. This paper outlines a method for fitting recordings of presence of occupants and simulation of single-person to multiple-persons office environments. The method includes modeling of dependence...

  2. Nonaxisymmetric radiative transfer in inhomogeneous cylindrical media with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissa, H.; Askri, F.; Ben Salah, M.; Ben Nasrallah, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the control volume finite element method (CVFEM) is applied for the first time to solve nonaxisymmetric radiative transfer in inhomogeneous, emitting, absorbing and anisotropic scattering cylindrical media. Mathematical formulations as well as numerical implementation are given and the final discretized equations are based on similar meshes used for convective and conductive heat transfer in computational fluid dynamic analysis. In order to test the efficiency of the developed method, four nonaxisymmetric problems have been examined. Also, the grid dependence and the false scattering of the CVFEM are investigated and compared with the finite volume method and the discrete ordinates interpolation method

  3. Two-step estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Guan, Yongtao

    2009-01-01

    The paper is concerned with parameter estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes with a regression model for the intensity function and tractable second-order properties (K-function). Regression parameters are estimated by using a Poisson likelihood score estimating function and in the ...... and in the second step minimum contrast estimation is applied for the residual clustering parameters. Asymptotic normality of parameter estimates is established under certain mixing conditions and we exemplify how the results may be applied in ecological studies of rainforests....

  4. Gaussian beam diffraction in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Yu.A., E-mail: kravtsov@am.szczecin.p [Institute of Physics, Maritime University of Szczecin, Szczecin 70-500 (Poland); Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117 997 (Russian Federation); Berczynski, P., E-mail: pawel.berczynski@ps.p [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin 70-310 (Poland); Bieg, B., E-mail: b.bieg@am.szczecin.p [Institute of Physics, Maritime University of Szczecin, Szczecin 70-500 (Poland)

    2009-08-10

    Combination of quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA) of geometric optics with paraxial complex geometric optics (PCGO) is suggested, which allows describing both diffraction and polarization evolution of Gaussian electromagnetic beams in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media. Combination QIA/PCGO reduces Maxwell equations to the system of the ordinary differential equations of the first order and radically simplifies solution of various problems, related to microwave plasma diagnostics, including plasma polarimetry, interferometry and refractometry in thermonuclear reactors. Efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the example of electromagnetic beam diffraction in a linear layer of magnetized plasma with parameters, modeling tokamak plasma in the project ITER.

  5. Control of inhomogeneous atomic ensembles of hyperfine qudits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischuck, Brian Edward; Merkel, Seth T.; Deutsch, Ivan H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the ability to control d-dimensional quantum systems (qudits) encoded in the hyperfine spin of alkali-metal atoms through the application of radio- and microwave-frequency magnetic fields in the presence of inhomogeneities in amplitude and detuning. Such a capability is essential...... to the design of robust pulses that mitigate the effects of experimental uncertainty and also for application to tomographic addressing of particular members of an extended ensemble. We study the problem of preparing an arbitrary state in the Hilbert space from an initial fiducial state. We prove...

  6. Inhomogeneous Generalization of a Multispecies Totally Asymmetric Zero Range Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniba, Atsuo; Maruyama, Shouya; Okado, Masato

    2016-08-01

    The n-species totally asymmetric zero range process ( n-TAZRP) on a one-dimensional periodic chain studied recently by the authors is a continuous time Markov process where arbitrary number of particles can occupy the same sites and hop to the adjacent sites only in one direction with a priority constraint according to their species. In this paper we introduce an n-parameter generalization of the n-TAZRP having inhomogeneous transition rate. The steady state probability is obtained in a matrix product form and also by an algorithm related to combinatorial R.

  7. Cosmic microwave background radiation in an inhomogeneous spherical space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, R; Lustig, S; Kramer, P

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation in spherical three-spaces with nontrivial topology. The focus is on an inhomogeneous space which possesses observer-dependent CMB properties. The suppression of the CMB anisotropies on large angular scales is analysed with respect to the position of the CMB observer. The equivalence of a lens space to a Platonic cubic space is shown and used for the harmonic analysis. We give the transformation of the CMB multipole radiation amplitude as a function of the position of the observer. General sum rules are obtained in terms of the squares of the expansion coefficients for invariant polynomials on the three-sphere.

  8. Evolution of statistically inhomogeneous degenerate water wave quartets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlmeier, R.; Stiassnie, M.

    2017-12-01

    A discretized equation for the evolution of random surface wave fields on deep water is derived from Zakharov's equation, allowing for a general treatment of the stability and long-time behaviour of broad-banded sea states. It is investigated for the simple case of degenerate four-wave interaction, and the instability of statistically homogeneous states to small inhomogeneous disturbances is demonstrated. Furthermore, the long-time evolution is studied for several cases and shown to lead to a complex spatio-temporal energy distribution. The possible impact of this evolution on the statistics of freak wave occurrence is explored. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.

  9. Estimation of geometrically undistorted B0 inhomogeneity maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matakos, A; Balter, J; Cao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Geometric accuracy of MRI is one of the main concerns for its use as a sole image modality in precision radiation therapy (RT) planning. In a state-of-the-art scanner, system level geometric distortions are within acceptable levels for precision RT. However, subject-induced B 0 inhomogeneity may vary substantially, especially in air-tissue interfaces. Recent studies have shown distortion levels of more than 2 mm near the sinus and ear canal are possible due to subject-induced field inhomogeneity. These distortions can be corrected with the use of accurate B 0 inhomogeneity field maps. Most existing methods estimate these field maps from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at two different echo-times under the assumption that the GRE images are practically undistorted. However distortion that may exist in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate correction of clinical images. This work proposes a method for estimating undistorted field maps from GRE acquisitions using an iterative joint estimation technique. The proposed method yields geometrically corrected GRE images and undistorted field maps that can also be used for the correction of images acquired by other sequences. The proposed method is validated through simulation, phantom experiments and applied to patient data. Our simulation results show that our method reduces the root-mean-squared error of the estimated field map from the ground truth by ten-fold compared to the distorted field map. Both the geometric distortion and the intensity corruption (artifact) in the images caused by the B 0 field inhomogeneity are corrected almost completely. Our phantom experiment showed improvement in the geometric correction of approximately 1 mm at an air-water interface using the undistorted field map compared to using a distorted field map. The proposed method for undistorted field map estimation can lead to improved geometric

  10. Estimation of geometrically undistorted B0 inhomogeneity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matakos, A.; Balter, J.; Cao, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Geometric accuracy of MRI is one of the main concerns for its use as a sole image modality in precision radiation therapy (RT) planning. In a state-of-the-art scanner, system level geometric distortions are within acceptable levels for precision RT. However, subject-induced B0 inhomogeneity may vary substantially, especially in air-tissue interfaces. Recent studies have shown distortion levels of more than 2 mm near the sinus and ear canal are possible due to subject-induced field inhomogeneity. These distortions can be corrected with the use of accurate B0 inhomogeneity field maps. Most existing methods estimate these field maps from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at two different echo-times under the assumption that the GRE images are practically undistorted. However distortion that may exist in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate correction of clinical images. This work proposes a method for estimating undistorted field maps from GRE acquisitions using an iterative joint estimation technique. The proposed method yields geometrically corrected GRE images and undistorted field maps that can also be used for the correction of images acquired by other sequences. The proposed method is validated through simulation, phantom experiments and applied to patient data. Our simulation results show that our method reduces the root-mean-squared error of the estimated field map from the ground truth by ten-fold compared to the distorted field map. Both the geometric distortion and the intensity corruption (artifact) in the images caused by the B0 field inhomogeneity are corrected almost completely. Our phantom experiment showed improvement in the geometric correction of approximately 1 mm at an air-water interface using the undistorted field map compared to using a distorted field map. The proposed method for undistorted field map estimation can lead to improved geometric

  11. MODELING OF NONLINEAR DEFORMATION AND BUCKLING OF ELASTIC INHOMOGENEOUS SHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov V.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the fundamentals of the method of solving static problems of geometrically nonlinear deformation, buckling, and postbuckling behavior of thin thermoelastic inhomogeneous shells with complex-shaped mid-surface, geometrical features throughout the thickness, and multilayer structure under complex thermomechanical loading. The method is based on the geometrically nonlinear equations of three-dimensional thermoelasticity and the moment finiteelement scheme. The method is justified numerically. Comparing solutions with those obtained by other authors and by software LIRA and SCAD is conducted.

  12. Tailoring diffuse reflectance of inhomogeneous films containing microplatelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovick, Brian A.; Baker, John M.; Flom, Zachary; Krishnamurthy, Srini

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical model for calculating the diffuse reflectance of inhomogeneous films containing aligned microplatelets with diameters much greater than the wavelength. The scattering parameters are derived by modeling the platelets as one-dimensional thin films, and the overall diffuse reflectance of the slab is calculated using the Kubelka-Munk model. Our model predicts that reflection minima and maxima arising from coherent interference within the platelets are preserved in the diffuse reflectance of the disordered slab. Experimental validation of the model is provided by reflectance measurements (0.3–15 μm) of a solid aerosol film of aligned hexagonal boron nitride platelets

  13. REB-Instability with Magneto-Active Inhomogeneous Warm Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shorbagy, Kh.H.

    2000-01-01

    The beam-plasma heating due to a relativistic electron beam (REB) under the effect of an external static magnetic field is investigated. It is considered that a longitudinal 1-D oscillations exist in the plasma, which is inhomogeneous and bounded in the direction of the beam propagation. It is found that the variation in the plasma density has a profound effect on the spatial beam-plasma instability. Besides, the external static magnetic field and warmness of plasma electron leads to more power absorption from the electron beam, and consequently an auxiliary plasma heating

  14. Operative Method for Transverse Colon Carcinoma: Transverse Colectomy Versus Extended Colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Choon Seng; Huh, Jung Wook; Oh, Bo Young; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong

    2016-07-01

    The type of surgery performed for primary transverse colon cancer varies based on tumor characteristics and surgeon perspective. The optimal oncological outcome following different surgical options has not been clearly established, and transverse colectomy has shown oncological equivalence only in small cohort studies. Our aim was to compare long-term oncological outcomes after transverse colectomy versus extended resection for transverse colon cancer. This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. All patients treated for transverse colon cancer at the Samsung Medical Center between 1995 and 2013 were included. Oncological outcomes were compared between 2 groups of patients: a transverse colectomy group and an extended colectomy group (which included extended right hemicolectomy and left hemicolectomy). A total of 1066 patients were included, of whom 750 (70.4%) underwent extended right hemicolectomy, 127 (11.9%) underwent transverse colectomy, and 189 (17.7%) underwent left hemicolectomy. According to univariate analysis, surgical approach, histological type, tumor morphology, cancer T and N stage, cancer size, and lymphovascular invasion were significant factors contributing to disease-free survival (DFS). However, as seen in multivariate analysis, only node-positive disease (HR = 2.035 (1.188-3.484)), tumors with ulcerative morphology (HR = 3.643 (1.132-11.725)), and the presence of vascular invasion (HR = 2.569 (1.455-4.538)) were significant factors for DFS. Further analysis with a propensity-matched cohort between the transverse and extended colectomy groups demonstrated no significant differences in DFS and overall survival. This study was limited because it was performed at a single institution and it was retrospective in nature. In terms of perioperative and oncological outcomes, transverse colectomy and extended colectomy did not differ despite a shorter specimen length and

  15. Local interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutcher, R.M.; and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley)

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of the velocities of optical interstellar lines shows that the Sun is immersed in a coherently moving local interstellar medium whose velocity vector agrees with that of the interstellar wind observed through backscatter of solar H Lyα and He lambda584 photons. The local interstellar medium consists of both cool clouds and warm intercloud medium gas, has a mass of perhaps approx.30 M/sub sun/, does not have severe depletion of trace elements from the gas phase, and appears to be material which has been shocked and accelerated by stellar winds and supernovae associated with the Sco-Oph OB association

  16. Inclusive eta production at large transverse momenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, G.J.; Gordon, H.A.; Lai, K.; Stumer, I.; Barnes, A.V.; Mellema, D.J.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Walker, R.L.; Dahl, O.; Johnson, R.; Ogawa, A.; Pripstein, M.; Shannon, S.

