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Sample records for transverse feedback electronics

  1. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Chin, M.; Doolittle, L.; Akre, R.

    2005-01-01

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx(R) ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design

  2. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Jonah; Chin, Michael; Doolittle, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx® ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.

  3. Transverse feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelis, K; Sladen, Jonathan P H; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    The aim of these MD's was to set up the transverse feedback for damping in both planes, and to test the charge normalization and gain compensation. The latter is intended to reduce the gain of the feedback for small oscillations in order to improve compatibility with the Q loop. All work was done with 2 x 4 bunches, family A. In the first two MD's the feedback was set up for damping in both planes with charge normalization. In the third, gain compensation was commissioned in the vertical plane with Qv' set to -2. It was found either to increase the level of the m = 0 mode or to leave it unchanged. Under these conditions 6mA total current was accumulated.

  4. Feedback for suppression of single-bunch transverse instability in electron-positron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaluk, V; Sukhanov, D; Oreshonok, V; Cherepanov, V; Kiselev, V

    2012-01-01

    Transverse head-tail instability is a severe limitation of a single-bunch beam current in circular accelerators. Applicability and efficiency of feedbacks for suppression of the instability is analyzed. Both chromatic and nonlinear effects have been taken into account to understand the processes of excitation and damping of the instability. Analytical estimations are compared with the results of experiments and numerical simulations. A feedback system has been developed, installed and commissioned at the VEPP-4M electron-positron collider. An original scheme of the kicker powering has been developed to provide the necessary performance with minimal expenses. Real-time digital data processing performed by a code running in an FPGA module provides high efficiency and flexibility of the system. During the system commissioning, a more than threefold increase of intensity of the VEPP-4M single-bunch beam has been achieved.

  5. Progress In Transverse Feedbacks and Related Diagnostics for Hadron Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Hofle, W

    2013-01-01

    Today Hadron Accelerators with high intensity and high brightness beams increasingly rely on transverse feedback systems for the control of instabilities and the preservation of the transverse emittance. With particular emphasis, but not limited to, the CERN Hadron Accelerator Chain, the progress made in recent years, and the performances achieved are reviewed. Hadron colliders such as the LHC represent a particular challenge as they ask for low noise electronic systems in these feedbacks for acceptable emittance growth. Achievements of the LHC transverse feedback system used for damping injection oscillations and to provide stability throughout the cycle are summarized. This includes its use for abort gap and injection cleaning as well as transverse blow-up for diagnostics purposes. Beyond systems already in operation, advances in technology and modern digital signal processing with increasingly higher digitization rates have made systems conceivable to cure intra-bunch motion. With its capabilities to both ...

  6. Operational status of the transverse multibunch feedback system at Diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, I.; Abbott, M.; Heron, M.T.; Morgan, A.F.D.; Rehm, G.

    2012-01-01

    A transverse multibunch feedback (TMBF) system is in operation at Diamond Light Source to damp coupled-bunch instabilities up to 250 MHz in both the vertical and horizontal planes. It comprises an in-house designed and built analogue front end combined with a Libera Bunch-by-Bunch feedback processor and output stripline kickers. FPGA-based feedback electronics is used to implement several diagnostic features in addition to the basic feedback functionality. This paper reports on the current operational status of the TMBF system along with its characteristics. Also discussed are operational diagnostic functionalities including continuous measurement of the betatron tune and chromaticity. (authors)

  7. Thermal Studies on the SPS Wideband Transverse Feedback Kicker

    CERN Document Server

    Roggen, Toon; Hofle, Wolfgang; Montesinos, Eric; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    As part of the SPS wideband transverse feedback system in the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project, a wideband kicker design is being proposed. Vertical beam instabilities due to intensity dependent effects (electron cloud instability (ECI) and transverse mode coupling instability (TMCI)) are potentially suppressed by using a feedback system driving such a kicker system. One of the options for a kicker is a one meter long slotted-coaxial kicker, providing a substantial vertical kick strength (10ˉ5 –10ˉ4 eV.s/m) over a bandwidth ranging from nearly DC to 1 GHz. The necessary kick strength requires a total power of 4 kW. This note describes thermal studies that assisted in the material choice of the feedthroughs of the slotted-coaxial kicker and guided the design choices.

  8. Operation of the PEP transverse beam feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.W.; Paterson, J.M.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Rees, J.R.

    1981-02-01

    The PEP Storage Ring has been equipped with a wide band beam feedback system capable of damping the vertical and horizontal motion of six bunches. The oscillation detection is done at a symmetry point on the Storage Ring and feedback is applied at the same location one orbital period later. The signal is synchronously gated and the system appears as twelve independent feedback loops, operating on the two coordinates of each of the six bunches. Two beam deflection electrodes are driven each by a low-Q push-pull amplifier which is tuned at the 72nd harmonic of the revolution frequency and suppressed-carrier modulation is generated by a sequence of the detected bunch oscillations. The design parameters are reviewed as well as the salient features of the hardware, and the impact of this system on the machine operation is evaluated in the light of experimental results

  9. Performance of the transverse coupled-bunch feedback system in the SRRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.T.; Kuo, C.C.; Kuo, C.H.; Lin, K.K.; Ueng, T.S.; Weng, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    A transverse feedback system has been implemented and commissioned in the SRRC storage ring to suppress transverse coupled-bunch oscillations of the electron beam. The system includes transverse oscillation detectors, notch filter, baseband quadrature processing circuitry, power amplifiers, and kickers. To control a large number of transverse coupled-bunch modes, the system is broad-band, bunch-by- bunch in nature. Because the system is capable of bunch-by-bunch correction, it can also be useful for suppressing instabilities introduced by ions. The sextupole strength was then reduced to improve dynamic aperture and hence lifetime of the storage ring

  10. Beam excitation and damping with the transverse feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.; Rees, J.R.

    1979-08-01

    The questions often come up, ''What is the strength if the beam excitation system? How much damping can the transverse feedback provide?'' The design is now advanced enough to answer these questions; also, laboratory tests of some components have been conducted and we know what can be expected of the hardware. This paper discusses these questions

  11. Adaptive robust control of longitudinal and transverse electron beam profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeizadeh, Amin; Schilcher, Thomas; Smith, Roy S.

    2016-05-01

    Feedback control of the longitudinal and transverse electron beam profiles are considered to be critical for beam control in accelerators. In the feedback scheme, the longitudinal or transverse beam profile is measured and compared to a desired profile to give an error estimate. The error is then used to act on the appropriate actuators to correct the profile. The role of the transverse feedback is to steer the beam in a particular trajectory, known as the "orbit." The common approach for orbit correction is based on approximately inverting the response matrix, and in the best case, involves regulating or filtering the singular values. In the current contribution, a more systematic and structured way of handling orbit correction is introduced giving robustness against uncertainties in the response matrix. Moreover, the input bounds are treated to avoid violating the limits of the corrector currents. The concept of the robust orbit correction has been successfully tested at the SwissFEL injector test facility. In the SwissFEL machine, a photo-injector laser system extracts electrons from a cathode and a similar robust control method is developed for the longitudinal feedback control of the current profile of the electron bunch. The method manipulates the angles of the crystals in the laser system to produce a desired charge distribution over the electron bunch length. This approach paves the way towards automation of laser pulse stacking.

  12. A&T Sector Note on the PS transverse feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Coly, Marcel; Blas, Alfred; Sterbini, Guido; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In a particle accelerator, several contributions can degrade the beam quality and particularly the beam transverse emittance. In this document we will describe a system used in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to cope with the injection steering errors and the transverse instabilities: the PS transverse feedback (PS TFB). As time progresses, this system is also being used for other purpose, to increase in a controlled way the beam transverse emittance and to excite the beam for the Multi-Turn-Extraction (MTE). In 2016, it has been successfully used on some operational beams to damp injection oscillations. This allowed to test the reliability of the system for its operational deployment. A piquet service is available in case of problem.

  13. Digital bunch-by-bunch transverse feedback system at SSRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, RenXian; Leng, YongBin; Yu, LuYang; Han, LiFeng; Ye, KaiRong

    2011-12-01

    In order to suppress multi-bunch couple instabilities caused by transverse impedance, a bunch-by-bunch transverse feedback system based on a FPGA digital processor is commissioned at SSRF storage ring. The RF front end has two COD pre-rejected attenuators for increasing the system arrangement and signal noise ratio, and the 3*RF Local signal comes from the BPM's sum signal using a FIR filter for avoiding the effect of longitudinal oscillation. The digital processor receives the coupled horizontal and vertical oscillation signals in the base band and transforms the coupled signals to the horizontal and vertical feedback signals with two series double-zeroes FIR filters. A matlab GUI is applied for producing the FIR coefficients when the tune is shifted. The horizontal and vertical Kickers have a special design for increasing the shunt impedance. Then the multi-bunch instabilities are suppressed respectively and the minimum damping time is about 0.4 ms.

  14. Transverse feedback: high intensity operation, AGC, IGC, lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Höfle, W

    2012-01-01

    The transverse damper system (ADT) plays an important role in the preservation of the beam transverse emittance and for damping of oscillations driven by the coupled bunch instability. An overview of the ADT system will be presented with an emphasis on the important feedback loop parameters as they change from injection through the ramp into collision. The dedicated setting - up procedure required for the different bunch intensities and bunch spacings will be explained. During the 2011 run the injection and abort gap cleaning became operational at injection energy. Preparations for cleaning at 3.5 TeV as well as batch selective transverse blow - up were completed and preliminarily tested. Plans for 2012 include study and potential improvement of the system impulse response to improve the 'selectivity' of the cleaning and blow - up facility. The ADT also provides bunch - by - bunch observation, which was extensively used during the run and MDs, and will be further upgraded during the next year.

  15. Rf Feedback free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1981-01-01

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  16. Transverse electron beam diagnostics at REGAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayesteh, Shima

    2014-12-01

    The use of high-intensity electron and X-ray pulsed sources allows for the direct observation of atomic motions as they occur. While the production of such high coherent, brilliant, short X-ray pulses requires large-scale and costly accelerator facilities, it is feasible to employ a high-intensity source of electrons by exploiting a more compact design. The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) facility is a small linear accelerator at DESY, Hamburg, equipped with a photocathode radio frequency (RF) gun that produces relativistic ultra-short (<100 fs), low charge (<1 pC) electron bunches of high coherence. By means of time-resolved diffraction experiments, such an electron source can probe ultrafast laser-induced atomic structural changes that occur with a temporal resolution of ∝100 fs. A comprehensive characterization of the electron beam, for every pulse, is of fundamental importance to study the atomic motions with the desired resolution and quality. This thesis reports on the transversal diagnostics of the electron beam with an emphasis on a scintillator-based beam profile monitor. The diagnostics is capable of evaluating the beam parameters such as charge, energy, energy spread and transverse profile, at very low charges and on a shot-to-shot basis. A full characterization of the scintillator's emission, the optical setup and the detector (camera) of the profile monitor is presented, from which an absolute charge calibration of the system is derived. The profile monitor is specially developed to accommodate more applications, such as dark current suppression, overlapping the electron probe and the laser pump within 1 ns accuracy, as well as charge and transverse emittance measurements. For the determination of the transverse emittance two techniques were applied. The first one introduces a new method that exploits a diffraction pattern to measure the emittance, while the second one is based on a version of the Pepper-pot technique. A

  17. Beam monitors and transverse feedback system of TRISTAN Main Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieiri, T.; Ishii, H.; Kishiro, J.; Mizumachi, Y.; Mori, K.; Nakajima, K.; Ogata, A.; Shintake, T.; Tejima, M.

    1987-01-01

    The construction of 30 GeV TRISTAN Main Ring (MR) started in 1983 soon after the commissioning of 8 GeV Accumulation Ring (AR). The authors prepared 392 position monitors, 6 synchrotron radiation monitors, 9 screen monitors, 2 DCCT's, 3 scrapers, 12 bunch monitors, transverse feedback systems for two beams and DC separators. Since the required monitoring devices of AR and MR are almost the same, the experiences in AR were very useful in the design of MR monitors. However, machine parameters of two rings are very different and the authors had to review the performance of each item. From the monitor point of view the most important is the difference of revolution frequency; 794.6 kHz for AR and 99.33 kHz for MR. This means that average beam current of MR is 1/8 as small as AR current with the same bunch number and intensity. Therefore, the sensitivity of each monitor must be better in MR. The second difference is that MR should be used as a collider from the beginning. Therefore they must prepare for multi-beam and multi-bunch operation

  18. Transverse Momentum Distributions of Electron in Simulated QED Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navdeep; Dahiya, Harleen

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we have studied the transverse momentum distributions (TMDs) for the electron in simulated QED model. We have used the overlap representation of light-front wave functions where the spin-1/2 relativistic composite system consists of spin-1/2 fermion and spin-1 vector boson. The results have been obtained for T-even TMDs in transverse momentum plane for fixed value of longitudinal momentum fraction x.

  19. Fast digital transverse feedback system for bunch train operation in CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Billing, M.G.; Dobbins, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a time domain transverse feedback system with the high bandwidth needed to control transverse instabilities when the CESR e + e - collider is filled with trains of closely spaced bunches. This system is based on parallel digital processors and a stripline driver. It is capable of acting on arbitrary patterns of bunches having a minimum spacing of 14 ns. Several simplifying features have been introduced. A single shorted stripline kicker driven by one power amplifier is used to control both counter-rotating beams. The desired feedback phase is achieved by sampling the bunch position at a single location on two independently selectable beam revolutions. The system adapts to changes in the betatron tune, bunch pattern, or desired damping rate through the loading of new parameters into the digital processors via the CESR control system. The feedback system also functions as a fast gated bunch current monitor. Both vertical and horizontal loops are now used in CESR operation. The measured betatron damping rates with the transverse feedback system in operation are in agreement with the analytical prediction and a computer simulation developed in connection with this work. (author)

  20. Fast digital transverse feedback system for bunch train operation in CESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.T.; Billing, M.G.; Dobbins, J.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Nuclear Studies] [and others

    1996-08-01

    We have developed a time domain transverse feedback system with the high bandwidth needed to control transverse instabilities when the CESR e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is filled with trains of closely spaced bunches. This system is based on parallel digital processors and a stripline driver. It is capable of acting on arbitrary patterns of bunches having a minimum spacing of 14 ns. Several simplifying features have been introduced. A single shorted stripline kicker driven by one power amplifier is used to control both counter-rotating beams. The desired feedback phase is achieved by sampling the bunch position at a single location on two independently selectable beam revolutions. The system adapts to changes in the betatron tune, bunch pattern, or desired damping rate through the loading of new parameters into the digital processors via the CESR control system. The feedback system also functions as a fast gated bunch current monitor. Both vertical and horizontal loops are now used in CESR operation. The measured betatron damping rates with the transverse feedback system in operation are in agreement with the analytical prediction and a computer simulation developed in connection with this work. (author)

  1. Effect of dephasing on DNA sequencing via transverse electronic transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwolak, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krems, Matt [NON LANL; Pershin, Yuriy V [NON LANL; Di Ventra, Massimiliano [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    We study theoretically the effects of dephasing on DNA sequencing in a nanopore via transverse electronic transport. To do this, we couple classical molecular dynamics simulations with transport calculations using scattering theory. Previous studies, which did not include dephasing, have shown that by measuring the transverse current of a particular base multiple times, one can get distributions of currents for each base that are distinguishable. We introduce a dephasing parameter into transport calculations to simulate the effects of the ions and other fluctuations. These effects lower the overall magnitude of the current, but have little effect on the current distributions themselves. The results of this work further implicate that distinguishing DNA bases via transverse electronic transport has potential as a sequencing tool.

  2. Influence of the electron intrinsic magnetic moment on the transverse dielectric permittivity of degenerate electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, S. A.; Bobrov, V. B.; Kirillin, A. V.; Trigger, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Using the linear response theory, the transverse dielectric permittivity of a homogeneous and isotropic system of charged particles is considered. In the ideal gas approximation for the polarization function, an explicit analytical expression for the transverse permittivity of a degenerate electron plasma, which takes into account electron spin, is found. This result describes both the Landau diamagnetism and Pauli paramagnetism in electron plasma. The influence of the electron intrinsic magnetic moment on the spatial and frequency dispersion of the transverse dielectric permittivity of degenerate electron plasma is numerically studied, that is crucial for determining the optical characteristics of plasma.

  3. Observation of Single Isolated Electrons of High Transverse Momentum in Events with Missing Transverse Energy at the CERN pp Collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    We report the results of a search for single isolated electrons of high transverse momentum at the CERN collider. Above 15 GeV/c, four events are found having large missing transverse energy along a direction opposite in azimuth to that of the high-pT electron. Both the configuration of the events...

  4. Tomography of the electron beam transverse phase space at PITZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asova, Galina

    2013-09-01

    The operation of a Free Elector Laser, FEL, requires high energy, high peak current electron beams with small transverse emittance. In the contemporary FELs, the electron beam is passed through a periodic magnetic structure - an undulator - which modifies the straight beam trajectory into a sinusoidal one, where FEL light is generated at each bend. According to the energy, the transverse emittance and the peak current of the beam and the parameters of the undulator, FEL radiation with wavelength in the range of nano- to micrometers can be generated. Studies and development of FELs are done all over the world. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, and the international European X-ray FEL, XFEL, in Hamburg, Germany, are two leading projects of the Deutsches Elektronen SYnchrotron, DESY. Part of the research program on FELs in DESY is realized in Zeuthen within the project Photo-Injector Test Facility at DESY in Zeuthen, PITZ. PITZ is an international collaboration including Germany, Russia, Italy, France, Bulgaria, Thailand, United Kingdom. The Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, INRNE, at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences participates from bulgarian side. PITZ studies and optimizes the photo-injectors for FLASH and the XFEL. The research program emphasizes on detailed measurements of the transverse phase-space density distribution. Until 2010 the single slit scan technique has been used to measure the beam transverse distributions. At the end of 2010 a module for tomographic diagnostics has been installed which extends the possibilities of PITZ to measure simultaneously the two transverse planes of a single micropulse with improved signal-to-noise ratio. The difficult conditions of low emittance for high bunch charge and low energy make the operation of the module challenging. This thesis presents the design considerations for the tomography module, a number of reconstruction algorithms and their applicability to limited data sets, the influence

  5. Tomography of the electron beam transverse phase space at PITZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asova, Galina

    2013-09-15

    The operation of a Free Elector Laser, FEL, requires high energy, high peak current electron beams with small transverse emittance. In the contemporary FELs, the electron beam is passed through a periodic magnetic structure - an undulator - which modifies the straight beam trajectory into a sinusoidal one, where FEL light is generated at each bend. According to the energy, the transverse emittance and the peak current of the beam and the parameters of the undulator, FEL radiation with wavelength in the range of nano- to micrometers can be generated. Studies and development of FELs are done all over the world. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, and the international European X-ray FEL, XFEL, in Hamburg, Germany, are two leading projects of the Deutsches Elektronen SYnchrotron, DESY. Part of the research program on FELs in DESY is realized in Zeuthen within the project Photo-Injector Test Facility at DESY in Zeuthen, PITZ. PITZ is an international collaboration including Germany, Russia, Italy, France, Bulgaria, Thailand, United Kingdom. The Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, INRNE, at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences participates from bulgarian side. PITZ studies and optimizes the photo-injectors for FLASH and the XFEL. The research program emphasizes on detailed measurements of the transverse phase-space density distribution. Until 2010 the single slit scan technique has been used to measure the beam transverse distributions. At the end of 2010 a module for tomographic diagnostics has been installed which extends the possibilities of PITZ to measure simultaneously the two transverse planes of a single micropulse with improved signal-to-noise ratio. The difficult conditions of low emittance for high bunch charge and low energy make the operation of the module challenging. This thesis presents the design considerations for the tomography module, a number of reconstruction algorithms and their applicability to limited data sets, the influence

  6. Towards a Transverse Feedback System and Damper for the SPS in the LHC Era

    CERN Document Server

    Höfle, Wolfgang

    1997-01-01

    The SPS will serve as injector for the LHC, accelerating up to 4 x 10^13 protons per cycle from 26 GeV/c to 450 GeV/c. The transverse feedback system (damper) is essential for keeping the transverse emittance blowup within the limits fixed for the LHC injector chain. The fast filamentation requires rapid damping of any injection errors. Injection errors are the combined result of steering errors and ripples on the magnet power supplies in the transfer line as well as from the PS extraction kicker and the SPS injection kicker. Besides damping injection oscillations the damper will also provide transverse feedback to stabilise the beam against the resistive wall coupled bunch instability. The required bandwidth, kick strength and power bandwidth (rise time) were discussed during the 1996 Montreux "Workshop on High Brightness Beams for Large Hadron Colliders" in the working group on "Active Emittance Control". In the present report the requirements for the damper are summarised and the development of a system to...

  7. An adaptive feedback controller for transverse angle and position jitter correction in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    It is desired to design a position and angle jitter control system for pulsed linear accelerators that will increase the accuracy of correction over that achieved by currently used standard feedback jitter control systems. Interpulse or pulse-to-pulse correction is performed using the average value of each macropulse. The configuration of such a system resembles that of a standard feedback correction system with the addition of an adaptive controller that dynamically adjusts the gain-phase contour of the feedback electronics. The adaptive controller makes changes to the analog feedback system between macropulses. A simulation of such a system using real measured jitter data from the Stanford Linear Collider was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by over two and a half times. The system also increased and stabilized the correction at high frequencies; a typical problem with standard feedback systems

  8. An adaptive feedback controller for transverse angle and position jitter correction in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    It is desired to design a position and angle jitter control system for pulsed linear accelerators that will increase the accuracy of correction over that achieved by currently used standard feedback jitter control systems. Interpulse or pulse-to-pulse correction is performed using the average value of each macropulse. The configuration of such a system resembles that of a standard feedback correction system with the addition of an adaptive controller that dynamically adjusts the gain-phase contour of the feedback electronics. The adaptive controller makes changes to the analog feedback system between macropulses. A simulation of such a system using real measured jitter data from the Stanford Linear Collider was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by over two and a half times. The system also increased and stabilized the correction at high frequencies; a typical problem with standard feedback systems

  9. Microlens Array Laser Transverse Shaping Technique for Photoemission Electron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ha, G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (POSTECH) (Korea, Republic of); Qiang, G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Gai, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Power, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Piot, P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wisniewski, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Edstrom, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ruan, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Santucci, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-09-06

    A common issue encountered in photoemission electron sources used in electron accelerators is distortion of the laser spot due to non ideal conditions at all stages of the amplification. Such a laser spot at the cathode may produce asymmetric charged beams that will result in degradation of the beam quality due to space charge at early stages of acceleration and fail to optimally utilize the cathode surface. In this note we study the possibility of using microlens arrays to dramatically improve the transverse uniformity of the drive laser pulse on UV photocathodes at both Fermilab Accelerator Science \\& Technology (FAST) facility and Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA). In particular, we discuss the experimental characterization of the homogeneity and periodic patterned formation at the photocathode. Finally, we compare the experimental results with the paraxial analysis, ray tracing and wavefront propagation software.

  10. Feedback from Users of Electronic Chart Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, David

    This paper was presented at the Third Electronic Chart Technology Conference, SASMEX International, Brighton, 22-23 April 1998.Electronic Chart Systems have been used by mariners across the entire user spectrum without official standards or specifications for 10 years. In the last three years, the debate has centred on chart data and the merits of differing cartographic technologies. There is little new that can be said for or against raster or vector technologies except what actual users might say to support the requirements of their day-to-day operations. Today, we approach a new stage as ENCs start to become available but only for limited areas. This in turn means that ENCs are capable of supporting the only approved electronic chart system, ECDIS, in a limited way. There is an urgent need for alternatives to ECDIS to cover those areas where ENCs will continue to be unavailable for the foreseeable future. This paper therefore summarizes a feedback from users of RCDS and ECDIS-type systems to demonstrate the benefits which can be secured from official recognition of RCDS systems as the legal equivalent of paper chart navigation.

  11. A wideband slotted kicker design for SPS transverse intra-bunch feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Cesaratto, J M; Rivetta, C H; Alesini, D; Gallo, A; Zobov, M; De Santis, S; Hofle, W

    2014-01-01

    In order for the SPS to meet the beam intensity demands for the HL-LHC upgrade, control and mitigation of trans- verse beam instabilities caused by electron cloud and TMCI will be essential. For this purpose a wideband intra-bunch feedback method has been proposed, based on a 4 GS/s front end data acquisition and processing, and on a back end frequency response extending to at least 1 GHz. A slotted type kicker, similar to those used for stochastic cooling, as well as an array of stripline kickers have been considered as the terminal elements of the feedback system. A slotted TEM type kicker has been designed fulfilling the bandwidth and kick strength requirements for the SPS application. In this paper we present an updated version of the design and electromagnetic characteristics, leading into the mechanical design and construction of the kicker occurring later this year.

  12. Spatial Control of Photoemitted Electron Beams using a Micro-Lens-Array Transverse-Shaping Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Northern Illinois U.; Qiang, G. [Tsinghua U., Beijing, Dept. Eng. Phys.; Ha, G. [POSTECH; Wisniewski, E. [Argonne (main); Piot, P. [NIU, DeKalb; Power, J. G. [Argonne (main); Gai, W. [Argonne (main)

    2017-07-24

    A common issue encountered in photoemission electron sources used in electron accelerators is the transverse inhomogeneity of the laser distribution resulting from the laser-amplification process and often use of frequency up conversion in nonlinear crystals. A inhomogeneous laser distribution on the photocathode produces charged beams with lower beam quality. In this paper, we explore the possible use of microlens arrays (fly-eye light condensers) to dramatically improve the transverse uniformity of the drive laser pulse on UV photocathodes. We also demonstrate the use of such microlens arrays to generate transversely-modulated electron beams and present a possible application to diagnose the properties of a magnetized beam.

  13. Analysis of the transverse energy distribution of hopping electrons through a glass funnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaobing; Lei Wei; Liu Min; Zhang Laibin; Engelsen, Daniel den; Zhou Xuedong; Wang Qilong

    2005-01-01

    The transverse energy distribution of electrons leaving the exit hole of a glass funnel in a hopping field emission display (HopFED) has been analyzed. These electrons are accelerated in a uniform field onto the anode screen. The luminance distribution of the spot on the screen is largely determined by the transverse energy distribution of the electron beam. The analysis of the luminance distribution shows that the transverse energy is rather low and that a HopFED will have good beam directionality

  14. Electronic implementation of a repressilator with quorum sensing feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H Hellen

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamics of a synthetic genetic repressilator with quorum sensing feedback. In a basic genetic ring oscillator network in which three genes inhibit each other in unidirectional manner, an additional quorum sensing feedback loop stimulates the activity of a chosen gene providing competition between inhibitory and stimulatory activities localized in that gene. Numerical simulations show several interesting dynamics, multi-stability of limit cycle with stable steady-state, multi-stability of different stable steady-states, limit cycle with period-doubling and reverse period-doubling, and infinite period bifurcation transitions for both increasing and decreasing strength of quorum sensing feedback. We design an electronic analog of the repressilator with quorum sensing feedback and reproduce, in experiment, the numerically predicted dynamical features of the system. Noise amplification near infinite period bifurcation is also observed. An important feature of the electronic design is the accessibility and control of the important system parameters.

  15. CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in the muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    In the most general weak interaction model with intermediate vector bosons, allowing CP breaking in the muon decay, CP- even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons is calculated taking into account the radiative corrections. It is shown that such corrections are essential only at the beginning of the spectrum reducing the observed transverse polarization effects. When the electron energy is close to its maximum and the emission angles are small, the transverse polarization considerably grows. Search for CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons should be carried out at energies Esub(e) approximately equal to O.975 Esub(e)sup(max) and emission angles THETA approximately equal to 25+35 deg [ru

  16. Abort Gap Cleaning using the Transverse Feedback System Simulation and Measurements in the SPS for the LHC Beam Dump System

    CERN Document Server

    Koschik, A; Höfle, Wolfgang; Kotzian, G; Kramer, Daniel; Kramer, T

    2008-01-01

    The critical and delicate process of dumping the beams of the LHC requires very low particle densities within the $3 \\mu$s of the dump kicker rising edge. High beam population in this so-called 'abort gap' might cause magnet quenches or even damage. Constant refilling due to diffusion processes is expected which will be counter-acted by an active abort gap cleaning system employing the transverse feedback kickers. In order to assess the feasibility and performance of such an abort gap cleaning system, simulations and measurements with beam in the SPS have been performed. Here we report on the results of these studies.

  17. Empirical Fit to Inelastic Electron-Deuteron and Electron-Neutron Resonance Region Transverse Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Bosted; M. E. Christy

    2007-01-01

    An empirical fit is described to measurements of inclusive inelastic electron-deuteron cross sections in the kinematic range of four-momentum transfer 0 (le) Q 2 2 and final state invariant mass 1.2 p of longitudinal to transverse cross sections for the proton, and the assumption R p =R n . The underlying fit parameters describe the average cross section for proton and neutron, with a plane-wave impulse approximation (PWIA) used to fit to the deuteron data. Pseudo-data from MAID 2007 were used to constrain the average nucleon cross sections for W<1.2 GeV. The mean deviation of data from the fit is 3%, with less than 5% of the data points deviating from the fit by more than 10%

  18. Effect of transverse electron drift on absorption of surface acoustic waves in CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmita, A.M.; Medved', A.V.; Fedorets, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the transverse electron drift on acousto-electron interaction in CdS has been studied. It has been revealed that the free electron drift only in the direction normal to the plane of propagation of surface acoustic waves may change the sound electron absorption coefficient in a wide range. In the case of metallization of the active part of a crystal surface a decrease in sound absorption has been observed both on the electron drift to a working crystal surface and on the opposite direction. Whereas in the case of a free crystal surface the transverse electron drift directed to the working plate surface causes an increase in sound absorption, and with the opposite drift electron absorption of the Rayleigh ultrasound waves is almost not observed. An explanation of the effects observed is proposed

  19. FOKKER-PLANCK ANALYSIS OF TRANSVERSE COLLECTIVE INSTABILITIES IN ELECTRON STORAGE RINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, R. R.

    2017-06-25

    We analyze single bunch transverse instabilities due to wakefields using a Fokker-Planck model. We expand on the work of Suzuki [1], writing out the linear matrix equation including chromaticity, both dipolar and quadrupolar transverse wakefields, and the effects of damping and diffusion due to the synchrotron radiation. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors determine the collective stability of the beam, and we show that the predicted threshold current for transverse instability and the profile of the unstable agree well with tracking simulations. In particular, we find that predicting collective stability for high energy electron beams at moderate to large values of chromaticity requires the full Fokker-Planck analysis to properly account for the effects of damping and diffusion due to synchrotron radiation.

  20. Pulse energy control through dual loop electronic feedback

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, Cobus

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available University of Stellenbosch WWW.LASER-RESEARCH.CO.ZA University of Stellenbosch Pulse Energy Control Through Dual Loop Electronic Feedback Cobus Jacobs, Steven Kriel Christoph Bollig, Thomas Jones Cobus Jacobs et al. Overview head2righthead2right...What is Laser Pulse Energy Control? head2righthead2rightWhy do we need it? head2righthead2rightHow do we get it? head2righthead2rightSimulation head2righthead2rightExperimental Setup head2righthead2rightResults Cobus Jacobs et al. head2righthead2right...

  1. Generation and focusing of electron beams with initial transverse-longitudinal correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J. R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States) Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.; Lewellen, J. W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poole, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-07

    In charged particle beams, one of the roles played by space charge is to couple the transverse and longitudinal dynamics of the beam. This can lead to very complex phenomena which are generally studied using computer simulations. However, in some cases models based on phenomenological or analytic approximations can provide valuable insight into the system behavior. In this paper, we employ such approximations to investigate the conditions under which all the slices of a space charge dominated electron beam with slowly varying current could be focused to a waist with the same radius and at the same location, independent of slice current, and show that this can be accomplished approximately if the initial transverse-longitudinal correlation introduced onto the beam by the electron gun is chosen to compensate for the transverse-longitudinal correlation introduced onto the beam in the drift section. The validity of our approximations is assessed by use of progressively more realistic calculations. We also consider several design elements of electron guns that affect the initial correlations in the beams they generate.

  2. Transverse to longitudinal phase space coupling in an electron beam for suppression of microbunching instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhang Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The microbunching instability developed during the beam compression process in the linear accelerator (LINAC of a free-electron laser (FEL facility has always been a problem that degrades the lasing performance, and even no FEL is able to be produced if the beam quality is destroyed too much by the instability. A common way to suppress the microbunching instability is to introduce extra uncorrelated energy spread by the laser heater that heats the beam through the interaction between the electron and laser beam, as what has been successfully implemented in the Linac Coherent Light Source and Fermi@Elettra. In this paper, a simple and effective scheme is proposed to suppress the microbunching instability by adding two transverse gradient undulators (TGU before and after the magnetic bunch compressor. The additional uncorrelated energy spread and the density mixing from the transverse spread brought up by the first TGU results in significant suppression of the instability. Meanwhile, the extra slice energy spread and the transverse emittance can also be effectively recovered by the second TGU. The magnitude of the suppression can be easily controlled by varying the strength of the magnetic fields of the TGUs. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations demonstrate the capability of the proposed technique in the LINAC of an x-ray free-electron laser facility.

  3. Investigation of transient processes at the DELTA electron storage ring using a digital bunch-by-bunch feedback system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoener, Markus

    2015-07-01

    At the 1.5-GeV synchrotron radiation source DELTA, operated by the TU Dortmund University, intensive synchrotron radiation in the spectral range from hard X-rays to THz radiation is generated by the circular deflection of highly relativistic electron bunches. Interacting with the vacuum chamber wall, the electron bunches create electric fields, which can act back on subsequent bunches. With increasing beam current, the excitation is enhanced so that the electron beam is unstable, which means that the electron bunches oscillate longitudinally or transversely relative to their reference position. The oscillations reduce the quality of the synchrotron radiation and limit the maximum storable beam current. Within the scope of this thesis, the beam instabilities at the storage ring were systematically investigated. A digital bunch-by-bunch feedback system was installed and commissioned, which allows to detect and digitize the position of each electron bunch at each turn. Based on the input signal, a correction signal is calculated in order to suppress transverse and longitudinal oscillation of the bunches. In addition, it is possible to excite dedicated bunches. The systematic excitation of all coupled-bunch modes allowed for the first time to determine the damping rates of all 192 eigenmodes of the electron beam. The current dependence of the damping rates was investigated and an instability threshold was found. Besides the investigation of multibunch instabilities, single-bunch instabilities are discussed. In addition, the acquisition unit of the digital feedback system can be triggered on external events. This was used to investigate the injection process and beam losses. It was shown that the transverse feedback system increases the injection efficiency. Another aspect of this thesis is the improvement of the signal quality of ultrashort coherent synchrotron radiation pulses, which are generated by the short-pulse facility at DELTA. The short-pulse facility is based

  4. Transverse Laser Beam Shaping in High Brightness Electron Gun at ATF

    CERN Document Server

    Roychowdhury, S

    2005-01-01

    The brightness of electron beams from a photo injector is influenced by the transverse and longitudinal distribution of the laser beam illuminating the cathode. Previous studies at Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility have shown that formation of an ideal e-beam with lowest transverse emittance requires uniform circular distribution of the emitted electrons. The use of the uniformly distributed power of the laser beam may not lead to that of the emitted electrons because of the non-uniform quantum efficiency. A proper shaping of the laser beam can compensate for this non-uniformity. In this paper we describe the use of digital light processing (DLP) technique based on digital mirror device (DMD) for spatial modulation of the laser beam, for measurements of the quantum efficiency map, and for creating the desirable e-beam density profiles. A DMD is aμelectronic mechanical system (MEMS) comprising of millions of highly reflectiveμmirrors controlled by underlying electronics. We present exper...

  5. An analysis of transverse evolution of electron swarms in gases using moment equations and a propagator method

    CERN Document Server

    Sagawara, H

    1999-01-01

    A simulation technique for the analysis of the transverse evolution of electron swarms in gases was developed based on moment equations derived from the Boltzmann equation. A numerical calculation of the moment equations for an electron swarm was performed using a propagator method and it was demonstrated that the propagator method can be used to calculate the higher-order transverse diffusion coefficients stably. Applying a Hermite expansion technique, the electron distribution in real space and other electron swarm parameters were derived as functions of the transverse position. The calculation result was verified by comparisons with those by a Monte Carlo simulation and other methods. Features of the transverse electron swarm evolution were presented. (author)

  6. Electron-beam generation, transport, and transverse oscillation experiments using the REX injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.L.; Allison, P.W.; Kauppila, T.J.; Moir, D.C.; Ridlon, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The REX machine at LANL is being used as a prototype to generate a 4-MV, 4.5-kA, 55-ns flat-top electron beam as a source for injection into a linear induction accelerator of the 16-MeV Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrotest facility. The pulsed-power source drives a planar velvet cathode producing a beam that is accelerated through a foilless anode aperture and transported by an air core magnetic lens for injection into the first 48 linear induction cells. Extensive measurements of the time-resolved (<1-ns) properties of the beam using a streak camera and high-speed electronic diagnostics have been made. These parameters include beam current, voltage, current density, emittance, and transverse beam motion. The effective cathode temperature is 117 eV, corresponding to a Lapostolle emittance of 0.96 mm-rad. Transverse oscillations of the transported beam have been observed via a differenced B-dot technique to be about ±100 μ at 245 MHz. This beam motion has been correlated via detailed rf measurements of asymmetric transverse cavity modes in the A-K gap

  7. String Electron and Three-ring Quarked Nucleons' Transverse Interlocks Build Atoms, Vindicate Schr"odinger

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David; McLeod, Roger David

    2008-05-01

    Flatland electron loop strings have transversely vibrating neutrino strings. Traveling waves TWs alternately become upwardly deflecting standing waves SWs along each half-wave segment between non-vibrating node pairs. Descending SWs revert to TWs at flatland, proceeding to the next adjacent nodal pair; folding continues. New SWs descend, then ascend; repetition follows to a three dimensional object. Broken ``linear'' electron string and spring constant compress within stars so linear mass density allows incorporation into stable three-ring proton string, creating neutron of two down quarks, one up. It is unstable; it lacks overpass-underpass interlocks of proton that merged linear charge density of two up quarks and one down quark with the electron, becoming neutral. Any transversely aligned neutron notch pushed into acceptor notch of proton is ionized deuterium; tritium follows. Alpha particle is a stable ``tic-tac-toe'' grid. Atom building proceeds routinely, nucleon attachment follows chemical and physical property requirements. Models require vindication of Schr"odinger's actual, but incomplete, wave model of electron with physical extent over his wave, and question Heisenberg's uncertainty proposal.

  8. Transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution/fragmentation functions at an electron-ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Avakian, H.; Chen, J.P.; Musch, B.; Prokudin, A.; Qiang, Y.; Sulkosky, V.; Zhang, Y.; Boer, D.; Bradamante, F.; Burkardt, M.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Dutta, D.; Gamberg, L.; Gao, H.; Huang, M.; Laskaris, G.; Ye, Q.; Ye, Q.J.; Zheng, W.; Hasch, D.; Rossi, P.; Huang, J.; Kang, Z.; Keppel, C.; Liang, Z.T.; Liu, M.X.; Makins, N.; Peng, J.C.; Mckeown, R.D.; Qian, X.; Metz, A.; Meziani, Z.E.; Soffer, J.; Zhou, J.; Qiu, J.W.; Schweitzer, P.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B.; Yuan, F.; Zhan, X.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of a recent workshop held at Duke University on Partonic Transverse Momentum in Hadrons: Quark Spin-Orbit Correlations and Quark-Gluon Interactions. The transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs), parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, and multi-parton correlation functions, were discussed extensively at the Duke workshop. In this paper, we summarize first the theoretical issues concerning the study of partonic structure of hadrons at a future electron-ion collider (EIC) with emphasis on the TMDs. We then present simulation results on experimental studies of TMDs through measurements of single-spin asymmetries (SSA) from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes with an EIC, and discuss the requirement of the detector for SIDIS measurements. The dynamics of parton correlations in the nucleon is further explored via a study of SSA in D (anti D) production at large transverse momenta with the aim of accessing the unexplored tri-gluon correlation functions. The workshop participants identified the SSA measurements in SIDIS as a golden program to study TMDs in both the sea and valence quark regions and to study the role of gluons, with the Sivers asymmetry measurements as examples. Such measurements will lead to major advancement in our understanding of TMDs in the valence quark region, and more importantly also allow for the investigation of TMDs in the unexplored sea quark region along with a study of their evolution. (orig.)

  9. Transverse phase space mapping of relativistic electron beams using optical transition radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Le Sage

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical transition radiation (OTR has proven to be a versatile and effective diagnostic for measuring the profile, divergence, and emittance of relativistic electron beams with a wide range of parameters. Diagnosis of the divergence of modern high brightness beams is especially well suited to OTR interference (OTRI techniques, where multiple dielectric or metal foils are used to generate a spatially coherent interference pattern. Theoretical analysis of measured OTR and OTRI patterns allows precise measurement of electron beam emittance characteristics. Here we describe an extension of this technique to allow mapping of divergence characteristics as a function of transverse coordinates within a measured beam. We present the first experimental analysis of the transverse phase space of an electron beam using all optical techniques. Comparing an optically masked portion of the beam to the entire beam, we measure different angular spread and average direction of the particles. Direct measurement of the phase-space ellipse tilt angle has been demonstrated using this optical masking technique.

  10. Search for Time Reversal Violation in Neutron Decay: A Measurement of the Transverse Polarization of Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, K.; Kaczmarek, A.; Kistryn, St.; Kuzniak, M.; Zejma, J.; Pulut, J.; Kirch, K.; Bialek, A.; Kozela, A.; Ban, G.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Gorel, P.; Beck, M.; Lindroth, A.; Severijns, N.; Stephan, E.; Czarnecki, A.

    2006-01-01

    A non-zero value of the R-correlation coefficient due to the e - polarization component, perpendicular to the plane spanned by the spin of the decaying neutron and the electron momentum, would signal a violation of time reversal symmetry and thus physics beyond the Standard Model. The value of the N-correlation coefficient, given by the transverse e - polarization component within that plane, is expected to be finite. The measurement of N serves as an important systematic check of the apparatus for the R-measurement. The first phase of data taking has been completed. Preliminary results from a limited data sample show no deviations from the Standard Model predictions

  11. Development of an electron calorimeter to be used in high transverse momentum reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, Philippe.

    1977-01-01

    In order to select high transverse momentum particles, an electron calorimeter made of two super-units of 2x5 m 2 was developed. A new type of scintillator called Plexipop and having the following characteristics, was developed: the light produced equals only 20% of that produced by NE 110, it has a high attenuation length (about 3.80 m), and a short lifetime (5 nsec). Various calibration methods were defined for this apparatus. The resolution obtained was 5% at 10 GeV/c [fr

  12. Study of beam transverse properties of a thermionic electron gun for application to a compact THz free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Tongning; Qin, Bin; Tan, Ping; Chen, Qushan; Yang, Lei; Pei, Yuanji; Li, Ji

    2014-01-01

    A novel thermionic electron gun adopted for use in a high power THz free electron laser (FEL) is proposed in this paper. By optimization of the structural and radiofrequency (RF) parameters, the physical design of the gun is performed using dynamic calculations. Velocity bunching is used to minimize the bunch's energy spread, and the dynamic calculation results indicate that high quality beams can be provided. The transverse properties of the beams generated by the gun are also analyzed. The novel RF focusing effects of the resonance cavity are investigated precisely and are used to establish emittance compensation, which enables the injector length to be reduced. In addition, the causes of the extrema of the beam radius and the normalized transverse emittance are analyzed and interpreted, respectively, and slice simulations are performed to illustrate how the RF focusing varies along the bunch length and to determine the effects of that variation on the emittance compensation. Finally, by observation of the variations of the beam properties in the drift tube behind the electron gun, prospective assembly scenarios for the complete THz-FEL injector are discussed, and a joint-debugging process for the injector is implemented

  13. Transverse Beam Spin Asymmetries in Forward-Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Armstrong; Francois Arvieux; Razmik Asaturyan; Todd Averett; Stephanie Bailey; Guillaume Batigne; Douglas Beck; Elizabeth Beise; Jay Benesch; Louis Bimbot; James Birchall; Angela Biselli; Peter Bosted; Elodie Boukobza; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Robert Carr; Nicholas Chant; Yu-Chiu Chao; Swapan Chattopadhyay; Russell Clark; Silviu Covrig; Anthony Cowley; Daniel Dale; Charles Davis; Willie Falk; John Finn; Tony Forest; Gregg Franklin; Christophe Furget; David Gaskell; Joseph Grames; Keith Griffioen; Klaus Grimm; Benoit Guillon; Hayko Guler; Lars Hannelius; Richard HASTY; Alice Hawthorne Allen; Tanja Horn; Kathleen Johnston; Mark Jones; Peter Kammel; Reza Kazimi; Paul King; Ameya Kolarkar; Elie Korkmaz; Wolfgang Korsch; Serge Kox; Joachim Kuhn; Jeff Lachniet; Lawrence Lee; Jason Lenoble; Eric Liatard; Jianglai Liu; Berenice Loupias; Allison Lung; Dominique Marchand; Jeffery Martin; Kenneth McFarlane; David McKee; Robert McKeown; Fernand Merchez; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Bryan Moffit; M. Morlet; Itaru Nakagawa; Kazutaka Nakahara; Retief Neveling; Silvia Niccolai; S. Ong; Shelley Page; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Sarah Phillips; Mark Pitt; Benard Poelker; Tracy Porcelli; Gilles Quemener; Brian Quinn; William Ramsay; Aamer Rauf; Jean-Sebastien Real; Julie Roche; Philip Roos; Gary Rutledge; Jeffery Secrest; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Damon Spayde; Samuel Stepanyan; Marcy Stutzman; Vince Sulkosky; Vincent Sulkosky; Vince Sulkosky; Vincent Sulkosky; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Jacques Van de Wiele; Willem van Oers; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; Glen Warren; Steven Wells; Steven Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Junho Yun; Valdis Zeps

    2007-08-01

    We have measured the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry in elastic scattering of transversely-polarized 3 GeV electrons from unpolarized protons at Q^2 values of 0.15 and 0.25 (GeV/c)^2 with results of A_n = -4.06 +- 0.99(stat) +- 0.63(syst) and A_n = -4.82 +- 1.87(stat) +- 0.98(syst) ppm. These results are inconsistent with calculations solely using the elastic nucleon intermediate state, and generally agree with calculations with significant inelastic hadronic intermediate state contributions. A_n provides a direct probe of the imaginary component of the two-photon exchange amplitude, the complete description of which is important in the interpretation of data from precision electron-scattering experiments.

