WorldWideScience

Sample records for transuranium element consumption

  1. Bibliography on transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A selective bibliography of prominent publications on transuranium elements is compiled. Heading papers, symposia proceedings and the textbooks are included in the bibliography. The bibliography is arranged under the headings: (1)Books, Symposia Proceedings, Reviews etc., (2)Discovery, (3)Weighable Isolation, (4)Metal Preparation, (5)Nuclear Properties, (6)Plutonium as Reactor Fuel, (7)Fuel Reprocessing, (8)Solid State Chemistry, Thermochemistry and Spectroscopy, (9)Radiation Safety, (10)Applications, and (11)Some Typical Indian Papers. Total number of references cited are 298. The bibliography, though selective, will serve as a starting point for comprehensive literature search on transuranium elements. (author)

  2. Proceedings of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium

  3. Treatment of incorporated transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volf, V.

    1978-01-01

    The text of this report and its tables and figures provide basic information on the decorporation of transuranium elements as well as an insight into the more general principles, trends and interactions. The detailed tables and the exhaustive list of important references should enable the reader to make his own conclusions in a minimum of time

  4. The Transuranium Elements - Present Status: Nobel Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1951-12-12

    The discovery of the transuranium elements and the work done on them up to the present time are reviewed. The properties of these elements, their relationship to other elements, their place in the periodic table, and the possibility of production and identification of other transuranium elements are discussed briefly.

  5. Status of transuranium element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the production, storage, and distribution center for the heavy-element research program of the US Department of Energy since 1966. During the past four years, annual production rates of transcurium elements have been relatively stable, averaging 34 mg of 249 Bk, 369 mg of 252 Cf, 1.4 mg of 253 Es, and 0.7 pg of 257 Fm. The extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment have allowed continual updating of the plant to include new concepts in chemical processes and equipment design. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Chemistry of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The half-wave amalgamation potential of No (element 102) was determined. Studies on the preparation and properties of Cf are reported; previously reported results on Es were confirmed. The heat of solution of Bk was measured. Spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction studies of Es-253 bromides are reported. Salicylate complexes with Sm(III), Am(III), Th(IV), and U(IV)O 2 were prepared; crystal data are given. Results of studies on the effect of secondary bonds on the strength of O double bond Np double bond O bonds are reported. The M series x rays of Np were measured. Anomalous spin--orbit splitting of the 4f level in the actinide series is reported. Progress is reported in studies on the Cf oxide system for oxygen pressures up to 760 mm and temperatures between 25 and 1000 0 C, as well as structural parameters of transplutonium oxysulfates and oxysulfides and actinide and lanthanide hydroxides. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of 253 Es 2+ was observed in the cubic monocrystal hosts BaF 2 and SrCl 2

  7. Physics considerations in the design of liquid metal reactors for transuranium element consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, H.; Hill, R.; Fujita, E.; Wade, D.

    1992-01-01

    The management of transuranic nuclides in liquid metal reactors (LMR's) is considered based on the use of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. Unique features of the IFR fuel cycle with respect to transuranic management are identified. These features are exploited together with the hard spectrum of LMR's to demonstrate the neutronic feasibility of a wide range of transuranic management options ranging from efficient breeding to pure consumption. Core physics aspects of the development of a low sodium void worth transuranic burner concept are described. Neutronics performance parameters and reactivity feedback characteristics estimated for this core concept are presented

  8. Transuranium elements in organic chemical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    1987-01-01

    It is very important to achive an understanding what role organic matter plays in the behavior of transuranium elements in the environment. This paper reports the studies on characteristics of fallout Pu and Am in soil closely related to soil organic matter, and interaction of humic acid and Am (III) in aqueous solution. From the results obtained, it was suggested that the humic acids had strong interaction with transuranium elements, but such soluble complexes were removed soon from the solution by coagulation and sorption on soil. (author)

  9. Nuclear power: Health implications of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides general guidelines for national public health and environmental authorities. It does not provide detailed technical data, but instead broadly surveys the whole field, indicating the present position as assessed by members of the Working Group. The Working Group considered three major facets: physiological, toxicological and dosimetric aspects of the transuranium elements; the application of occupational health control, including health physics; and environmental behaviour together with public health implications associated with the transuranium elements. The intention was to cover all aspects relevant to health, with respect both to those who are occupationally engaged in work with such elements and to the general public who might be affected as the result of such operations. Consideration was also given to routine and emergency situations

  10. Transuranium element recovering method for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todokoro, Akio; Kihara, Yoshiyuki; Okada, Hisashi

    1998-01-01

    Spent fuels are dissolved in nitric acid, the obtained dissolution liquid is oxidized by electrolysis, and nitric acid of transuranium elements are precipitated together with nitric acid of uranium elements from the dissolution solution and recovered. Namely, the transuranium elements are oxidized to an atomic value level at which nitric acid can be precipitated by an oxidizing catalyst, and cooled to precipitate nitric acid of transuranium elements together with nitric acid of transuranium elements, accordingly, it is not necessary to use a solvent which has been used so far upon recovering transuranium elements. Since no solvent waste is generated, a recovery method taking the circumstance into consideration can be provided. Further, nitric acid of uranium elements and nitric acid of transuranium elements precipitated and recovered together are dissolved in nitric acid again, cooled and only uranium elements are precipitated selectively, and recovered by filtration. The amount of wastes can be reduced to thereby enabling to mitigate control for processing. (N.H.)

  11. Nuclear fission and the transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1989-02-01

    Many of the transuranium elements are produced and isolated in large quantities through the use of neutrons furnished by nuclear fission reactions: plutonium (atomic number 94) in ton quantities; neptunium (93), americium (95), and curium (96) in kilogram quantities; berkelium (97) in 100 milligram quantities; californium (98) in gram quantities; and einsteinium (99) in milligram quantities. Transuranium isotopes have found many practical applications---as nuclear fuel for the large-scale generation of electricity, as compact, long-lived power sources for use in space exploration, as means for diagnosis and treatment in the medical area, and as tools in numerous industrial processes. Of particular interest is the unusual chemistry and impact of these heaviest elements on the periodic table. This account will feature these aspects. 9 refs., 5 figs

  12. Nuclear fission and the transuranium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1989-02-01

    Many of the transuranium elements are produced and isolated in large quantities through the use of neutrons furnished by nuclear fission reactions: plutonium (atomic number 94) in ton quantities; neptunium (93), americium (95), and curium (96) in kilogram quantities; berkelium (97) in 100 milligram quantities; californium (98) in gram quantities; and einsteinium (99) in milligram quantities. Transuranium isotopes have found many practical applications---as nuclear fuel for the large-scale generation of electricity, as compact, long-lived power sources for use in space exploration, as means for diagnosis and treatment in the medical area, and as tools in numerous industrial processes. Of particular interest is the unusual chemistry and impact of these heaviest elements on the periodic table. This account will feature these aspects. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  13. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in the 1930's, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs

  14. Transuranium element purification by liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Koehly, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the transuranium element production, the liquid-liquid extraction purification is presented. The affinity of TBP and trilaurylammonium nitrate for these elements is given. Exemples of NP/Pu, Pu/Np, U/Pu, Am/Cm, Am and Cm/Ln separation are presented [fr

  15. Ecological effects from transuranium elements in terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uiker, F.U.

    1985-01-01

    To understand ecological effects from transuranium elements in environment it is necessary to know how their chemical, physical and biological behaviour depends on duration of their being in natural environment. It is necesary to take into account that behaviour of transuranium elements in environment depends on physical and chemical forms of a nuclide as well as on characteristics of ecosystem. Radiation dose of certain tissues plays an essential role here but dose distribution is especially complicated for relatively non-soluble α-irradiators

  16. Biology of the transuranium elements: an indexed bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1976-07-01

    This bibliography on the biology of the transuranium elements is a revision of one issued in 1973 (BNWL-1782). It includes essentially all of the citations from the earlier document, a few corrections and additions from the older literature, plus the new literature to mid-1975. It also includes a subject-matter index not present in the original document

  17. Biology of the transuranium elements: an indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.C. (comp.)

    1976-07-01

    This bibliography on the biology of the transuranium elements is a revision of one issued in 1973 (BNWL-1782). It includes essentially all of the citations from the earlier document, a few corrections and additions from the older literature, plus the new literature to mid-1975. It also includes a subject-matter index not present in the original document.

  18. Transuranium elements in macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Barci-Funel, G.; Ardisson, G.

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric deposition and transfer of transuranium elements (TU) to macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident has been studied. The deposition of TU was small compared to most fission products: 239+240 Pu and 241 Am could not be detected in water or algae, 242 Cm was the dominant α emitter detected in Chernobyl fallout. Concentration factors of TU for the macroalgae are estimated

  19. Transuranium elements: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1995-01-01

    In this illustrative Account the authors shall concentrate on four of these elements, chosen for their current interest or pivotal role. The story of plutonium is one of the most dramatic in the history of science, and today, plutonium is at the focus of an extraordinary dilemma. Mendelevium (element 101) has played a pivotal role in blazing the trail for the discovery of the heaviest elements on the basis of open-quotes one atom at a timeclose quotes production. Seaborgium (element 106) was recently named in my honor by the discoverers and may be the last element, at least for some time, for which it will be possible to determine many chemical properties. And element 110 represents recent evidence, after a lapse of 10 years, for the discovery of a chemical element. Recent (1994) recommendations of the IUPAC Commission on the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry for the renaming of elements 104-108 have met with widespread rejection. The author is using the names proposed by the acknowledged discoverers (elements 106-109) or, in the case of the disputed elements 104 and 105, the most logical names. 21 refs., 5 figs

  20. Recent research on the heavy transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1988-09-01

    This review is devoted to recent research (performed in the 1980s) on the heavy members of the group, defined as the transcurium elements (with a few references to related work on lighter elements). It covers the discovery of the three heaviest elements, the discovery of new isotopes, investigation of interesting decay properties of some previously known isotopes, investigations of some heavy ion reaction mechanisms in this region, and recent investigations of nuclear and chemical properties. It is not exhaustive in its coverage, is necessarily succinct, and inevitably places emphasis on those aspects with which the author is most familiar. 92 refs., 3 figs

  1. The transuranium elements: Members of the 5f series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of the transuranium elements is an appropriate occasion on which to review the history of the development of ideas concerning the electronic structure of the new elements which, by determining their chemistry, would fix their position in the Periodic Table. Seaborg's actinide hypothesis was based on the properties of Np and Pu, as well as those of transuranium elements discovered after 1940. The elaboration of this hypothesis, with its profound consequences for our current understanding of the Periodic Table, will be traced from its beginnings to its present status, making use of the wealth of spectroscopic and magnetic data accumulated over the years to draw conclusions about the electronic structure of the actinides. Np and Pu, in particular, offered the first possibility for detailed study of the binding energies of 5f versus 6d electrons. The rich chemistry of these two elements is still providing new insights into the subtleties of electronic structure

  2. Resuspension of the transuranium elements - a review of existing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.

    1978-08-01

    Resuspension is an important mechanism in the transfer to man of transuranium elements deposited on surfaces in the environment. In this report the data on resuspension are reviewed, including the limited number of relevant measurements which have been made in the United Kingdom. The various models developed to represent the resuspension process are reviewed and the most appropriate, when site specific data are absent, for application in UK conditions are identified. Recommendations are made on the main areas where further environmental studies are required to enable more reliable predictive models to be developed for application in these conditions. (author)

  3. Chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Half-wave potentials show no evidence for the existence of Md(I) in aqueous solution. Microchemical studies of anhydrous transplutonium halides used absorption spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Five transplutonium elements were prepared. Superconductivity was observed and characterzed in Am metal. The heats of vaporization of 243 Am and 249 Cf were determined to be 60 and 46.9 kcal/mol, respectively. The solution heat of Cm metal in 1 N Hcl at 298 0 K is 606.4 +- 1.8 kJ/mol. Some chalcogenides and pnictides of Cm, Bk, and Cf were prepared, and the crystal structure of Am Te/sub 2-x/ was refined. Behavior of 243 Am and several tellurides under high pressure was studied. Structure of a cryptate of Sm was studied; its formula is [Sm(No 3 )(C 18 H 36 N 2 O 6 )][Sm(NO 3 ) 5 ].H 2 O. X-ray fluorescence cross sections are given as function of atomic number, for the 59.6 keV photon from 2 4 1 Am. A sensitive micromagnetic susceptometer was constructed and calibrated for actinides. A spectroelectrochemical study (absorption spectra recorded at various applied potentials) was made of U and Eu in aqueous solution. Two studies were carried out in connection with nuclear waste isolation: adsorption of rare earths, actinides, and alkali metals on clay minerals and radiation damage to kaolin and attapulgite from 253 Es. A new method is being developed for U exploration. 13 figures, 5 tables

  4. Biological effects of transuranium elements in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from life span studies of the biological effects of the transuranium elements ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 242 Cm) on laboratory animals following inhalation, skin absorption, or injection in various chemical forms. The dose levels at which major biological effects have been observed in experimental animals are discussed relative to the maximum permissible lung burden of 0.016 μCi for occupational exposures. Lung cancer has been observed at dose levels equivalent to about 100 times the maximum permissible lung burden. Current experiments directed towards determining whether health effects will occur at lower levels and the mechanisms by which α emitters induce cancer are reviewed. (U.S.)

  5. Institute for transuranium elements Karlsruhe Annual Report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present report summarizes the results of the work which has been performed in 1988 at the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities. While, as in the past, major efforts were devoted to the Programme on Nuclear Fuels and Actinide Research, important contributions were made to other JRC Specific Programmes, i.e. Reactor Safety, Radioactive Waste Management, and Safeguards and Fissile Materials Control. In addition, The Institute has carried out analytical work for the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate and executed research tasks in the safeguards context, both, for the Commission of the European Communities and for the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna. Exploratory Research, finally, dealt with an investigation of possibilities of acoustic aerosol scavenging

  6. Apparent distribution coefficients of transuranium elements in UK coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Pentreath, R.J.; Harvey, B.R.; Lovett, M.B.; Boggis, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authorized inputs of low-level radioactive waste into the Irish Sea from the British Nuclear Fuels plc reprocessing plant at Sellafield may be used to advantage to study the distribution and behaviour of artificial radionuclides in the marine environment. Apparent distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) for the transuranium elements Np, Pu, Am and Cm have been determined by the analysis of environmental samples collected from UK coastal waters. The sampling methodology for obtaining suspended sediment-seawater Ksub(d)s by filtration is described and critically evaluated. Artefacts may be introduced in the sample collection stage. Ksub(d) values have also been determined for seabed sediment-interstitial waters and the precautions taken to preserve in-situ chemical conditions are described. Variations in Ksub(d) values are discussed in relation to distance from Sellafield, suspended load, redox conditions and oxidation state changes. (author)

  7. Technical papers presented at a DOE meeting on criteria for cleanup of transuranium elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Transuranium element soil contamination cleanup experience gained from nuclear weapons accidents and cleanup at Eniwetok Atoll was reviewed. Presentations have been individually abstracted for inclusion in the data base

  8. Institute for transuranium elements Karlsruhe. Annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Transient-tested high burn-up fuel samples were investigated by electron microscopy to study the effect of strain on fission product distribution, and the concentration of (U,Pu)O 2 agglomerates in irradiated MOX fuel was examined by electron microprobe analysis. Conclusions on maximum temperatures to which the core of the Three Mile Island reactor was exposed could be drawn from an examination of TMI fuel debris. Equipment to measure thermophysical fuel properties for reactor safety studies was further developed. An improved version (slice version) of the TRANSURANUS fuel pin code was tested and released for external use. Safety Aspects of Fuel Operation and Handling were dealt with by improving preparation methods of (U,Pu)N. Release and resuspension of radioactive dust particles in fires was studied. The principal objective of the Actinide Determination and Recycling activity was the reduction of long-term hazards of alpha-bearing nuclear waste. The long-term storage behaviour of UO 2 and MOX spent fuel samples as well as of vitrified waste forms was further investigated by studying the effect of leaching. The electronic structure of the transuranium elements is the central objective of basic Actinide Research. A large number of ternary alloys containing Np or Pu and Si or Ge, together with a transition metal was prepared for basic experimental studies. New high-pressure phases were discovered in PuSe, UPS, ThO 2 , and PuO 2 . Analytical techniques were evaluated and automated for safeguards. A multiwavelength pyrometer was adapted for industrial use. Major contracts with Third Parties were dealing with the development of minor actinide alloys, and the post-irradiation examination of high burn-up UO 2 and MOX fuel from LWR power stations

  9. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.E.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Pierce, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800 C to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein. 1 figure

  10. Environmental and biological behaviour of plutonium and some other transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives are to summarize our knowledge of the way in which plutonium and some other transuranium elements migrate through ecosystems; to consider how the physiochemical state of these elements and the biological systems through which they pass may influence this movement; and to put into perspective the risks of serious illness in man resulting from his exposure to these elements in the environment

  11. Long-time safety aspects of ultimate storage of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.

    1992-10-01

    Based on the amounts of transuranium elements generated in nuclear reactors, the inventories of these elements in the repository are described for various ultimate disposal strategies. The data are used to give an outline description of accident-induced ingress of brines into the backfilled repository shaft during the post-closure period and the resulting mechanisms of a mobilization of the transuranium elements and their escape from the repository, and to calculate amounts released. The effects of the released transuranium elements on the biosphere and the different contributions of the various isotopes to the calculated radiation exposure are given as an estimate and are described in more detail by means of data determined by parameter variation. The effects of transuranium elements during the entire migration process are restricted to the production of daughter nuclides, especially of the uranium isotopes. They give no particular contribution to environmental radiation exposure because of their low mobility. With the only exception of Np-237 which, due to its long half-time and relatively good migration capacity, can reach the biosphere. The contributions of the transuranium elements to the dose maxima, caused by the daughter products, of the uranium isotopes or the neptunium are calculated to be about 50%. All publications to date presenting a safety analysis of the site of the Gorleben repository assume the dose maxima of all uranium isotopes together to be approx. 10%, and those of the neptunium isotope approx. 20%, referring to the most significant fission products. This indicates that uranium or neptunium are of secondary significance in the process, and the other transuranium elements are only third-rate. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Fundamental study on the extraction of transuranium elements from high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Masumitsu; Morita, Yasuji; Tochiyama, Osamu; Inoue, Yasushi.

    1988-01-01

    A great many extractants have been studied for the separation of transuranium elements. The present study deals with the survey and classification of the extractants appearing in literature, bearing in mind the relationship between the molecular structure of extractants and their extractability for the transuranium elements from the standpoint of their selective separation from high-level liquid waste (HLW) generated from fuel reprocessing. The extractants surveyed were classified into six groups; unidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds, bidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds, acidic organophosphorus compounds, amines and ammonium salts, N,N-disubstituted amides and the other compounds. These extractants are not always applicable to the separation of transuranium elements from HLW because of their limitations in extractability and radiation durability. Only a limited number of extractants belonging to the bidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds and the acidic organophosphorus compounds are considered to be suitable for the present purpose. (author)

  13. Preparation Technology and Study of Properties of New Detectors for Transuranium Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrushchenko, G.Yu.; Blank, A.B.; Budakovsky, S.V.; Zelenska, O.V.; Shevtsov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    A porous composite materials is described for determination of radionuclides in aquatic objects of the environment. Possibilities have been studied for the use of this material in monitoring of α-nuclides content in natural waters. The composite is a scintillator with through pores, the surface of which is impregnated by a sorbent that is selective with respect to transuranium elements. The structure of the material allows combination of two processes - concentrating the radionuclide and measuring its activity. as selective sorbent to transuranium elements an anion-exchange resin VP-1Ap was used. Studies of material functionality were carried out using the model systems based on reference radioactive solutions 239 Pu

  14. Magnesium transport extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Miller, W.E.; Pierce, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuel containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as fission products of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and iodine. It comprises reducing the oxide fuel with Ca metal in the presence of Ca halide; separating the Ca halide with the CaO and the fission products contained therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein and electrolytically contacting the calcium salts with a carbon electrode; contacting the liquid U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel with liquid Mg metal, thereafter separating the liquid Mg and the metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metal dissolved therein, distilling the Mg from the transuranium actinide and rare earth metals, recontacting the U-Fe alloy with liquid Mg metal a sufficient number of times until not less than about 99% by weight of the transuranium actinide values have been removed from the U-Fe alloy

  15. Effect of microbial processes on transuranium elements behaviour in soil, plants and animal organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uajldung, R.Eh.; Garlend, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    Results of preliminary studies discussed in the present paper bring about the supposition that concentration and chemical from of an element in a plant play an essential role in variation of its availability for animals consuming plants. That is why any assessment of long-term behaviour of transuranium elements in terrestrialenvironment should be based on determination of factors affecting solubility and forms of soluble compounds in soil. These factors include concentration and chemical form of the element migrating to soil; effect of the properties of soil on element distribution between solid and liquid phases; effect soil processes on kinetics of sorption reactions, concentration of transuranium elements, forms of soluble and non-soluble chemical compounds

  16. 'Masurium' and the 'early transuranium elements' or how discovery of nuclear fission was not clearly seen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty years after the discovery of fission, the scientific community is aware that this type of nuclear reaction could have been discovered more than a decade earlier. Noddack, Tacke and Berg announced in 1925 the discovery of elements Z = 43 (masurium) and rhenium (Z = 75), the first one could be detected only in U-bearing minerals. A recent re-examination by P.H.M. von Assche of the published data clearly showed that the original claim for element Z = 43 of the authors in 1925 was correct and, therefore, they detected not only element Z = 43 but also the first fission product. Because this discovery of element Z = 43 could not be repeated by other authors as that time, the scientific credibility of Noddack-Tacke was very low in order to give credit to her proposal that the 'early' transuranium elements by Enrico Fermi might also be fragments of known (lighter) elements. Enrico Fermi in 1934 obtained these 'early' (and as we today know: wrong) transuranium isotopes by irradiation of uranium with neutrons. A 'wrong' periodic system in the thirties which placed Th, Pa and U as 6d-elements and not as 5f-actinides chemically helped to consider these fission products as transuranium elements Z = 93/94. In 1937/38 I. Curie and P. Savitch discovered an 'actinium-nuclide' with 3,5 h half-life which, however, had properties similar to lanthanium and not to actinium, as they stated. (orig.) [de

  17. First-principles calculations of the thermodynamic properties of transuranium elements in a molten salt medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Seunghyo; Kwak, Dohyun; Lee, Juseung; Kang, Joonhee; Han, Byungchan

    2014-01-01

    We utilized first-principles density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations to evaluate the thermodynamic feasibility of a pyroprocessing methodology for reducing the volume of high-level radioactive materials and recycling spent nuclear fuels. The thermodynamic properties of transuranium elements (Pu, Np and Cm) were obtained in electrochemical equilibrium with a LiCl-KCl molten salt as ionic phases and as adsorbates on a W(110) surface. To accomplish the goal, we rigorously calculated the double layer interface structures on an atomic resolution, on the thermodynamically most stable configurations on W(110) surfaces and the chemical activities of the transuranium elements for various coverages of those elements. Our results indicated that the electrodeposition process was very sensitive to the atomic level structures of Cl ions at the double-layer interface. Our studies are easily expandable to general electrochemical applications involving strong redox reactions of transition metals in non-aqueous solutions.

  18. Pyrochemical extraction for selective removal of transuranium elements from molten LiCl-KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    Recent determinations of separation factors that describe partition of the actinide and rare earth elements between liquid cadmium and LiCl-KCl eutectic allowed identification of a process for selective removal of the transuranium (TRU) element chlorides from the electrolyte used for electrofining of metal fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor. It is periodically necessary to remove rare earth elements from the electrolyte to limit heat generation from radioactive decay. Countercurrent extraction of electrolyte with uranium in cadmium solution allows retention of valuable TRU elements in the reprocessed fuel, and results in a rare earth waste stream that is essentially free of TRU elements and their concomitant long-term hazards

  19. An evaluation of the food chain pathway for transuranium elements dispersed in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Simmonds, J.R.; Kelly, G.N.

    1978-12-01

    Man can be exposed to radiation from transuranium elements dispersed in soils by two main routes; through the inhalation of resuspended particles and by ingestion of food products derived from the contaminated soils. In this report relationships are derived between the concentration in soil of two radionuclides, plutonium-239 and americium-241, and the dose to man. The transfer of the transuranium radionuclides through the food chains to man is evaluated using compartment models which are dynamic in character. The two pathways to man are of the same order of importance, within the uncertainties of the available data, and both must be considered in dose assessments. The technique of sensitivity analysis is used to identify areas where further research and investigations are necessary to improve the reliability of the assessment of radiation dose to man. (author)

  20. Process for separately recovering uranium, transuranium elements, and fission products of uranium from atomic reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balal, A.L.; Metscher, K.; Muehlig, B.; Reichmuth, C.; Schwarz, B.; Zimen, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Spent reactor fuel elements are dissolved in dilute nitric acid. After addition of acetic acid as a complexing agent, the nitric acid is partly decomposed and the mixture subjected to electrolysis while a carrier liquid, which may be dilute acetic acid or a dilute mixture of acetic acid and nitric acid is caused to flow in the electric field between the electrodes either against the direction of ion migration or transversely thereto. The ions of uranium, plutonium, and other transuranium elements, and of fission products accumulate in discrete portions of the electrolyte and are separately withdrawn as at least three fractions after one or more stages of electrolysis

  1. The European Institute for Transuranium Elements (EURATOM) Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The objectives of the Institute, its historical and geographical background, its structure, and its operation are described in the first part of this booklet. In the second part, a more detailed account of the scientific and technological work carried out at the Institute is given: fuel science and technology (mainly plutonium) and basic actinide research (mainly transplutonium elements)

  2. [Trans-uranium elements in food products (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, I Ia

    1994-01-01

    The data of Russian and foreign authors concerning of level environmental contamination and migration of transuranic elements in food chains, metabolism and biological danger of nuclides entering in human body with foods are reviewed. A level of radionuclide load of population and doses of radiation are discussed and the danger is estimated. The doses of radiation from radionuclide ingestion are lower than level of allowed radiation safety standards.

  3. Transuranium elements intake during works connected with the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.I.; Kukhta, B.A.; Kononykhina, N.N.