    1978-01-01

    We have measured the ratio of inclusive production of eta to π 0 at transverse momenta above 1.5 GeV/c. Results are presented for various meson and proton beams with momenta of 100, 200, and 300 GeV/c incident upon a hydrogen target. The eta/π 0 production ratio is found to be independent of incident beam momentum and of the transverse and longitudinal momenta of production. The ratio for pion- and proton-induced reactions is 0.44 +- 0.05; for kaons, it is 0.74 +- 0.12

  17. Transverse posterior element fractures associated with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Six examples of a previously undescribed class of transverse vertebral element fractures are presented. These fractures differ from Chance and Smith fractures and their variants in the following respects: (1) the etiology is torsion and not flexion; (2) there is neither distraction of posterior ring fragments nor posterior ligament tears; (3) in contrast to Chance and Smith fractures, extension of the fracture into the vertebral body is absent or minimal; (4) the transverse process of the lumbar vertebra is avulsed at its base with a vertical fracture, not split horizontally. These fractures occur in cervical, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae in normal or compromised areas of the spine. (orig.)

  18. Results on large transverse momentum phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Büsser, F W; Blumenfeld, B; Camilleri, L L; Cool, R L; Di Lella, L; Gladding, G; Lederman, Leon Max; Litt, L; Placci, A; Pope, B G; Segler, S L; Smith, A M; Yoh, J K; Zavattini, E

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary results of an experiment on large transverse momentum phenomena performed at the CERN-ISR at centre-of-mass energies of 52.7 and 44.8 GeV are presented. The topics studied were the inclusive reaction p+p to pi /sup 0/+'anything', where the pi /sup 0/ was emitted around 90 degrees in the centre- of-mass system, ( pi /sup 0/ pi /sup 0/) correlations, and the charged multiplicity associated with large transverse momentum pi /sup 0/'s. In addition, results of a search for electrons and electron pairs are included. (4 refs).

  19. [The transversality and health promotion schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavidia Catalán, V

    2001-01-01

    The following article shows the evolution of the schools contribution to the Health Education of children and young people. Moving on from the traditional concept of health, today, Health Education has a general and global meaning, which encompasses all of the physical, psychological and social aspects of health. These aspects define the characteristics of the "Healthy School". The need to broach the "transversal subject" offers schools the possibility of developing "transversality" in the Health Education. Finally, the concept of promoting health defines, together with the other subjects, that which we understand by "the heath promotion schools", which attempts to progress the full integration of schools in the society in which they are located.

  20. The Inhomogeneous Tropospheric Warming as the driver of Tropical Sea Level Pressure and Walker Circulation Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Bayr, Tobias; Dommenget, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation we follow the idea to split up the global warming signal in a spatial homogeneous warming and in a spatial inhomogeneous warming. In Bayr and Dommenget (2012) the changes of the tropical sea level pressure (SLP) due to inhomo-geneous tropospheric warming in climate change, which is mostly the land-sea warming contrast, was investigated in a multi model ensemble. The amplitude of the inhomogeneous tropospheric warming is roughly 10 times smaller than the total warming of t...

  1. Underwater sound scattering and absorption by a coated infinite plate with a distributed inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanni; Pan, Jie

    2013-04-01

    This paper concerns itself with the scattering and absorption of underwater incident sound by a coated infinite plate with an attached distributed inhomogeneity. Its objective is to determine if the distributed inhomogeneity can provide additional local reflection, such that it only increases the signal-to-noise ratio for a hydrophone detector placed on the inhomogeneity without significantly decreasing the overall sound absorption of the coated plate.

  2. HIRENASD medium unstructured

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unstructured HIRENASD mesh: - medium size (16 million nodes, 39 million elements) - for node centered solvers - 31.05.2011 - caution: dimensions in mm

  3. Concept medium programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  4. Concept medium programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program......The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  5. Low Frequency Electrostatic Waves in Weakly Inhomogeneous Magnetoplasma Modeled by Lorentzian (kappa) Distributions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Basu, Bamandas

    2008-01-01

    Linear dispersion relations for electrostatic waves in spatially inhomogeneous, current-carrying anisotropic plasma, where the equilibrium particle velocity distributions are modeled by various Lorentzian (kappa...

  6. Trace element evidence for a laterally inhomogeneous moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A number of trace element interrelations support the concept of a laterally inhomogeneous moon based orginally in Cl/sub r//P 2 O 5 ratios. The correspondence between Cl/sub r//P 2 O 5 and Rb/Sr ratios in basalts are of special interest since the isotopic evolution of the latter pair of elements relates to the earliest history of the moon. This implies the times when the Cl/sub r//P 2 O 5 relations were established. The early magma ocean is conjectured to have been made up of nonintermixing seas resulting either from large convection cells or large body accretion. These mutually exclusive regions could be lunar geological provinces. It is proposed that the diversity of basalts from the Apollo 17 site is related to the lateral inhomogeneity of the moon. Ca/Na ratios in basalts show a trend which parallels that of Ru/Os and in a corresponding fashion may serve as a depth indicator. 4 figures, 4 tables, 12 references

  7. Cluster Tails for Critical Power-Law Inhomogeneous Random Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Kliem, Sandra; van Leeuwaarden, Johan S. H.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the scaling limit of cluster sizes for critical inhomogeneous random graphs of rank-1 type having finite variance but infinite third moment degrees was obtained in Bhamidi et al. (Ann Probab 40:2299-2361, 2012). It was proved that when the degrees obey a power law with exponent τ \\in (3,4), the sequence of clusters ordered in decreasing size and multiplied through by n^{-(τ -2)/(τ -1)} converges as n→ ∞ to a sequence of decreasing non-degenerate random variables. Here, we study the tails of the limit of the rescaled largest cluster, i.e., the probability that the scaling limit of the largest cluster takes a large value u, as a function of u. This extends a related result of Pittel (J Combin Theory Ser B 82(2):237-269, 2001) for the Erdős-Rényi random graph to the setting of rank-1 inhomogeneous random graphs with infinite third moment degrees. We make use of delicate large deviations and weak convergence arguments.

  8. Kinetic theory of transport for inhomogeneous electron fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew; Hartnoll, Sean A.

    2018-01-01

    The interplay between electronic interactions and disorder is neglected in the conventional Boltzmann theory of transport, yet can play an essential role in determining the resistivity of unconventional metals. When quasiparticles are long lived, one can account for these intertwined effects by solving spatially inhomogeneous Boltzmann equations. Assuming smooth disorder and neglecting umklapp scattering, we solve these inhomogeneous kinetic equations and compute the electrical resistivity across the ballistic-to-hydrodynamic transition. An important consequence of electron-electron interactions is the modification of the momentum-relaxation time; this effect is ignored in the homogeneous theory. We characterize precisely when interactions enhance the momentum scattering rate, and when they decrease it. Our approach unifies existing semiclassical theories of transport, and explains how the resistivity can be proportional to the rate of momentum-conserving collisions without Baber scattering. We compare this result with existing transport mysteries, including the disorder-independent T2 resistivity of many Fermi liquids, and the linear-in-T "Planckian-limited" resistivity of many strange metals.

  9. Silicon qubit performance in the presence of inhomogeneous strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, N. Tobias; Ward, Daniel R.; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Gamble, John K.; Montano, Ines; Rudolph, Martin; Nielsen, Erik; Carroll, Malcolm

    While gate electrode voltages largely define the potential landscape experienced by electrons in quantum dot (QD) devices, mechanical strain also plays a role. Inhomogeneous strain established over the course of device fabrication, followed by mismatched contraction under cooling to cryogenic temperatures, may significantly perturb this potential. A recent investigation by Thorbeck & Zimmerman suggests that unintentional QDs may form as a result of the latter thermal contraction mismatch mechanism. In this work, we investigate the effects of inhomogeneous strain on QD tunnel barriers and other properties, from the perspective of QD and donor-based qubit performance. Through semiconductor process simulation, we estimate the relative magnitude of strain established during fabrication as compared with thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. Combining these predictions with multi-valley effective mass theory modeling of qubit characteristics, we identify whether strain effects may compel stricter than expected constraints on device dimensions. Finally, we investigate the degree to which strain and charge disorder effects may be distinguished. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved. Copyright (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  11. Size effects on magnetoelectric response of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Y.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Xu, K.Y., E-mail: kyxu@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Chen, T. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Aifantis, E.C. [Laboratory of Mechanics and Materials (LMM), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); School of Mechanics and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); International Laboratory for Modern Functional Materials, ITMO University, St. Petersburg 191002 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the influence of size effects on the magnetoelectric performance of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities. Based on a simple model of gradient elasticity for multiferroic materials, the governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained from an energy variational principle. The general formulation is applied to consider an anti-plane problem of multiferroic composites with inhomogeneities. This problem is solved analytically and the effective magnetoelectric coefficient is obtained. The influence of the internal length (grain size or particle size) on the effective magnetoelectric coefficients of piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nanoscale fibrous composite is numerically evaluated and analyzed. The results suggest that with the increase of the internal length of piezoelectric matrix (PZT and BaTiO{sub 3}), the magnetoelectric coefficient increases, but the rate of increase is ratcheting downwards. If the internal length of piezoelectric matrix remains unchanged, the magnetoelectric coefficient will decrease with the increase of internal length scale of piezomagnetic nonfiber (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). In a composite consisiting of a piezomagnetic matrix (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) reinforced with piezoelectric nanofibers (BaTiO{sub 3}), an increase of the internal length in the piezomagnetic matrix, results to a decrease of the magnetoelectric coefficient, with the rate of decrease diminishing.