  14. High-Feedback Operation of Power Electronic Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Y. Mikhal'chenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to provide a survey of some of the most important bifurcation phenomena that one can observe in pulse-modulated converter systems when operating with high corrector gain factors. Like other systems with switching control, electronic converter systems belong to the class of piecewise-smooth dynamical systems. A characteristic feature of such systems is that the trajectory is “sewed” together from subsequent discrete parts. Moreover, the transitions between different modes of operation in response to a parameter variation are often qualitatively different from the bifurcations we know for smooth systems. The review starts with an introduction to the concept of border-collision bifurcations and also demonstrates the approach by which the full dynamics of the piecewise-linear, time-continuous system can be reduced to the dynamics of a piecewise-smooth map. We describe the main bifurcation structures that one observes in three different types of converter systems: (1 a DC/DC converter; (2 a multi-level DC/DC converter; and (3 a DC/AC converter. Our focus will be on the bifurcations by which the regular switching dynamics becomes unstable and is replaced by ergodic or resonant periodic dynamics on the surface of a two-dimensional torus. This transition occurs when the feedback gain is increased beyond a certain threshold, for instance in Electronics 2013, 2 114 order to improve the speed and accuracy of the output voltage regulation. For each of the three converter types, we discuss a number of additional bifurcation phenomena, including the formation and reconstruction of multi-layered tori and the appearance of phase-synchronized quasiperiodicity. Our numerical simulations are compared with experimentally observed waveforms.

  15. Transverse Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with parallel electron dynamics and Coulomb collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyanarayana, P.; Lee, Y.C.; Huba, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Electron parallel dynamics and Coulomb collisions are included in the analysis of the transverse Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The electrons are treated kinetically while the ions are treated in the fluid limit. It is shown that in the collisionless case, for an imhomogeneous velocity profile V(x) = V 0 tanh (x/L) the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is stable for k/sub z//k/sub y/>(V 0 /Lω/sub l//sub h/)K/sub y/L [2(1-k/sub y/ 2 L 2 )]/sup 1/2/ in the limit ω-k/sub y/V 0 >>k/sub z/v/sub e/. Here V 0 is the flow velocity, L is the scale length of the velocity shear layer, k/sub z/ and k/sub y/ are the parallel and perpendicular wave numbers, respectively, ω/sub l//sub h/ = (Ω/sub e/Ω/sub i/)/sup 1/2/, and v/sub e/ is the electron thermal velocity. The stabilization of the mode is shown to be caused by the compressional energy given to the electrons parallel to B. In the collisional limit, Coulomb collisions are shown to increase the unstable k/sub z/ domain becasue they inhibit the electron motion parallel to B. Applications to the high-latitude ionosphere are discussed. Copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  16. Fast Transverse Beam Instability Caused by Electron Cloud Trapped in Combined Function Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Electron cloud instabilities affect the performance of many circular high-intensity particle accelerators. They usually have a fast growth rate and might lead to an increase of the transverse emittance and beam loss. A peculiar example of such an instability is observed in the Fermilab Recycler proton storage ring. Although this instability might pose a challenge for future intensity upgrades, its nature had not been completely understood. The phenomena has been studied experimentally by comparing the dynamics of stable and unstable beam, numerically by simulating the build-up of the electron cloud and its interaction with the beam, and analytically by constructing a model of an electron cloud driven instability with the electrons trapped in combined function dipoles. Stabilization of the beam by a clearing bunch reveals that the instability is caused by the electron cloud, trapped in beam optics magnets. Measurements of microwave propagation confirm the presence of the cloud in the combined function dipoles. Numerical simulations show that up to 10$^{-2}$ of the particles can be trapped by their magnetic field. Since the process of electron cloud build-up is exponential, once trapped this amount of electrons significantly increases the density of the cloud on the next revolution. In a combined function dipole this multi-turn accumulation allows the electron cloud reaching final intensities orders of magnitude greater than in a pure dipole. The estimated fast instability growth rate of about 30 revolutions and low mode frequency of 0.4 MHz are consistent with experimental observations and agree with the simulations. The created instability model allows investigating the beam stability for the future intensity upgrades.

  17. Does Mechanism Matter? Student Recall of Electronic versus Handwritten Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbur, Megan E.; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost; Hammer, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    Student consumption and recall of feedback are necessary preconditions of successful formative assessment. Drawing on Sadler's (1998) definition of formative assessment as that which is intended to accelerate learning and improve performance through the providing of feedback, we examine how the mechanism of transmission may impact student…

  18. Monte Carlo characterization of clinical electron beams in transverse magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Michael C.; Ma, Chang-Ming

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were employed to study the characteristics of the electron beams of a clinical linear accelerator in the presence of 1.5 and 3.0 T transverse magnetic fields and to assess the possibility of using magnetic fields in conjunction with modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT). The starting depth of the magnetic field was varied over several centimetres. It was found that peak doses of as much as 2.7 times the surface dose could be achieved with a 1.5 T magnetic field. The magnetic field was shown to reduce the 80% and 20% dose drop-off distance by 50% to 80%. The distance between the 80% dose levels of the pseudo-Bragg peak induced by the magnetic field was found to be extremely narrow, generally less than 1 cm. However, by modulating the energy and intensity of the electron fields while simultaneously moving the magnetic field, a homogeneous dose distribution with low surface dose and a sharp dose fall-off was generated. Heterogeneities are shown to change the effective range of the electron beams, but not eliminate the advantages of a sharp depth-dose drop-off or high peak-to-surface dose ratio. This suggests the applicability of MERT with magnetic fields in heterogeneous media. The results of this study demonstrate the ability to use magnetic fields in MERT to produce highly desirable dose distributions. (author)

  19. Transverse-emittance measurements on an S-band photocathode RF electron gun

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerge, J F; Clendenin, J E; Decker, Franz Josef; Dowell, D H; Gierman, S M; Limborg, C G; Murphy, B F

    2002-01-01

    Proposed fourth-generation light sources using SASE FELs to generate short pulse, coherent, X-rays require demonstration of high brightness electron sources. The gun test facility at SLAC was built to test high brightness sources for the proposed linac coherent light source at SLAC. The transverse-emittance measurements are made at nearly 30 MeV by measuring the spot size on a YAG screen using the quadrupole scan technique. The emittance was measured to vary from 1 to 3.5 mm mrad as the charge is increased from 50 to 350 pC using a laser pulse width of 2 ps FWHM. The measurements are in good agreement with simulation results using the LANL version of PARMELA.

  20. New Measurements of the Transverse Beam Asymmetry for Elastic Electron Scattering from Selected Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamyan, S; Afanasev, A; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Aniol, K; Armstrong, D S; Armstrong, W; Arrington, J; Averett, T; Babineau, B; Bailey, S L; Barber, J; Barbieri, A; Beck, A; Bellini, V; Beminiwattha, R; Benaoum, H; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bertin, P; Bielarski, T; Boeglin, W; Bosted, P; Butaru, F; Burtin, E; Cahoon, J; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Carter, P; Chang, C C; Cates, G D; Chao, Y -C; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; De Leo, R; de Jager, K; Deconinck, W; Decowski, P; Deepa, D; Deng, X; Dutta, D; Etile, A; Ferdi, C; Feuerbach, J; Finn, J M; Flay, D; Franklin, G B; Friend, M; Frullani, S; Fuchey, E; Fuchs, S A; Fuoti, K; Garibaldi, F; Gasser, E; Gilman, R; Guisa, A; Glamazdin, A; Glesener, L E; Gomez, J; Gorchtein, M; Grames, J; Grimm, K; Gu, C; Hansen, O; Hansknecht, J; Hen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmes, R S; Holmstrom, T; Horowitz, C J; Hoskins, J; Huang, J; Humensky, T B; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Itard, F; Jen, C -M; Jensen, E; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Johnston, S; Katich, J; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Kliakhandler, K; King, P M; Kolarkar, A; Kowalski, S; Kuchina, E; Kumar, K S; Lagamba, L; Lambert, D; LaViolette, P; Leacock, J; Leckey IV, J; Lee, J H; LeRose, J J; Lhuillier, D; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Lubinsky, N; Mammei, J; Mammoliti, F; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Mazouz, M; McCormick, K; McCreary, A; McNulty, D; Meekins, D G; Mercado, L; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R W; Mihovilovic, M; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P; Muangma, N; Munoz-Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V; Neyret, D; Nuruzzaman,; Oh, Y; Otis, K; Palmer, A; Parno, D; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Poelker, M; Pomatsalyuk, R; Posik, M; Potokar, M; Prok, K; Puckett, A.J.R.; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Quinn, B; Rakhman, A; Reimer, P E; Reitz, B; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Rogan, P; Ron, G; Russo, G; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Silwal, R; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Snyder, R; Solvignon, P; Souder, P A; Sperduto, M L; Subedi, R; Stutzman, M L; Suleiman, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C M; Tobias, W A; Troth, W; Urciuoli, G M; Ulmer, P; Vacheret, A; Voutier, A; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, D; Wang, K; Wexler, J; Whitbeck, A; Wilson, R; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yim, V; Zana, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zheng, X; Ziskin, V; Zhu, P

    2012-11-05

    Here we have measured the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry A{sub n} in the elastic scattering of 1-3 GeV transversely polarized electrons from 1H and for the first time from 4He, 12C, and 208Pb. For 1H, 4He and 12C, the measurements are in agreement with calculations that relate An to the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange amplitude including inelastic intermediate states. Surprisingly, the 208Pb result is significantly smaller than the corresponding prediction using the same formalism. Our results suggest that a systematic set of new An measurements might emerge as a new and sensitive probe of the structure of heavy nuclei.

  1. How to probe transverse magnetic anisotropy of a single-molecule magnet by electronic transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, M.; Burzuri, E.; Gaudenzi, R.; Park, K.; Leijnse, M.; Wegewijs, M.; Paaske, J.; Cornia, A.; van der Zant, H.

    We propose an approach for in-situ determination of the transverse magnetic anisotropy (TMA) of an individual molecule by electronic transport measurements, see Phys. Rev. B 91, 035442 (2015). We study a Fe4 single-molecule magnet (SMM) captured in a gateable junction, a unique tool for addressing the spin in different redox states of a molecule. We show that, due to mixing of the spin eigenstates of the SMM, the TMA significantly manifests itself in transport. We predict and experimentally observe the pronounced intensity modulation of the Coulomb peak amplitude with the magnetic field in the linear-response transport regime, from which the TMA parameter E can be estimated. Importantly, the method proposed here does not rely on the small induced tunnelling effects and, hence, works well at temperatures and electron tunnel broadenings by far exceeding the tunnel splittings and even E itself. We deduce that the TMA for a single Fe4 molecule captured in a junction is substantially larger than the bulk value. Work supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Education as `Iuventus Plus' project (IP2014 030973) in years 2015-2016.

  2. Phase and amplitude feedback control system for the Los Alamos free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.T.; Tallerico, P.J.; Higgins, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    Phase and amplitude feedback control systems for the Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL) are described. Beam-driven voltages are very high in the buncher cavity because the electron gun is pulsed at the fifth subharmonic of the buncher resonant frequency. The high beam loading necessitated a novel feedback and drive configuration for the buncher. A compensation cirucit has been added to the gun/driver system to reduce observed drift. Extremely small variations in the accelerator gradients had dramatic effects on the laser output power. These problems and how they were solved are described and plans for improvements in the feedback control system are discussed. 5 refs., 7 figs

  3. High-feedback Operation of Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik; Andriyanov, Alexey I.

    2013-01-01

    or resonant periodic dynamics on the surface of a two-dimensional torus. This transition occurs when the feedback gain is increased beyond a certain threshold, for instance in order to improve the speed and accuracy of the output voltage regulation. For each of the three converter types, we discuss a number...... of additional bifurcation phenomena, including the formation and reconstruction of multi-layered tori and the appearance of phase-synchronized quasiperiodicity. Our numerical simulations are compared with experimentally observed waveforms....

  4. Experimental characterization of the transverse phase space of a 60-MeV electron beam through a compressor chicane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zhou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Space charge and coherent synchrotron radiation may deteriorate electron beam quality when the beam passes through a magnetic bunch compressor. This paper presents the transverse phase-space tomographic measurements for a compressed beam at 60 MeV, around which energy the first stage of magnetic bunch compression takes place in most advanced linacs. Transverse phase-space bifurcation of a compressed beam is observed at that energy, but the degree of the space charge-induced bifurcation is appreciably lower than the one observed at 12 MeV.

  5. Transverse damper

    CERN Document Server

    Höfle, W

    2012-01-01

    Plans for the operation of the transverse damper in 2012 at bunch spacings of 50 ns and 25 ns and at increased collision energy will be reviewed. The increased energy and the experience that will be gained at 25 ns are very important to define any upgrades that may be necessary for the high luminosity operation at 7 TeV after LS1. This means that the available parameter space must be probed in 2012 which in particular includes a higher feedback gain in the ramp and with colliding beams. Limits for the feedback gain for the current system will be outlined. The potential benefits of running with higher feedback gain for a better emittance preservation will be stressed and weighed against the operational difficulties and the potential impact of noise in the damper system. A plan for re-commissiong at 50 ns and 25 ns for operation at 4 TeV will be outlined.

  6. Development of longitudinal feedback system for a storage ring free electron laser

    CERN Document Server

    Koda, S; Yamazaki, J; Katoh, M; Hama, H

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal feedback system for a storage ring free electron laser (SRFEL) has been developed at the UVSOR. Instantaneous temporal deviation of the FEL optical pulse with respect to the electron bunch is measured in the frequency domain by detecting a phase between higher harmonic components of respective revolution frequencies. The phase deviation is fed back to control the storage ring RF frequency so as to readjust the effective length of the optical cavity. Compensating for the temporal drift with the feedback system, synchronism between the FEL micropulse and the electron bunches was successfully maintained for a reasonably long time.

  7. Healthcare Students' Perceptions of Electronic Feedback through GradeMark®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Diane; Dummer, Paul; Hawthorne, Kamila; Cousins, Judy; Emmett, Catherine; Johnson, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings from a study undertaken to explore students' perceptions of the timeliness, accessibility, consistency, and quality of feedback and grading received electronically. The system used was GradeMark®, an electronic tool available through the plagiarism software provider, Turnitin®. 296 students from the Schools of…

  8. Ab initio electron propagator calculations of transverse conduction through DNA nucleotide bases in 1-nm nanopore corroborate third generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Aleksey A; Glukhovskoy, Evgeny G; Chumakov, Aleksey S; Ortiz, Joseph V

    2016-01-01

    The conduction properties of DNA molecule, particularly its transverse conductance (electron transfer through nucleotide bridges), represent a point of interest for DNA chemistry community, especially for DNA sequencing. However, there is no fully developed first-principles theory for molecular conductance and current that allows one to analyze the transverse flow of electrical charge through a nucleotide base. We theoretically investigate the transverse electron transport through all four DNA nucleotide bases by implementing an unbiased ab initio theoretical approach, namely, the electron propagator theory. The electrical conductance and current through DNA nucleobases (guanine [G], cytosine [C], adenine [A] and thymine [T]) inserted into a model 1-nm Ag-Ag nanogap are calculated. The magnitudes of the calculated conductance and current are ordered in the following hierarchies: gA>gG>gC>gT and IG>IA>IT>IC correspondingly. The new distinguishing parameter for the nucleobase identification is proposed, namely, the onset bias magnitude. Nucleobases exhibit the following hierarchy with respect to this parameter: Vonset(A)DNA translocation through an electrode-equipped nanopore. The results represent interest for the theorists and practitioners in the field of third generation sequencing techniques as well as in the field of DNA chemistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. VUV free electron laser with a distributed feedback cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Fujita, M.; Asakawa, M. [Osaka Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Development of FEL to the VUV/x-ray regime is looked as one of the possible directions to its success. For eliminating the need for optical cavities, difficult to be built at that regime, we propose a VUV (50nm) SASE FEL. According to Pellegrini`s scaling law, for a 290MeV/200A e-beam passing through a 10.8m long and 2cm period wiggler, a high peak power 85.5MW and a high average brightness 2.44 X 10{sup +21} (photons/[mm{sup 2}.mrad{sup 2}.bw]) can be obtained. However, it requires {epsilon} n=2.3mm.mrad and {Delta}{gamma}/{gamma} = 0.15% about one order above the practical parameters we can realize. For enhancing the efficiency and decreasing the requirements on the e-beam quality and the wiggler length, we put forward a concept of VUV FEL with a distributed feedback cavity. In x-ray region, the natural periodicity of crystals provides strong Bragg coupling and it has been demonstrated as the parametric radiation. In vuv region, current intense research on superlattice can provide a periodical structure with a short period in 250 {Angstrom} order. High-performance vuv multilayer coatings on the inner-wall of the waveguide are used to guide the spontaneous emission and decrease the x-ray ohmic losses on the roundtrip passes. By this DFB cavity structure, it is expected to realize the lasing in a smaller size. Other practical methods such as the optical klystron for shortening the wiggler length and the tapper wiggler for enhancing the saturation power are also considered. The analytical considerations are based on the 1-D FEL equations and 1-D perturbation theory of dielectric waveguide.

  10. Feedback model of secondary electron emission in DC gas discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, ARUMUGAM; Prince, ALEX; Suraj, Kumar SINHA

    2018-01-01

    Feedback is said to exist in any amplifier when the fraction of output power in fed back as an input. Similarly, in gaseous discharge ions that incident on the cathode act as a natural feedback element to stabilize and self sustain the discharge. The present investigation is intended to emphasize the feedback nature of ions that emits secondary electrons (SEs) from the cathode surface in DC gas discharges. The average number of SEs emitted per incident ion and non ionic species (energetic neutrals, metastables and photons) which results from ion is defined as effective secondary electron emission coefficient (ESEEC,{γ }{{E}}). In this study, we derive an analytic expression that corroborates the relation between {γ }{{E}} and power influx by ion to the cathode based on the feedback theory of an amplifier. In addition, experimentally, we confirmed the typical positive feedback nature of SEE from the cathode in argon DC glow discharges. The experiment is done for three different cathode material of same dimension (tungsten (W), copper (Cu) and brass) under identical discharge conditions (pressure: 0.45 mbar, cathode bias: ‑600 V, discharge gab: 15 cm and operating gas: argon). Further, we found that the {γ }{{E}} value of these cathode material controls the amount of feedback power given by ions. The difference in feedback leads different final output i.e the power carried by ion at cathode ({P}{{i}}{\\prime }{| }{{C}}). The experimentally obtained value of {P}{{i}}{\\prime }{| }{{C}} is 4.28 W, 6.87 W and 9.26 W respectively for W, Cu and brass. In addition, the present investigation reveals that the amount of feedback power in a DC gas discharges not only affect the fraction of power fed back to the cathode but also the entire characteristics of the discharge.

  11. Phase mixing of transverse oscillations in the linear and nonlinear regimes for IFR relativistic electron beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokair, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    Phase mixing of transverse oscillations changes the nature of the ion hose instability from an absolute to a convective instability. The stronger the phase mixing, the faster an electron beam reaches equilibrium with the guiding ion channel. This is important for long distance propagation of relativistic electron beams where it is desired that transverse oscillations phase mix within a few betatron wavelengths of injection and subsequently an equilibrium is reached with no further beam emittance growth. In the linear regime phase mixing is well understood and results in asymptotic decay of transverse oscillations as 1/Z 2 for a Gaussian beam and channel system, Z being the axial distance measured in betatron wavelengths. In the nonlinear regime (which is likely mode of propagation for long pulse beams) results of the spread mass model indicate that phase mixing is considerably weaker than in the regime. In this paper we consider this problem of phase mixing in the nonlinear regime. Results of the spread mass model will be shown along with a simple analysis of phase mixing for multiple oscillator models. Particle simulations also indicate that phase mixing is weaker in nonlinear regime than in the linear regime. These results will also be shown. 3 refs., 4 figs

  12. Strong suppression of shot noise in a feedback-controlled single-electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Timo; Strasberg, Philipp; Bayer, Johannes C.; Rugeramigabo, Eddy P.; Brandes, Tobias; Haug, Rolf J.

    2017-03-01

    Feedback control of quantum mechanical systems is rapidly attracting attention not only due to fundamental questions about quantum measurements, but also because of its novel applications in many fields in physics. Quantum control has been studied intensively in quantum optics but progress has recently been made in the control of solid-state qubits as well. In quantum transport only a few active and passive feedback experiments have been realized on the level of single electrons, although theoretical proposals exist. Here we demonstrate the suppression of shot noise in a single-electron transistor using an exclusively electronic closed-loop feedback to monitor and adjust the counting statistics. With increasing feedback response we observe a stronger suppression and faster freezing of charge current fluctuations. Our technique is analogous to the generation of squeezed light with in-loop photodetection as used in quantum optics. Sub-Poisson single-electron sources will pave the way for high-precision measurements in quantum transport similar to optical or optomechanical equivalents.

  13. Impact of Performance Feedback Delivered via Electronic Mail on Preschool Teachers' Use of Descriptive Praise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Snyder, Patricia; Kinder, Kiersten; Artman, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a professional development intervention that included data-based performance feedback delivered via electronic mail (e-mail) on preschool teachers' use of descriptive praise and whether increased use of descriptive praise was associated with changes in classroom-wide measures of child engagement and challenging behavior.…

  14. Misconceptions regarding the cancellation of self-forces in the transverse equation of motion for an electron in a bunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2003-10-01

    As a consequence of motions driven by external forces, self-fields originate within an electron bunch, which are different from the static case. In the case of magnetic external forces acting on an ultrarelativistic beam, the longitudinal self-interactions are responsible for CSR (coherent synchrotron radiation)-related phenomena, which have been studied extensively. On the other hand, transverse self-interactions are present too. At the time being, several existing theoretical analysis of transverse dynamics rely on the so-called cancellation effect, which has been around for more than ten years. In this paper we explain why in our view such an effect is not of practical nor of theoretical importance. (orig.)

  15. General practitioners uses and perceptions of voluntary electronic feedback on treatment outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, M.L.; Kousgaard, M.B.; Bjerrum, L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a strong focus on the diffusion and implementation of indicator-based technologies for assessing and improving the quality of care in general practice. The aim of this study was to explore how and for what purposes indicator-based feedback is used by the general...... practitioners (GPs) and how they perceive it to contribute to their work. METHODS: Qualitative interviews with nine GPs in two regions in Denmark. The main selection criterion was that the informants had experience with retrieving electronic feedback. The data generation was explorative and open......-ended and the analysis took an iterative approach with continuous refinement of themes that emerged from the data. RESULTS: The study identified two main uses of feedback: i) Administration of a regular disease control schedule for patients with chronic disease and ii) Routine monitoring of outcomes for purposes...

  16. New methods of determination of the total electron content in the transverse zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keroub, I.H.

    1976-01-01

    New methods for the determination of T.E.C. in the transverse zone are developed in the present study. The methods are mainly based on a rigorous calculation of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in an anisotropic geophysical plasma. The methods are described according to the recorded information (satellitic frequencies, universal time) involved in their utilization. Finally, it is show how to apply these methods to any station situated at a geomagnetic latitude comparable with that of Haifa by way of a suitable treatment of the available information

  17. Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Eric P.

    1994-01-01

    A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer.

  18. Electron beam based transversal profile measurements of intense ion beams; Elektronenstrahl-Diagnostik zur Bestimmung vom transversalen Profil intensiver Ionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moussati, Said

    2014-11-03

    A non-invasive diagnostic method for the experimental determination of the transverse profile of an intense ion beam has been developed and investigated theoretically as well as experimentally within the framework of the present work. The method is based on the deflection of electrons when passing the electromagnetic field of an ion beam. To achieve this an electron beam is employed with a specifically prepared transversal profile. This distinguish this method from similar ones which use thin electron beams for scanning the electromagnetic field [Roy et al. 2005; Blockland10]. The diagnostic method presented in this work will be subsequently called ''Electron-Beam-Imaging'' (EBI). First of all the influence of the electromagnetic field of the ion beam on the electrons has been theoretically analyzed. It was found that the magnetic field causes only a shift of the electrons along the ion beam axis, while the electric field only causes a shift in a plane transverse to the ion beam. Moreover, in the non-relativistic case the magnetic force is significantly smaller than the Coulomb one and the electrons suffer due to the magnetic field just a shift and continue to move parallel to their initial trajectory. Under the influence of the electric field, the electrons move away from the ion beam axis, their resulting trajectory shows a specific angle compared to the original direction. This deflection angle practically depends just on the electric field of the ion beam. Thus the magnetic field has been neglected when analysing the experimental data. The theoretical model provides a relationship between the deflection angle of the electrons and the charge distribution in the cross section of the ion beam. The model however only can be applied for small deflection angles. This implies a relationship between the line-charge density of the ion beam and the initial kinetic energy of the electrons. Numerical investigations have been carried out to clarify the

  19. Analysing tutor feedback to students: first steps towards constructing an electronic monitoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Whitelock

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Learning Environments provide the possibility of offering additional support to tutors, monitors and students in writing and grading essays and reports. They enable monitors to focus on the assignments that need most attention. This paper reports the findings from phase one of a feasibility study to assist the monitoring of student essays. It analyses tutor comments from electronically marked assignments and investigates how they match the mark awarded to each essay by the tutor. This involved carrying out a category analysis of the tutors' feedback to the students using Bales's 'interactional categories' as a theoretical basis. The advantage of this category system is that it distinguishes between task-orientated contributions, and the 'socio-emotive' element used by tutors to maintain student motivation. This reveals both how the tutor makes recommendations to improve the assignment content, and how they provide emotional support to students. Bales's analysis was presented to a group of tutors who felt an electronic feedback system based on this model would help them to get the right balance of responses to their students. These findings provide a modest start to designing a model of feedback for tutors of distance education students. Future work will entail refining these categories and testing this model with a larger sample from a different subject domain.

  20. Dispersion characteristics of anisotropic unmagnetized ultra-relativistic transverse plasma wave with arbitrary electron degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, M.; Farooq, H.; Abbas, G.; Noureen, S.; Iqbal, Z.; Rasheed, A.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal momentum space anisotropy is ubiquitous in many astrophysical and laboratory plasma environments. Using Vlasov-Maxwell's model equations, a generalized polarization tensor for a collisionless ultra-relativistic unmagnetized electron plasma is derived. In particular, the tensor is obtained by considering anisotropy in the momentum space. The integral of moments of Fermi-Dirac distribution function in terms of Polylog functions is used for describing the border line plasma systems (T/e TF e ≈1 ) comprising arbitrary electron degeneracy, where Te and TF e, are thermal and Fermi temperatures, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of variation in thermal momentum space anisotropy on the electron equilibrium number density and the spectrum of electromagnetic waves are analyzed.

  1. Ultraviolet laser transverse profile shaping for improving x-ray free electron laser performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.; Alverson, S.; Bohler, D.; Egger, A.; Fry, A.

    2017-01-01

    The photocathode rf gun is one of the most critical components in x-ray free electron lasers. The drive laser strikes the photocathode surface, which emits electrons with properties that depend on the shape of the drive laser. Most free electron lasers use photocathodes with work function in the ultraviolet, a wavelength where direct laser manipulation becomes challenging. In this paper, we present a novel application of a digital micromirror device (DMD) for the 253 nm drive laser at the Linear Coherent Light Source. Laser profile shaping is accomplished through an iterative algorithm that takes into account shaping error and efficiency. Next, we use laser shaping to control the X-ray laser output via an online optimizer, which shows improvement in FEL pulse energy. Lastly, as a preparation for electron beam shaping, we use the DMD to measure the photocathode quantum efficiency across cathode surface with an averaged laser rms spot size of 59 μm. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate promising outlook of using DMD to shape ultraviolet lasers for photocathode rf guns with various applications.

  2. Ultraviolet laser transverse profile shaping for improving x-ray free electron laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Alverson, S.; Bohler, D.; Egger, A.; Fry, A.; Gilevich, S.; Huang, Z.; Miahnahri, A.; Ratner, D.; Robinson, J.; Zhou, F.

    2017-08-01

    The photocathode rf gun is one of the most critical components in x-ray free electron lasers. The drive laser strikes the photocathode surface, which emits electrons with properties that depend on the shape of the drive laser. Most free electron lasers use photocathodes with work function in the ultraviolet, a wavelength where direct laser manipulation becomes challenging. In this paper, we present a novel application of a digital micromirror device (DMD) for the 253 nm drive laser at the Linear Coherent Light Source. Laser profile shaping is accomplished through an iterative algorithm that takes into account shaping error and efficiency. Next, we use laser shaping to control the X-ray laser output via an online optimizer, which shows improvement in FEL pulse energy. Lastly, as a preparation for electron beam shaping, we use the DMD to measure the photocathode quantum efficiency across cathode surface with an averaged laser rms spot size of 59 μ m . Our experiments demonstrate promising outlook of using DMD to shape ultraviolet lasers for photocathode rf guns with various applications.

  3. Improvement of charged particles transport across a transverse magnetic filter field by electrostatic trapping of magnetized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B. K.; Hazarika, P.; Chakraborty, M.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2014-01-01

    A study on the transport of charged particles across a magnetic filter field has been carried out in a double plasma device (DPD) and presented in this manuscript. The DPD is virtually divided into two parts viz. source and target regions by a transverse magnetic field (TMF) which is constructed by inserting strontium ferrite magnets into two stainless steel rectangular tubes. Plasma electrons are magnetized but ions are unmagnetized inside the TMF region. Negative voltages are applied to the TMF tubes in order to reduce the loss of electrons towards them. Plasma is produced in the source region by filament discharge method and allowed to flow towards the target region through this negatively biased TMF. It is observed that in the target region, plasma density can be increased and electron temperature decreased with the help of negatively biased TMF. This observation is beneficial for negative ion source development. Plasma diffusion across the negatively biased TMF follows Bohm or anomalous diffusion process when negative bias voltage is very less. At higher negative bias, diffusion coefficient starts deviating from the Bohm diffusion value, associated with enhanced plasma flow in the target region

  4. Improvement of charged particles transport across a transverse magnetic filter field by electrostatic trapping of magnetized electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, B. K., E-mail: bdyt.ds@rediffmail.com; Hazarika, P.; Chakraborty, M. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Tepesia-782402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M., E-mail: mainak@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar-382025, Gujarat (India)

    2014-07-15

    A study on the transport of charged particles across a magnetic filter field has been carried out in a double plasma device (DPD) and presented in this manuscript. The DPD is virtually divided into two parts viz. source and target regions by a transverse magnetic field (TMF) which is constructed by inserting strontium ferrite magnets into two stainless steel rectangular tubes. Plasma electrons are magnetized but ions are unmagnetized inside the TMF region. Negative voltages are applied to the TMF tubes in order to reduce the loss of electrons towards them. Plasma is produced in the source region by filament discharge method and allowed to flow towards the target region through this negatively biased TMF. It is observed that in the target region, plasma density can be increased and electron temperature decreased with the help of negatively biased TMF. This observation is beneficial for negative ion source development. Plasma diffusion across the negatively biased TMF follows Bohm or anomalous diffusion process when negative bias voltage is very less. At higher negative bias, diffusion coefficient starts deviating from the Bohm diffusion value, associated with enhanced plasma flow in the target region.

  5. Tunable subpicosecond electron bunch train generation using a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.-E; /Fermilab; Piot, P.; Johnson, A.; /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U.; Lumpkin, A.H.; /Fermilab; Maxwell, T.J.; /Fermilab /Northern Illinois U.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    We report on the experimental generation of a train of subpicosecond electron bunches. The bunch train generation is accomplished using a beamline capable of exchanging the coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. An initial beam consisting of a set of horizontally-separated beamlets is converted into a train of bunches temporally separated with tunable bunch duration and separation. The experiment reported in this Letter unambiguously demonstrates the conversion process and its versatility.

  6. Artificial Heliotropism and Nyctinasty Based on Optomechanical Feedback and No Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytekin, Bilge; Cezan, S Doruk; Baytekin, H Tarık; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2018-02-01

    Although plants are typically not considered an inspiration for designing motile robots, they do perform a variety of intricate motion patterns, including diurnal cycles of sun tracking (heliotropism) and leaf opening (nyctinasty). In real plants, these motions are controlled by complex, feedback-based biological mechanisms that, to date, have been mimicked only in computer-controlled artificial systems. This work demonstrates both heliotropism and nyctinasty in a system in which few simple, but strategically positioned thermo-responsive springs and lenses form a feedback loop controlling these motions and substantiating a behavioral analogy to "plants." In particular, this feedback allows the "artificial plant" to reach and stabilize at a metastable position in which the solar flux on the "plants" and the solar power "leaves" are maximized. Unlike many soft robotic systems, our "plants" are completely autonomous, in that, they do not require any external controls or power sources. Bioinspired designs such as this could be of interest for soft robotic systems in which materials alone-rather than power-consuming electronic circuitry-control the motions.

  7. Orbits of two electrons released from rest in a uniform transverse magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2018-03-01

    Two identical charged particles released from rest repel each other radially. A uniform perpendicular magnetic field will then cause their trajectories to curve into a flower petal pattern. The orbit of each particle is approximately circular with a long period for a strong magnetic field, whereas it becomes a figure-eight for a weak magnetic field with each lobe completed in a cyclotron period. For example, such radially bound motions arise for two-dimensional electron gases. The level of treatment is appropriate for an undergraduate calculus-based electromagnetism course.

  8. Search for new physics in final states with a high energy electron and large missing transverse energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuh, Natascha

    2017-01-13

    The most successful and comprehensive theory describing the microcosm is the Standard Model of particle physics (SM). It comprises all known elementary particles and describes in high precision the basic processes of three of the four fundamental interactions. But still, not all experimental observations and theoretical challenges are covered. Many models exist that take the SM as a good approximation of natural phenomena in already discovered energy regions, but extend it in various ways. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provides the opportunity to look into these high energy regions using proton-proton collisions at significantly higher center-of-mass energies than previous experiments. This dissertation searches for physics beyond the SM especially in final states with one highly energetic electron (respectively positron) and large missing transverse energy. With the data set recorded in 2012 by the ATLAS detector, a large multi-purpose detector making use of the LHC, the spectrum of the related combined transverse mass can be measured up to the TeV scale. To find any evidence to the existence of new physics beyond the SM, it was searched for significant deviations between the observed data and the expectations due to SM processes. Unfortunately, no significant excess could be observed and exclusion limits in the context of three different new physics scenarios are provided. Besides a so-called Sequential Standard Model (SSM) predicting additional vector gauge bosons, also the possible existence of (charged) chiral bosons is analyzed. Also inferences about dark matter candidates called ''weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)'' are drawn. With the aid of a Bayesian ansatz, the observed (expected) exclusion limit on the boson pole mass is set to 3.13 TeV(3.13 TeV) for a SSM W' boson and to 3.08 TeV(3.08 TeV) for charged chiral W{sup *} bosons (at 95% C.L.).

  9. Next-generation audit and feedback for inpatient quality improvement using electronic health record data: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sajan; Rajkomar, Alvin; Harrison, James D; Prasad, Priya A; Valencia, Victoria; Ranji, Sumant R; Mourad, Michelle

    2018-03-05

    Audit and feedback improves clinical care by highlighting the gap between current and ideal practice. We combined best practices of audit and feedback with continuously generated electronic health record data to improve performance on quality metrics in an inpatient setting. We conducted a cluster randomised control trial comparing intensive audit and feedback with usual audit and feedback from February 2016 to June 2016. The study subjects were internal medicine teams on the teaching service at an urban tertiary care hospital. Teams in the intensive feedback arm received access to a daily-updated team-based data dashboard as well as weekly inperson review of performance data ('STAT rounds'). The usual feedback arm received ongoing twice-monthly emails with graphical depictions of team performance on selected quality metrics. The primary outcome was performance on a composite discharge metric (Discharge Mix Index, 'DMI'). A washout period occurred at the end of the trial (from May through June 2016) during which STAT rounds were removed from the intensive feedback arm. A total of 40 medicine teams participated in the trial. During the intervention period, the primary outcome of completion of the DMI was achieved on 79.3% (426/537) of patients in the intervention group compared with 63.2% (326/516) in the control group (Paudit and feedback using timely data and STAT rounds significantly increased performance on a composite discharge metric compared with usual feedback. With the cessation of STAT rounds, performance between the intensive and usual feedback groups did not differ significantly, highlighting the importance of feedback delivery on effecting change. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02593253). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. A systematic review of electronic audit and feedback: intervention effectiveness and use of behaviour change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuti, Timothy; Nzinga, Jacinta; Njoroge, Martin; Brown, Benjamin; Peek, Niels; English, Mike; Paton, Chris; van der Veer, Sabine N

    2017-05-12

    Audit and feedback is a common intervention for supporting clinical behaviour change. Increasingly, health data are available in electronic format. Yet, little is known regarding if and how electronic audit and feedback (e-A&F) improves quality of care in practice. The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of e-A&F interventions in a primary care and hospital context and to identify theoretical mechanisms of behaviour change underlying these interventions. In August 2016, we searched five electronic databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE via Ovid, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for published randomised controlled trials. We included studies that evaluated e-A&F interventions, defined as a summary of clinical performance delivered through an interactive computer interface to healthcare providers. Data on feedback characteristics, underlying theoretical domains, effect size and risk of bias were extracted by two independent review authors, who determined the domains within the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). We performed a meta-analysis of e-A&F effectiveness, and a narrative analysis of the nature and patterns of TDF domains and potential links with the intervention effect. We included seven studies comprising of 81,700 patients being cared for by 329 healthcare professionals/primary care facilities. Given the extremely high heterogeneity of the e-A&F interventions and five studies having a medium or high risk of bias, the average effect was deemed unreliable. Only two studies explicitly used theory to guide intervention design. The most frequent theoretical domains targeted by the e-A&F interventions included 'knowledge', 'social influences', 'goals' and 'behaviour regulation', with each intervention targeting a combination of at least three. None of the interventions addressed the domains 'social/professional role and identity' or 'emotion'. Analyses identified the number of different domains coded in control arm to have the biggest

  11. Kinetic transverse dispersion relation for relativistic magnetized electron-positron plasmas with Maxwell-Jüttner velocity distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Valdivia, J. Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We use a kinetic treatment to study the linear transverse dispersion relation for a magnetized isotropic relativistic electron-positron plasma with finite relativistic temperature. The explicit linear dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves propagating along a constant background magnetic field is presented, including an analytical continuation to the whole complex frequency plane for the case of Maxwell-Jüttner velocity distribution functions. This dispersion relation is studied numerically for various temperatures. For left-handed solutions, the system presents two branches, the electromagnetic ordinary mode and the Alfvén mode. In the low frequency regime, the Alfvén branch has two dispersive zones, the normal zone (where ∂ω/∂k > 0) and an anomalous zone (where ∂ω/∂k < 0). We find that in the anomalous zone of the Alfvén branch, the electromagnetic waves are damped, and there is a maximum wave number for which the Alfvén branch is suppressed. We also study the dependence of the Alfvén velocity and effective plasma frequency with the temperature. We complemented the analytical and numerical approaches with relativistic full particle simulations, which consistently agree with the analytical results

  12. Measurement of transverse emittance at the source of spin-polarized electrons at the S-DALINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, Christian; Barday, Roman; Bonnes, Uwe; Eichhorn, Ralf; Enders, Joachim; Hessler, Christoph; Patalakha, Oleksandr; Platz, Markus; Poltoratska, Yuliya; Rick, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Ackermann, Wolfgang; Mueller, Wolfgang F.O.; Steiner, Bastian; Weiland, Thomas [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A new injector concept for 100 keV spin-polarized electrons (SPIN) at the S-DALINAC has been developed. The transverse emittance was measured for beam characterization. The emittance is a quantity concerning the quality of the beam, describing the phase space area. Determination of the emittance requires measurement of the beam profile and knowledge of the focal length of a beam focussing device. A wire scanner unit consisting of two 50 {mu}m diameter tungsten wires is used for the beam-profile measurement. Data analysis is performed by fitting a gaussian model distribution to estimate the 1{sigma} beam radius. Each determined beam width is correlated to the corresponding focal length of a magnetic lens, and a parabola fit is applied to calculate the parameters of the {sigma}-matrix. The square root of the determinant of the {sigma}-matrix defines the emittance. The results of the calculation are presented and the emittance is compared to theoretical estimates.

  13. Transverse electron polarization in the neutron decay - Direct search for scalar and tensor couplings in weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodek, Kazimierz

    2012-09-01

    The Standard Model (SM) predictions of T-violation for weak decays of systems built up of u and d quarks are by 7 to 10 orders of magnitude lower than the experimental accuracies attainable at present. It is a general presumption that time reversal phenomena are caused by a tiny admixture of exotic interaction terms. Therefore, weak decays provide a favorable testing ground in a search for such feeble forces. Physics with very slow, polarized neutrons has a great potential in this respect. An experiment seeking for small deviations from the SM in two observables, N and R, that are for the first time addressed experimentally in free neutron decay and that are exclusively sensitive to real and imaginary parts of the same linear combination of the scalar and tensor interaction coupling constants has been completed at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. The analysis of the experimental data has been completed recently leading to, among others, the best direct constraint for the imaginary part of the R-parity violating MSSM contribution. The success of the applied technique results in a new project devoted to the simultaneous measurement of seven correlation coefficients: H, L, N, R, S, U and V. Five of them (H, L, S, U and V) have never before been measured in weak decays. Such a systematic exploration of the transverse electron polarization will generate from the neutron decay alone a complete set of constraints for the real and imaginary parts of the weak scalar and tensor interactions on the level of 5 × 10-4 or better.

  14. Transverse acceptance calculation for continuous ion beam injection into the electron beam ion trap charge breeder of the ReA post-accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittimanapun, K., E-mail: kritsadak@slri.or.th [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI), 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Baumann, T.M.; Lapierre, A.; Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Bollen, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The ReA post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) employs an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) as a charge breeder. A Monte-Carlo simulation code was developed to calculate the transverse acceptance phase space of the EBIT for continuously injected ion beams and to determine the capture efficiency in dependence of the transverse beam emittance. For this purpose, the code records the position and time of changes in charge state of injected ions, leading either to capture or loss of ions. To benchmark and validate the code, calculated capture efficiencies were compared with results from a geometrical model and measurements. The results of the code agree with the experimental findings within a few 10%. The code predicts a maximum total capture efficiency of 50% for EBIT parameters readily achievable and an efficiency of up to 80% for an electron beam current density of 1900 A/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Just-in-Time or Plenty-of-Time Teaching? Different Electronic Feedback Devices and Their Effect on Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Martinez, Brandon; Seli, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how incorporating different electronic feedback devices (i.e., clickers versus web-based polling) may affect specific types of student engagement (i.e., behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement), whether students' self-efficacy for learning and performance may differ between courses that have integrated clickers and…

  16. Self-modulation of an intense electron beam in an injector of a linac with a feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajzatskij, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the analysis of the time structure of the beam versus the RF power supplied to the injector of the linac with a feedback. Using a nonstationary model of acceleration, we have performed a mathematical simulation of the dynamics of prebunched electron beam acceleration. The results of the mathematical simulation demonstrate that in the self-modulation acceleration regime of a linac with feedbacks there exists a possibility of adjusting the current pulse length, the pulse-to-pulse time being nearly the same. 4 refs., 2 figs

  17. Beam based feedback for the Linac coherent light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairley, D.; Kim, K.; Luchini, K; Natampalli, P.; Piccoli, L.; Rogind, D.; Straumann, T.

    2012-01-01

    Beam-based feedback control loops are required by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) program in order to provide fast, single-pulse stabilization of beam parameters. Eight transverse feedback loops, a 6*6 longitudinal feedback loop, and a loop to maintain the electron bunch charge have been commissioned on the LCLS, and have been maintaining stability of the LCLS electron beam at beam rates up to 120 Hz. This paper will discuss the design, configuration and commissioning of the beam-based Fast Feedback System for LCLS. Topics include algorithms for 120 Hz feedback, multi-cast network performance, actuator and sensor performance for single-pulse control and sensor read back, and feedback configuration and run-time control. (authors)

  18. Measurement of the Z boson differential cross-section in transverse momentum in the electron-positron channel with the ATLAS detector at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Homero

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the measurement of the Z boson differential cross section in transverse momentum (p T Z ), in the electron-positron decay channel, using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurement is done using 4.64 fb -1 of proton-proton collision data, collected in 2011 at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The result is combined with an independent measurement done in the muon-anti-muon decay channel. The measurement is done up to p T Z = 800 GeV, and has a typical uncertainty of 0.5 % for transverse momentum below 60 GeV, rising up to 5 % towards the end of the spectrum. The measurement is compared to theoretical models and Monte Carlo generators predictions. (author) [fr

  19. The effect of electronic monitoring feedback on medication adherence and clinical outcomes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heuckelum, Milou; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Houterman, Anne E J; Heemskerk, Charlotte P M; van Dulmen, Sandra; van den Bemt, Bart J F

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to assess the efficacy of Electronic Monitoring Feedback (EMF) as an intervention to improve medication adherence (i.e. dose- or full adherence) and clinical outcomes in adult patients. A systematic search was performed in Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science and reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing EMF with usual care were identified to systematically summarise the evidence for use of EMF in improving medication adherence and clinical outcomes. The GRADE approach was used to assess the quality of the body of evidence. Of 9,993 initially-identified studies, ten studies (four of high-quality and six of low-quality) were included. The sample size of the studies included varied from 18 to 205 patients. Four of the six studies (66.7%) reported a significant positive effect of EMF on mean dose adherence levels, whereas a significant positive effect of EMF on mean full adherence levels was found in all of the included studies (100%, five out of five of the studies included). A significant positive effect of EMF on clinical outcomes was reported in one of the seven studies included. The overall effect of EMF on mean dose- and full adherence was positive and the overall effect of EMF on clinical outcomes was inconclusive. Considering the positive effect of EMF on medication adherence, EMF might be a promising intervention to enhance medication adherence. However, the effect of EMF on clinical outcomes was inconclusive. Prior to implementing EMF in clinical practice, future research with high-quality studies (e.g. adequate sample sizes, follow-up periods and no interfering co-interventions) is required to examine the (long-term) efficacy of EMF.