    1992-01-01

    The materials of studies realized in 1989, 1990, 1991 and dealing with internal irradiation control caused by intake of transuranium elements (TUE) for the Chernobyl' NPP personnel and persons engaged in the accident effect elimination are generalized. the leading part of TUE inhalation intake in formation of internal irradiation doses is revealed. Evaluation of TUE inhalation intake hazards is made according to the results of measuring TUE activity in urine samples for the personnel examined (271 persons). The results of surveillance shows the effect of organism internal irradiation connected with TUE intake through respiratory organs. 23 refs.; 1 tab

  4. Prediction of the health effects of inhaled transuranium elements from experimental animal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.; Thomas, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Although animal experiments are conducted to obtain data that can be used to predict the consequences of exposure to alpha-emitting elements on human health, scientists have been hesitant to project the results of animal experiments to man. However, since a human data base does not exist for inhaled transuranics, the animal data cannot be overlooked. The paper describes the derivation of linear non-threshold response relationships for lung cancer in rats after inhalation of alpha-emitting transuranium elements. These relationships were used to calculate risk estimates, which were then compared with a value calculated from the incidence of lung cancer in humans who had been exposed to sources of radiation other than the transuranics. Both estimates were compared with the estimated cancer risk associated with the annual whole-body dose limit of 5 rems for occupational exposure. The rat data suggest that the risk from a working lifetime exposure of 15 rem/a to the lungs from transuranium elements may be 5 times the risk incurred with a whole-body exposure of 5 rem/a, while the human data suggest the risk may be less. Since the histological type of plutonium-induced lung cancer that occurs in experimental animals is rare in man, the use of animal data to estimate risks may be conservative. Risk estimates calculated directly from the results of experiments in which animals actually inhaled transuranic particles circumvent such controversial issues as 'hot particles'. (author)

  5. Physical--chemical studies of transuranium elements. Progress report, April 1, 1976--March 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Major advances in our continuing program to determine, interpret, and correlate the basic chemical and physical properties of the transuranium elements are summarized for the period April 1, 1976, through March 31, 1977. Implementation of data reduction programs and acquisition of a CRT time-sharing graphics terminal/stand-alone computer have advanced significantly the handling capabilities of single-beam spectral data obtained by our microscope spectrophotometer. EsCl 3 , EsBr 3 , and EsI 3 have been well characterized spectroscopically, and limited X-ray diffraction data have been obtained from EsBr 3 and EsI 3 . The reduction of mixed Es-lanthanide trihalides has produced what might be Es(II). Dimorphism in BkCl 3 , CfCl 3 , and BkBr 3 has been studied spectrophotometrically and the results confirmed by X-ray analysis. Our solution microcalorimeter was improved by reducing the system-generated electrical noise and developing a novel sample container. The operating sensitivity was determined to be within the desired 0.1 percent precision requirement. The necessary hardware was obtained and software development was initiated for the capability to acquire, store, and analyze the heat of solution data automatically. A very sensitive apparatus (SQUID) for the determination of magnetic susceptibility has been constructed and is being evaluated. Our device should greatly facilitate the study of microgram-sized samples of transuranium elements and compounds

  6. Transuranium element behavior in the environment: What speciation studies can tell us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the transuranium elements - especially plutonium - can exist in the environment in several different oxidation states which differ chemically from one another as much as if they were different elements. Hence an understanding of the environmental chemistry of these elements requires knowledge of their oxidation-state distribution, or speciation, under a variety of realistic conditions. Such studies are in their infancy, but already several chemical speciation methods have yielded results indicating the uniqueness of transuranic environment chemistry; for example, dioxoplutonium(V), which is unstable in the acid solutions employed in laboratory and processing plant, is often the most prevalent plutonium oxidation state in natural waters. More sensitive and less invasive physical speciation methods under development will hopefully permit the extension of these studies to a wider variety of environmental conditions and to determinations of sorbed species necessary for an understanding of sorption processes

  7. Physical--chemical studies of transuranium elements. Progress report, April 1, 1977--March 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Major advances in our continuing program to determine, interpret, and correlate the basic chemical and physical properties of the transuranium elements are summarized for the period April 1, 1977, through March 31, 1978. CfCl 2 , EsCl 2 , EsBr 2 , and EsI 2 were synthesized and characterized spectrophotometrically, as were several mixed-valence lanthanide-actinide halides (e.g., GdCf 4 Cl 11 ) and CmF 4 , CfF 4 , and EsF 3 . All samples not containing einsteinium were also examined by X rays. Studies of the chemical consequences of the radioactive decay series 253 Es alpha decaying to 249 Bk beta decaying to 249 Cf have continued and expanded. Elemental Cm-248 has been prepared on the one-half milligram scale and used to synthesize CmP and CmSb. Single crystals of AmTe 2 and AmSe 2 have been grown from a Te melt and by iodine transport, respectively. Our SQUID magnetometer was tested successfully in a preliminary configuration, and the expected sensitivity of the device was confirmed. A new design for the flux sensing coils was incorporated prior to an apparatus calibration experiment with lead. A porous vitreous carbon material was found to make a useful optically transparent electrode for simultaneous electrochemical and absorption spectroscopic investigations. Cyclic voltammograms of UO 2 2+ were obtained prior to a spectroelectrochemical study of the radiation of UO 2 2+ . The major obstacle in our solution microcalorimetry program was overcome by the realization of a leak-free sample container. Calorimeter performance now warrants experiments with transuranium element samples. The electrochemical reductions of Cf(III) and Es(III) have been studied by polarography and/or cyclic voltammetry. The results suggest that both are reduced to the divalent state before being reduced to the amalgam

  8. Effect of γ-ray emission on transuranium element production cross sections in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'inov, A.S.; Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Cherepanov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of competition of the γ ray emission with neutron evaporation and of compound nuclei fission induced by heavy ion reactions on the production cross sections for transuranium elements is considered. It is shown that taking account of γ ray emission leads to the broadening of the excitation functions of the (HI, xny) reactions such as 18 O+ 238 U, 40 Ar+ 206 Pb, 40 Ar+ 207 Pb and 40 Ar+ 208 Pb reactions and to the displacement of their maximum toward the higher energies as well as to an increase of the absolute cross sections which is especially strong close to the fusion barrier. Cross sections for the radiative capture of heavy ions by a heavy target nucleus in 40 Ar+ 206 Pb, 40 Ar+ 208 Pb, 48 Ca+ 204 Pb and 48 Ca+ 208 Pb reactions are estimated

  9. Transuranium elements leaching from simulated HLW glasses in synthetic interstitial claywater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.

    1992-08-01

    The main objective of this Master Thesis is to measure the steady-state concentrations of Pu, Np, and Am upon the leaching of High-Level Waste Glass in two types of synthetic claywater: humic acid free and humic acid containing synthetic claywater. The synthetic claywater has a composition that is representative for the in-situ interstitial groundwater of the Boom clay formation, a potential geological repository of radioactive waste in Belgium. The steady-state concentrations of transuranium elements were measured by leaching experiments with a typical duration of 400 days. Five main conclusions are drawn from the experimental data. (1) The transuranium elements that are released from simulated High Level Waste Glass are dominantly present in the synthetic claywater solutions as colloids. These colloids are smaller than 2 nm in absence of humic acids. In the presence of humic acids however, the colloids interact with actinides (adsorb or coagulate) and form particles larger than 2 nm. Np and Am are associated with inorganic and organic colloids in the synthetic interstitial claywater solution whereas Pu forms only inorganic colloids. (2) The steady-state concentration of Pu is in good agreement with the solubility of the Pu compound PuO 2 .xH 2 O. It is therefore concluded that PuO 2 .xH 2 O is the solubility controlling phase. (3) The Pu(IV)-species are dominant in the leaching solutions. Carbonate and humic acid complexes are negligible. (4) The steady-state concentrations of Np and Am in leaching solutions were much lower than the values calculated on the basis of known thermodynamic data. This indicates that the solubility controlling phases for Np and Am were not correctly identified or that the measured Np and Am concentrations were not steady-state values. (5) Non-active glass leaching tests have indicated that no organic colloids were formed as a result of glass dissolution. (A.S.)

  10. Amster: a molten-salt reactor concept generating its own 233U and incinerating transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, D.; Garzenne, C.; Vergnes, J.; Mouney, H.; Delpech, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the coming century, sustainable development of atomic energy will require the development of new types of reactors able to exceed the limits of the existing reactor types, be it in terms of optimum use of natural fuel resources, reduction in the production of long-lived radioactive waste, or economic competitiveness. Of the various candidates with the potential to meet these needs, molten-salt reactors are particularly attractive, in the light of the benefits they offer, arising from two fundamental features: - A liquid fuel does away with the constraints inherent in solid fuel, leading to a drastic simplification of the fuel cycle, in particular making in possible to carry out on-line pyrochemical reprocessing; - Thorium cycle and thermal spectrum breeding. The MSBR concept proposed by ORNL in the 1970's thus gave a breeding factor of 1.06, with a doubling time of about 25 years. However, given the tight neutron balance of the thorium cycle (the η of 233 U is about 2.3), MSBR performance is only possible if there are strict constraints set on the in-line reprocessing unit: all the 233 Pa must be removed from the core so that it can decay on the 233 U in no more than about ten days (or at least 15 tonnes of salt to be extracted from the core daily), and the absorbing fission products, in particular the rare earths, must be extracted in about fifty days. With the AMSTER MSR concept, which we initially developed for incinerating transuranium elements, we looked to reduce the mass of salt to be reprocessed in order to minimise the size and complexity of the reprocessing unit coupled to the reactor, and the quantity of transuranium elements sent for disposal, as this is directly proportional to the mass of salt reprocessed for extraction of the fission products. Given that breeding was not an absolute necessity, because the reactor can be started by incinerating the transuranium elements from the spent fuel assemblies of current reactors, or if necessary by loading

  11. Transuranium element transport in agricultural systems (soil to food chain transfer of nuclear fuel cycle radionuclides). Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.

    1977-10-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: preparation of bibliography covering literature on plant uptake of transuranium elements; development of techniques for growth of agricultural crops in large containers that simulate field conditions; equipment for counting of alpha-emitting transuranium elements; studies on variability in concentration ratio of 241 Am under different environmental conditions; alpha radiation burn in bush beans exposed to 241 Am in solution; constancy of concentration ratio as a measure of plant uptake of 241 Am; growth of radishes in soil with and without DTPA, and radish peel as source of radionuclides; effects of varying levels of DTPA in loam soil on concentration ratio values; and a plant species (Atriplex hymenelytra--desert holly) with high C.R. values and search for other plants with high C.R. values

  12. Synthesis and crystal chemistry of transuranium element chalcogenides. Contribution to the study of the 5f electron localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damien, Daniel.

    1976-09-01

    The synthesis and crystal chemistry of Np, Pu, Am and Cm transuranium element chalcogenides are described. From plutonium, transuranium element chalcogenides exhibit the same crystal structure as their rare-earth homologues. The variations of the lattice constants of these compounds in terms of the atomic number are characterized by the lack of the 5f contraction and are interpreted by a localization of the 5f electrons depending upon the considered transuranium element, the nature of the ligand and the crystal structure. To compare the degree of magnitude of the 5f electron delocalization in various compounds, a delocalization scale is proposed based on a comparison between the molar volumes of actinide and isostructural lanthanide compounds. This scale provides a delocalization coefficient for each compound under study. Examination of these coefficients shows that the 5f electrons, in series of actinide compounds, become localized when going from neptunium to curium and that the delocalization process does not only depend upon overlaps between 5f-6d orbitals of neighbouring actinide atoms; the delocalization coefficients show the existence of a secondary delocalization effect due to overlaps between the p anion and f actinide orbitals which are more important for the Vb anion group (N, P, As, Sb) than for the Vib one (S,Se,Te) [fr

  13. Fate of cesium, strontium, iodine and some transuranium elements in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Brunecker, G.

    1982-11-01

    Domestic animals may take up Cs, I, Sr and the most important transuranium elements by contaminated food, inhalation and cutaneous resorption. The resorption takes place (with differing percentage distribution) via gastrointestinal tract, lungs, skin and with wounds via injured skin areas. With chronical exposure and after resorption of radionuclides a distribution balance develops in the blood; with a single incorporation the activity concentration in the blood one increases and decreases again. According to the affinity of the radionuclide its major part is transported to one particular organ or tissue system, where depending on the degree of specific activity the most different damages may be provoked. Considerable amounts of the radionuclide quantities are discharged with urine, feces or milk. The amount discharged into the milk is of particular radioecologic interest. The portion of the radionuclides, which is discharged into the muscles and the milk of animals for slaughter is indicated by transmission factors, which have to be subjected to revision. The transmission factors given in literature are classified according to the animal species and discussed in the corresponding chapters. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Transuranium element incorporation into the β-U3O8 uranyl sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.L.; Burns, P.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Finch, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is unstable under oxidizing conditions. Although recent studies have determined the paragenetic sequence for uranium phases that result from the corrosion of SNF, there are only limited data on the potential of alteration phases for the incorporation of transuranium elements. The crystal chemical characteristics of transuranic elements (TUE) are to a certain extent similar to uranium; thus TUE incorporation into the sheets of uranyl oxide hydrate structures can be assessed by examination of the structural details of the β-U 3 O 8 sheet type. The sheets of uranyl polyhedra observed in the crystal structure of β-U 3 O 8 also occur in the mineral billietite, where they alternate with α-U 3 O 8 type sheets. Preliminary crystal structure determinations for the minerals ianthinite, and wyartite, indicate that these phases also contain β-U 3 O 8 type sheets. The β-U 3 O 8 sheet anion topology contains triangular, rhombic, and pentagonal sites in the proportions 2:1:2. In all structures containing β-U 3 O 8 type sheets, the triangular sites are vacant. The pentagonal sites are filled with U 6+ O 2 forming pentagonal bipyramids. The rhombic dipyramids filling the rhombic sites contain U 6+ O 2 in billietite, U 4+ O 2 in β-U 3 O 8 , U 4+ (H 2 O) 2 in ianthinite, and U 4+ O 3 in wyartite-II. Interlayer species include: H 2 O (billietite, wyartite II, and ianthinite), Ba 2+ (billietite) Ca 2+ wyartite II, and Co 3 2- wyartite II; there is no interlayer in β-U 3 O 8 . The similarity of known TUE coordination polyhedra with those of U suggests that the β-U 3 O 8 sheet will accommodate TUE substitution coupled with variations in apical anion configuration and interlayer population providing the required charge balance

  15. Experimental evaluation of admission and disposition of artificial radionuclides including transuranium elements in agricultural plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhakhanov, T.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    Processes of radionuclides migration and transfer to agricultural plants are quite well developed worldwide, but the information on character of accumulation of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu transuranium radionuclides in agricultural plants is still fragmentary. Even in generalized materials of worldwide studies, IAEA guide, accumulation coefficient (AC) can have wide range of values (5-6 orders), no data exists on radionuclides' distribution in different organs of plants and they are given for joined groups of plants and types of soils. That is why the main aim of this work was to obtain basic quantitative parameters of radionuclides' migration in 'soil-plant' system, and firs of all- for transuranium elements.. In 2010 a series of experiments with agricultural plants was started at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site aimed to investigate entry of artificial radionuclides by crop products in natural climatic conditions. To conduct the experiment for study of coefficient of radionuclides' accumulation by agricultural corps, there was chosen a land spot at the STS territory, characterized by high concentration of radionuclides: {sup 241}Am - n*10{sup 4} Bq/kg, {sup 137}Cs - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg, {sup 90}Sr - n*10{sup 3} Bq/kg and {sup 239+240}Pu- n*10{sup 5} Bq/kg. As objects of investigation, cultures, cultivated in Kazakhstan have been selected: wheat (Triticum vulgare), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa L.), water melon (Citrullus vulgaris), melon (Cucumis melo), potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), pepper (Capsicum annuum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus cultus), onion (Allium cepa), carrot (Daucus carota), parsley(Petroselinum vulgare)and cabbage (Brassica oleracea). Investigated plants have been planted within the time limits, recommended for selected types of agricultural plants. Cropping system included simple agronomic and amelioration measures. Fertilizers were not

  16. Detection and speciation of transuranium elements in synthetic groundwater via pulsed-laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.; Bowers, D.L.; Doxtader, M.M.; Maroni, V.A.; Reed, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    High sensitivity methods for detection and speciation of complexed transuranium ions in synthetic basalt groundwater, and simplified analogs, are being developed which exploit advances in pulsed laser technology. The first demonstration of high sensitivity detection of a transuranium ion at temperatures significantly above ambient is reported using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS). The existence of enhanced LPAS signal amplitudes with increasing temperature in aqueous solution is confirmed in LPAS spectra recorded at 30 C, 60 C and 90 C using micromolar concentrations of /sup 241/Am/sup 3+/. A detection sensitivity of 8.5 parts per trillion (weight basis) of /sup 244/Cm/sup 3+/ in a simplified basalt groundwater at 22 C has been achieved using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIF). This corresponds to 1 x 10/sup 8/ Cm/sup 3+/ ions in the laser beam. The detailed spectroscopic information obtained by this method points to the existence of previously unobserved Cm/sup 3+/ species. A brief assessment of the applicability and sensitivity of LPAS and LIF methods for speciating transuranium ions in near-neutral pH aqueous solution, such as the groundwater expected in a basalt nuclear waste repository, is presented. 27 refs., 3 figs

  17. Development of treatment method for stillage residues of liquid radioactive wastes to remove organic substances and transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Dzhuzha, O.V.; Khan, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the study into the laws that govern the process of treating by oxidation the stillage residues of liquid radioactive wastes to remove organic compounds and transuranium elements with the use of hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate and subsequent ultra-filtration. The optimum oxidisation regime has been defined on the basis of this study to ensure that the initial dichromate oxidability of LRW's stillage residues decreases from 6,000-9,500 to 500-1,000 mg O/I, whereas the TUE activity associated with the key isotopes is reduced by 74-87 % for 238,239,240 Pu, by 94-95 % for 241 Am, and by 90-95 % for 244 Cm. The concentration of uranium decreases by 94-99 %. It is proposed to implement this method at the Chernobyl NPP site.

  18. Investigation of the solution properties of the transuranium elements. Final report, July 1, 1979-September 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensor, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    This final report summarizes the significant results obtained during our investigation of the fundamental solution properties of the transuranium elements for the period July 1, 1979 to September 30, 1984. Primary interest of the project was the development of improved separation methods for the trivalent actinide elements from each other and from the chemically similar trivalent lanthanide elements using solvent extraction techniques. Two different synergistic systems were investigated. The combination of dialkynaphthalenesulfonic acids with a crown ether or an oxime was an attempt to combine the excellent ion exchange properties of the sulfonic extractant with a synergistic agent which would improve the selectivity of the extraction system. The results showed that the presence of the crown ether improved the extraction of the light lanthanides by approximately 50% while the heavy lanthanides were unaffected. The use of the oxime in combination with the sulfonic acid extractant showed significant enhancement for all metal ions studied but little, if any, selectivity. The use of novel oxygen donors as synergistic agents in combination with thenoyltrifluoroacetone provided significant enhancement for the extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The data showed the best selectivity was obtained using a linear polyether as the synergistic agent. The crown ether and the cryptand showed significant synergistic capabilities but lacked selectivity due to their rigid cavities. The results of this study indicate that the linear polyether is more promising as a synergistic agent because of its flexibility and ease of chemical modification of the end groups. 10 figures, 5 tables

  19. Design and installation of high-temperature ultrasonic measuring system and grinder for nuclear fuel containing trans-uranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo; Kurosawa, Makoto; Mimura, Hideaki; Abe, Jiro

    2005-07-01

    A high-temperature ultrasonic measuring system had been designed and installed in a glovebox (711-DGB) to study a mechanical property of nuclear fuel containing trans-uranium (TRU) elements. A figuration apparatus for the cylinder-type sample preparation had also been modified and installed in an established glovebox (142-D). The system consists of an ultrasonic probe, a heating furnace, cooling water-circulating system, a cooling air compressor, vacuum system, gas supplying system and control system. An A/D converter board and an pulsar/receiver board for the measurement of wave velocity were installed in a personal computer. The apparatus was modified to install into the glovebox. Some safety functions were supplied to the control system. The shape and size of the sample was revised to minimize the amount of TRU elements for the use of the measurement. The maximum sample temperature is 1500degC. The performance of the installed apparatuses and the glovebox were confirmed through a series of tests. (author)

  20. Transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) is a remotely operated, hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. The heart of TRU is a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells housed in a two-story building. Each cell, with its 54-inch-thick walls of a special high-density concrete, has enough shielding to stop the neutrons and gamma radiation from 1 gram of 252/sub Cf/ and associated fission products. Four cells contain chemical processing equipment, three contain equipment for the preparation and inspection of HFIR targets, and two cells are used for analytical chemistry operations. In addition, there are eight laboratories used for process development, for part of the process-control analyses, and for product finishing operations. Although the Transuranium Processing Plant was built for the purpose of recovering transuranium elements from targets irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), it is also a highly versatile facility which has extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment. Thus, it was a relatively simple matter to install a Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) in one of the TRU chemical processing cells for use in the evaluation and demonstration of solvent extraction flowsheets for the recovery of fissile and fertile materials from irradiated reactor fuels. The equipment in the SETF has been designed for process development and demonstrations and the particular type of mixer-settler contactors was chosen because it is easy to observe and sample

  1. Transuranium element toxicity: dose-response relationships at low exposure levels. Summary and speculative interpretation relative to exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is given of information on transuranium element toxicity and the correlation of this information with current established exposure limits. It is difficult to calculate a biologically relevant radiation dose from deposited plutonium; it is exposure that must be controlled in order to prevent biological effect, and if the relationship between exposure and effect is known, then radiation dose is of no concern. There are extensive data on the effects of plutonium in bone. Results of studies at the University of Utah indicate that plutonium in beagles may be as much as ten times more toxic than radium. It has been suggested that this toxicity ratio may be even higher in man than in the beagle dog because of differences in surface-to-volume ratios and differences in the rate of burial of surface-deposited plutonium. The present capabilities for extrapolating dose-effect relationships seem to be limited to the setting of upper limits, based on assumptions of linearity and considerations related to natural background

  2. Transuranium radionuclides in the foodchains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Simmonds, J.R.; Kelly, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of a recent Report (Linsley, G.S. Simmonds, J.R. and Kelly, G.N., An evaluation of the foodchain pathway for transuranium elements dispersed in soils, NRPB-R81. London, HMSO (1979)). Consideration has been given to the relative importance of the inhalation and ingestion pathways for the two transuranium nuclides, plutonium-239 and americium-241. The procedures used are applicable to other transuranium nuclides in foodchains. A series of dynamic compartmental models were used in the evaluation. The relationships between the levels of 239 Pu and 241 Am in soil and the dose to man via the foodchains has identified those areas where improved data is required. The relative importance of the inhalation and ingestion pathways depends on the values chosen for the transfer parameters and for the dietary habits of the exposed individuals, but both routes must be considered. (U.K.)

  3. Separation of transuranium elements and fission products from medium activity aqueous liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.; Kunze, S.; Eden, G.; Loesch, G.; Zemski, C.

    1986-01-01

    In the course of work performed between January 1981 and June 1985 on the separation of TRU elements and fission products three liquid alpha containing waste streams were treated: - medium level waste solutions, - waste solutions from the acid digestion of burnable alpha containing solid residues, - waste solutions from mixed oxide fuel element fabrication. The method of separation was initially developed and optimized with simulating substances. Subesequently it was tested with real waste solutions

  4. Study of cis- and trans-uranium elements by paper chromatography and electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clanet, F.

    1968-01-01

    In this work, the field of application of paper chromatography and electrophoresis in inorganic chemistry has been extended to elements 90 to 96 in hydrochloric and nitric acid solution. Results obtained concern the following points: 1) - Characterization of the valency states of Np and of Pu using coloured reactions on chromatograms and electrophoregrams. The valency IV is characterized by alizarin, arsenazo-I and thorin-I, whilst diphenylcarbazide is used for the hexavalent state. 2) - Paper chromatography: by using as eluent, mixtures of equal parts of aqueous HCl and HNO 3 solutions and of alcohols (methanol, ethanol and n-butanol), the R f values of elements 90 to 96 have been determined. It has been possible to deduce certain conclusions concerning the complexing of these elements by Cl - and NO 3 - ions. 3) - We have developed an electrophoretic technique on cellulose acetate membranes in order to separate the charged species formed by the elements 90 to 96 in HCl and HNO 3 solutions from 1 to 12 M. Mobility curves have been obtained. It appears from our results that the tendency for the elements considered to form anionic complexes follows the order of the ionic potentials when the valency state is four; this order is reversed for the valency three. The ions Cl - have a smaller tendency to form complexes than the NO 3 - ions with respect to these elements in their oxidation state III or IV, but the reverse phenomenon is observed for U VI and Pu VI . Finally, the complexing of the cations Pu 4+ and PuUO 2 2+ by NO 3 - follows the order of the ionic potentials but occurs in the reverse order for Cl - ions. 4) - Various analytical applications are considered: separation of the various elements from each other and separation of the valency states of Np and of Pu. (author) [fr

  5. Separation of transuranium elements from high-level waste by extraction with diisodecyl phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Y.; Kubota, M.; Tani, S.

    1991-01-01

    Separation of transuranic elements (TRU) by extraction with diisodecyl phosphoric acid (DIDPA) has been studied to develop a partitioning process for high-level waste (HLW). In the present study, experiments of counter-current continuous extraction and back-extraction using a miniature mixer-settler were carried out to find the optimum process condition for the separation of Np initially in the pentavalent state and to examine the extraction behaviors of fission and corrosion products. (J.P.N.)

  6. Crystallography and magnetic properties of transuranium element oxygen compounds (Np, Pu and Am)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuteau, Alain.

    1981-05-01

    This paper includes: 1) The brief description of the experimental techniques used for analyzing very small quantities of solid radioactive compounds (differential thermal micro-analyses, diffraction of X rays, magnetic susceptibility and Moessbauer resonance). 2) The methods of synthesis of the ternary oxides of transuranic elements at oxidation degrees III (Pu 2 MoO 6 , Pu 2 WO 6 , Pu 2 (WO 4 ) 3 , Am 2 MoO 6 , Am 2 WO 6 , Am 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 and Am 2 (WO 4 ) 3 ) and at degree IV (Np(VO 3 ) 4 , Np(MoO 4 ) 2 , Np(WO 4 ) 2 and Pu(MoO 4 ) 2 ). The drawing up of liquid-solid balance diagrams enabled the field of stability of molybdate (or tungstate) systems of alkaline transuranic - mobybdates (or tungstates) to be clarified. 3) The study of the structural properties of the identified phases. These results taken as a whole made it possible to establish a ''comparative crystal - chemistry'' of the oxigenated phases of Np, Pu and Am with those of the thorium and uranium actinide elements and with the rare earths of adjacent ionic radius. 4) The Moessbauer resonance study of 237 Np in the solid solution Usub(1-x)Npsub(x)O 2 (0 [fr

  7. On possibility of transuranium element by the method of transport reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyna, G.S.; Krashenitsyn, G.N.; Shestakov, B.I.