  12. Motion of vortices in inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszek, Andrew J.; Paganin, David M.; Helmerson, Kristian; Simula, Tapio P.

    2018-02-01

    We derive a general and exact equation of motion for a quantized vortex in an inhomogeneous two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate. This equation expresses the velocity of a vortex as a sum of local ambient density and phase gradients in the vicinity of the vortex. We perform Gross-Pitaevskii simulations of single-vortex dynamics in both harmonic and hard-walled disk-shaped traps, and find excellent agreement in both cases with our analytical prediction. The simulations reveal that, in a harmonic trap, the main contribution to the vortex velocity is an induced ambient phase gradient, a finding that contradicts the commonly quoted result that the local density gradient is the only relevant effect in this scenario. We use our analytical vortex velocity formula to derive a point-vortex model that accounts for both density and phase contributions to the vortex velocity, suitable for use in inhomogeneous condensates. Although good agreement is obtained between Gross-Pitaevskii and point-vortex simulations for specific few-vortex configurations, the effects of nonuniform condensate density are in general highly nontrivial, and are thus difficult to efficiently and accurately model using a simplified point-vortex description.

  13. Modelling of the inhomogeneous interior of polymer gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shew, C-Y; Iwaki, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    A simple model has been investigated to elucidate the mean squared displacement (MSD) of probe molecules in cross-linked polymer gels. In the model, we assume that numerous cavities distribute in the inhomogeneous interior of a gel, and probe molecules are confined within these cavities. The individual probe molecules trapped in a gel are treated as Brownian particles confined to a spherical harmonic potential. The harmonic potential is chosen to model the effective potential experienced by the probe particle in the cavity of a gel. Each field strength is corresponding to the characteristic of one type of effective cavity. Since the statistical distribution of different effective cavity sizes is unknown, several distribution functions are examined. Meanwhile, the calculated averaged MSDs are compared to the experimental data by Nisato et al (2000 Phys. Rev. E 61 2879). We find that the theoretical results of the MSD are sensitive to the shape of the distribution function. For low cross-linked gels, the best fit is obtained when the interior cavities of a gel follow a bimodal distribution. Such a result may be attributed to the presence of at least two distinct classes of cavity in gels. For high cross-linked gels, the cavities in the gel can be depicted by a single-modal uniform distribution function, suggesting that the range of cavity sizes becomes smaller. These results manifest the voids inside a gel, and the shape of distribution functions may provide the insight into the inhomogeneous interior of a gel

  14. The Optimal Inhomogeneity for Superconductivity: Finite Size Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, W-F.

    2010-04-06

    We report the results of exact diagonalization studies of Hubbard models on a 4 x 4 square lattice with periodic boundary conditions and various degrees and patterns of inhomogeneity, which are represented by inequivalent hopping integrals t and t{prime}. We focus primarily on two patterns, the checkerboard and the striped cases, for a large range of values of the on-site repulsion U and doped hole concentration, x. We present evidence that superconductivity is strongest for U of order the bandwidth, and intermediate inhomogeneity, 0 < t{prime} < t. The maximum value of the 'pair-binding energy' we have found with purely repulsive interactions is {Delta}{sub pb} = 0.32t for the checkerboard Hubbard model with U = 8t and t{prime} = 0.5t. Moreover, for near optimal values, our results are insensitive to changes in boundary conditions, suggesting that the correlation length is sufficiently short that finite size effects are already unimportant.

  15. Propagation of action potentials in inhomogeneous axon regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, F; Joyner, R W; Moore, J W

    1975-04-01

    Described are studies of propagation of action potentials through inhomogenous axon regions through experiments performed on squid giant axons and by computer simulations. The initial speed of propagation of the action potential is dependent upon the stimulus waveform. For a rectangular pulse of current, the action potential travel initally at a high speed that declines over the distance, reaching a constant speed of propagation at about 1-5 resting length constants; this distance depends on the stimulus strength. additional experiments studied the effects of changing the axon diameter and of introducing a temperature step. It was found that the propagated action potential suffers profound modification in shape and velocity as it reaches the region of transition. In both cases, it was possible to obtain reflected action potentials. A region of increased effective diameter was produced experimentally in the squid giant axon by insertion of an axial wire as usually employed in voltage clamps. It was found that the action potential, at the axial wire tip region, undergoes shape changes similar to those obtained tn simulations of a region of increased diameter as in a junction with the axon and soma in motor neurons. It is conducluded that the gaint axon can be used to reproduce simple electrical behaviors in other structures.-Ramón, F., R. W. Joyner and J.W. Moore. Propagation of action potentials in inhomogeneous axon regions.

  16. The two-qubit quantum Rabi model: inhomogeneous coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Lijun; Huai, Sainan; Zhang, Yunbo

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the analytic solution of the two-qubit quantum Rabi model with inhomogeneous coupling and transition frequencies using a displaced oscillator basis. This approach enables us to apply the same truncation rules and techniques adopted in the Rabi model to the two qubits system. The derived analytical spectra match perfectly with the numerical solutions in the parameter regime where the qubits’ transition frequencies are far off-resonance with the field frequency and the interaction strengths reach the ultrastrong coupling regime. We further explore the dynamical behavior of the two qubits as well as the evolution of entanglement. The analytical methods provide unexpectedly accurate results in describing the dynamics of the two qubits in the present experimentally accessible coupling regime. The time evolutions of the probability for the qubits show that the collapse-revival phenomena emerge, survive and finally disappear when one coupling strength increases from weak to strong coupling regimes and the other coupling strength is well into the ultrastrong coupling regime. The inhomogeneous coupling system exhibits new dynamics, which are different from the homogeneous coupling case. (paper)

  17. Thermophoresis of a Brownian particle driven by inhomogeneous thermal fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tetsuro; Saita, Sho; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2018-03-01

    Brownian motion of a spherical particle induced by the interaction with surrounding molecules is considered. If the particle is larger than the molecules and the temperature of surrounding media is spatially non-uniform, the interaction between an individual molecule and the particle is also position-dependent. That is, the particle is subject to inhomogeneous thermal fluctuation. In this paper, we investigate the contribution of the inhomogeneous thermal fluctuation to the thermophoresis, i.e., the Soret coefficient or thermal diffusion factor. The problem is simplified by assuming a hard-sphere potential between the particle and the surrounding molecules and is investigated using the kinetic theory, namely, we consider a linear Boltzmann-type equation for the velocity distribution function of the particle. Using the perturbation analysis with respect to the square root of mass ratio between the molecule and the particle, the drift-diffusion equation of the particle is derived. It is found that the Soret coefficient, or thermal diffusion factor, is dependent on the mass ratio and the excluded volume of the particle. In particular, when the ratio of the mass density of the particle to that of the surrounding media decreases, the Soret coefficient also decreases and may take negative value. The present result well describes the mass-dependency of thermal diffusion factor obtained by the molecular dynamics simulation carried out in an existing study and the one in the present study, where soft potentials of Lennard-Jones-type are used instead of hard-sphere potential.

  18. Enhancement of photoacoustic detection of inhomogeneities in polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Grondona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a series of experiments on laser pulsed photoacoustic excitationin turbid polymer samples addressed to evaluate the sound speed inthe samples and the presence of inhomogeneities in the bulk. We describea system which allows the direct measurement of the speed of the detectedwaves by engraving the surface of the piece under study with a fiduciarypattern of black lines..We also describe how this pattern helps toenhance the sensitivity for the detection of an inhomogeneity in the bulk. These two facts are useful for studies in soft matter systems including, perhaps, biological samples. We have performed an experimental analysis on Grilon® samples in differentsituations and we show the limitations of the method. Received: 7 December 2012, Accepted: 19 June 2013; Reviewed by: V. Lakshminarayanan, Waterloo University, Canada; Edited by: J. J. Niemela; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.050005Cite as: P. Grondona, H. O. Di Rocco, D. I. Iriarte, J. A. Pomarico, H. F. Ranea-Sandoval, G. M. Bilmes, Papers in Physics 5, 050005 (2013

  19. Improved inhomogeneous finite elements for fabric reinforced composite mechanics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foye, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    There is a need to do routine stress/failure analysis of fabric reinforced composite microstructures to provide additional confidence in critical applications and guide materials development. Conventional methods of 3-D stress analysis are time consuming to set up, run and interpret. A need exists for simpler methods of modeling these structures and analyzing the models. The principal difficulty is the discrete element mesh generation problem. Inhomogeneous finite elements are worth investigating for application to these problems because they eliminate the mesh generation problem. However, there are penalties associated with these elements. Their convergence rates can be slow compared to homogeneous elements. Also, there is no accepted method for obtaining detailed stresses in the constituent materials of each element. This paper shows that the convergence rate can be significantly improved by a simple device which substitutes homogeneous elements for the inhomogeneous ones. The device is shown to work well in simple one and two dimensional problems. However, demonstration of the application to more complex two and three dimensional problems remains to be done. Work is also progressing toward more realistic fabric microstructural geometries.

  20. Inhomogeneous galactic chemical evolution of r-process elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Stars provide a fundamental contribution to the cosmic life cycle. Gas clouds form and collapse to stars, experiencing different evolutionary stages according to their properties like mass and metal content. Small stars like our Sun end their life as planetary nebulae, while more massive stars end their evolution with violent explosions like supernovae or hypernovae, leaving behind either a neutron star or a black hole. These compact objects may also merge, leading to a new ejection of material. Today the origin of the heaviest elements is still matter of debate. The relative contributions of the proposed sources of r-process elements (e.g., Supernovae, Neutron Star Mergers) in the early galaxy as well as in the Sun is one of the main uncertainties. We use the inhomogeneous chemical evolution tool “ICE” [1, 2] to study the role of some of the main parameters of the cosmic life cycle. With ICE's high resolution (≥ 20parsec/cell) runs, we are able to get converged simulations of the inhomogeneities in the early Galactic evolution stages, and of the observed scatter of r-process elements in metal-poor stars [3].[1] B. Wehmeyer, M. Pignatari, F.-K. Thielemann, 2015 MNRAS 452, 1970–1981[2] B. Wehmeyer, M. Pignatari, F.-K. Thielemann, 2016 AIPC 1743, 040009[3] I. Roederer et al., 2010 ApJ 724:975–993

  1. Fermionic renormalization group methods for transport through inhomogeneous Luttinger liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meden, V; Schoeller, H; Andergassen, S; Enss, T; Schoenhammer, K