  20. Single transverse mode protein laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Itir Bakis; Min, Kyungtaek; Umar, Muhammad; Bahmani Jalali, Houman; Begar, Efe; Conkar, Deniz; Firat Karalar, Elif Nur; Kim, Sunghwan; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2017-12-01

    Here, we report a single transverse mode distributed feedback (DFB) protein laser. The gain medium that is composed of enhanced green fluorescent protein in a silk fibroin matrix yields a waveguiding gain layer on a DFB resonator. The thin TiO2 layer on the quartz grating improves optical feedback due to the increased effective refractive index. The protein laser shows a single transverse mode lasing at the wavelength of 520 nm with the threshold level of 92.1 μJ/ mm2.

  1. Transversity 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Vincenzo; Ratcliffe, Philip G.

    Introduction. Purpose and status of the Italian Transversity Project / F. Bradamante -- Opening lecture. Transversity / M. Anselmino -- Experimental lectures. Azimuthal single-spin asymmetries from polarized and unpolarized hydrogen targets at HERMES / G. Schnell (for the HERMES Collaboration). Collins and Sivers asymmetries on the deuteron from COMPASS data / I. Horn (for the COMPASS Collaboration). First measurement of interference fragmentation on a transversely polarized hydrogen target / P. B. van der Nat (for the HERMES Collaboration). Two-hadron asymmetries at the COMPASS experiment / A. Mielech (for the COMPASS Collaboration). Measurements of chiral-odd fragmentation functions at Belle / R. Seidl ... [et al.]. Lambda asymmetries / A. Ferrero (for the COMPASS Collaboration). Transverse spin at PHENIX: results and prospects / C. Aidala (for the PHENIX Collaboration). Transverse spin and RHIC / L. Bland. Studies of transverse spin effects at JLab / H. Avakian ... [et al.] (for the CLAS Collaboration). Neutron transversity at Jefferson Lab / J. P. Chen ... [et al.] (for the Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration). PAX: polarized antiproton experiments / M. Contalbrigo. Single and double spin N-N interactions at GSI / M. Maggiora (for the ASSIA Collaboration). Spin filtering in storage rings / N. N. Nikolaev & F. F. Pavlov -- Theory lectures. Single-spin asymmetries and transversity in QCD / S. J. Brodsky. The relativistic hydrogen atom: a theoretical laboratory for structure functions / X. Artru & K. Benhizia. GPD's and SSA's / M. Burkardt. Time reversal odd distribution functions in chiral models / A. Drago. Soffer bound and transverse spin densities from lattice QCD / M. Diehl ... [et al.]. Single-spin asymmetries and Qiu-Sterman effect(s) / A. Bacchetta. Sivers function: SIDIS data, fits and predictions / M. Anselmino ... [et al.]. Twist-3 effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering / M. Schlegel, K. Goeke & A. Metz. Quark and gluon Sivers functions / I

  2. [Study of the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field on the dose distribution of high energy electron beam using Monte Carlo method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shihu; Xu, Yun; Wu, Zhangwen; Hou, Qing; Guo, Chengjun

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations were employed to study the characteristics of the dose distribution of high energy electron beam in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field. The simulations carried out the transport processes of the 30 MeV electron beam in the homogeneous water phantom with different magnetic field. It was found that the dose distribution of the 30 MeV electron beam had changed significantly because of the magnetic field. The result showed that the range of the electron beam was decreased obviously and it formed a very high dose peak at the end of the range, and the ratio of maximum dose to the dose of the surface was greatly increased. The results of this study demonstrated that we could change the depth dose distribution of electron beam which is analogous to the heavy ion by modulating the energy of the electron and magnetic field. It means that using magnetic fields in conjunction with electron radiation therapy has great application prospect, but it also has brought new challenges for the research of dose algorithm.

  3. Passive mode locking and formation of dissipative solitons in electron oscillators with a bleaching absorber in the feedback loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N. S., E-mail: ginzburg@appl.sci-nnov.ru; Kocharovskaya, E. R.; Vilkov, M. N.; Sergeev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The mechanisms of passive mode locking and formation of ultrashort pulses in microwave electron oscillators with a bleaching absorber in the feedback loop have been analyzed. It is shown that in the group synchronism regime in which the translational velocity of particles coincides with the group velocity of the electromagnetic wave, the pulse formation can be described by the equations known in the theory of dissipative solitons. At the same time, the regimes in which the translational velocity of electrons differs from the group velocity and the soliton being formed and moving along the electron beam consecutively (cumulatively) receives energy from various electron fractions are optimal for generating pulses with the maximal peak amplitudes.

  4. [Transversal problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Mendoza, A; Solano Reina, E

    1990-04-01

    In this worn we introduce the alterations of the occlusion in the horizontal level or transversal problems, in which lateral crossed bites appear, either with or without a deviation of the medium line, underlying its differential diagnostic and guide lines treatment through several different clinic cases.

  5. Developing a patient-led electronic feedback system for quality and safety within Renal PatientView.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Sally J; Reynolds, Caroline; Heyhoe, Jane; Armitage, Gerry

    2017-03-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that patients can provide direct feedback about the quality and safety of their care through patient reporting systems. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of patients, healthcare professionals and researchers working in partnership to develop a patient-led quality and safety feedback system within an existing electronic health record (EHR), known as Renal PatientView (RPV). Phase 1 (inception) involved focus groups (n = 9) and phase 2 (requirements) involved cognitive walkthroughs (n = 34) and 1:1 qualitative interviews (n = 34) with patients and healthcare professionals. A Joint Services Expert Panel (JSP) was convened to review the findings from phase 1 and agree the core principles and components of the system prototype. Phase 1 data were analysed using a thematic approach. Data from phase 1 were used to inform the design of the initial system prototype. Phase 2 data were analysed using the components of heuristic evaluation, resulting in a list of core principles and components for the final system prototype. Phase 1 identified four main barriers and facilitators to patients feeding back on quality and safety concerns. In phase 2, the JSP agreed that the system should be based on seven core principles and components. Stakeholders were able to work together to identify core principles and components for an electronic patient quality and safety feedback system in renal services. Tensions arose due to competing priorities, particularly around anonymity and feedback. Careful consideration should be given to the feasibility of integrating a novel element with differing priorities into an established system with existing functions and objectives. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  6. Efficient generation of short and high-power x-ray free-electron-laser pulses based on superradiance with a transversely tilted beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Prat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs are innovative research tools able to produce high-power and short radiation pulses for multiple scientific applications. We present a new method to produce XFEL radiation with much higher power and shorter pulse lengths than the ones obtained at standard XFEL facilities. This will enable new kinds of experiments in scientific fields such as nonlinear optics and bioimaging. The scheme is based on introducing a transverse tilt to the electron beam, thus limiting the fraction of the bunch able to produce XFEL radiation. In the first part of the undulator beam line only the tail of the electron bunch lases. Then, by properly delaying and correcting the trajectory of the electron beam between some undulator modules, all the electrons can contribute to the amplification of a very short XFEL pulse. Apart from being efficient, our method is flexible since by tuning the tilt amplitude one can obtain shorter or more energetic XFEL pulses. The scheme can readily be applied since, besides the standard components of an XFEL facility, it only needs small chicanes between certain undulator modules. We have confirmed the validity of our proposal with numerical simulations done for the SwissFEL case.

  7. Transverse Dynamics and Energy Tuning of Fast Electrons Generated in Sub-Relativistic Intensity Laser Pulse Interaction with Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, M.; Kando, M.; Daito, I.; Kotaki, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Yamazaki, A.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Koga, J.; Nakajima, K.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kimura, T.

    2006-01-01

    The regimes of quasi-mono-energetic electron beam generation were experimentally studied in the sub-relativistic intensity laser plasma interaction. The observed electron acceleration regime is unfolded with two-dimensional-particle-in-cell simulations of laser-wakefield generation in the self-modulation regime.

  8. Transverse dynamics and energy tuning of fast electrons generated in sub-relativistic intensity laser pulse interaction with plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, M. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)]. E-mail: mori.michiaki@jaea.go.jp; Kando, M. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Daito, I. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Kotaki, H. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Yamazaki, A. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Ogura, K. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Sagisaka, A. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Koga, J. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Nakajima, K. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Daido, H. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Bulanov, S.V.; Kimura, T. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai 8-1, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2006-07-31

    The regimes of quasi-monoenergetic electron beam generation were experimentally studied in the sub-relativistic intensity laser plasma interaction. The observed electron acceleration regime is unfolded with two-dimensional-particle-in-cell simulations of laser-wakefield generation in the self-modulation regime.

  9. Transverse myelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, M.J.; Motaghedi, B.; Robitaille, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Transverse myelitis is a known complication of radiation treatment for carcinoma of the heat and neck. In a five year period, 1970 to 1975, 120 patients with head and neck cancer received radiation as part of their treatment in this hospital. A review of the records of these patients showed only two cases of myelitis, an incidence of about 2%. This paper reviews the clinical syndrome; treatment and preventive measures are discussed and a survey of the literature is presented

  10. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) beam...... for the control of plasma instabilities this line-of-sight ECE diagnostic removes the need to localize the instabilities in absolute coordinates. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  11. Observation of transverse and longitudinal modes in non-neutral electron clouds confined in a magnetic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhouse, S.; Fisher, A.; Rostoker, N.

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic modes on non-neutral electron clouds confined in a magnetic mirror field have been investigated. The cloud contains 2 x 10 11 electrons at an average kinetic energy of 0.3 MeV for a magnetic field with a peak intensity of 9 kG at the midplane. It was found that the cloud is moving azimuthally as well as longitudinally. The azimuthal motion has an m=1 spatial nature. The longitudinal modes have a more complicated nature, but their frequency equals that of the azimuthal mode

  12. Danish Claims Data Indicators for Electronic Feedback in Oral-Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Kasper; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Listl, Stefan

    Objectives: As part of the “Added Value for Oral Care” (ADVOCATE) project; this subproject aims to construct a preliminary set of indicators of dental clinic service delivery profiles, to be used in a pilot “dashboard.” The dashboard will provide feedback and mirror information about dental care...... adults (age range 18-106 years), who saw a dentist during 2014, n=2,703,442 corresponding to 61% of eligible adults, were obtained from the Danish Health Authority. Approval was granted from the Danish Data Protection Agency. Results: The following indicators of dental clinic service delivery profiles...

  13. Effects of correlations between particle longitudinal positions and transverse plane on bunch length measurement: a case study on GBS electron LINAC at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, L.; Arpaia, P.; Cianchi, A.; Liccardo, A.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Variola, A.

    2018-02-01

    In high-brightness LINear ACcelerators (LINACs), electron bunch length can be measured indirectly by a radio frequency deflector (RFD). In this paper, the accuracy loss arising from non-negligible correlations between particle longitudinal positions and the transverse plane (in particular the vertical one) at RFD entrance is analytically assessed. Theoretical predictions are compared with simulation results, obtained by means of ELEctron Generation ANd Tracking (ELEGANT) code, in the case study of the gamma beam system (GBS) at the extreme light infrastructure—nuclear physics (ELI-NP). In particular, the relative error affecting the bunch length measurement, for bunches characterized by both energy chirp and fixed correlation coefficients between longitudinal particle positions and the vertical plane, is reported. Moreover, the relative error versus the correlation coefficients is shown for fixed RFD phase 0 rad and π rad. The relationship between relative error and correlations factors can help the decision of using the bunch length measurement technique with one or two vertical spot size measurements in order to cancel the correlations contribution. In the case of the GBS electron LINAC, the misalignment of one of the quadrupoles before the RFD between  ‑2 mm and 2 mm leads to a relative error less than 5%. The misalignment of the first C-band accelerating section between  ‑2 mm and 2 mm could lead to a relative error up to 10%.

  14. Tunable Subpicosecond Electron-Bunch-Train Generation Using a Transverse-To-Longitudinal Phase-Space Exchange Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-E; Piot, P.; Maxwell, T. J.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the experimental generation of a train of subpicosecond electron bunches. The bunch train generation is accomplished using a beam line capable of exchanging the coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. An initial beam consisting of a set of horizontally separated beamlets is converted into a train of bunches temporally separated with tunable bunch duration and separation. The experiment reported in this Letter unambiguously demonstrates the conversion process and its versatility.

  15. Beam-based Feedback for the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairley, D.; Allison, S.; Chevtsov, S.; Chu, P.; Decker, F.J.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Himel, T.; Kim, K.; Krejcik, P.; Loos, H.; Lahey, T.; Natampalli, P.; Peng, S.; Rogind, D.; Shoaee, H.; Straumann, T.; Williams, E.; White, G.; Wu, J.; Zelazney, M.; /SLAC

    2010-02-11

    Beam-based feedback control loops are required by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) program in order to provide fast, single-pulse stabilization of beam parameters. Eight transverse feedback loops, a 6 x 6 longitudinal feedback loop, and a loop to maintain the electron bunch charge were successfully prototyped in MATLAB for the LCLS, and have been maintaining stability of the LCLS electron beam at beam rates up to 30Hz. In the final commissioning phase of LCLS the beam will be operating at up to 120Hz. In order to run the feedback loops at beam rate, the feedback loops will be implemented in EPICS IOCs with a dedicated ethernet multi-cast network. This paper will discuss the design of the beam-based Fast Feedback System for LCLS. Topics include MATLAB feedback prototyping, algorithm for 120Hz feedback, network design for fast data transport, actuator and sensor design for single-pulse control and sensor readback, and feedback configuration and runtime control.

  16. Search for a heavy gauge boson W' in the final state with an electron and large missing transverse energy in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hartl, Christian; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Cerny, Karel; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Ming; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Rykaczewski, Hans; Assran, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Masetti, Gianni; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Srivastava, Ajay Kumar; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Sharma, Richa; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gresele, Ambra; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Passaseo, Marina; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H.; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Sá Martins, Pedro; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Duarte Ramos, Fernando; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hesketh, Gavin; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Tsyganov, Andrey; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Clough, Andrew; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Quertenmont, Loic; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Kaadze, Ketino; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A search for a heavy gauge boson W' has been conducted by the CMS experiment at the LHC in the decay channel with an electron and large transverse energy imbalance, using proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. No excess above standard model expectations is seen in the transverse mass distribution of the electron-(missing E_T) system. Assuming standard-model-like couplings and decay branching fractions, a W' boson with a mass less than 1.36 TeV/$c^2$ is excluded at 95% confidence level.

  17. A Trial of electronic surveillance feedback for quality improvement at Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders (NICHE) hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Heidi L; Bandle, Brian; Richard, Angela A; Min, Sung-Joon; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) risk is directly related to duration of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs), rising beyond 2 days of catheterization. We conducted a cluster randomized study in nonintensive care units of Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders (NICHE) hospitals. Electronic surveillance data were used in an audit and feedback intervention for frontline nurses to reduce IUC duration. Multivariable methods were used to identify the difference in average IUC duration and proportion of patients with IUC duration hospital characteristics. A total of 24 units at 19 NICHE hospitals reported 13,499 adult patients with IUCs over 18 months. Early and delayed intervention groups had important baseline differences in IUC utilization. Use of evidence-based CAUTI prevention measures increased during study participation. In multivariable analysis, the average IUC duration and proportion of patients with IUC duration Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulation of a Feedback System for the Attenuation of e-Cloud Driven Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M.A.; Fox, J.; Rivetta, C.; de Maria, R.; Rumolo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Electron clouds impose limitations on current accelerators that may be more severe for future machines, unless adequate measures of mitigation are taken. Recently, it has been proposed to use feedback systems operating at high frequency (in the GHz range) to damp single-bunch transverse coherent oscillations that may otherwise be amplified during the interaction of the beam with ambient electron clouds. We have used the simulation package WARP-POSINST and the code Headtail to study the growth rate and frequency patterns in space-time of the electron cloud driven beam breakup instability in the CERN SPS accelerator with, or without, an idealized feedback model for damping the instability.

  19. Study of the experience feedback relating to ageing of electronic components and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, G.; Henry, J.Y.

    1992-11-01

    This study was conducted on electronic components and electrical cables taken from the Brennilis EL4 reactor, during dismantling, after 18 years of operation. Its aim was to examine the state of the equipment taken from the site and thus to check its characteristics and in particular for cables: to check, whenever possible, the suitability of the accelerated ageing methods by comparing the characteristics observed on the samples from EL4 with test samples held in storage and previously subjected to similar accelerated ageing: predicting medium and long-term ageing by extrapolation from the selected mathematical model. The result of this initial work confirmed the need for extreme caution regarding the accelerated ageing methods. Further work on cables and polymers is underway and will enable the laws currently used for qualification tests to be evaluated

  20. Correction to: Impact of an electronic monitoring device and behavioural feedback on adherence to multiple sclerosis therapies in youth: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, E Ann; Grover, Stephanie A; Powell, Victoria E; Alper, Gulay; Banwell, Brenda L; Edwards, Kim; Gorman, Mark; Graves, Jennifer; Lotze, Timothy E; Mah, Jean K; Mednick, Lauren; Ness, Jayne; Obadia, Maya; Slater, Ruth; Waldman, Amy; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Schwartz, Carolyn E

    2017-12-23

    The clinicaltrials.gov identifying number for the article titled "Impact of an electronic monitoring device and behavioral feedback on adherence to multiple sclerosis therapies in youth: results of a randomized trial" is NCT02234713 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02234713).

  1. Direct atomic fabrication and dopant positioning in Si using electron beams with active real-time image-based feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen; Hudak, Bethany M; Zarkadoula, Eva; Song, Jiaming; Maksov, Artem; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Kravchenko, Ivan; Snijders, Panchapakesan C; Lupini, Andrew R; Borisevich, Albina Y; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2018-06-22

    Semiconductor fabrication is a mainstay of modern civilization, enabling the myriad applications and technologies that underpin everyday life. However, while sub-10 nanometer devices are already entering the mainstream, the end of the Moore's law roadmap still lacks tools capable of bulk semiconductor fabrication on sub-nanometer and atomic levels, with probe-based manipulation being explored as the only known pathway. Here we demonstrate that the atomic-sized focused beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope can be used to manipulate semiconductors such as Si on the atomic level, inducing growth of crystalline Si from the amorphous phase, reentrant amorphization, milling, and dopant front motion. These phenomena are visualized in real-time with atomic resolution. We further implement active feedback control based on real-time image analytics to automatically control the e-beam motion, enabling shape control and providing a pathway for atom-by-atom correction of fabricated structures in the near future. These observations open a new epoch for atom-by-atom manufacturing in bulk, the long-held dream of nanotechnology.

  2. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  3. Electron-cyclotron maser utilizing free-electron two-quantum magnetic-wiggler radiation, and explanation of effective laser injection in an electron cyclotron maser as lift-up of saturated power level arisen from uncertainty in electron energy due to electron's transverse wiggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    We reason that in the free-electron radiation if the transition rate τ is less than the radiation frequency ν, the radiation is of broad-band spectrum whereas if τ ≫ ν, the radiation is of monochromatic. We find that when a weaker magnetic wiggler (MW) is superpositioned on a predominantly strong uniform magnetic field, free-electron two-quantum magnetic-wiggler (FETQMW) radiation takes place. In FETQMW radiation, the MW and the electron's intrinsic motivity to change its internal configuration through radiation play as two first-order perturbers while the uniform magnetic field acts as the sole zeroth-order perturber. When Δ E≪ hν, where Δ E is the uncertainty in the electron energy produced by transverse wiggling due to the MW in conjuction with a Heisenberg's uncertainty principle Δ EΔ x h and E = ( m 2 c 4 + c 2 p 2)1/2, the power of FETQMW radiation cannot exceed hν 2. However, we find that this power cap is lifted by the amount of νΔ E when Δ E ≫ hν holds [1,2]. This lift-up of the saturated radiation power is the responsible mechanism for the effective external injection of a 20 kW maser in an electron-cyclotron maser (ECM). We find that an MW-added ECM with radius 5 cm and length 1 m and operating parameters of the present beam technology can yield laser power of 50 MW at the radiation wavelength of 0.001 cm.

  4. Baseband Feedback Frequency-Division Multiplexing with Low-Power dc-SQUIDs and Digital Electronics for TES X-Ray Microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K.; Takei, Y.; Yamamoto, R.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Kohjiro, S.; Miyazaki, T.

    2014-08-01

    We are developing frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) systems with baseband feedback for TES X-ray microcalorimeter arrays for use with the DIOS mission. To meet the requirement of limited cooling capacity at cryogenic temperatures, we developed low-power and FDM-optmized dc-SQUIDs. To make maximum use of the SQUIDs, we also developed digital electronics using FPGA evaluation boards and ADC/DAC FMC daughter cards, and evaluated signal-to-noise ratios and gain-bandwidth products.

  5. Electronic audit and feedback intervention with action implementation toolbox to improve pain management in intensive care: protocol for a laboratory experiment and cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Wouter T; Roos-Blom, Marie-José; van der Veer, Sabine N; de Jonge, Evert; Peek, Niels; Dongelmans, Dave A; de Keizer, Nicolette F

    2017-05-25

    Audit and feedback is often used as a strategy to improve quality of care, however, its effects are variable and often marginal. In order to learn how to design and deliver effective feedback, we need to understand their mechanisms of action. This theory-informed study will investigate how electronic audit and feedback affects improvement intentions (i.e. information-intention gap), and whether an action implementation toolbox with suggested actions and materials helps translating those intentions into action (i.e. intention-behaviour gap). The study will be executed in Dutch intensive care units (ICUs) and will be focused on pain management. We will conduct a laboratory experiment with individual ICU professionals to assess the impact of feedback on their intentions to improve practice. Next, we will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial with ICUs allocated to feedback without or feedback with action implementation toolbox group. Participants will not be told explicitly what aspect of the intervention is randomised; they will only be aware that there are two variations of providing feedback. ICUs are eligible for participation if they submit indicator data to the Dutch National Intensive Care Evaluation (NICE) quality registry and agree to allocate a quality improvement team that spends 4 h per month on the intervention. All participating ICUs will receive access to an online quality dashboard that provides two functionalities: gaining insight into clinical performance on pain management indicators and developing action plans. ICUs with access to the toolbox can develop their action plans guided by a list of potential barriers in the care process, associated suggested actions, and supporting materials to facilitate implementation of the actions. The primary outcome measure for the laboratory experiment is the proportion of improvement intentions set by participants that are consistent with recommendations based on peer comparisons; for the randomised

  6. Rheumatologists' guideline adherence in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised controlled study on electronic decision support, education and feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuis, Nienke; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Akkermans, Reinier P; Verhoef, Lise M; Hulscher, Marlies E; den Broeder, Alfons A

    2018-01-01

    To assess the effects of education, feedback and a computerised decision support system (CDSS) versus education and feedback alone on rheumatologists' rheumatoid arthritis (RA) guideline adherence. A single-centre, randomised controlled pilot study was performed among clinicians (rheumatologists, residents and physician assistants; n=20) working at the study centre, with a 1:1 randomisation of included clinicians. A standardized sum score (SSS) on guideline adherence was used as the primary outcome (patient level). The SSS was calculated from 13 dichotomous indicators on quality of RA monitoring, treatment and follow-up. The randomised controlled design was combined with a before-after design in the control group to assess the effect education and feedback alone. Twenty clinicians (mean age 44.3±10.9 years; 55% female) and 990 patients (mean age 62 ± 13 years; 69% female; 72% rheumatoid factor and/or anti-CCP positive) were included. Addition of CDSS to education and feedback did not result in significant better quality of RA care than education and feedback alone (SSS difference 0.02; 95%-CI -0.04 to 0.08; p=0.60). However, before/after comparison showed that education and feedback alone resulted in a significant increase in the SSS from 0.58 to 0.64 (difference 0.06; 95%-CI 0.02 to 0.11; p<0.01). Our results suggest that CDSS did not have added value with regard to guideline adherence, whereas education and feedback can lead to a small but significant improvement of guideline adherence.

  7. Feedback implementation options and issues for B factory accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Briggs, D.; Eisen, N.; Hindi, H.; Hosseini, W.; Oxoby, G.; Linscott, I.; Coiro, O.; Ghigo, A.; Serio, M.; Lambertson, G.; Voelker, F.

    1992-09-01

    The proposed B factory accelerator facilities will require active feedback systems to control multibunch instabilities. These feedback systems must operate in machines with thousands of circulating bunches and with short (2--4 ns) interbunch intervals. The functional requirements for transverse (betatron) and longitudinal (synchrotron) feedback systems are presented. Several possible implementation options are discussed and system requirements developed. Conceptual designs are presented for the PEP II transverse and longitudinal feedback systems

  8. Self-organization of pulsing and bursting in a CO{sub 2} laser with opto-electronic feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Joana G. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa (Brazil); Instituto de Altos Estudos da Paraíba, Rua Infante Dom Henrique 100-1801, 58039-150 João Pessoa (Brazil); CELC, Departamento de Matemática, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Meucci, Riccardo [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa (Brazil); Instituto de Altos Estudos da Paraíba, Rua Infante Dom Henrique 100-1801, 58039-150 João Pessoa (Brazil); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Largo E. Fermi 6, Firenze (Italy); Arecchi, Fortunato Tito [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Largo E. Fermi 6, Firenze (Italy); Università di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); and others

    2015-09-15

    We report a detailed investigation of the stability of a CO{sub 2} laser with feedback as described by a six-dimensional rate-equations model which provides satisfactory agreement between numerical and experimental results. We focus on experimentally accessible parameters, like bias voltage, feedback gain, and the bandwidth of the feedback loop. The impact of decay rates and parameters controlling cavity losses are also investigated as well as control planes which imply changes of the laser physical medium. For several parameter combinations, we report stability diagrams detailing how laser spiking and bursting is organized over extended intervals. Laser pulsations are shown to emerge organized in several hitherto unseen regular and irregular phases and to exhibit a much richer and complex range of behaviors than described thus far. A significant observation is that qualitatively similar organization of laser spiking and bursting can be obtained by tuning rather distinct control parameters, suggesting the existence of unexpected symmetries in the laser control space.

  9. Search for supersymmetry in events with at least three electrons or muons, jets, and missing transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Sijing; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mohamed, Amr; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Badoer, Simone; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Popova, Elena; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Curras, Esteban; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bianco, Michele; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Verweij, Marta; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Nazlim Agaras, Merve; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Elwood, Adam; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Santra, Arka; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2018-02-12

    A search for new physics is carried out in events with at least three electrons or muons in any combination, jets, and missing transverse momentum. Results are based on the sample of proton-proton collision data produced by the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and collected by the CMS experiment in 2016. The data sample analyzed corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$. Events are classified according to the number of b jets, missing transverse momentum, hadronic transverse momentum, and the invariant mass of same-flavor dilepton pairs with opposite charge. No significant excess above the expected standard model background is observed. Exclusion limits at 95% confidence level are computed for four different supersymmetric simplified models with pair production of gluinos or third-generation squarks. In the model with gluino pair production, with subsequent decays into a top quark-antiquark pair and a neutralino, gluinos with masses smaller than 1610 GeV are excluded for a massless lig...

  10. Search for an mSUGRA signature in the electron + jets + missing transverse energy final state in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.8TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    We describe a search for a Minimal Supergravity (mSUGRA) signature in Run 1 data taken by the D detector at the Fermilab Tevatron from 1995-1996. The total data luminosity is 92.7 pb-1. The data were examined for events with a single electron, four or more jets and large missing transverse energy. The major backgrounds are from W+jets, QCD, t$\\bar{t}$, and WW events. We observed no excess of events in our data. Based on the data and the expected signal rate we obtain new limits on new physics in terms of mSUGRA model parameters.

  11. Giving feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jane DeLima; Arnold, Robert M

    2011-02-01

    Giving feedback is a core element of medical education, one that is gaining attention but with a thin evidence base to guide medical educators. This review provides a definition of feedback and its purpose, selectively reviews the literature regarding educators' and learners' attitudes toward feedback, and provides an algorithm for giving feedback. The authors discuss the parallels between giving feedback and breaking bad news, emphasizing the importance of titrating the amount of information given, attending to affect, and making a plan for next steps. Special considerations for giving feedback in palliative care are highlighted, including the effect of heightened emotion in the clinical encounter and the difficulties of giving feedback about communication skills.

  12. Instabilities simulations with wideband feedback systems: CMAD, HEADTAIL, WARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kevin; Cesaratto, J; Fox, J D; Pivi, M; Rivetta, C; Rumolo, G

    2013-01-01

    Transverse mode coupling (TMCI) and electron cloud instabilities (ECI) pose fundamental limitations on the acceptable beam intensities in the SPS at CERN. This in turn limits the ultimate achievable luminosity in the LHC. Therefore, future luminosity upgrades foresee methods for evading TMCI as well as ECI. Proposed approaches within the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project include new optics with reduced transition energy as well as vacuum chamber coating techniques. As a complementary option, high bandwidth feedback systems may provide instability mitigation by actively damping the intra-bunch motion of unstable modes. In an effort to evaluate the potentials and limitations of such feedback systems and to characterise some of the specifications, a numerical model of a realistic feedback system has been developed and integrated into available instabilities simulation codes. Together with the implementation of this new feedback system model, CMAD and HEADTAIL have been used to investigate the impact of different wideband feedback systems on ECI in the SPS. In this paper, we present some details on the numerical model of the realistic feedback system and its implementation as well as the results obtained from the simulation study using this model together with the instability codes. (author)

  13. Single mode solid state distributed feedback dye laser fabricated by grey scale electron beam lithography on dye doped SU-8 resist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Rasmussen, Torben; Shi, Peixiong

    2005-01-01

    are optically pumped at 532 nm, and exhibit low lasing threshold from 530 nJ/mm2 and single mode output at selectable wavelengths from 580 to 630 nm, determined by the grating pitch. The lasers are well suited for integration into polymer based lab-on-chip circuits for interference based sensing.......We demonstrate grey scale electron beam lithography on functionalized SU-8 resist for fabrication of single mode solid state dye laser devices. The resist is doped with Rhodamine 6G perchlorate and the lasers are based on a first order Bragg grating distributed feedback resonator. The lasers...

  14. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode

  15. Search for supersymmetry in events with at least three electrons or muons, jets, and missing transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-10-25

    A search for new physics is carried out in events with at least three electrons or muons in any combination, jets, and missing transverse momentum. Results are based on the sample of proton-proton collision data produced by the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and collected by the CMS experiment in 2016. The data sample analyzed corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$. Events are classified according to the number of b jets, missing transverse momentum, hadronic transverse momentum, and the invariant mass of same-flavor dilepton pairs with opposite charge. No significant excess above the expected standard model background is observed. Exclusion limits at 95% confidence level are computed for four different supersymmetric simplified models with pair production of gluinos or third-generation squarks. In the model with gluino pair production, with subsequent decays into a top quark-antiquark pair and a neutralino, gluinos with masses smaller than 1610 GeV are excluded for a massless lightest supersymmetric particle. In the case of bottom squark pair production, the bottom squark masses are excluded up to 840 GeV for charginos lighter than 200 GeV. For a simplified model of heavy top squark pair production, the $\\mathrm{\\widetilde{\\text{t}}_2}$ mass is excluded up to 720, 780, or 710 GeV for models with an exclusive $\\mathrm{\\widetilde{\\text{t}}_2}\\rightarrow\\mathrm{\\widetilde{\\text{t}}_1}\\mathrm{H}$ decay, an exclusive $\\mathrm{\\widetilde{\\text{t}}_2}\\rightarrow\\mathrm{\\widetilde{\\text{t}}_1}\\mathrm{Z}$ decay, or an equally probable mix of those two decays. In order to provide a simplified version of the analysis for easier interpretation, a small set of aggregate signal regions also has been defined, providing a compromise between simplicity and analysis sensitivity.

  16. Search for supersymmetry in events with at least three electrons or muons, jets, and missing transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=13 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Ambrogi, F.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Grossmann, J.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, N.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Madlener, T.; Mikulec, I.; Pree, E.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Spanring, M.; Spitzbart, D.; Waltenberger, W.; Wittmann, J.; Wulz, C.-E.; Zarucki, M.; Chekhovsky, V.; Mossolov, V.; Gonzalez, J. Suarez; De Wolf, E. A.; Di Croce, D.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Zeid, S. Abu; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; De Bruyn, I.; De Clercq, J.; Deroover, K.; Flouris, G.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Beghin, D.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Velde, C. Vander; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Roskas, C.; Salva, S.; Tytgat, M.; Verbeke, W.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caputo, C.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Marono, M. Vidal; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Junior, M. Correa Martins; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Chagas, E. Belchior Batista Das; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Guativa, L. M. Huertas; Malbouisson, H.; Melo De Almeida, M.; Herrera, C. Mora; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Da Silva De Araujo, F. Torres; Pereira, A. Vilela; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Abad, D. Romero; Vargas, J. C. Ruiz; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Misheva, M.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Gao, X.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liao, H.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Yazgan, E.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Sierra, L. F. Chaparro; Florez, C.; Hernández, C. F. González; Alvarez, J. D. Ruiz; Courbon, B.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Cipriano, P. M. Ribeiro; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Mesic, B.; Starodumov, A.; Susa, T.; Ather, M. W.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Jarrin, E. Carrera; Kamel, A. Ellithi; Khalil, S.; Mohamed, A.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Kadastik, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Negro, G.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Titov, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Amendola, C.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Charlot, C.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Lobanov, A.; Blanco, J. Martin; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Leiton, A. G. 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K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Schomakers, C.; Schulz, J.; Verlage, T.; Zhukov, V.; Albert, A.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hamer, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Flügge, G.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Müller, T.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Martin, M. Aldaya; Arndt, T.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Martínez, A. Bermúdez; Anuar, A. A. Bin; Borras, K.; Botta, V.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Pardos, C. Diez; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Eren, E.; Gallo, E.; Garcia, J. Garay; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Luyando, J. M. Grados; Grohsjean, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Guthoff, M.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kasemann, M.; Keaveney, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Lenz, T.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Savitskyi, M.; Saxena, P.; Shevchenko, R.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wen, Y.; Wichmann, K.; Wissing, C.; Zenaiev, O.; Bein, S.; Blobel, V.; Vignali, M. Centis; Dreyer, T.; Garutti, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Haller, J.; Hinzmann, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Karavdina, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kurz, S.; Lapsien, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Sonneveld, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baur, S.; Butz, E.; Caspart, R.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Freund, B.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Kassel, F.; Kudella, S.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Karathanasis, G.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Kousouris, K.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Mallios, S.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Triantis, F. A.; Csanad, M.; Filipovic, N.; Pasztor, G.; Veres, G. 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Rezaei; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Errico, F.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Lezki, S.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Albergo, S.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Chatterjee, K.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Russo, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Strom, D.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; Brianza, L.; Brivio, F.; Ciriolo, V.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malberti, M.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pauwels, K.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Fienga, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Khan, W. A.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badoer, S.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Lujan, P.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Rossin, R.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Ressegotti, M.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Solestizi, L. Alunni; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Cecchi, C.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Manoni, E.; Mantovani, G.; Mariani, V.; Menichelli, M.; Rossi, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiga, D.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Borrello, L.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fedi, G.; Giannini, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. 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S.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Moon, C. S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sekmen, S.; Son, D. C.; Yang, Y. C.; Lee, A.; Kim, H.; Moon, D. H.; Oh, G.; Cifuentes, J. A. Brochero; Goh, J.; Kim, T. J.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Ha, S.; Hong, B.; Jo, Y.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.; Nam, K.; Oh, S. B.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Seo, S. h.; Yang, U. K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yu, G. B.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Choi, Y.; Hwang, C.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Idris, F. Mohamad; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Reyes-Almanza, R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, G.; Duran-Osuna, M. C.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Rabadan-Trejo, R. I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Guisao, J. Mejia; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Moreno, S. Carrillo; Barrera, C. Oropeza; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Ibarguen, H. A. Salazar; Estrada, C. Uribe; Pineda, A. Morelos; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Saddique, A.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Pyskir, A.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Da Cruz E Silva, C. Beirão; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Galinhas, B.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Iglesias, L. Lloret; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Seixas, J.; Strong, G.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Voytishin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Stepennov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Aushev, T.; Bylinkin, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Parygin, P.; Philippov, D.; Polikarpov, S.; Popova, E.; Rusinov, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Blinov, V.; Skovpen, Y.; Shtol, D.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Maestre, J. Alcaraz; Luna, M. Barrio; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Ramos, J. P. Fernández; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Lopez, S. Goy; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Moran, D.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Álvarez Fernández, A.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Cuevas, J.; Erice, C.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; González Fernández, J. R.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Sanchez Cruz, S.; Vischia, P.; Garcia, J. M. Vizan; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Quero, B. Chazin; Curras, E.; Campderros, J. Duarte; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Virto, A. Lopez; Marco, J.; Rivero, C. Martinez; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Matorras, F.; Gomez, J. Piedra; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Cortabitarte, R. Vilar; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bianco, M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; Chapon, E.; Chen, Y.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Roeck, A.; Dobson, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Everaerts, P.; Fallavollita, F.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gilbert, A.; Gill, K.; Glege, F.; Gulhan, D.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Karacheban, O.; Kieseler, J.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Krammer, M.; Lange, C.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Merlin, J. A.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Milenovic, P.; Moortgat, F.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Ngadiuba, J.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Selvaggi, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Sphicas, P.; Stakia, A.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Tosi, M.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Verweij, M.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Caminada, L.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Wiederkehr, S. A.; Bäni, L.; Berger, P.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Klijnsma, T.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Reichmann, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Shchutska, L.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Olsson, M. L. Vesterbacka; Wallny, R.; Zhu, D. H.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Del Burgo, R.; Donato, S.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Seitz, C.; Takahashi, Y.; Zucchetta, A.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Steen, A.; Tsai, J. f.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Boran, F.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Topaksu, A. Kayis; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Cerci, D. Sunar; Tali, B.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Tekten, S.; Yetkin, E. A.; Agaras, M. N.; Atay, S.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Davignon, O.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Auzinger, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Borg, J.; Breeze, S.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Negra, M. Della; Di Maria, R.; Elwood, A.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Matsushita, T.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Palladino, V.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Scott, E.; Seez, C.; Shtipliyski, A.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wardle, N.; Winterbottom, D.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Smith, C.; Bartek, R.; Dominguez, A.; Buccilli, A.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Kwok, K. H. M.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Pazzini, J.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Yu, D.; Band, R.; Brainerd, C.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Shi, M.; Smith, J.; Stolp, D.; Tos, K.; Tripathi, M.; Wang, Z.; Bachtis, M.; Bravo, C.; Cousins, R.; Dasgupta, A.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Mccoll, N.; Regnard, S.; Saltzberg, D.; Schnaible, C.; Valuev, V.; Bouvier, E.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Shirazi, S. M. A. Ghiasi; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Negrete, M. Olmedo; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Si, W.; Wang, L.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Hashemi, B.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Kole, G.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Masciovecchio, M.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Porta, G. Zevi Della; Amin, N.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Sevilla, M. Franco; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Qu, H.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Newman, H. B.; Nguyen, T.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Ferguson, T.; Mudholkar, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Weinberg, M.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Alyari, M.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Apyan, A.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Canepa, A.; Cerati, G. B.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cremonesi, M.; Duarte, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Freeman, J.; Gecse, Z.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Schneider, B.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strait, J.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Joshi, Y. R.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Kolberg, T.; Martinez, G.; Perry, T.; Prosper, H.; Saha, A.; Santra, A.; Sharma, V.; Yohay, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Cavanaugh, R.; Chen, X.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hangal, D. A.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kamin, J.; Gonzalez, I. D. Sandoval; Tonjes, M. B.; Trauger, H.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Castle, J.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Royon, C.; Sanders, S.; Schmitz, E.; Takaki, J. D. Tapia; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kunkle, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Demiragli, Z.; Ceballos, G. Gomez; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Tatar, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Anampa, K. Hurtado; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Loukas, N.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Higginbotham, S.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Das, S.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Peng, C. C.; Schulte, J. F.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Cheng, T.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Ciesielski, R.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Gershtein, Y.; Espinosa, T. A. Gómez; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Elayavalli, R. Kunnawalkam; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Montalvo, R.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Delannoy, A. G.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Hernandez, A. Castaneda; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Padeken, K.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Joyce, M.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Zaleski, S.; Brodski, M.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2018-02-01

    A search for new physics is carried out in events with at least three electrons or muons in any combination, jets, and missing transverse momentum. Results are based on the sample of proton-proton collision data produced by the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and collected by the CMS experiment in 2016. The data sample analyzed corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb-1. Events are classified according to the number of b jets, missing transverse momentum, hadronic transverse momentum, and the invariant mass of same-flavor dilepton pairs with opposite charge. No significant excess above the expected standard model background is observed. Exclusion limits at 95% confidence level are computed for four different supersymmetric simplified models with pair production of gluinos or third-generation squarks. In the model with gluino pair production, with subsequent decays into a top quark-antiquark pair and a neutralino, gluinos with masses smaller than 1610 GeV are excluded for a massless lightest supersymmetric particle. In the case of bottom squark pair production, the bottom squark masses are excluded up to 840 GeV for charginos lighter than 200 GeV. For a simplified model of heavy top squark pair production, the \\tilde{t}_2 mass is excluded up to 720, 780, or 710 GeV for models with an exclusive \\tilde{t}_2\\to \\tilde{t}_1H decay, an exclusive \\tilde{t}_2\\to \\tilde{t}_1Z decay, or an equally probable mix of those two decays. In order to provide a simplified version of the analysis for easier interpretation, a small set of aggregate signal regions also has been defined, providing a compromise between simplicity and analysis sensitivity.

  17. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...... non-linear fracture mechanics. The results indicated a good correlation between theory and tests. Furthermore, the model is suggested as theoretical base for determining load capacity of bonded anchorages with transverse pressure, in externally reinforced concrete structures....

  18. KEKB bunch feedback systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobiyama, M.; Kikutani, E. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Design and the present status of the bunch by bunch feedback systems for KEKB rings are shown. The detection of the bunch oscillation are made with the phase detection for longitudinal plane, the AM/PM method for transverse plane. Two GHz component of the bunch signal which is extracted with an analog FIR filter is used for the detection. Hardware two-tap FIR filter systems to shift the phase of the oscillation by 90deg will be used for the longitudinal signal processing. The same system will be used with no filtering but with only digital delay for transverse system. The candidate for the kicker and the required maximum power are also estimated. (author)

  19. Mode and gain analysis for symmetric and staggered grating-waveguide free-electron laser

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Yao Lin; Yen-Chieh Huang

    2007-01-01

    A grating-waveguide free-electron laser is driven by an axial electron beam that propagates between two planar gratings. This investigation addresses the mode analysis, gain calculation, and frequency tuning for such a device with arbitrary longitudinal and transverse displacements between the two gratings. It demonstrates that a grating waveguide free-electron laser is a promising coherent THz emitter when it is adopted as a backward-wave oscillator or a distributed-feedback oscillator.

  20. Mode and gain analysis for symmetric and staggered grating-waveguide free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yao Lin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A grating-waveguide free-electron laser is driven by an axial electron beam that propagates between two planar gratings. This investigation addresses the mode analysis, gain calculation, and frequency tuning for such a device with arbitrary longitudinal and transverse displacements between the two gratings. It demonstrates that a grating waveguide free-electron laser is a promising coherent THz emitter when it is adopted as a backward-wave oscillator or a distributed-feedback oscillator.

  1. Evaluation of the photocathode laser transverse distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saisa-ard, Chaipattana [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Chiang Mai Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand); Krasilnikov, Mikhail; Vashchenko, Grygorii [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Many years experience of electron source developments at the photo injector test facility at DESY in Zeuthen (PITZ) show that the photocathode laser is the one of major tools to produce high brightness electron beams. The transverse distribution of the laser on the photocathode plays a significant role in the high brightness photo injector optimization. However, the imperfections in the laser beam profile according to the deviation from a radially homogeneous profile directly result in transversely distorted charged particle distributions. This includes inhomogeneous core as well as transverse halo which is due to not sharp edges around the core. The laser transverse distribution is measured at PITZ using a virtual cathode:this is a CCD camera located at the position which is optically equivalent to the photocathode position (so called virtual cathode). An algorithm is developed for the evaluation of the experimentally obtained transverse profiles. It fits a flat-top or an inhomogeneous rotational symmetric core with exponentially decaying tails to an experimental distribution. The MATLAB script with implemented algorithm is applied to a set of measured transverse laser distributions. Results of the analysis will be presented.

  2. Transverse beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    2006-01-01

    This contribution describes the transverse dynamics of particles in a synchrotron. It builds on other contributions to the General Accelerator School for definitions of transport matrices and lattice functions. After a discussion of the conservation laws which govern emittance, the effects of closed orbit distortion and other field errors are treated. A number of practical methods of measuring the transverse behaviour of particles are outlined.

  3. Transverse momentum and centrality dependence of high-ptnon-photonic electron suppression in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 200 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai,Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai,X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu,O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen,H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford,H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho,P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch,E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti,M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos,H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo,Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte,B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs,P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein,S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; et al.

    2006-07-11

    The STAR collaboration at RHIC reports measurements of theinclusive yield of non-photonic electrons, which arise dominantly fromsemi-leptonic decays of heavy flavor mesons, over a broad range oftransverse momenta (1.2electron yieldexhibits unexpectedly large suppression in central AuAu collisions athigh pt, suggesting substantial heavy quark energy loss at RHIC. Thecentrality and \\pt dependences of the suppression provide constraints ontheoretical models of suppression.

  4. Results on large transverse momentum phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Büsser, F W; Blumenfeld, B; Camilleri, L L; Cool, R L; Di Lella, L; Gladding, G; Lederman, Leon Max; Litt, L; Placci, A; Pope, B G; Segler, S L; Smith, A M; Yoh, J K; Zavattini, E

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary results of an experiment on large transverse momentum phenomena performed at the CERN-ISR at centre-of-mass energies of 52.7 and 44.8 GeV are presented. The topics studied were the inclusive reaction p+p to pi /sup 0/+'anything', where the pi /sup 0/ was emitted around 90 degrees in the centre- of-mass system, ( pi /sup 0/ pi /sup 0/) correlations, and the charged multiplicity associated with large transverse momentum pi /sup 0/'s. In addition, results of a search for electrons and electron pairs are included. (4 refs).