    1983-01-01

    A possibility to use chemical transport reaction for separation of uranium, plutonium and some transplutonium elements is shown. The method is based on the use of the known plutonium property to form tetrachloride existing only in the gaseous phase in chlorine atmosphere, which is transported ever the temperature gradiept. Two ways of transport reaction realization - the method of flow and the method of diffusion in closed volume are tested. The experiments are made using specially synthesized plutonium dioxide, containing uranium, americium, curium, lanthanum, terbium, barium. Chlorination is realized by the mixture of chlorine and carbon tetrachloride at temperatures 723-953 K. Plutonium trichloride is deposited in the range 613-653 K, uranium - in the range 473-523 K, curium, americium, lanthanum, terbium, barium remain in the start zone if its temperature does not exceed 873 K

  8. Proceedings of public hearings: plutonium and the other transuranium elements, Washington, D.C., December 10--11, 1974. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency embarked on a program to evaluate the environmental impact of the transuranium elements and to consider whether further guidelines or standards are needed to assure adequate protection of the general ambient environment and of the public health from potential contamination of the environment by radionuclides of these elements. Public hearings were held in Washington, D. C., and Denver, Colorado, to gather information regarding the public and social implications of plutonium utilization; the factors involved in the balancing of costs vs benefits; dosimetry, health, and environmental effects; environmental levels and pathways; applications using plutonium; and control and cleanup technology. The proceedings of the hearing in Washington, D. C., Dec. 10-11, 1974, are presented. Data are included on current and potential sources of transuranium elements in the environment; animal studies on the tissue distribution of 233 U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 244 Cm, 249 Bk, 252 Cf, and 253 Es and pathological effects of body burdens of these radionuclides; and data on the health status of personnel known to have body burdens of 238 Pu or 239 Pu acquired during acute or chronic exposure, many of them over 30 years previously. It is pointed out that the lack of demonstrable biological effects of Pu in man provides presumptive evidence that the radiation protection standards in effect are adequate. (U.S.)

  9. Transmutation of transuranium elements in a gas-cooled accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biss, Klaus Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The peaceful usage of nuclear energy by light and boiling water reactors is connected with a buildup of long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Compared to the direct disposal, partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is considered as an effective way to reduce this waste in its quantity by converting it into short-lived radio nuclides. By that the long term radiotoxicity is reduced compared to direct disposal. Subcritical systems, which are powered by spallation processes for free neutron production to maintain the nuclear chain reaction, allow a target-oriented transmutation. As a subcritical system a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) for transmutation of transuranic elements has been modeled in this thesis to evaluate the reduction of the radio toxicity by P and T. The simulation of neutron-physical processes is based on the Monte Carlo computer program MCNPX. The development of an equilibrium core made it possible to study the transmutation and operating behavior for several fuel variations in a magnesium oxide matrix and develop a simplified burnup method. Americium as part of the fuel has a stabilizing effect on the neutron multiplication due to its conversion into plutonium during the operation. Thorium was investigated as an alternative matrix for the fuel in order to replicate the stabilizing effect of americium by the conversion of thorium in 233 U. By that a consistent operating cycle in the later P and T-process is ensured. Calculation of the nuclide composition at the end of a P and T-process leads to an expansion of the mathematical description of the mass reduction (transmutation efficiency) by the material located in the reactor. The achieved transmutation efficiency with the investigated ADS is 98.8 %. The transmutation time was examined with different operating strategies regarding the number, size and thermal power of use of transmutation facilities to determine the effort for the P and T-process depending on efficiency. It turns out

  10. Determination of 236U and transuranium elements in depleted uranium ammunition by α-spectrometry and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.; Testa, C.; Boulyga, S.F.; Becker, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that ammunition containing depleted uranium (DU) was used by NATO during the Balkan conflict. To evaluate the origin of DU (the enrichment of natural uranium or the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel) it is necessary to directly detect the presence of activation products ( 236 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 237 Np) in the ammunition. In this work the analysis of actinides by α-spectrometry was compared with that by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after selective separation of ultratraces of transuranium elements from the uranium matrix. 242 Pu and 243 Am were added to calculate the chemical yield. Plutonium was separated from uranium by extraction chromatography, using tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), with a decontamination factor higher than 10 6 ; after elution plutonium was determined by ICP-MS ( 239 Pu and 240 Pu) and α-spectrometry ( 239+240 Pu) after electroplating. The concentration of Pu in two DU penetrator samples was 7 x 10 -12 g g -1 and 2 x 10 -11 g g -1 . The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratio in one penetrator sample (0.12±0.04) was significantly lower than the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios found in two soil samples from Kosovo (0.35±0.10 and 0.27±0.07). 241 Am was separated by extraction chromatography, using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), with a decontamination factor as high as 10 7 . The concentration of 241 Am in the penetrator samples was 2.7 x 10 -14 g g -1 and -15 g g -1 . In addition 237 Np was detected at ultratrace levels. In general, ICP-MS and α-spectrometry results were in good agreement.The presence of anthropogenic radionuclides ( 236 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 237 Np) in the penetrators indicates that at least part of the uranium originated from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Because the concentrations of radionuclides are very low, their radiotoxicological effect is negligible. (orig.)

  11. Determination of {sup 236}U and transuranium elements in depleted uranium ammunition by {alpha}-spectrometry and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.; Testa, C. [General Chemistry Institute, Urbino University, Urbino (Italy); Boulyga, S.F.; Becker, J.S. [Central Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    It is well known that ammunition containing depleted uranium (DU) was used by NATO during the Balkan conflict. To evaluate the origin of DU (the enrichment of natural uranium or the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel) it is necessary to directly detect the presence of activation products ({sup 236}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 237}Np) in the ammunition. In this work the analysis of actinides by {alpha}-spectrometry was compared with that by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after selective separation of ultratraces of transuranium elements from the uranium matrix. {sup 242}Pu and {sup 243}Am were added to calculate the chemical yield. Plutonium was separated from uranium by extraction chromatography, using tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), with a decontamination factor higher than 10{sup 6}; after elution plutonium was determined by ICP-MS ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu) and {alpha}-spectrometry ({sup 239+240}Pu) after electroplating. The concentration of Pu in two DU penetrator samples was 7 x 10{sup -12} g g{sup -1} and 2 x 10{sup -11} g g{sup -1}. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu isotope ratio in one penetrator sample (0.12{+-}0.04) was significantly lower than the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios found in two soil samples from Kosovo (0.35{+-}0.10 and 0.27{+-}0.07). {sup 241}Am was separated by extraction chromatography, using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), with a decontamination factor as high as 10{sup 7}. The concentration of {sup 241}Am in the penetrator samples was 2.7 x 10{sup -14} g g{sup -1} and <9.4 x 10{sup -15} g g{sup -1}. In addition {sup 237}Np was detected at ultratrace levels. In general, ICP-MS and {alpha}-spectrometry results were in good agreement.The presence of anthropogenic radionuclides ({sup 236}U, {sup 239}Pu,{sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 237}Np) in the penetrators indicates that at least part of the uranium originated from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Because the concentrations of

  12. Determination of (236)U and transuranium elements in depleted uranium ammunition by alpha-spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, D; Meli, M A; Roselli, C; Testa, C; Boulyga, S F; Becker, J S

    2002-11-01

    It is well known that ammunition containing depleted uranium (DU) was used by NATO during the Balkan conflict. To evaluate the origin of DU (the enrichment of natural uranium or the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel) it is necessary to directly detect the presence of activation products ((236)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Am, and (237)Np) in the ammunition. In this work the analysis of actinides by alpha-spectrometry was compared with that by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after selective separation of ultratraces of transuranium elements from the uranium matrix. (242)Pu and (243)Am were added to calculate the chemical yield. Plutonium was separated from uranium by extraction chromatography, using tri- n-octylamine (TNOA), with a decontamination factor higher than 10(6); after elution plutonium was determined by ICP-MS ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) and alpha-spectrometry ((239+240)Pu) after electroplating. The concentration of Pu in two DU penetrator samples was 7 x 10(-12) g g(-1) and 2 x 10(-11) g g(-1). The (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio in one penetrator sample (0.12+/-0.04) was significantly lower than the (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios found in two soil samples from Kosovo (0.35+/-0.10 and 0.27+/-0.07). (241)Am was separated by extraction chromatography, using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), with a decontamination factor as high as 10(7). The concentration of (241)Am in the penetrator samples was 2.7 x 10(-14) g g(-1) and <9.4 x 10(-15) g g(-1). In addition (237)Np was detected at ultratrace levels. In general, ICP-MS and alpha-spectrometry results were in good agreement. The presence of anthropogenic radionuclides ((236)U, (239)Pu,(240)Pu, (241)Am, and (237)Np) in the penetrators indicates that at least part of the uranium originated from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Because the concentrations of radionuclides are very low, their radiotoxicological effect is negligible.

  13. Use of triton-WR-1339 (TWR) for a quantitative determination of the lysosomal binding of transuranium elements in the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The subcellular localisation of 239 Pu and 241 Am in the rat liver was investigated. A biochemical separation method with modified lysosomes was applied for the first time; the method permitted unique statements on the mitochondrial or lysosomal association of transuranium elements. Lysosomal association of 239 Pu and 241 Am between days 4 and 6 after radionuclide injection was most easily detected by follow-up treatment with TWR, i.e. the nonionic detergent was applied 2 days after injection of the radionuclide and 4 days before the onset of the analytical procedure. Extracellular transuranium depots could not be proved to exist neither by comparing absolute retention figures in perfused and nonperfused livers nor by subcellular distribution studies. A quantitative relation between the DTPA mobilisation efficiency in the total liver and the subcellular distribution patterns obtained for americium could be estimated for the period between the first and 18th day after radionuclide injection. It suggests on intracellular effect of DTPA. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Projected development of nuclear power up to the year 2000 entails a substantial increase in the number of nuclear power reactors, of irradiated fuel reprocessing plants and of various other supporting facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. In this period, transuranium elements, especially plutonium, will be produced in substantial quantities as by-products of the fission process and for use as fuel in present and future nuclear power reactors; these elements will have other peaceful applications as well. Growing world-wide interest and a natural desire to protect man and his environment have led to increasing concern in public, scientific and governmental sectors about the, release of such radionuclides into the environment. Although releases of transuranium nuclides from existing nuclear facilities can be controlled to very low levels, it is essential, in view of their long half-lives and high relative radiotoxicities, that their fate in the environment be understood well enough to permit associated potential impacts to be assessed and hence effective control to be provided. Extensive studies for many years have investigated the distribution and behaviour of these elements and potential detriments resulting from their release to the environment. More recently, scientists have begun to make projections for evaluating the degree of control necessary if such materials are to enter the complex chain of commercial activities associated with nuclear power production

  15. Transition of transuranium radionuclides to the stock-raising production at the grazing land of the cattle on the territory of the radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, V.P.; Korol', R.A.; Pershukevich, E.V.; Bykovskij, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of receipt of transuranium elements in an organism of cattle probably pollution of animal produces by significant amounts of transuranium elements and their receipt on a food chain in a human body. (authors)

  16. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1987-01-01

    Many countries are presently concerned with problems relating to the safe disposal of nuclear waste containing various levels of transuranium nuclides. In this context, a review on the distribution and behaviour of transuranium elements in the environment studied at Kanazawa University in Japan is presented. About 17 years ago, a high degree of accumulation of 239 Pu in the surface soil of Nagasaki was found in the Nishiyama area, where 'black rain' occured just after the nuclear bomb explosion. The introduction of newly developed radiochemical methods and instrumentation has enabled studies to be carried out on environmental plutonium isotopes, americium-241 and more recently neptunium-237 with respect to distribution depth profile, variation with time and relationship with organic materials. Valuable information has been obtained on the basis of samples collected from various locations in Japan, including surface soil, sea and lake sediments, atmospheric aerosol, water from the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean, and from material related with the 'Bikini Event' of 1954. (orig.)

  17. Physical-chemical studies of transuranium elements: Progress report for the period April 1, 1985-March 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    New knowledge is being accumulated in the role of the 5f electrons in the bonding in actinide elements and compounds, the relationships of metallic structures to metallic valence and radius, the extent and magnitude of the actinide contraction, the magnetic, thermodynamic, spectroscopic, and crystallographic properties of these materials as related to general theories, the effect of self-irradiation on chemical and physical properties, the chemical and physical consequences of radioactive decay in the bulk-phase solid state, and in general, the range of validity of the actinide hypothesis. Separate reports are given on: spectrophotometric studies of Cf(III) ions in lanthanide trihalide hosts, new ternary transplutonium chalcogenide halides, Raman spectrometric studies of lanthanide trihalides as function of T or P, and solution calorimetry of californium halides

  18. Production of transuranium elements. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.

    1976-01-01

    The cardiac pacemaker market and the potentialities of the radioisotopic plutonium 238 pacemakers are evaluated. In spite of restrictions due to the radioactivity of the source and the cost of the nuclear device, plutonium 238 pacemakers continue to occupy a definite place in the present market because of their long life and miniaturization possibilities. Finally the general plutonium 238 production program of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique is outlined [fr

  19. Nuclear reactions and synthesis of new transuranium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    In this short review, I shall describe the special aspects of heavy ion nuclear reaction mechanisms operative in the transuranium region, the role of new techniques, possible nuclear reactions for the production of additional transuranium elements and nuclear species and the importance of work in this region for the development of nuclear models and theoretical concepts. This discussion should make it clear that a continuing supply of leements and isotopes, some fo them relatively short-lived, produced by the HFIR-TRU facilities, will be a requirement for future synthesis of new elements and isotopes

  20. Concentration levels of rare-earth elements and thorium on plants from the Morro de Ferro environment as an indicator for the biological availability of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miekeley, N.; Casartelli, E.A.; Dotto, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Plants and soils from a natural thorium and rare-earth element occurrence (Morro do Ferro, Brazil) were analyzed by alpha spectrometry (Th) and ICP-AES (REE), after pre-concentration of the elements by solvent extraction, co-precipitation and ion exchange procedures. Leaching experiments with humic acid solutions and different soils were performed to estimate the fraction of elements biologically available. High concentrations of the light rare-earth elements (LREE) and of Th, reaching some hundreds of μg/g-ash, were measured in plant leaves from the areas of the highest concentration of these elements in soil and in near-surface waters. Chondrite normalized REE plots of plant leaves and corresponding soils are very similar, suggesting that there is no significant fractionation between the REE during uptake from the soil solution and incorporation into the leaves. However, Ce-depletion was observed for some plant species, increasing for Solanum ciliatum in the sequence: leaves -3 to 10 -2 . Leaching experiments confirmed the importance of humic acid complexation for the bio-uptake of Th and REE and further showed that only a very small fraction of these elements in soil is leachable. The implications of these results on the calculated CR's will be discussed. (author) 26 refs.; 5 figs.; 5 tabs

  1. Radiological safety considerations in the design and operation of the ORNL Transuranium Research Laboratory (TRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Transuranium Research Laboratory (TRL) is the central facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for chemical and physical research involving transuranium elements. Transuranium Research Laboratory investigations are about equally divided between studies of inorganic and structural chemistry of the heavy elements and nuclear structure and properties of their isotopes. Elements studied include neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, and einsteinium, each in microgram-to-gram quantities depending upon availability and experimental requirements. This paper describes an eight-step safety procedure followed in planning and approving individual research projects. This procedure should provide an optimum margin of safety and should permit the accomplishment of successful research

  2. Partitioning and transmutation of transuranium elements under nuclear phase-out conditions. Technically reliable?; Transmutation von Transuranen unter den Randbedingungen des Kernenergieausstiegs. Technisch machbar?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) could be considered as a technological option in the process of management of highly radioactive waste management, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In this group objectives for P and T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed using simulations of molten salt reactors with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible in 3 to 4 reactors in a time frame of 45 to 60 years. Further on a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation.

  3. Californium production at the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at ORNL, which is the production, storage, and distribution center for the ERDA heavy element research program, is described. About 0.5 percent of 252 Cf is currently being produced. TRU is a hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. New concepts have been incorporated into the facility for absolute containment, remote operation, remote equipment installation, and remote maintenance. The facilities include a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells served by master-slave manipulators and eight laboratories, four on each of two floors. Processing includes chemical dissolution of the targets followed by a series of solvent extraction, ion exchange, and precipitation steps to separate and purify the transuranium elements. The transcurium elements Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm are distributed to users. Remote techniques are used to fabricate the Am and Cm into target rods for reirradiation in the HFIR. Californium-252 that is in excess of the needs of the heavy element research program and the Cf sales program is stored at TRU and processed repeatedly to recover the daughter product 248 Cm, which is a highly desirable research material

  4. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution; Cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements transuraniens en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourisse, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [French] Une revue systematique de la cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements U, Np, Pu, Am, en solution perchlorique est proposee. Des considerations relatives aux grandeurs thermodynamiques d'activation associees aux actes elementaires (effet de compensation, entropie standard des complexes actives, rapidite des reactions) sont developpees. L'influence de l'acidite, de la force ionique, de l'eau lourde et de la polarite des solvants mixtes sur la vitesse des reactions est decrite. Enfin l'influence des differents anions sur la vitesse des reactions est expliquee par les variations de l'enthalpie libre standard de la reaction et de l'enthalpie libre d'activation (travail des forces electrostatiques) resultant de la complexation des especes dissoutes dans la solution. (auteur)

  5. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution; Cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements transuraniens en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourisse, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [French] Une revue systematique de la cinetique des reactions d'oxydo-reduction des elements U, Np, Pu, Am, en solution perchlorique est proposee. Des considerations relatives aux grandeurs thermodynamiques d'activation associees aux actes elementaires (effet de compensation, entropie standard des complexes actives, rapidite des reactions) sont developpees. L'influence de l'acidite, de la force ionique, de l'eau lourde et de la polarite des solvants mixtes sur la vitesse des reactions est decrite. Enfin l'influence des differents anions sur la vitesse des reactions est expliquee par les variations de l'enthalpie libre standard de la reaction et de l'enthalpie libre d'activation (travail des forces electrostatiques) resultant de la complexation des especes dissoutes dans la solution. (auteur)

  6. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Filipy, R.E.; Dietert, S.E.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the primary scientific activities of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries for the period October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. The Registries are parallel human tissue research programs devoted to the study of the actinide elements in humans. To date there have been 261 autopsy or surgical specimen donations, which include 11 whole bodies. The emphasis of the Registry was directed towards quality improvement and the development of a fully computerized data base that would incorporate not only the results of postmortem radiochemical analysis, but also medical and monitoring information obtained during life. Human subjects reviews were also completed. A three compartment biokinetic model for plutonium distribution is proposed. 2 tabs

  7. Extraction of uranium(6), transuranium elements and europium by bidentate neutral phosphorus- and phosphorus-nitrogen-containing reagents with substituent in methylene bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.E.; Kojro, O.Eh.; Nesterova, N.P.; Medved', T.Ya.; Chmutova, M.K.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Kabachnik, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of substituents in methylene bridge on solubility, extractivity and selectivity of bidentate neutral phosphorus- and phosphorus-nitrogen-containing reagents in the process of U(6), TUE, Eu extraction has been studied. It is ascertained that hydrogen substitution in the bridge of tetraphenylmethylenediphosphine dioxide (1) causes a decrease in the extractivity of reagent as to TPE, uranium (6) and europium. There is no visible regular relation between basicity and extractivity of substituted reagents. Hydrogen substitution in the bridge of diphenyl[diethylcarbamoylmethyl]phosphine oxide (2) causes a decrease in extractivity of the reagent as to TPE, uranium (6) and europium. In contrast to monodentate neutral reagents, when bidentate neutral reagents are used, sometimes no increase in the reagent extractivity with an increase in its basicity is observed. When fragments restricting the conformation mobility of bidentate reagent molecule are introduced in it (here substituents in methylene bridge), it may result in the violation of the regularity, since of all the factors affecting the reagent extractivity the spatial factor may become the prevailing one. On hydrogen substitution in the bridge of 1 separation factors of practically all (with few exceptions) studied pairs of elements increase. Hydrogen substitution in the bridge of 2 causes an increase in separation factor of U (6) /Am pair and it does not affect the separation factor of Am/Eu pair. Hydrogen substitution in the bridge of 1 and 2 does not result in the preparation of more efficient and considerably more selective reagents for extractive isolation and separation of the elements, but some of the substituted reagents (Cl-substituted 1, for instance) may turn out useful for the element separation

  8. Efficiency Of Transuranium Nuclides Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, Yu.A.; Klinov, D.A.; Semenov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the ways to create a wasteless nuclear power is based on transmutation of spent fuel nuclides. In particular, it is considered that the radioactivity of the nuclear power wastes should be the same (or smaller), than radioactivity of the uranium and the thorium extracted from entrails of the Earth. The problem of fission fragments transmutation efficiency was considered in article, where, in particular, the concepts of transmutation factor and the ''generalised'' index of biological hazard of the radioactive nuclides were entered. The transmutation efficiency has appeared to be a function of time and, naturally, dependent on nuclear power activity scenario, from neutron flux, absorption cross-sections of the nuclides under transmutation and on the rate of their formation in reactors. In the present paper the efficiency of the transmutation of transuranium nuclides is considered

  9. Essential and toxic elements in seaweeds for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, D; Cantaluppi, C; Ceccotto, F; Meli, M A; Roselli, C; Feduzi, L

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements (K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Br, and I) and nonessential or toxic elements (Al, Ti, Si, Rb, Sr, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were determined by energy-dispersive polarized x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in 14 seaweeds purchased in local specialty stores in Italy and consumed by humans. The differences in elements between the algae species reached up to 2-4 orders of magnitude. Lithothamnium calcareum showed the highest levels of Ca, Al, Si, Fe, and Ti. Palmaria palmata showed the highest concentrations of K, Rb, and Cl. The highest content of S was in Chondrus crispus. Laminaria digitata contained the highest concentrations of total As, Cd, Sn, Br, and I. The highest concentration of Zn was in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Ulva lactuca displayed the highest levels of Cu, Ni, Mn, and Pb. Iodine levels ranged from 3.4 in Chlorella pyrenoidosa to 7316 mg/kg(dry) in Laminaria digitata. The nutrimental importance of essential elements was assessed using nutritional requirements. The results showed that the consumption of algae might serve as an important source of the essential elements. Health risk due to the toxic elements present in seaweed was estimated using risk estimators. Total As, Cd, and Pb concentrations ranged from <1 to 67.6, to 7.2 and to 6.7 mg/kg(dry) respectively; therefore, their contribution to total elemental intake does not appear to pose any threat to the consumers, but the concentrations of these elements should be controlled to protect the consumer against potential adverse health risks.

  10. Spectrophotometry of transuranium elements in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauchetier, P.; Guichard, C.; Wagner, J.F.

    1985-06-01

    Quantitative determination of U, Pu and Np at different oxidation degrees by spectrophotometry and problems encountered for industrial applications and automation are reviewed. Work in progress includes memorization of reference spectra, simplification of preliminary treatments of solutions [fr

  11. Annual report 1990. Institute for Transuranium Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Basic Safety Research on Nuclear Fuels in 1990 centered on studies of the interrelation between structure, fission gas release and operating conditions of high burn-up LWR fuel. Basic mechanisms of fission product release were clarified. For safety studies, the specific heat capacity of molten UO 2 was measured up to 8000 K. Structural and chemical changes limit the operation of mixed nitride fuels to-centre temperatures below 2000 K. The Safe Handling of Fuel concentrated on the spread of airborne contamination in accident situations. The nuclear transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste constituents and the recycling of self- generated Pu was studied. The effects of long- term storage on leachibility and mechanical stability of waste glasses was simulated. UO 2 corrosion in aqueous solutions, for spent fuel storage possibilities, was studied. Neptunium and plutonium compounds were prepared and characterised for solid state measurements. Band structures of actinide intermetallics were calculated. Photoelectron spectroscopy was performed with PuSe and UA1Ni and high-pressure phases as well as compressibilities were determined for PuO 2 , PuSe, Pm, and a Pm-Sm alloy. The pressure dependence of the optical reflectivity was measured for several compounds of U and Th. The effectiveness of acoustic aerosol agglomeration was confirmed. Analytical work for the Commission's Safeguards Directorate is continued in collaboration. A robotized system for the preparation and conditioning of samples from a reprocessing plant for mass spectrometry was installed. Major contract Work for Third Parties in 1990 dealt with the study of dissolution characteristics of high burn-up fuel, the preparation of minor actinide alloys, production of alpha-emitting nuclides for radio-therapy, and the transfer of fuel pin codes

  12. Critical masses for the even-neutron-numbered transuranium actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a standards effort of the American Nuclear Society to establish subcritical mass limits for the transuranium actinides, critical masses were calculated for seven actinides, critical masses were calculated for seven actinide elements in bare, water-reflected, and steel-reflected metal systems. For the nuclides /sup 242/Pu and /sup 241/Am, values obtained with ENDF/B-V cross-section data were in much better agreement with values inferred from experimental measurement than were initial values calculated with ENDF/B-IV data. A brief description of the analytical methods employed is followed by a presentation of the results. 10 refs

  13. Study of cis- and trans-uranium elements by paper chromatography and electrophoresis; Contribution a l'etude des elements cis- et trans-uraniens par chromatographie sur papier et electrophorese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clanet, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-01-01

    In this work, the field of application of paper chromatography and electrophoresis in inorganic chemistry has been extended to elements 90 to 96 in hydrochloric and nitric acid solution. Results obtained concern the following points: 1) - Characterization of the valency states of Np and of Pu using coloured reactions on chromatograms and electrophoregrams. The valency IV is characterized by alizarin, arsenazo-I and thorin-I, whilst diphenylcarbazide is used for the hexavalent state. 2) - Paper chromatography: by using as eluent, mixtures of equal parts of aqueous HCl and HNO{sub 3} solutions and of alcohols (methanol, ethanol and n-butanol), the R{sub f} values of elements 90 to 96 have been determined. It has been possible to deduce certain conclusions concerning the complexing of these elements by Cl{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions. 3) - We have developed an electrophoretic technique on cellulose acetate membranes in order to separate the charged species formed by the elements 90 to 96 in HCl and HNO{sub 3} solutions from 1 to 12 M. Mobility curves have been obtained. It appears from our results that the tendency for the elements considered to form anionic complexes follows the order of the ionic potentials when the valency state is four; this order is reversed for the valency three. The ions Cl{sup -} have a smaller tendency to form complexes than the NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions with respect to these elements in their oxidation state III or IV, but the reverse phenomenon is observed for U{sup VI} and Pu{sup VI}. Finally, the complexing of the cations Pu{sup 4+} and PuUO{sub 2}{sup 2+} by NO{sub 3}{sup -} follows the order of the ionic potentials but occurs in the reverse order for Cl{sup -} ions. 4) - Various analytical applications are considered: separation of the various elements from each other and separation of the valency states of Np and of Pu. (author) [French] Dans cette etude, le champ d'application de la chromatographie sur papier et de l

  14. Study of cis- and trans-uranium elements by paper chromatography and electrophoresis; Contribution a l'etude des elements cis- et trans-uraniens par chromatographie sur papier et electrophorese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clanet, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-01-01

    In this work, the field of application of paper chromatography and electrophoresis in inorganic chemistry has been extended to elements 90 to 96 in hydrochloric and nitric acid solution. Results obtained concern the following points: 1) - Characterization of the valency states of Np and of Pu using coloured reactions on chromatograms and electrophoregrams. The valency IV is characterized by alizarin, arsenazo-I and thorin-I, whilst diphenylcarbazide is used for the hexavalent state. 2) - Paper chromatography: by using as eluent, mixtures of equal parts of aqueous HCl and HNO{sub 3} solutions and of alcohols (methanol, ethanol and n-butanol), the R{sub f} values of elements 90 to 96 have been determined. It has been possible to deduce certain conclusions concerning the complexing of these elements by Cl{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions. 3) - We have developed an electrophoretic technique on cellulose acetate membranes in order to separate the charged species formed by the elements 90 to 96 in HCl and HNO{sub 3} solutions from 1 to 12 M. Mobility curves have been obtained. It appears from our results that the tendency for the elements considered to form anionic complexes follows the order of the ionic potentials when the valency state is four; this order is reversed for the valency three. The ions Cl{sup -} have a smaller tendency to form complexes than the NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions with respect to these elements in their oxidation state III or IV, but the reverse phenomenon is observed for U{sup VI} and Pu{sup VI}. Finally, the complexing of the cations Pu{sup 4+} and PuUO{sub 2}{sup 2+} by NO{sub 3}{sup -} follows the order of the ionic potentials but occurs in the reverse order for Cl{sup -} ions. 4) - Various analytical applications are considered: separation of the various elements from each other and separation of the valency states of Np and of Pu. (author) [French] Dans cette etude, le champ d'application de la chromatographie sur papier et de l

  15. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Annual report October 1, 1994 - September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.; Harwick, L.A.; Markel, M.J.