    2008-01-01

    We compare two fermionic renormalization group (RG) methods which have been used to investigate the electronic transport properties of one-dimensional metals with two-particle interaction (Luttinger liquids) and local inhomogeneities. The first one is a poor man's method set-up to resum 'leading-log' divergences of the effective transmission at the Fermi momentum. Generically the resulting equations can be solved analytically. The second approach is based on the functional RG (fRG) method and leads to a set of differential equations which can only for certain set-ups and in limiting cases be solved analytically, while in general it must be integrated numerically. Both methods are claimed to be applicable for inhomogeneities of arbitrary strength and to capture effects of the two-particle interaction, such as interaction dependent exponents, up to leading order. We critically review this for the simplest case of a single impurity. While on first glance the poor man's approach seems to describe the crossover from the 'perfect' to the 'open chain fixed point' we collect evidence that difficulties may arise close to the 'perfect chain fixed point'. Due to a subtle relation between the scaling dimensions of the two fixed points this becomes apparent only in a detailed analysis. In the fRG method the coupling of the different scattering channels is kept which leads to a better description of the underlying physics

  2. Optimal Surgery for Mid-Transverse Colon Cancer: Laparoscopic Extended Right Hemicolectomy Versus Laparoscopic Transverse Colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeru; Sumi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshiko; Kanaji, Shingo; Oshikiri, Taro; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2018-04-02

    Although the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery for transverse colon cancer have been shown by the recent studies, the optimal laparoscopic approach for mid-transverse colon cancer is controversial. We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with the mid-transverse colon cancer at our institutions between January 2007 and April 2017. Thirty-eight and 34 patients who received extended right hemicolectomy and transverse colectomy, respectively, were enrolled. There were no significant differences in operating time, blood loss, and hospital stay between the two groups. Postoperative complications developed in 10 of 34 patients (29.4%; wound infection: 2 cases, anastomotic leakage: 2 cases, bowel obstruction: 1 case, incisional hernia: 2 cases, others: 3 cases) for the transverse colectomy group and in 4 of 38 patients (10.5%; wound infection: 1 case, anastomotic leakage: 0 case, bowel obstruction: 2 cases, incisional hernia: 0 case, others: 1 case) for the extended right hemicolectomy group (P = 0.014). Although the median number of harvested #221 and #222 LNs was similar between the two groups (6 vs. 8, P = 0.710, and 3 vs. 2, P = 0.256, respectively), that of #223 was significantly larger in extended right hemicolectomy than in transverse colectomy (3 vs. 1, P = 0.038). The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 92.4 and 90.3% for the extended right hemicolectomy group, and 95.7 and 79.6% for the transverse colectomy group (P = 0.593 and P = 0.638, respectively). Laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy and laparoscopic transverse colectomy offer similar oncological outcomes for mid-transverse colon cancer. Laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy might be associated with fewer postoperative complications.

  3. Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...... on the geometrical size of the system is demonstrated even in the case of large-scale systems....

  4. Longitudinal Evaluation of Foetal Transverse Lie using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    , lower segment fibroids in 2.7%, and ectopic kidney in 0.7%. In conclusion, transverse lie detected early in pregnancy is transient, and majority would convert to a longitudinal lie at term. Potential predisposing factors highlighted above ...

  5. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In contrast to some of the earlier studies, calculations are performed retaining the full lossy character of the metal. In the limit of vanishing losses, we present analytical results for the extraordinary spin for both the coupled modes. The results can have direct implications for enhancing the elusive transverse spin exploiting the ...

  6. Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles produced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... sources which can be regarded as partons or quarks in the interacting system. The particle is contributed by each source with gluons which have transverse momentum distributions in an exponential form. The modelling results are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data at high energies.

  7. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  8. Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (SSAs) in hard scattering processes when transverse momentum scales are on the order of quarks in hadrons, ... are of particular interest as they emerge from the colour gauge invariant definition of the quark-gluon-quark ..... For n ≥ 3, there are enough powers of l+ to eliminate this divergence. f(p2) is a covariant Gaussian ...

  9. TRANSVERSE COLON POUCH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective Urinary diversion after pelvic irradiation is challenging. The use of irradiated bowel is mostly complicated and unsuccessful. Therefore, the use of an exclusively non-irradiated bowel segment, such as the transverse colon, is a good alternative in such situation. Patients and Methods Twenty-nine female patients ...

  10. Transversals in non-discrete groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 4 ... Given any right quasigroup with a Tychonoff topology , it is proved that there exists a Hausdorff topological group in which can be embedded algebraically and topologically as a right transversal of a subgroup (not necessarily closeed).

  11. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samyobrata Mukherjee

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... spline interpolation from the data of Johnson and Christy. [31]. But first, we have to deal with normalization in order to make our comparisons of the transverse spin for different wavelengths and metal film thicknesses d meaningful. We normalize the power flow into the sys- tem at x = 0 to unity. ∫ ∞. −∞.

  12. Transverse Ising model with multi-impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xuchu; Yang, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    We study the transverse Ising spin model with spin-1 impurities under the exact solution. We develop a universal method to deal with the multi-impurity problem by introducing a displacement quantity in the wave function and get a recursive formula to simplify the calculation of the partition function. This allows us to rigorously determine the impurity effects for a specific distribution of impurity in the thermodynamic limit. The low temperature behaviors are governed by the interplay between host and impurity excitations, and the quantum critical fluctuations around the critical point of the transverse Ising model are tuned by the transverse field and the concentration of impurity. However the impurity effects are limited, which depends on the host–impurity exchange interaction and the coupling strength of impurities. - Highlights: • A universal method is proposed to exactly resolve the transverse Ising model with many impurities. • The phase diagram of the ground state is obtained for different impurity concentrations. • The thermodynamic properties can be determined rigorously by a recursive formula in the thermodynamic limit

  13. Transversals in non-discrete groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1963). [7] Lal R, Transversals in groups, J. Alg. 181 (1996) 70–81. [8] Lal R and Shukla R P, Perfectly stable subgroups of finite groups, Comm. Alg. 24(2). (1996) 643–657. [9] Lal R and Shukla R P, A characterization of Tarski monsters, ...

  14. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samyobrata Mukherjee

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons. SAMYOBRATA MUKHERJEE1, A V GOPAL2 and S DUTTA GUPTA1,∗. 1School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 046, India. 2Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of ...

  15. EFFECT OF CHANNEL BENDS ON TRANSVERSE MIXING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... dy, where d is the flow depth, was found to vary laterally in all cross-sections. As the spiral motion due to the second bend develops it displaces the residual spiral motion from the first bend towards the outer bend causing it to decay completely around the middle of this bend. Transverse Tracer Distribution.

  16. Medium effects and jet fragmentation at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, S.; Mariotto, C. B.; Mackedanz, L. F. [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Caixa Postal 474, CEP 96203-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    In this work we study the production of charged hadrons in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. We quantify the medium effects by calculating the nuclear ratio R{sub AA} as a function of the transverse momentum of the produced hadron. The main ingredients are the shadowing of the nuclear parton distributions, the jet energy loss and the fragmentation functions modified by the hot and dense medium. Our results are focused on the interplay of the different effects, and results are compared with recent LHC data.

  17. Measuring medium-induced gluons via jet grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tywoniuk, Konrad; Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2017-11-01

    Jet substructure observables and applications of jet grooming techniques in heavy-ion collisions are still in its infancy and provide new alleys for studying medium modifications of perturbative degrees of freedom. We note that these measurements, given the right transverse momentum range, can be uniquely sensitive to rare medium-induced emissions inside of the jet cone. This corresponds to an infrared enhancement that would, for instance, affect the distribution of the groomed momentum-sharing variable zg measured using the SoftDrop procedure.

  18. Dissipative Vortex Solitons in Defocusing Media with Spatially Inhomogeneous Nonlinear Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xian-Jing; Cai, Xiao-Ou; Zhang, Jie-Fang

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, by solving a complex nonlinear Schrödinger equation, radially symmetric dissipative vortex solitons are obtained analytically and are tested numerically. We find that spatially inhomogeneous nonlinear absorption gives rise to the stability of dissipative vortex solitons in self-defocusing nonlinear medium in the presence of constant linear gain. Numerical simulation reveals the interaction effect among linear gain and nonlinear loss in the azimuthal modulation instabilities of these vortices suppression. Apart from the uniform linear gain indeed affects the stability of vortex in this media, another noticeable feature of current setup is that the steep spatial modulation of the nonlinear absorption can suppress sidelobes effectively and support stable vortex solitons in situations with uniform linear gain. Under appropriate conditions, the vortex solitons can propagate stably and feature no symmetry breaking, although the beams exhibit radical compression and amplification as they propagate. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11705164 and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. LQ16A040003

  19. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  20. Spectral Intensity Variation by the Correlation Function of Refractive Index Fluctuations of the Liquid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageshwar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that a macroscopic theory of propagation and scattering of light through random media can be functional for the dye liquid flowing media in the microscopic levels too, with modest approximations. Maxwell’s equation for a random refractive index medium is approximated and solved for the electric field. An analytical expression for the spectral intensity of the field scattered by the refractive index fluctuations inside a medium has been derived which was valid within the first Born approximation. Far field spectral intensity variation of the radiation propagating through the liquid medium is a consequence of variation in correlation function of the refractive index inhomogeneities. The strength of radiation scattered in a particular direction depends on the spatial correlation function of the refractive index fluctuations of the medium. An attempt is made to explain some of the experimentally observed spectral intensity variations, particularly dye emission propagation through liquid flowing medium, in the presence of thermal and flow field.

  1. Ray-optics analysis of inhomogeneous optically anisotropic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, M.

    2010-01-01

    When the optical behavior of light in a medium depends on the direction in which light is traveling, the medium is called optically anisotropic. Light is an electromagnetic wave and in this thesis, we discuss the electromagnetic theory on optical anisotropy. We do this with the assumption that the

  2. Evolution of a Diffusion Channel in an Inhomogeneous Electric Field of the KrF-Laser Pump Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampol'skaya, S. A.; Yastremsky, A. G.; Panchenko, Yu. N.; Puchikin, A. V.; Bobrovnikov, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    The results of studying the 2D-simulation of evolution of a diffusion channel in the KrF-laser pump discharge initiated by the pin on the cathode surface are presented. It is shown that during the pump pulse, the inhomogeneity passes successively through three stages: a plasma spot on the cathode surface, a diffuse channel, and a high-conductivity channel. From the analysis of the dynamics of spatial distribution of spontaneous emission on the B0-X transition of the KrF molecule in such a discharge, it is obtained that the channel can work as an amplifying medium while the volumetric form of its glow is maintained. Despite the contraction of the channel into a narrow cord at the end of the pump pulse, the distribution of the radiation energy over the entire pulse has the shape of a torch with the width at the anode of 0.6 cm.