  5. Bunch-motion feedback for B-factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1992-09-01

    The colliding electron and positron beams in a B-factory must have average current of one ampere or more to produce the required luminosity. The high current interacts with structures in the beam tube to drive strong coupled-bunch (c.b.) instabilities. To suppress these instabilities requires negative feedback of the bunch motions. Beam impedances arising from strong rf cavity modes should first be reduced to make the required feedback damping rate practical and the cost economical. In what follows, control of transverse motions will be discussed first, then longitudinal. We shall use the parameters of the 3.1 GeV ring of PEP-II to illustrate the general requirements

  6. "Clickers" and Metacognition: A Quasi-Experimental Comparative Study about Metacognitive Self-Regulation and Use of Electronic Feedback Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Melanie; Seli, Helena; Rosenthal, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether electronic response systems (clickers) influence student metacognition in large lecture settings more than low-technology polling devices. In this first part of a two part mixed methods study inquiry was made into whether student metacognition was influenced and how metacognition was influenced.…

  7. The transverse spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artru, X. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this introduction, which is far from exhaustive, was to give an overview on the richness of transverse spin quantity and its differences in comparison with helicity. From the experimental point of view, the physics of quark transversity in deep inelastic reaction is still practically unexplored. This situation will certainly change rapidly, with planned experiments at DESY (HERMES), Brookhaven (RHIC) and CERN (COMPAS), but there is a long way before knowing the transversity distribution, {delta}q(x), as precisely as the helicity distribution, {delta}q(x), now. Unless polarized anti-proton beams become feasible, experiments probing quark transversity will rely mainly on 'quark polarimeters', like {lambda}'s or the Collins effect. These polarimeters will have to be calibrated at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. The Collins polarimeter will by the way allow the flavor decomposition of {delta}q(x), using mesons of various charging and strangeness. Quark polarimetry is by itself an interesting topic of non-perturbative QCD, and may teach us something about the breaking of chiral symmetry. Let us recall that, if chiral symmetry were unbroken, transversity would be undefined. The transversity physics program is not at all a 'remake' of the helicity one. Helicity and transversity probe rather different aspects of the hadron structure. Differences between {delta}q(x) and {delta}q(x) will reveal non-relativistic effects in the baryon wave function. Also {delta}q(x) does not couples to gluon distributions, thus it is free from anomaly. In that respect it is a more clean probe than {delta}q(x). In fact, the combination of helicity and transversity measurements will perhaps be the most interesting. Polarized parton densities taking only the helicity degree of freedom are almost 'classical'. Quantum aspects of spin correlations, like violation of Bell's inequality, can be found only when varying the spin quantification axis

  8. A Study of Large Transverse Momentum Phenomena

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment studies the structure of those p-p and @*-p collisions which are characterized by a very high transverse momentum flow in the central region. Some specific items studied are:\\\\ \\\\ \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is shared by charged and neutral hadron (``jets''). Transverse momentum distribution, correlations and momentum balance for such events. \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is mostly carried by one identified particle. Quantum number dependence and quantum number correlations of the high transverse momentum events. \\item -~~Structure of events containing large transverse momentum leptons or lepton pairs or direct photons. \\end{enumerate}.sk -~~Study of low momentum electrons and photons. -~~Search for gluonium states. -~~Search for new and rare particles. \\\\ \\\\ A conventional C-type magnet with a 0.5 T field in the direction of the beams together with a 42-layer cylindrical drift chamber detector is used for momentum analysi...

  9. Formativ Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldahl, Kirsten Kofod

    Denne bog undersøger, hvordan lærere kan anvende feedback til at forbedre undervisningen i klasselokalet. I denne sammenhæng har John Hattie, professor ved Melbourne Universitet, udviklet en model for feedback, hvilken er baseret på synteser af meta-analyser. I 2009 udgav han bogen "Visible...

  10. Noninterceptive transverse beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.; Minerbo, G.N.; Teel, L.E. Jr.; Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The transverse emittance properties of a high-current linear accelerator may be measured by using TV cameras sensitive to the visible radiation emitted following beam interactions with residual gas. This paper describes the TV system being used to measure emittances for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project

  11. Targeting multiple health risk behaviours among vocational education students using electronic feedback and online and telephone support: protocol for a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelepis, Flora; Paul, Christine L; Wiggers, John; Kypri, Kypros; Bonevski, Billie; McElduff, Patrick; Hill, Mary Ann; Morgan, Philip J; Lynagh, Marita; Collins, Clare E; Campbell, Elizabeth; Courtney, Ryan J; Chapman, Kathy; Wolfenden, Luke; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Searles, Andrew

    2015-06-13

    Technical and Further Education (TAFE) colleges are the primary provider of vocational education in Australia. Most TAFE students are young adults, a period when health risk behaviours become established. Furthermore, high rates of smoking, risky alcohol consumption, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake and insufficient physical activity have been reported in TAFE students. There have been no intervention studies targeting multiple health risk behaviours simultaneously in this population. The proposed trial will examine the effectiveness of providing TAFE students with electronic feedback regarding health risk behaviours and referral to a suite of existing online and telephone services addressing smoking, risky alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity levels. A two arm, parallel, cluster randomised trial will be conducted within TAFE campuses in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. TAFE classes will be randomly allocated to an intervention or control condition (50 classes per condition). To be eligible, students must be: enrolled in a course that runs for more than 6 months; aged 16 years or older; and not meet Australian health guideline recommendations for at least one of the following: smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and/or vegetable intake, or physical activity. Students attending intervention classes, will undertake via a computer tablet a risk assessment for health risk behaviours, and for behaviours not meeting Australian guidelines be provided with electronic feedback about these behaviours and referral to evidence-based online programs and telephone services. Students in control classes will not receive any intervention. Primary outcome measures that will be assessed via online surveys at baseline and 6 months post-recruitment are: 1) daily tobacco smoking; 2) standard drinks of alcohol consumed per week; 3) serves of fruit consumed daily; 4) serves of vegetables consumed daily; and 5) metabolic equivalent minutes of

  12. Large transverse momentum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1977-09-01

    It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references

  13. Physics-based formula representations of high-latitude ionospheric outflows: H+ and O+ densities, flow velocities, and temperatures versus soft electron precipitation, wave-driven transverse heating, and solar zenith angle effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Zeng, W.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive systematic dynamic fluid kinetic (DyFK) model simulations are conducted to obtain advanced simulation-based formula representations of ionospheric outflow parameters, for possible use by global magnetospheric modelers. Under F10.7 levels of 142, corresponding to solar medium conditions, we obtain the H+ and O+ outflow densities, flow velocities, and perpendicular and parallel temperatures versus energy fluxes and characteristic energies of soft electron precipitation, wave spectral densities of ion transverse wave heating, and F region level solar zenith angle in the high-latitude auroral region. From the results of hundreds of DyFK simulations of auroral outflows for ranges of each of these driving agents, we depict the H+ and O+ outflow density and flow velocity parameters at 3 R E altitude at the ends of these 2-h simulation runs in spectrogram form versus various pairs of these influencing parameters. We further approximate these results by various distilled formula representations for the O+ and H+ outflow velocities, densities, and temperatures at 3 R E altitude, as functions of the above indicated four ``driver'' parameters. These formula representations provide insight into the physics of these driven outflows, and may provide a convenient set of tools to set the boundary conditions for ionospheric plasma sources in global magnetospheric simulations.

  14. Transverse tomography and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leer, J.W.H.

    1982-01-01

    This study was intended to delineate the indications for radiotherapy treatment-planning with the help of computerized axial tomography (C.T.) and transverse analog tomography (T.A.T.). Radiotherapy localisation procedures with the conventional method (simulator), with the CT-scanner and with the transverse analog tomograph (T.A.T., Simtomix, Oldelft) were compared. As criterium for evaluation differences in reconstruction drawing based on these methods were used. A certain method was judged ''superior'' to another if the delineation of the target volume was more accurate, if a better impression was gained of the site of (for irradiation) organs at risk, or if the localisation could only be performed with that method. The selected group of patients consisted of 120 patients for whom a reconstruction drawing in the transverse plane was made according to the treatment philosophy. In this group CT-assisted localisation was judged on 68 occasions superior to the conventional method. In a number of cases it was found that a ''standard'' change in a standard target volume, on the base of augmented anatomical knowledge, made the conventional method sufficient. The use of CT-scanner for treatment planning was estimated. For ca. 270/1000 new patients a CT-scan is helpful (diagnostic scan), for 140 of them the scan is necessary (planning scan). The quality of the anatomical information obtained with the T.A.T. does not yet fall within acceptable limits, but progress has been made. (Auth.)

  15. Electronic audit and feedback intervention with action implementation toolbox to improve pain management in intensive care: protocol for a laboratory experiment and cluster randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gude, Wouter T.; Roos-Blom, Marie-José; van der Veer, Sabine N.; de Jonge, Evert; Peek, Niels; Dongelmans, Dave A.; de Keizer, Nicolette F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Audit and feedback is often used as a strategy to improve quality of care, however, its effects are variable and often marginal. In order to learn how to design and deliver effective feedback, we need to understand their mechanisms of action. This theory-informed study will investigate

  16. Figures of transversality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I explore how prenatal screening is imbricated within state agendas, aspirations, and imaginings in contemporary Vietnam. In an effort to develop new ethnographic tropes for understanding the formation called "the state," I argue for a phenomenological take that emphasizes its...... affective and embodied aspects. Seeing the anomalous fetus as a "figure of transversality," as a critical focus for powerful imaginings and desires, I show how state–society relations in Vietnam are suffused by visceral affectivity and moral engagement. In the realm of reproduction, intense sentiments...... of anxiety, dread, desire, ambition, and hope tie together the state and its citizens, animating individual aspirations as well as national population policies....

  17. Landau Damping of Beam Instabilities by Electron Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V. [Fermilab; Alexahin, Yuri; Burov, A. [Fermilab; Valishev, A. [Fermilab

    2017-06-26

    Modern and future particle accelerators employ increasingly higher intensity and brighter beams of charged particles and become operationally limited by coherent beam instabilities. Usual methods to control the instabilities, such as octupole magnets, beam feedback dampers and use of chromatic effects, become less effective and insufficient. We show that, in contrast, Lorentz forces of a low-energy, a magnetically stabilized electron beam, or "electron lens", easily introduces transverse nonlinear focusing sufficient for Landau damping of transverse beam instabilities in accelerators. It is also important that, unlike other nonlinear elements, the electron lens provides the frequency spread mainly at the beam core, thus allowing much higher frequency spread without lifetime degradation. For the parameters of the Future Circular Collider, a single conventional electron lens a few meters long would provide stabilization superior to tens of thousands of superconducting octupole magnets.

  18. Effect of Transverse Coupling on Asymmetric Cooling in Compton Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    Fast cooling of bunches circulating in a Compton ring is achieved by placing the collision point between electron bunches and laser pulses in a dispersive section and by, in addition, introducing a transverse offset between the laser pulse and the electron-beam closed orbit. Growth of the emittance in the dispersive transversal direction due to the additional excitation of betatron oscillations limits this type of cooling. Here we present the results of further studies on the fast cooling process, looking at the effect of the coupling of the transverse (betatron) oscillations. We first show theoretically that the transverse betatron coupling shortens the cooling time and hence reduces the steady-state energy spread of the electron beam, as well as the quantum losses. The theoretical estimates are then validated by simulations. Finally, a proof-of-principle experiment at the KEK ATF Damping Ring is proposed.

  19. Multibunch feedback: Strategy, technology and implementation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Eisen, N.; Hindi, H.; Oxoby, G.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Linscott, I.; Serio, M.

    1992-10-01

    The proposed next generation accelerator and synchrotron light facilities will require active feedback systems to control multi-bunch instabilities. These feedback systems must operate in machines with thousands of circulating bunches and with short (2--4 ns) interbunch intervals. The functional requirements for transverse (betatron) and longitudinal (synchrotron) feedback systems are presented. Several possible implementation options are discussed and system requirements developed. Results are presented from a digital signal processing based synchrotron oscillation damper operating at the SSRL/SLAC SPEAR storage ring

  20. Transverse section scanning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  1. Multi-bunch Feedback Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lonza, M.

    2014-12-19

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. We first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities, analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedback systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback systems. The main co...

  2. Multi-bunch feedback systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lonza, M

    2008-01-01

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. The advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. The lecture will first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedbacks systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback sy...

  3. Multi-bunch Feedback Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonza, M; Schmickler, H

    2014-01-01

    Coupled-bunch instabilities excited by the interaction of the particle beam with its surroundings can seriously limit the performance of circular particle accelerators. These instabilities can be cured by the use of active feedback systems based on sensors capable of detecting the unwanted beam motion and actuators that apply the feedback correction to the beam. Advances in electronic technology now allow the implementation of feedback loops using programmable digital systems. Besides important advantages in terms of flexibility and reproducibility, digital systems open the way to the use of novel diagnostic tools and additional features. We first introduce coupled-bunch instabilities, analysing the equation of motion of charged particles and the different modes of oscillation of a multi-bunch beam, showing how they can be observed and measured. Different types of feedback systems will then be presented as examples of real implementations that belong to the history of multi-bunch feedback systems. The main components of a feedback system and the related issues will also be analysed. Finally, we shall focus on digital feedback systems, their characteristics, and features, as well as on how they can be concretely exploited for both the optimization of feedback performance and for beam dynamics studies

  4. Measurement of the Transverse Spitzer Resistivity during Collisional Magnetic Reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trintchouk, F.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Carter, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of the transverse resistivity was carried out in a reconnecting current sheet where the mean free path for the Coulomb collision is smaller than the thickness of the sheet. In a collisional neutral sheet without a guide field, the transverse resistivity is directly related to the reconnection rate. A remarkable agreement is found between the measured resistivity and the classical value derived by L. Spitzer. In his calculation the transverse resistivity for the electrons is higher than the parallel resistivity by a factor of 1.96. The measured values have verified this theory to within 30% errors

  5. Improving the care of children with advanced cancer by using an electronic patient-reported feedback intervention: results from the PediQUEST randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joanne; Orellana, Liliana; Cook, E Francis; Ullrich, Christina; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, Jeffrey Russell; Feudtner, Chris; Weeks, Jane C; Dussel, Veronica

    2014-04-10

    This study aimed to determine whether feeding back patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to providers and families of children with advanced cancer improves symptom distress and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study was a parallel, multicentered pilot randomized controlled trial. At most once per week, children age ≥ 2 years old with advanced cancer or their parent completed the computer-based Pediatric Quality of Life and Evaluation of Symptoms Technology (PediQUEST) survey consisting of age- and respondent-adapted versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL4.0), and an overall Sickness question. In the intervention group (n = 51), oncologists and families received printed reports summarizing PROs; e-mails were sent to oncologists and subspecialists when predetermined scores were exceeded. No feedback was provided in the control group (n = 53). Primary outcomes included linear trends of MSAS, PedsQL4.0 total and subscale scores, and Sickness scores during 20 weeks of follow-up, along with child, parent, and provider satisfaction with PediQUEST feedback. Feedback did not significantly affect average MSAS, PedsQL4.0, or Sickness score trends. Post hoc subgroup analyses among children age ≥ 8 years who survived 20 weeks showed that feedback improved PedsQL4.0 emotional (+8.1; 95% CI, 1.8 to 14.4) and Sickness (-8.2; 95% CI, -14.2 to -2.2) scores. PediQUEST reports were valued by children, parents, and providers and contributed at least sometimes to physician initiation of a psychosocial consult (56%). Although routine feedback of PROs did not significantly affect the child's symptoms or HRQoL, changes were in expected directions and improvements observed in emotional HRQoL through exploratory analyses were encouraging. Importantly, children, parents, and providers value PRO feedback.

  6. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  7. TRANSVERSE MODES FOR FLAT INTER-BUNCH WAKES*

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, A

    2013-01-01

    If inter-bunch wake fields are flat, i.e. their variations over a bunch length can be neglected, all coherent modes have the same coupled-bunch structure, provided the bunches can be treated as identical by their inner qualities (train theorem). If a flat feedback is strong enough, the transverse modes are single-bunch, provided the inter-bunch wakes are also flat (damper theorem).

  8. Feasibility and acceptability of electronic symptom surveillance with clinician feedback using the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) in Danish prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæksted, Christina; Pappot, Helle; Nissen, Aase

    2017-01-01

    -CTCAE questionnaire on tablet computers using AmbuFlex software at each treatment visit in the outpatient clinic. In total, 22 symptomatic toxicities (41 PRO-CTCAE items), corresponding to the symptomatic adverse-events profile associated with the regimens commonly used for prostate cancer treatment (Docetaxel......Background: The aim was to examine the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of electronic symptom surveillance with clinician feedback using a subset of items drawn from the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) in a cancer...

  9. Normal planar undulators doubling as transverse gradient undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qika Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The transverse gradient undulator (TGU has important application in the short-wavelength high-gain free electron lasers (FELs driven by laser-plasma accelerators. However, the usual transversely tapered TGUs need special design and manufacture, and the transverse gradient cannot be tuned arbitrarily. In this paper we explore a new and simple method of using the natural transverse gradient of a normal planar undulator to compensate the beam energy spread effect. In this method, a vertical dispersion on the electron beam is introduced, then the dispersed beam passes through a normal undulator with a vertical off-axis orbit where the vertical field gradient is selected properly related to the dispersion strength and the beam energy spread. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs based on laser plasma accelerators are presented, and indicate that this method can greatly reduce the effect of the beam energy spread, leading to a similar enhancement on FEL performance as the usual transversely tapered TGU, but with the advantages of economy, tunable transverse gradient and no demand of extra field for correcting the orbit deflection induced by the field gradient.

  10. Transverse correlations in multiphoton entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jianming; Rubin, Morton H.; Shih Yanhua

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the transverse correlation in multiphoton entanglement. The generalization of quantum ghost imaging is extended to the N-photon state. The Klyshko's two-photon advanced-wave picture is generalized to the N-photon case

  11. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  12. ORBIT FEEDBACK CONTROL FOR THE LHC Prototyping at the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, Ralph J

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the next generation proton collider that is presently built at CERN. The LHC will be installed in the former LEP (Large Electron Positron Collider) tunnel. The presence of a high intensity beam in an environment of cryogenic magnets requires an excellent control of particle losses from the beam. Eventually the performance of the LHC may be limited by the ability to control the beam losses. The performance of the LHC cleaning system depends critically on the beam position stability. Ground motion, field and alignment imperfections and beam manipulations may cause orbit movements. The role of the future LHC Orbit Feedback System is the minimisation of closed orbit perturbations by periodically measuring and steering the transverse beam position back to its reference position. This diploma thesis focuses on the design and prototyping of an orbit feedback system at the SPS. The design is based on a separation of the steering problem into space and time. While the correction in s...

  13. Transverse correlation: An efficient transverse flow estimator - initial results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Henze, Lasse; Kortbek, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Color flow mapping has become an important clinical tool, for diagnosing a wide range of vascular diseases. Only the velocity component along the ultrasonic beam is estimated, so to find the actual blood velocity, the beam to flow angle has to be known. Because of the unpredictable nature...... for estimating the transverse velocity component. The method measures the transverse velocity component by estimating the transit time of the blood between two parallel lines beamformed in receive. The method has been investigated using simulations performed with Field II. Using 15 emissions per estimate...

  14. Investigation of Transverse Oscillation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the axial component of the blood velocity vector, which is a significant limitation when vessels nearly parallel to the skin surface are scanned. The transverse oscillation method (TO) overcomes this limitation by introducing a transverse oscillat......Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the axial component of the blood velocity vector, which is a significant limitation when vessels nearly parallel to the skin surface are scanned. The transverse oscillation method (TO) overcomes this limitation by introducing a transverse...... II. A virtual linear array transducer with center frequency 7 MHz and 128 active elements is created, and a virtual blood vessel of radius 6.4 mm is simulated. The performance of the TO method is found around an initial point in the parameter space. The parameters varied are: flow angle, transmit...... focus depth, receive apodization, pulse length, transverse wave length, number of emissions, signal to noise ratio, and type of echo canceling filter used. Using the experimental scanner RASMUS, the performance of the TO method is evaluated. An experimental flowrig is used to create laminar parabolic...

  15. Frequencies of Transverse and Longitudinal Oscillations in Supersonic Cavity Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Handa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A supersonic flow over a rectangular cavity is known to oscillate at certain predominant frequencies. The present study focuses on the effect of the cavity length-to-depth (L/D ratio on the frequency for a free-stream Mach number of 1.7. The pressure oscillations are measured by changing the L/D ratio from 0.5 to 3.0, and the power spectral density is calculated from the temporal pressure signals for each L/D ratio. The results demonstrate that the spectral peaks for an L/D ratio of less than ~1 and greater than ~2 are accounted for by the feedback mechanisms of the transverse and longitudinal oscillations, respectively. The results also demonstrate that the spectral peaks in the transition (1 <~ L/D <~ 2 are accounted for by either of the two feedback mechanisms of transverse and longitudinal oscillations; that is, the flows under the transition regime oscillate both transversely and longitudinally.

  16. Adaptive electron beam shaping using a photoemission gun and spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Jared; Lee, Hyeri; Bartnik, Adam C.; Kiefer, Jacob; Bazarov, Ivan

    2015-02-01

    The need for precisely defined beam shapes in photoelectron sources has been well established. In this paper, we use a spatial light modulator and simple shaping algorithm to create arbitrary, detailed transverse laser shapes with high fidelity. We transmit this shaped laser to the photocathode of a high voltage dc gun. Using beam currents where space charge is negligible, and using an imaging solenoid and fluorescent viewscreen, we show that the resultant beam shape preserves these detailed features with similar fidelity. Next, instead of transmitting a shaped laser profile, we use an active feedback on the unshaped electron beam image to create equally accurate and detailed shapes. We demonstrate that this electron beam feedback has the added advantage of correcting for electron optical aberrations, yielding shapes without skew. The method may serve to provide precisely defined electron beams for low current target experiments, space-charge dominated beam commissioning, as well as for online adaptive correction of photocathode quantum efficiency degradation.

  17. Multi-leptons with high transverse momentum at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaron, F. D.; Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Martin, M. Aldaya; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Antunovic, B.; Arneodo, M.; Asmone, A.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Belousov, A.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Bizot, J. C.; Blohm, C.; Bold, T.; Boos, E. G.; Borodin, M.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Boudry, V.; Boutle, S. K.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Bruemmer, N.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bussey, P. J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Bylsma, B.; Bystritskaya, L.; Caldwell, A.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Catterall, C. D.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekanov, S.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J. B.; Dal Corso, F.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; de Favereau, J.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; del Peso, J.; Delvax, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobur, D.; Dodonov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dossanov, A.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Dubak, A.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fazio, S.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Fischer, D. -J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gabathuler, E.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Gayler, J.; Geiser, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Goettlicher, P.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregor, I.; Grell, B. R.; Grigorescu, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Helebrant, C.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilger, E.; Hiller, K. H.; Hochman, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Holm, U.; Hori, R.; Horisberger, R.; Horton, K.; Hreus, T.; Huettmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jacquet, M.; Jakob, H. -P.; Janssen, X.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T. W.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Juengst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Kapichine, M.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Katzy, J.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Kenyon, I. R.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kollar, D.; Kooijman, P.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kostka, P.; Kotanski, A.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kutak, K.; Kuze, M.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levonian, S.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; Lisovyi, M.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Loehr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J. H.; Loktionova, N.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lukasik, J.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Luzniak, P.; Lytkin, L.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makankine, A.; Makarenko, I.; Malinovski, E.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Marage, P.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H. -U.; Mastroberardino, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Michels, V.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Moreau, F.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Mueller, K.; Murin, P.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Naumann, Th.; Nicholass, D.; Niebuhr, C.; Nigro, A.; Nikiforov, A.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Nozicka, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ota, O.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pejchal, O.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perez, E.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pitzl, D.; Placakythe, R.; Plucinski, P.; Pokorny, B.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Raval, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reeder, D. D.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, A.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salek, D.; Samson, U.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sartorelli, G.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoenberg, V.; Schoening, A.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Sloan, T.; Slominski, W.; Smiljanic, I.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Son, D.; Sopicki, P.; Sorokin, Iu.; Sosnovtsev, V.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stoicea, G.; Stopa, P.; Straumann, U.; Suchkov, S.; Sunar, D.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sykora, T.; Sztuk, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Tchoulakov, V.; Terron, J.; Theedt, T.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tomaszewska, J.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turnau, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Urban, K.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Valkarovha, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A. Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; Vazquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Vlasov, N. N.; Volchinski, V.; Volynets, O.; von den Driesch, M.; Walczak, R.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Wegener, D.; Whitmore, J. J.; Whyte, J.; Wing, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Wuensch, E.; Yaguees-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhokin, A.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zolko, M.; Zomer, F.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zus, R.

    2009-01-01

    Events with at least two high transverse momentum leptons (electrons or muons) are studied using the H1 and ZEUS detectors at HERA with an integrated luminosity of 0.94 fb(-1). The observed numbers of events are in general agreement with the Standard Model predictions. Seven di- and tri-lepton

  18. Monte Carlo Transverse Emittance Study on Cs2Te

    CERN Document Server

    Banfi, F; Galimberti, P G; Giannetti, C; Pagliara, S; Parmigiani, F; Pedersoli, E

    2005-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study of electron transport in Cs2Te films is performed to investigate the transverse emittance epsilon at the cathode surface. We find the photoemitted electron angular distribution and explain the physical mechanism involved in the process, a mechanism hindered by the statistical nature of the Monte Carlo method. The effects of electron-phonon scattering are discussed. The transverse emittance is calculated for different radiation wavelengths and a laser spot size of 1.5*10(-3) m. For a laser radiation at 265 nm we find epsilon = 0.56 mm-mrad. The dependence of epsilon and the quantum yield on the electron affinity Ea is also investigated. The data shows the importance of aging/contamination on the material.

  19. Skriftlig feedback i engelskundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    2017-01-01

    The article describes useful feedback strategies in language teaching and describes the feedback practices of lower-seconday teachers in Denmark. The article is aimed at language teahcers in secondary schools.......The article describes useful feedback strategies in language teaching and describes the feedback practices of lower-seconday teachers in Denmark. The article is aimed at language teahcers in secondary schools....

  20. Student Engagement with Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jon; Shields, Cathy; Gardner, James; Hancock, Alysoun; Nutt, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This report considers Biological Sciences students' perceptions of feedback, compared with those of the University as a whole, this includes what forms of feedback were considered most useful and how feedback used. Compared with data from previous studies, Biological Sciences students gave much greater recognition to oral feedback, placing it on a…

  1. Electron Beam Generation in Tevatron Electron Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.

    2006-01-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices

  2. Electron beam generation in Tevatron electron lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.

    2006-01-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices

  3. Transverse permeability of woven fabrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Akkerman, Remko; Loendersloot, Richard; van den Berg, S.

    2008-01-01

    The transverse permeability is an essential input in describing the consolidation process of CETEX® laminates. A two-dimensional, finite difference based, Stokes flow solver has been developed to determine the mesoscopic permeability of arbitrary fabric structures. The use of a multigrid solver

  4. Broadband feedback systems for the damping of coherent beam instabilities in the stretcher ring ELSA; Breitbandige Feedback-Systeme zur Daempfung kohaerenter Strahlinstabilitaeten am Stretcherring ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Andre

    2012-12-15

    At the Electron Stretcher Facility ELSA an upgrade of the internal beam current up to 200 mA would be desirable in order to increase the intensity of the extracted electron beam for the future experimental hadron physics program. However, such an upgrade is mainly limited by the excitation of coherent beam instabilities in the stretcher ring. As active counteraction, broadband bunch-by-bunch feedback-systems for the longitudinal, as well as for both transverse planes were installed. After detection of the motion of each of the 27 4 stored bunches via beam position monitors, the systems determine independent correction signals for each bunch using digital signal processors. The amplified correction signals are applied to the beam by means of broadband longitudinal and transverse kicker structures. The detailed setup, the commissioning procedure and measurement results of the damping performance of the systems are presented. In addition, the operation of the longitudinal system during the fast energy ramp of 4 GeV/s from 1.2 GeV to 3.2 GeV is investigated.

  5. Transmission and compression of an intense relativistic electron beam produced by a converging annular diode with return current feedback through the cathode. Pt. 2. The experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.G.; Schuch, R.L.

    1976-02-01

    The complete results of the experiments with the converging annular diode within return current fedback through the cathode (Triax) are reported herein. The diode was designed to focus a relativistic high-current electron beam to a small focus. It did confirm the Triaxial theory detailed in Part I, and it did achieve a factor of 10 areal compression with 50% efficiency (which was below expectations). There were two principal reasons for this shortfall. First, the rapid diode plasma motion of 10 cm/μsec that was discovered necessitated the use of larger A-K gaps than expected and led to thicker beam sheets than are needed for good focusing. Second, the intrinsic angular spread of the electrons, even from the best cathode surfaces, introduced excessive angular momentum into the beam so that only a minor portion of the electrons could reach the axis. However, the yield of useful information about diode physics in general and about the influence of prepulse, the role of diode plasmas, the motion of energetic beams within conducting boundaries, diode emission properties, and diode diagnostic techniques in particle has had a significant and useful impact on the electron beam program at Sandia

  6. The transverse momentum distribution of hadrons within jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Liu, Xiaohui; Ringer, Felix; Xing, Hongxi

    2017-11-01

    We study the transverse momentum distribution of hadrons within jets, where the transverse momentum is defined with respect to the standard jet axis. We consider the case where the jet substructure measurement is performed for an inclusive jet sample pp → jet + X. We demonstrate that this observable provides new opportunities to study transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions (TMDFFs) which are currently poorly constrained from data, especially for gluons. The factorization of the cross section is obtained within Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), and we show that the relevant TMDFFs are the same as for the more traditional processes semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and electron-positron annihilation. Different than in SIDIS, the observable for the in-jet fragmentation does not depend on TMD parton distribution functions which allows for a cleaner and more direct probe of TMDFFs. We present numerical results and compare to available data from the LHC.

  7. Transverse emittance measurement at REGAE via a solenoid scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachmann, Max

    2012-12-15

    The linear accelerator REGAE at DESY produces short and low charged electron bunches, on the one hand to resolve the excitation transitions of atoms temporally by pump probe electron diffraction experiments and on the other hand to investigate principal mechanisms of laser plasma acceleration. For both cases a high quality electron beam is required. A quantity to rate the beam quality is the beam emittance. In the course of this thesis transverse emittance measurements by a solenoid scan could be realized and beyond that an improved theoretical description of a solenoid was successful. The foundation of emittance measurements are constituted by theoretical models which describe the envelope of a beam. Two different models were derived. The first is an often used model to determine the transverse beam emittance without considering space charge effects. More interesting and challenging was the development of an envelope model taking space charge effects into account. It is introduced and cross checked with measurements and simulations.

  8. Feedback on Feedback--Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Oranna; Stollhans, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that providing assessment feedback through the medium of screencasts is favourably received by students and encourages deeper engagement with the feedback given by the language teacher (inter alia Abdous & Yoshimura, 2010; Brick & Holmes, 2008; Cann, 2007; Stannard, 2007). In this short paper we will report the…

  9. Introduction to Transverse Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we give an introduction to the transverse dynamics of the particles in a synchrotron or storage ring. The emphasis is more on qualitative understanding rather than on mathematical correctness, and a number of simulations are used to demonstrate the physical behaviour of the particles. Starting from the basic principles of how to design the geometry of the ring, we review the transverse motion of the particles, motivate the equation of motion, and show the solutions for typical storage ring elements. Following the usual treatment in the literature, we present a second way to describe the particle beam, using the concept of the emittance of the particle ensemble and the beta function, which reflects the overall focusing properties of the ring. The adiabatic shrinking due to Liouville's theorem is discussed as well as dispersive effects in the most simple case.

  10. Transversal Lines of the Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Onghena

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The Transversal Lines of the Debates gathers for publication the presentations of the scholars invited to the seminar. In the papers, Yolanda Onghena observes that the evolution from the cultural to the inter-cultural travels along four axes: the relations between cultureand society; the processes of change within identity-based dynamics; the representations of the Other; and, interculturality. Throughout the presentations and subsequent debates, whenever the different participants referred to aspects of the cultural identity problematic--”angst”, “obsession”, “deficit”, manipulation”, and others, these same participants in the Transversal Lines of the Debates also showed that, in certain areas, an optimistic viewpoint is not out of the question.

  11. TRANSVERSALITY AND INTERDISCIPLINARY DISCUSSION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... e o lo g ic a l S tu d ie s http://www.hts.org.za. HTS. Original Research. A rtic le #. 9. 1. 0. (page number not for citation purposes). TRANSVERSALITY ... mentorship. An interview with a mentor and mentee was used as a local, real narrative in the process. In the final section, the author reflected upon his own ...

  12. Optimal control of transverse mode coupling instability based on the two particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Atsushi

    1985-01-01

    The optimal regulator design technique is applied to asymptotically stabilize the transverse mode coupling instability of a storage ring. The state equations are based on the two particle model. These are a pair of equation sets, one for the first and one for the second half of the synchrotron phase. Each set consists of first-order difference equations in vector-matrix form, with time step equal to the revolution time of the ring. Solution of the discrete Riccati equation gives the optimal gain matrix of the transverse feedback. Computer simulations are carried out to verify its effectiveness. Some modifications necessary to apply it to the real accelerator operation are made. The old methods, the classical output feedback and the reactive feedback, are interpreted from the viewpoint of the optimal control. (orig.)

  13. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Conditions for the simultaneous formation of Ar, Kr, and Xe chlorides in a multiwave radiation source pumped by a transverse discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, Aleksandr K.; Dashchenko, Arkadii I.

    2000-03-01

    Conditions for the formation of ArCl(B), KrCl(B), XeCl(D, B), and Cl2(D') molecules in a pulsed transverse discharge based on an Ar—Kr—Xe—Cl2 mixture (p=2-30 kPa) were investigated. It is shown that the discharge is a multiwave source of VUV—UV radiation at λ =175, 222, 236, 258, and 308 nm in ArCl (B—X transition), KrCl (B—X), XeCl (D—X), Cl2 (D'—A'), and XeCl (B—X), respectively. In order to obtain comparable brightness of the radiation as a result of the above transitions of the molecules at a moderate charging voltage (4-15 kV), the partial pressure of the Kr and Xe atoms in the mixture must be in the range 0.2-0.5 kPa. The discharge investigated is of interest for developing a multiwave electric-discharge-pumped radiation source based on chlorides of heavy rare gases emitting in the range 175-308 nm.

  14. Transversals in non-discrete groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The concept of 'topological right transversal' is introduced to study right transversals in topological groups. Given any right quasigroup S with a Tychonoff topol- ogy T , it is proved that there exists a Hausdorff topological group in which S can be embedded algebraically and topologically as a right transversal of a ...

  15. Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belagola D Sathyanarayana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature. Aims: We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions. Results: One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Females (80% predominated over males. Most patients were of 15-45 years age group (70%. Majority of the transverse nasal lesions were classical transverse nasal groove (39% and others included transverse nasal line (28%, strip (28%, ridge (4% and loop (1%. Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Conclusions: Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions. Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis.

  16. Transversity of quarks in a nucleon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The transversity distribution of quarks in a nucleon is one of the three fundamental distributions, that characterize nucleon's properties in hard scattering processes at leading twist (twist 2). It measures the distribution of quark transverse spin in a nucleon polarized transverse to its (infinite) momentum. It is a chiral-odd ...

  17. Combination of Transverse Mode Selection and Active Longitudinal Mode-Locking of Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Doering

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of the combination of transverse mode selection and active mode-locking with anti-reflection-coated broad area lasers (BALs are presented. The BALs are subject to feedback from a free-space external Fourier-optical 4f-setup with a reflective spatial frequency filter in the Fourier-plane for transverse mode selection. Driving the BALs with a high frequency modulated pump current above threshold active longitudinal mode-locking is achieved. Pulse durations as low as 88 ps are obtained, while the Gaussian-like fundamental or a higher order transverse mode up to mode number 5 is selected on purpose. Pulse duration and shape are nearly independent of the selected transverse mode.

  18. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  19. The Mythology of Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcroft, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Much of the general education and discipline-specific literature on feedback suggests that it is a central and important element of student learning. This paper examines feedback from a social process perspective and suggests that feedback is best understood through an analysis of the interactions between academics and students. The paper argues…

  20. Using Turnitin to Provide Feedback on L2 Writers' Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Ilka; Maliborska, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Second language (L2) writing instructors have varying tools at their disposal for providing feedback on students' writing, including ones that enable them to provide written and audio feedback in electronic form. One tool that has been underexplored is Turnitin, a widely used software program that matches electronic text to a wide range of…

  1. Simulation study of electron cloud induced instabilities and emittance growth for the CERN Large Hadron Collider proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, Elena; Schulte, Daniel; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    The electron cloud may cause transverse single-bunch instabilities of proton beams such as those in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). We simulate these instabilities and the consequent emittance growth with the code HEADTAIL, which models the turn-by-turn interaction between the cloud and the beam. Recently some new features were added to the code, in particular, electric conducting boundary conditions at the chamber wall, transverse feedback, and variable beta functions. The sensitivity to several numerical parameters has been studied by varying the number of interaction points between the bunch and the cloud, the phase advance between them, and the number of macroparticles used to represent the protons and the electrons. We present simulation results for both LHC at injection and SPS with LHC-type beam, for different electron-cloud density levels, chromaticities, and bunch intensities. Two regimes with qualitatively different emittance growth are observed: above th...

  2. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...

  3. Controlling entanglement by direct quantum feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A. R. R.; Reid, A. J. S.; Hope, J. J.

    2008-07-01

    We discuss the generation of entanglement between electronic states of two atoms in a cavity using direct quantum feedback schemes. We compare the effects of different control Hamiltonians and detection processes in the performance of entanglement production and show that the quantum-jump-based feedback proposed by Carvalho and Hope [Phys. Rev. A 76, 010301(R) (2007)] can protect highly entangled states against decoherence. We provide analytical results that explain the robustness of jump feedback, and also analyze the perspectives of experimental implementation by scrutinizing the effects of imperfections and approximations in our model.

  4. Noninterceptive transverse-beam measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.; Minerbo, G.N.; Mottershead, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Totally noninterceptive techniques for accurate measurement of transverse beam distributions are required for high-current continuous wave (cw) linacs, such as the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator. Sensors responding to visible radiation from beam interactions with residual gas and computer algorithms reconstructing spatial and phase space distributions have been implemented. This paper reports on early measurements of the beam from the injector of the prototype FMIT facility at Los Alamos. The first section indicates hardware setup and performance whereas the second section describes the data-processing software. The third section outlines the resultant measurements and further developments are discussed in the fourth section

  5. Entropy and transverse section reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A new approach to the reconstruction of a transverse section using projection data from multiple views incorporates the concept of maximum entropy. The principle of maximizing information entropy embodies the assurance of minimizing bias or prejudice in the reconstruction. Using maximum entropy is a necessary condition for the reconstructed image. This entropy criterion is most appropriate for 3-D reconstruction of objects from projections where the system is underdetermined or the data are limited statistically. This is the case in nuclear medicine time limitations in patient studies do not yield sufficient projections

  6. Feedback and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2009-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay schemes and relative performance feedback policies on employee effort. We explore three feedback rules: no feedback on relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback. We...... use two pay schemes, a piece rate and a tournament. We find that overall feedback does not improve performance. In contrast to the piece-rate pay scheme there is some evidence of positive peer effects in tournaments since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly...... behind, and front runners do not slack off. But in both pay schemes relative performance feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work; we refer to this as a "negative quality peer effect"....

  7. Multi-Leptons with High Transverse Momentum at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Antunovic, B.; Arneodo, M.; Asmone, A.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A.N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Belousov, A.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Bizot, J.C.; Blohm, C.; Bold, T.; Boos, E.G.; Borodin, M.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boudry, V.; Boutle, S.K.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brummer, N.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bussey, P.J.; Butterworth, J.M.; Bylsma, B.; Bystritskaya, L.; Caldwell, A.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Catterall, C.D.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekanov, S.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J.B.; Dal Corso, F.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; de Favereau, J.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; del Peso, J.; Delvax, J.; Dementiev, R.K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobur, D.; Dodonov, V.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dossanov, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drugakov, V.; Dubak, A.; Durkin, L.S.; Dusini, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Ermolov, P.F.; Eskreys, A.; Falkiewicz, A.; Fang, S.; Favart, L.; Fazio, S.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M.I.; Figiel, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gabathuler, E.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Gayler, J.; Geiser, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L.K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Gottlicher, P.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregor, I.; Grell, B.R.; Grigorescu, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J.C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilger, E.; Hiller, K.H.; Hochman, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Holm, U.; Hori, R.; Horisberger, R.; Horton, K.; Hreus, T.; Huttmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jacquet, M.; Jakob, H.P.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T.W.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Jungst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Kapichine, M.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I.I.; Katzy, J.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L.A.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, J.Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kogler, R.; Kollar, D.; Kooijman, P.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kostka, P.; Kotanski, A.; Kotz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kutak, K.; Kuze, M.; Kuzmin, V.A.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levchenko, B.B.; Levonian, S.; Levy, A.; Li, G.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T.Y.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; Lisovyi, M.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Lohr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J.H.; Loktionova, N.; Long, K.R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lukasik, J.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Luzniak, P.; Lytkin, L.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makankine, A.; Makarenko, I.; Malinovski, E.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Marage, P.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Marti, Ll.; Martin, J.F.; Martyn, H.U.; Mastroberardino, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.D.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Nicholass, D.; Niebuhr, C.; Nigro, A.; Nikiforov, A.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nowak, R.J.; Nozicka, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Oh, B.Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olivier, B.; Olkiewicz, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ota, O.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J.M.; Pawlik, B.; Pejchal, O.; Pelfer, P.G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perez, E.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pitzl, D.; Placakythe, R.; Plucinski, P.; Pokorny, B.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Przybycien, M.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Raval, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reeder, D.D.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y.D.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, A.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salek, D.; Samson, U.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sartorelli, G.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Savin, A.A.; Saxon, D.H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schmitt, S.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schonberg, V.; Schoning, A.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Sloan, T.; Slominski, W.; Smiljanic, I.; Smith, W.H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Son, D.; Sopicki, P.; Sorokin, Iu.; Sosnovtsev, V.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T.P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stoicea, G.; Stopa, P.; Straumann, U.; Suchkov, S.; Sunar, D.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sykora, T.; Sztuk, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A.D.; Tassi, E.; Tchoulakov, V.; Terron, J.; Theedt, T.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turnau, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Urban, K.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Valkarovha, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vazquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Vlasov, N.N.; Volchinski, V.; Volynets, O.; von den Driesch, M.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T.; Wegener, D.; Whitmore, J.J.; Whyte, J.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Wunsch, E.; Yagues-Molina, A.G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zeuner, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Zhokin, A.; Zhou, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zolko, M.; Zomer, F.; Zotkin, D.S.; Zus, R.

    2009-01-01

    Events with at least two high transverse momentum leptons (electrons or muons) are studied using the H1 and ZEUS detectors at HERA with an integrated luminosity of 0.94 fb^{-1}. The observed numbers of events are in general agreement with the Standard Model predictions. Seven di- and tri-lepton events are observed in e^+p collision data with a scalar sum of the lepton transverse momenta above 100 GeV while 1.94+-0.17 events are expected. Such events are not observed in e^-p collisions for which 1.19+-0.12 are predicted. Total visible and differential di-electron and di-muon photoproduction cross sections are extracted in a restricted phase space dominated by photon-photon collisions.

  8. Multi-leptons with high transverse momentum at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences; Max-Planck-Inst., Muenchen (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Inst., Muenchen (DE)] (and others)

    2009-07-15

    Events with at least two high transverse momentum leptons (electrons or muons) are studied using the H1 and ZEUS detectors at HERA with an integrated luminosity of 0.94 fb{sup -1}. The observed numbers of events are in general agreement with the Standard Model predictions. Seven di- and tri-lepton events are observed in e{sup +}p collision data with a scalar sum of the lepton transverse momenta above 100 GeV while 1.94{+-}0.17 events are expected. Such events are not observed in e{sup -}p collisions for which 1.19{+-}0.12 are predicted. Total visible and differential di-electron and di-muon photoproduction cross sections are extracted in a restricted phase space dominated by photon-photon collisions. (orig.)

  9. Nonextensive statistics and skin depth of transverse wave in collisional plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemzadeh, M., E-mail: hashemzade@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Skin depth of transverse wave in a collisional plasma is studied taking into account the nonextensive electron distribution function. Considering the kinetic theory for charge particles and using the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision model, a generalized transverse dielectric permittivity is obtained. The transverse dispersion relation in different frequency ranges is investigated. Obtaining the imaginary part of the wave vector from the dispersion relation, the skin depth for these frequency ranges is also achieved. Profiles of the skin depth show that by increasing the q parameter, the penetration depth decreases. In addition, the skin depth increases by increasing the electron temperature. Finally, it is found that in the high frequency range and high electron temperature, the penetration depth decreases by increasing the collision frequency. In contrast, by increasing the collision frequency in a highly collisional frequency range, the skin depth of transverse wave increases.

  10. Transverse and Longitudinal proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Pryianka; Chand, Hum; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-04-01

    With close pairs (˜1.5arcmin) of quasars (QSOs), absorption in the spectra of a background quasar in the vicinity of a foreground quasar can be used to study the environment of the latter quasar at kpc-Mpc scales. For this we used a sample of 205 quasar pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky-Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) in the redshift range of 2.5 to 3.5 by studying their H I Ly-α absorption. We study the environment of QSOs both in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse direction by carrying out a statistical comparison of the Ly-α absorption lines in the quasar vicinity to that of the absorption lines caused by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). This comparison was done with IGM, matched in absorption redshift and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to that of the proximity region. In contrast to the measurements along the line-of-sight, the regions transverse to the quasars exhibit enhanced H I Ly-α absorption. This discrepancy can either be interpreted as due to an anisotropic emission from the quasars or as a consequence of their finite lifetime.

  11. Skin effect of microwaves and transverse pseudowaves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kazuo

    1977-09-01

    Using linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations, the skin effect of microwaves and transverse pseudowaves excited by an idealized grid antenna in plasmas are analyzed. It is shown that the latter is predominant over the former, in such a plasma that ω sub(p) v sub(t)/ωc >= 1, where ω sub(p) and ω are the plasma and microwave angular frequencies, v sub(t) and c are the electron thermal and light velocities, respectively. (auth.)