    1996-07-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from October 1994 through September 1995.

  16. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Annual report February 1, 2000--January 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 2000 through January 2001.

  17. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Annual report February 1, 2000-January 31, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhart, Susan M.; Filipy, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 2000 through January 2001

  18. Recent progress of the United States transuranium and uranium registries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the history and objectives of the US Transuranium and Uranium Registries along with a discussion of some recent activities and accomplishments of these two parallel programs. 17 refs

  19. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia

  20. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kan-Atireklap, Supawat [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sanguansin, Joompol [Eastern Marine Fisheries Development Center, Ban Phe, Muang, Rayong 21160 (Thailand); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Ancol Timur, Jakarta 11048 (Indonesia); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES), Office of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia.

  1. Multilevel Control System of Regional Power Consumption: Analysis of Infrastructure Elements Interconnections, Efficiency Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolaevna Myznikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental strategic programs in the spheres of power and economics adopted at various levels of management, are not always capable to solve the problem of power efficiency. The changes of systemic connections of economy and power elements are one of the basic problems of management at the regional level. The development of market relations has caused the growth of uncertainty factors at all levels of power consumption management. An insufficient estimation of system infrastructural interrelations and an individualization of organizational-economic relations of economic subjects and their localization, have generated the intersystem conflictness in distribution of power resources and have aggravated the problem of estimating power consumption efficiency at a systemic level. The restriction of application of the traditional management methods based on the principles of technological efficiency of the processes of energy manufacture and consumption, is connected with the information ruptures caused by the growth of factors of uncertainty and inconsistency of efficiency criteria. Application of modern methods of power consumption forecasting has a number of essential restrictions. At the present stage the management of power consumption in multilevel systems is aimed at realisation of system integrity and economic coordination of manufacture elements, transfer and consumption at regional level and demands working out of the new effective management methods based on the analysis of system interrelations. Allocation of system interrelations depends on features of development of electropower sector, active and passive elements of the structure of consumption, power balance. The analysis and estimation of interrelations of power and economic sphere allow to improve methodology of management of power consumption at the regional level in the conditions of uncertainty.

  2. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: Researching radiation protection. USTUR annual report for February 1, 1999 through January 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed.)

    2000-07-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 1999 through January 2000.

  3. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: Researching radiation protection. USTUR annual report for February 1, 1999 through January 31, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhart, Susan M.; Filipy, Ronald E.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 1999 through January 2000

  4. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  5. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people.

  6. The radiological significance of transuranium radioisotopes released to the environment during operation of the LMFBR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates based on current knowledge and conservative assumptions indicate that release of transuranium elements from the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cycle are likely to proaduce population dose commitments small compared to those produced by naturally occurring alpha emitters and globally dispersed transuranium radioisotopes from tests of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. Potential health consequences of these releases to current and future generations are estimated to be very small compared to risks associated with the production of energy by fossil fuels. The estimates are subject to a number of uncertainties imposed by lack of knowledge. Some of the uncertainties are not likely to be greatly reduced until LMFBR facilities are designed and operated. Others may be significantly reduced prior to facility design and operation. The paper discusses the sensitivity of the estimates to uncertainties and approches to reducing those uncertainties that strongly influence the estimates. (author)

  7. United States Transuranium Registry annual report October 1, 1977-October 1, 1978 to DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenstein, B.D. Jr.; Norwood, W.D.; Newton, C.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The US Transuranium Registry (USTR) serves as a center for the acquisition and recording of information of the transuranic elements in man and their effects on man. To data 15,045 US transuranium workers have been tabulated, authority for 1048 autopsies obtained, and 93 autopsies granted. Department of Energy contractor and National Regulatory Commission licensee activities at participating sites are discussed. A significant increase in participation from the Savannah River plant has been received during the past year. The low level transuranic measurement laboratory analyzing tissue specimens for the USTR (except Rocky Flats specimens) was transferred from Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory to Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Dr. Charles W. Mays was appointed Chairman of the USTR Advisory Committee upon the resignation of Dr. James H. Sterner. To improve the quality of autopsy tissue for analysis prosectors were appointed at the Hanford, Rocky Flats, and Los Alamos sites. USTR educational and informational activities were extensive and varied

  8. Transuranium Processing Plant semiannual report of production, status, and plans for period ending December 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.

    1977-10-01

    During the period July 1, 1976, through December 31, 1976, transuranium elements were obtained from 11 irradiated HFIR targets; products recovered are 0.3 g 243 Am, 16.6 g 244 Cm, 23 g 249 Bk, 211 g 252 Cf, 1.15 mg 253 Es, and 0.4 pg 247 Fm. Two batches of high-purity 248 Cm were purified chemically for shipment, and another batch containing about 62 mg of 248 Cm was separated from 252 Cf. Thirty shipments were made from TRU during the period; recipients and the amounts of nuclides are listed in tabular form. Nine HFIR targets, each containing 8 to 9 g of curium, were fabricated. The sequence of chemical processing steps used to purify the californium product was changed; this change yielded a shorter recovery time for high-purity 253 Es, which enabled a 50% increase in the amount obtained. Eight neutron sources were fabricated during this report period, bringing the total fabricated to date to 92. Three sources that had previously been returned to TRU were reassigned; two others are also available for reassignment. The values currently being used for transuranium element decay data and for cross-section data in planning irradiation-processing cycles, calculating production forecasts, and assaying products are tabulated in the Appendix

  9. Transuranium processing plant semiannual report of production, status, and plans for period ending December 31, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.

    1975-07-01

    During the period July 1, 1974, through December 31, 1974, the following amounts of transuranium elements were recovered from 11 irradiated HFIR targets: 1.5 g 243 Am, 45 g 244 Cm, 24 mg 249 Bk, 252 mg 252 Cf, 1.25 mg 253 Es, and 0.5 pg 257 Fm. In addition, 34 mg of high-purity 248 Cm was separated from 252 Cf which had been recovered and purified during earlier periods. Nine HFIR targets, each containing 8 to 9 g of actinides (predominantly curium), were fabricated. Some of the chemical processing steps used for processing HFIR targets were added, deleted, or rearranged in order to reduce processing time and increase product yields. One cubicle equipment rack was replaced and the out-of-cell piping and equipment associated with the remotely operated valves in the TRU cubicles was revised. One neutron source was fabricated. Three sources that had been used previously in various projects and returned to TRU were reloaned. A special project was begun to recover 126 Sn from TRU process solutions. The values currently in use for transuranium element decay data and for cross-section data in planning irradiation-processing cycles, calculating production forecasts, and assaying products are tabulated in the Appendix. (U.S.)

  10. Transuranium processing plant semiannual report of production, status, and plans for period ending December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    Transuranium elements were obtained from 13 irradiated HFIR targets. One batch of high-purity 248 Cm (approximately 75 mg) was separated from 252 Cf. Eighteen shipments were made from TRU during the period. Seven HFIR targets, each containing 8 to 9 g of curium, were fabricated. A new scrubber system was installed in the dissolver off-gas (DOG) stream to remove the bulk of the 131 I and to reduce the amount sorbed in the Hopcalite--charcoal system. During TRU target Campaign 53, the DOG stream was scrubbed with hyperazeotropic nitric acid (the IODOX process). Both the equipment and the process performed satisfactorily. Three neutron sources were fabricated during this report period, bringing the total fabricated to date to 100. Six sources were returned to TRU and are available for reassignment. Special projects included the production of several grams of ultrahigh-purity 243 Am and the development of a method for purification of the ZnBr 2 solution from a shielding window. The values currently being used for transuranium element decay data and for cross-section data in planning irradiation-processing cycles, calculating production forecasts, and assaying products are tabulated

  11. Chemical process engineering in the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Bigelow, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Since operation of the Transuranium Processing Plant began, process changes have been made to counteract problems caused by equipment corrosion, to satisfy new processing requirements, and to utilize improved processes. The new processes, equipment, and techniques have been incorporated into a sequence of steps which satisfies all required processing functions

  12. Annual report of the United States transuranium and uranium registries, October 1, 1988--September 30, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Swint, M.J.; Dietert, S.E.

    1990-04-01

    This report summarizes the primary scientific activities of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries for the period October 1, 1988 through September 30, 1989. The Registries are parallel human tissue research programs devoted to the study of the actinide elements in man. The emphasis of the Transuranium Registry was directed toward evaluation of six whole body donations. In the five cases whose exposure was through inhalation, approximately half of the total body content of Pu-239 + 240 and a third of the Am-241 was found in the respiratory tract, suggesting that these nuclides are more avidly retained than predicted by the current model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. A significant fraction of these nuclides is found in soft tissues other than liver, and an uptake fraction of 0.2 is proposed for muscle, with a residence half-time of 10 years. Studies of these and routine autopsy cases indicate that more than 90% of the total respiratory tract plutonium or americium is in the lungs, with the remainder in the lymph nodes, and that a greater fraction is found in the lungs of smokers relative to the lymph nodes. Primary activities of the Uranium Registry centered around the acquisition of a whole body donation from a woman who had received an injection of colloidal thorium dioxide some 38 years prior to death

  13. Fission energy of uranium isotopes and transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskij, P.Eh.; Manevich, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison is made between the prompt fission energy, Esub(pr), calculated from the mass and binding energy spectrum and the Esub(pr) value obtained from the experimental data on the kinetic energy of fragments, the energy of prompt neutrons and prompt γ-quanta. Basing on the data on β-decay chains of fission fragments, the energies of neutrinos, γ-quanta and β-electrons are obtained, which permits to calculate the actual energy released during fission. The calculations are performed for thermal neutron-induced fission, fast-neutron induced fission and for fission after bombardment with 14 MeV neutrons. The available experimental data on the fission fragment kinetic energy, prompt γ-quanta energy and fission neutron energy are presented. The comparison of the Esub(pr) values obtained experimentally for the thermal-neutron-induced fission with the calculated Esub(pr) value shows that for 233 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu the agreement is rather favourable. For 235 U the agreement is within the error limits. As to the Esub(pr) values for the fast-neutron-induced fission, the agreement between the calculated and experimental data for all nuclides is quite good

  14. Kinetics of transuranium element oxidation-reduction reactions in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourisse, D.

    1966-09-01

    A review of the kinetics of U, Np, Pu, Am oxidation-reduction reactions is proposed. The relations between the different activation thermodynamic functions (compensatory effect, formal entropy of the activated complex, magnitude of reactions velocities) are considered. The effects of acidity, ionic strength deuterium and mixed solvents polarity on reactions rates are described. The effect of different anions on reactions rates are explained by variations of the reaction standard free energy and variations of the activation free energy (coulombic interactions) resulting from the complexation of dissolved species by these anions. (author) [fr

  15. Chemistry of transuranium elements in salt-base repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucchini, Jean - Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, Michael K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ams, D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-02

    The mobility and potential release of actinides into the accessible environment continues to be the key performance assessment concern of nuclear repositories. Actinide, in particular plutonium speciation under the wide range of conditions that can exist in the subsurface is complex and depends strongly on the coupled effects of redox conditions, inorganic/organic complexation, and the extent/nature of aggregation. Understanding the key factors that define the potential for actinide migration is, in this context, an essential and critical part of making and sustaining a licensing case for a nuclear repository. Herein we report on recent progress in a concurrent modeling and experimental study to determine the speciation of plutonium, uranium and americium in high ionic strength Na-CI-Mg brines. This is being done as part of the ongomg recertification effort m the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The oxidation-state specific solubility of actinides were established in brine as function of pC{sub H+}, brine composition and the presence and absence of organic chelating agents and carbonate. An oxidation-state invariant analog approach using Nd{sup 3+} and Th{sup 4+} was used for An{sup 3+} and An{sup 4+} respectively. These results show that organic ligands and hydrolysis are key factors for An(III) solubility, hydrolysis at pC{sub H+} above 8 is predominate for An(IV) and carbonates are the key factor for U(VI) solubility. The effect of high ionic strength and brine components measured in absence of carbonates leads to measurable increased in overall solubility over analogous low ionic strength groundwater. Less is known about the bioreduction of actinides by halo-tolerant microorganisms, but there is now evidence that bioreduction does occur and is analogous, in many ways, to what occurs with soil bacteria. Results of solubility studies that focus on Pitzer parameter corrections, new species (e.g. borate complexation), and the thermodynamic parameters for modeling are discussed.

  16. Decontamination of evaporator concentrated for cesium, strontium and transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Eymard, S.; Gambade, R.; La Rosa, G.; Casas i Garcia, J.

    1992-01-01

    Reprocessing produces medium activity liquid wastes. These wastes are evaporated, the distillate is discharged into the environment and all active and inactive salts are concentrated, leading to an important volume of wastes. The objective of this work is to separate long-lived radionuclides into a small volume addressed to a geological formation from the large volume of the concentrate, this concentrate after embedding is disposed on surface site. Supported liquid membranes (S.L.M.s) are used because they enable us to use low inventory of organic phase, hence to use very sophisticated and expensive extractants. To confirm the results obtained with simulated wastes, tests were carried out with genuine concentrate using two S.L.M.s: the first one with CMPO/TBP diluted in decalin, the second one impregnated by the mixture DC18-C-6/decanol/hexylbenzene. The decontamination factor (DF) achieved for actinides is about 100 with the CMPO/TBP SLM. The DF is increased by the second membrane: after treatment with crown ether SLM, the total DF is higher than 400

  17. European institute for transuranium elements. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Report covers work done in the field of operation limits of nuclear fuels, transient behaviour of oxide fuels and fission product release under severe fuel damage conditions, actinide cycle safety, actinide research, safeguards reactor safety waste management and radiation protection

  18. Iodox process tests in a transuranium element production campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Benker, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    The Iodox process removes gaseous iodine from air by oxidation of organic iodides and by hydrolysis-oxidation of free iodine to the stable iodate form. An Iodox system for treatment of the 10 -4 m 3 /s dissolver off-gas (DOG) stream was installed and is used for initial removal of radioiodine, this allowing the Hopcalite-charcoal to serve as a backup system in TRU. During a recent TRU production campaign, three dissolver runs were made to test the Iodox process

  19. Transuranium Processing Plant semiannual report of production, status, and plans for period ending June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.

    1977-12-01

    During the period January 1, 1977, through June 30, 1977, the following amounts of transuranium elements were recovered from 12 irradiated HFIR targets: 0.1g 243 Am, 21g 244 Cm, 29.5 mg 249 Bk, 288 mg 252 Cf, 1.48 mg 253 Es, and 0.7 pg 257 Fm. One batch of high-purity 248 Cm (approximately 50 mg) was separated from 252 Cf. Twenty-three shipments were made from TRU during the period; recipients and the amounts of nuclides are tabulated. Five HFIR targets, each containing 8 to 9 g of curium, were fabricated. During the next 18 months, we expect to obtain totals of 92 mg of 249 Bk, 910 mg of 252 Cf, 3.8 mg of 253 Es (in a mixture of isotopes), 615 μg of high-purity 253 Es, and 1.6 pg of 257 Fm; we also expect to make available 250 mg of high-purity 248 Cm. No process or equipment changes were made during this report period. Five neutron sources were fabricated during this report period, bringing the total fabricated to date to 97. Two sources that had previously been returned to TRU were reassigned. Special projects included the following: (1) the enrichment of the 244 Pu concentration in 100 mg of plutonium by irradiation to burn out the lighter isotopes, (2) the separation of 245 pg of 254 Cf from 39-hr /sup 254m/Es that was produced by irradiation of 5 μg of 253 Es, and (3) an experimental separation of cerium from the other rare-earth elements in a TRU process waste solution. The values that we are currently using for transuranium element decay data and for cross-section data in planning irradiation-processing cycles, calculating production forecasts, and assaying products are tabulated in the Appendix

  20. The TRUEX [TRansUranium EXtraction] process and the management of liquid TRU [transuranic] waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    The TRUEX process is a new generic liquid-liquid extraction process for removal of all actinides from acidic nitrate or chloride nuclear waste solutions. Because of its high efficiency and great flexibility, the TRUEX process appears destined to be widely used in the US and possibly in other countries for cost-effective management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. In the US, TRU wastes are those that contain ≥3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg) of TRU elements with half-lives greater than 20 y. This paper gives a brief review of the relevant chemistry and summarizes the current status of development and deployment of the TRUEX (TRansUranium EXtraction) process flowsheets to treat specific acidic waste solutions at several US Department of Energy sites. 19 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements to favor volatile fatty acid consumption during anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Moscoviz, Roman; Ruiz, Diane; Santa-Catalina, Gaëlle; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernet, Nicolas; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-07-01

    The effect of supplementing granular activated carbon and trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance of consecutive batch reactors treating food waste was investigated. The results from the first batch suggest that addition of activated carbon favored biomass acclimation, improving acetic acid consumption and enhancing methane production. Adding trace elements allowed a faster consumption of propionic acid. A second batch proved that a synergy existed when activated carbon and trace elements were supplemented simultaneously. The degradation kinetics of propionate oxidation were particularly improved, reducing significantly the batch duration and improving the average methane productivities. Addition of activated carbon favored the growth of archaea and syntrophic bacteria, suggesting that interactions between these microorganisms were enhanced. Interestingly, microbial analyses showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were predominant. This study shows for the first time that addition of granular activated carbon and trace elements may be a feasible solution to stabilize food waste anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transuranium analysis methodologies for biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessman, R.A.; Lee, K.D.; Curry, B.; Leventhal, L.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the most abundant transuranium nuclides in the environment (i.e., plutonium and, to a lesser extent, americium) are available. There is a lack of procedures for doing sequential analysis for Np, Pu, Am, and Cm in environmental samples, primarily because of current emphasis on Pu and Am. Reprocessing requirements and waste disposal connected with the fuel cycle indicate that neptunium and curium must be considered in environmental radioactive assessments. Therefore it was necessary to develop procedures that determine all four of these radionuclides in the environment. The state of the art of transuranium analysis methodology as applied to environmental samples is discussed relative to different sample sources, such as soil, vegetation, air, water, and animals. Isotope-dilution analysis with 243 Am ( 239 Np) and 236 Pu or 242 Pu radionuclide tracers is used. Americium and curium are analyzed as a group, with 243 Am as the tracer. Sequential extraction procedures employing bis(2-ethyl-hexyl)orthophosphoric acid (HDEHP) were found to result in lower yields and higher Am--Cm fractionation than ion-exchange methods

  3. United States transuranium and uranium registries - 25 years of growth, research, and service. Annual report, April 1992--September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Harwick, L.A.; Toohey, R.E.; Russell, J.J.; Filipy, R.E.; Dietert, S.E.; Hunacek, M.M.; Hall, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Registries originated in 1968 as the National Plutonium Registry with the name changed to the United States Transuranium Registry the following year to reflect a broader concern with the heavier actinides as well. Initially, the scientific effort of the USTR was directed towards study of the distribution and dose of plutonium and americium in occupationally exposed persons, and to assessment of the effects of exposure to the transuranium elements on health. This latter role was reassessed during the 1970's when it was recognized that the biased cohort of the USTR was inappropriate for epidemiologic analysis. In 1978, the administratively separate but parallel United States Uranium Registry was created to carry out similar work among persons exposed to uranium and its decay products. A seven member scientific advisory committee provided guidance and scientific oversight. In 1992, the two Registries were administratively combined and transferred from the purview of a Department of Energy contractor to Washington State University under the provisions of a grant. Scientific results for the first twenty-five years of the Registries are summarized, including the 1985 publication of the analysis of the first whole body donor. Current scientific work in progress is summarized along with administrative activities for the period

  4. United States Transuranium Registry annual report October 1, 1975-October 1, 1976 to ERDA Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenstein, B.D. Jr.; Norwood, W.D.; Newton, C.E. Jr.

    1976-12-01

    The US Transuranium Registry is a center for collecting precise information about the occupational effects of transuranic elements on man. To date 13,943 past and present transuranium workers have been tabulated. Health, mortality, causes of death and transuranic organ depositions are being studied. Bryce D. Breitenstein, Jr., M.D. was named Director of the Registry in July 1976. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is directing the epidemiological portion of a plutonium worker health study with George Voelz, M.D. and Louis Hempelmann, M.D. serving as principal investigators. The USTR is affiliated with this study. USTR statistical data shows progressive acquisition of information for 1975 and 1976. ERDA contractor and NRC licensee activities at participating sited are discussed. Preparation of the input format to record and store USTR data has been completed and is ready for trial operation. USTR educational and informational activities were extensive and varied. Many queries arose from the use of published Registry autopsy data by Ralph Nader's associate Dr. S. Wolfe. There was continued cooperation with representatives of the British Atomic Energy Authority in their efforts to develop a plutonium registry

  5. United States transuranium and uranium registries - 25 years of growth, research, and service. Annual report, April 1992--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.; Harwick, L.A.; Toohey, R.E.; Russell, J.J.; Filipy, R.E.; Dietert, S.E.; Hunacek, M.M.; Hall, C.A.

    1994-10-01

    The Registries originated in 1968 as the National Plutonium Registry with the name changed to the United States Transuranium Registry the following year to reflect a broader concern with the heavier actinides as well. Initially, the scientific effort of the USTR was directed towards study of the distribution and dose of plutonium and americium in occupationally exposed persons, and to assessment of the effects of exposure to the transuranium elements on health. This latter role was reassessed during the 1970`s when it was recognized that the biased cohort of the USTR was inappropriate for epidemiologic analysis. In 1978, the administratively separate but parallel United States Uranium Registry was created to carry out similar work among persons exposed to uranium and its decay products. A seven member scientific advisory committee provided guidance and scientific oversight. In 1992, the two Registries were administratively combined and transferred from the purview of a Department of Energy contractor to Washington State University under the provisions of a grant. Scientific results for the first twenty-five years of the Registries are summarized, including the 1985 publication of the analysis of the first whole body donor. Current scientific work in progress is summarized along with administrative activities for the period.

  6. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Annual report February 1, 2001 - January 31, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhart, Susan M.; Filipy, Ronald E.

    2002-01-01

    This report documents the activities of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) from February 2001 through January 2002. Progress in continuing collaborations and several new collaborations is reviewed

  7. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Annual report February 1, 2001--January 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed)

    2002-07-01

    This report documents the activities of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) from February 2001 through January 2002. Progress in continuing collaborations and several new collaborations is reviewed.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Heavy Elements Program. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark. S. B.; Ewing, R.

    2005-01-01

    In our first funding cycle, much time was spent developing protocols for characterizing and working with samples containing transuranium isotopes and obtaining preliminary experimental data on non-f-element systems

  9. Transuranium Processing Plant semiannual report of production, status, and plans for period ending June 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.J.; Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.