  3. Polarimetric imaging of turbid inhomogeneous slab media based on backscattering using a pencil beam for illumination: Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Soichi

    2018-04-01

    Polarimetric imaging of absorbing, strongly scattering, or birefringent inclusions is investigated in a negligibly absorbing, moderately scattering, and isotropic slab medium. It was proved that the reduced effective scattering Mueller matrix is exactly calculated from experimental or simulated raw matrices even if the medium is anisotropic and/or heterogeneous, or the outgoing light beam exits obliquely to the normal of the slab surface. The calculation also gives a reasonable approximation of the reduced matrix using a light beam with a finite diameter for illumination. The reduced matrix was calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation and was factorized in two dimensions by the Lu-Chipman polar decomposition. The intensity of backscattered light shows clear and modestly clear differences for absorbing and strongly scattering inclusions, respectively, whereas it shows no difference for birefringent inclusions. Conversely, some polarization parameters, for example, the selective depolarization coefficients exhibit only a slight difference for the absorbing inclusions, whereas they showed clear difference for the strongly scattering or birefringent inclusions. Moreover, these quantities become larger with increasing the difference in the optical properties of the inclusions relative to the surrounding medium. However, it is difficult to recognize inclusions that buried at the depth deeper than 3 mm under the surface. Thus, the present technique can detect the approximate shape and size of these inclusions, and considering the depth where inclusions lie, estimate their optical properties. This study reveals the possibility of the polarization-sensitive imaging of turbid inhomogeneous media using a pencil beam for illumination.

  4. Spiegel. Medium. Kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    and cultural perspective. From 1800 on, the great incentive was to push forward the material-physical and optical-mechanical and especially the media ‘exploitation’ of the mirror. The significance of the mirror as a central meta-medium of the visual emerged in a particularly striking way in the late 1830s....... That ricochets through media theory, theories of art and culture and through cultural historiography. A repository is one thing, a transmitter another: the distinction will act crucially on the quest for appropriate perspectives and classifications of what in terms of disciplines would rather appear...... or as synaesthesia gone mute. It stands in contrast with the mirror, which assumes the status of a medium facility or meta-medium of visual transference, encountering its only medial and operative limitation within the analogue or digital repository media. The present proposal for an artistic and cultural history...

  5. Fast Sausage Modes in Magnetic Tubes with Continuous Transverse Profiles: Effects of a Finite Plasma Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xiong, Ming; Yu, Hui; Guo, Ming-Zhe

    2016-12-01

    While standing fast sausage modes in flare loops are often invoked to interpret quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar flares, it is unclear as to how they are influenced by the combined effects of a continuous transverse structuring and a finite internal plasma beta ({β }{{I}}). We derive a generic dispersion relation governing linear sausage waves in straight magnetic tubes for which plasma pressure is not negligible, and the density and temperature inhomogeneities of essentially arbitrary form take place in a layer of arbitrary width. Focusing on fast modes, we find that {β }{{I}} only weakly influences {k}{{c}}, the critical longitudinal wavenumber separating the leaky from trapped modes. Likewise, for both trapped and leaky modes, the periods P in units of the transverse fast time depend only weakly on {β }{{I}}, which is compatible with the fact that the effective wave vectors of fast sausage modes are largely perpendicular to the background magnetic field. However, a weak {β }{{I}} dependence of the damping times τ is seen only when the length-to-radius ratio L/R is ˜50% larger than some critical value π /({k}{{c}}R), which itself rather sensitively depends on the density contrast, profile steepness, as well as on how the transverse structuring is described. In the context of QPPs, we conclude that the much simpler zero-beta theory can be employed for trapped modes, as long as one sees the deduced internal Alfvén speed as actually being the fast speed. In contrast, effects due to a finite beta in flare loops should be considered when leaky modes are exploited.

  6. Two-step estimation procedures for inhomogeneous shot-noise Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokesová, Michaela; Dvorák, Jirí; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    In the present paper we develop several two-step estimation procedures for inhomogeneous shot-noise Cox processes. The intensity function is parametrized by the inhomogeneity parameters while the pair-correlation function is parametrized by the interaction parameters. The suggested procedures...

  7. Nonlocality and optics of inhomogeneous systems : The role of quantum induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C.M.J.; de Boeij, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal interactions play a prominent role in the optics of inhomogeneous systems. Classical discrete dipole descriptions take into account only electro-magnetic nonlocality. This is insufficient to describe correctly the inhomogeneous optical response (e.g., reflectance anisotropy) for covalently

  8. Analytical model of the statistical properties of contrast of large-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vsekhsvyatskaya, I. S.; Evstratova, E. A.; Kalinin, Yu. K.; Romanchuk, A. A.

    1989-08-01

    A new analytical model is proposed for the distribution of variations of the relative electron-density contrast of large-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities. The model is characterized by other-than-zero skewness and kurtosis. It is shown that the model is applicable in the interval of horizontal dimensions of inhomogeneities from hundreds to thousands of kilometers.

  9. geometric optics and WKB method for electromagnetic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma near cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Max Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-04-13

    This report outlines the theory underlying electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in an unmagnetized, inhomogeneous plasma. The inhomogeneity is given by a spatially nonuniform plasma electron density ne(r), which will modify the wave propagation in the direction of the gradient rne(r).

  10. Kelvin probe study of laterally inhomogeneous dielectric charging and charge diffusion in RF MEMS capacitive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Steeneken, P.G.; Schmitz, J.; Mank, A.J.G.; van Gils, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we use Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy (SKPM) to detect charge in the dielectric of RF MEMS capacitive switches. We observe a laterally inhomogeneous distribution. Laterally inhomogeneous dielectric charging leads to a narrowing of the C-V curve [1], and can lead to stiction of the

  11. Impact of inhomogeneity on SH-type wave propagation in an initially stressed composite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Singh, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    The present analysis has been made on the influence of distinct form of inhomogeneity in a composite structure comprised of double superficial layers lying over a half-space, on the phase velocity of SH-type wave propagating through it. Propagation of SH-type wave in the said structure has been examined in four distinct cases of inhomogeneity viz. when inhomogeneity in double superficial layer is due to exponential variation in density only (Case I); when inhomogeneity in double superficial layers is due to exponential variation in rigidity only (Case II); when inhomogeneity in double superficial layer is due to exponential variation in rigidity, density and initial stress (Case III) and when inhomogeneity in double superficial layer is due to linear variation in rigidity, density and initial stress (Case IV). Closed-form expression of dispersion relation has been accomplished for all four aforementioned cases through extensive application of Debye asymptotic analysis. Deduced dispersion relations for all the cases are found in well-agreement to the classical Love-wave equation. Numerical computation has been carried out to graphically demonstrate the effect of inhomogeneity parameters, initial stress parameters as well as width ratio associated with double superficial layers in the composite structure for each of the four aforesaid cases on dispersion curve. Meticulous examination of distinct cases of inhomogeneity and initial stress in context of considered problem has been carried out with detailed analysis in a comparative approach.

  12. An Attack-Defense Model with Inhomogeneous Resources of the Opponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevozchikov, A. G.; Reshetov, V. Yu.; Yanochkin, I. E.

    2018-01-01

    Germeier's attack-defense model is generalized by taking into account the inhomogeneity of the defense resources. It is based on Germeier's generalized equalization principle, which in the general case of inhomogeneous resources leads to convex constrained minimax problems, which can be solved using the subgradient ascent method.

  13. Distinguishing different types of inhomogeneity in Neyman-Scott point processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrkvička, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2014), s. 385-395 ISSN 1387-5841 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : clustering * growing clusters * inhomogeneous cluster centers * inhomogeneous point process * location dependent scaling * Neyman- Scott point process Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.913, year: 2014

  14. Inhomogeneity of the grain size of aircraft engine turbine polycrystalline blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chmiela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the behaviour of inhomogeneous materials with a complex microstructure requires taking into account the inhomogeneity of the grain size, as it is the basis for the process of designing and modelling effective behaviours. Therefore, the functional description of the inhomogeneity is becoming an important issue. The paper presents an analytical approach to the grain size inhomogeneity, based on the derivative of a logarithmic-logistic function. The solution applied enabled an effective evaluation of the inhomogeneity of two macrostructures of aircraft engine turbine blades, characterized by a high degree of diversity in the grain size. For the investigated single-modal and bimodal grain size distributions on a perpendicular projection and for grains with a non-planar surface, we identified the parameters that describe the degree of inhomogeneity of the constituents of weight distributions and we also derived a formula describing the overall degree of inhomogeneity of bimodal distributions. The solution presented in the paper is of a general nature and it can be used to describe the degree of inhomogeneity of multi-modal distributions. All the calculations were performed using the Mathematica® package.

  15. Concentration dependence of inhomogeneous broadening in perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Carlos; Hodges, Jeffery A.; Park, Tyler; Stufflebeam, Michael; Evenson, W.; Matheson, P.; Zacate, M. O.

    2008-10-01

    Since real crystals always include defects, the effect of the defects on crystal properties depends on how many defects are present, i.e. on defect concentration. In perturbed angular correlation (PAC), these defects produce damping of the correlation signal in time and broadening of the frequency spectrum. This ``inhomogeneous broadening'' depends quantitatively on defect concentration, so the size of the broadening in a PAC spectrum can be a measure of the concentration of defects. Using simulated PAC spectra and independent component analysis to obtain the probability distribution function for electric field gradient (EFG) components, we have found defect concentration-dependent parameters for the probability functions. This allows us to calculate broadened PAC spectra for any selected defect concentration. It also allows us to fit defect concentration from an experimental PAC spectrum. This work will be applied initially to broadened PAC data from β-Mn, Al-doped β-Mn, and Sr2RuO4.

  16. GENERAL: Metric Expansion from Microscopic Dynamics in an Inhomogeneous Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongehr, Sascha

    2010-09-01

    Theories with ingredients like the Higgs mechanism, gravitons, and inflaton fields rejuvenate the idea that relativistic kinematics is dynamically emergent. Eternal infiation treats the Hubble constant H as depending on location. Microscopic dynamics implies that H is over much smaller lengths than pocket universes to be understood as a local space reproduction rate. We illustrate this via discussing that even exponential inflation in TeV-gravity is slow on the relevant time scale. In our on small scales inhomogeneous cosmos, a reproduction rate H depends on position. We therefore discuss Einstein-Strauss vacuoles and a Lindquist-Wheeler like lattice to connect the local rate properly with the scaling of an expanding cosmos. Consistency allows H to locally depend on Weyl curvature similar to vacuum polarization. We derive a proportionality constant known from Kepler's third law and discuss the implications for the finiteness of the cosmological constant.