  12. Experimental investigation of transverse flow estimation using transverse oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the blood velocity component parallel to the ultrasound beam. Introducing a laterally oscillating field gives signals from which the transverse velocity component can be estimated using 2:1 parallel receive beamformers. To yield the performance...... perpendicular to the ultrasound beam. The velocity profile of the blood is parabolic, and the speed of the blood in the center of the vessel is 1.1 m/s. An extended autocorrelation algorithm is used for velocity estimation for 310 trials, each containing 32 beamformed signals. The velocity can be estimated.......0% and the relative mean standard deviation is found to be 9.8%. With the Compuflow 1000 programmable flow pump a color flow mode image is produced of the experimental setup for a parabolic flow. Also the flow of the human femoralis is reproduced and it is found that the characteristics of the flow can be estimated....

  13. Impact of an electronic monitoring device and behavioral feedback on adherence to multiple sclerosis therapies in youth: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, E Ann; Grover, Stephanie A; Powell, Victoria E; Alper, Gulay; Banwell, Brenda L; Edwards, Kim; Gorman, Mark; Graves, Jennifer; Lotze, Timothy E; Mah, Jean K; Mednick, Lauren; Ness, Jayne; Obadia, Maya; Slater, Ruth; Waldman, Amy; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Schwartz, Carolyn E

    2017-09-01

    To report the results of a randomized controlled trial using an electronic monitoring device (EM) plus a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention to enhance adherence to disease-modifying therapies (DMT) in pediatric MS. Fifty-two youth with MS (16.03 ± 2.2 years) were randomized to receive either MI (n = 25) (target intervention) or a MS medication video (n = 27) (attention control). Primary endpoint was change in adherence. Secondary outcomes included changes in quality of life, well-being and self-efficacy. Random effects modeling and Cohen's effect size computation evaluated intervention impact. Longitudinal random effect models revealed that the MI group decreased their EM adherence (GroupxTime interaction = -0.19), while increasing frequency of parental DMT reminder (26.01)/administration (11.69). We found decreased EM use in the MI group at 6 months (Cohen's d = -0.61), but increased pharmacy refill adherence (d = 0.23). Parental reminders about medication increased in MI subjects vs controls (d = 0.59 at 3 months; d = 0.70 at 6 months). We found increases in self-reported adherence (d = 0.21) at 3 but not 6 months, fewer barriers to adherence at three (d = -0.58) and six months (d = -0.31), better physical (d = 0.23 at 3 months; d = 0.45 at 6 months), emotional (d = 0.25 at 3 months) and self-efficacy function (d = 0.55 at 3 months; 0.48 at 6 months), but worse well-being, including self-acceptance (d = -0.53 at 6 months) and environmental mastery (d = -0.42 at 3 and 6 months) in intervention as compared to control patients. Participants receiving MI + EM experienced worsening on objective measures of adherence and increased parental involvement, but improved on some self- and parent-reported measures. MI participants reported improvements in quality of life and self-efficacy, but worsened well-being.

  14. Follower-Centered Perspective on Feedback: Effects of Feedback Seeking on Identification and Feedback Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Zhenxing; Li, Miaomiao; Qi, Yaoyuan; Zhang, Na

    2017-01-01

    In the formation mechanism of the feedback environment, the existing research pays attention to external feedback sources and regards individuals as objects passively accepting feedback. Thus, the external source fails to realize the individuals’ need for feedback, and the feedback environment cannot provide them with useful information, leading to a feedback vacuum. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of feedback-seeking by different strategies on the supervisor-feedback environme...

  15. RF feedback for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezura, Eizi; Yoshimoto, Shin-ichi; Akai, Kazunori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the present status of the RF feedback development for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). A preliminary experiment concerning the RF feedback using a parallel comb-filter was performed through a choke-mode cavity and a klystron. The RF feedback has been tested using the beam of the TRISTAN Main Ring, and has proved to be effective in damping the beam instability. (author)

  16. Neural cryptography with feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Shacham, Lanir; Kanter, Ido

    2004-04-01

    Neural cryptography is based on a competition between attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. A feedback mechanism is added to neural cryptography which increases the repulsive forces. Using numerical simulations and an analytic approach, the probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters. Scaling laws are derived which show that feedback improves the security of the system. In addition, a network with feedback generates a pseudorandom bit sequence which can be used to encrypt and decrypt a secret message.

  17. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, H.; /SLAC

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of

  18. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  19. Resolution enhancement of slam using transverse wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Dae Sik; Moon, Gun; Kim, Young H.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Since the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM Image In the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode.

  20. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  1. Feedback stabilization initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes

  2. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  3. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  4. Longitudinal and transverse wake potentials in SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Wilson, P.

    1980-01-01

    In a machine with short bunches of high peak currents, such as the SLAC collider, one needs to know the longitudinal wake potential, for the higher mode losses, and the transverse wake potential, since, for bunches passing slightly off axis, the induced transverse forces will tend to cause beam break up. The longitudinal and transverse wakes of the SLAC structure presented here, were calculated by computer using the modal method, and including an analytic extension for higher modes. (Auth.)

  5. Laparoscopic colectomy for transverse colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmora, O; Bar-Dayan, A; Khaikin, M; Lebeydev, A; Shabtai, M; Ayalon, A; Rosin, D

    2010-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma is technically demanding and was excluded from most of the large trials of laparoscopic colectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and outcome of laparoscopic resection of carcinoma of the transverse colon. A retrospective review was performed to identify patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These patients were compared to patients who had laparoscopic resection for right and sigmoid colon carcinoma. In addition, they were compared to a historical series of patients who underwent open resection for transverse colon cancer. A total of 22 patients underwent laparoscopic resection for transverse colon carcinoma. Sixty-eight patients operated for right colon cancer and 64 operated for sigmoid colon cancer served as comparison groups. Twenty-four patients were identified for the historical open group. Intraoperative complications occurred in 4.5% of patients with transverse colon cancer compared to 5.9% (P = 1.0) and 7.8% (P = 1.0) of patients with right and sigmoid colon cancer, respectively. The early postoperative complication rate was 45, 50 (P = 1.0), and 37.5% (P = 0.22) in the three groups, respectively. Conversion was required in 1 (5%) patient in the laparoscopic transverse colon group. The conversion rate and late complications were not significantly different in the three groups. There was no significant difference in the number of lymph nodes harvested in the laparoscopic and open groups. Operative time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic transverse colectomy group when compared to all other groups (P = 0.001, 0.008, and transverse colectomy, respectively). The results of laparoscopic colon resection for transverse colon carcinoma are comparable to the results of laparoscopic resection of right or sigmoid colon cancer and open resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These results suggest that laparoscopic resection of transverse

  6. Large transverse momentum behavior of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquereaux, Robert; De Rafael, Eduardo.

    1977-05-01

    The large transverse momentum behavior of Compton scattering and Moeller scattering in Quantum Electrodynamics; and of elastic quark-quark scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics are examined in perturbation theory. The results strongly suggest that the large transverse momentum regime in gauge theories is governed by a differential equation of the Callan-Symanzik type with a suitable momentum dependent anomalous dimension term. An explicit solution for the quark-quark elastic scattering amplitude at large transverse momentum is given

  7. Deuteron transverse densities in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Chakrabarti, Dipankar [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Zhao, Xingbo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-05-15

    We investigate the transverse charge density in the longitudinally as well as transversely polarized deuteron using the recent empirical description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in the framework of holographic QCD. The predictions of the holographic QCD are compared with the results of a standard phenomenological parameterization. In addition, we evaluate GPDs and the gravitational form factors for the deuteron. The longitudinal momentum densities are also investigated in the transverse plane. (orig.)

  8. Trainees' Perceptions of Feedback: Validity Evidence for Two FEEDME (Feedback in Medical Education) Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-You, Robert; Ramesh, Saradha; Hayes, Victoria; Varaklis, Kalli; Ward, Denham; Blanco, Maria

    2017-12-14

    Construct: Medical educators consider feedback a core component of the educational process. Effective feedback allows learners to acquire new skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Learners' perceptions of feedback are an important aspect to assess with valid methods in order to improve the feedback skills of educators and the feedback culture. Although guidelines for delivering effective feedback have existed for several decades, medical students and residents often indicate that they receive little feedback. A recent scoping review on feedback in medical education did not reveal any validity evidence on instruments to assess learner's perceptions of feedback. The purpose of our study was to gather validity evidence on two novel FEEDME (Feedback in Medical Education) instruments to assess medical students' and residents' perceptions of the feedback that they receive. After the authors developed an initial instrument with 54 items, cognitive interviews with medical students and residents suggested that 2 separate instruments were needed, one focused on the feedback culture (FEEDME-Culture) and the other on the provider of feedback (FEEDME-Provider). A Delphi study with 17 medical education experts and faculty members assessed content validity. The response process was explored involving 31 medical students and residents at 2 academic institutions. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analyses were performed on completed instruments. Two Delphi consultation rounds refined the wording of items and eliminated several items. Learners found both instruments easy and quick to answer; it took them less than 5 minutes to complete. Learners preferred an electronic format of the instruments over paper. Factor analysis revealed a two- and three-factor solution for the FEEDME-Culture and FEEDME-Provider instruments, respectively. Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.80 for all factors. Items on both instruments were moderately to highly correlated (range, r = .3-.7). Our

  9. Effects of feedback reliability on feedback-related brain activity: A feedback valuation account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Benjamin; Steinhauser, Marco

    2018-04-06

    Adaptive decision making relies on learning from feedback. Because feedback sometimes can be misleading, optimal learning requires that knowledge about the feedback's reliability be utilized to adjust feedback processing. Although previous research has shown that feedback reliability indeed influences feedback processing, the underlying mechanisms through which this is accomplished remain unclear. Here we propose that feedback processing is adjusted by the adaptive, top-down valuation of feedback. We assume that unreliable feedback is devalued relative to reliable feedback, thus reducing the reward prediction errors that underlie feedback-related brain activity and learning. A crucial prediction of this account is that the effects of feedback reliability are susceptible to contrast effects. That is, the effects of feedback reliability should be enhanced when both reliable and unreliable feedback are experienced within the same context, as compared to when only one level of feedback reliability is experienced. To evaluate this prediction, we measured the event-related potentials elicited by feedback in two experiments in which feedback reliability was varied either within or between blocks. We found that the fronto-central valence effect, a correlate of reward prediction errors during reinforcement learning, was reduced for unreliable feedback. But this result was obtained only when feedback reliability was varied within blocks, thus indicating a contrast effect. This suggests that the adaptive valuation of feedback is one mechanism underlying the effects of feedback reliability on feedback processing.

  10. Feedback For Helpers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromer, Walter F.

    1975-01-01

    The author offers some feedback to those in the helping professions in three areas: (1) forms and letters; (2) jumping to conclusions; and (3) blaming and belittling, in hopes of stimulating more feedback as well as more positive ways of performing their services. (HMV)

  11. Feedback og interpersonel kommunikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Som interpersonel kommunikationsform handler feedback om at observere, mærke og italesætte det, som handler om relationen mellem samtaleparterne mere end om samtaleemnet. Her er fokus på, hvad der siges og hvordan der kommunikeres sammen. Feedback er her ikke en korrigerende tilbagemelding til...

  12. Investigating the relationship between quality, format and delivery of feedback for written assignments in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sopina, Liza Elizaveta; McNeill, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Feedback can have a great impact on student learning. However, in order for it to be effective, feedback needs to be of high quality. Electronic marking has been one of the latest adaptations of technology in teaching and offers a new format of delivering feedback. There is little research...... investigating the impact the format of feedback has on quality of feedback and subsequently on student learning. This study sets out to investigate the impact paper-based and electronic methods of assignment submission and return have on students’ and markers’ perceived quality of feedback. Students and markers...... on an undergraduate course were asked to complete an anonymous online survey investigating their perceptions of quality, format and timeliness of feedback delivered electronically and on paper. The results showed that marking and providing feedback electronically was an acceptable method for markers, reporting...

  13. Transverse vertical dispersion in groundwater and the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, I D; Grathwohl, P

    2002-09-01

    Transverse dispersion is the most relevant process in mass transfer of contaminants across the capillary fringe (both directions), dilution of contaminants, and mixing of electron acceptors and electron donors in biodegrading groundwater plumes. This paper gives an overview on literature values of transverse vertical dispersivities alpha(tv) measured at different flow velocities and compares them to results from well-controlled laboratory-tank experiments on mass transfer of trichloroethene (TCE) across the capillary fringe. The measured values of transverse vertical dispersion in the capillary fringe region were larger than in fully saturated media, which is credited to enhanced tortuosity of the flow paths due to entrapped air within the capillary fringe. In all cases, the values observed for alpha(tv) were < 1 mm. The new measurements and the literature values indicate that alpha(tv) apparently declines with increasing flow velocity. The latter is attributed to incomplete diffusive mixing at the pore scale (pore throats). A simple conceptual model, based on the mean square displacement and the pore size accounting for only partial diffusive mixing at increasing flow velocities, shows very good agreement with measured and published data.

  14. To the proof of manifest relativistic invariance of transverse variables in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervushin, V.N.; Nguyen Suan Han; Azimov, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The quantization of electrodynamics in terms of transverse physical variables is accomplished. At all the steps of the theory construction: 1) the choice of transverse variables, 2) the choice of energy-momentum tensor, 3) quantization, 4) the Feynman diagram description the manifest gauge and relativistic invariance is preserved. For the transverse variables the relativistic-invariant self-energy of the electron is calculated. The results completely solve the problem of renormalization of physical quantities on the mass shell for the physical variables

  15. Feedback i matematik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortkær, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Feedback bliver i litteraturen igen og igen fremhævet som et af de mest effektive midler til at fremme elevers præstationer i skolen (Hartberg, Dobson, & Gran, 2012; Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Wiliam, 2015). Dette på trods af, at flere forskere påpeger, at feedback ikke altid er læringsfremmende...... (Hattie & Gan, 2011), og nogle endda viser, at feedback kan have en negativ virkning i forhold til præstationer (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). Artiklen vil undersøge disse tilsyneladende modstridende resultater ved at stille spørgsmålet: Under hvilke forudsætninger virker feedback i matematik læringsfremmende......? Dette gøres ved at dykke ned i forskningslitteraturen omhandlende feedback ud fra en række temaer for på den måde at besvare ovenstående spørgsmål....

  16. Feedback and Incentives:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback about relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback....... The pay schemes are a piece rate payment scheme and a winner-takes-all tournament. We find that, regardless of the pay scheme used, feedback does not improve performance. There are no significant peer effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In contrast, in the tournament scheme we find some evidence...... of positive peer effects since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly behind, and frontrunners do not slack off. Moreover, in both pay schemes information feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work....

  17. Evolution of the helicity and transversity Transverse-Momentum-Dependent parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokudin, Alexei [JLAB; Bacchetta, Alessandro [INFN-PAVIA

    2013-07-01

    We examine the QCD evolution of the helicity and transversity parton distribution functions when including also their dependence on transverse momentum. Using an appropriate definition of these polarized transverse momentum distributions (TMDs), we describe their dependence on the factorization scale and rapidity cutoff, which is essential for phenomenological applications.

  18. No generalized transverse momentum dependent factorization in the hadroproduction of high transverse momentum hadrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, T.C.; Mulders, P.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    It has by now been established that standard QCD factorization using transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions fails in hadroproduction of nearly back-to-back hadrons with high transverse momentum. The essential problem is that gauge-invariant transverse momentum dependent parton

  19. Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles produced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We assume that the transverse momentum distributions of identified particles measured in final state are contributed by a few energy sources which can be regarded as partons or quarks in the interacting system. The particle is contributed by each source with gluons which have transverse momentum distributions in an ...

  20. Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions are of significance for the analysis of azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, as well as for the overall physical understanding of the distribution of transversely polarized quarks in unpolarized hadrons. In this context we also ...

  1. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p (T) broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large

  2. Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Collaboration [2] describes correlations of the intrinsic quark transverse momen- tum and the transverse nucleon ..... These results are in agreement with the large Nc predictions [41], Bag. Model results reported in [42], ..... work is supported by a grant from the US Department of Energy under contract. DE-FG02-07ER41460.

  3. Anaesthetic considerations in patients with transverse myelitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transverse myelitis is an acute or subacute inflammatory disorder involving the spinal cord. Clinical signs are due to the involvement of the ascending and descending tracts in the transverse plane of the spinal cord. The most common cause is autoimmune. These patients may present with various clinical findings with ...

  4. MRI in acute transverse myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtaas, S. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital Lund (Sweden)); Basibueyuek, N. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital Lund (Sweden)); Fredriksson, K. (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. Hospital Lund (Sweden))

    1993-03-01

    The MRI examinations of seven patients with acute transverse myelopathy (ATM) were analysed. The patients were examined 2-5 times during the course of their disease with short and long TR/TE spin-echo sequences in the sagittal projection. A previous history of autoimmune disorder and/or signs of infection at the onset of ATM were present in all cases. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed local synthesis of immunoglobulin in the nervours system in three cases and signs of infectious myelitis in one. During the acute phase four patients had local enlargement of the cord and all had increased signal on long TR/TE sequences. The outcome was grave in the majority of patients and there seemed to be a correlation between the degree of cord enlargement, persistence of increased signal intensity and limited recovery. Atrophy and remaining high signal intensity were noted on late MRI patients with poor outcome. In one patient with probable anterior spinal artery occlusion, cavitation of the cord was seen. (orig.)

  5. Transverse spin dependent azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2011-01-01

    In semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on a transversely polarized target eight target transverse spin-dependent azimuthal modulations are allowed. In the QCD parton model half of these asymmetries can be interpreted within the leading order approach and the other four are twist-three contributions. The first two leading twist asymmetries extracted by HERMES and COMPASS experiments are related: one to the transversity distribution and the Collins effect, the other to the Sivers distribution function. These results triggered a lot of interest in the past few years and allowed the first extractions of the transversity and the Sivers distribution functions of nucleon. The remaining six asymmetries were obtained by the COMPASS experiment using a 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and transversely polarized deuteron and proton targets. Here we review preliminary results from COMPASS proton data of 2007.

  6. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  7. Controlled Transverse Blow-up of Highenergy Proton Beams for Aperture Measurements and Loss Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Hӧfle, W; Redaelli, S; Schmidt, R; Valuch, D; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    A technique was developed to blow-up transversely in a controlled way high energy proton beams in the LHC. The technique is based on band limited white noise excitation that is injected into the transverse damper feedback loop. The injected signal can be gated to selectively blow-up individual trains of bunches. The speed of transverse blow-up can be precisely controlled. This opens the possibility to perform safely and efficiently aperture measurements and loss maps with high intensity bunch trains well above stored beam energies that are considered to be safe. In particular, lengthy procedures for measurements at top energy, otherwise requiring multiple fills of individual bunches, can be avoided. In this paper, the method is presented and results from beam measurements are discussed and compared with alternative blowup methods.

  8. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they wer...

  9. The transverse acetabular ligament: optimizing version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverland, David

    2010-09-07

    In total hip arthroplasty (THA), excessive retroversion is associated with posterior instability, anterior impingement, and resultant groin pain. Excessive anteversion can lead to anterior instability and posterior impingement. The transverse acetabular ligament straddles the inferior limit of the bony acetabulum. It is a strong load-bearing structure and, in the normal hip, in association with the labrum, provides part of the load-bearing surface for the femoral head. It is our hypothesis that the transverse acetabular ligament defines normal version for the acetabulum. In Belfast, we found that using the transverse acetabular ligament helped reduce our primary dislocation rate from 3.7% to 1%. The key is good intraoperative exposure. A grading of 1 to 4 was based on 1000 consecutive cases: (1) normal transverse acetabular ligament easily visible on exposure of the acetabulum, 49%; (2) covered by soft tissue, 35.1%--cleared by blunt dissection; (3) covered by osteophytes, 15.6%--cleared using an acetabular reamer; (4) no transverse acetabular ligament identified, 0.3%. As can be seen, the transverse acetabular ligament is only immediately visible in 49% of cases. In the other 51%, soft tissue or bone must be cleared to define the ligament. The advantages of the transverse acetabular ligament are many. It is independent of patient positioning. The cup version can be individualized by the patient. The surgeon can avoid estimating version angle of 15° to 20° intraoperatively. It is easy to teach and consistently present. It is valuable in minimally invasive surgery. Using the transverse acetabular ligament provides an acceptable dislocation rate with the posterior approach. If the cup is cradled by the transverse acetabular ligament, it helps restore acetabular joint center. However, the transverse acetabular ligament does not help with inclination. We recommend 35° of operative inclination when using the posterior approach. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Feedback - fra et elevperspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Benedikte Vilslev; Pedersen, Bent Sortkær

    Feedback bliver i litteraturen igen og igen fremhævet som et af de mest effektive midler til at fremme elevers præstationer i skolen (Hattie og Timperley, 2007). Andre studier er dog inde på at feedback ikke altid er læringsfremmende og nogle viser endda at feedback kan have en negativ virkning i...... forhold til præstationer (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). I forsøget på at forklare hvordan og hvorfor feedback virker (forskelligt), er der undersøgt flere dimensioner og forhold omkring feedback (se bl.a. Black og Wiliam, 1998; Hattie og Timperley, 2007; Shute, 2008). Dog er der få studier der undersøger...... hvordan feedback opleves fra et elevperspektiv (Ruiz-Primo og Li, 2013). Samtidig er der i feedbacklitteraturen en mangel på kvalitative studier, der kommer tæt på fænomenet feedback, som det viser sig i klasserummet (Ruiz-Primo og Li, 2013) i naturlige omgivelser (Black og Wiliam, 1998), og hvordan...

  11. The Nature of Transverse Beam Instabilities at Injection in the Fermilab Main Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Ping Jung [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Transverse beam instabilities have been observed in the Fermilab Main Ring since 1972. It was well controlled by two active feedback systems until the last fix target run in 1991. The current upgrade of accelerator facilities, where the replacement of the Main Ring by the Main Injector will allow acceleration of higher proton intensities, makes the importance of this issue surface again. Experimental studies were conducted to understand the nature and the cause of these transverse beam instabilities. The interplay between accelerator parameters and the growth rate of transverse beam oscillations is investigated. Some previously puzzling behavior of the Main Ring is now understood because of the knowledge gained from these studies. Experimental techniques were implemented to measure some important parameters of the Main Ring, such as the vertical impedance, bunch form factor, and the wake f~nction. Empirical theory is devised to understand the coupled bunch instability with many distributed gaps, and a satisfactory agreement is obtained between the analysis and the measured data. The cause of the transverse beam instabilities is identified to be the resistive wall impedance. Anomalous behavior in the frequency dependence of the impedance below the MHz range suggests that impedance sources other than the resistive wall also exist in the Main Ring. The performance of two active feedback systems is found to be inadequate to meet the goal of the Main Injector accelerator upgrade. Suggestions for hardware improvements and the choice of accelerator parameters are given.

  12. Feedback Loop Gains and Feedback Behavior (1996)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Christian Erik

    2012-01-01

    elasticities. For illustration, the method is applied to a well-known system: the simple long-wave model. Because this model exhibits highly nonlinear behavior, it sheds light on the usefulness of linear methods to nonlinear system. The analysis leads to a more thorough and deeper understanding of the system......Linking feedback loops and system behavior is part of the foundation of system dynamics, yet the lack of formal tools has so far prevented a systematic application of the concept, except for very simple systems. Having such tools at their disposal would be a great help to analysts in understanding...... large, complicated simulation models. The paper applies tools from graph theory formally linking individual feedback loop strengths to the system eigenvalues. The significance of a link or a loop gain and an eigenvalue can be expressed in the eigenvalue elasticity, i.e., the relative change...

  13. Training effectiveness feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggin, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    A formal method of getting feedback about the job performance of employees is a necessary part of all the authors training programs. The formal process may prove to be inadequate if it is the only process in use. There are many ways and many opportunities to get good feedback about employee performance. It is important to document these methods and specific instances to supplement the more formalized process. The key is to identify them, encourage them, use them, and document the training actions that result from them. This paper describes one plant's method of getting feedback about performance of technicians in the field

  14. Brugbar peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Helle; Heger, Stine

    Studerende kan være medskabere af undervisning i akademisk skrivning, når de modtager og giver feedback til hinandens ufærdige akademiske tekster. Det ser vi i et udviklingsprojekt, hvor vi afprøver kollektive vejledningsformater. Vi har dog erfaret: 1. at studerende mangler træning i at give og ...... modtage feedback 2. at den manglende træning kan stå i vejen for realiseringen af læringspotentialet ved peer feedback....

  15. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners’ responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability. PMID:25946173

  16. NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback web application allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program...

  17. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  18. Feedback control for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Guy A

    2014-02-01

    Although feedback control and automation has revolutionized many fields of human activity, it has yet to have a significant impact on healthcare, particularly when a patient is in the loop. Although there have been a number of studies concerned with closed-loop control of anesthesia, they have yet to have an impact on clinical practice. For such systems to be successful, engineers and clinicians have to work hand in hand, for this they have to have a basic understanding of each other's fields. The goal of this paper is to introduce clinicians to basic concepts in control engineering, with an emphasis on the properties of feedback control. Concepts such as modelling for control, feedback and uncertainty, robustness, feedback controller such as proportional-integral-derivative control, predictive control and adaptive control are briefly reviewed. Finally we discuss the safety issues around closed-loop control and discuss ways by which safe control can be guaranteed.

  19. Excitation of Intra-bunch Vertical Motion in the SPS - Implications for Feedback Control of Ecloud and TMCI Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Cesaratto, John; Pivi, M T; Rivetta, C H; Turgut, O; Uemura, S; Hofle, W; Wehrle, U

    2012-01-01

    Electron cloud (ecloud) and transverse mode coupledbunch instabilities (TMCI) limit the bunch intensity in the CERN SPS. This paper presents experimental measurements in the SPS of single-bunch motion driven by a GHz bandwidth vertical excitation system [1]. The nal goal is to quantify the change in internal bunch dynamics as instability thresholds are approached, and quantify the frequencies of internal modes as ecloud effects become signicant. Initially, we have been able to drive the beam and view its motion. We show the excitation of barycentric, head-tail and higher vertical modes at different bunch intensities. The beam motion is analyzed in the time domain, via animated presentations of the sampled vertical signals, and in the frequency domain, via spectrograms showing the modal frequencies vs. time. The demonstration of the excitation of selected internal modes is a signicant step in the development of the feedback control techniques.

  20. Directional Transverse Oscillation Vector Flow Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2017-01-01

    A method for estimating vector velocities using transverse oscillation (TO) combined with directional beamforming is presented. In Directional Transverse Oscillation (DTO) a normal focused field is emitted and the received signals are beamformed in the lateral direction transverse to the ultrasound...... beam to increase the amount of data for vector velocity estimation. The approach is self-calibrating as the lateral oscillation period is estimated from the directional signal through a Fourier transform to yield quantitative velocity results over a large range of depths. The approach was extensively...

  1. Scaling properties of the transverse mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    2002-01-01

    Motivated from the formation of an initial state of gluon-saturated matter, we discuss scaling relations for the transverse mass spectra at BNL's relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We show on linear plots, that the transverse mass spectra for various hadrons can be described by an universal function in m t . The transverse mass spectra for different centralities can be rescaled into each other. Finally, we demonstrate that m t -scaling is also present in proton-antiproton collider data and compare it to m t -scaling at RHIC. (orig.)

  2. The Concept of "Simultaneous Feedback": Towards a New Meth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gual Cilubà-Dutch learner's dictionary. It is shown how this main project has been successfully complemented by three parallel projects. Keywords: SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK, NEW METHODOLOGY, MAIN DICTIONARY,. PARALLEL DICTIONARIES, TARGET USERS' DESIRES, QUESTIONNAIRES, ELECTRONIC.

  3. Systematic Design of EMI-Resilient Negative-Feedback Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Horst, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The information transfer capacity of negative-feedback amplifiers, and electronic circuits in general, is limited by three fundamental limitations being noise, bandwidth, and signal power. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is not a fundamental limitation, but it also hampers the information

  4. Constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    The discussion of constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions includes the structure of hard scattering models, dimensional counting rules for large transverse momentum reactions, dimensional counting and exclusive processes, the deuteron form factor, applications to inclusive reactions, predictions for meson and photon beams, the charge-cubed test for the e/sup +-/p → e/sup +-/γX asymmetry, the quasi-elastic peak in inclusive hadronic reactions, correlations, and the multiplicity bump at large transverse momentum. Also covered are the partition method for bound state calculations, proofs of dimensional counting, minimal neutralization and quark--quark scattering, the development of the constituent interchange model, and the A dependence of high transverse momentum reactions

  5. Transverse steering of two-component beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murin, B.P.; Bondarev, B.U.; Durkin, A.P.; Lomize, L.G.; Soloviev, L.Yu.; Fedotov, A.P.

    Coherent transverse oscillations are considered which occur during simultaneous acceleration of proton and H - beams due to arbitrary displacements in elements of the focusing channel. To suppress these oscillations, a beam adjustment station is proposed, in which each quadrupole lens of two doublets is provided with a special dipole component of the magnetic field. These steering elements, together with the beam transverse position monitors, permit steering the transverse position of beams of opposite signs in both transverse planes. The number of steering stations needed is chosen, and some algorithms for control are discussed. It is shown that some of the control algorithms will permit not only the suppression of coherent oscillations, but a decrease in the radius and emittance of the beam

  6. Quasielastic Scattering from Relativistic Bound Nucleons: Transverse-Longitudinal Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udias, J. M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid, (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, (Spain); Caballero, J. A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid, (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080 Sevilla, (Spain); Moya de Guerra, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid, (Spain); Amaro, J. E. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada, (Spain); Donnelly, T. W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    1999-12-27

    Predictions for electron induced proton knockout from p{sub 1/2} and p{sub 3/2} shells in {sup 16}O are presented using various approximations for the relativistic nucleonic current. Results for differential cross section, transverse-longitudinal response (R{sub TL} ), and left-right asymmetry A{sub TL} are compared at |Q{sup 2}|=0.8(GeV/c){sup 2} . We show that there are important dynamical and kinematical relativistic effects which can be tested by experiment. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  7. Transverse ratchet effect and superconducting vortices: simulation and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinis, L; Parrondo, J M R [Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC) and Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Nuclear y Molecular, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez de Lara, D; Gonzalez, E M; Vicent, J L [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Anguita, J V [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Tres Cantos E-28760 (Spain)], E-mail: ldinis@fis.ucm.es

    2009-07-15

    A transverse ratchet effect has been measured in magnetic/superconducting hybrid films fabricated by electron beam lithography and magnetron sputtering techniques. The samples are Nb films grown on top of an array of Ni nanotriangles. Injecting an ac current parallel to the triangle reflection symmetry axis yields an output dc voltage perpendicular to the current, due to a net motion of flux vortices in the superconductor. The effect is reproduced by numerical simulations of vortices as Langevin particles with realistic parameters. Simulations provide an intuitive picture of the ratchet mechanism, revealing the fundamental role played by the random intrinsic pinning of the superconductor.

  8. Elliptic flow coefficients from transverse momentum conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdak, Adam; Ma, Guo-Liang

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the k -particle (k =2 ,4 ,6 ,8 ) azimuthal cumulants resulting from the conservation of transverse momentum. We find that c2{k } >0 and, depending on the transverse momenta, c2{k } can reach substantial values even for a relatively large number of particles. The impact of our results on the understanding of the onset of collectivity in small systems is emphasized.

  9. Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence on the geo......Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...

  10. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  11. Laser dynamics in transversely inhomogeneous plasma and its relevance to wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, V. B.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Nam, Chang Hee

    2018-05-01

    We present full set of coupled equations describing the weakly relativistic dynamics of a laser in a plasma with transverse inhomogeneity. We apply variational principle approach to obtain these coupled equations governing laser spot-size, transverse wavenumber, curvature, transverse centroid, etc. We observe that such plasma inhomogeneity can lead to stronger self-focusing. We further discuss the guiding conditions of laser in parabolic plasma channels. With the help of multi-dimensional particle in cell simulations the study is extended to the blowout regime of laser wakefield acceleration to show laser as well as self-injected electron bunch steering in plasma to generate unconventional particle trajectories. Our simulation results demonstrate that such transverse inhomogeneities due to asymmetric self focusing lead to asymmetric bubble excitation, thus inducing off-axis self-injection.

  12. Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.

  13. Transverse structure of the QCD string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Harvey B.

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of the transverse structure of the QCD string is discussed. We formulate a conjecture as to how the stress-energy tensor of the underlying gauge theory couples to the string degrees of freedom. A consequence of the conjecture is that the energy density and the longitudinal-stress operators measure the distribution of the transverse position of the string, to leading order in the string fluctuations, whereas the transverse-stress operator does not. We interpret recent numerical measurements of the transverse size of the confining string and show that the difference of the energy and longitudinal-stress operators is a particularly natural probe at next-to-leading order. Second, we derive the constraints imposed by open-closed string duality on the transverse structure of the string. We show that a total of three independent ''gravitational'' form factors characterize the transverse profile of the closed string, and obtain the interpretation of recent effective string theory calculations: the square radius of a closed string of length β defined from the slope of its gravitational form factor, is given by (d-1/2πσ)log(β/4r 0 ) in d space dimensions. This is to be compared with the well-known result that the width of the open string at midpoint grows as (d-1/2πσ)log(r/r 0 ). We also obtain predictions for transition form factors among closed-string states.

  14. Analysis of beam envelope by transverse space charge effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Shin`ichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-09-01

    It is important for high current accelerators to estimate the contribution of the space charge effect to keep the beam off its beak up. The application of an envelope equation is examined in previous report in which the beam is just coasting beam (non accelerating). The analysis of space charge effect is necessary for the comparison in coming accelerator test in PNC. In order to evaluate the beam behavior in high current, the beam dynamics and beam parameters which are input to the equation for the evaluation are developed and make it ready to estimate the beam transverse dynamics by the space charge. The estimate needs to have enough accuracy for advanced code calculation. After the preparation of the analytic expression of transverse motion, the non-linear differential equation of beam dynamics is solved by a numerical method on a personal computer. The beam envelope from the equation is estimated by means of the beam emittance, current and energy. The result from the analysis shows that the transverse beam broadening is scarecely small around the beam current value of PNC design. The contribution to the beam broadening of PNC linac comes from its beam emittance. The beam broadening in 100 MeV case is almost negligible in the view of transverse space charge effect. Therefore, the electron beam is stable up to 10 A order in PNC linac design. Of course, the problem for RF supply is out of consideration here. It is important to estimate other longitudinal effect such as beam bunch effect which is lasting unevaluated. (author)

  15. Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ran; Xiao, Di; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α . The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine. (paper)

  16. Transverse beam diagnostics for the XUV seeding experiment at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedewadt, Joern

    2011-12-15

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FEL) offer intense, transversely coherent, and ultra short radiation pulses in the extreme ultraviolet, the soft- and the hard-X-ray spectral range. Undulator radiation from spontaneous emission is amplified. Due to the stochastic emission process, the radiation exhibits a low temporal coherence, and the structure of the amplified radiation in the temporal and in the spectral domain shows large shot-to-shot fluctuations. In order to improve the temporal coherence, an external radiation pulse is used to induce (or seed) the FEL process. With this, only a defined wavelength range within the FEL bandwidth is amplified provided that the irradiance of the external radiation exceeds the noise level of the FEL amplifier. In addition to the improved longitudinal coherence, a seeded FEL provides the possibility to perform pump-probe experiments with an expected temporal resolution of the order of the pulse durations. In order to experimentally proof this statement, a test experiment for direct HHG-seeding at wavelength below 40 nm was installed at the free-electron laser facility FLASH at DESY. Crucial for the seeded operation of an FEL is the six-dimensional laser-electron overlap of the seed laser pulses with the electron bunches. Hence, dedicated diagnostics to measure and mechanisms to control the overlap are essential. Within this thesis, a transport beamline for the seed laser beam and the transverse diagnostics for seed laser- and the electron-beam were developed and commissioned. Results of the performance of the seed injection beamline are presented, and first measurements of the seeded operation of the FEL are analyzed and evaluated. (orig.)

  17. Feedback Conversations: Creating Feedback Dialogues with a New Textual Tool for Industrial Design Student Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Mathias; van Diggelen, Migchiel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe how a study of a large database of written university teacher feedback in the department of Industrial Design led to the development of a new conceptual framework for feedback and the design of a new feedback tool. This paper focuses on the translation of related work in the area of feedback mechanisms for…

  18. Climate forcings and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James

    1993-01-01

    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  19. Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y., E-mail: k.bliokh@gmail.com [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nonlinear Physics Centre, RSPhysE, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Nori, Franco [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2015-08-26

    We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin  angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin–direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.

  20. Accountability and feedback, part IV: destructive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay A

    2013-04-01

    There are times that feedback is destructive rather than helpful to the employee and the organization. Occasionally, this is deliberate, such as when a boss does not like someone for reasons that have nothing to do with his/her performance as an employee, or his/her character. More often, it is inadvertent. This could be due to erroneous information from others or the leader's failure to take the time to adequately observe or supervise others. It could also be due to a lack of understanding of the individual's communication style, or failure to take into account age, cultural, religious, or sex differences. This article addresses some of these issues and what to do about it.

  1. Preliminary Specifications for the PS Pick-ups Amplifier to be used in the Transverse Damping System

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    The pick-up amplification stage to be used for the CODD in the PS is presently under redesign. It appears that the constraints for the circuit are very similar to those of the transverse feedback project. The AB/BDI group and in particular its PI section has kindly agreed to fulfil the RF group constraints so as to obtain a common design with a common control interface. The reliability aspect is not treated here. Nevertheless radiation has been considered. At the locations foreseen for the pick-ups (SS 2, 94, 98), the annual dose measured on the vacuum chamber (ref: CERN-TIS-2002-06-TE) is about 1000 Gray per year. This value is to be compared to the 100 Gy considered as the critical dose for electronic circuits. The radiation problem has been solved for the CODD pick-ups using distance and shield (active circuits 2 meters below the floor composed of concrete slabs). The same lay out will be applied for the dampers with the drawback of the capacitive plates being loaded with a low impedance -5 meters long- ca...

  2. LHC beam stability and feedback control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, Ralph

    2007-07-20

    This report presents the stability and the control of the Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) two beam orbits and their particle momenta using beam-based feedback systems. The aim of this report is to contribute to a safe and reliable LHC commissioning and machine operation. The first part of the analysis gives an estimate of the expected sources of orbit and energy perturbations that can be grouped into environmental sources, machine-inherent sources and machine element failures: the slowest perturbation due to ground motion, tides, temperature fluctuations of the tunnel and other environmental influences are described in this report by a propagation model that is both qualitatively and quantitatively supported by geophone and beam motion measurements at LEP and other CERN accelerators. The second part of this analysis deals with the control of the two LHC beams' orbit and energy through automated feedback systems. Based on the reading of the more than 1056 beam position monitors (BPMs) that are distributed over the machine, a central global feedback controller calculates new deflection strengths for the more than 1060 orbit corrector magnets (CODs) that are suitable to correct the orbit and momentum around their references. this report provides an analysis of the BPMs and CODs involved in the orbit and energy feedback. The BPMs are based on a wide-band time normaliser circuit that converts the transverse beam position reading of each individual particle bunch into two laser pulses that are separated by a time delay and transmitted through optical fibres to an acquisition card that converts the delay signals into a digital position. A simple error model has been tested and compared to the measurement accuracy of LHC type BPMs, obtained through beam-based measurements in the SPS. The average beam position is controlled through 1060 superconducting and individually powered corrector dipole magnets. The proposed correction in 'time-domain' consists of a

  3. Distributed ion pump related transverse instability in CESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.T.; Holmquist, T. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Nuclear Studies

    1996-08-01

    An anomalous damping or growth of transverse coupled bunch modes is observed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). The growth rates and tune shifts of these modes are a highly nonlinear function of current. Unlike an instability produced by the coupling impedance of the vacuum chamber, the magnitude of the growth rate first increases, then declines, as the beam current is increased. The effect is known to be related to the operation of the distributed ion pumps, as it disappears when the pumps are not powered. We review the observations of this effect, and show that it can be explained by the presence of electrons trapped in the CESR chamber by the field of the dipole magnets and the electrostatic leakage field of the distributed ion pumps. Photoelectrons are introduced into the chamber by synchrotron radiation and can be captured in or ejected from the chamber by the passage of the beam. The transverse position of the beam thus modulates the trapped photoelectron charge density, which in turn deflects the beam, creating growth or damping and a tune shift for each coupled bunch mode. Predictions of the dependence of growth rate and tune shift on bunch current and bunch pattern by a numerical model of this process are in approximate agreement with observations. (author)

  4. Evolution of transverse instability in a hollow cylindrical weakly-ionized plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuedyan, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    Having observed formation of plasma striations in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) device, we have studied the conditions under which the hollow cylindrical plasma columns would develop into striations. We first present the observed conditions of the hollow cylindrical plasma which would develop into plasma striations, the measured characteristics of the transverse oscillations and a simple small signal model for a transverse instability in a weakly-ionized hollow cylindrical plasma. This linearized model, which assumes flowing cold ion fluid (T/sub i/ approximately < 0.1 eV) in warm electron fluid (T/sub e/ approximately 1 eV) and background neutrals, reveals a transverse flute-type electrostatic instability whose characteristics are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the measured values of the oscillations in our experiment

  5. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  6. Portfolio, refleksion og feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Jørgen; Qvortrup, Ane; Christensen, Inger-Marie F.

    2017-01-01

    Denne leder definerer indledningsvist begrebet portfolio og gør rede for anvendelsesmuligheder i en uddannelseskontekst. Dernæst behandles portfoliometodens kvalitet og effekt for læring og undervisning og de centrale begreber refleksion, progression og feedback præsenteres og diskuteres. Herefter...

  7. Feedback i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund

    2015-01-01

    undervisningsdifferentiering, feedback på læreprocesser, formativ og summativ evaluering, observationer og analyse af undervisning samt lærernes teamsamarbejde herom. Praktikken udgør et særligt læringsrum i læreruddannelsen. Samspillet mellem studerende, praktiklærere og undervisere giver den studerende en unik mulighed...

  8. The Endogenous Feedback Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustenborg, Claudia Carrara

    2010-01-01

    proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network (EFN) will consequently be introduced which, beside being able to accommodate the main tenets...

  9. Comparison of extended hemicolectomy versus transverse colectomy in patients with cancer of the transverse colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rongen, I; Damhuis, R A M; van der Hoeven, J A B; Plaisier, P W

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of the transverse colon is rare and postoperative mortality tends to be high. Standard surgical treatment involves either extended hemicolectomy or transverse colectomy, depending on the location of the tumour. The aim of the present study was to compare postoperative mortality and five-year survival between these types of surgery. For this observational study, data on patients with a tumour of the transverse colon, treated by open resection in the Dordrecht Hospital from 1989 through 2003, were derived from the database of the regional cancer registry. Information on type of resection, tumour stage, complications, postoperative mortality (30-day) and survival was abstracted from the medical files. Patients with multi-organ surgery, (sub)total colectomy or stage IV disease were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total series of 103 patients. Transverse colectomy comprised one third of operations, predominantly involving partial resections. Postoperative mortality was 6% (2/34) after transverse colectomy and 7% (5/69) after extended hemicolectomy. Five-year survival was slightly higher for the hemicolectomy group (61% versus 50%), but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.34). Our results confirm the high postoperative risk after surgery for cancer of the transverse colon and show that this risk does not depend on the type of surgery. Considering the satisfactory results after partial transverse colectomy, segmental resections may be considered as an option for the treatment of localised tumours of the transverse colon.

  10. Transverse thermal magnetoresistance of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newrock, R.S.; Maxfield, B.W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of extensive thermal magnetoresistance measurements on single-crystal and polycrystalline specimens of potassium having residual resistance ratios (RRR) ranging from 1100 to 5300. Measurements were made between 2 and 9 0 K for magnetic fields up to 1.8 T. The observed thermal magnetoresistance cannot be understood on the basis of either semiclassical theories or from the electrical magnetoresistance and the Wiedemann-Franz law. A number of relationships are observed between the thermal and electrical magnetoresistances, many of which are not immediately obvious when comparing direct experimental observations. The thermal magnetoresistance W(T,H) is given reasonably well by W(T,H)T = W(T,0)T + AH + BH 2 , where both A and B are temperature-dependent coefficients. Results show that A = A 0 + A 1 T 3 , while B(T) cannot be expressed as any simple power law. A 0 is dependent on the RRR, while A 1 is independent of the RRR. Two relationships are found between corresponding coefficients in the electrical and thermal magnetoresistance: (i) the Wiedmann--Franz law relates A 0 to the Kohler slope of the electrical magnetoresistance and (ii) the temperature-dependent portions of the electrical and thermal Kohler slopes are both proportional to the electron--phonon scattering contribution to the corresponding zero-field resistance. The latter provides evidence that inelastic scattering is very important in determining the temperature-dependent linear magnetoresistances. Part, but by no means all, of the quadratic thermal resistance is accounted for by lattice thermal conduction. It is concluded that at least a portion of the anomalous electrical and thermal magnetoresistances is due to intrinsic causes and not inhomogeneities or other macroscopic defects

  11. Possibilities for reduction of transverse projected emittances by partial removal of transverse to longitudinal beam correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balandin, V.; Decking, W.; Golubeva, N.

    2014-09-01

    We show that if in the particle beam there are linear correlations between energy of particles and their transverse positions and momenta (linear beam dispersions), then the transverse projected emittances always can be reduced by letting the beam to pass through magnetostatic system with specially chosen nonzero lattice dispersions. The maximum possible reduction of the transverse projected emittances occurs when all beam dispersions are zeroed, and the values of the lattice dispersions required for that are completely defined by the values of the beam dispersions and the beam rms energy spread and are independent from any other second-order central beam moments. Besides that, we prove that, alternatively, one can also use the lattice dispersions to remove linear correlations between longitudinal positions of particles and their transverse coordinates (linear beam tilts), but in this situation solution for the lattice dispersions is nonunique and the reduction of the transverse projected emittances is not guaranteed.

  12. Spin versus helicity in processes involving transversity

    CERN Document Server

    Mekhfi, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We construct the spin formalism in order to deal in a direct and natural way with processes involving transversity which are now of increasing popularity. The helicity formalism which is more appropriate for collision processes of definite helicity has been so far used also to manage processes with transversity, but at the price of computing numerous helicity amplitudes generally involving unnecessary kinematical variables.In a second step we work out the correspondence between both formalisms and retrieve in another way all results of the helicity formalism but in simpler forms.We then compute certain processes for comparison.A special process:the quark dipole magnetic moment is shown to be exclusively treated within the spin formalism as it is directly related to the transverse spin of the quark inside the baryon.