    1976-03-01

    During the period January 1, 1975, through June 30, 1975, the following amounts of transuranium elements were recovered from 22 irradiated HFIR targets: 2g /sup 243/Am, 59 g /sup 244/Cm, 51 mg /sup 249/Bk, 465 mg /sup 252/Cf, 2.5 mg /sup 253/Es, and 1.4 pg /sup 257/Fm. In addition, 45 mg of high-purity /sup 248/Cm was operated from /sup 252/Cf which had been recovered and purified during earlier periods, and 56 mg of a lower-quality /sup 248/Cm was separated from californium purification rework solutions. Five HFIR targets, each containing approximately 9 g of actinides (predominantly curium), were fabricated. A new long-term projection showed that /sup 252/Cf production in the TRU-HFIR complex could increase to as much as 2.5 g/year. During the next 18 months, we expect to recover totals of 46 mg of /sup 249/Bk, 520 mg of /sup 252/Cf, 2.0 mg of /sup 253/Es (in a mixture of isotopes), 220 ..mu..g of high-purity /sup 253/Es, and 1.6 pg of /sup 257/Fm. We also expect to obtain 125 mg of high-purity /sup 248/Cm from purified californium now in storage. There are no plans to process any of the remaining SRP Pu-Al tubes or to irradiate any plutonium targets in the HFIR; thus, we do not expect to recover any /sup 244/Pu. No changes were made in the chemical processing flowsheets normally used at TRU. Two neutron sources were fabricated, bringing the total fabricated to 77. In special projects, we (1) produced about 1 mg of /sup 250/Cf by irradiation of /sup 249/Bk in HFIR rabbits, and (2) processed some irradiated /sup 248/Cm samples and obtained yield and isotopic composition data for use in determining the capture cross section of /sup 249/Cm in the HFIR. The values that are currently being used for transuranium element decay data and for cross-section data in planning irradiation-processing cycles, calculating production forecasts, and assaying products are tabulated in the Appendix.

  10. Transuranium Processing Plant semiannual report of production, status, and plans for period ending June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.

    1976-03-01

    During the period January 1, 1975, through June 30, 1975, the following amounts of transuranium elements were recovered from 22 irradiated HFIR targets: 2g 243 Am, 59 g 244 Cm, 51 mg 249 Bk, 465 mg 252 Cf, 2.5 mg 253 Es, and 1.4 pg 257 Fm. In addition, 45 mg of high-purity 248 Cm was operated from 252 Cf which had been recovered and purified during earlier periods, and 56 mg of a lower-quality 248 Cm was separated from californium purification rework solutions. Five HFIR targets, each containing approximately 9 g of actinides (predominantly curium), were fabricated. A new long-term projection showed that 252 Cf production in the TRU-HFIR complex could increase to as much as 2.5 g/year. During the next 18 months, we expect to recover totals of 46 mg of 249 Bk, 520 mg of 252 Cf, 2.0 mg of 253 Es (in a mixture of isotopes), 220 μg of high-purity 253 Es, and 1.6 pg of 257 Fm. We also expect to obtain 125 mg of high-purity 248 Cm from purified californium now in storage. There are no plans to process any of the remaining SRP Pu-Al tubes or to irradiate any plutonium targets in the HFIR; thus, we do not expect to recover any 244 Pu. Two neutron sources were fabricated, bringing the total fabricated to 77. Two sources that had been used previously in various projects were returned to the TRU inventory and are available for reassignment. In special projects, we (1) produced about 1 mg of 250 Cf by irradiation of 249 Bk in HFIR rabbits, and (2) processed some irradiated 248 Cm samples and obtained yield and isotopic composition data for use in determining the capture cross section of 249 Cm in the HFIR. The values that are currently being used for transuranium element decay data and for cross-section data in planning irradiation-processing cycles, calculating production forecasts, and assaying products are tabulated in the Appendix

  11. Characteristic elements of "Mediterranean Diet": the consumption of vegetables and legumes in Greece (1950-2005)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiou, K.Z.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Georgakopoulos, G.

    2012-01-01

    on).This paper describes the dietary consumption of vegetables and legumes in Greece during the period 1950 to 2005. All dimensions of alimentary consumption patterns of vegetables and legumes are examined here with a specific focus on: a) their natural characteristics; b) technical features of the

  12. Transuranium Processing Plant semiannual report of production, status, and plans for period ending December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.

    1976-10-01

    Between July 1, 1975, and December 31, 1975, maintenance was conducted at TRU for a period of three months, 295 g of curium oxide (enough for approximately 26 HFIR targets) were prepared, 100 mg of high-purity 248 Cm, were separated from 252 Cf that had been purified during earlier periods, 11 HFIR targets were fabricated, and 28 product shipments were made. No changes were made in the chemical processing flowsheets normally used at TRU during this report period. However, three equipment racks were replaced (with two new racks) during this time. In Cubicle 6, the equipment replaced was that used to decontaminate the transplutonium elements from rare earth fission products and to separate curium from the heavier elements by means of the LiCl-based anion-exchange process. In Cubicle 5, the equipment used to separate the transcurium elements by high-pressure ion exchange and to purify berkelium by batch solvent extraction was replaced. Two neutron sources were fabricated, bringing the total fabricated to 79. One source that had been used in a completed project was returned to the TRU inventory and is available for reissue. Three sources, for which no further use was foreseen, were processed to isolate and recover the ingrown 248 Cm and the residual 252 Cf. Eight pellets, each containing 100 μg of high-purity 248 Cm were prepared for irradiation in HFIR to study the production of 250 Cm. The values currently being used for transuranium element decay data and for cross-section data in planning irradiation-processing cycles, calculating production forecasts, and assaying products are tabulated

  13. Proposals for setting possible limits on intake of transuranium radionuclides absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalikin, G.A.; Nisimov, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The absorption of transuranium elements ( 238 Pu, 241 Am, 252 Cf) from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as influenced by physiological factors (e.g. age) and physical and chemical properties of compounds incorporated has been studied in 600 white mongrel rats. Average values of absorption have been determined for simple salts and a complex citrate. A number of factors increasing absorption have been found. Thus, originally bound compounds contained in the meat of animals incorporated with 238 Pu and 241 Am when alive, 241 Am-containing potato juice and green oat stalks enhanced absorption by a factor of 5 to 30 as compared with an adequate control. Ethanol administered orally as a 20% solution increased the absorption of americium nitrate by 60% and that of citrate by 23%. Oral administratio of 241 Am nitrate solution together with ferric chloride changes the metabolic kinetics of the nuclide completely. The total absorption of americium from DI tract is 7.1 times that of the control, but a considerable fraction absorbed into blood is excreted with urine (4.2% over 8 days). Among physiological factors age effects the absorption of transuranics from the GI tract to acertain degree. The absorption of 252 Cf in 7 day-old young rats proves to be 8.1 times that of adults. Gestation brought about a 2.7 fold increase of 241 Am absorption

  14. Transuranium processing plant semiannual report of production, status, and plans for period ending June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.J.; Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.

    1977-02-01

    During the period January 1, 1976, through June 30, 1976, the following amounts of transuranium elements were recovered from ten irradiated HFIR targets: 2 g /sup 243/Am, 50 g /sup 244/Cm, 29 mg /sup 249/Bk, 277 mg /sup 252/Cf, 1.7 mg /sup 253/Es, and 0.5 pg /sup 257/Fm. About 50 mg of high-purity /sup 248/Cm was purified chemically for shipment, and another 75 mg of /sup 248/Cm was separated from /sup 252/Cf. Nineteen HFIR targets, each containing approximately 9 g of curium, were fabricated. There have been no changes during this report period in the chemical processing flowsheets normally used at TRU. Five neutron sources were fabricated, bringing the total fabricated to 84. Six sources that were used previously in various projects have been returned to TRU and are available for reassignment. Special projects included (1) the continued study of /sup 250/Cm production by irradiation of /sup 248/Cm; (2) the production of 0.54 mg of /sup 250/Cf by irradiation of /sup 249/Bk; (3) the separation of approximately 200 pg of /sup 254/Cf from 39-hr /sup 254m/Es that was produced by irradiation of 5 ..mu..g of /sup 253/Es; and (4) the determination of process steps needed to obtain rare-earth fission products in an oxide form from LiCl-based anion exchange raffinate solution.

  15. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: A human tissue research program. USTUR annual report for October 1, 1997 through January 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed.)

    1999-10-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) are a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This annual report covers October 1, 1997, through January 31, 1999; the reporting period has been extended so that future annual reports will coincide with the period covered by the grant itself.

  16. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damastuti, E.; Syahfitri, W.Y.N.; Santoso, M.; Lestiani, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RADA) values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 - 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement (author)

  17. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 – 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement

  18. A Systematic Review on Exposure to Toxic and Essential Elements through Black Tea Consumption in Iran: Could It be a Major Risk for Human Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Rezaee

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The hazard of excessive element intake through black tea consumption should be considered as negligible in Iran. However, related risk for manganese appeared to be more than toxic metals.

  19. Behaviour of rare earth elements, as natural analogues of transuranium elements, during weathering of basaltic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daux, V.; Crovisier, J.L.; Petit, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Subglacial basaltic glasses from Iceland have been studied in order to investigate REE behaviour low-temperature weathering. Just as actinides accumulate in the hydrated superficial corrosion layer of borosilicate glasses, REEs are found to be enriched in the natural corrosion layer of basaltic glasses (palagonite). However, this enrichment is only relative for basaltic glasses [fr

  20. Solutions for Creating the Main Elements which Condition the Energy Consumption. Exterior Windows - Roof

    OpenAIRE

    Rubnicu, Alin

    2013-01-01

    The envelope of the building often has a complex geometry in which a multitude of different sub-assemblies can be identified. The envelope elements specific to roof areas can generally be of three types: walk and non-walk terrace roof as well as roof truss. The exterior joinery analysed is PVC type with four glass sheets.

  1. Fast method to determine the elements in maize flour: reduction in preparation time and reagent consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineo Kelte Filho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to develop and validate methodology to reduce the digestion time and reagent consumption in the determination of minerals in maize flour. The standard methodology employed in Brazil is that described by AOAC. It consists of the calcination of the sample at high temperatures for a long period of time, making the process expensive and slow. In this work, a wet sample digestion method using HNO3 was employed, heating on a block digester with final dissolution in an ultrasonic bath. The validation tests involved linearity and working range studies, and the determination of the detection and quantification limits, accuracy and precision. The sample digestion time was 1:30 h and the percent recoveries for the metals were 93% for Ca, 98% for Cu, 110% for Fe, 97% for Mg, 101% for Mn and 106% for Zn.

  2. United States Transuranium Registry summary report, July 1, 1974 to October 1, 1975 to ERDA Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.; Newton, C.E. Jr.

    1975-11-01

    The primary purpose of the Registry is to protect the interests of workers, employers and the public by serving as a national focal point for the acquisition and provision of the latest and most precise information about the effects of the transuranic elements on man. This is being done by establishing the population at risk. To date some 9063 transuranium workers have been so identified. On a continuing basis, the best current estimates of the amount and location of any internal deposition of any of the transuranium elements in employees are being accumulated. These determinations have been improved by reconciliation with actual burdens found in various organs at autopsy or by alternate methods. Such employees are followed clinically and by epidemiological methods to determine whether there may be any adverse effects on such desposits on health or longevity. Registry statistics are given for the following sites: Hanford, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, Savannah River, Mount, and Oak Ridge. The seven appendces contain information related to the Registry activities

  3. Do consumption of Kargi Tulum cheese meet daily requirements for minerals and trace elements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Sevgi Kirdar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mineral and trace elements of Kargı Tulum cheese are investigated during the ripening period of 90 days. Calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc and iron quantities were determined by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The effect of maturation time on the sodium, phosphor and potassium content of cheese samples has been found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. Magnesium and calcium levels during ripening period showed significant statistical difference (p<0.01. Copper values of cheese samples demonstrated an increase throughout 90-day maturation time. The effect of maturation time on manganese and zinc value has been found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. According to obtained data, by consuming 100 g Kargı Tulum cheese in daily period, an adult can provide a remarkable portion of his/her minerals needs.

  4. Transuranium perrhenates: Np(IV), Pu(IV) and (III), Am (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, Jean-Paul; Freundlich, William; Pages, Monique

    1977-01-01

    Synthesis in aqueous solution and by solid state reactions, crystallographical characterization and study of the stability of some transuranium perrhenates: Asup(n+)(ReO 4 - )sub(n) (A=Np(IV), Pu(IV), Pu(III), Am(III) [fr

  5. Consumption of arsenic and other elements from vegetables and drinking water from an arsenic-contaminated area of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Asaduzzaman, Md.; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Concentrations of As and other elements in vegetables and drinking water. ► Concentrations of As and other elements in garden soils. ► Daily dietary intake of As and other elements for adults from vegetables and water. ► Potential health risk was estimated comparing with the FAO/WHO values of metals. ► Vegetables alone contribute the elemental intake below the PMTDI values. -- Abstract: The study assesses the daily consumption by adults of arsenic (As) and other elements in drinking water and home-grown vegetables in a severely As-contaminated area of Bangladesh. Most of the examined elements in drinking water were below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values except As. The median concentrations of As, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), Mn, nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables were 90 μg kg −1 , 111 μg kg −1 , 0.80 mg kg −1 , 168 μg kg −1 , 13 mg kg −1 , 2.1 mg kg −1 , 65 mg kg −1 , 1.7 mg kg −1 , and 50 mg kg −1 , respectively. Daily intakes of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, manganese (Mn), Ni, and Zn from vegetables and drinking water for adults were 839 μg, 2.9 μg, 20.8 μg, 5.5 μg, 0.35 mg, 56.4 μg, 2.0 mg, 49.1 μg, and 1.3 mg, respectively. The health risks from consuming vegetables were estimated by comparing these figures with the WHO/FAO provisional tolerable weekly or daily intake (PTWI or PTDI). Vegetables alone contribute 0.05 μg of As and 0.008 mg of Cu per kg of body weight (bw) daily; 0.42 μg of Cd, 8.77 mg of Pb, and 0.03 mg of Zn per kg bw weekly. Other food sources and particularly dietary staple rice need to be evaluated to determine the exact health risks from such foods

  6. Consumption of arsenic and other elements from vegetables and drinking water from an arsenic-contaminated area of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Asaduzzaman, Md. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC-CARE), P.O. Box 486, Salisbury South, SA 5106 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@crccare.com [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC-CARE), P.O. Box 486, Salisbury South, SA 5106 (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Concentrations of As and other elements in vegetables and drinking water. ► Concentrations of As and other elements in garden soils. ► Daily dietary intake of As and other elements for adults from vegetables and water. ► Potential health risk was estimated comparing with the FAO/WHO values of metals. ► Vegetables alone contribute the elemental intake below the PMTDI values. -- Abstract: The study assesses the daily consumption by adults of arsenic (As) and other elements in drinking water and home-grown vegetables in a severely As-contaminated area of Bangladesh. Most of the examined elements in drinking water were below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values except As. The median concentrations of As, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), Mn, nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables were 90 μg kg{sup −1}, 111 μg kg{sup −1}, 0.80 mg kg{sup −1}, 168 μg kg{sup −1}, 13 mg kg{sup −1}, 2.1 mg kg{sup −1}, 65 mg kg{sup −1}, 1.7 mg kg{sup −1}, and 50 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively. Daily intakes of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, manganese (Mn), Ni, and Zn from vegetables and drinking water for adults were 839 μg, 2.9 μg, 20.8 μg, 5.5 μg, 0.35 mg, 56.4 μg, 2.0 mg, 49.1 μg, and 1.3 mg, respectively. The health risks from consuming vegetables were estimated by comparing these figures with the WHO/FAO provisional tolerable weekly or daily intake (PTWI or PTDI). Vegetables alone contribute 0.05 μg of As and 0.008 mg of Cu per kg of body weight (bw) daily; 0.42 μg of Cd, 8.77 mg of Pb, and 0.03 mg of Zn per kg bw weekly. Other food sources and particularly dietary staple rice need to be evaluated to determine the exact health risks from such foods.

  7. Consumption of arsenic and other elements from vegetables and drinking water from an arsenic-contaminated area of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Asaduzzaman, Md; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-11-15

    The study assesses the daily consumption by adults of arsenic (As) and other elements in drinking water and home-grown vegetables in a severely As-contaminated area of Bangladesh. Most of the examined elements in drinking water were below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values except As. The median concentrations of As, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), Mn, nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables were 90 μg kg(-1), 111 μg kg(-1), 0.80 mg kg(-1), 168 μg kg(-1), 13 mg kg(-1), 2.1 mg kg(-1), 65 mg kg(-1), 1.7 mg kg(-1), and 50 mg kg(-1), respectively. Daily intakes of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, manganese (Mn), Ni, and Zn from vegetables and drinking water for adults were 839 μg, 2.9 μg, 20.8 μg, 5.5 μg, 0.35 mg, 56.4 μg, 2.0mg, 49.1 μg, and 1.3mg, respectively. The health risks from consuming vegetables were estimated by comparing these figures with the WHO/FAO provisional tolerable weekly or daily intake (PTWI or PTDI). Vegetables alone contribute 0.05 μg of As and 0.008 mg of Cu per kg of body weight (bw) daily; 0.42 μg of Cd, 8.77 mg of Pb, and 0.03 mg of Zn per kg bw weekly. Other food sources and particularly dietary staple rice need to be evaluated to determine the exact health risks from such foods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Elements beyond uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.; Loveland, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book is the 12th volume in a series on transuranium elements. Varied techniques for production of these elements, the methods used in the identification, and the exquisitely refined microchemical techniques required to deal wth samples sometimes involving only a few atoms are described in detail. The chapter on synthesis of the new elements is liberally laced with reminiscences of the proud progenitors as well as the criteria for the discovery of a new chemical element. The authors lament that the superheavy elements (elements in the region of atomic number 114) still elude detection even though their creation should be possible, and some, at least, should survive long enough to be detected. One chapter in the book is devoted to practical applictions of uranium, and the transuranic elements

  9. The speciation of dissolved elements in aquatic solution. Radium and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haesaenen, E.

    1994-01-01

    In the publication, the chemistry and speciation of radium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, lutonium, americium and curium in ground-water environment is reviewed. Special attention is given to the transuranium elements, which have a central role in the repository of nuclear wastes. The most important methods used in the speciation of these elements is presented. The laser-induced methods, developed in the 1980's, are especially discussed. These have made it possible, e.g., to speciate the transuranium elements in their very low, actual repository ground-water concentrations (10-100 ng/l). (54 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.)

  10. Ion-ion interaction and energy transfer of 4+ transuranium ions in cerium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, G.K.; Beitz, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamics of excited 5f electron states of the transuranium ions Cm 4+ and Bk 4+ in CeF 4 are compared. Based on time- and wavelength-resolved laser-induced fluorescence, excitation energy transfer processes have been probed. Depending on concentration and electronic energy level structure of the studied 4+ transuranium ion, the dominant energy transfer mechanisms were identified as cross relaxation, exciton-exciton annihilation, and trapping. Energy transfer rates derived from the fitting of the observed fluorescence decays to theoretical models, based on electric multipolar ion-ion interactions, are contrasted with prior studies of 4f states of 3+ lanthanide and 3d states of transition metal ions. 16 refs., 1 tab

  11. Transuranium contamination in BWRs after fuel accidents and its impact on decommissioning exposures and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, K.

    1996-12-01

    The theme of the present study is to quantify the amount of transuranium activity in different parts of the plant after various fuel accidents, and which impact such contamination has on radiation exposure and costs for decommissioning the plant. The consequences of four different accident degrees have been treated: Common fuel failures, e.g. in line with recent experiences from Swedish BWRs; Fuel channel obstruction resulting in partial melting of one fuel assembly; Total loss of electric power resulting in partial meltdown of the core, but with primary circuit intact preventing a massive contamination of the containment; A LOCA followed by a core meltdown and melting and penetration of the reactor pressure vessel. The amount of transuranium activity distributed, the form of this activity and the plant contamination are evaluated for these accidents. The costs and exposures have been split up on cleanup activities after the accident and decommissioning. 75 refs.

  12. Transuranium contamination in BWRs after fuel accidents and its impact on decommissioning exposures and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, K.

    1996-12-01

    The theme of the present study is to quantify the amount of transuranium activity in different parts of the plant after various fuel accidents, and which impact such contamination has on radiation exposure and costs for decommissioning the plant. The consequences of four different accident degrees have been treated: Common fuel failures, e.g. in line with recent experiences from Swedish BWRs; Fuel channel obstruction resulting in partial melting of one fuel assembly; Total loss of electric power resulting in partial meltdown of the core, but with primary circuit intact preventing a massive contamination of the containment; A LOCA followed by a core meltdown and melting and penetration of the reactor pressure vessel. The amount of transuranium activity distributed, the form of this activity and the plant contamination are evaluated for these accidents. The costs and exposures have been split up on cleanup activities after the accident and decommissioning. 75 refs

  13. The synthetic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  14. The synthetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered

  15. United States Transuranium Registry annual report October 1, 1979-October 1, 1980 to Human Health and Assessments Division, US Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenstein, B.D. Jr.; Heid, K.R.; Swint, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of the United States Transuranium Registry is to improve health physics models used to evaluate occupational exposure from internally deposited transuranic elements. During FY 1980 emphasis continued to be placed on improving methods for collecting data. The use of a prosector for all cases assures that autopsy tissue samples are properly identified and reasonably well cleaned. A procedure has been developed at the University of California Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to ash tissue specimens collected as part of this program. This same method is also being utilized at the Rocky Flats Analytical laboratory. A comparison of data collected from thirteen USTR autopsy cases using wet and ashed weights was made. The results suggest that the use of ashed weights improves the agreement of the systemic burden at autopsy to that estimated using ante mortem health physics data by a factor of nearly two

  16. Almost twenty years' search of transuranium isotopes in effluents discharged to air from nuclear power plants with VVER reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölgye, Z; Filgas, R

    2006-04-01

    Airborne effluents of 5 stacks (stacks 1-5) of three nuclear power plants, with 9 pressurized water reactors VVER of 4,520 MWe total power, were searched for transuranium isotopes in different time periods. The search started in 1985. The subject of this work is a presentation of discharge data for the period of 1998-2003 and a final evaluation. It was found that 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 244Cm can be present in airborne effluents. Transuranium isotope contents in most of the quarterly effluent samples from stacks 2, 4 and 5 were not measurable. Transuranium isotopes were present in the effluents from stack l during all 9 years of the study and from stack 3 since the 3rd quarter of 1996 as a result of a defect in the fuel cladding. A relatively high increase of transuranium isotopes in effluents from stack 3 occurred in the 3rd quarter of 1999, and a smaller increase occurred in the 3rd quarter of 2003. In each instance 242Cm prevailed in the transuranium isotope mixtures. 238Pu/239,240Pu, 241Am/239,240Pu, 242Cm/239,240Pu, and 244Cm/239,240Pu ratios in fuel for different burn-up were calculated, and comparison of these ratios in fuel and effluents was performed.

  17. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes

  18. Transuranium element chalcogenides. Crystallochemistry and Moessbauer spectrometry of neptunium 237 chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenin, T.; Pages, M.; Damien, D.

    1981-09-01

    To study actinide compounds , neptunium 237 has been studied by Moessbauer resonance. The different oxidation degrees of neptunium (7, 6, 5, 4 and 3) have a very important effect on isomeric displacements. In the study of chalcogenides, the isomeric displacement value of NpS 3 confirms the valency 4+ of neptunium in this compound. Results obtained with Np 3 S 5 show two valency state +3 and +4 in this compound. There is a good agreement with the two crystalline sites determined by crystallography [fr

  19. Concept of the demonstration molten salt unit for the transuranium elements transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.; Dudnikov, A.; Prusakov, V.; Subbotin, S.; Zakirov, R.; Lelek, V.; Peka, I.

    1999-01-01

    Fluorine reprocessing is discussed of spent fuel and of fluoride molten salt reactor in critical and subcritical modes for plutonium and minor actinides burning. International collaboration for creation of such system is proposed. Additional neutron source in the core will have positive influence on the transmutation processes in the reactor. Demonstration critical molten salt reactor of small power capacity will permit to decide the most part of problems inherent to large critical reactors and subcritical drivers. It could be expected that fluoride molten salt transmuter can work without accelerator as a critical reactor. (author)

  20. Measurement of specific parameters for dose calculation after inhalation of aerols containing transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramounet-le Gall, B.; Fritsch, P.; Abram, M.C.; Rateau, G.; Grillon, G.; Guillet, K.; Baude, S.; Berard, P.; Ansoborlo, E.; Delforge, J.

    2002-01-01

    A review on specific parameter measurements to calculate doses per unit of incorporation according to recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection has been performed for inhaled actinide oxides. Alpha activity distribution of the particles can be obtained by autoradiography analysis using aerosol sampling filters at the work places. This allows us to characterize granulometric parameters of 'pure' actinide oxides, but complementary analysis by scanning electron microscopy is needed for complex aerosols. Dissolution parameters with their standard deviation are obtained after rat inhalation exposure, taking into account both mechanical lung clearance and actinide transfer to the blood estimated from bone retention. In vitro experiments suggest that the slow dissolution rate might decrease as a function of time following exposure. Dose calculation software packages have been developed to take into account granulometry and dissolution parameters as well as specific physiological parameters of exposed individuals. In the case of poorly soluble actinide oxides, granulometry and physiology appear as the main parameters controlling dose value, whereas dissolution only alters dose distribution. Validation of these software packages are in progress. (author)

  1. Concept of the demonstration molten salt unit for the transuranium elements transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.; Dudnikov, A.; Prusakov, V.; Subbotin, S.; Zakirov, R.; Lelek, V.; Peka, I.

    1999-01-01

    In this report it is considered fluorine reprocessing of spent fuel and fluoride molten salt reactor in critical and subcritical modes for plutonium and minor actinides burning. International collaboration for creation of such system is proposed. It is without any doubt that additional neutron source in the core will have positive influence on the transmutation process in the reactor. On the other side there is a lot of problems to realize it technically and to ensure stable work of the whole complex. (Authors)

  2. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  3. Magnetic measurements of the transuranium elements. Progress report, January 1, 1984-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huray, P.G.; Nave, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic properties of dhcp californium-249 metal indicated the presence of three regions of differing magnetic character. Additional measurements are also reported. Magnetic moments and valence states of terbium in TbF 3 , BaTbO 3 , and TbO 1 8 are discussed. Progress on high-field operation of the micro-magnetic susceptometer is reported

  4. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 2. inventories of transuranium elements in surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-10-01

    This is the second of three reports on Bikini sediment studies, which discusses the concentrations and inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in sediments from the lagoon. Surface sediment samples were collected from 87 locations over the entire lagoon at Bikini Atoll during 1979. The collections were made to map the distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred in the composition of the sediment as a result of the testing program. Present inventories for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in the surface 2 cm of sediment are estimated to be 14 and 17 TBq, respectively. These values are estimated to represent only 14% of the total inventory in the sediment column. Sediment inventories of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are changing only slowly with time through chemical- physical processes that continuously mobilize small amounts of the transuranics to the water column. The lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with deposits logoonward of the eastern reef.