  17. Compositional inhomogeneities as a source of indirect combustion noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Luca; O'Brien, Jeff; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    The generation of indirect combustion noise by compositional inhomogeneities is examined theoretically. For this, the compact nozzle theory of~\\cite{MARBLE_CANDEL_JSV1977} is extended to a multi-component gas mixture, and the chemical potential function is introduced as an additional acoustic source mechanism. Transfer functions for subcritical and supercritical nozzle flows are derived and the contribution of compositional noise is compared to entropy noise and direct noise by considering an idealized nozzle downstream of the combustor exit. It is shown that compositional noise is dependent on the local mixture composition and can exceed entropy noise for fuel-lean conditions and supercritical nozzle flows. This suggests that the compositional indirect noise requires potential consideration with the implementation of low-emission combustors.

  18. Nonlinearity in the effect of an inhomogeneous Hall angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Daniel W.

    2007-03-01

    The differential equation for the electric potential in a conducting material with an inhomogeneous Hall angle is extended to the large-field limit. This equation is solved for a square specimen, using a successive over-relaxation [SOR] technique for matrices of up to 101x101 size, and the Hall weighting function -- the effect of local pointlike perturbations on the measured Hall angle -- is calculated as both the unperturbed Hall angle, θH, and the perturbation, δθH, exceed the linear, small angle limit. Preliminary results show that the Hall angle varies by no more than 5% if both | θH |<1 and | δθH |<1. Thus, previously calculated results for the Hall weighting function can be used for most materials in all but the most extreme magnetic fields.

  19. Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Hjorth Petersen, Dirch; Hansen, Ole

    2013-10-01

    We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities in a specimen's material properties in the combined linear limit of a weak perturbation over an infinitesimal area in a small magnetic field. We apply these expressions both to four-point probe measurements on an infinite plane and to symmetric, circular van der Pauw discs, obtaining functions consistent with published results. These new expressions speed up calculation of the sensitivity for a specimen of arbitrary shape to little more than the solution of two Laplace equation boundary-value problems of the order of N3 calculations, rather than N2 problems of total order N5, and in a few cases produces an analytic expression for the sensitivity. These functions provide an intuitive, visual explanation of how, for example, measurements can predict the wrong carrier type in n-type ZnO.

  20. Microinstabilities in a radially contracting inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, R.; Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1980-07-01

    In order to study the development of microinstabilities in a collapsing cylindrical plasma sheath, corresponding to the situations in a z-pinch or a plasma focus, the dispersion relation for electromagnetic perturbations is derived with the aid of a newly established slab-model for an inhomogeneous, radially contracting plasma. In contrast to previously used slab-models, the orientation of the electric field is in direction of the cylinder axis and the azimuthal magnetic field is induced by the current flowing through the cylindrical plasma slab. The Vlasov equation is used together with the Krook collision term in order to include the influence of collisions. The results of this theory presented in this report will be used to calculate the growth of drift instabilities in the compression phase of a plasma focus, and shall serve as a basis for further development of a more general dispersion relation including runaway-effects. (orig.)

  1. Application of DSPI to detect inhomogeneous heating on superconducting ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, S.; Andrés, N.; Lobera, J.; Arroyo, M. P.; Angurel, L. A.; Lera, F.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents the first application of digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) to detect inhomogeneous heat generation on a superconducting ceramic at cryogenic temperatures. The light scattered by the object is recorded with a CCD camera at the same time as a smooth reference beam. Comparison of two non-simultaneous frames provides information about the out-of-plane deformation field. Spatial phase shifting is used in order to get a good quality fringe pattern. The technique has been applied as a non-destructive evaluation of the performance of ceramic high temperature superconducting materials. DSPI allows the determination of the point where a hot spot will be generated with heating levels that do not deteriorate the sample properties. An excellent agreement between DSPI hot spot location and the position of the melting point that appeared in a destructive experiment has been obtained.

  2. Limits for density dependent time inhomogeneous Markov processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    A new functional law of large numbers to approximate a time inhomogeneous Markov process that is only density dependent in the limit as an index parameter goes to infinity is developed. This extends previous results by other authors to a broader class of Markov processes while relaxing some of the conditions required for those results to hold. This result is applied to a stochastic metapopulation model that accounts for spatial structure as well as within patch dynamics with the novel addition of time dependent dynamics. The resulting nonautonomous differential equation is analysed to provide conditions for extinction and persistence for a number of examples. This condition shows that the migration of a species will positively impact the reproduction in less populated areas while negatively impacting densely populated areas. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A

    2014-03-01

    While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere.

  4. Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2013-01-01

    We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities in a specimen's material properties in the combined linear limit of a weak perturbation over an infinitesimal area in a small magnetic field. We apply these expressions both to four-point...... probe measurements on an infinite plane and to symmetric, circular van der Pauw discs, obtaining functions consistent with published results. These new expressions speed up calculation of the sensitivity for a specimen of arbitrary shape to little more than the solution of two Laplace equation boundary......-value problems of the order of N3 calculations, rather than N2 problems of total order N5, and in a few cases produces an analytic expression for the sensitivity. These functions provide an intuitive, visual explanation of how, for example, measurements can predict the wrong carrier type in n-type ZnO....

  5. Characterization of residual stresses generated during inhomogeneous plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T.; Faurholdt, T.; Clausen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses generated by macroscopic inhomogeneous plastic deformation are predicted by an explicit finite element (FE) technique. The numerical predictions are evaluated by characterizing the residual elastic strains by neutron diffraction using two different (hkl) reflections. Intergranular...... residual elastic strains between subsets of grains are predicted numerically and verified by neutron diffraction. Subsequently, the measured residual strain profiles in the test samples are modified by the intergranular strains and compared to the engineering predictions of the FE technique. Results...... compare well and verify the capability of the numerical technique as well as the possibilities of experimental validation using neutron diffraction. The presented experimental and numerical approach will subsequently be utilized for the evaluation of more complicated plastic deformation processes...

  6. Inhomogeneous oscillatory electric field time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    The mass-to-charge ratio of an ion can be determined from the measurement of its flight time in an inhomogeneous, oscillatory electric field produced by the potential distribution V(x, y, t) = Vsub(DC) + Vsub(AC) cos ωt) (αsub(x)X 2 + αsub(y)Y 2 + αsub(z)Z 2 ). The governing equation of motion is the Mathieu equation. The principle of operation of this novel mass spectrometer is described and results of computer calculations of the flight time and resolution are reported. An experimental apparatus and results and results demonstrating the feasibility of this mass spectrometer principle are described. (author)

  7. Improved MR imaging in extremely inhomogenous radiofrequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, N.; Nunnally, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    A previous study developed a method for acquiring images in extremely inhomogeneous radio-frequency fields with use of adiabatic pulses. Since adiabatic pulses most suited to section selection are the inversion type, the method is prone to artifacts from receiver and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) saturation and subtraction errors. These problems are substantially reduced by using a pseudo-noise-modulated selective (PNMS) prepulse to randomize the unwanted spin magnetization. To compute the PNMS pulse shape, the frequency spectrum of a wave form with constant amplitude and random phase was determined by means of Fourier transformation and then inverted after a consecutive number of points were set to zero in the center. The performance of the prepulse with the imaging sequence was tested on a 1.8-T system. Results are presented

  8. Inhomogeneity of deformed state during compression testing of titanium implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loginov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the inhomogeneity of deformed state during compression testing of porous titanium implant. The theoretical part of the article includes numerical simulation of deformation of a prismatic titanium sample compressed with absolutely rigid plates. The porosity was provided by the circular shape pores with titanium struts between them. To solve the problem by means of the finite element analysis, the boundary conditions were set using the ABAQUS software. The fields of strain, stresses and displacements were determined. Presumable place of fracture coincide with the highest values of strain which are localized in vertical struts. Physical modeling of the implant compression was performed at the second part of the study on the testing machine with video recording. It was shown that in the real process the localization of failure corresponds to the calculated data.

  9. High Transverse Energy Proton - Nuclear Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, James Allen [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1983-06-01

    A study of high transverse energy events resulting from 400 GeV protons scattering from targets of hydrogen, carbon, aluminum, copper, tin, and lead has been performed with the E609 apparatus at Fermilab. Wire chambers and a highly segmented calorimeter detect secondary particles. The use of efficient jet collecting triggers and of a beam jet calorimeter have been originally applied to nuclear target studies in this thesis. $A^{\\alpha}$ scaling with hydrogen deviations is observed for $E_T$ and planarity. The data provide evidence that $A^{\\alpha}$ scaling results from multiple scattering.Evidence for hadron jets is seen with a large solid angle calorimeter for all the targets when triggers requiring two high $E_T$ single particles are employed. Jet cross-sections for nuclei are approximately determined herein. Jet event angular distributions possibly indicate that low and high transverse energy particles in jets from nuclei may result, in part, from different types of interactions.

  10. Transversals of Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    Vector fields in the complex plane are defined by assigning the vector determined by the value P(z) to each point z in the complex plane, where P is a polynomial of one complex variable. We consider special families of so-called rotated vector fields that are determined by a polynomial multiplied...... by rotational constants. Transversals are a certain class of curves for such a family of vector fields that represent the bifurcation states for this family of vector fields. More specifically, transversals are curves that coincide with a homoclinic separatrix for some rotation of the vector field. Given...... a concrete polynomial, it seems to take quite a bit of work to prove that it is generic, i.e. structurally stable. This has been done for a special class of degree d polynomial vector fields having simple equilibrium points at the d roots of unity, d odd. In proving that such vector fields are generic...

  11. Borel resummation of transverse momentum distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We present a new prescription for the resummation of contributions due to soft gluon emission to the transverse momentum distribution of processes such as Drell-Yan production in hadronic collisions. We show that familiar difficulties in obtaining resummed results as a function of transverse momentum starting from impact-parameter space resummation are related to the divergence of the perturbative expansion of the momentum-space result. We construct a resummed expression by Borel resummation of this divergent series, removing the divergence in the Borel inversion through the inclusion of a suitable higher twist term. The ensuing resummation prescription is free of numerical instabilities, is stable upon the inclusion of subleading terms, and the original divergent perturbative series is asymptotic to it. We compare our results to those obtained using alternative prescriptions, and discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure

  12. Transverse Instability of a Rectangular Bunch

    CERN Document Server

    Balbekov, Valeri

    2005-01-01

    Some results of theoretical investigations of transverse dipole instability of a rectangular bunch are reported in this paper. Such a form is characteristic of the bunch in a rectangular potential wall which is created by a barrier-shaped acceleration field. Similar regime is a major one for accumulating and cooling of antiproton beams in the Fermilab Recycler Ring. In this case, the known theory of transverse instability of a bunched beam is inapplicable directly both because of "unusual" form of phase trajectories and strong dependence of synchrotron frequency on energy. A series of equations, adequately describing the instability is derived in the paper. Exact analytical solution is obtained for space charge dominated impedance, and some approximate methods are proposed for arbitrary impedance. The theory is applied to the Fermilab Recycler Ring including a numerical simulation.