  13. Transversely Compressed- and Restrained Shear Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    2013-01-01

    Anchorage of FRP strengthening systems where the deformation perpendicular to the FRP material is restrained or a compressive force is applied on the strengthening, seems to provide ductility, increased utilization of the FRP and failure modes which can be controlled through the anchorage method....... This paper presents theoretical model which can predict the response of transversely compressed and restrained single- and double lap shear joints. The interface material model is based on a cohesive law in the shear-slip plane with a descending branch and a uniform frictional stress added due...... to the friction in the crack, emanating from the transverse pressure or restraint. The theoretical model is compared with experimental results from transversely compressed single- and double shear joints. Also theoretical predictions of a mechanical integrated sleeve-wedge anchorage load capacity are carried out...

  14. Associated transverse energy in hadronic jet production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesini, G.; Webber, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the ''pedestal height'' in hadronic jet production, i.e., the mean transverse energy per unit of rapidity accompanying a high-transverse-energy jet. We find that perturbative QCD, supplemented by a Monte Carlo estimate of higher-order corrections and a soft underlying event structure similar to that of minimum-bias collisions, can account for the observed pedestal height and its dependence on jet transverse energy. We propose a way of separating the hard pedestal contribution from that of the underlying event by measuring the quantity , which is one-half the absolute difference of the pedestal heights on the two sides of the jet. This quantity is dominated by the hard QCD component, whereas = - is dominated by the soft underlying event. We also discuss the differential distribution of pedestal height and the charged multiplicity in the pedestal

  15. Deep transverse friction massage for treating tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, L; Casimiro, L; Milne, S; Robinson, V; Shea, B; Tugwell, P; Wells, G

    2002-01-01

    Deep transverse friction massage (DTFM) is one of several physiotherapy interventions suggested for the management of pain due to iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS). To assess the effectiveness of DTFM for treating ITBFS observed in runners. We searched the Medline, Embase, Healthstar, Sports Discus, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PEDro, the specialized registry of the Cochrane musculoskeletal group and the Cochrane field of Physical and Related Therapies up to the end of December 2000, using the sensitive search strategy developed by the Cochrane Collaboration. The search was complemented with bibliography searching of the reference list of the trials retrieved from the electronic search. Key experts in the area were contacted for further published and unpublished articles. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing therapeutic ultrasound against placebo or another active intervention in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were selected. Two reviewers determined the studies to be included based on inclusion and exclusion criteria (LB, VR). Data were independently abstracted by two reviewers (VR, LB), and checked by a third reviewer (BS) using a pre-developed form of the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group. The same two reviewers, using a validated scale, assessed the methodological quality of the RCTs and CCTs independently. Iliotibial band friction syndrome outcome measures were extracted from the publications. The pooled analysis was performed using weighted mean differences (WMDs) for pain relief as described as 1) daily pain; 2) pain while running and 3) percentage of maximum pain when running. A chi-square test was used to assess heterogeneity among trials. Fixed effects models were used throughout and random effects for outcomes showing heterogeneity. One RCT, including 17 patients with ITBFS was included. The experimental group (DTFM combined to rest, stretching exercises, cryotherapy

  16. Operative Method for Transverse Colon Carcinoma: Transverse Colectomy Versus Extended Colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Choon Seng; Huh, Jung Wook; Oh, Bo Young; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong

    2016-07-01

    The type of surgery performed for primary transverse colon cancer varies based on tumor characteristics and surgeon perspective. The optimal oncological outcome following different surgical options has not been clearly established, and transverse colectomy has shown oncological equivalence only in small cohort studies. Our aim was to compare long-term oncological outcomes after transverse colectomy versus extended resection for transverse colon cancer. This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. All patients treated for transverse colon cancer at the Samsung Medical Center between 1995 and 2013 were included. Oncological outcomes were compared between 2 groups of patients: a transverse colectomy group and an extended colectomy group (which included extended right hemicolectomy and left hemicolectomy). A total of 1066 patients were included, of whom 750 (70.4%) underwent extended right hemicolectomy, 127 (11.9%) underwent transverse colectomy, and 189 (17.7%) underwent left hemicolectomy. According to univariate analysis, surgical approach, histological type, tumor morphology, cancer T and N stage, cancer size, and lymphovascular invasion were significant factors contributing to disease-free survival (DFS). However, as seen in multivariate analysis, only node-positive disease (HR = 2.035 (1.188-3.484)), tumors with ulcerative morphology (HR = 3.643 (1.132-11.725)), and the presence of vascular invasion (HR = 2.569 (1.455-4.538)) were significant factors for DFS. Further analysis with a propensity-matched cohort between the transverse and extended colectomy groups demonstrated no significant differences in DFS and overall survival. This study was limited because it was performed at a single institution and it was retrospective in nature. In terms of perioperative and oncological outcomes, transverse colectomy and extended colectomy did not differ despite a shorter specimen length and

  17. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  18. Inclusive eta production at large transverse momenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, G.J.; Gordon, H.A.; Lai, K.; Stumer, I.; Barnes, A.V.; Mellema, D.J.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Walker, R.L.; Dahl, O.; Johnson, R.; Ogawa, A.; Pripstein, M.; Shannon, S.

    1978-01-01

    We have measured the ratio of inclusive production of eta to π 0 at transverse momenta above 1.5 GeV/c. Results are presented for various meson and proton beams with momenta of 100, 200, and 300 GeV/c incident upon a hydrogen target. The eta/π 0 production ratio is found to be independent of incident beam momentum and of the transverse and longitudinal momenta of production. The ratio for pion- and proton-induced reactions is 0.44 +- 0.05; for kaons, it is 0.74 +- 0.12

  19. Transverse posterior element fractures associated with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Six examples of a previously undescribed class of transverse vertebral element fractures are presented. These fractures differ from Chance and Smith fractures and their variants in the following respects: (1) the etiology is torsion and not flexion; (2) there is neither distraction of posterior ring fragments nor posterior ligament tears; (3) in contrast to Chance and Smith fractures, extension of the fracture into the vertebral body is absent or minimal; (4) the transverse process of the lumbar vertebra is avulsed at its base with a vertical fracture, not split horizontally. These fractures occur in cervical, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae in normal or compromised areas of the spine. (orig.)

  20. [The transversality and health promotion schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavidia Catalán, V

    2001-01-01

    The following article shows the evolution of the schools contribution to the Health Education of children and young people. Moving on from the traditional concept of health, today, Health Education has a general and global meaning, which encompasses all of the physical, psychological and social aspects of health. These aspects define the characteristics of the "Healthy School". The need to broach the "transversal subject" offers schools the possibility of developing "transversality" in the Health Education. Finally, the concept of promoting health defines, together with the other subjects, that which we understand by "the heath promotion schools", which attempts to progress the full integration of schools in the society in which they are located.

  1. Transverse target-spin asymmetry in exclusive electroproduction of {rho}{sup 0} mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreschler, Jeroen

    2008-10-15

    This thesis reports the first measurements of the asymmetry in exclusive {rho}{sup 0} electroproduction from a transversely polarized proton. The asymmetry was extracted from data taken by the HERMES experiment at DESY with a polarized internal hydrogen gas target and the 27.6 GeV electron (positron) beam of HERA. (orig.)

  2. What higher education students do with teacher feedback: Feedback ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feedback research, therefore, suggests a causal relationship between teacher feedback practices during text production, student attitude and writing performance. However, a four-year longitudinal study conducted at a higher education institution monitoring student perceptions of written feedback on essay drafts found that ...

  3. Online feedback op schriftelijk werk: betere feedback in minder tijd.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, B.A.M.; van der Hulst, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Feedback is a powerful teaching technic to raise students’ performance, provided that the feedback is informative on how to improve, is given in a timely manner and students have the opportunity to act upon it. Therefore, many institutions want their students to receive feedback on their performance

  4. Optimal Surgery for Mid-Transverse Colon Cancer: Laparoscopic Extended Right Hemicolectomy Versus Laparoscopic Transverse Colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeru; Sumi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Matsuda, Yoshiko; Kanaji, Shingo; Oshikiri, Taro; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2018-04-02

    Although the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery for transverse colon cancer have been shown by the recent studies, the optimal laparoscopic approach for mid-transverse colon cancer is controversial. We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with the mid-transverse colon cancer at our institutions between January 2007 and April 2017. Thirty-eight and 34 patients who received extended right hemicolectomy and transverse colectomy, respectively, were enrolled. There were no significant differences in operating time, blood loss, and hospital stay between the two groups. Postoperative complications developed in 10 of 34 patients (29.4%; wound infection: 2 cases, anastomotic leakage: 2 cases, bowel obstruction: 1 case, incisional hernia: 2 cases, others: 3 cases) for the transverse colectomy group and in 4 of 38 patients (10.5%; wound infection: 1 case, anastomotic leakage: 0 case, bowel obstruction: 2 cases, incisional hernia: 0 case, others: 1 case) for the extended right hemicolectomy group (P = 0.014). Although the median number of harvested #221 and #222 LNs was similar between the two groups (6 vs. 8, P = 0.710, and 3 vs. 2, P = 0.256, respectively), that of #223 was significantly larger in extended right hemicolectomy than in transverse colectomy (3 vs. 1, P = 0.038). The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 92.4 and 90.3% for the extended right hemicolectomy group, and 95.7 and 79.6% for the transverse colectomy group (P = 0.593 and P = 0.638, respectively). Laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy and laparoscopic transverse colectomy offer similar oncological outcomes for mid-transverse colon cancer. Laparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy might be associated with fewer postoperative complications.

  5. Engaging Students with Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Students express widespread dissatisfaction with academic feedback. Teaching staff perceive a frequent lack of student engagement with written feedback, much of which goes uncollected or unread. Published evidence shows that audio feedback is highly acceptable to students but is underused. This paper explores methods to produce and deliver audio…

  6. Student Perceptions of Classroom Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamlem, Siv M.; Smith, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Feedback to students has been identified as a key strategy in learning and teaching, but we know less about how feedback is understood by students. The purpose of this study is to gain more insight into lower secondary students' perceptions of when and how they find classroom feedback useful. This article draws on data generated through individual…

  7. Det ved vi om Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Vibeke; Bærenholdt, Jørgen

    Præsentation af forskningsviden om feedback i forskellige personkonstellationer i undervisningen: Feedback fra lærer til elev, fra elever til lærer, fra elev til elev og elevens eget arbejde med feedback til sig selv. De præsenterede forskningsresultater er udvalgt dels inden for en kognitivistisk...

  8. A Journey towards Sustainable Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Allyson; Young, Charlotte; Davey, Tamzyn; Fitzgerald, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Meeting students' expectations associated with the provision of feedback is a perennial challenge for tertiary education. Efforts to provide comprehensive, timely feedback within our own first year undergraduate public health courses have not always met students' expectations. In response, we sought to develop peer feedback activities to support…

  9. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  10. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  11. Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...... on the geometrical size of the system is demonstrated even in the case of large-scale systems....

  12. Longitudinal Evaluation of Foetal Transverse Lie using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    , lower segment fibroids in 2.7%, and ectopic kidney in 0.7%. In conclusion, transverse lie detected early in pregnancy is transient, and majority would convert to a longitudinal lie at term. Potential predisposing factors highlighted above ...

  13. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In contrast to some of the earlier studies, calculations are performed retaining the full lossy character of the metal. In the limit of vanishing losses, we present analytical results for the extraordinary spin for both the coupled modes. The results can have direct implications for enhancing the elusive transverse spin exploiting the ...

  14. Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles produced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... sources which can be regarded as partons or quarks in the interacting system. The particle is contributed by each source with gluons which have transverse momentum distributions in an exponential form. The modelling results are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data at high energies.

  15. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  16. Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (SSAs) in hard scattering processes when transverse momentum scales are on the order of quarks in hadrons, ... are of particular interest as they emerge from the colour gauge invariant definition of the quark-gluon-quark ..... For n ≥ 3, there are enough powers of l+ to eliminate this divergence. f(p2) is a covariant Gaussian ...

  17. TRANSVERSE COLON POUCH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective Urinary diversion after pelvic irradiation is challenging. The use of irradiated bowel is mostly complicated and unsuccessful. Therefore, the use of an exclusively non-irradiated bowel segment, such as the transverse colon, is a good alternative in such situation. Patients and Methods Twenty-nine female patients ...

  18. Transversals in non-discrete groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 4 ... Given any right quasigroup with a Tychonoff topology , it is proved that there exists a Hausdorff topological group in which can be embedded algebraically and topologically as a right transversal of a subgroup (not necessarily closeed).

  19. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samyobrata Mukherjee

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... spline interpolation from the data of Johnson and Christy. [31]. But first, we have to deal with normalization in order to make our comparisons of the transverse spin for different wavelengths and metal film thicknesses d meaningful. We normalize the power flow into the sys- tem at x = 0 to unity. ∫ ∞. −∞.

  20. Transverse Ising model with multi-impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xuchu; Yang, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    We study the transverse Ising spin model with spin-1 impurities under the exact solution. We develop a universal method to deal with the multi-impurity problem by introducing a displacement quantity in the wave function and get a recursive formula to simplify the calculation of the partition function. This allows us to rigorously determine the impurity effects for a specific distribution of impurity in the thermodynamic limit. The low temperature behaviors are governed by the interplay between host and impurity excitations, and the quantum critical fluctuations around the critical point of the transverse Ising model are tuned by the transverse field and the concentration of impurity. However the impurity effects are limited, which depends on the host–impurity exchange interaction and the coupling strength of impurities. - Highlights: • A universal method is proposed to exactly resolve the transverse Ising model with many impurities. • The phase diagram of the ground state is obtained for different impurity concentrations. • The thermodynamic properties can be determined rigorously by a recursive formula in the thermodynamic limit

  1. Transversals in non-discrete groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1963). [7] Lal R, Transversals in groups, J. Alg. 181 (1996) 70–81. [8] Lal R and Shukla R P, Perfectly stable subgroups of finite groups, Comm. Alg. 24(2). (1996) 643–657. [9] Lal R and Shukla R P, A characterization of Tarski monsters, ...

  2. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samyobrata Mukherjee

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons. SAMYOBRATA MUKHERJEE1, A V GOPAL2 and S DUTTA GUPTA1,∗. 1School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 046, India. 2Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of ...

  3. EFFECT OF CHANNEL BENDS ON TRANSVERSE MIXING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... dy, where d is the flow depth, was found to vary laterally in all cross-sections. As the spiral motion due to the second bend develops it displaces the residual spiral motion from the first bend towards the outer bend causing it to decay completely around the middle of this bend. Transverse Tracer Distribution.

  4. Sand Dune Albedo Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Ashkenazy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sand dunes cover substantial parts of desert areas. Fully active dunes are bare, while fixed dunes are stabilized by vegetation and biogenic crust, and the dune activity is affected by the wind. Here we suggest the following atmosphere-sand dune feedback: spatial differences in the dunes’ vegetation and biogenic crust cover lead to differences in albedo as the albedo of bare sand is larger than that of vegetation and biogenic crust. This leads to a higher temperature over the vegetated area, resulting in air flow from the bare dune area to the vegetated dune area, thus increasing the wind activity over the vegetated dune area. In turn, this leads to enhanced stress on the vegetation and enhanced dune activity and thus to a decrease in vegetation. These changes in vegetation cover affect the surface albedo, leading to a change in wind activity. We examined this feedback using an atmospheric general circulation model, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, in selected regions of the northwestern Negev Desert and the Sahara/Sahel region, and we show that changes in surface albedo do indeed lead to significantly enhanced wind activity over the lower albedo region. We then incorporated this feedback into a simple vegetated dune model, showing that the multiple states associated with active and fixed dunes can be obtained for a larger range of parameters and that the stables states become more extreme (i.e., the fixed dune state becomes more vegetated and the active dune state becomes less vegetated.

  5. Positive feedback promotes oscillations in negative feedback loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthasubramaniam, Bharath; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    A simple three-component negative feedback loop is a recurring motif in biochemical oscillators. This motif oscillates as it has the three necessary ingredients for oscillations: a three-step delay, negative feedback, and nonlinearity in the loop. However, to oscillate, this motif under the common Goodwin formulation requires a high degree of cooperativity (a measure of nonlinearity) in the feedback that is biologically "unlikely." Moreover, this recurring negative feedback motif is commonly observed augmented by positive feedback interactions. Here we show that these positive feedback interactions promote oscillation at lower degrees of cooperativity, and we can thus unify several common kinetic mechanisms that facilitate oscillations, such as self-activation and Michaelis-Menten degradation. The positive feedback loops are most beneficial when acting on the shortest lived component, where they function by balancing the lifetimes of the different components. The benefits of multiple positive feedback interactions are cumulative for a majority of situations considered, when benefits are measured by the reduction in the cooperativity required to oscillate. These positive feedback motifs also allow oscillations with longer periods than that determined by the lifetimes of the components alone. We can therefore conjecture that these positive feedback loops have evolved to facilitate oscillations at lower, kinetically achievable, degrees of cooperativity. Finally, we discuss the implications of our conclusions on the mammalian molecular clock, a system modeled extensively based on the three-component negative feedback loop.

  6. Transverse Behaviour of the LHC Proton Beam in the SPS an Update

    CERN Document Server

    Arduini, Gianluigi; Höfle, Wolfgang; Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank

    2001-01-01

    During the 1999 SPS run, strong transverse instabilities were observed with the LHC beam [1]. Both the instability characteristics and the identical threshold current as for beam-induced electron multipacting led to consider the interaction of the beam with the electron cloud as a likely source. In 2000, we have measured the dependence of beam motion, beam loss, and emittance growth on bunch intensity, number of bunches, octupole strength, chromaticity, and gaps in the bunch train. We report on these recent studies and compare the beam observations with simulations of electron cloud build up and electron-induced single-bunch instabilities.

  7. Amplification of surface acoustic waves by transverse electric current in piezoelectric semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulyaev, Yuri V.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the principal characteristic feature of the surface acoustic waves in piezoelectrics—the presence of an alternating electric field transverse to the surface, which can be of the same order of magnitude as the longitudinal field—may not only give rise to the known transverse...... acoustoelectric effect but also lead to amplification of surface acoustic waves by electron drift perpendicular to the surface. For Love waves in a piezoelectric semiconductor film on a highly conducting substrate, the amplification coefficient is found and the conditions necessary for amplification...

  8. Effect of low transverse magnetic field on the confinement strength in a quasi-1D wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Thomas, K. J.; Smith, L. W.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Jones, G. A. C.; Griffiths, J.; Pepper, M.

    2013-01-01

    Transport measurements in a quasi-one dimensional (1D) quantum wire are reported in the presence of low transverse magnetic field. Differential conductance shows weak quantised plateaus when the 2D electrons are squeezed electrostatically. Application of a small transverse magnetic field (0.2T) enhances the overall degree of quantisation due to the formation of magneto-electric subbands. The results show the role of magnetic field to fine tune the confinement strength in low density wires when interaction gives rise to double row formation

  9. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  10. Acousto-optic collinear filter with optoelectronic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsevich, S. N.; Balakshy, V. I.; Kuznetsov, Yu. I.

    2017-04-01

    A spectral optoelectronic system combining a collinear acousto-optic cell fabricated of calcium molybdate single crystal and a positive electronic feedback is proposed first and examined theoretically and experimentally. The feedback signal is formed at the cell output due to the optical heterodyning effect with the use of an unconventional regime of cell operation. It is shown that the feedback enables controlling spectral characteristics of the acousto-optic cell, resulting in enhancing the spectral resolution and the accuracy of optical wavelength determination. In the experiment, maximal filter passband narrowing was as great as 37 times.

  11. Feedback på arbejdspladser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Feedback på arbejdspladser er vigtig. Men feedback er også et populært begreb mange taler med om uden dog at vide sig helt sikker på hvad det er. Formålet med denne bog er at bidrage til en bedre forståelse af hvad feedback er, hvordan det fungerer og dermed hvordan arbejdspladser bedst muligt bør...... understøtte feedback. Med udgangspunkt i forskningen identificeres centrale udfordringer ved feedback, bl.a. hvorfor det kan være svært at give præcis feedback, hvordan forholdet mellem lederen og den ansatte påvirker den feedback der gives, og hvad der kendetegner en feedback kultur. Bogen er skrevet til...... undervisere og studerende på videregående uddannelser samt praktikere der ønsker en systematisk og forskningsbaseret forståelse af feedback på arbejdspladser. Bogen er således ikke en kogebog til bedre feedback, men en analyse og diskussion af hvad forskningen ved om feedback, og bidrager med inspiration og...

  12. Mapping of moveout in tilted transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2013-09-09

    The computation of traveltimes in a transverse isotropic medium with a tilted symmetry axis tilted transversely isotropic is very important both for modelling and inversion. We develop a simple analytical procedure to map the traveltime function from a transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (vertical transversely isotropic) to a tilted transversely isotropic medium by applying point-by-point mapping of the traveltime function. This approach can be used for kinematic modelling and inversion in layered tilted transversely isotropic media. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  13. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  14. The Endogenous Feedback Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustenborg, Claudia Carrara

    2010-01-01

    proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network (EFN) will consequently be introduced which, beside being able to accommodate the main tenets...... of the reviewed theories, appears able to compensate for the explanatory gaps they leave behind. The EFN proposes consciousness as the phenomenon emerging from a distinct network of neural paths broadcasting the neural changes associated to any mental process. It additionally argues for the need to include a 5th...

  15. Kinetic description of neutralized drift compression and transverse focusing of intense ion charge bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Davidson

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic model based on the Vlasov equation is used to describe the axial drift compression and transverse focusing of an intense ion charge bunch propagating along the axis of a solenoidal focusing field B^{sol}(x. The space charge and current of the ion charge bunch are assumed to be completely neutralized by the electrons provided by a dense background plasma. In the absence of self-field forces, the Vlasov equation is solved exactly for general initial distribution function f_{b}(x,v,0, using the method of characteristics. It is shown that the Vlasov equation possesses a class of exact, dynamically evolving solutions f_{b}(W_{⊥},W_{z}, where W_{⊥} and W_{z} are transverse and longitudinal constants of the motion. Detailed dynamical properties of the charge bunch are calculated during axial compression and transverse focusing for several choices of distribution function f_{b}(W_{⊥},W_{z}.

  16. New ways to access the transverse spin content of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiyad, M El; Pire, B; Szymanowski, L; Wallon, S

    2011-01-01

    We first describe a new way to access the chiral odd transversity parton distribution in the proton through the photoproduction of lepton pairs. The basic ingredient is the interference of the usual Bethe-Heitler or Drell-Yan amplitudes with the amplitude of a process, where the photon couples to quarks through its chiral-odd distribution amplitude, which is normalized to the magnetic susceptibility of the QCD vacuum. We also show how the chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive electro - or photoproduction process of a meson pair with a large invariant mass and when the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum. We calculate perturbatively the scattering amplitude at leading order, both in the high energy domain which may be accessed in electron-ion colliders and in the medium energy range. Estimated rates are encouraging.

  17. Transverse-target-spin asymmetry in exclusive ω-meson electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); University of Michigan, Randall Laboratory of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Akopov, N.; Avetissian, A.; Elbakian, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Karyan, G.; Marukyan, H.; Petrosyan, A.; Taroian, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z.; Borissov, A.; Deconinck, W.; Holler, Y.; Rostomyan, A.; Zihlmann, B. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C.; Gabbert, D.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.D. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W.; Marianski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Zupranski, P. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Belostotski, S.; Kisselev, A.; Manaenkov, S.I.; Naryshkin, Y.; Vikhrov, V. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Leningrad Region (Russian Federation); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bryzgalov, V.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Ivanilov, A.; Korotkov, V.; Salomatin, Y. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Capitani, G.P.; De Sanctis, E.; Di Nezza, P.; Hasch, D.; Muccifora, V.; Reolon, A.R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Ciullo, G.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Lenisa, P.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Statera, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); Contalbrigo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); De Leo, R.; Lagamba, L.; Vilardi, I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Diefenthaler, M. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); Dueren, M.; Keri, T.; Perez-Benito, R. [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Ellinghaus, F.; Kinney, E. [University of Colorado, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Boulder, CO (United States); Felawka, L.; Yen, S. [Vancouver, TRIUMF, BC (Canada); Frullani, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Giordano, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); Gliske, S.; Lorenzon, W. [University of Michigan, Randall Laboratory of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hoek, M.; Kaiser, R.; Lehmann, I.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B. [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jackson, H.E.; Reimer, P.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, Argonne, IL (United States); Joosten, S.; Ryckbosch, D.; Tytgat, M.; Haarlem, Y. van [Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gent (Belgium); Kozlov, V.; Terkulov, A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krivokhijine, V.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Lapikas, L.; Steijger, J.J.M. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), Amsterdam (NL); Ma, B.Q.; Mao, Y.; Wang, S. [Peking University, School of Physics, Beijing (CN); Miyachi, Y.; Shibata, T.A. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Tokyo (JP); Movsisyan, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (IT); Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (AM); Nass, A.; Rith, K.; Steffens, E.; Stinzing, F.; Vogel, C. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (DE); Riedl, C. [DESY, Zeuthen (DE); University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (US); Rubin, J. [University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (US); University of Michigan, Randall Laboratory of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (US); Schnell, G. [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (ES); Basque Foundation for Science, IKERBASQUE, Bilbao (ES); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gent (BE); Truty, R. [University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (US); Hulse, C. van [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (ES); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gent (BE); Yaschenko, S. [DESY, Hamburg (DE); Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (DE); Collaboration: The HERMES Collaboration

    2015-12-15

    Hard exclusive electroproduction of ω mesons is studied with the HERMES spectrometer at the DESY laboratory by scattering 27.6 GeV positron and electron beams off a transversely polarized hydrogen target. The amplitudes of five azimuthal modulations of the single-spin asymmetry of the cross section with respect to the transverse proton polarization are measured. They are determined in the entire kinematic region as well as for two bins in photon virtuality and momentum transfer to the nucleon. Also, a separation of asymmetry amplitudes into longitudinal and transverse components is done. These results are compared to a phenomenological model that includes the pion pole contribution. Within this model, the data favor a positive πω transition form factor. (orig.)

  18. Transverse-target-spin asymmetry in exclusive $\\omega$-meson electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, Z.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avetissian, A.; Belostotski, S.; Blok, H.P.; Borissov, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capitani, G.P.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Deconinck, W.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Hasch, D.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H.E.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krivokhijine, V.G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lorenzon, W.; Ma, B.Q.; Manaenkov, S.I.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Miyachi, Y.; Movsisyan, A.; Muccifora, V.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.D.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrosyan, A.; Reimer, P.E.; Reolon, A.R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shibata, T.A.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Stinzing, F.; Taroian, S.; Terkulov, A.; Truty, R.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Vogel, C.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Yen, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2015-12-17

    Hard exclusive electroproduction of $\\omega$ mesons is studied with the HERMES spectrometer at the DESY laboratory by scattering 27.6 GeV positron and electron beams off a transversely polarized hydrogen target. The amplitudes of five azimuthal modulations of the single-spin asymmetry of the cross section with respect to the transverse proton polarization are measured. They are determined in the entire kinematic region as well as for two bins in photon virtuality and momentum transfer to the nucleon. Also, a separation of asymmetry amplitudes into longitudinal and transverse components is done. These results are compared to a phenomenological model that includes the pion pole contribution. Within this model, the data favor a positive $\\pi\\omega$ transition form factor.

  19. Production of Transverse Controllable Laser Density Distribution in Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jianliang; Tikhoplav, Rodion

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector laboratory consist of a photoemission electron source based on an L band rf-gun. The CsTe photocathode is illuminated by an ultrashort UV laser. The transport line from the laser to the photocathode was recently upgraded to allow imaging of an object plane located ~20 m from the photocathode. This upgrade allows the generation of transverse laser distributions with controlled nonuniformity, yielding the production of an electron beam with various transverse densities patterns. Measuring the evolution of the artificial pattern on the electron bunch provides information that can be used to benchmark numerical simulations and investigate the impact of space charge. Preliminary data on these investigations are presented in the present paper.

  20. Exact cancellation of emittance growth due to coupled transverse dynamics in solenoids and rf couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, David H.; Zhou, Feng; Schmerge, John

    2018-01-01

    Weak, rotated magnetic and radio frequency quadrupole fields in electron guns and injectors can couple the beam's horizontal with vertical motion, introduce correlations between otherwise orthogonal transverse momenta, and reduce the beam brightness. This paper discusses two important sources of coupled transverse dynamics common to most electron injectors. The first is quadrupole focusing followed by beam rotation in a solenoid, and the second coupling comes from a skewed high-power rf coupler or cavity port which has a rotated rf quadrupole field. It is shown that a dc quadrupole field can correct for both types of couplings and exactly cancel their emittance growths. The degree of cancellation of the rf skew quadrupole emittance is limited by the electron bunch length. Analytic expressions are derived and compared with emittance simulations and measurements.

  1. Investigations on the transverse phase space at a photo injector for minimized emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miltchev, V.

    2006-08-01

    Radio frequency photoinjectors are electron sources able to generate beams of extremely high brightness, which are applicable to linac driven Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Because of the high phase space density, the dynamics of the electron beam is dominated by space charge interactions between the particles. This thesis studies the transverse phase space of space charge dominated electron beams produced by the Photo Injector Test Facility in Zeuthen (PITZ). The operation conditions for minimizing the transverse emittance are studied experimentally, theoretically and in simulations. The influence of the longitudinal profile of the driving UV laser pulse on the transverse emittance is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the experimental study of the emittance as a function of different machine parameters like the laser beam spot size, the amplitude of the focusing magnetic field, the rf phase and the electron bunch charge. First investigations on the thermal emittance for Cs 2 Te photocathodes under rf operating conditions are presented. Measurements of the thermal emittance scaling with the photocathode laser spot size are analyzed. The significance of the applied rf field in the emittance formation process is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Investigations on the transverse phase space at a photo injector for minimized emittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miltchev, V.

    2006-08-15

    Radio frequency photoinjectors are electron sources able to generate beams of extremely high brightness, which are applicable to linac driven Free Electron Lasers (FEL). Because of the high phase space density, the dynamics of the electron beam is dominated by space charge interactions between the particles. This thesis studies the transverse phase space of space charge dominated electron beams produced by the Photo Injector Test Facility in Zeuthen (PITZ). The operation conditions for minimizing the transverse emittance are studied experimentally, theoretically and in simulations. The influence of the longitudinal profile of the driving UV laser pulse on the transverse emittance is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the experimental study of the emittance as a function of different machine parameters like the laser beam spot size, the amplitude of the focusing magnetic field, the rf phase and the electron bunch charge. First investigations on the thermal emittance for Cs{sub 2}Te photocathodes under rf operating conditions are presented. Measurements of the thermal emittance scaling with the photocathode laser spot size are analyzed. The significance of the applied rf field in the emittance formation process is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Digital transverse beam dampers from the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.A.; Castillo, V.; Roser, T.; Van Asselt, W.; Witkover, R.; Wong, V.

    1995-01-01

    A wide band, digital damper system has been developed and is in use at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The system consists of vertical and horizontal capacitive pickups, analog and digital processing electronics, four 500 Watt wide band power amplifiers, and two pairs of strip line beam kickers. The system is currently used to damp transverse coherent instabilities and injection errors, in both planes, for protons and all species of heavy ions. This paper discusses the system design and operation, particularly with regard to stabilization of the high intensity proton beam. The analog and digital signal processing techniques used to achieve optimum results are discussed. Operational data showing the effect of the damping are presented

  4. Mapping Base Modifications in DNA by Transverse-Current Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jose R.; Skachkov, Dmitry; Massey, Steven E.; Kalitsov, Alan; Velev, Julian P.

    2018-02-01

    Sequencing DNA modifications and lesions, such as methylation of cytosine and oxidation of guanine, is even more important and challenging than sequencing the genome itself. The traditional methods for detecting DNA modifications are either insensitive to these modifications or require additional processing steps to identify a particular type of modification. Transverse-current sequencing in nanopores can potentially identify the canonical bases and base modifications in the same run. In this work, we demonstrate that the most common DNA epigenetic modifications and lesions can be detected with any predefined accuracy based on their tunneling current signature. Our results are based on simulations of the nanopore tunneling current through DNA molecules, calculated using nonequilibrium electron-transport methodology within an effective multiorbital model derived from first-principles calculations, followed by a base-calling algorithm accounting for neighbor current-current correlations. This methodology can be integrated with existing experimental techniques to improve base-calling fidelity.

  5. High Transverse Energy Proton - Nuclear Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, James Allen [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1983-06-01

    A study of high transverse energy events resulting from 400 GeV protons scattering from targets of hydrogen, carbon, aluminum, copper, tin, and lead has been performed with the E609 apparatus at Fermilab. Wire chambers and a highly segmented calorimeter detect secondary particles. The use of efficient jet collecting triggers and of a beam jet calorimeter have been originally applied to nuclear target studies in this thesis. $A^{\\alpha}$ scaling with hydrogen deviations is observed for $E_T$ and planarity. The data provide evidence that $A^{\\alpha}$ scaling results from multiple scattering.Evidence for hadron jets is seen with a large solid angle calorimeter for all the targets when triggers requiring two high $E_T$ single particles are employed. Jet cross-sections for nuclei are approximately determined herein. Jet event angular distributions possibly indicate that low and high transverse energy particles in jets from nuclei may result, in part, from different types of interactions.

  6. Transversals of Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    Vector fields in the complex plane are defined by assigning the vector determined by the value P(z) to each point z in the complex plane, where P is a polynomial of one complex variable. We consider special families of so-called rotated vector fields that are determined by a polynomial multiplied...... by rotational constants. Transversals are a certain class of curves for such a family of vector fields that represent the bifurcation states for this family of vector fields. More specifically, transversals are curves that coincide with a homoclinic separatrix for some rotation of the vector field. Given...... a concrete polynomial, it seems to take quite a bit of work to prove that it is generic, i.e. structurally stable. This has been done for a special class of degree d polynomial vector fields having simple equilibrium points at the d roots of unity, d odd. In proving that such vector fields are generic...

  7. Borel resummation of transverse momentum distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We present a new prescription for the resummation of contributions due to soft gluon emission to the transverse momentum distribution of processes such as Drell-Yan production in hadronic collisions. We show that familiar difficulties in obtaining resummed results as a function of transverse momentum starting from impact-parameter space resummation are related to the divergence of the perturbative expansion of the momentum-space result. We construct a resummed expression by Borel resummation of this divergent series, removing the divergence in the Borel inversion through the inclusion of a suitable higher twist term. The ensuing resummation prescription is free of numerical instabilities, is stable upon the inclusion of subleading terms, and the original divergent perturbative series is asymptotic to it. We compare our results to those obtained using alternative prescriptions, and discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure

  8. Transverse Instability of a Rectangular Bunch

    CERN Document Server

    Balbekov, Valeri

    2005-01-01

    Some results of theoretical investigations of transverse dipole instability of a rectangular bunch are reported in this paper. Such a form is characteristic of the bunch in a rectangular potential wall which is created by a barrier-shaped acceleration field. Similar regime is a major one for accumulating and cooling of antiproton beams in the Fermilab Recycler Ring. In this case, the known theory of transverse instability of a bunched beam is inapplicable directly both because of "unusual" form of phase trajectories and strong dependence of synchrotron frequency on energy. A series of equations, adequately describing the instability is derived in the paper. Exact analytical solution is obtained for space charge dominated impedance, and some approximate methods are proposed for arbitrary impedance. The theory is applied to the Fermilab Recycler Ring including a numerical simulation.

  9. Spectral Velocity Estimation in the Transverse Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    A method for estimating the velocity spectrum for a fully transverse flow at a beam-to-flow angle of 90is described. The approach is based on the transverse oscillation (TO) method, where an oscillation across the ultrasound beam is made during receive processing. A fourth-order estimator based...... on the correlation of the received signal is derived. A Fourier transform of the correlation signal yields the velocity spectrum. Performing the estimation for short data segments gives the velocity spectrum as a function of time as for ordinary spectrograms, and it also works for a beam-to-flow angle of 90...... estimation scheme can reliably find the spectrum at 90, where a traditional estimator yields zero velocity. Measurements have been conducted with the SARUS experimental scanner and a BK 8820e convex array transducer (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark). A CompuFlow 1000 (Shelley Automation, Inc, Toronto, Canada...

  10. MEASUREMENT OF TRANSVERSE ECHOES IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; SATOGATA, T.; TOMAS, R.

    2005-01-01

    Beam echoes are a very sensitive method to measure diffusion, and longitudinal echo measurements were performed in a number of machines. In RHIC, for the first time, a transverse beam echo was observed after applying a dipole kick followed by a quadrupole .kick. After application of the dipole kick, the dipole moment decohered completely due to lattice nonlinearities. When a quadrupole kick is applied at time τ after the dipole kick, the beam re-cohered at time 2τ thus showing an echo response. We describe the experimental setup and measurement results. In the measurements the dipole and quadrupole kick amplitudes, amplitude dependent tune shift, and the time between dipole and quadrupole kick were varied. In addition, measurements were taken with gold bunches of different intensities. These should exhibit different transverse diffusion rates due to intra-beam scattering

  11. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome presenting as transverse myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javvid M Dandroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is characterized by arterial and/or venous thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies and/or lupus anticoagulant. APS can occur either as a primary disorder or secondary to a connective tissue disease, most frequently systemic lupus erythematosus. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most prominent clinical manifestations of APS, and includes arterial and venous thrombotic events, psychiatric features, and a variety of other nonthrombotic neurological syndromes. Although the mechanism of neurological involvement in patients with APS is thought to be thrombotic in origin and endothelial dysfunction associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. APS presenting as acute transverse myelitis is very rarely seen with a prevalence rate of 1%. We are describing a foreigner female presenting as acute transverse myelitis which on evaluation proved to be APS induced. So far, very few cases have been reported in literature with APS as etiology.

  12. Nonlinear theory of transverse beam echoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Tanaji; Li, Yuan Shen

    2017-10-04

    Transverse beam echoes can be excited with a single dipole kick followed by a single quadrupole kick. They have been used to measure diffusion in hadron beams and have other diagnostic capabilities. Here we develop theories of the transverse echo nonlinear in both the dipole and quadrupole kick strengths. The theories predict the maximum echo amplitudes and the optimum strength parameters. We find that the echo amplitude increases with smaller beam emittance and the asymptotic echo amplitude can exceed half the initial dipole kick amplitude. We show that multiple echoes can be observed provided the dipole kick is large enough. The spectrum of the echo pulse can be used to determine the nonlinear detuning parameter with small amplitude dipole kicks. Simulations are performed to check the theoretical predictions. In the useful ranges of dipole and quadrupole strengths, they are shown to be in reasonable agreement.

  13. Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.

  14. Digital filter algorithm study and simulation of SSRF feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lifeng; Yuan Renxian; Ye Kairong

    2008-01-01

    Least Square Fitting was used to design a FIR filter of the transverse feedback system for the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). The algorithm helped us to set appropriate gain and phase at special frequency points. This reduced the power needed for damping the beam oscillations, which was proved by System View signal simulation. And with AT (Accelerator Tool) simulation, the Gain calculation and settings to the output signals from the FIR filter were deduced. The relationship between the Kicker power and the system damping time was also given. (authors)

  15. The LHC Transverse Damper (ADT) Performance Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    The appended document specifies the performance of the transverse damper (ADT) for the LHC. As Annex 1 of the Addendum No.1 to the Protocol of April 18, 1997; it forms part of the 1992 co-operation agreement between CERN and JINR (Dubna, Russia) concerning its participation in the LHC project. The current text is a reprint of the original version. Changes that have been agreed upon are inserted as footnotes.

  16. Sasakian manifolds with purely transversal Bach tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amalendu; Sharma, Ramesh

    2017-10-01

    We show that a (2n + 1)-dimensional Sasakian manifold (M, g) with a purely transversal Bach tensor has constant scalar curvature ≥2 n (2 n +1 ) , equality holding if and only if (M, g) is Einstein. For dimension 3, M is locally isometric to the unit sphere S3. For dimension 5, if in addition (M, g) is complete, then it has positive Ricci curvature and is compact with finite fundamental group π1(M).

  17. Resolution of hydrodynamical equations for transverse expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Y.; Pottag, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The three-dimensional hydrodynamical expansion is treated with a method similar to that of Milekhin, but more explicit. Although in the final stage one have to appeal to numerical calculation, the partial differential equations governing the transverse expansions are treated without transforming them into ordinary equations with an introduction of averaged quantities. It is only concerned with the formalism and the numerical results will be given in the next paper. (Author) [pt

  18. Transversally Lipschitz Harmonic Functions are Lipschitz

    OpenAIRE

    Ravisankar, Sivaguru

    2012-01-01

    Let \\Omega\\subset\\mathbb{R}^n be a bounded domain with C^\\infty boundary. We show that a harmonic function in \\Omega that is Lipschitz along a family of curves transversal to b\\Omega is Lipschitz in \\Omega. The space of Lipschitz functions we consider is defined using the notion of a majorant which is a certain generalization of the power functions t^\\alpha, 0

  19. Nuclear transverse sectional brain function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus comprises a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array that surrounds a scan field of interest. Each collimator is moveable relative to its adjacent collimator. Means are provided for imparting travel to the collimators such that the focal point of each uniformly samples at least one half of the scan field

  20. Feedback reliability calculation for an iterative block decision feedback equalizer

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, G; Nix, AR; Armour, SMD

    2009-01-01

    A new class of iterative block decision feedback equalizer (IB-DFE) was pioneered by Chan and Benvenuto. Unlike the conventional DFE, the IB-DFE is optimized according to the reliability of the feedback (FB) symbols. Since the use of the training sequence (TS) for feedback reliability (FBR) estimation lowers the bandwidth efficiency, FBR estimation without the need for additional TS is of considerable interest. However, prior FBR estimation is limited in the literature to uncoded M-ary phases...

  1. Study of Bunch by Bunch Feedback System in TRISTAN-AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiyama, M.; Kikutani, E.

    1997-05-01

    Beam tests of the KEKB bunch by bunch feedback system prototypes have been performed in the TRISTAN-AR on both longitudinal and transverse planes. Both bunch detection systems are capable to distinguish the individual bunches with the minimum bunch spacing of 2 ns. A two-tap FIR filter system consisting of hardware logic's realized the function of the phase shift by 90 degrees, the suppression of the static component and the delay of up to a few tens of turns in longitudinal plane with 508 MHz of system clock. The transverse systems were purely analog system without any digital signal processing part. Four cells of series-drift-tube type kickers just same structure as used in ALS at LBNL have been employed for the longitudinal kicker, and simple stripline kickers have been used for the transverse kicker. Both feedback system worked well as expected. More than 100 bunches with maximum current of 376 mA have been accumulated successfully with the bunch spacing of 2 ns. Without the system, it was impossible to accumulate more than 20 bunches with the same bunch current. The growth time and the growing modes of the transverse instabilities has also been measured with the memory function of the two-tap FIR filter. It suggests that the bunch-by-bunch feedback system is a powerful tool to explore the source of the instabilities.

  2. Thermodynamics of Nonequilibrium Systems with Feedback Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    In modern nonequilibrium physics, ``Maxwell's demon'' has attracted renewed attentions in both terms of theory and experiment. The demon plays a key role to unify thermodynamics and information theory, which can extract the useful work from a heat bath by using the obtained information via feedback control. In this talk, I will talk about the recent development of thermodynamics of information. In particular, I will focus on the generalizations of the second law of thermodynamics and the Jarzynski equality in the presence of feedback control, where information contents and thermodynamic quantities are treated on an equal footing. I will also discuss recent experimental results that realized Maxwell's demon by colloidal particles and single electrons.

  3. Smith-Purcell Distributed Feedback Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Kipnis, D; Gover, A

    2005-01-01

    Smith-Purcell radiation is the emission of electromagnetic radiation by an electron beam passing next to an optical grating. Recently measurement of relatively intense power of such radiation was observed in the THz-regime [1]. To explain the high intensity and the super-linear dependence on current beyond a threshold it was suggested that the radiating device operated in the high gain regime, amplifying spontaneous emission (ASE) [1,2]. We contest this interpretation and suggest an alternative mechanism. According to our interpretation the device operates as a distributed feedback (DFB) laser oscillator, in which a forward going surface wave, excited by the beam on the grating surface, is coupled to a backward going surface wave by a second order Bragg reflection process. This feedback process produces a saturated oscillator. We present theoretical analysis of the proposed process, which fits the reported experimental results, and enables better design of the radiation device, operating as a Smith-Purcell DF...

  4. Adaptive electron beam shaping using a photoemission gun and spatial light modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Maxson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for precisely defined beam shapes in photoelectron sources has been well established. In this paper, we use a spatial light modulator and simple shaping algorithm to create arbitrary, detailed transverse laser shapes with high fidelity. We transmit this shaped laser to the photocathode of a high voltage dc gun. Using beam currents where space charge is negligible, and using an imaging solenoid and fluorescent viewscreen, we show that the resultant beam shape preserves these detailed features with similar fidelity. Next, instead of transmitting a shaped laser profile, we use an active feedback on the unshaped electron beam image to create equally accurate and detailed shapes. We demonstrate that this electron beam feedback has the added advantage of correcting for electron optical aberrations, yielding shapes without skew. The method may serve to provide precisely defined electron beams for low current target experiments, space-charge dominated beam commissioning, as well as for online adaptive correction of photocathode quantum efficiency degradation.

  5. Statistical signal processing techniques for coherent transversal beam dynamics in synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhumaidi, Mouhammad

    2015-03-04

    Transversal coherent beam oscillations can occur in synchrotrons directly after injection due to errors in position and angle, which stem from inaccurate injection kicker reactions. Furthermore, the demand for higher beam intensities is always increasing in particle accelerators. The wake fields generated by the traveling particles will be increased by increasing the beam intensity. This leads to a stronger interaction between the beam and the different accelerator components, which increases the potential of coherent instabilities. Thus, undesired beam oscillations will occur when the natural damping is not enough to attenuate the oscillations generated by the coherent beam-accelerator interactions. The instabilities and oscillations can be either in transversal or longitudinal direction. In this work we are concerned with transversal beam oscillations only. In normal operation, transversal beam oscillations are undesired since they lead to beam quality deterioration and emittance blow up caused by the decoherence of the oscillating beam. This decoherence is caused by the tune spread of the beam particles. The emittance blow up reduces the luminosity of the beam, and thus the collision quality. Therefore, beam oscillations must be suppressed in order to maintain high beam quality during acceleration. A powerful way to mitigate coherent instabilities is to employ a feedback system. A Transversal Feedback System (TFS) senses instabilities of the beam by means of Pickups (PUs), and acts back on the beam through actuators, called kickers. In this thesis, a novel concept to use multiple PUs for estimating the beam displacement at the position with 90 phase advance before the kicker is proposed. The estimated values should be the driving feedback signal. The signals from the different PUs are delayed such that they correspond to the same bunch. Subsequently, a weighted sum of the delayed signals is suggested as an estimator of the feedback correction signal. The

  6. Emotional feedback for mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Seebode, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the functional adequacy as well as the affective impression made by feedback messages on mobile devices. It presents an easily adoptable experimental setup to examine context effects on various feedback messages, and applies it to auditory, tactile and auditory-tactile feedback messages. This approach provides insights into the relationship between the affective impression and functional applicability of these messages as well as an understanding of the influence of unimodal components on the perception of multimodal feedback messages. The developed paradigm can also be extended to investigate other aspects of context and used to investigate feedback messages in modalities other than those presented. The book uses questionnaires implemented on a Smartphone, which can easily be adopted for field studies to broaden the scope even wider. Finally, the book offers guidelines for the design of system feedback.