  5. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Annuary report, February 1, 2004 - June 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alldredge, J. Richard [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Ehrhart, Susan M. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Eliston, James T. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Emmel, Robert R. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Filipy, Ronald E. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); James, Anthony C. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Sasser, Lyle B. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Tanya G. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States)

    2006-05-31

    Three events of significance to the U. S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) occurred during this reporting period: 1. The search for a new Associate Director was successful in that Dr. Anthony C. (Tony) James was appointed to the position, 2. A five-year grant for the operation of the USTUR was approved by the U. S. Department of Energy; the previous grant cycles were for three years, 3. I retired from the USTUR Directorship on July 1, 2005 and Tony James became the new Director.

  6. United States Transuranium Registry. Annual report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    This report provides an overview of the objectives, program, facilities and FY-84 accomplishments of the United States Transuranium Registry. Specific activities summarized include postmortem radiochemical analysis of two whole bodies, one with a significant deposition of 241 Am and the other with a deposition of 239 Pu. Results of a followup of early Manhattan District workers as potential registrants, a possible relationship between actinide concentration in bone and ash content, and interlaboratory cooperative activities are briefly discussed along with the initiation of studies of actinides in bone marrow and hair

  7. Transuranium processing plant report of production, status, and plans for the period October 1, 1978-September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.

    1981-08-01

    During this period, transuranium elements were obtained from 26 irradiated HFIT targets. The products included 86 mg of 249 Bk, 686 mg of 252 Cf, 3.1 mg of 253 Es, and an estimated 1.4 pg of 257 Fm. In addition, about 326 mg of high-purity 248 Cm was separated from previously purified 252 Cf. One hundred seven product shipments were made from TRU; recipients and the amounts of nuclides shipped are listed in a table. Forty-two standard and two special HFIR targets were fabricated. During the next 18 months, production totals of 110 mg of 249 Bk, 1200 mg of 252 Cf, 5.5 mg of 253 Es, and 2 pg of 257 Fm are anticipated. Also, a total of 225 mg of 248 Cm is expected to be made available. During this report period, a charcoal adsorber system for radioiodine removal was installed, tested, and placed in service. This system serves as a backup to the Hopcalite-charcoal system for adsorption of 131 I from the VOG stream. Seven 252 Cf neutron sources were fabricated during this report period. A total of 100 neutron sources have been fabricated previously at TRU. The original and current contents ( 252 Cf and 248 Cm) of the existing sources and the individuals to whom the sources are currently loaned are listed in a table. In addition to neutron sources, nine fission sources were prepared by electroplating 252 Cf onto platinum disks or foils.Special projects during this report period included (1) purification of two batches of isotopically pure 240 Pu, (2) fabrication of two special HFIR targets, (3) repurification of the residues of the einsteinium product from Campaign 56, (4) production of approx. 235 μg of 250 Cf by irradiation of 249 Bk, (5) radiography of 28 irradiated, stainless steel alloy, fracture-strain specimens, and (6) preparations for the production of 40 μg of 245 Es by irradiation of 253 Es

  8. Management of commercial high-level and transuranium-contaminated radioactive wastes. Environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-09-01

    This Draft Environmental Statement is issued to assess the environmental impact of the AEC's program to manage commercial high-level and transuranium-contaminated radioactive wastes. These are the types of commercial radioactive wastes for which AEC custody is required by present or anticipated regulations. The program consists of three basic parts: development of a Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) for commercial high-level waste, using existing technology; evaluating geological formations and sites for the development of a Geological Disposal Pilot Plant (GDPP) which would lead to permanent disposal; and providing retrievable storage for the transuranium-contaminated waste pending availability of permanent disposal. Consideration has been given to all environmental aspects of the program, using waste generation projections through the year 2000. Radiological and other impacts of implementing the program are expected to be minimal, but will be discussed in further environmental statements which will support budget actions for specific repositories. The alternatives discussed in this Draft Environmental Statement are presented. (U.S.)

  9. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  10. Workshop on environmental research for transuranic elements, Seattle, Washington, November 12--14, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Brief summaries are presented of discussions among scientists conducting research on the transport and diffusion of transuranium elements in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Emphasis was placed on 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am in ecosystems and food chains. Areas for future research were suggested to insure the safe storage of radioactive wastes from the nuclear industry

  11. Transuranium and other alpha-emitting nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Marine environment contains naturally occurring alpha-emitting transuranium nuclides which are discharged from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants into the marine environment. Calculation of their potential of both the inhalation pathway and ingestion pathway to man, their residence time in the oceans, their loss to sediments, the chemical state in which they exist in sea water, their oxidation states in sea water, and their biological availability to sea organisms are discussed. The areas where data are lacking are indicated. Studies on the Windscale Site (U.K.) are extensively referred to in the discussion of above-mentioned aspects. It is brought out that the study of the naturally occurring actinides can be useful in the understanding of behaviour of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment, because many of the former are good analogues of the latter. (M.G.B.)

  12. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Bogle, M.A.; Brantley, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: water-sediment interactions of U, Pu, Am, and Cm; relative availability of actinide elements from abiotic to aquatic biota; comparative uptake of transuranic elements by biota bordering Pond 3513; metabolic reduction of 239 Np from Np(V) to Np(IV) in cotton rats; evaluation of hazards associated with transuranium releases to the biosphere; predicting Pu in bone; adsorption--solubility--complexation phenomena in actinide partitioning between sorbents and solution; comparative soil extraction data; and comparative plant uptake data

  13. The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: overview and recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the organisation, activities and recent scientific accomplishments of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Through voluntary donations of tissue obtained at autopsies, the Registries carry out studies of the concentration, distribution and biokinetics of actinides in occupationally exposed persons. Findings from tissue analyses from more than 200 autopsies include the following: a greater proportion of the americium intake, as compared with plutonium, is found in the skeleton; the half-time of americium in liver is significantly shorter than that of plutonium; the concentration of actinide in the skeleton is inversely proportional to the calcium and ash content of the bone; only a small percentage of the total skeletal deposition of plutonium is found in the marrow, implying a smaller risk from irradiation of the marrow relative to the bone surfaces; estimates of plutonium body burden made from urinalysis typically exceed those made from autopsy data; pathologists are unable to discriminate between a group of uranium workers and persons without known occupational exposure on the basis of evaluation of microscopic kidney slides; the skeleton is an important long-term depot for uranium and its fractional uptake by both skeleton and kidney may be greater than indicated by current models. These and other findings and current studies are discussed in depth. (author)

  14. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Annual report, February 1, 2003 - January 31, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alldredge, J. R. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Brumbaugh, T. L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Ehrhart, Susan M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Elliston, J. T. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Filipy, R. E. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); James, A. C. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Pham, M. V. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wood, T. G. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Sasser, L. B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2004-01-31

    This year was my fourteenth year with the U. S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR). How time flies! Since I became the director of the program five years ago, one of my primary goals was to increase the usefulness of the large USTUR database that consists of six tables containing personal information, medical histories, radiation exposure histories, causes of death, and the results of radiochemical analysis of organ samples collected at autopsy. It is essential that a query of one or more of these tables by USTUR researchers or by collaborating researchers provides complete and reliable information. Also, some of the tables (those without personal identifiers) are destined to appear on the USTUR website for the use of the scientific community. I am pleased to report that most of the data in the database have now been verified and formatted for easy query. It is important to note that no data were discarded; copies of the original tables were retained and the original paper documents are still available for further verification of values as needed.

  15. United States Transuranium Registry: Annual report, October 1, 1986 through September 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report summarizes progress of the United States Transuranium Registry for the 1987 fiscal year, including as an appendix the observations and recommendations of the Scientific Advisory Committee. Completion of the first phase of the analytical laboratory intercomparison study has led to verification and reduction in the uncertainty of the values for two NBS Standard Reference Materials. The human arm phantom built as an in-vivo counting calibration standard for Am-241 has been completed and made available for use by other laboratories, along with the previously completed skull phantom. Preliminary evaluation of USTR Case 193, a whole body plutonium case, was completed and reported at a national scientific meeting. The autopsy results tend to verify improvements in recent biokinetic models. Tissue donation was received from a former Hanford worker who received an extensive internal deposition of Am-241 from an explosion in a glove box 10 years prior to death from heart disease. Because of the extraordinary nature of this case, plans are being developed for interlaboratory collaboration to ensure that the knowledge derived from evaluation of this case will be maximized

  16. Nuclear heat-load limits for above-grade storage of solid transuranium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clontz, B.G.

    1978-06-01

    Nuclear safety and heat load limits were established for above-grade storage of transuranium (TRU) wastes. Nuclear safety limits were obtained from a study by J.L. Forstner and are summarized. Heat load limits are based on temperature calculations for TRU waste drums stored in concrete containers (hats), and results are summarized. Waste already in storage is within these limits. The limiting factors for individual drum heat load limits were (1) avoidance of temperatures in excess of 190 0 F (decomposition temperature of anion resin) when anion resin is present in a concrete hat, and (2) avoidance of temperatures in excess of 450 0 F (ignition temperature of paper) at any point inside a waste drum. The limiting factor for concrete had heat load limits was avoidance of temperatures in excess of 265 0 F (melt point of high density polyethylene) at the drum liners. A temperature profile for drums and hats filled to recommended limits is shown. Equations and assumptions used were conservative

  17. Measurements of transuranium nuclides in the environment at the Institute for Radiation Protection of the Gessellschaft fuer Strehlen-und Umweltforschung mbH, Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1978-01-01

    Work on environmental transuranium nuclides at the Institute for Radiation Protection of the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen-und Umweltforschung mbH, Munich, is briefly described and standard needs are discussed. Fallout plutonium measurements in air dust and precipitation samples started in 1970/1971. The procedure is outlined and results are presented as annual mean and sum values, respectively. Since 1973, transuranium nuclides in primary coolant, stack effluent air and waste-water samples from nuclear power stations are measured. Nuclides detected are 239 240 Pu, 238 Pu and/or 241 Am, 242 Cm and 244 Cm. Examples of alpha particle spectra are given. Needs for standards in environmental transuranium analysis are discussed. (author)

  18. United States Transuranium Registry summary report to June 30, 1974 to USAEC Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.; Newton, C.E. Jr.

    1974-06-01

    This report gives some of the highlights of the US Transuranium Registry since its inception in late 1968 together with more detailed information concerning the activities for the year ending April 30, 1974. Articles are referred to which describe autopsy studies to determine plutonium body content, performed since 1949 for the purpose of evaluating plant health safety programs. The purpose of the Registry is described and its administrative direction is discussed. The Registry is a data collecting agency whose success depends upon how well the data is collected by the cooperating companies is described

  19. Trans-Uranium Doping Utilization for Increasing Protected Plutonium Proliferation of Small Long Life Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permana, Sidik [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-17, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Nuclear and Biophysics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Suud, Zaki [Nuclear and Biophysics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Suzuki, Mitsutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Non-proliferation Science and Technology Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Scientific approaches are performed by adopting some methodologies in order to increase a material 'barrier' in plutonium isotope composition by increasing the even mass number of plutonium isotope such as Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242. Higher difficulties (barrier) or more complex requirement for peaceful use of nuclear materials, material fabrication and handling and isotopic enrichment can be achieved by a higher isotopic barrier. Higher barrier which related to intrinsic properties of plutonium isotopes with even mass number (Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242), in regard to their intense decay heat (DH) and high spontaneous fission neutron (SFN) rates were used as a parameter for improving the proliferation resistance of plutonium itself. Pu-238 has relatively high intrinsic characteristics of DH (567 W/kg) and SFN rate of 2660 n/g/s can be used for making a plutonium characteristics analysis. Similar characteristics with Pu-238, other even mass number of plutonium isotopes such as Pu-240 and Pu-242 have been shown in regard to SFN values. Those even number mass of plutonium isotope contribute to some criteria of plutonium characterization which will be adopted for present study such as IAEA, Pellaud and Kessler criteria (IAEA, 1972; Pellaud, 2002; and Kessler, 2004). The study intends to evaluate the trans-uranium doping effect for increasing protected plutonium proliferation in long-life small reactors. The development of small and medium reactor (SMR) is one of the options which have been adopted by IAEA as future utilization of nuclear energy especially for less developed countries (Kuznetsov, 2008). The preferable feature for small reactors (SMR) is long life operation time without on-site refueling and in the same time, it includes high proliferation resistance feature. The reactor uses MOX fuel as driver fuel for two different core types (inner and outer core) with blanket fuel arrangement. Several trans-uranium doping and some doping rates are evaluated

  20. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Annual Report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.; Harwick, L.A. [comps.] [eds.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the salient activities and progress of the United States Transuranium. and Uranium Registries for the period October 1, 1993 through September 30, 1994, along with details of specific programs areas including the National Human Radiobiology Tissue Repository (NHRTR) and tissue radiochemistry analysis project. Responsibility for tissue radioanalysis was transferred from Los Alamos National Laboratory to Washington State University in February 1994. The University of Washington was selected as the Quality Assurance/Quality Control laboratory and a three way intercomparison with them and LANL has been initiated. The results of the initial alpha spectrometry intercomparison showed excellent agreement among the laboratories and are documented in full in the Appendices to the report. The NHRTR serves as the initial point of receipt for samples received from participants in the USTUR program. Samples are weighed, divided, and reweighed, and a portion retained by the NHRTR as backup or for use in other studies. Tissue specimens retained in the NHRTR are maintained frozen at -70 C and include not only those from USTUR registrants but also those from the radium dial painter and thorium worker studies formerly conducted by Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, there are fixed tissues and a large collection of histopathology slides from all the studies, plus about 20,000 individual solutions derived from donated tissues. These tissues and tissue related materials are made available to other investigators for legitimate research purposes. Ratios of the concentration of actinides in various tissues have been used to evaluate the biokinetics, and retention half times of plutonium and americium. Retention half times for plutonium in various soft tissues range from 10-20 y except for the testes for which a retention half time of 58 y was observed. For americium, the retention half time in various soft tissues studied was 2.2-3.5 y.

  1. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Annual Report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Harwick, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the salient activities and progress of the United States Transuranium. and Uranium Registries for the period October 1, 1993 through September 30, 1994, along with details of specific programs areas including the National Human Radiobiology Tissue Repository (NHRTR) and tissue radiochemistry analysis project. Responsibility for tissue radioanalysis was transferred from Los Alamos National Laboratory to Washington State University in February 1994. The University of Washington was selected as the Quality Assurance/Quality Control laboratory and a three way intercomparison with them and LANL has been initiated. The results of the initial alpha spectrometry intercomparison showed excellent agreement among the laboratories and are documented in full in the Appendices to the report. The NHRTR serves as the initial point of receipt for samples received from participants in the USTUR program. Samples are weighed, divided, and reweighed, and a portion retained by the NHRTR as backup or for use in other studies. Tissue specimens retained in the NHRTR are maintained frozen at -70 C and include not only those from USTUR registrants but also those from the radium dial painter and thorium worker studies formerly conducted by Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, there are fixed tissues and a large collection of histopathology slides from all the studies, plus about 20,000 individual solutions derived from donated tissues. These tissues and tissue related materials are made available to other investigators for legitimate research purposes. Ratios of the concentration of actinides in various tissues have been used to evaluate the biokinetics, and retention half times of plutonium and americium. Retention half times for plutonium in various soft tissues range from 10-20 y except for the testes for which a retention half time of 58 y was observed. For americium, the retention half time in various soft tissues studied was 2.2-3.5 y

  2. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Some experiences with absorption, phonon Raman, and luminescence spectroscopic probes of crystal structure of f-element compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Structural information is crucial to the study and understanding of the basic chemical properties of the f elements. X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques are usually used to obtain crystal structure information. However, the transuranium (5f) elements, because of their radioactivity and limited availability, present problems for standard XRD analysis. For some time now we have been developing and using various spectroscopic probes of crystal structure; an overview of our research in this area is presented here

  4. Transuranium radionuclide pollution in the waters of the La Maddalena National Marine Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumento, F.; Le Donne, K.; Eroe, K.

    2005-01-01

    Following the grounding and subsequent explosion, in October 2003, of a nuclear submarine in the waters of the La Maddalena National Marine Park, fears arose of possible radioactive leakages. However, isotopic analyses on algae showed that the gamma-ray emitting artificial radionuclides that one might expect to leak from a damaged nuclear reactor (such as U-235, I-131, Cs-137) were absent, and that U-238/U-234 activities were in equilibrium with values typical of sea water; this excluded any direct anthropogenic contamination as a result of the accident. We used alpha autoradiographic techniques to detect possible traces of transuranium radionuclides; 160 samples of algae, granites, sea urchins, gastropods, limpets, cuttlefish and jellyfish were collected from the area, as well as from other Mediterranean coastlines and the Baltic Sea. All samples were autoradiographed, and selected samples further analysed by alpha spectrometry. There were no alpha track concentrations above background levels in our control Mediterranean specimens. In the samples from the La Maddalena and Baltic areas two different track distributions were observed:-those homogeneously distributed over the surfaces examined; -groups (10 to over 500) of radially distributed alpha tracks (forming 'star' bursts, or 'hot spots') emanating from point sources. By comparing radionuclide activities measured by alpha spectroscopy with alpha track densities, we extrapolated Pu activities for all samples. About 74% of algae had Pu activities of less than 1Bq/kg and 0.25Bq/kg, 16% had accumulated Pu to levels between 1 and 2Bq/kg, and a very few specimens had concentrations between 2 and 6Bq/kg. Plots showed that alpha tracks and stars concentrate around the northern and eastern margins of the Rada (Basin) di Santo Stefano, sites facing the nuclear submarine base on the eastern shore of the island of Santo Stefano. What is the source of these nuclides: last century's atmospheric nuclear testing, Chernobyl or

  5. Biogenic debris from the pelagic tunicate, Oikopleura dioica, and its role in the vertical transport of a transuranium element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsky, G; Fisher, N S; Fowler, S W [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco-Ville (Monaco). Lab. of Marine Radioactivity

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation and retention of /sup 241/Am by the pelagic tunicate Oikopleura dioica were examined using laboratory cultures and radiotracer methodology. Animals (i.e., trunks and tails) and discarded empty houses accumulated Am from seawater, giving volume/volume concentration factors of 59 +- 8 and 10 +- 1, respectively. The half-time for retention of Am in empty labelled houses transferred to non-contaminated seawater was 29 h; the retention half-time of Am in houses discarded by larvaceans feeding on Am-labelled diatoms was 219 h; the half-time of Am in fecal pellets produced by animals feeding on a monospecific diet of diatoms was 134 h, and 247 h for fecal pellets from animals fed a mixed diet. Approximately 30% of filtered cells remained in houses after the houses were discarded. Sinking rates of discarded houses and fecal pellets were found to vary with temperature and size, ranging from 26-157 m day/sup -1/ (houses) and from 25-166 m day/sup -1/ (fecal pellets). The ubiquity and abundance of appendicularians, together with their prodigious production of houses (e.g., 10 +- 2 houses day/sup -1/ at 17/sup 0/C for each experimental animal) point to their potential significance in the vertical transport of Am, and probably other reactive metals, to intermediate depths in the ocean.

  6. Biogenic debris from the pelagic tunicate, Oikopleura dioica, and its role in the vertical transport of a transuranium element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsky, G.; Fisher, N.S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation and retention of 241 Am by the pelagic tunicate Oikopleura dioica were examined using laboratory cultures and radiotracer methodology. Animals (i.e., trunks and tails) and discarded empty houses accumulated Am from seawater, giving volume/volume concentration factors of 59 +- 8 and 10 +- 1, respectively. The half-time for retention of Am in empty labelled houses transferred to non-contaminated seawater was 29 h; the retention half-time of Am in houses discarded by larvaceans feeding on Am-labelled diatoms was 219 h; the half-time of Am in fecal pellets produced by animals feeding on a monospecific diet of diatoms was 134 h, and 247 h for fecal pellets from animals fed a mixed diet. Approximately 30% of filtered cells remained in houses after the houses were discarded. Sinking rates of discarded houses and fecal pellets were found to vary with temperature and size, ranging from 26-157 m day -1 (houses) and from 25-166 m day -1 (fecal pellets). The ubiquity and abundance of appendicularians, together with their prodigious production of houses (e.g., 10 +- 2 houses day -1 at 17 0 C for each experimental animal) point to their potential significance in the vertical transport of Am, and probably other reactive metals, to intermediate depths in the ocean. (author)

  7. Rapid separation and liquid scintillation spectroscopic determination of Sr-89, Sr-90 and transuranium elements of interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchtela, Karl; Grass, F.; Schoenhofer, F.

    1995-01-01

    At the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities investigations related to radioactivity in the environment have started around 1960 with monitoring of the site before and after operation of the reactor. Analysis schemes for fission nuclides had been worked out to determine nuclear weapons fallout. Food analysis had do be done, although on a very small scale, on Austrian export crops since 1970. In the seventies the Atominstitute participated in a Coordinated Research Programme on monitoring radioactivity in Danube river water. Radon and radon daughter products in various parts of Austria and radionuclides in construction materials were radioassayed by the Health Physics section. Since 1986 food and environmental radioactivity measurements are done for cooperating governmental and private institutions

  8. Evolution of the Nuclear Safeguards Performance Laboratory PERLA on the Ispra Site of the Institute for Transuranium Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, R.; Abbas, K.; Berthou, V.; De Almeida Carrapico, C.; Forcina, V.; Mayorov, V.; Mortreau, P.; Mosconi, M.; Pedersen, B.; Peerani, P.; Rosas, F.; Tagziria, H.; Tomanin, A.; Rozite, A.; Marin-Ferrer, M.; Crochemore, J.-M.; Roesgen, E.; Janssens, W.A.M.; )

    2015-01-01

    Based upon the experience of many years of operation, the safeguards Performance Laboratory PERLA will be reshaped in the near future (and relocated on the Ispra site such as not to interfere with decommissioning activities). During almost 30 years of successfully operating nuclear facilities in Ispra for supporting nuclear safeguards inspectorates with R&D, equipment development and training for in the meantime more than 1250 trainees, this laboratory is the main work-horse in this field and has functioned very frequently in the last years as easily accessible nuclear laboratory for external users. Even if a constant evolution took place in the last years, and additional facilities like the active neutron laboratory PUNITA or the ITRAP test laboratory for nuclear security R&D, testing and training have been taken in service, this step-change will allow refiguring the laboratory to face also new user expectations. NDA for safeguards continues to be a cornerstone of the measurement capacities complemented by experimental and advanced approaches, such as using active neutron interrogation, automation of measurements, complemented by Monte-Carlo simulations for neutron and gamma radiation. The tendency is also to integrate multiple plant signals (not only NDA measurements) in an overall assessment scheme and we envisage offering training and exercising capabilities for the inspectors also in this direction in the future. This paper will thus provide some insight in the concepts for the future use of the nuclear facilities on the Ispra site, which is complementary to two other contributions to this symposium, i.e., one describing the activities of our sister unit in Karlsruhe on NDA Safeguards Training and another on the new Advanced Safeguards Measurement, Monitoring and Modelling Laboratory (AS3ML) being built currently in Ispra. (author)

  9. Development of an ultra-sensitive detection method for transuranium elements with respect to ocean water samples from Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hain, Karin Margarete

    2016-03-30

    The development of a detection method for the identification of a possible emission of actinides into the Pacific Ocean by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, was the major aim of this PhD thesis. It is shown in this work that in addition to the isotopic plutonium ratio {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu, which is an important signature for different contamination sources, the {sup 241}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio has to be determined, to distinguish between a Fukushima entry of actinides and nuclear weapon fallout in the Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, this study was aiming for the improvement of the data on the neptunium ({sup 237}Np) distribution in the ocean. For the detection of the trace concentrations of actinides in the order of mBq/m{sup 3} in a small sample volume of 20 L ocean water, the ultra-sensitive method accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was chosen. A chemical separation procedure for Pu and Np based on extraction chromatography was developed using mass spectrometry and radiometric analysis to determine the chemical recovery. {sup 241}Am, which causes isobaric background to {sup 241}Pu in mass spectrometric measurements, was separated with a suppression of at least 10{sup -4} from Pu by this method. The detection method adjusted to Pu and Np was successfully verified by analyzing the concentration of Pu in certified reference material with AMS at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL) in Munich. Due to a temporary closure of the MLL, 12 sea water samples, collected in autumn 2012, were prepared at the Radiochemie Muenchen and measured at the Vienna Environmental Research Laboratory (VERA). The sampling station closest to the FDNPP was located at a distance of 39.6 km. Three of the samples showed a slightly elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio of up to 0.23{sup +0.04}{sub -0.03} compared to global fallout ({sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu = 0.180±0.007), whereas all measured {sup 241}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios were clearly consistent with nuclear weapon fallout ({sup 241}Pu/{sup 239}Pu < 2.4.10{sup -3}). An upper limit for the dissolved amount of {sup 239}Pu released by the Fukushima accident of 10 MBq was estimated from the average {sup 241}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio of 6{sup +6}{sub -2}.10{sup -4} at the sampling station located closest to FDNPP. Pu with the signature of weapon grade Pu was found off the US West Coast. A preceding emission from Hanford Site seems most likely. The data for {sup 237}Np indicate a distribution in the water column different from Pu.

  10. α-spectrometric device equipped with semi-conductors for direct measurement of transuranium elements on large area filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessler, H.; Pawelzik, J.

    1984-10-01

    A device was developed with an array of 8 silicon surface barrier detectors inside a vacuum chamber containing a rotating sample holder for large areas (200 mm diameter) aerosol filters. It serves for quick identification of α-emitters on these aerosol filters, and allows to measure the α-particles with a relatively constant efficiency along a filter diameter. Thus, the radiochemical treatment of single filters can be avoided. Troubles appeared in the course of development of defective semiconductors and their temperature dependence. To suppress the influence of temperature a cooling device was built. During practical testing a cross-efficiency of 13.6% was measured. It is possible to identify α-emitting nuclides with an activity of 10 -1 Bq per sample during about 2 hours of measuring time. Appropriate methodes of calculation are indicated. The data output of the device is suited for transfer to a computer. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Investigation on the co-precipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krot, N.; Shilov, V.; Bessonov, A.; Budantseva, N.; Charushnikova, I.; Perminov, V.; Astafurova, L.