  13. Spectral Velocity Estimation in the Transverse Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    A method for estimating the velocity spectrum for a fully transverse flow at a beam-to-flow angle of 90is described. The approach is based on the transverse oscillation (TO) method, where an oscillation across the ultrasound beam is made during receive processing. A fourth-order estimator based...... on the correlation of the received signal is derived. A Fourier transform of the correlation signal yields the velocity spectrum. Performing the estimation for short data segments gives the velocity spectrum as a function of time as for ordinary spectrograms, and it also works for a beam-to-flow angle of 90...... estimation scheme can reliably find the spectrum at 90, where a traditional estimator yields zero velocity. Measurements have been conducted with the SARUS experimental scanner and a BK 8820e convex array transducer (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark). A CompuFlow 1000 (Shelley Automation, Inc, Toronto, Canada...

  14. MEASUREMENT OF TRANSVERSE ECHOES IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; SATOGATA, T.; TOMAS, R.

    2005-01-01

    Beam echoes are a very sensitive method to measure diffusion, and longitudinal echo measurements were performed in a number of machines. In RHIC, for the first time, a transverse beam echo was observed after applying a dipole kick followed by a quadrupole .kick. After application of the dipole kick, the dipole moment decohered completely due to lattice nonlinearities. When a quadrupole kick is applied at time τ after the dipole kick, the beam re-cohered at time 2τ thus showing an echo response. We describe the experimental setup and measurement results. In the measurements the dipole and quadrupole kick amplitudes, amplitude dependent tune shift, and the time between dipole and quadrupole kick were varied. In addition, measurements were taken with gold bunches of different intensities. These should exhibit different transverse diffusion rates due to intra-beam scattering

  15. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome presenting as transverse myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javvid M Dandroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is characterized by arterial and/or venous thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies and/or lupus anticoagulant. APS can occur either as a primary disorder or secondary to a connective tissue disease, most frequently systemic lupus erythematosus. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most prominent clinical manifestations of APS, and includes arterial and venous thrombotic events, psychiatric features, and a variety of other nonthrombotic neurological syndromes. Although the mechanism of neurological involvement in patients with APS is thought to be thrombotic in origin and endothelial dysfunction associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. APS presenting as acute transverse myelitis is very rarely seen with a prevalence rate of 1%. We are describing a foreigner female presenting as acute transverse myelitis which on evaluation proved to be APS induced. So far, very few cases have been reported in literature with APS as etiology.

  16. Nonlinear theory of transverse beam echoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Tanaji; Li, Yuan Shen

    2017-10-04

    Transverse beam echoes can be excited with a single dipole kick followed by a single quadrupole kick. They have been used to measure diffusion in hadron beams and have other diagnostic capabilities. Here we develop theories of the transverse echo nonlinear in both the dipole and quadrupole kick strengths. The theories predict the maximum echo amplitudes and the optimum strength parameters. We find that the echo amplitude increases with smaller beam emittance and the asymptotic echo amplitude can exceed half the initial dipole kick amplitude. We show that multiple echoes can be observed provided the dipole kick is large enough. The spectrum of the echo pulse can be used to determine the nonlinear detuning parameter with small amplitude dipole kicks. Simulations are performed to check the theoretical predictions. In the useful ranges of dipole and quadrupole strengths, they are shown to be in reasonable agreement.

  17. Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.

  18. The LHC Transverse Damper (ADT) Performance Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    The appended document specifies the performance of the transverse damper (ADT) for the LHC. As Annex 1 of the Addendum No.1 to the Protocol of April 18, 1997; it forms part of the 1992 co-operation agreement between CERN and JINR (Dubna, Russia) concerning its participation in the LHC project. The current text is a reprint of the original version. Changes that have been agreed upon are inserted as footnotes.

  19. Sasakian manifolds with purely transversal Bach tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Sharma, Ramesh

    2017-10-01

    We show that a (2n + 1)-dimensional Sasakian manifold (M, g) with a purely transversal Bach tensor has constant scalar curvature ≥2 n (2 n +1 ) , equality holding if and only if (M, g) is Einstein. For dimension 3, M is locally isometric to the unit sphere S3. For dimension 5, if in addition (M, g) is complete, then it has positive Ricci curvature and is compact with finite fundamental group π1(M).

  20. Resolution of hydrodynamical equations for transverse expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Y.; Pottag, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The three-dimensional hydrodynamical expansion is treated with a method similar to that of Milekhin, but more explicit. Although in the final stage one have to appeal to numerical calculation, the partial differential equations governing the transverse expansions are treated without transforming them into ordinary equations with an introduction of averaged quantities. It is only concerned with the formalism and the numerical results will be given in the next paper. (Author) [pt

  1. Transversally Lipschitz Harmonic Functions are Lipschitz

    OpenAIRE

    Ravisankar, Sivaguru

    2012-01-01

    Let \\Omega\\subset\\mathbb{R}^n be a bounded domain with C^\\infty boundary. We show that a harmonic function in \\Omega that is Lipschitz along a family of curves transversal to b\\Omega is Lipschitz in \\Omega. The space of Lipschitz functions we consider is defined using the notion of a majorant which is a certain generalization of the power functions t^\\alpha, 0

  2. Nuclear transverse sectional brain function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus comprises a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array that surrounds a scan field of interest. Each collimator is moveable relative to its adjacent collimator. Means are provided for imparting travel to the collimators such that the focal point of each uniformly samples at least one half of the scan field

  3. Concept medium program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The present essays is an attempt to dertermine the architecural project of the 21st century in realation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of society as its program. This attempt adopts the internal point of view of an architect in describing a modern architectura...

  4. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  5. The Analytical Form of the Dispersion Equation of Elastic Waves in Periodically Inhomogeneous Medium of Different Classes of Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlybek A. Ispulov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of thermoelastic wave propagation in elastic media is bound to have much influence in the fields of material science, geophysics, seismology, and so on. The heat conduction equations and bound equations of motions differ by the difficulty level and presence of many physical and mechanical parameters in them. Therefore thermoelasticity is being extensively studied and developed. In this paper by using analytical matrizant method set of equation of motions in elastic media are reduced to equivalent set of first-order differential equations. Moreover, for given set of equations, the structure of fundamental solutions for the general case has been derived and also dispersion relations are obtained.

  6. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS and air mass factor concept for a multiply scattering vertically inhomogeneous medium: theoretical consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rozanov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS technique is widely used to retrieve amounts of atmospheric species from measurements of the direct solar light transmitted through the Earth's atmosphere as well as of the solar light scattered in the atmosphere or reflected from the Earth's surface. For the transmitted direct solar light the theoretical basis of the DOAS technique represented by the Beer-Lambert law is well studied. In contrast, scarcely investigated is the theoretical basis and validity range of the DOAS method for those cases where the contribution of the multiple scattering processes is not negligible. Our study is intended to fill this gap by means of a theoretical investigation of the applicability of the DOAS technique for the retrieval of amounts of atmospheric species from observations of the scattered solar light with a non-negligible contribution of the multiple scattering.

    Starting from the expansion of the intensity logarithm in the functional Taylor series we formulate the general form of the DOAS equation. The thereby introduced variational derivative of the intensity logarithm with respect to the variation of the gaseous absorption coefficient, which is often referred to as the weighting function, is demonstrated to be closely related to the air mass factor. Employing some approximations we show that the general DOAS equation can be rewritten in the form of the weighting function (WFDOAS, the modified (MDOAS, and the standard DOAS equations. For each of these forms a specific equation for the air mass factor follows which, in general, is not suitable for other forms of the DOAS equation. Furthermore, the validity range of the standard DOAS equation is quantitatively investigated using a suggested criterion of a weak absorption.

    The results presented in this study are intended to provide a basis for a better understanding of the applicability range of different forms of the DOAS equation as well as of the relationship between the air mass factor and the weighting function. To facilitate the understanding of the paper content for unexperienced reader we start our discussion considering in detail the standard DOAS technique applied to the observations of the direct solar light transmitted through the Earth's atmosphere.

  7. Comparison of three-dimensional poisson solution methods for particle-based simulation and inhomogeneous dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Claudio; Gillespie, Dirk; Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Eisenberg, Robert S; Fiegna, Claudio

    2012-07-01

    Particle-based simulation represents a powerful approach to modeling physical systems in electronics, molecular biology, and chemical physics. Accounting for the interactions occurring among charged particles requires an accurate and efficient solution of Poisson's equation. For a system of discrete charges with inhomogeneous dielectrics, i.e., a system with discontinuities in the permittivity, the boundary element method (BEM) is frequently adopted. It provides the solution of Poisson's equation, accounting for polarization effects due to the discontinuity in the permittivity by computing the induced charges at the dielectric boundaries. In this framework, the total electrostatic potential is then found by superimposing the elemental contributions from both source and induced charges. In this paper, we present a comparison between two BEMs to solve a boundary-integral formulation of Poisson's equation, with emphasis on the BEMs' suitability for particle-based simulations in terms of solution accuracy and computation speed. The two approaches are the collocation and qualocation methods. Collocation is implemented following the induced-charge computation method of D. Boda et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 034901 (2006)]. The qualocation method is described by J. Tausch et al. [IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems 20, 1398 (2001)]. These approaches are studied using both flat and curved surface elements to discretize the dielectric boundary, using two challenging test cases: a dielectric sphere embedded in a different dielectric medium and a toy model of an ion channel. Earlier comparisons of the two BEM approaches did not address curved surface elements or semiatomistic models of ion channels. Our results support the earlier findings that for flat-element calculations, qualocation is always significantly more accurate than collocation. On the other hand, when the dielectric boundary is discretized with curved surface elements, the

  8. Transverse electron beam diagnostics at REGAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayesteh, Shima

    2014-12-01

    The use of high-intensity electron and X-ray pulsed sources allows for the direct observation of atomic motions as they occur. While the production of such high coherent, brilliant, short X-ray pulses requires large-scale and costly accelerator facilities, it is feasible to employ a high-intensity source of electrons by exploiting a more compact design. The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) facility is a small linear accelerator at DESY, Hamburg, equipped with a photocathode radio frequency (RF) gun that produces relativistic ultra-short (<100 fs), low charge (<1 pC) electron bunches of high coherence. By means of time-resolved diffraction experiments, such an electron source can probe ultrafast laser-induced atomic structural changes that occur with a temporal resolution of ∝100 fs. A comprehensive characterization of the electron beam, for every pulse, is of fundamental importance to study the atomic motions with the desired resolution and quality. This thesis reports on the transversal diagnostics of the electron beam with an emphasis on a scintillator-based beam profile monitor. The diagnostics is capable of evaluating the beam parameters such as charge, energy, energy spread and transverse profile, at very low charges and on a shot-to-shot basis. A full characterization of the scintillator's emission, the optical setup and the detector (camera) of the profile monitor is presented, from which an absolute charge calibration of the system is derived. The profile monitor is specially developed to accommodate more applications, such as dark current suppression, overlapping the electron probe and the laser pump within 1 ns accuracy, as well as charge and transverse emittance measurements. For the determination of the transverse emittance two techniques were applied. The first one introduces a new method that exploits a diffraction pattern to measure the emittance, while the second one is based on a version of the Pepper-pot technique. A

  9. Transport Mean Free Path for Magneto-Transverse Light Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Lacoste, D.; van Tiggelen, B. A.