  7. A protocol for a randomised clinical trial of the effect of providing feedback on inhaler technique and adherence from an electronic device in patients with poorly controlled severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Imran; Mac Hale, Elaine; Holmes, Martin; Hughes, Cian; D'Arcy, Shona; Taylor, Terrence; Rapcan, Viliam; Doyle, Frank; Breathnach, Aoife; Seheult, Jansen; Murphy, Desmond; Hunt, Eoin; Lane, Stephen J; Sahadevan, Abhilash; Crispino, Gloria; Diette, Greg; Killane, Isabelle; Reilly, Richard B; Costello, Richard W

    2016-01-04

    In clinical practice, it is difficult to distinguish between patients with refractory asthma from those with poorly controlled asthma, where symptoms persist due to poor adherence, inadequate inhaler technique or comorbid diseases. We designed an audio recording device which, when attached to an inhaler, objectively identifies the time and technique of inhaler use, thereby assessing both aspects of adherence. This study will test the hypothesis that feedback on these two aspects of adherence when passed on to patients improves adherence and helps clinicians distinguish refractory from difficult-to-control asthma. This is a single, blind, prospective, randomised, clinical trial performed at 5 research centres. Patients with partially controlled or uncontrolled severe asthma who have also had at least one severe asthma exacerbation in the prior year are eligible to participate. The effect of two types of nurse-delivered education interventions to promote adherence and inhaler technique will be assessed. The active group will receive feedback on their inhaler technique and adherence from the new device over a 3-month period. The control group will also receive training in inhaler technique and strategies to promote adherence, but no feedback from the device. The primary outcome is the difference in actual adherence, a measure that incorporates time and technique of inhaler use between groups at the end of the third month. Secondary outcomes include the number of patients who remain refractory despite good adherence, and differences in the components of adherence after the intervention. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat and a per-protocol basis. The sample size is 220 subjects (110 in each group), and loss to follow-up is estimated at 10% which will allow results to show a 10% difference (0.8 power) in adherence between group means with a type I error probability of 0.05. NCT01529697; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  8. Transport Mean Free Path for Magneto-Transverse Light Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Lacoste, D.; van Tiggelen, B. A.

    1998-01-01

    We derive an expression for the transport mean free path $\\ell^*_\\perp$ associated with magneto-transverse light diffusion for a random collection of Faraday-active Mie scatterers. This expression relates the magneto-transverse diffusion in multiple scattering directly to the magneto-transverse scattering of a single scatterer.

  9. Longitudinal and transverse polarizations in the deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressan, A.

    1996-07-01

    This course is an introduction to the dominant effects of longitudinal and transverse spin in deep inelastic reactions. Only the effects present to the 'leading twist' are attacked. The mass and transverse impulsion of partons are neglected. We will attach to bring out the respective specificities of longitudinal and transverse polarizations. (N.C.)

  10. Evaluation of Transverse Lie at Term by Ultrasonography | Oyinloye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Transverse lie at term may have adverse consequences on both the mother and the foetus. Evaluating transverse lie at term by ultrasonography may reduce these adverse consequences and improve both the maternal and fetal outcome. Objectives: To determine predisposing factors to persistent transverse lie at ...

  11. A 4 GS/sec Instability Feedback Processing System for Intra-bunch Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dusatko, J; Fox, J D; Pollock, K; Rivetta, C H; Turgut, O; Hofle, W

    2013-01-01

    We present the architecture and implementation overview of a proof-of-principle digital signal processing system developed to study control of Electron-Cloud and Transverse Mode Coupling Instabilities (TMCI) in the CERN SPS. This system is motivated by intensity increases planned as part of the High Luminosity LHC upgrade. It is based on a reconfigurable processing architecture which samples intra-bunch motion and applies correction signals at a 4GSa/s rate, allowing multiple samples across a single 3.2ns SPS bunch. This initial demonstration system is a rapidly developed prototype consisting of both commercial and custom- designed hardware that implements feedback control on a single bunch. It contains a high speed ADC and DAC, capable of sampling at up to 4GSa/s, with a 16-tap FIR control filter for each bunch sample slice. Other system features include a timing subsystem to synchronize the sampling to the injection and the bunch 1 markers, the capability of generating arbitrary time domain signals to drive...

  12. Hvad siger forskningen om feedback?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Feedback skal serveres ligesom en gammeldags sandwich. Først lidt brød, så det lidt sejere kød og til sidst igen til lidt brød”. Sådan nogenlunde lyder en pragmatisk løsning på udfordringerne ved at give feedback. Når medarbejdere skal have negativ feedback, skal denne altså pakkes ind, så feedb...... feedbacken indledes med let fordøjeligt positiv feedback, derefter kommer den negative – og noget sværere fordøjelige – feedback, og til sidst afrundes feedbacken med en god udgangsreplik, nemlig den positive feedback.......”Feedback skal serveres ligesom en gammeldags sandwich. Først lidt brød, så det lidt sejere kød og til sidst igen til lidt brød”. Sådan nogenlunde lyder en pragmatisk løsning på udfordringerne ved at give feedback. Når medarbejdere skal have negativ feedback, skal denne altså pakkes ind, så...

  13. The effect of providing feedback on inhaler technique and adherence from an electronic audio recording device, INCA®, in a community pharmacy setting: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Susan Mary; MacHale, Elaine; Sulaiman, Imran; Holmes, Martin; Hughes, Cian; D'Arcy, Shona; Rapcan, Viliam; Taylor, Terence; Boland, Fiona; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Reilly, Richard B; Ryder, Sheila A; Costello, Richard W

    2016-05-04

    Poor adherence to inhaled medication may lead to inadequate symptom control in patients with respiratory disease. In practice it can be difficult to identify poor adherence. We designed an acoustic recording device, the INCA® (INhaler Compliance Assessment) device, which, when attached to an inhaler, identifies and records the time and technique of inhaler use, thereby providing objective longitudinal data on an individual's adherence to inhaled medication. This study will test the hypothesis that providing objective, personalised, visual feedback on adherence to patients in combination with a tailored educational intervention in a community pharmacy setting, improves adherence more effectively than education alone. The study is a prospective, cluster randomised, parallel-group, multi-site study conducted over 6 months. The study is designed to compare current best practice in care (i.e. routine inhaler technique training) with the use of the INCA® device for respiratory patients in a community pharmacy setting. Pharmacies are the unit of randomisation and on enrolment to the study they will be allocated by the lead researcher to one of the three study groups (intervention, comparator or control groups) using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Given the nature of the intervention neither pharmacists nor participants can be blinded. The intervention group will receive feedback from the acoustic recording device on inhaler technique and adherence three times over a 6-month period along with inhaler technique training at each of these times. The comparator group will also receive training in inhaler use three times over the 6-month study period but no feedback on their habitual performance. The control group will receive usual care (i.e. the safe supply of medicines and advice on their use). The primary outcome is the rate of participant adherence to their inhaled medication, defined as the proportion of correctly taken doses of medication at the correct

  14. Transverse emittance and phase space program developed for use at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Ruan, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Fermilab A0 Photoinjector is a 16 MeV high intensity, high brightness electron linac developed for advanced accelerator R&D. One of the key parameters for the electron beam is the transverse beam emittance. Here we report on a newly developed MATLAB based GUI program used for transverse emittance measurements using the multi-slit technique. This program combines the image acquisition and post-processing tools for determining the transverse phase space parameters with uncertainties. An integral part of accelerator research is a measurement of the beam phase space. Measurements of the transverse phase space can be accomplished by a variety of methods including multiple screens separated by drift spaces, or by sampling phase space via pepper pots or slits. In any case, the measurement of the phase space parameters, in particular the emittance, can be drastically simplified and sped up by automating the measurement in an intuitive fashion utilizing a graphical interface. At the A0 Photoinjector (A0PI), the control system is DOOCS, which originated at DESY. In addition, there is a library for interfacing to MATLAB, a graphically capable numerical analysis package sold by The Mathworks. It is this graphical package which was chosen as the basis for a graphical phase space measurement system due to its combination of analysis and display capabilities.

  15. Transverse emittance and phase space program developed for use at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Ruan, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermilab A0 Photoinjector is a 16 MeV high intensity, high brightness electron linac developed for advanced accelerator R and D. One of the key parameters for the electron beam is the transverse beam emittance. Here we report on a newly developed MATLAB based GUI program used for transverse emittance measurements using the multi-slit technique. This program combines the image acquisition and post-processing tools for determining the transverse phase space parameters with uncertainties. An integral part of accelerator research is a measurement of the beam phase space. Measurements of the transverse phase space can be accomplished by a variety of methods including multiple screens separated by drift spaces, or by sampling phase space via pepper pots or slits. In any case, the measurement of the phase space parameters, in particular the emittance, can be drastically simplified and sped up by automating the measurement in an intuitive fashion utilizing a graphical interface. At the A0 Photoinjector (A0PI), the control system is DOOCS, which originated at DESY. In addition, there is a library for interfacing to MATLAB, a graphically capable numerical analysis package sold by The Mathworks. It is this graphical package which was chosen as the basis for a graphical phase space measurement system due to its combination of analysis and display capabilities.

  16. Optimal allocation of reviewers for peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak; Jørgensen, Rasmus Malthe

    2017-01-01

    Peer feedback is the act of letting students give feedback to each other on submitted work. There are multiple reasons to use peer feedback, including students getting more feedback, time saving for teachers and increased learning by letting students reflect on work by others. In order for peer...... feedback to be effective students should give and receive useful feedback. A key challenge in peer feedback is allocating the feedback givers in a good way. It is important that reviewers are allocated to submissions such that the feedback distribution is fair - meaning that all students receive good...... feedback. In this paper we present a novel way to intelligently allocate reviewers for peer feedback. We train a statistical model to infer the quality of feedback based on a dataset of feedback quality evaluations. This dataset contains more than 20,000 reviews where the receiver of the feedback has...

  17. Reviewing operational experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide detailed supplementary guidance to OSART experts to aid in the evaluation of operational experience feedback (OEF) programmes at nuclear power plants. The document begins by describing the objectives of an OEF programme. It goes on to indicate preparatory work and investigatory guidance for the expert. Section 5 describes attributes of an excellent OEF programme. Appended to these guidelines are examples of OEF documents from various plants. These are intended to help the expert by demonstrating the actual implementation of OEF in practice. These guidelines are in no way intended to conflict with existing national regulations and rules. A comprehensive OEF programme, as described in Section 2, would be impossible to evaluated in detail in the amount of time typically allocated for assessing OEF in an OSART review. The expert must use his or her time wisely by concentrating on those areas that appear to be the weakest

  18. Feedback matters current feedback practices in the EFL classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Reitbauer, Margit; Mercer, Sarah; Schumm-Fauster, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This varied collection of papers is concerned with feedback in the language learning context. With its blend of theoretical overviews, action research-based empirical studies and practical implications, this will be a valuable resource for all academics and practitioners concerned with generating feedback that matters.

  19. Observation and simulation of space-charge effects in a radio-frequency photoinjector using a transverse multibeamlet distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rihaoui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental study of space-charge effects in a radio-frequency (rf photoinjector. A 5 MeV electron bunch, consisting of a number of beamlets separated transversely, was generated in an rf photocathode gun and propagated in the succeeding drift space. The collective interaction of these beamlets was studied for different experimental conditions. The experiment allowed the exploration of space-charge effects and its comparison with 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Our observations also suggest the possible use of a multibeam configuration to tailor the transverse distribution of an electron beam.

  20. The relativistic feedback discharge model of terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.

    2012-02-01

    As thunderclouds charge, the large-scale fields may approach the relativistic feedback threshold, above which the production of relativistic runaway electron avalanches becomes self-sustaining through the generation of backward propagating runaway positrons and backscattered X-rays. Positive intracloud (IC) lightning may force the large-scale electric fields inside thunderclouds above the relativistic feedback threshold, causing the number of runaway electrons, and the resulting X-ray and gamma ray emission, to grow exponentially, producing very large fluxes of energetic radiation. As the flux of runaway electrons increases, ionization eventually causes the electric field to discharge, bringing the field below the relativistic feedback threshold again and reducing the flux of runaway electrons. These processes are investigated with a new model that includes the production, propagation, diffusion, and avalanche multiplication of runaway electrons; the production and propagation of X-rays and gamma rays; and the production, propagation, and annihilation of runaway positrons. In this model, referred to as the relativistic feedback discharge model, the large-scale electric fields are calculated self-consistently from the charge motion of the drifting low-energy electrons and ions, produced from the ionization of air by the runaway electrons, including two- and three-body attachment and recombination. Simulation results show that when relativistic feedback is considered, bright gamma ray flashes are a natural consequence of upward +IC lightning propagating in large-scale thundercloud fields. Furthermore, these flashes have the same time structures, including both single and multiple pulses, intensities, angular distributions, current moments, and energy spectra as terrestrial gamma ray flashes, and produce large current moments that should be observable in radio waves.

  1. Generating catalogs of transverse matching solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, G.; Busch, P.; Burns, M.

    1989-01-01

    Programs such as TRANSPORT or TRACE can find transverse beam matching solutions one at a time when given appropriate starting conditions. In the present work, an algorithm is described which rapidly finds a catalog of approximate transverse beam matching solutions. For a given initial beam, the algorithm finds the gradients of four quadrupole magnets such as to get four Twiss parameters (alpha and beta for horizontal and vertical planes) which are close to a set of desired values at the exit of a constant-energy beam line with no horizontal-vertical cross coupling and no space charge. The beam line may contain bending elements with edge corrections and other elements for which the r matrixes are known. The algorithm transforms the entrance and exit beam specifications to waist specifications, and uses the properties of waist-to-waist transport to reduce the problem from a four dimensional search to a two dimensional search. At the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator, transverse matching is important in the low-energy transport lines (0.75 MeV), where beams from the H + , H/sup /minus//, and polarized H/sup /minus// sources must be tailored for injection into the drift-tube linac; and in the transition region (100 MeV), where the beam from the drift-tube linac is injected into the side-coupled linac. Space charge has significant effects in the low-energy transport, but it is still valuable to get no-space-charge matching solutions as a starting point for solutions with space charge. 2 refs

  2. Subacute transverse myelitis with Lyme profile dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajjan, Mohammed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse myelitis is a very rare neurologic syndrome with an incidence per year of 1-5 per million population. We are presenting an interesting case of subacute transverse myelitis with its MRI (magnetic resonance imaging and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid findings. Case: A 46-year-old African-American woman presented with decreased sensation in the lower extremities which started three weeks ago when she had a 36-hour episode of sore throat. She reported numbness up to the level just below the breasts. Lyme disease antibodies total IgG (immunoglobulin G and IgM (immunoglobulin M in the blood was positive. Antinuclear antibody profile was within normal limits. MRI of the cervical spine showed swelling in the lower cervical cord with contrast enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid was clear with negative Borrelia Burgdorferi IgG and IgM. Herpes simplex, mycoplasma, coxiella, anaplasma, cryptococcus and hepatitis B were all negative. No oligoclonal bands were detected. Quick improvement ensued after she was given IV Ceftriaxone for 7 days. The patient was discharged on the 8th day in stable condition. She continued on doxycycline for 21 days. Conclusions: Transverse myelitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with acute or subacute myelopathy in association with localized contrast enhancement in the spinal cord especially if flu-like prodromal symptoms were reported. Lyme disease serology is indicated in patients with neurological symptoms keeping in mind that dissociation in Lyme antibody titers between the blood and the CSF is possible.

  3. ELECTRON EMISSION REGULATING MEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenholdt, I.R.

    1957-11-19

    >An electronic regulating system is described for controlling the electron emission of a cathode, for example, the cathode in a mass spectrometer. The system incorporates a transformer having a first secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding load by grid controlled vacuum tubes. A portion of the electron current emitted by the cathode is passed through a network which develops a feedback signal. The system arrangement is completed by using the feedback signal to control the vacuum tubes in the second secondary winding through a regulator tube. When a change in cathode emission occurs, the feedback signal acts to correct this change by adjusting the load on the transformer.

  4. A double-gate double-feedback JFET charge-sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzi, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) without a physical resistance in the feedback is presented. The input device has to be a double-gate JFET. In this new preamplifier configuration the feedback capacitor is continuously discharged by means of a second DC current feedback loop closed through the bottom gate of the input JFET. The top gate-channel junction works as usual in reverse bias, the bottom gate-channel is forward biased. A fraction of the current injected by the bottom gate reaches the top gate discharging the feedback capacitor. The n-channel double-gate JFET is considered from the viewpoint of the restoring action as a parasitic p-n-p ''transversal'' bipolar junction transistor. The new preamplifier is also suited for detectors operating at room temperature with leakage current which may vary with time. The DC behaviour and the dynamic behaviour of the circuit is analyzed and new measurements presented. (orig.)

  5. A double-gate double-feedback JFET charge-sensitive preamplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzi, A. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Centro Studi Nucleari E. Fermi; Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A new charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) without a physical resistance in the feedback is presented. The input device has to be a double-gate JFET. In this new preamplifier configuration the feedback capacitor is continuously discharged by means of a second DC current feedback loop closed through the bottom gate of the input JFET. The top gate-channel junction works as usual in reverse bias, the bottom gate-channel is forward biased. A fraction of the current injected by the bottom gate reaches the top gate discharging the feedback capacitor. The n-channel double-gate JFET is considered from the viewpoint of the restoring action as a parasitic p-n-p ``transversal`` bipolar junction transistor. The new preamplifier is also suited for detectors operating at room temperature with leakage current which may vary with time. The DC behaviour and the dynamic behaviour of the circuit is analyzed and new measurements presented. (orig.).

  6. A Survey for Transverse Nasal Groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pavithran

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of 3000 consecutive subjects surveyed for the typical lesion of transverse nasal groove, 180 were found to have the characteristic lesions. In LU patients, the floor of the groove was studded with patulous hair follicles, greasy sale and black comedones. The age of the patients varied from 16 to 45 years, the majority belonged to the 20 to 30 age group. Family occurrence of the groove was noted ′in only 7.Seboffhoeic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor and acne vulgaris were the commonly associated diseases.

  7. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension and transverse sinus stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyrman, Simon; Fytagoridis, Anders; Andresen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    An 18-year-old woman was diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and bilateral transverse sinus stenoses (TSS), after presenting with papilledema and decreased visual acuity. Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of >60 cm H2O. MRI showed bilateral TSS believed to be asso...... was inserted since the patient had improved with CSF diversion. MRI verified reopening of the venous sinuses after shunt placement, and the patient remains asymptomatic with no signs of relapse after 3 years of follow-up....

  8. Transverse entanglement migration in Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K. W.; Torres, J. P.; Eberly, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    We show that, although the amount of mutual entanglement of photons propagating in free space is fixed, the type of correlations between the photons that determine the entanglement can dramatically change during propagation. We show that this amounts to a migration of entanglement in Hilbert space, rather than real space. For the case of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, the migration of entanglement in transverse coordinates takes place from modulus to phase of the biphoton state and back again. We propose an experiment to observe this migration in Hilbert space and to determine the full entanglement

  9. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.

  10. Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department

    2017-01-01

    Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.

  11. Asymmetrical transverse structures in nonlinear interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Romanov, O G

    2003-01-01

    The work presents a novel type of optical instability, which leads to the spontaneous formation of a stationary or pulsating asymmetrical structure in the problem of interaction between two counterpropagating waves in a ring cavity with Kerr-like nonlinearity. Linear stability analysis of interferometer transmission stationary states enabled: (1) to mark out typical bifurcations for this system: self- and cross-modulational instabilities, (2) to determine the range of parameters for which the symmetry breaking of transverse structures and complex temporal behaviour of the light field could be observed. The predictions of linear stability analysis have been verified with numerical modelling of coupled-modes equations.

  12. Transversity GPD in photo- and electroproduction of two vectormesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enberg, Rikard; Pire, Bernard; Szymanowski, Lech

    2006-01-17

    The chiral-odd generalized parton distribution (GPD), or transversity GPD, of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the photo- or electroproduction of two vector mesons on a polarized nucleon target, {gamma}{sup (*)}N {yields} {rho}{sub 1}{rho}{sub 2}N', where {rho}{sub 1} is produced at large transverse momentum, {rho}{sub 2} is transversely polarized, and the mesons are separated by a large rapidity gap. We predict the cross section for this process for both transverse and longitudinal {rho}{sub 2} production. To this end we propose a model for the transversity GPDH{sub T}(x,{zeta},t), and give an estimate of the relative sizes of the transverse and longitudinal {rho}{sub 2}cross sections. We show that a dedicated experiment at high energy should be able to measure the transversity content of the proton.

  13. MR imaging of alar and transverse atlantal ligament injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echigoya, Naoki; Harata, Seiko; Ueyama, Kazumasa (Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine); Nakano, Keisuke

    1992-06-01

    Autopsy findings of ligaments of the upper cervical spine were compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Ligaments were clearly shown as hypointensity on T1-weighted images and proton density images. Transverse images were useful in diagnosing alar and transverse atlantal ligament injuries. When there is a bilateral difference in the alar ligaments, ruptured ligament is suspected. Transverse ligament rupture was shown on interrupted hypointensity and as hyperintensity. MRI was capable of diagnosing alar ligament rupture in 8 of 11 patients, and transverse ligament rupture in all 3 patients. In 2 patients having Jefferson's fracture and injuried atlanoaxial subluxation encountered in the clinical practice, transverse ligament rupture was similarly observed as that in autopsy cases on MR images. Hyperintensity in the transverse ligament rupture area was seen even one year after injury. Injured transverse ligament was seen as swollen hyperintensity on sagittal images; and the hyperintensity was gradually decreased with the process of healing. (N.K.).

  14. Videoer om feedback i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Nexø

    2017-01-01

    I denne video bliver du introduceret til en måde at praktisere og rammesætte klyngevejledning på i bachelorundervisning. Klyngefeedbackformen til de studerende er valgt, da de studerende lærer meget af både at give og om modtage feedback fra medstuderende. Fokus på feedback ligger derfor primært i...

  15. Designing feedback: multimodality and specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, Geke Dina Simone; Sugiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Now that many of us carry around devices that are equipped with sensors (e.g., smartphones with accelerometers) we can use these sensors to measure behavior. The data thus captured can be used to give someone feedback about this behavior. These feedback mechanisms are often used in so called smart

  16. Microwave Guiding of Electrons on a Chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffrogge, J.; Froehlich, R.; Hommelhoff, P.; Kasevich, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the transverse confinement and guiding of a low energy electron beam of several electron volts in a miniaturized linear quadrupole guide. The guiding potential is generated by applying a microwave voltage to electrodes fabricated on a planar substrate, which allows the potential landscape to be precisely shaped on a microscopic scale. We realize transverse trapping frequencies of 100 MHz and guide electrons along a circular section of 37 mm length. A detailed characterization of the guiding properties in terms of potential depth and dynamic stability is given. This new technique of electron guiding promises various applications in guided matter-wave experiments such as electron interferometry.

  17. Feedback systems for linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Hendrickson, L; Himel, Thomas M; Minty, Michiko G; Phinney, N; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Raubenheimer, T O; Shoaee, H; Tenenbaum, P G

    1999-01-01

    Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an intregal part of the design. Feedback requiremetns for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at hi...

  18. Understanding Feedback: A Learning Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review's scope also includes feedback in classrooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory adhered to. Findings show that regardless of the…

  19. Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review’s scope also includes feedback in class- rooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory

  20. Single transverse spin asymmetry of forward neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the single transverse spin asymmetry A N (t), for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton in the energy range of RHIC. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and nonflip amplitudes, leading to a transverse spin asymmetry which is found to be far too small to explain the magnitude of A N observed in the PHENIX experiment. A larger contribution, which does not vanish at high energies, comes from the interference of pion and a 1 -Reggeon exchanges. The unnatural parity of a 1 guarantees a substantial phase shift, although the magnitude is strongly suppressed by the smallness of diffractive πp→a 1 p cross section. We replace the Regge a 1 pole by the Regge cut corresponding to the πρ exchange in the 1 + S state. The production of such a state, which we treat as an effective pole a, forms a narrow peak in the 3π invariant mass distribution in diffractive πp interactions. The cross section is large, so one can assume that this state saturates the spectral function of the axial current and we can determine its coupling to nucleons via the partially conserved axial-vector-current constraint Goldberger-Treiman relation and the second Weinberg sum rule. The numerical results of the parameter-free calculation of A N are in excellent agreement with the PHENIX data.

  1. Transverse Field Effect in Fluxgate Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Peter; Merayo, José M.G.; Nielsen, Otto V

    1997-01-01

    A model of the fluxgate magnetometer based on the field interactions in the fluxgate core has been derived. The non-linearity of the ringcore sensors due to large uncompensated fields transverse to the measuring axis are calculated and compared with measurements. Measurements of the non-linearity......A model of the fluxgate magnetometer based on the field interactions in the fluxgate core has been derived. The non-linearity of the ringcore sensors due to large uncompensated fields transverse to the measuring axis are calculated and compared with measurements. Measurements of the non......-linearity are made with a spectrum analyser, measuring the higher harmonics of an applied sinusoidal field. For a sensor with a permalloy ringcore of 1" in diameter the deviation from linearity is measured to about 15 nTp-p in the earth's field and the measurements are shown to fit well the calculations. Further......, the measurements and the calculations are also compared with a calibration model of the fluxgate sensor onboard the "MAGSAT" satellite. The later has a deviation from linearity of about 50 nTp-p but shows basically the same form of non-linearity as the measurements....

  2. Acoustic reflection log in transversely isotropic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo Jarillo, G.; Markova, I.; Markov, M.

    2018-01-01

    We have calculated the waveforms of sonic reflection logging for a fluid-filled borehole located in a transversely isotropic rock. Calculations have been performed for an acoustic impulse source with the characteristic frequency of tens of kilohertz that is considerably less than the frequencies of acoustic borehole imaging tools. It is assumed that the borehole axis coincides with the axis of symmetry of the transversely isotropic rock. It was shown that the reflected wave was excited most efficiently at resonant frequencies. These frequencies are close to the frequencies of oscillations of a fluid column located in an absolutely rigid hollow cylinder. We have shown that the acoustic reverberation is controlled by the acoustic impedance of the rock Z = Vphρs for fixed parameters of the borehole fluid, where Vph is the velocity of horizontally propagating P-wave; ρs is the rock density. The methods of waveform processing to determine the parameters characterizing the reflected wave have been discussed.

  3. Electron reconstruction in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Baffioni, Stephanie; Ferri, Federico; Futyan, David; Meridiani, Paolo; Puljak, Ivica; Rovelli, Chiara; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves

    2006-01-01

    The reconstruction of the energy and momentum of isolated electrons in CMS combining tracking and electromagnetic calorimetry information is described. The emphasis is put on primary electrons with transverse momentum below 50 GeV/c. The energy deposited in the electromagnetic calorimeter is measured in superclusters which collect bremsstrahlung photons emitted along the electron trajectory in the tracker volume. The electron tracks are built from seeds in the pixel detector found via a cluster-driven pixel hit matching algorithm, followed by a reconstruction of trajectories in the silicon strip tracker with a Gaussian Sum Filter. Electrons are classified using observables sensitive to the pattern of bremsstrahlung emission and electromagnetic showering in the tracker material. Energy scale corrections depending on the electron class are applied to the supercluster and estimates of associated errors are obtained. The electron energy is deduced from a weighted combination of the corrected supercluster energy a...

  4. Robotic transverse colectomy for mid-transverse colon cancer: surgical techniques and oncologic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung Uk; Park, Yoonah; Lee, Kang Young; Sohn, Seung-Kook

    2015-06-01

    Robot-assisted surgery for colon cancer has been reported in many studies, most of which worked on right and/or sigmoid colectomy. The aim of this study was to report our experience of robotic transverse colectomy with an intracorporeal anastomosis, provide details of the surgical technique, and present the theoretical benefits of the procedure. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data of robotic surgery for colorectal cancer performed by a single surgeon between May 2007 and February 2011. Out of 162 consecutive cases, we identified three robotic transverse colectomies, using a hand-sewn intracorporeal anastomosis. Two males and one female underwent transverse colectomies for malignant or premalignant disease. The mean docking time, time spent using the robot, and total operative time were 5, 268, and 307 min, respectively. There were no conversions to open or conventional laparoscopic technique. The mean length of specimen and number of lymph nodes retrieved were 14.1 cm and 6.7, respectively. One patient suffered from a wound seroma and recovered with conservative management. The mean hospital stay was 8.7 days. After a median follow-up of 72 months, there were no local or systemic recurrences. Robotic transverse colectomy seems to be a safe and feasible technique. It may minimize the necessity of mobilizing both colonic flexures, with facilitated intracorporeal hand-sewn anastomosis. However, further prospective studies with a larger number of patients are required to draw firm conclusions.

  5. Single transverse-spin asymmetry in high transverse momentum pion production in pp collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Vogelsang, Werner

    2006-01-01

    We study the single-spin (left-right) asymmetry in single-inclusive pion production in hadronic scattering. This asymmetry is power-suppressed in the transverse momentum of the produced pion and can be analyzed in terms of twist-three parton correlation functions in the proton. We present new...

  6. Feedback on the Feedback: Sociocultural Interpretation of Saudi ESL Learners' Opinions about Writing Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Rami F.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study employed informal conversational interviews and semi-structured individual interviews to capture the Saudi students' opinions about the feedback they receive, and about their perceptions on what constitutes helpful feedback. Sociocultural theory was used as the framework of this study. The findings suggest that the Saudi…

  7. Effect of transverse magnetic fields on a simulated in-line 6 MV linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Aubin, J.; Steciw, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2010-08-01

    The effects of a transverse magnetic field on an in-line side-coupled 6 MV linear accelerator are given. The results are directly applicable to a linac-MR system used for real-time image guided adaptive radiotherapy. Our previously designed end-to-end linac simulation incorporated the results from the axisymmetric 2D electron gun program EGN2w. However, since the magnetic fields being investigated are non-axisymmetric in nature for the work presented here, the electron gun simulation was performed using OPERA-3d/SCALA. The simulation results from OPERA-3d/SCALA showed excellent agreement with previous results. Upon the addition of external magnetic fields to our fully 3D linac simulation, it was found that a transverse magnetic field of 6 G resulted in a 45 ± 1% beam loss, and by 14 G, no electrons were incident on the target. Transverse magnetic fields on the linac simulation produced a highly asymmetric focal spot at the target, which translated into a 13% profile asymmetry at 6 G. Upon translating the focal spot with respect to the target coordinates, profile symmetry was regained at the expense of a lateral shift in the dose profiles. It was found that all points in the penumbra failed a 1%/1 mm acceptance criterion for fields between 4 and 6 G. However, it was also found that the lateral profile shifts were corrected by adjusting the jaw positions asymmetrically.

  8. Styrket feedback gennem studerendes selvevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Studerende er ofte utilfredse med såvel kvaliteten som kvantiteten af feedback på skriftligt arbejde. Ligeledes kan det som underviser være svært at afgive feedback, der tager udgangspunkt i de studerendes respektive læringssituationer, hvis man ikke har andet afsæt end opgavetekster. Denne artikel...... beskriver derfor to eksperimenter med brug af selvevaluering som kvalificerende mellemled i ekstern feedback på skriveøvelser. Eksperimenternes formål er at styrke den formative læring ved skriftligt arbejde. I det første eksperiment bestod feedbacken af underviser-feedback, mens det andet eksperiment...... indebar peer-feedback og fælles feedback. I begge tilfælde blev selvevalueringen foretaget med udgangspunkt i en kriteriebaseret retteguide. Eksperimenterne medførte, at den eksterne feedback blev målrettet og kvalificeret i forhold til den enkelte studerende, mens selve skriveprocessen mod forventning...

  9. Virtual potentials for feedback traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yonggun; Bechhoefer, John

    2012-12-01

    The recently developed feedback trap can be used to create arbitrary virtual potentials, to explore the dynamics of small particles or large molecules in complex situations. Experimentally, feedback traps introduce several finite time scales: There is a delay between the measurement of a particle's position and the feedback response, the feedback response is applied for a finite update time, and a finite camera exposure integrates motion. We show how to incorporate such timing effects into the description of particle motion. For the test case of a virtual quadratic potential, we give the first accurate description of particle dynamics, calculating the power spectrum and variance of fluctuations as a function of feedback gain, testing against simulations. We show that for small feedback gains, the motion approximates that of a particle in an ordinary harmonic potential. Moreover, if the potential is varied in time, for example by varying its stiffness, the work that is calculated approximates that done in an ordinary changing potential. The quality of the approximation is set by the ratio of the update time of the feedback loop to the relaxation time of motion in the virtual potential.

  10. Formative assessment framework proposal for transversal competencies: Application to analysis and problem-solving competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gómez-Gasquet

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the last years, there is an increasing interest in the manner that transversal competences (TC are introduced in the curricula. Transversal competences are generic and relevant skills that students have to develop through the several stages of the educational degrees. This paper analyses TCs in the context of the learning process of undergraduate and postgraduate courses. The main aim of this paper is to propose a framework to improve results. The framework facilities the student's training and one of the important pieces is undoubtedly that he has constant feedback from his assessments that allowing to improve the learning. An applying in the analysis and problem solving competence in the context of Master Degree in Advanced Engineering Production, Logistics and Supply Chain at the UPV is carried out. Design/methodology/approach: The work is the result of several years of professional experience in the application of the concept of transversal competence in the UPV with undergraduate and graduate students. As a result of this work and various educational innovation projects, a team of experts has been created, which has been discussing some aspects relevant to the improvement of the teaching-learning process. One of these areas of work has been in relation to the integration of various proposals on the application and deployment of transversal competences. With respect to this work, a conceptual proposal is proposed that has subsequently been empirically validated through the analysis of the results of several groups of students in a degree. Findings: The main result that is offered in the work is a framework that allows identifying the elements that are part of the learning process in the area of transversal competences. Likewise, the different items that are part of the framework are linked to the student's life cycle, and a temporal scope is established for their deployment. Practical implications: One of the most noteworthy

  11. Improving Workplace-Based Assessment and Feedback by an E-Portfolio Enhanced with Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaaf, Marieke; Donkers, Jeroen; Slof, Bert; Moonen-van Loon, Joyce; van Tartwijk, Jan; Driessen, Eric; Badii, Atta; Serban, Ovidiu; Ten Cate, Olle

    2017-01-01

    Electronic portfolios (E-portfolios) are crucial means for workplace-based assessment and feedback. Although E-portfolios provide a useful approach to view each learner's progress, so far options for personalized feedback and potential data about a learner's performances at the workplace often remain unexploited. This paper advocates that…

  12. Reconfiguring and Realigning the Assessment Feedback Processes for an Undergraduate Criminology Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A reconfigured and realigned system of assessment feedback was implemented with undergraduates taking criminology modules at Swansea University. The reformulated system integrated explicit engagement with assessment criteria in feedback given on an electronic template form with the use of a statement bank and the offer of follow-up, feedback…

  13. Corrective feedback via e-mail on the correct use of past tense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feedback strategy provides teachers with information on effective teaching and student comprehension, and encourages them to use technology in a way that reduces anxiety and facilitates social learning. Keywords: acquisition; computer mediated communication (CMC); electronic mail (email); interactional feedback; past ...

  14. Systematic design and simulation of a tearing mode suppression feedback control system for the TEXTOR tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennen, B.A.; Westerhof, E.; Nuij, Pwjm; M.R. de Baar,; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Suppression of tearing modes is essential for the operation of tokamaks. This paper describes the design and simulation of a tearing mode suppression feedback control system for the TEXTOR tokamak. The two main control tasks of this feedback control system are the radial alignment of electron

  15. Comparisons of Stuttering Frequency during and after Speech Initiation in Unaltered Feedback, Altered Auditory Feedback and Choral Speech Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Kalinowski, Joseph; Robbins, Mary; Crawcour, Stephen; Bowers, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: Stuttering is prone to strike during speech initiation more so than at any other point in an utterance. The use of auditory feedback (AAF) has been found to produce robust decreases in the stuttering frequency by creating an electronic rendition of choral speech (i.e., speaking in unison). However, AAF requires users to self-initiate…

  16. The Effect of the Feedback Controller on Superconducting Tokamak AC Losses + AC-CRPP user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerz, B.; Bruzzone, P.; Favez, J.Y.; Lister, J.B.; Zapretilina, E.

    2001-11-01

    Superconducting coils in a Tokamak are subject to AC losses when the field transverse to the coil current varies. A simple model to evaluate the AC losses has been derived and benchmarked against a complete model used in the ITER design procedure. The influence of the feedback control strategy on the AC losses is examined using this model. An improved controller is proposed, based on this study. (author)

  17. Transversal expansion study in the Landau hydrodynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottag, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The system of equations in the frame of Landau's hydrodynamical model for multiparticle production at high energies is studied. Taking as a first approximation the one-dimensional exact due to Khalatnikov, and a special set of curvilinear coordinates, the radial part is separated from the longitudinal one in the equations of motion, and a system of partial differential equations (non-linear, hyperbolic) is obtained for the radial part. These equations are solved numerically by the method of caracteristics. The hydrodynamical variables are obtained over all the three-dimensional-flow region as well as its variation with the mass of the initially expanding system. Both, the transverse rapidity distribution of the fluid and the inclusive particle distribution at 90 0 in the center of mass system, are calculated. The last one is compared with recent experimental data. (author) [pt

  18. Potentials for transverse trace-free tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conboye, Rory; Murchadha, Niall Ó

    2014-01-01

    In constructing and understanding initial conditions in the 3 + 1 formalism for numerical relativity, the transverse and trace-free (TT) part of the extrinsic curvature plays a key role. We know that TT tensors possess two degrees of freedom per space point. However, finding an expression for a TT tensor depending on only two scalar functions is a non-trivial task. Assuming either axial or translational symmetry, expressions depending on two scalar potentials alone are derived here for all TT tensors in flat 3-space. In a more general spatial slice, only one of these potentials is found, the same potential given in (Baker and Puzio 1999 Phys. Rev. D 59 044030) and (Dain 2001 Phys. Rev. D 64 124002), with the remaining equations reduced to a partial differential equation, depending on boundary conditions for a solution. As an exercise, we also derive the potentials which give the Bowen-York curvature tensor in flat space. (paper)

  19. Borel resummation of transverse momentum distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We present a new prescription for the resummation of contributions due to soft gluon emission to the trasverse momentum distribution of processes such as Drell-Yan production in hadronic collisions. We show that familiar difficulties in obtaining resummed results as a function of transverse momentum starting from impact-parameter space resummation are related to the divergence of the perturbative expansion of the momentum-space result. We construct a resummed expression by Borel resummation of this divergent series, removing the divergence in the Borel inversion through the inclusion of a suitable higher twist term. The ensuing resummation prescription is free of numerical instabilities, is stable upon the inclusion of subleading terms, and the original divergent perturbative series is asymptotic to it. We compare our results to those obtained using alternative prescriptions, and discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure.

  20. The transverse damper system for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Claus, J.; Raka, E.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Shea, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    If the beam is injected with errors x c , x' c (or y c , y' c ) with respect to the closed orbit or disturbed by transverse instabilities, it will execute coherent oscillations and will be diluted in betatron phase space within a time interval of about 1/Δν turns, even if it is properly matched to the focusing characteristics of the lattice, unless there is an effective damper system to prevent this. Here Δν is the tune spread in the beam. Such a damper will not prevent dilution due to mismatches. Without such a damper the emittance of the beam will ultimately develop to a properly centered matched ellipse with an area ε in phase space that is larger than that of the injected one ε 0 which is also matched but off-centered by x c and x' c

  1. Transverse Momentum Correlations in Hadronic Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Bauer, C; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1997-01-01

    Using data obtained with the ALEPH detector at the Z resonance, a measure based on transverse momentum is shown to exhibit a correlation between the two halves of a hadronic event which cannot be explained by energy-momentum conservation, flavour conservation, the imposition of an event axis or imperfect event reconstruction. Two possible explanations based on Monte Carlo models are examined: a) ARIADNE, with the correlation forming early in the parton shower and with the transition from partons to hadrons playing only a minor part; b) JETSET, with the correlation forming at the fragmentation stage. A correlation technique based on a jet cluster analysis is used to make a comparison of the models with the data. It is concluded that both non-perturbative and perturbative effects make important contributions to the observed correlation.

  2. A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2012-05-09

    The relation between vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI) requires solving a quartic polynomial equation, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of the perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for a small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  3. Transversal Dirac families in Riemannian foliations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazebrook, J.F.; Kamber, F.W.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a family of differential operators parametrized by the transversal vector potentials of a Riemannian foliation relative to the Clifford algebra of the foliation. This family is non-elliptic but in certain ways behaves like a standard Dirac family in the absolute case as a result of its elliptic-like regularity properties. The analytic and topological indices of this family are defined as elements of K-theory in the parameter space. We indicate how the cohomology of the parameter space is described via suitable maps to Fredholm operators. We outline the proof of a theorem of Vafa-Witten type on uniform bounds for the eigenvalues of this family using a spectral flow argument. A determinant operator is also defined with the appropriate zeta function regularization dependent on the codimension of the foliation. With respect to a generalized coupled Dirac-Yang-Mills system, we indicate how chiral anomalies are located relative to the foliation. (orig.)

  4. Transverse Beam Profile Measurements Using Optical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, A; Weiss, A; Bank, A

    2001-01-01

    Two different systems are currently under development at GSI's heavy ion facility to measure transverse beam profiles using optical emitters. At the GSI-LINAC for energies up to 15 MeV/u residual gas fluorescence is investigated for pulsed high current beams. The fluorescence of N2 is monitored by an image intensified CCD camera. For all ion species with energies above 50 MeV/u slowly extracted from the synchrotron SIS a classical viewing screen system is used. Three different target materials have been investigated and their behavior concerning efficiency, saturation and timing performance is evaluated. Both systems (will) use CCD cameras with a digital read out using the IEEE 1394 standard.

  5. Transverse Matching Techniques for the SNS Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon Dong Oh; Danilov, Viatcheslav V

    2005-01-01

    It is crucial to minimize beam loss and machine activation by obtaining optimal transverse matching for a high-intensity linear accelerator such as the Spallation Neutron Source linac. For matching the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) to Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL), there are four wire-scanners installed in series in CCL module 1 as proposed by the author.* A series of measurements was conducted to minimize envelope breathing and the results are presented here. As an independent approach, Chu et al is developing an application based on another technique by estimating rms emittance using the wire scanner profile data.** For matching the Medium Energy Beam Transport Line to the DTL, a technique of minimizing rms emittance was used and emittance data show that tail is minimized as well.

  6. Transverse magnetization and giant magnetoimpedance in amorphous ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orue, I.; Garcia-Arribas, A.; Saad, A.; Cos, D. de; Barandiaran, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the classical approach giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) is driven by the transverse permeability of the sample, as excited by the current flowing through it. Transverse permeability is usually taken as a constant, while detailed magnetization processes are important for the interpretation of GMI data. In most cases the transverse permeability (or magnetization) is only guessed by looking at the longitudinal magnetization curve and direct determinations of such parameter are scarce in the literature. In this work we report on the operation of a simple setup which provides the transverse magnetization of amorphous ribbons as a function of the current intensity flowing through it, by means of the magnetooptical kerr effect (MOKE). The system has been tested on low magnetostriction amorphous ribbons of very soft character with both longitudinal and transverse anisotropy. The transverse magnetization as a function of both the current and a DC longitudinal field applied, was compared with magneto impedance measurements

  7. Missing transverse energy performance of the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-09-01

    During 2010 the LHC delivered pp collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In this paper, the results of comprehensive studies of missing transverse energy as measured by the CMS detector are presented. The results cover the measurements of the scale and resolution for missing transverse energy, and the effects of multiple pp interactions within the same bunch crossings on the scale and resolution. Anomalous measurements of missing transverse energy are studied, and algorithms for their identification are described. The performances of several reconstruction algorithms for calculating missing transverse energy are compared. An algorithm, called missing-transverse-energy significance, which estimates the compatibility of the reconstructed missing transverse energy with zero, is described, and its performance is demonstrated.

  8. Missing transverse energy performance of the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Joris; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    During 2010 the LHC delivered pp collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In this paper, the results of comprehensive studies of missing transverse energy as measured by the CMS detector are presented. The results cover the measurements of the scale and resolution for missing transverse energy, and the effects of multiple pp interactions within the same bunch crossings on the scale and resolution. Anomalous measurements of missing transverse energy are studied, and algorithms for their identification are described. The performances of several reconstruction algorithms for calculating missing transverse energy are compared. An algorithm, called missing-transverse-energy significance, which estimates the compatibility of the reconstructed missing transverse energy with zero, is described, and its performance is demonstrated.

  9. A review of invasive and non-invasive sensory feedback in upper limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Pamela; Wijk, Ulrika; Björkman, Anders; Antfolk, Christian

    2017-06-01

    The constant challenge to restore sensory feedback in prosthetic hands has provided several research solutions, but virtually none has reached clinical fruition. A prosthetic hand with sensory feedback that closely imitates an intact hand and provides a natural feeling may induce the prosthetic hand to be included in the body image and also reinforces the control of the prosthesis. Areas covered: This review presents non-invasive sensory feedback systems such as mechanotactile, vibrotactile, electrotactile and combinational systems which combine the modalities; multi-haptic feedback. Invasive sensory feedback has been tried less, because of the inherent risk, but it has successfully shown to restore some afferent channels. In this review, invasive methods are also discussed, both extraneural and intraneural electrodes, such as cuff electrodes and transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrodes. The focus of the review is on non-invasive methods of providing sensory feedback to upper-limb amputees. Expert commentary: Invoking embodiment has shown to be of importance for the control of prosthesis and acceptance by the prosthetic wearers. It is a challenge to provide conscious feedback to cover the lost sensibility of a hand, not be overwhelming and confusing for the user, and to integrate technology within the constraint of a wearable prosthesis.