    1996-06-01

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions originating from production of plutonium for military purposes are stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The purification of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium is important in the treatment and disposal of these wastes. This report describes scoping tests with sodium hydroxide solutions, where precipitation techniques were investigated to perform the separation. Hydroxides of iron (III), manganese (II), cobalt (II, III), and chromium (III); manganese (IV) oxide, and sodium uranate were investigated as carriers. The report describes the optimum conditions that were identified to precipitate these carriers homogeneously throughout the solution by reductive, hydrolytic, or catalytic decomposition of alkali-soluble precursor compounds by a technique called the Method of Appearing Reagents. The coprecipitation of pentavalent and hexavalent neptunium and plutonium was investigated for the candidate agents under optimum conditions and is described in this report along with the following results. Plutonium coprecipitated well with all tested materials except manganese (IV) oxide. Neptunium only coprecipitated well with uranate. The report presents a hypothesis to explain these behaviors. Further tests with more complex solution matrices must be performed

  12. Investigation on the co-precipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, N.; Shilov, V.; Bessonov, A.; Budantseva, N.; Charushnikova, I.; Perminov, V.; Astafurova, L. [Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1996-06-06

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions originating from production of plutonium for military purposes are stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The purification of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium is important in the treatment and disposal of these wastes. This report describes scoping tests with sodium hydroxide solutions, where precipitation techniques were investigated to perform the separation. Hydroxides of iron (III), manganese (II), cobalt (II, III), and chromium (III); manganese (IV) oxide, and sodium uranate were investigated as carriers. The report describes the optimum conditions that were identified to precipitate these carriers homogeneously throughout the solution by reductive, hydrolytic, or catalytic decomposition of alkali-soluble precursor compounds by a technique called the Method of Appearing Reagents. The coprecipitation of pentavalent and hexavalent neptunium and plutonium was investigated for the candidate agents under optimum conditions and is described in this report along with the following results. Plutonium coprecipitated well with all tested materials except manganese (IV) oxide. Neptunium only coprecipitated well with uranate. The report presents a hypothesis to explain these behaviors. Further tests with more complex solution matrices must be performed.

  13. Analysis of fire and smoke threat to off-gas HEPA filters in a transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.

    1988-01-01

    The author performed an analysis of fire risk to the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that provide ventilation containment for a transuranium processing plant at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A fire-safety survey by an independent fire-protection consulting company had identified the HEPA filters in the facility's off-gas containment ventilation system as being at risk from fire effects. Independently studied were the ventilation networks and flow dynamics, and typical fuel loads were analyzed. It was found that virtually no condition for fire initiation exists and that, even if a fire started, its consequences would be minimal as a result of standard shut-down procedures. Moreover, the installed fire-protection system would limit any fire and thus would further reduce smoke or heat exposure to the ventilation components. 4 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  14. A study on the criticality search of transuranium recycling BWR core by adjusting supplied fuel composition in equilibrium state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Takeshi; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    There have been some difficulties in carrying out an extensive evaluation of the equilibrium state of Light Water Reactor (LWR) recycling operations keeping their fixed criticality condition using conventional design codes because of the complexity of their calculation model for practical fuel and core design and because of a large amount of calculation time. This study presents an efficient approach to secure the criticality in an equilibrium cycle by adjusting a supplied fuel composition. The criticality search is performed by the use of fuel importance obtained from the equation adjoint to a continuously fuel supplied core burnup equation. Using this method, some numerical analyses were carried out in order to evaluate the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel composition of equilibrium Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) cores satisfying the criticality requirement. The results showed the comprehensive and quantitative characteristics on the equilibrium cores confining transuraniums for different MOX fuel loading fractions and irradiating conditions

  15. A study on the criticality search of transuranium recycling BWR core by adjusting supplied fuel composition in equilibrium state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Takeshi; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    There have been some difficulties in carrying out an extensive evaluation of the equilibrium state of Light Water Reactor (LWR) recycling operations keeping their fixed criticality condition using conventional design codes, because of the complexity of their calculational model for practical fuel and core design and because of a large amount of calculation time. This study presents an efficient approach to secure the criticality in an equilibrium cycle by adjusting a supplied fuel composition. The criticality search is performed by the use of fuel importance obtained from the equilibrium adjoint to a continuously fuel supplied core burnup equation. Using this method, some numerical analyses were carried out in order to evaluate the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel composition of equilibrium Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) cores satisfying the criticality requirement. The results showed the comprehensive and quantitative characteristics on the equilibrium cores confining transuranium for different MOX fuel loading fractions and irradiating conditions. (author)

  16. US Transuranium Registry report on the 241Am content of a whole body. Part I: Introduction and history of the case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenstein, B.D.; Newton, C.E.; Norris, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    The first whole-body analysis of the U.S. Transuranium Registry was initiated in 1979. The donor was a 49-yr-old male Caucasian radiochemist who died of metastatic malignant melanoma. The donor had a recognized, longstanding 241 Am internal deposition first identified in a routine urine sample in 1958. A summary of the clinical and postmortem findings is presented with the chronologic sequence of the procedures

  17. Smart metering, an important element of smart grids. Recording of consumption data and grid automation; Smart Metering. Ein wichtiger Baustein fuer Smart Grids. Verbrauchsdatenerfassung und Netzautomatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Wolfgang [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Solution Lifecycle; Onken, Heike [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Marketing und Technologie Smart Grid

    2010-10-18

    Power supply worldwide is faced with great challenges. First, energy consumption is increasing by 2.2 percent every year, at least until 2030. This will mean 33,000 TWh as compared to 20,300 TWh in 2008. Secondly, many grids are aged and require modern infrastructure. In the USA, for example, 70 percent of all transformers and 60 percent of all switching stations data back 25 years or more. Thirdly, there is the challenge of sustainable power supply which is reflected in the increasing shortage especially of fossil fuels and in global climate change. (orig.)

  18. Trends of wood window and door consumption in Spain, France and Germany as elements of strategy for their export from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives results of the analysis of econometric models and trends of wood window and door consumption in Spain, France and Germany in the period 2008-2012. The results of the analysis are important for the process of creating export strategy for the chosen wood products from Serbia on the markets of the chosen countries. For each of the abovementioned markets, main recommendations in view of the possibilities for wood windows and doors export from Serbia are given, as well as the recommendations for the appearance of domestic producers on each of the chosen markets.

  19. The TRansUranium EXtraction (TRUEX) process: A vital tool for disposal of US defense nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Schulz, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    The TRUEX (TRansUranium EXtraction) process is a generic actinide extraction/recovery process for the removal of all actinides from acidic nitrate and chloride nuclear waste solutions. Because of its high efficiency and flexibility and its compatibility with existing process facilities, TRUEX has now become a vital tool for the disposal of certain US defense nuclear waste. The development of TRUEX is closely coupled to the development of bifunctional extractants belonging to the carbamoylphosphoryl class and CMPO in particular. A brief review of the development of CMPO and its relationship to other bifunctional and monofunctional extractants is presented. The effect of TBP on CMPO, the selectivity of CMPO for actinides extracted from acidic nitrate media, the influence of diluents on CMPO behavior and 3rd phase formation, and the radiolysis/hydrolysis of CMPO and subsequent solvent cleanup will be highlighted. Application of TRUEX in the chemical pretreatment of specific nuclear waste streams and a summary of the current status of development and deployment of TRUEX is presented. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions - Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Bruno; Litskevich, Dzianis

    2015-01-01

    The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions.

  1. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions – Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Bruno; Litskevich, Dzianis

    2015-01-01

    The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions. PMID:26717509

  2. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions - Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    Full Text Available The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions.

  3. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  4. Optimizing the space-time-yield and the specific energy consumption of molten salt electrolysis processes for the electrowinning of metals in subgroups 4 and 5 of the periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeck, W.

    1988-04-01

    Disadvantages of molten salt electrolysis are its low space-time-yield (kg/m 3 h) combined with its high specific energy consumption (kWh/kg). These factors essentially determine how electrolysis is applied on an industrial scale. The electrolysis of tantalum was selected as an example representative for other electrolytic processes; this series of tests allow statements also on the winning of the other elements from subgroups 4 and 5 of the periodic table, and on electrolytic aluminium extraction. Optimal operating conditions for direct current electrolysis were determined in the laboratory by varying the current density and the electrolysis temperature. In order to improve the space-time-yield from an existing electrolytic cell with a given electrolyte composition beyond the optimal range of direct current electrolysis, the process of periodic current reversal is applied. In this process, the polarity is reversed for a short time at constant periodic intervals. If the forward time period and the backward time period are chosen in a suitable way, both the current efficiency and the space-time-yield can be improved without increasing the energy consumption. 59 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  5. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  6. The United States transuranium and uranium registries (USTUR). Learning from plutonium and uranium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Brooks, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    Beginning in the 1960's with the mission of acquiring and providing precise information about the effects of plutonium and other transuranic elements in man, the USTUR has followed up to 'old age' almost 500 volunteer Registrants who worked at weapons sites and received measurable internal doses. While failing (despite careful life-time follow-up) to demonstrate deleterious health effects attributable to transuranic elements, USTUR research, based on these real human data from DOE workers, continues its contributions to the development of the biokinetic models used internationally to assess intakes from bioassay data and predict tissue doses. There is still much to learn from the Registries '370 deceased tissue donors and the 110 still-living Registrants, whose average age is now about 76 years (youngest 95 y). This paper illustrates USTUR's current 5-y research program, including the application of registrant case data to (i) quantify the variability in behavior of transuranic materials among individuals; (ii) validate new methodologies used at DOE sites for assessing 'realistic' tissue doses in individual cases; and (iii) model the effectiveness of chelation therapy. These data can also be used to examine the adequacy of protection standards utilized for plutonium workers in the early years of the nuclear industry. (author)

  7. Superheavy nuclei and quasi-atoms produced in collisions of transuranium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebaev, V.; Oganessian, Y.; Itkis, M.; Greiner, W.

    2005-01-01

    For near-barrier collisions of heavy nuclei it is very important to perform a combined (unified) analysis of all strongly coupled channels: deep-inelastic scattering, quasi-fission, fusion and regular fission. This ambitious goal has now become possible within our new approach. The standard (most important) degrees of freedom are used and a unified potential energy surface is derived determining evolution of the nuclear system in all the channels. This potential has also appropriate values of the Coulomb barriers in the entrance channel and proper values of the fission barriers in the exit one. A unified set of dynamic Langevin type equations is proposed for the simultaneous description of DI and fusion-fission processes including nucleon transfer at all reaction stages. For the first time, the whole evolution of the heavy nuclear system can be traced starting from the approaching stage and ending in DI, QF, and/or fusion-fission channels. The calculated mass, charge, energy and angular distributions of the reaction products agree well with available experimental data. Satisfactory agreement of the first calculations with experiments gives us hope not only to obtain rather accurate predictions for the probabilities of superheavy element formation in near-barrier fusion reactions but also to clarify much better than before the mechanisms of quasi-fission and fusion-fission processes. Also the determination of such fundamental characteristics of nuclear dynamics as the nuclear viscosity and the nucleon transfer rate is now possible. Low energy collisions of very heavy nuclei ( 238 U+ 238 U, 232 Th+ 250 Cf and 238 U + 248 Cm) have been studied within the proposed dynamical model. The multidimensional potential energy surfaces of such systems are rather complicated due to the shell effects and dynamic deformations, even if there is no distinct potential pocket. We found that at low near barrier collision energies these very heavy nuclei, after touching their surfaces

  8. Transuranium removal from Hanford high level waste simulants using sodium permanganate and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.; Rosencrance, S.W.; Nash, C.A.; Fonduer, F.F.; Di Pirete, D.P.; Di Prete, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Plutonium and americium are present in the Hanford high level liquid waste complexant concentrate (CC) due to the presence of complexing agents including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D 2 EHPA), tributylphosphate (TBP), hydroxyethylene diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, glycolic acid, and sodium gluconate. The transuranic concentrations approach 600 nCi/g and require processing prior to encapsulation into low activity glass. BNFL's (British Nuclear Fuels Limited's) original process was a ferric co-precipitation method based on earlier investigations by Herting and Orth, et al. Furthermore, flocculation and precipitation are widely used for clarification in municipal water treatment. Co-precipitation of Np, Am, and Pu with ferric hydroxide is also used within an analytical method for the sum of those analytes. Tests to evaluate BNFL's original precipitation process indicated the measured decontamination factors (DFs) and filter fluxes were too low. Therefore, an evaluation of alternative precipitation agents to replace ferric ion was undertaken. Agents tested included various transition metals, lanthanide elements, uranium species, calcium, strontium, and permanganate

  9. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-parties, etc.). Originality/value – The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  10. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-­‐‑parties, etc.). Originality/value: The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  11. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  12. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  13. United States Transuranium Registry. Annual report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swint, M.J.; Heid, K.R.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives of the USTR are: (1) to study the patterns of distribution, concentration, and retention of transuranics in exposed individuals by postmortem tissue analysis; (2) to correlate the estimated lung and body burdens made during life with the results of radiochemical analysis of selected postmortem tissues; and (3) to accumulate sufficient human data to permit a comparison with experimental results from animal studies; (4) to serve as a national and international data resource concerning the behavior of transuranic elements in man; and (5) to evaluate biokinetic mathematical models employed in actinide deposition determinations. A program for total body donation was instituted in 1976 to improve the data on the distribution of transuranics within the entire skeleton and those tissues not available at routine autopsy. Two whole bodies have been submitted for radiochemical analysis. Autoradiographs from both cases have been prepared and results are expected in the future. The collection and interpretation of supporting data as part of the routine radiation monitoring programs are in progress; however, at this time it is primarily a matter of data acquisition since there have been only two whole bodies submitted for analysis. Data being collected include contamination in nasal smears or nose blows; skin contamination; air sample results for work areas when associated with a known incident; wound contamination; etc. A personal computer is now available to store and mathematically analyze the data from autopsy cases. The possibility of establishing a direct telephone link with the radiochemical analytical laboratories so this data can be entered directly from a computer is being explored. A study to review the accuracy and comparability of systemic burden estimates based on urine excretion data was completed

  14. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article, ...

  15. Consumption bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken.

  16. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L.T. McGregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education (a spin off from home economics and (b consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing. This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, consumer product and service information, media coverage of consumer issues, consumer education curricula and pedagogy, and insights into an evolving consumer culture. This paper asks consumer studies/sciences and consumer behaviour scholars to embrace the transdisciplinary methodology in addition to the traditional empirical, interpretive and critical methodologies. It provides an overview of the four axioms of transdisciplinary methodology with examples to illustrate how consumer-related research would change to address the complex reality of 21st century consumption.

  17. Collaborative Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben; Netter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allow...

  18. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0....

  19. Uranium and transuranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnaud, F.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical chemistry of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium is reviewed. Uranium and neptunium are mainly treated and curium is only briefly evoked. Analysis methods include coulometry, titration, mass spectrometry, absorption spectrometry, spectrofluorometry, X-ray spectrometry, nuclear methods and radiation spectrometry [fr

  20. Glove box operations for transplutonium element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J.B.; Alexander, C.W.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Glove boxes are used in the Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for (1) completing the final chemical processing steps to isolate and purify the transplutonium elements, (2) packaging transplutonium elements for shipment, (3) preirradiation and postirradiation processing of samples used to produce special transplutonium isotopes in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and (4) conducting special projects, which include providing highly purified transplutonium products in special chemical forms and/or in experimental devices as requested by researchers. During 20 years of operation, the quantities of transplutonium elements produced, and thus the amount of radioactivity handled, have continually increased. At the same time, substantial effort has been expended to reduce personnel radiation exposures. Equipment and techniques have been developed to maintain the desired operational capabilities in the glove boxes while keeping radiation exposures to operating personnel as low as reasonably achievable. Developments have included the design and fabrication of product handling and collection devices, product storage containers, and laminated exterior shields of lead glass, lead acrylic, acrylic sheets, polyethylene, and lead

  1. Preparation and study of elemental californium-249

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, M.; Peterson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Bulk samples of 249 Cf metal were prepared on the 10 μg scale via the Li metal vapor reduction of 249 CfF 3 . Above about 725 0 C elemental Cf exhibits a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure with an average, room-temperature lattice parameter of 5.75(1)A. Between about 600 0 C and 725 0 C, the stable form of Cf metal is another fcc structure with an average, room-temperature lattice parameter of 4.94(1)A. Below 600 0 C metallic Cf exhibits a double hexagonal closest packed (dhcp) structure with average, room temperature lattice parameters of a 0 = 3.39(1)A and c 0 = 11.01(5)A. By comparison of the metallic radii calculated for these three forms with those of the receding transuranium elements, it is suggested that the two, lower temperature modifications represent Cf with a metallic valence of three, while the highest temperature form represents a metallic valence of two. Although the data reported here are from the most complete study to date of elemental Cf, the limitations accompanying such microscale research are duly noted. (U.S.)

  2. Consumption governance toward more sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Dubuisson-Quellier, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    This article deliberates on strategies of consumption governance toward more sustainable consumption. We discuss theoretical concepts stemming from various social science perspectives to (1) promote more sustainable consumption, (2) compare strategies stemming from individualist understanding of

  3. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  4. Adsorption and migration of transplutonium elements in environmental systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balukova, V.D.; Kaymin, E.P.; Ushakov, S.I.

    Behavior of long decay-time transuranium and transplutonium elements in natural systems was addressed. The most dangerous among them are /sup 238/Np, /sup 241/ /sup 243/Am, /sup 244/ /sup 245/ /sup 246/Cm, and /sup 239/ /sup 240/ /sup 242/ /sup 244/Pu. Their transportation through natural deposits is tightly connected with ground water movements. The principal parameters determining behavior of these radionuclides in ground formations are coefficients of isotope distribution between various phases, adsorption capacities of component minerals, effective porosity, filtration coefficients of the liquid, etc. These data are presented in tabular and graphic forms. In carbonate-bicarbonate ground waters containing silicate minerals, the content of radionuclides could be quickly decreased by hydrolysis and formation of insoluble precipitates. 2 references, 3 figures.

  5. CHEMENGL/CHIMISTE, Chemical and Physical Properties of Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levart, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Description of program or function: Data Base on basic chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of the elements in the Mendeleev Table (118 elements, 4435 nuclides comprising isotopes and isomers). Example: density electric and thermal conductivity, masses of isotopes and isomers, ionisation potential, etc. from H to Ei (Z=118). Both French and English versions are available. In addition, the French version (513 pages) contains other general information about the elements such as mineralogy, industrial applications, toxicity, historical information on discovery of the elements, etc. The latest version contains updates of atomic masses, the names of symbols of transuranium elements have been updated in accordance with the IUPAC recommendations. The values of the abundance of elements in the sun have been corrected according to Grevesse et al. The price of the different elements have been updated, some minor errors have been corrected and the presentation of the cover page has been improved. Several pages have been added to the last chapter of the French version (CHIMISTE), this chapter is not available in the English version (CHEMENGL)

  6. Electrochemical determination of the oxidation potentials and the thermodynamic stability of the valence states of the transuranium elements in aqueous alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretrukhin, V.F.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidation potentials of neptunium, plutonium, and americium in the valance states from (III) to (VII) have been determined experimentally in 0.1-15 M NaOH. Heptavalent plutonium and americium are thermodynamically able to oxidize water with the evolution of oxygen in 0.1-15 M NaOH, neptunium(VII) in 0.1-7 M NaOH. All valance states of plutonium resist disproportionation in alkaline solutions; in the case of neptunium and americium only one disproportionation reaction is possible; of the hexavalent state in to penta- and heptavalent states. The degree of completion of the reaction can be calculated accurately from the oxidation potentials determined

  7. Studies of the chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium at the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, supported by the US Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretrukhin, V.F.

    1995-04-01

    Studies at Hanford in the 1980s revealed the potential for actinides to form stable soluble complexes in alkaline media, simulating radioactive tank waste. Pu(IV) hydrous oxide and Pu(VI) solubility increased with hydroxide concentration, ionic strength, and aluminate/carbonate concentrations. Subsequent contacts between US and Russian researchers in 1993 led to a technical literature review of the chemistry of TRU and Tc in alkaline media; this review addresses oxidation states, solubility, speciation, redox reactions, electrochemistry, radiation chemistry, and separations in alkaline media. As an outgrowth, a program of fundamental and applied chemistry studies of TRU and Tc is being conducted at IPC/RAS with US DOE support: solubility, redox reagents, coprecipitation, and radiation chemistry. This overview provides information on the Hanford Site tank waste system, US DOE technological needs, and IPC/RAS developments

  8. Glenn Seaborg's Contributions to Heavy Element Science and the Periodic Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, David E.

    2012-01-01

    In celebrating the centennial anniversary of the birth of Glenn T. Seaborg it is fitting that we recount and pay tribute to his legacy. Many know of the scientific accomplishments of this man who became a legend and anyone who has attended his lectures can attest to how informative, educational, and entertaining he was. He had a beguiling and whimsical sense of humor and used this to drive home his points and share his passion and quest for discovery. The periodic table is a fundamental cornerstone of science and remains a central unifying principal. Seaborg was the architect of the actinide series of elements and their proper placement in the periodic table and co-discoverer of ten transuranium elements - one of which bears his name, element 106, seaborgium. The work and achievements of this Nobel laureate have touched the lives of many and his legacy will continue for generations to come.

  9. Glann Seaborg's Contributions to Heavy Element Science and the Periodic Table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, David E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-17

    In celebrating the centennial anniversary of the birth of Glenn T. Seaborg it is fitting that we recount and pay tribute to his legacy. Many know of the scientific accomplishments of this man who became a legend and anyone who has attended his lectures can attest to how informative, educational, and entertaining he was. He had a beguiling and whimsical sense of humor and used this to drive home his points and share his passion and quest for discovery. The periodic table is a fundamental cornerstone of science and remains a central unifying principal. Seaborg was the architect of the actinide series of elements and their proper placement in the periodic table and co-discoverer of ten transuranium elements - one of which bears his name, element 106, seaborgium. The work and achievements of this Nobel laureate have touched the lives of many and his legacy will continue for generations to come.

  10. A Guide to the Elements, Rev. Edition (by Albert Stwertka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Reviewed By Daniel

    1999-12-01

    This edition is identical in format and content to the 1996 edition, now sold as the "library edition", except that the names and information for elements 104-109 have been updated. My earlier review still applies; a page-by-page comparison found this edition identical to the first except as noted in the previous sentence. The major revision has been in size and price. The 50% price reduction is welcome, but the format was not changed when the size was reduced, and the resulting 9-point font puts readers at risk of eyestrain. I would like to correct one of the criticisms in my earlier review There is excellent discussion of the industrial uses of each element, as well as its most common source minerals. The more economically important elements are given extensive discussions, detailing industrial uses of the element and its compounds. However, biological activity is given spotty coverage. There is no mention - under "iron" or elsewhere - of the central biological role of iron in oxygen transport or of magnesium in photosynthesis. When coverage appears it is not bad: the roles of calcium in vertebrate and invertebrate skeletons, of fluorine in reducing tooth decay by changing hydroxyapatite to fluorapatite, and of cobalt in vitamin B12 are discussed. While information on transuranium elements has been updated, there has been no attempt to correct several minor errors in spelling, placement, or even information. On page 14 the 1s subshell appears as part of the L (n = 2) shell, and upon the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride on page 54, "sodium collects atthe cathode, and chloride [sic] at...the anode." On page 73 the etymology of "potash" is still given as "potassium-rich ash" rather than "ash burned down in pots", though it is obvious that the latter is intended. On page 74, a picture caption claims that black powder ("potassium nitrate, wood charcoal, and sulfur") is used in modern, high-powered rifle cartridges. In spite of the mistakes, which are relatively

  11. Shifting the balance: equity and sustainable consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Garside, Ben; De Morais, Gabriela Weber

    2009-01-15

    On our finite planet, the dictates of ecology and technology limit growth. Yet a key element of this issue – consumption – has until recently hardly figured on policy agendas. Now there is growing recognition that transformation towards a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy means tackling consumption as well as production. Governments and businesses are beginning to make concerted, if uncoordinated, efforts to reduce energy and resource use. Rethinking consumption could, however, drive an even bigger wedge between rich and poor. Any new agenda for consumption needs to factor in equity as well as environmental benefit.

  12. United States Transuranium Registry annual report, October 1, 1980-October 1, 1981 to Human Health and Assessments Division, US Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenstein, B.D. Jr.; Heid, K.R.; Swint, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Registry initiates and supports programs at the various sites, where significant numbers of transuranic workers are employed, to conduct interviews and secure medical, health physics and autopsy releases. Terminated employees, not previously contacted, are encouraged to participate in the Registry program. This effort requires cooperation from the company administration as well as the medical and health physics staff. For those persons who are not reached through this network, we attempt to reach them through information about the Registry in professional newsletters and publications. Table 1 is a summary of the status of the US Transuranium Registry autopsy program as of September 1981. The need to prove or improve the accuracy of the present in vivo models is of paramount interest to health physicists. The correlation of in vivo measurements with the radiochemical analysis brings the possibilities of increased predictability of whole body deposition closer to reality. The correlation of in vivo with autopsy tissue will aid epidemiological studies to define those observable health effects in the exposed population that should be looked for

  13. Calibration of whole-body counters for transuranic radionuclides by using total-body donations to the United States Transuranium Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Durbin, P.W.; McInroy, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    One of the many benefits of the whole-body donation programme of the United States Transuranium Registry is the calibration of whole-body counters by measuring a donated body containing radioactivity before radiochemical analysis of the body occurs. These measurements have provided the best existing calibration factors for measuring 241 Am and 239 Pu in the skeleton of living people. In one case where the body contained an easily measurable quantity of 241 Am, the 241 Am content was found to be the same for identical bones on the right and left sides of the body. The bones from the right side of the body and every other vertebrae were radiochemically analysed and the bones from the left side were reserved. These latter have a known quantity of naturally distributed 241 Am based on the analysis of bones from the right side. These reserved bones are being incorporated into tissue equivalent body parts for future calibrations and interlaboratory comparisons. The measurements on the total body and the reserved bones have already been very useful in determining the contribution of skeletal activity to that of lung measurements and determining a calibration factor for measuring 239 Pu deposited in the skeleton. In the future it is planned to periodically make in vivo measurements on those people participating in the total-body donation programme so that calibration factors can be obtained for lung and liver content after subsequent analysis of these tissues. (author)

  14. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  15. The Social Dynamics of Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamer, Naja Buono

    This PhD dissertation offers new empirically grounded insights into the social dynamics surrounding everyday food consumption. The aim is to investigate how three previously identified key elements – values, taste and social class – interact to explain food consumption. Drawing on quantitative data...... with their relationship to consumption, are grounded in structural logics that create differences between social classes. The dissertation thus concludes that to develop nuanced understandings of consumer behaviour we should investigate food consumption as pragmatic, moral practices that are socially and historically...... on Danish households’ actual food purchases, attitudes to food and their socio-economic resources, the analysis show that values and taste are important predictors of a range of everyday food consumption practices. However, values and taste alone cannot predict food consumption as they, together...