    1998-01-01

    We derive an expression for the transport mean free path $\\ell^*_\\perp$ associated with magneto-transverse light diffusion for a random collection of Faraday-active Mie scatterers. This expression relates the magneto-transverse diffusion in multiple scattering directly to the magneto-transverse scattering of a single scatterer.

  10. Longitudinal and transverse polarizations in the deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressan, A.

    1996-07-01

    This course is an introduction to the dominant effects of longitudinal and transverse spin in deep inelastic reactions. Only the effects present to the 'leading twist' are attacked. The mass and transverse impulsion of partons are neglected. We will attach to bring out the respective specificities of longitudinal and transverse polarizations. (N.C.)

  11. Evaluation of Transverse Lie at Term by Ultrasonography | Oyinloye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Transverse lie at term may have adverse consequences on both the mother and the foetus. Evaluating transverse lie at term by ultrasonography may reduce these adverse consequences and improve both the maternal and fetal outcome. Objectives: To determine predisposing factors to persistent transverse lie at ...

  12. Medium-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    One of the basic challenges of medium-energy physics is the development of a clear picure of the manner in which pions propagate in nuclear matter. Since the pion is a basic quantum of the nuclear force, understanding its propagation in nuclei contributes to our understanding of the basic nature of nuclear forces. Key to such understanding is a comprehensive and precise experimental description of pion interactions both with complex nuclei and few nucleon systems. This is a major objective of the ANL effort in medium-energy physics. Experiments are carried out as a part of a comprehensive nuclear program, and, because of this perspective, the pion studies are expected to give new insights into the nature of nuclear forces. At the present time, almost all experimental activity is concentrated on measurements using various pion beams of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

  13. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  14. The Daskop Granophyre Dyke: Inhomogeneous clast distribution and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Huber, Matthew S.; Somers, Andrew; Bateman, Stuart

    2017-04-01

    The Vredefort Granophyre is present in the central basement of the Vredefort impact structure as a set of dykes up to 9 km long and up to 65 m wide and is considered to be the remnant of the impact melt sheet (e.g. French et al. 1989; French and Nielsen 1990). The dykes intruded into the floor of the structure's core during the crater modification and settling stages (e.g. Therriault et al. 1996). Granophyre is typically considered a well-homogenized and uniform melt (e.g., Nel 1927; Gibson and Reimold 2008). This study presents new insights into the chemical variety and inhomogeneous clast distribution of the Vredefort granophyre. The Granophyre dyke on the farm Daskop is located in the core of the impact structure and hosted by granitic gneiss of the Archean basement. The clast distribution was mapped in the eastern half of the dyke. Additionally, non-destructive geochemical methods (handheld µXRF and LIBS systems) were used to obtain chemical analysis of the dyke along strike. The map of clast distribution in the granophyre dyke reveals an inhomogeneous content of clasts, with a consistently higher concentration of clasts along the southern contact. This distribution suggests that either 1) the dyke orientation is non-vertical, allowing gravitational settling to affect the distribution of the clasts after the dyke intruded; or 2) that clasts were preferentially entrained along the southern margin of the dyke. Clast frequency also differs along strike. Many elongated clasts are oriented parallel to the dyke walls, indicating flow. We have also documented linear structures resembling flow channels. These structures are strictly parallel to the dyke walls and have a finer texture than the host granophyre. These may represent differentiation of the melt during crystallization. Chemical inhomogeneity of granophyre dyke has also been documented along strike. Such chemical variation may reflect local differences in the relative amounts of target rocks incorporated

  15. Hadrons in the medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupold, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    QCD, the theory of the strong interaction, has a non-trivial vacuum structure. One way to characterize this structure is by means of non-vanishing matrix elements of quark or gluon operators, the condensates. In hot and/or dense enough strongly interacting media, QCD is subject to phase transitions or rapid crossovers. Consequently, the condensates typically change with density and temperature. An exciting aspect of hadron physics is the question how these changes affect the properties of hadrons which are put in a strongly interacting environment. Here vector mesons deserve special attention as they couple directly to (virtual) photons. The latter can decay into dileptons which leave the strongly interacting system untouched. Via that process information about possible in-medium modifications of the vector mesons can be carried to the detectors. With the ω-meson as an example I will review our current understanding of the connections between in-medium changes of condensates and the in-medium changes of the properties of hadrons. (author)

  16. Electrogravitational stability of oscillating streaming fluid cylinder ambient with a transverse varying electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alfaisal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The electrogravitational instability of a dielectric oscillating streaming fluid cylinder surrounded by tenuous medium of negligible motion pervaded by transverse varying electric field has been investigated for all the perturbation modes. The model is governed by Mathieu second-order integro-differential equation. Some limiting cases are recovering from the present general one. The self-gravitating force is destabilizing only in the axisymmetric perturbation for long wavelengths, while, the axial electric field interior, the fluid has strong destabilizing effect for all short and long wavelengths. The transverse field is strongly stabilizing. In the case of non-axisymmetric perturbation, the self-gravitating force is stabilizing for short and long waves, while the electric field has stabilizing effect on short waves.

  17. Laser Meter of Atmospheric Inhomogeneity Properties in UV Spectral Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of laser systems designed to operate in conditions of the terrestrial atmosphere demands reliable information about the atmosphere condition. The aerosol lidars for operational monitoring of the atmosphere allow us to define remotely characteristics of atmospheric aerosol and cloudy formations in the atmosphere.Today the majority of aerosol lidars run in the visible range. However, in terms of safety (first of all to eyes also ultra-violet (UF range is of interest. A range of the wavelengths of the harmful effect on the eye retina is from 0.38 to 1.4 mμ. Laser radiation with the wavelengths less than 0.38 mμ and over 1.4 mμ influences the anterior ambient of an eye and is safer, than laser radiation with the wavelengths of 0.38 – 1.4 mμ.The paper describes a laser meter to measure characteristics of atmospheric inhomogeneity propertis in UF spectral range at the wavelength of 0.355 mμ.As a radiation source, the meter uses a semiconductor-pumped pulse solid-state Nd:YAG laser. As a receiving lens, Kassegren's scheme-implemented mirror lens with a socket to connect optical fibre is used in the laser meter. Radiation from the receiving lens is transported through the optical fibre to the optical block. The optical block provides spectral selection of useful signal and conversion of optical radiation into electric signal.To ensure a possibility for alignment of the optical axes of receiving lens and laser radiator the lens is set on the alignment platform that enables changing lens inclination and turn with respect to the laser.The software of the laser meter model is developed in the NI LabVIEW 2012 graphic programming environment.The paper gives the following examples: a typical laser echo signal, which is back scattered by the atmosphere and spatiotemporal distribution of variation coefficient of the volumetric factor of the back scattered atmosphere. Results of multi-day measurements show that an extent of the recorded aerosol

  18. Generating catalogs of transverse matching solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, G.; Busch, P.; Burns, M.

    1989-01-01

    Programs such as TRANSPORT or TRACE can find transverse beam matching solutions one at a time when given appropriate starting conditions. In the present work, an algorithm is described which rapidly finds a catalog of approximate transverse beam matching solutions. For a given initial beam, the algorithm finds the gradients of four quadrupole magnets such as to get four Twiss parameters (alpha and beta for horizontal and vertical planes) which are close to a set of desired values at the exit of a constant-energy beam line with no horizontal-vertical cross coupling and no space charge. The beam line may contain bending elements with edge corrections and other elements for which the r matrixes are known. The algorithm transforms the entrance and exit beam specifications to waist specifications, and uses the properties of waist-to-waist transport to reduce the problem from a four dimensional search to a two dimensional search. At the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator, transverse matching is important in the low-energy transport lines (0.75 MeV), where beams from the H + , H/sup /minus//, and polarized H/sup /minus// sources must be tailored for injection into the drift-tube linac; and in the transition region (100 MeV), where the beam from the drift-tube linac is injected into the side-coupled linac. Space charge has significant effects in the low-energy transport, but it is still valuable to get no-space-charge matching solutions as a starting point for solutions with space charge. 2 refs

  19. Subacute transverse myelitis with Lyme profile dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajjan, Mohammed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse myelitis is a very rare neurologic syndrome with an incidence per year of 1-5 per million population. We are presenting an interesting case of subacute transverse myelitis with its MRI (magnetic resonance imaging and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid findings. Case: A 46-year-old African-American woman presented with decreased sensation in the lower extremities which started three weeks ago when she had a 36-hour episode of sore throat. She reported numbness up to the level just below the breasts. Lyme disease antibodies total IgG (immunoglobulin G and IgM (immunoglobulin M in the blood was positive. Antinuclear antibody profile was within normal limits. MRI of the cervical spine showed swelling in the lower cervical cord with contrast enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid was clear with negative Borrelia Burgdorferi IgG and IgM. Herpes simplex, mycoplasma, coxiella, anaplasma, cryptococcus and hepatitis B were all negative. No oligoclonal bands were detected. Quick improvement ensued after she was given IV Ceftriaxone for 7 days. The patient was discharged on the 8th day in stable condition. She continued on doxycycline for 21 days. Conclusions: Transverse myelitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with acute or subacute myelopathy in association with localized contrast enhancement in the spinal cord especially if flu-like prodromal symptoms were reported. Lyme disease serology is indicated in patients with neurological symptoms keeping in mind that dissociation in Lyme antibody titers between the blood and the CSF is possible.

  20. Somatic Embryogenesis of Lilium from Microbulb Transverse Thin Cell Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A reliable somatic embryogenesis protocol is a prerequisite for application of other plant biotechniques. Several protocols were reported for genus Lilium, with variable success. Between them, transverse Thin Cell Layers (tTCL) were used efficiently to induce indirect somatic embryogenesis of Lilium. Somatic embryogenesis potential is dependent on the genotype, explant, and culture medium composition, especially as for plant growth regulators and environmental conditions. Usually, the process comprises three phases: embryogenic callus induction, embryogenic callus proliferation and somatic embryo germination. Somatic embryo germination can be achieved in light or dark. In the first case, complete plantlets are formed, with green leaves and pseudobulb in the base. In darkness, microbulbs are formed from single somatic embryos or clusters. A last phase of microbulb enlargement allows plantlets or microbulbs to increase their biomass. These enlarged microbulbs do not need special acclimatization conditions when transferred to soil and quickly produce sturdy plants. This chapter describes a protocol for somatic embryogenesis of Lilium using tTCL from microbulbs.