  10. Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, R.; Hardek, T.; Johnson, D.E.; Kells, W.; Kerner, V.; Lai, H.; Lennox, A.J.; Mills, F.; Miyahara, Y.; Oleksiuk, L.; Peters, R.; Rhoades, T.; Young, D.; McIntyre, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    A 115 Mev proton beam has been successfully cooled in the Electron Cooling Ring at Fermilab. Initial experiments have measured the longitudinal drag force, transverse damping rate, and equilibrium beam size. The proton beam was cooled by a factor of aproximately 50 in momentum spread in 5 sec, and by a factor of 3 in transverse size in 15 sec. Long term losses were consistent with single scattering from residual gas, with lifetime approximately 1000 sec. Using the measured electron beam temperature T/sub e/.0.8(2) ev, the observed cooling agrees well with expectations from cooling theory. 13 refs

  11. Precision ESR Measurements of Transverse Anisotropy in the Single-molecule Magnet Ni4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan; Collett, Charles; Allao Cassaro, Rafael

    We present a method to precisely determine the transverse anisotropy in a single-molecule magnet (SMM) through electron-spin resonance measurements of a tunnel splitting that arises from the anisotropy via first-order perturbation theory. We demonstrate the technique using the SMM Ni4 diluted via co-crystallization in a diamagnetic isostructural analogue. At 5% dilution, we find markedly narrower resonance peaks than are observed in undiluted samples. Ni4 has a zero-field tunnel splitting of 4 GHz, and we measure that transition at several nearby frequencies using custom loop-gap resonators, allowing a precise determination of the tunnel splitting. Because the transition under investigation arises due to a first-order perturbation from the transverse anisotropy, and lies at zero field, we can relate the splitting to the transverse anisotropy independent of any other Hamiltonian parameters. This method can be applied to other SMMs with zero-field tunnel splittings arising from first-order transverse anisotropy perturbations. NSF Grant No. DMR-1310135.

  12. PKU-RBRC Workshop on Transverse Spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian,H.; Bunce, G.; Yuan, F.

    2008-06-30

    Understanding the structure of the nucleon is a fundamental question in subatomic physics, and it has been under intensive investigation for the last several years. Modern research focuses in particular on the spin structure of the nucleon. Experimental and theoretical investigations worldwide over the last few decades have established that, contrary to nave quark model expectations, quarks carry only about 30% of the totd spin of the proton. The origin of the remaining spin is the key question in current hadronic physics and also the major driving forces for the current and future experiments, such as RHIC and CEBAF in US, JPARC in Japan, COMPASS at CERN in Europe, FAIR at GSI in Germany. Among these studies, the transverse-spin physics develops actively and rapidly in the last few years. Recent studies reveal that transverse-spin physics is closely related to many fundamental properties of the QCD dynamics such as the factorization, the non-trivial universality of the parton distribution and fragmentation functions. It was very timely to bring together the theorists and experimentalists in this field at this workshop to review and discuss the latest developments and future perspective in hadronic spin physics. This workshop was very success iu many aspects. First of all, it attracted almost every expert working in this field. We had more than eighty participants in total, among them 27 came from the US institutes, 13 from Europe, 3 from Korea, and 2 from Japan. The rest participants came from local institutes in China. Second, we arranged plenty physics presentations, and the program covers all recent progresses made in the last few years. In total, we had 47 physics presentations, and two round table discussions. The discussion sessions were especially very useful and very much appreciated by all participants. In addition, we also scheduled plenty time for discussion in each presentation, and the living discussions impressed and benefited all participants.

  13. Formability Studies on Transverse Tailor Welded Blanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, V. Vijay; Narasimhan, K.

    2005-01-01

    Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB) technology is one of the several approaches that have been used to reduce the weight of the automobile body. TWBs are made up of two or more blanks having different/same properties (geometry, material etc.) prior to forming. The formability of these blanks depends on material and geometric parameters like strength ratio and thickness ratio. The study of these blanks can be classified on the basis of the weld orientation chosen viz. transverse weld or longitudinal weld with respect to the major straining direction.This paper studies the formability issues related to transverse TWB by FE simulation. The formability is assessed by analyzing tensile and Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests. The weld region is assumed to be a line in all the simulations. While modeling the tensile test, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation are monitored, and in LDH testing, pole height and maximum load (in near plane strain condition) are monitored. LDH testing shows that as thickness ratio increases, the load bearing capacity and the pole height decreases. There is a contribution from both the thicker and the thinner blank to the overall deforming volume. Failure location analysis shows that there is an abrupt change in the location of the failure from punch nose region to weld line region as the thickness ratio reaches a critical magnitude (1.08).The study of material properties shows that as the yield strength ratio (S ratio) and strain hardening exponent ratio (N ratio) between the blanks increases, the maximum load which the blank can sustain without failure (UTS) increases. This becomes constant and comparable to that of single sheet at higher N and S ratios

  14. Formability Studies on Transverse Tailor Welded Blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, V. Vijay; Narasimhan, K.

    2005-08-01

    Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB) technology is one of the several approaches that have been used to reduce the weight of the automobile body. TWBs are made up of two or more blanks having different/same properties (geometry, material etc.) prior to forming. The formability of these blanks depends on material and geometric parameters like strength ratio and thickness ratio. The study of these blanks can be classified on the basis of the weld orientation chosen viz. transverse weld or longitudinal weld with respect to the major straining direction. This paper studies the formability issues related to transverse TWB by FE simulation. The formability is assessed by analyzing tensile and Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests. The weld region is assumed to be a line in all the simulations. While modeling the tensile test, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation are monitored, and in LDH testing, pole height and maximum load (in near plane strain condition) are monitored. LDH testing shows that as thickness ratio increases, the load bearing capacity and the pole height decreases. There is a contribution from both the thicker and the thinner blank to the overall deforming volume. Failure location analysis shows that there is an abrupt change in the location of the failure from punch nose region to weld line region as the thickness ratio reaches a critical magnitude (1.08). The study of material properties shows that as the yield strength ratio (S ratio) and strain hardening exponent ratio (N ratio) between the blanks increases, the maximum load which the blank can sustain without failure (UTS) increases. This becomes constant and comparable to that of single sheet at higher N and S ratios.

  15. Transverse myelitis associated with Zika virus infection: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Beattriz Vaz Pereira Casagrande; Danielle Oliveira de Sousa; Adriana Kamilly Leitão Pitman Machado; Carolina Ribeiro Mainardi; Carolina Barros Kahwage

    2018-01-01

    Title: Transverse myelitis associated with Zika virus infection: a Case Report.: The zika virus belongs to the family flaviviridae, and is transmitted by the arthropod Aedes aegypt. Its major importance is related to the several debilitating neurological manifestations associated with it, such as transverse myelitis. Case: The authors report a case of transverse myelitis in a patient with a previous diagnosis of Zika virus infection. After the image exams and serology, the diagnosis was ...

  16. Transverse mode coupling instability for leptons in the CERN SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnecar, T.; Shaposhnikova, E.N. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-08-01

    The intensity of leptons accelerated in the SPS machine is limited by a vertical transverse instability. The results of measurements of the thresholds for this transverse instability are compared with theoretical predictions for different broad band impedance models of the SPS. The threshold intensities found for the transverse instability and the position of the losses in the cycle enable the parameters of the broadband resonant impedance to be specified. (author)

  17. Transverse colon cancer with Krukenberg tumor : A case report

    OpenAIRE

    東門, 敦子; 松原, 洋孝; 下地, 英明; 伊佐, 勉; 濱安, 俊吾; 仲地, 厚; 宮里, 浩; 白石, 祐之; 武藤, 良弘; Tomon, Atsuko; Matsubara, Hirotaka; Shimoji, Hideaki; Isa, Tsutomu; Nakachi, Atsushi; Miyazato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    A case of Krukenberg tumor in a 30-year-old woman with transverse colon cancer is reported herein. The patient was found to have bilateral ovarian tumors and abnormal elevation of serum CEA at a community hospital. Subsequently, she was referred to the University Hospital for further work. Diagnostic examinations including US, CT and colonoscopy demonstrated transverse colon cancer and bilateral ovarian tumors. Exploratory laparotomy showed the growth of transverse colon cancer over the perit...

  18. Curative resection of transverse colon cancer via minilaparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishiguro, Tohru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Haga, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Minilaparotomy has been reported to be a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopically assisted surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness of minilaparotomy for the resection of transverse colon cancer, which has generally been considered difficult to resect laparoscopically. Patients for whom curative resection was attempted for transverse colon cancer (n = 21) or sigmoid colon cancer (n = 81) via minilaparotomy (skin incision, transverse colon cancer as well as those with sigmoid colon cancer.

  19. Generation of a wakefield undulator in plasma with transverse density gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupakov, G.

    2017-11-01

    We show that a short relativistic electron beam propagating in a plasma with a density gradient perpendicular to the direction of motion generates a wakefield in which a witness bunch experiences a transverse force. A density gradient oscillating along the beam path would create a periodically varying force—an undulator, with an estimated strength of the equivalent magnetic field more than 10 T. This opens an avenue for the creation of a high-strength, short-period undulator, which eventually may lead to all-plasma, free electron lasers where a plasma wakefield acceleration is naturally combined with a plasma undulator in a unifying, compact setup.

  20. NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback map allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  1. NAIP 2017 Imagery Feedback Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2017 Imagery Feedback map allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2017 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  2. Modeling terrestrial gamma ray flashes produced by relativistic feedback discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningyu; Dwyer, Joseph R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports a modeling study of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) produced by relativistic feedback discharges. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes are intense energetic radiation originating from the Earth's atmosphere that has been observed by spacecraft. They are produced by bremsstrahlung interactions of energetic electrons, known as runaway electrons, with air atoms. An efficient physical mechanism for producing large fluxes of the runaway electrons to make the TGFs is the relativistic feedback discharge, where seed runaway electrons are generated by positrons and X-rays, products of the discharge itself. Once the relativistic feedback discharge becomes self-sustaining, an exponentially increasing number of relativistic electron avalanches propagate through the same high-field region inside the thundercloud until the electric field is partially discharged by the ionization created by the discharge. The modeling results indicate that the durations of the TGF pulses produced by the relativistic feedback discharge vary from tens of microseconds to several milliseconds, encompassing all durations of the TGFs observed so far. In addition, when a sufficiently large potential difference is available in thunderclouds, a self-propagating discharge known as the relativistic feedback streamer can be formed, which propagates like a conventional positive streamer. For the relativistic feedback streamer, the positive feedback mechanism of runaway electron production by the positrons and X-rays plays a similar role as the photoionization for the conventional positive streamer. The simulation results of the relativistic feedback streamer show that a sequence of TGF pulses with varying durations can be produced by the streamer. The relativistic streamer may initially propagate with a pulsed manner and turn into a continuous propagation mode at a later stage. Milliseconds long TGF pulses can be produced by the feedback streamer during its continuous propagation. However

  3. Feedback trap using optical force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yonggun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    Recently, the feedback trap using electrophoretic force (ABEL trap) has been used in the experimental study of non-equilibrium thermodynamics such as Landauer's erasure principle. This trap can trap and manipulate a small particle in solution by canceling the Brownian fluctuations. Here, we propose a simple way to control a bead using optical force with feedback and show the dynamics of a single particle in the virtual potential.

  4. Recognition of boundary feedback systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A system that has been the object of intense research is outlined. In view of that and recent progress of the theory of pseudodifferential boundary operator calculus, the author describes some features that could prove to be interesting in connection with the problems of boundary feedback...... stabilizability. It is shown that it is possible to use the calculus to consider more general feedback systems in a variational setup....

  5. Search for events with an isolated lepton and missing transverse momentum and a measurement of W production at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-07-15

    A search for events with an isolated high-energy lepton and large missing transverse momentum has been performed with the ZEUS detector at HERA using a total integrated luminosity of 504 pb{sup -1}. The results agree well with Standard Model predictions. The cross section for production of single W bosons in electron-proton collisions with unpolarised electrons is measured to be 0.89{sup +0.25}{sub -0.22}(stat.){+-}0.10(syst.) pb. (orig.)

  6. Search for events with an isolated lepton and missing transverse momentum and a measurement of W production at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-07-01

    A search for events with an isolated high-energy lepton and large missing transverse momentum has been performed with the ZEUS detector at HERA using a total integrated luminosity of 504 pb -1 . The results agree well with Standard Model predictions. The cross section for production of single W bosons in electron-proton collisions with unpolarised electrons is measured to be 0.89 +0.25 -0.22 (stat.)±0.10(syst.) pb. (orig.)

  7. Absorption of electromagnetic radiation in a quantum wire with an anisotropic parabolic potential in a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpunin, V. V., E-mail: karpuninvv@mail.ru [Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation); Margulis, V. A., E-mail: theorphysics@mrsu.ru [Mordovian State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    An analytical expression for the coefficient of absorption of electromagnetic radiation by electrons in a quantum wire in a magnetic field is derived. The case of a magnetic field transverse with respect to the wire axis is considered. The resonance character of absorption is shown, and the resonance frequencies as functions of the field are determined. The effect of the scattering of electrons at optical phonons is studied, and it is shown that scattering is responsible for additional resonance absorption peaks.

  8. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when

  9. TWITCH PARAMETERS IN TRANSVERSAL AND LONGITUDINAL BICEPS BRACHII RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Šimunič

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the contractile properties of skeletal muscles is continuing to be an important issue and a difficult task methodologically. Longitudinal direction of skeletal muscle contraction blurs intrinsic muscle belly contractile properties with many factors. This study evaluates and explains contractile properties such as: delay time (Td, contraction time (Tc, half relaxation time (Tr and maximal amplitude (Dm extracted from twitch transversal response and compare them with torque response. In fifteen healthy males (age 23.7 ± 3.4 years isometric twitch transversal and torque responses were simultaneously recorded during graded electrically elicited contractions in the biceps brachii muscle. The amplitude of electrical stimulation was increased in 5 mA steps from a threshold up to a maximal response. The muscles’ belly transversal response was measured by a high precision mechanical displacement sensor while elbow joint torque was calculated from force readings. Results indicate a parabolic relation between the transversal displacement and the torque Dm. A significantly shorter Tc was found in transversal response without being correlated to torque Tc (r = -0.12; > 0.05. A significant correlation was found between torque Tc and the time occurrence of the second peak in the transversal response (r = 0.83; < 0.001. Electrical stimulation amplitude dependant variation of the Tc was notably different in transversal than in torque response. Td was similar at submaximal and maximal responses but larger in transversal at just above threshold contractions. Tr has a similar linear trend in both responses, however, the magnitude and the slope are much larger in the transversal response. We could conclude that different mechanisms affect longitudinal and transversal twitch skeletal muscle deformations. Contractile properties extracted from the transversal response enable alternative insights into skeletal muscle contraction mechanics.

  10. The electron-cloud instability in PEP-II: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1997-05-01

    The authors present an update on the estimate of the growth time of the multi-bunch transverse instability in the PEP-II collider arising from the interaction of the positron beam with the accumulated electron cloud. They estimate the contributions to the growth rate arising from the dipole magnets and from the pumping straight sections. They emphasize those quantities upon which the instability is most sensitive. The simulation includes measured data on the secondary emission yield for TiN-coated samples of the actual vacuum chamber. Although the analysis is still in progress, they conclude that the instability risetime is of order 1 ms, which is well within the range controllable by the feedback system

  11. Transverse digital damper system for the Fermilab anti-proton recycler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, N.; Crisp, J.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A transverse damping system is used in the Recycler at Fermilab to damp beam instabilities which arise from large beam intensities with electron cooling. Initial tests of electron cooling demonstrated beam loss due to transverse beam motion when the beam was cooled past the beam density threshold. The transverse damper system consists of two horizontal and two vertical pickups whose signals are amplified and passed into an analog hybrid to generate a difference signal from each pickup. The difference signals are input to a custom digital damper board which digitizes the analog signals at 212mhz, performs digital processing of the signals inside a large Altera Stratix II FPGA, then provides analog output at 212mhz via digital to analog converters. The digital damper output is sent to amplifiers which drive one horizontal and one vertical kicker. An initial prototype digital damper board has been successfully used in the Recycler for over six months. Currently, work is underway to replace the prototype board with an upgraded VME version

  12. Competing roles of longitudinal and transverse Hund's terms on Mott transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ya-Min; Yu, Xiang-Long; Wang, Qing-Wei; Zou, Liang-Jian

    2017-02-01

    Effects of longitudinal (JZ) and transverse (including spin-flip JX and pair-hopping JP terms) Hund's couplings on Mott transitions of two-orbital Hubbard models are studied by the rotationally invariant slave boson approach. We show that in the half-filled asymmetric systems, the orbital selective Mott phase (OSMP) expands with increasing JX,P /JZ when JX,P /JZ Hund's coupling to JX,P /JZ > 1 may quickly suppress the OSMP state. In other near-half-filled systems, the transverse Hund's coupling favors or unfavors the OSMP state, depending on the electronic correlation strength of the systems. In the quarter-filled and around systems, a small JX,P /JZ 1 enhances the electron itineracy and considerably increases the critical correlation strength of the Mott transition both in symmetric and asymmetric systems. These results could be addressed by different spin-orbital states favored by JX, JP and JZ components, respectively; and the competing longitudinal and transverse Hund's coupling terms lead to most strong quantum fluctuations in the isotropic system.

  13. Kinetic damping of transverse waves in a homogeneous magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1984-12-01

    In a hot magnetized plasma large ion excursions can take place along the magnetic field lines, thereby introducing kinetic effects which cannot be treated in terms of a macroscopic fluid model. This effect is studied for the transverse wave motion of ions and electrons in a homogeneous thermal plasma, being immersed in a homogeneous magnetic field. Strong kinetic wave damping is found to occur when the product ku sub (i) of the wave number k and the ion thermal velocity u sub (i) exceeds the ion gyro frequency ω sub (i). The physical mechanism of this damping originates from large ion excursions and differs from that of Landau damping. The present results suggest that kinetic damping becomes important in hot tokamak plasmas for wave lengths of the order of a few centimeters and less. In high-beta systems, such as the Z-pinch, wave lengths in a large range become affected by kinetic damping, in some case even those which are comparable to the characteristic macroscopic dimensions. This also affects the conditions of plasma stability and plasma high-frequency heating. (Author)

  14. Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.

  15. Low-Latency Digital Signal Processing for Feedback and Feedforward in Quantum Computing and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salathé, Yves; Kurpiers, Philipp; Karg, Thomas; Lang, Christian; Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Akin, Abdulkadir; Krinner, Sebastian; Eichler, Christopher; Wallraff, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Quantum computing architectures rely on classical electronics for control and readout. Employing classical electronics in a feedback loop with the quantum system allows us to stabilize states, correct errors, and realize specific feedforward-based quantum computing and communication schemes such as deterministic quantum teleportation. These feedback and feedforward operations are required to be fast compared to the coherence time of the quantum system to minimize the probability of errors. We present a field-programmable-gate-array-based digital signal processing system capable of real-time quadrature demodulation, a determination of the qubit state, and a generation of state-dependent feedback trigger signals. The feedback trigger is generated with a latency of 110 ns with respect to the timing of the analog input signal. We characterize the performance of the system for an active qubit initialization protocol based on the dispersive readout of a superconducting qubit and discuss potential applications in feedback and feedforward algorithms.

  16. Feedback i den laegelige postgraduate uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Sune; Ipsen, Merete; Sørensen, Jette

    2008-01-01

    . Feedback is essential in medical education and has great implications for the educational climate. It has been shown that a common language regarding the principles of feedback has a sustained effect on quality and frequency of feedback. Further research is needed on feedback and educational climate...

  17. Ergodic Interference Alignment with Delayed Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Myung Gil; Choi, Wan

    2013-01-01

    We propose new ergodic interference alignment techniques for $K$-user interference channels with delayed feedback. Two delayed feedback scenarios are considered -- delayed channel information at transmitter (CIT) and delayed output feedback. It is proved that the proposed techniques achieve total $2K/(K+2)$ DoF which is higher than that by the retrospective interference alignment for the delayed feedback scenarios.

  18. Providing Students with Formative Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Francis Q.; Cullen, W. Rod

    2012-01-01

    The provision of timely and constructive feedback is increasingly challenging for busy academics. Ensuring effective student engagement with feedback is equally difficult. Increasingly, studies have explored provision of audio recorded feedback to enhance effectiveness and engagement with feedback. Few, if any, of these focus on purely formative…

  19. Sustainable feedback: students’ and tutors’ perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geitz, Gerry; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Feedback has been shown to substantially influence students’ learning. However, not everything characterized as feedback is effective. Sustainable feedback places students in an active role in which they generate and use feedback from peers, self or others and aims at developing lifelong learning

  20. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  1. Feedback in the emergency medicine clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aaron W; Kman, Nicholas E; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2011-11-01

    Feedback is a technique used in medical education to help develop and improve clinical skills. A comprehensive review article specifically intended for the emergency medicine (EM) educator is lacking, and it is the intent of this article to provide the reader with an in-depth, up-to-date, and evidence-based review of feedback in the context of the EM clerkship. The review article is organized in a progressive manner, beginning with the definition of feedback, the importance of feedback in medical education, the obstacles limiting the effective delivery of feedback, and the techniques to overcome these obstacles then follows. The article concludes with practical recommendations to implement feedback in the EM clerkship. To advance the literature on feedback, the concept of receiving feedback is introduced. The published literature regarding feedback is limited but generally supportive of its importance and effectiveness. Obstacles in the way of feedback include time constraints, lack of direct observation, and fear of negative emotional responses from students. Feedback should be timely, expected, focused, based on first-hand data, and limited to behaviors that are remediable. Faculty development and course structure can improve feedback in the EM clerkship. Teaching students to receive feedback is a novel educational technique that can improve the feedback process. Feedback is an important educational technique necessary to improve clinical skills. Feedback can be delivered effectively in the EM clerkship.

  2. Feedback in the Emergency Medicine Clerkships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorabh Khandelwal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Feedback is a technique used in medical education to help develop and improve clinical skills. A comprehensive review article specifically intended for the emergency medicine (EM educator is lacking, and it is the intent of this article to provide the reader with an in-depth, up-to-date, and evidence-based review of feedback in the context of the EM clerkship. Methods: The review article is organized in a progressive manner, beginning with the definition of feedback, the importance of feedback in medical education, and the obstacles limiting the effective delivery of feedback, and the techniques to overcome these obstacles then follows. The article concludes with practical recommendations to implement feedback in the EM clerkship. To advance the literature on feedback, the concept of receiving feedback is introduced. Results: The published literature regarding feedback is limited but generally supportive of its importance and effectiveness. Obstacles in the way of feedback include time constraints, lack of direct observation, and fear of negative emotional responses from students. Feedback should be timely, expected, focused, based on first-hand data, and limited to behaviors that are remediable. Faculty development and course structure can improve feedback in the EM clerkship. Teaching students to receive feedback is a novel educational technique that can improve the feedback process. Conclusion: Feedback is an important educational technique necessary to improve clinical skills. Feedback can be delivered effectively in the EM clerkship. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:537–542.

  3. Dynamics of Team Reflexivity after Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabelica, Catherine; Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A great deal of work has been generated on feedback in teams and has shown that giving performance feedback to teams is not sufficient to improve performance. To achieve the potential of feedback, it is stated that teams need to proactively process this feedback and thus collectively evaluate their performance and strategies, look for…

  4. Relating inclusive and exclusive meson photoproduction at large transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Inclusive and exclusive meson photoproduction at large transverse momentum are related by a local application of the correspondence principle of Bjorken and Kogut. The recent predictions for the inclusive process by Escobar are thus compared with wide angle exclusive data. The inclusive photoproduction of (rho 0 +ω) at large transverse momentum is discussed. (Auth.)

  5. On the number of isomorphism classes of transversals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 3 ... Group torsion; right loop; normalized right transversal. Abstract. In this paper we prove that there does not exist a subgroup of a finite group such that the number of isomorphism classes of normalized right transversals of in is four.

  6. Transverse momentum spectra of the produced hadrons at SPS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... The successive collisions in the nuclear reaction lead to gain in transverse momentum, as the nucleons propagate in the nucleus following a random walk pattern. The average transverse rapidity shift per collision is determined from the nucleon–nucleus collision data. Using this information, we obtain ...

  7. Transverse lie in labor: A study from Kaduna, Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: During the period there were 16633 deliveries and 30 women with transversely lying fetuses, giving an incidence of 1 in 554 deliveries. Forty percent of the cases were neglected transverse lies. The para 4 and above group had the highest incidence of 2.69/1000. Northern minorities ethnic group had the highest ...

  8. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 1. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded mountain front, north-eastern Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, India. Khayingshing ... Keywords. Himalayan Frontal Thrust; outer Kumaun Himalaya; transverse structure; folded mountain front.

  9. The influence of gluteus maximus on transverse plane tibial rotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preece, S.J.; Graham-Smith, P.; Nester, C.J.; Howard, D.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Herrington, L.; Bowker, P.

    There is a common clinical belief that transverse plane tibial rotation is controlled by the rearfoot. Although distal structures may influence the motion of the tibia, transverse plane tibial rotation could be determined by the proximal hip musculature. Cadaver studies have identified gluteus

  10. Some anatomical and morphometric observations in the transverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A hundred and two atlases obtained from the Osteology Department of National Museums of Kenya were observed for presence, shape and variations of the transverse foramen. Accessory transverse foramina were noted, as well as missing foramina. Anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters of the foramina were taken ...

  11. Operational characteristics and power scaling of a transverse flow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Transverse flow transversely excited (TFTE) CO2 lasers are easily scalable to multi- kilowatt level. The laser power can be scaled up by increasing the volumetric gas flow and discharge volume. It was observed in a TFTE CW CO2 laser having single row of pins as an anode and tubular cathode that the laser ...

  12. Transverse oscillation vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradway, David; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the development and first results of in vivo transthoracic cardiac imaging using an implementation of Vector Flow Imaging (VFI) via the Transverse Oscillation (TO) method on a phased-array transducer. Optimal selection of the lateral wavelength of the transversely-oscillating r...

  13. Measurement of the transverse emittance for the NSC Pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriques, G.; Mandal, A.; Chopra, S.; Joshi, R.; Datta, S.K.; Roy, A.

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of the emittance (transverse and longitudinal) of the NSC pelletron is essential for matching the acceptance of the LINAC which is to be installed to augment the pelletron beam energies. The transverse emittance of NSC pelletron has been measured by employing a focussing element and a down-stream beam profile monitor

  14. Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering at small transverse momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacchetta, A.; Diehl, M.; Goeke, K.; Metz, A.; Mulders, P.J.G.; Schlegel, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the cross section for one-particle inclusive deep inelastic scattering off the nucleon for low transverse momentum of the detected hadron. We decompose the cross section in terms of structure functions and calculate them at tree level in terms of transverse-momentum-dependent parton

  15. Joint transverse momentum and threshold resummation beyond NLL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lustermans, G.; Waalewijn, W.J.; Zeune, L.

    2016-01-01

    To describe the transverse momentum spectrum of heavy color-singlet production, the joint resummation of threshold and transverse momentum logarithms is investigated. We obtain factorization theorems for various kinematic regimes valid to all orders in the strong coupling, using Soft-Collinear

  16. Contact mechanics and friction for transversely isotropic viscoelastic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokhtari, Milad; Schipper, Dirk J.; Vleugels, N.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Yoshimoto, S.; Hashimoto, H.

    2015-01-01

    Transversely isotropic materials are an unique group of materials whose properties are the same along two of the principal axes of a Cartesian coordinate system. Various natural and artificial materials behave effectively as transversely isotropic elastic solids. Several materials can be classified

  17. Fermions in light front transverse lattice quantum chromodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We briefly describe motivations for studying transverse lattice QCD. Presence of constraint equation for fermion field on the light front allows different methods to put fermions on a transverse lattice. We summarize our numerical investigation of two approaches using (a) forward and backward derivatives and (b) symmetric ...

  18. Suppression of two-stream hose instabilities at wavelengths shorter than the beam’s transverse size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Bosch

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Transverse hose instability may disrupt the propagation of a charged-particle beam in a channel of oppositely charged particles. A theoretical model predicts stabilization of this two-stream instability when the instability wavelength becomes smaller than the beam’s transverse size in a frame of reference where the instability’s phase velocity is nonrelativistic. Suppression of short-wavelength instability is also predicted when a proton beam propagates through a channel consisting of electrons and positive ions, consistent with previous experimental results.

  19. Multi-Aperture Shower Design for the Improvement of the Transverse Uniformity of MOCVD-Derived GdYBCO Films

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ruipeng; Liu, Qing; Xia, Yudong; Zhang, Fei; Lu, Yuming; Cai, Chuanbing; Tao, Bowan; Li, Yanrong

    2017-01-01

    A multi-aperture shower design is reported to improve the transverse uniformity of GdYBCO superconducting films on the template of sputtered-LaMnO3/epitaxial-MgO/IBAD-MgO/solution deposition planarization (SDP)-Y2O3-buffered Hastelloy tapes. The GdYBCO films were prepared by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process. The transverse uniformities of structure, morphology, thickness, and performance were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SE...

  20. Transverse mode coupling instability of colliding beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In high brightness circular colliders, coherent and incoherent beam dynamics are dominated by beam-beam interactions. It is generally assumed that the incoherent tune spread introduced by the beam-beam interactions is sufficiently large to cure any instabilities originating from impedance. However, as the two counterrotating beams interact they can give rise to coherent dipole modes and therefore modify the coherent beam dynamics and stability conditions. In this case, coherent beam-beam effects and impedance cannot be treated independently and their interplay should be taken into account in any realistic attempt to study the beam stability of colliding beams. Due to the complexity of these physics processes, numerical simulations become an important tool for the analysis of this system. Two approaches are proposed in this paper: a fully self-consistent multiparticle tracking including particle-in-cell Poisson solver for the beam-beam interactions and a linearized model taking into account finite bunch length effects. To ensure the validity of the results a detailed benchmarking of these models was performed. It will be shown that under certain conditions coherent beam-beam dipole modes can couple with higher order headtail modes and lead to strong instabilities with characteristics similar to the classical transverse mode coupling instability originating from impedance alone. Possible cures for this instability are explored both for single bunch and multibunch interactions. Simulation results and experimental evidences of the existence of this instability at the LHC will be presented for the specific case of offset collisions.

  1. Transverse stability in multibunch mode for CLIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignard, G.

    1993-01-01

    In order to reach the desired luminosity with 250 GeV per beam, multibunch operation (limited to 4 bunches, say) might have to be considered in the CERN linear collider (CLIC). One limitation comes from the coupling of the bunch motion with the long-range transverse wake fields that may induce beam breakup. These wake fields have therefore to be controlled, and means of reducing their effects on the beam are discussed in a companion paper. One possibility consists in detuning the dipole modes in the cells to obtain decoherent contributions and hence reduce the field amplitude at the downstream bunch location. The important question is to know below which value this amplitude must be limited to prevent intolerable beam breakup. In a first attempt at estimating this threshold for CLIC two approaches are considered, i.e. the criterion developed at SLAC and based on the convergence of the multibunch-motion solution, and numerical simulations of two-bunch motion in a focusing lattice

  2. The Superior Transverse Scapular Ligament in Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aderval Aragão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL links the margins of the suprascapular notch and converts it into a foramen, through which, the suprascapular nerve and, on some rare occasions, the suprascapular vessels pass. This conversion often results from partial or complete ossification of the STSL and may produce compressive symptoms in the suprascapular nerve. Material and Method. Twenty shoulders from human fetuses were dissected without the aid of optical instruments and, using a digital pachymeter of precision 0.01 millimeters, length measurements and thickness measurements were made. The fetal age was from 21 to 33 weeks of gestation, with a mean of 27.6±4.14 weeks. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in STSL length or any difference in the thicknesses at the medial and lateral extremities between the halves of the body (P≥0.05. However, in the left half of the body, the medial extremity of the STSL was significantly thinner than the lateral extremity (P≤0.05. Conclusion. Anatomical and morphometric details about the STSL were described in human fetuses. These findings, in fetuses, may encourage the pursuit of further studies to understand the morphofunctional role and meaning of this small ligament.

  3. Transversity Amplitudes in Hypercharge Exchange Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Benitez de Lugo, M.

    1979-01-01

    ' In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used in processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from K p and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs

  4. TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS OF SYSTEMS OF CORONAL LOOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J.

    2009-01-01

    We study the collective kinklike normal modes of a system of several cylindrical loops using the T-matrix theory. Loops that have similar kink frequencies oscillate collectively with a frequency which is slightly different from that of the individual kink mode. On the other hand, if the kink frequency of a loop is different from that of the others, it oscillates individually with its own frequency. Since the individual kink frequency depends on the loop density but not on its radius for typical 1 MK coronal loops, a coupling between kink oscillations of neighboring loops takes place when they have similar densities. The relevance of these results in the interpretation of the oscillations studied by Schrijver and Brown in 2000 and Verwichte et al. in 2004, in which transverse collective loop oscillations seem to be detected, is discussed. In the first case, two loops oscillating in antiphase are observed; interpreting this motion as a collective kink mode suggests that their densities are roughly equal. In the second case, there are almost three groups of tubes that oscillate with similar periods, and therefore their dynamics can be collective, which again seems to indicate that the loops of each group share a similar density. All the other loops seem to oscillate individually and their densities can be different from the rest.

  5. The LHC Transverse Coupled-Bunch Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Mounet, Nicolas; Métral, Elias

    In this thesis, the problem of the transverse coupled-bunch instabilities created by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam-coupling impedance, that can possibly limit the machine operation, is addressed thanks to several new theories and tools. A rather complete vision of the problem is proposed here, going from the calculation of the impedances and wake functions of individual machine elements, to the beam dynamics study. Firstly, new results are obtained in the theory of the beam-coupling impedance for an axisymmetric two-dimensional structure, generalizing Zotter's theories, and a new general theory is derived for the impedance of an infinite flat two-dimensional structure. Then, a new approach has been found to compute the wake functions from such analytically obtained beam-coupling impedances, over-coming limitations that could be met with standard discrete Fourier transform procedures. Those results are then used to obtain an impedance and wake function model of the LHC, based on the (resistive-) wall im...

  6. Classical Ising chain in transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccoli, A.; Taiti, A.; Vaia, R.; Verrucchi, P.

    2007-01-01

    The spin 12 Ising chain in transverse field is considered the prototypical system for quantum phase transitions. However, very little is apparently known in literature about its classical counterpart, not to be confused with the standard classical Ising model: while the latter is constructed from classical discrete variables, the model we consider is a chain of classical vectors of modulus 1, interacting via an Ising-like Hamiltonian. When an uniform field is applied perpendicular to the exchange interaction, both the quantum model and its classical counterpart get to be characterized by a critical field separating a ferromagnetically ordered state of minimal energy from a paramagnetic one. The properties of the classical model, and especially the behaviour of the correlation length, are investigated at low temperature around the critical field and compared with those of the quantum model, in order to single out the role played by quantum and classical fluctuations at finite temperature; the possibility to experimentally observe peculiar quantum critical effects in Ising spin chains is discussed

  7. Modeling Transverse Chemotaxis in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Valdés-Parada, F. J.; Wood, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    The movement of microorganisms toward a chemical attractant (chemotaxis) has been shown to aid in subsurface contaminant degradation and enhanced oil recovery. However, chemotaxis is inherently a pore scale process that must be upscaled to arrive at continuum scale models for field applications. In this work, the method of volume averaging is used to upscale the microscale chemotactic microbial transport equations in order to obtain the corresponding macroscale models for the mass balance of bacteria and the chemical attractant to which they respond. As a first approach, cellular growth/death and consumption of the attractant by chemical reaction are assumed to be negligible with respect to convective and diffusive transport mechanisms. Two effective medium coefficients are introduced in the model, namely a total motility tensor and a total velocity vector. Under certain conditions, it is shown that the coefficients can differ considerably from the values corresponding to non-chemotactic transport. The model is validated by comparing the predicted transverse motility coefficients and concentration profiles to those measured within an engineered porous medium. For the concentration profiles, we introduced a lag that accounts for the difference between the arrival time of the microorganisms and the their chemotactic response to the attractant.

  8. The hardware implementation of the CERN SPS ultrafast feedback processor demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Dusakto, J E; Fox, J D; Olsen, J; Rivetta, C H; Höfle, W

    2013-01-01

    An ultrafast 4GSa/s transverse feedback processor has been developed for proof-of-concept studies of feedback control of e-cloud driven and transverse mode coupled intra-bunch instabilities in the CERN SPS. This system consists of a high-speed ADC on the front end and equally fast DAC on the back end. All control and signal processing is implemented in FPGA logic. This system is capable of taking up to 16 sample slices across a single SPS bunch and processing each slice individually within a reconfigurable signal processor. This demonstrator system is a rapidly developed prototype, consisting of both commercial and custom-design components. It can stabilize the motion of a single particle bunch using closed loop feedback. The system can also run open loop as a high-speed arbitrary waveform generator and contains diagnostic features including a special ADC snapshot capture memory. This paper describes the overall system, the feedback processor and focuses on the hardware architecture, design ...

  9. Feedback på tekst i grupper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Helle; Heger, Stine

    2017-01-01

    med temaet Feedback på tekst i grupper er via aktiviteter at gøre de studerende bevidste om, at feedback er noget, de skal lære, og noget, de skal øve sig på. De forskellige aktiviteter sætter de studerende i gang med at skabe rammer for feedback, at træne feedback og at give og modtage feedback på...... hinandens tekster. Temaet er bygget op omkring 2 forskellige elementer: 1) forberedelse af feedback og 2) udførelse af feedback....

  10. Feedback suppression in digital hearing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Guilin

    . Methods to extract the fixed model are proposed and proved to be effective in representing the invariant part of the feedback path. Based on the investigation of the dynamic changes of the feedback path in adverse situations, for example when the user picks up the telephone handset, a reflection model...... is developed as one type of the fast varying models. The techniques to suppress the feedback are then reviewed. To improve the existing feedback suppression systems, two approaches are proposed to address the so-called “bias problem”. The first approach improves the performance of the adaptive feedback...... of the proposed feedback path models in the feedback cancellation systems is presented....

  11. Events with Isolated Leptons and Missing Transverse Momentum and Measurement of W Production at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2009-01-01

    Events with high energy isolated electrons, muons or tau leptons and missing transverse momentum are studied using the full e^\\pm p data sample collected by the H1 experiment at HERA, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 474 pb^{-1}. Within the Standard Model, events with isolated leptons and missing transverse momentum mainly originate from the production of single W bosons. The total single W boson production cross section is measured as 1.14 \\pm 0.25 (stat.) \\pm 0.14 (sys.) pb, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. The data are also used to establish limits on the WW\\gamma gauge couplings and for a measurement of the W boson polarisation.

  12. Events with an isolated lepton and missing transverse momentum and measurement of W production at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics; Max-Planck-Institute, Muenchen (Germany).; Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (DE)] (and others)

    2009-09-15

    A search for events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing transverse momentum produced in e{sup {+-}}p collisions is performed with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at HERA. The data were taken in the period 1994-2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.98 fb{sup -1}. The observed event yields are in good overall agreement with the Standard Model prediction, which is dominated by single W production. In the e{sup +}p data, at large hadronic transverse momentum P{sub T}{sup X}>25 GeV, a total of 23 events are observed compared to a prediction of 14.0{+-}1.9. The total single W boson production cross section is measured as 1.06{+-}0.16(stat.){+-}0.07(sys.) pb, in agreement with an SM expectation of 1.26{+-}0.19 pb. (orig.)

  13. Transverse target single-spin asymmetry in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Argentina); Akopov, Z. [DESY Hamburg (Germany)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Collaboration

    2013-10-15

    Single-spin asymmetries were investigated in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons from transversely polarized protons at the HERMES experiment. The asymmetries were studied as a function of the azimuthal angle {psi} about the beam direction between the target-spin direction and the hadron production plane, the transverse hadron momentum P{sub T} relative to the direction of the incident beam, and the Feynman variable x{sub F}. The sin {psi} amplitudes are positive for {pi}{sup +} and K{sup +}, slightly negative for {pi}{sup -} consistent with zero for K{sup -}, with particular P{sub T} but weak x{sub F} dependences. Especially large asymmetries are observed for two small subsamples of events, where also the scattered electron was recorded by the spectrometer.

  14. The Transverse Rupture Strength in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Pang-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the transverse rupture strength and apparent hardness of selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V alloys manufactured in the vertical (V and horizontal (H directions. The microstructure and the distribution of alloy elements were examined by optical microscope and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. The results show that the columnar α′ grains are formed along the building direction, and the elemental distributions of Ti, Al, and V are homogeneous in the alloy. The building direction does not sufficiently affect the density and apparent hardness. However, the transverse rupture strengths (TRS are obviously dominated by the building directions investigated in this study. The TRS of an H specimen is significantly superior to that of a V specimen by 48%. This phenomenon can be mainly attributed to the presence of disc-shaped pores.

  15. A bulk superconducting MgB2 cylinder for holding transversely polarized targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statera, M.; Balossino, I.; Barion, L.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Lenisa, P.; Lowry, M. M.; Sandorfi, A. M.; Tagliente, G.

    2018-02-01

    An innovative solution is being pursued for the challenging magnetic problem of producing an internal transverse field around a polarized target, while shielding out an external longitudinal field from a detector. A hollow bulk superconductor can trap a transverse field that is present when cooled through its transition temperature, and also shield its interior from any subsequent field changes. A feasibility study with a prototype bulk MgB2 superconducting cylinder is described. Promising measurements taken of the interior field retention and exterior field exclusion, together with the corresponding long-term stability performance, are reported. In the context of an electron scattering experiment, such a solution minimizes beam deflection and the energy loss of reaction products, while also eliminating the heat load to the target cryostat from current leads that would be used with conventional electromagnets.

  16. Events with isolated leptons and missing transverse momentum and measurement of W production at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania)]|[Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    Events with high energy isolated electrons, muons or tau leptons and missing transverse momentum are studied using the full e{sup {+-}}p data sample collected by the H1 experiment at HERA, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 474 pb{sup -1}. Within the Standard Model, events with isolated leptons and missing transverse momentum mainly originate from the production of single W bosons. The total single W boson production cross section is measured as 1.14{+-}0.25(stat.){+-}0.14 (sys.) pb, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. The data are also used to establish limits on the WW{gamma} gauge couplings and for a measurement of the W boson polarisation. (orig.)

  17. Nonlinear effects in the propagation of shortwave transverse sound in pure superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'perin, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Various mechanisms are analyzed which lead to nonlinear phenomena (e.g., the dependence of the absorption coefficient and of the velocity of sound on its intensity) in the propagation of transverse shortwave sound in pure superconductors (the wavelength of the sound being much less than the mean free path of the quasiparticles). It is shown that the basic mechanism, over a wide range of superconductor parameters and of the sound intensity, is the so-called momentum nonlinearity. The latter is due to the distortion (induced by the sound wave) of the quasimomentum distribution of resonant electrons interacting with the wave. The dependences of the absorption coefficient and of the sound velocity on its intensity and on the temperature are analyzed in the vicinity of the superconducting transition point. The feasibility of an experimental study of nonlinear acoustic phenomena in the case of transverse sound is considered

  18. A 490 W transversely excited atmospheric CO2 spark gap laser with added H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, M.; Koushki, A. M.; Neshati, R.; Kia, B.; Khorasani, K.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we present a new design for a high pulse repetition rate transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser with ultraviolet pre-ionization. A new method of fast thyristor capacitor charging and discharging by a spark gap is used. The effect of H2 gas addition on the output and stability of a transversely excited atmospheric laser operating with a basic mixture of CO2, N2 and He is investigated. The output power was increased by adding H2 to the gas mixture ratio of CO2:N2:He:H2  =  1:1:8:0.5 at total pressure of 850 mbar. An average power of 490 W at 110 Hz with 4.5 J per pulse was obtained. The laser efficiency was 11.2% and oxygen gas was used in the spark gap for electron capture to reduce the recovery time and increase the repetition rate.

  19. Transverse phase space diagnostics for ionization injection in laser plasma acceleration using permanent magnetic quadrupoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Nie, Z.; Wu, Y. P.; Guo, B.; Zhang, X. H.; Huang, S.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, Z.; Ma, Y.; Fang, Y.; Zhang, C. J.; Wan, Y.; Xu, X. L.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C. H.; Lu, W.; Mori, W. B.

    2018-04-01

    We report the transverse phase space diagnostics for electron beams generated through ionization injection in a laser-plasma accelerator. Single-shot measurements of both ultimate emittance and Twiss parameters are achieved by means of permanent magnetic quadrupole. Beams with emittance of μm rad level are obtained in a typical ionization injection scheme, and the dependence on nitrogen concentration and charge density is studied experimentally and confirmed by simulations. A key feature of the transverse phase space, matched beams with Twiss parameter α T ≃ 0, is identified according to the measurement. Numerical simulations that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results reveal that a sufficient phase mixing induced by an overlong injection length leads to the matched phase space distribution.

  20. Transverse target single-spin asymmetry in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, 00-689 Warsaw (Poland); Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Avetisyan, E. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Belostotski, S. [K.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188300 Leningrad Region (Russian Federation); Bianchi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Borissov, A. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bowles, J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Bryzgalov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, 142281 Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Burns, J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Capiluppi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, G.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cisbani, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, Gruppo Collegato Sanità and Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 Roma (Italy); and others

    2014-01-20

    Single-spin asymmetries were investigated in inclusive electroproduction of charged pions and kaons from transversely polarized protons at the HERMES experiment. The asymmetries were studied as a function of the azimuthal angle ψ about the beam direction between the target-spin direction and the hadron production plane, the transverse hadron momentum P{sub T} relative to the direction of the incident beam, and the Feynman variable x{sub F}. The sin ψ amplitudes are positive for π{sup +} and K{sup +}, slightly negative for π{sup −} and consistent with zero for K{sup −}, with particular P{sub T} but weak x{sub F} dependences. Especially large asymmetries are observed for two small subsamples of events, where also the scattered electron was recorded by the spectrometer.