  16. Consumption of Mass Communication--Construction of a Model on Information Consumption Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepstrup, Preben

    A general conceptual model on the consumption of information is introduced. Information as the output of the mass media is treated as a product, and a model on the consumption of this product is developed by merging elements from consumer behavior theory and mass communication theory. Chapter I gives basic assumptions about the individual and the…

  17. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  18. Calculation of multidimensional potential energy surfaces for even-even transuranium nuclei: systematic investigation of the triaxiality effect on the fission barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Qing-Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Juan; Liu, Min-Liang; Wang, Hua-Lei

    2018-05-01

    Static fission barriers for 95 even-even transuranium nuclei with charge number Z = 94–118 have been systematically investigated by means of pairing self-consistent Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky calculations using the potential energy surface approach in multidimensional (β 2, γ, β 4) deformation space. Taking the heavier 252Cf nucleus (with the available fission barrier from experiment) as an example, the formation of the fission barrier and the influence of macroscopic, shell and pairing correction energies on it are analyzed. The results of the present calculated β 2 values and barrier heights are compared with previous calculations and available experiments. The role of triaxiality in the region of the first saddle is discussed. It is found that the second fission barrier is also considerably affected by the triaxial deformation degree of freedom in some nuclei (e.g., the Z=112–118 isotopes). Based on the potential energy curves, general trends of the evolution of the fission barrier heights and widths as a function of the nucleon numbers are investigated. In addition, the effects of Woods-Saxon potential parameter modifications (e.g., the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and the nuclear surface diffuseness) on the fission barrier are briefly discussed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11675148, 11505157), the Project of Youth Backbone Teachers of Colleges and Universities of Henan Province (2017GGJS008), the Foundation and Advanced Technology Research Program of Henan Province (162300410222), the Outstanding Young Talent Research Fund of Zhengzhou University (1521317002) and the Physics Research and Development Program of Zhengzhou University (32410017)

  19. Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprengel, D.; Haelbig, H.

    1980-01-03

    The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic. A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements. Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen.

  20. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  1. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  2. Energy Consumption Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption Database The California Energy Commission has created this on-line database for informal reporting ) classifications. The database also provides easy downloading of energy consumption data into Microsoft Excel (XLSX

  3. Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dermience

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R., and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD. However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013. Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution.

  4. [birthweight And Caffeine Consumption].

    OpenAIRE

    Bicalho, Gladys Gripp; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and low birth weight, prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation. A case-control was carried out and 354 newborns of single labor with birthweight 3,000 g (controls) were analyzed. Caffeine consumption was calculated based on daily consumption of coffee, soft drinks and tea. Results were adjusted using multiple logistic regression for the following confounders: mother's age, schooling, income, marital status...

  5. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  6. Transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C. K.; Jadhav, A. V.; Reghuraman, K.; Mathew, K. A.; Nair, P. S.; Ramaniah, M. V.

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies of the transplutonium elements including recovery and purification of americium, preparation of /sup 238/Pu, extraction studies using diethylhexyl phosphate. (DHM)

  7. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  8. Consumption and the Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VADUVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumer is that trader responsible for consumption act of some final goods or services who decided what must be produce and in what cantity, being the one who make the economic mechanism to move. Consumption is in close connection with the production of goods and services, exerting an active role, any activity should be complete by consuming its results; consumption creates the motivation to achieve economic and non-economic activities. The traditional approach to consumer behavior starts from hypothesised that all consumers seek to maximize the aggregate utility obtained of satisfactions resulting from consumption of goods taking into account the budgetary constraints given by income that consumer has and the prices of these goods. In the conditions of modern economy, consumption can be increased by diseconomies. If consumption depends on permanent income, revenue growth effectively does not exert influence on consumption only to the extent that this increase of income leads to increasing permanent income consumer. Consumption is viewed as an active agent of economic life, it is not only a consumer of goods and services but also a producer.

  9. Experience and Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    consumption may re-enchant ordinary consumption and thereby even become a part of marketing and the experience economy. New layers of meaning are at stake and altruistic motives come into play; doing something good for someone or something, aside from oneself, is a very strong trigger of positive emotions...

  10. Experience and Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    2014-01-01

    consumption may re-enchant ordinary consumption and thereby even become a part of marketing and the experience economy. New layers of meaning are at stake and altruistic motives come into play; doing something good for someone or something, aside from oneself, is a very strong trigger of positive emotions...

  11. Value Creation and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taillard, Marie; Voyer, Benjamin; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    An effect of the digital economy has been to provide consumers with almost unlimited ways to customize their consumption activities. They can craft each consumption experience to fit specific contexts, needs, emotions and other factors. A teenager’s night out is documented and shared with her...

  12. Chemistry of the heaviest elements--one atom at a time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.

    2000-01-01

    In keeping with the goal of the Viewpoint series of the Journal of Chemical Education, this article gives a 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years. A historical perspective of the importance of chemical separations in the discoveries of the transuranium elements from neptunium (Z=93) through mendelevium (Z=101) is given. The development of techniques for studying the chemical properties of mendelevium and still heavier elements on the basis of measuring the radioactive decay of a single atom (''atom-at-a-time'' chemistry) and combining the results of many separate experiments is reviewed. The influence of relativistic effects (expected to increase as Z 2 ) on chemical properties is discussed. The results from recent atom-at-a-time studies of the chemistry of the heaviest elements through seaborgium (Z=106) are summarized and show that their properties cannot be readily predicted based on simple extrapolation from the properties of their lighter homologues in the periodic table. The prospects for extending chemical studies to still heavier elements than seaborgium are considered and appear promising

  13. Evidence for the remobilisation of transuranic elements in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursthouse, A S; Livens, F R

    1993-09-01

    The transuranium elements, Np, Pu and Am discharged from the BNFL fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield have accumulated in the local environment. The processes responsible for their dispersal rely both on physical transportation and their chemical reactivity. The transuranics have a complex chemistry, with multiple oxidation states and a strongly polarising character. In the environment, the particle active III/IV and more mobile VNI oxidation state groups are important and govern their geochemical behaviour and subsequent dispersal.Studies of the behaviour of the transuranics, particularly Pu, in the Irish Sea, have shown that the majority of the radionuclides in the liquid effluent discharged from Sellafield, quickly becomes associated with the marine sediments. Their dispersal and distribution in the environment is then governed primarily by the movement of particulate material and for some sites it has been suggested that sediment profiles preserve the historical record of discharges from the plant.In tidally inundated soils, radionuclide levels are greatly enhanced. These soils are water-logged for long periods of the year, are strongly anoxic and accretion rate are very low. The distribution of Np, Pu and Am in the soil suggests that simple sedimentary accumulation mechanism cannot provide an adequate explanation for the profiles observed. From preliminary studies of soil pore water composition and detailed analysis of the variation of isotopic ratios in the soil cores, it is apparent that a small but significant component of the radionuclide inventory is mobile. In addition, it is clear that the mechanisms responsible for this mobility allows differentiation between the transuranium nuclides.

  14. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  15. Oxygen potentials of transuranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyoshi Otobe; Mituso Akabori; Arai Yasuo; Kazuo Minato

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen potentials of pyrochlore-type Pu 2 Zr 2 O 7+y , fluorite-type (Pu 0.5 Zr 0.5 )O 2-x and AmO 2-x have been measured by the electromotive force (EMF) method with a zirconia solid-electrolyte. The oxygen potentials of these oxides were reviewed. The phase relations, microstructure, equilibrium state of these oxides were discussed, referring to the isothermal curve of the oxygen potentials. (authors)

  16. Bat consumption in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok, where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results: In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion: Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  17. Bat consumption in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April-August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  18. On the use of spectroscopic techniques to determine the crystal structure of compounds of the artificial f elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    For some time the author has been using solid state absorption spectrophotometry to identify the crystal structure of selected transuranium (5f) and promethium (4f) compounds, based on spectral-structural correlations in his data base. More recently he has shown that Raman phonon spectroscopy is also very useful in this regard. These spectral probes of structure have their specific advantages and disadvantages; however, both are applicable to the structural characterization of radioactive compounds and can provide data for interpretation faster and more reliably than the commonly used X-ray powder diffraction method. The experimental methods, examples from the growing data bases, successes and limitations of these spectral probes of crystal structure, and some useful applications to the study of f-element compounds under varying conditions of temperature and pressure are presented

  19. Consumption Sustained or Playing with Hyenas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, J.; Te Riele, H.

    2005-03-01

    An outline is given of a new strategy to 'green' consumption, aimed at a reduction of the environmental burden of consumer goods. Key elements in the strategy are a selection of 44 product groups which have considerable environmental effects; long-term targets in relation with macro-economical developments and persistent environmental problems; introduction of the transition process in order to speed up the greening of consumption; reconsideration of the role of the Dutch government as initiator and coordinator, next to the autonomous activities of manufacturers, consumers and other actors [nl

  20. Marriage and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blow, Laura; Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    We examine theoretically and empirically consumption over the early part of the life-cycle. The main focus is on the transition from being single to living with someone else. Our theoretical model allows for publicness in consumption; uncertainty concerning marriage; differences between lifetime...... incomes for prospective partners and a marriage premium. We develop a two period model to bring out the main features of the impact of marriage on consumption and saving. We then develop a multi-period model that can be taken to the data on expenditures by singles and couples aged between 18 and 30. Our...

  1. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  2. Interactive energy consumption visualization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lunga, D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available in an office building environment. The main goal is to highlight high consumptions patterns, estimate costs and savings, and recommend energy saving strategies. In its useful nature, the dashboard can provide valuable information for further programs tied...

  3. Emotions and consumption behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    I. Soscia

    2013-01-01

    This stimulating book scrutinizes how emotions function in consumers, from both a psychological and a managerial perspective. It demonstrates how gratitude, happiness, guilt, anger, pride and sadness determine different post-consumption behaviours such as positive and negative word of mouth, repurchase intention and complaint behaviour. The emotional side of consumption seems to play an essential role in explaining choices made and actions taken by consumers. Isabella Soscia explores the ...

  4. Carbon offsetting: sustaining consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Lovell; Harriet Bulkeley; Diana Liverman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine how theories of sustainable and ethical consumption help us to understand a new, rapidly expanding type of consumer product designed to mitigate climate change: carbon offsets. The voluntary carbon offset market grew by 200% between 2005 and 2006, and there are now over 150 retailers of voluntary carbon offsets worldwide. Our analysis concentrates on the production and consumption of carbon offsets, drawing on ideas from governmentality and political ecology about how...

  5. Changes in cultural consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete, T.; Borowiecki, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Visits to museums have been studied as hedonic and utilitarian forms of cultural consumption, though limited attention has been given to the access of museum collections online. We perform a unique historic analysis of the visibility of collections in a museum of ethnographic collections and comp......, particularly when showing them being used). Results support understanding of online heritage consumption and emerging dynamics, particularly outside of an institutional environment, such as Wikipedia. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group....

  6. Consumption and Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    2009-01-01

    supply. We develop two tests of the extreme hypothesis that only changes in family structure matter. We estimate effects of the numbers and ages of children on consumption. These estimates allow us to rationalize all of the increase in consumption without recourse to any of the causal mechanisms. Our...... estimates can be interpreted either as giving upper bounds on the effects of children or as evidence that the other causes are not important....

  7. Impact of water hardness on energy consumption of geyser heating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the Eskom Research, Testing, and Development Business Unit embarked on a study to examine total water hardness as a chemical parameter that may impact the power consumption of electrical geyser heating elements. An accelerated scaling method was developed to lime-scale the geyser heating elements ...

  8. Economic theories of sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The term `sustainable consumption' denotes the search for consumption patterns that reduce human pressure on the environment and nature. This searchinvolves three levels of research. First, the relationship between consumption, lifestyles and environmental sustainability has to be clarified.

  9. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  10. Adverse selection model regarding tobacco consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MARIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of introducing a tax on tobacco consumption can be studied trough an adverse selection model. The objective of the model presented in the following is to characterize the optimal contractual relationship between the governmental authorities and the two type employees: smokers and non-smokers, taking into account that the consumers’ decision to smoke or not represents an element of risk and uncertainty. Two scenarios are run using the General Algebraic Modeling Systems software: one without taxes set on tobacco consumption and another one with taxes set on tobacco consumption, based on an adverse selection model described previously. The results of the two scenarios are compared in the end of the paper: the wage earnings levels and the social welfare in case of a smoking agent and in case of a non-smoking agent.

  11. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  12. Transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The review is covered in sections, entitled: predicted nuclear properties - including closed shells, decay characteristics; predicted chemical properties - including electronic structure and calculated properties, X-radiation, extrapolated chemical properties, separation chemistry; methods of synthesis; the natural occurrence of superheavy elements. (U.K.)

  13. Ethical Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn

    So-called ‘ethical’ food products have spread across the industrialised world. These are products that are produced under labelling schemes with extraordinary attentiveness to issues such as farm animal welfare and environmental protection. Political decision-makers and other stakeholders in food...... protection. In particular, it aims to examine the concrete improvements that may be pursued through markets for ethical food, and how these improvements are influenced by factors related to individual consumers’ choice of food. This thesis is structured around three research papers that illuminate different...... aspects of ethical food consumption and, based on this, provide concrete policy inputs. The scope of the research is highly interdisciplinary, and includes perspectives from ethics and the social sciences on food consumption. Paper I: Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes...

  14. Seafood Consumption and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Huseyin Atar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed relationship between healthy life and seafood consumption. Seafood consumption provide with predicting some chronic diseases, regular diet and a healthy eating habit. Fish and seafood have been promoted as healthy eating by health organizations in many countries all over the world. Seafood includes many important fatty acids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. These have been shown to cause significant biochemical and physiological changes in the body. Especially omega–3 and omega–6 fatty acids have been prevented some major diseases; such as CHD, cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(2.000: 173-176

  15. Why Taxing Consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank...... are controversial while the invocation of efficiency is actually grounded in an underlying view of social cooperation. Secondly, this chapter advances the idea that an ultimate justification for the choice of specific tax base (consumption, income and wealth) expresses such an underlying view. In other words...

  16. Energy Threshold Hypothesis for Household Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Samira; Castro-Sitiriche, Marcel; Amador, Isamar

    2017-01-01

    A strong positive relationship among quality of life and electricity consumption at impoverished countries is found in many studies. However, previous work has presented that the positive relationship does not hold beyond certain electricity consumption threshold. Consequently, there is a need of exploring the possibility for communities to live with sustainable level of energy consumption without sacrificing their quality of life. The Gallup-Healthways Report measures global citizen’s wellbeing. This paper provides a new outlook using these elements to explore the relationships among actual percentage of population thriving in most countries and their energy consumption. A measurement of efficiency is computed to determine an adjusted relative social value of energy considering the variability in the happy life years as a function of electric power consumption. Adjustment is performed so single components don’t dominate in the measurement. It is interesting to note that the countries with the highest relative social value of energy are in the top 10 countries of the Gallup report.

  17. Validation of new superheavy elements and IUPAC-IUPAP joint working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The great chemist Glenn Seaborg has written a delightful little book “Man-made Transuranium Elements”, published in 1963, in which he points out that: “The former basic criterion for the discovery of a new element – namely, chemical identification and separation from all previously-known elements – had to be changed in the case of lawrencium (element 103). This also may be true for elements beyond lawrencium.” Indeed this is what has happened. The elements with Z ≥ 103 are produced in nuclear reactions and are detected by counters. The detectors have undergone substantial refinement. For example one uses multiwire proportional chambers [for which George Charpak received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics] as well as solid state micro-strip detectors. In spite of this remarkable shift from chemistry to physics, the managerial staff of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) does not seem to be aware of what has been going on. The validation of superheavy elements should be done by physicists as the chemists lack the relevant competence as I will discuss here below. This article is about a collaboration between International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and its sister organization International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), to deal with discovery of superheavy elements beyond Z = 112. I spent a great deal of time on this issue. In my opinion, the collaboration turned out to be a failure. For the sake of science, which should be our most important concern (and not politics), the rules for the future collaborations, if any, should be accurately defined and respected. The validation of new elements should be done by people who have the relevant competence – the physicists.

  18. Recent developments for high-precision mass measurements of the heaviest elements at SHIPTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minaya Ramirez, E.; Ackermann, D.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Droese, C.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Haettner, E.; Herfurth, F.; Heßberger, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct high-precision mass measurements of No and Lr isotopes performed. • High-precision mass measurements with a count rate of 1 ion/hour demonstrated. • The results provide anchor points for a large region connected by alpha-decay chains. • The binding energies determine the strength of the deformed shell closure N = 152. • Technical developments and new techniques will pave the way towards heavier elements. -- Abstract: Atomic nuclei far from stability continue to challenge our understanding. For example, theoretical models have predicted an “island of stability” in the region of the superheavy elements due to the closure of spherical proton and neutron shells. Depending on the model, these are expected at Z = 114, 120 or even 126 and N = 172 or 184. Valuable information on the road to the island of stability is derived from high-precision mass measurements, which give direct access to binding energies of short-lived trans-uranium nuclei. Recently, direct mass measurements at SHIPTRAP have been extended to nobelium and lawrencium isotopes around the deformed shell gap N = 152. In order to further extend mass measurements to the region of superheavy elements, new technical developments are required to increase the performance of our setup. The sensitivity will increase through the implementation of a new detection method, where observation of one single ion is sufficient. Together with the use of a more efficient gas stopping cell, this will us allow to significantly enhance the overall efficiency of SHIPTRAP

  19. Use of neutron activation techniques for studying elements distribution. Applications in geochemistry, ecology and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flitsyan, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The essence of the radiography method, sensitivity of which is within a range of 10 -2 - 10 -7 g · mm -2 and resolution ability extend from 0,01 to 100 μm, consists in determining the distributions of ionising irradiation sources on a surface under study by using the two-dimensional field of their irradiation registered by means of photoemulsion or dielectric track detector. Statistical analysis and computer processing of the radiographic images have allowed one to solve the two main tasks of the method , namely, the determination of true distributions of ionising irradiation sources on the surface of an object under study and the quantitative estimation within given accuracy of the content of an element under study in a sample. A complex of radiographic techniques based on the registration of secondary irradiation of the activated nuclei, instantaneous products of the nuclear reactions, and fusion fragments of the transuranium elements, has been developed to solve a series of the problem in geology and geochemistry, as well as for an analysis of technological and environment samples. Upon designing and constructing special comparison standards modelling a sample in composition and structure, the quantitative data on distributions of more than forty elements in rock sections and these of the main microcomponents, including oxygen, in the superconducting ceramics samples have also been obtained. (author)

  20. New elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flerov, G.

    1976-01-01

    The history is briefly described of the investigation of superheavy elements at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. The significance of the investigation is assessed from the point of view of the nuclear structure study and major problems encountered in experimental efforts are indicated. Current experimental methods aiming at the discovery or the production of superheavy nuclei with Z approximately 114 are listed. (I.W.)

  1. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  2. Exploring heroin consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Franz; Frijns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore some aspects of heroin consumption, using the data we collected through the face-to-face interviews and comparing our findings with data from other research and monitoring sources. We focus on Italy, the Netherlands and England, the three sample Member States where we have

  3. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  4. Bus fuel consumption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargari, S.A. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, A.M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The interest in rapid bus transit has increased sharply with the realization that modern metropolitan areas rely on public transit to provide for strong economies and communities. As a prevention tool against traffic congestion, deteriorating air quality and rising greenhouse gas emissions, this study of bus fuel consumption was designed to assist in the planning and management of rapid bus transit. The Australian Road Research Board's (ARRB) Road Fuel Consumption Model was used as a starting point. The estimations required were realized with the help of Newtonian Mechanics. The four states of vehicular traffic were examined: acceleration, cruise, deceleration, and idle. The estimated total power required from the engine to overcome resistance forces, to run vehicle accessories and overcome internal engine friction was calculated. The data for the standard and articulated bus was obtained from OC Transpo in Ottawa. The study permitted the authors to conclude that the estimations for the parameters for power requirements and fuel consumption for heavy duty vehicles are appropriate. The methodology for the estimation of fuel consumption on the Transitway, which is part of the rapid bus transit system, proved adequate. In addition, the methodology was useful to estimate fuel savings resulting from demand management strategies with potential for modal shift. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  6. Consumption growth accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; de Groot, Olaf J.; Los, Bart

    The methodology in this paper combines an input-output structural decomposition approach with the supply-side perspective of mainstream growth accounting. In explaining the intertemporal change in consumption per worker, three sets of effects are distinguished. First, contributions due to several

  7. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  8. Organic consumption behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar

    2017-01-01

    Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize

  9. The Ideology of Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This article opts for a return to a critique of the ideology of consumption. Following Slavoj Žižek it argues that what must be addressed in present-day consumer-capitalism is the level of the superego. Superego is not about living up to certain norms/standards; rather, superego fits consumerism...

  10. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Ardianto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be an alternative choice of marketing practices.

  11. Country differences in sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2010-01-01

    In a sustainability perspective, consumption research has an unfortunate individualizing bias, which means that macro and structural causes of unsustainable consumption tend to be ignored. Hence, a comprehensive model of determinants of the sustainability of consumption is developed and applied...... on a specific case: organic food consumption. The analyzed data are published research on why consumer purchase of organic food products differs between countries. As expected, organic food's share of total food consumption depends heavily on political regulation, including legal definitions and standards...

  12. Work-related consumption drivers and consumption at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...... from both ecology and economics with focus on some important predecessors for ecological economics. I conclude with reflections on how to proceed with consumption studies to provide the basis for promoting more sustainable life patterns....

  13. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  14. Fuelwood consumption in Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This study was undertaken to get a first estimate of fuelwood consumption for the island of Newfoundland for the period April 1, 1977 to March 31, 1978. Available literature was reviewed and an assessment made on the existing data collection systems on fuelwood consumption used by the various forestry agencies in the province. A personal interview telephone survey on fuelwood use was conducted for most parts of the Island that had access to wood supplies. Householders were asked how much wood they burned, when they started burning wood, type of wood burning unit used, other sources of heat used, reasons for burning wood, employment, distance travelled to obtain wood, and expected consumption in 1978-79 compared to 1977-78. It was found that the estimated number of households burning wood increased to ca 32,000 in 1977-78. There was a further estimated increase to about 39,500 in 1978-79. In 1977-78, it was estimated that 461,571 stacked cubic metres of fuelwood were consumed on the Island. This was broken down into 318,916 m/sup 3/ of softwood and 142,655 m/sup 3/ of hardwood. Although the statistical methodology used may have led to an overestimate of the volume of wood consumed, the criteria used in the selection of households had the opposite effect in that the volume consumed by a large number of casual wood burners (less than 3 stacked m/sup 3/) was omitted from the estimate. Fuelwood consumption accounted for anywhere from 1% to 77% of the calculated allowable annual cut for the various forest management units on the Island for 1977-78. Overall, fuelwood consumption estimated by the survey accounted for 8% of the estimated allowable annual cut. Use of wood as a fuel is expected to continue increasing and it is recommended that estimates of consumption be periodically updated so that forest management plans can make adequate provision for this demand in future. 5 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    1999-01-01

    The outstanding aim of experimental investigations of heavy nuclei is the exploration of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). On the basis of the nuclear shell model, the next double magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is predicted at proton numbers between Z=114 and 126 and at neutron number N=184. All experimental efforts aiming at identifying SHEs (Z>=114) were negative so far. A highly sensitive search experiment was performed in November-December 1995 at SHIP. The isotope sup 2 sup 9 sup 0 116 produced by 'radiative capture' was searched for in the course of a 33 days irradiation of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target with sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles, however, only cross-section limits were measured. Positive results were obtained in experiments searching for elements from 110 to 112 using cold fusion and the 1n evaporation channel. The produced isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of alpha-alpha correlations. Not fission, but alpha emission is the dominant decay mode. The measurement ...

  16. Videogames, consumption and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix ETXEBERRIA VALERDI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing success and use of videogames is a reality in our current society, being 54% of the total consumption of audiovisual or interactive entertainment in Spain in 2007. One of the aspects to be taken into consideration, with respect to the education of children, is the implication for consumption in relation to videogames. The violence portrayed in these games is one of the main topics of debate in the literature about and studies on the effects of videogames on children’s behaviour. However, it is not just a question of protecting minors against the risks of videogames use without control and care exercised by parents or educators. For many years now, despite the risks involved in their use, videogames have been used as another medium in education itself.

  17. Consumption and Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    1996-01-01

    The contribution takes its point of departure in the relation between the many resource savings initiatives and the lack of interest for the growth in consumption. It argues that what we make up on the roundabouts, we risk to loose on the swings. In order to prevent that it reveals some of the cu...... socio-cultural and life qualitative demands into account. As a conclusion the author outlines some ideals with regard to how to integrate human the dimension in urban ecological design.......The contribution takes its point of departure in the relation between the many resource savings initiatives and the lack of interest for the growth in consumption. It argues that what we make up on the roundabouts, we risk to loose on the swings. In order to prevent that it reveals some...

  18. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Eberle, Ulrike; Lorek, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary food production and consumption cannot be regarded as sustainable and raises problems with its wide scope involving diverse actors. Moreover, in the face of demographic change and a growing global population, sus-tainability problems arising from food systems will likely become more...... and globalization of agriculture and food processing, the shift of consumption patterns toward more dietary animal protein, the emergence of modern food styles that entail heavily processed products, the growing gap on a global scale between rich and poor, and the paradoxical lack of food security amid an abundance...... of food. These factors are attributable to national and international policies and regulations, as well as to prevalent business prac-tices and, in particular, consumers' values and habits. The most effective ways for affluent societies to reduce the environmental impact of their diets are to reduce...

  19. Youth and Tourism Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Kalantari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tends to study tourism attitudes among the youth. It argues that in studying tourism among the youth, it is necessary to consider youth’s other behavioral factors in addition to the youth subculture. Therefore, we should study the youth culture from the view point of “Consumption”. In this view, youth tourism is equal to consumption of time, space and signs. Using ongoing theoretical debates and division, we would attempt to explore various factors of youth tourism. This article shows that youth tourism and youth culture are so mutually interconnected that we should comprehend youth tourism based on youth culture and vise versa. In conclusion, analyzing the youth subculture which is rooted in their consumption attitudes, the study attempts to understand youth tourism.

  20. Promoting seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    was that preparing a tasty meal from fresh fish was actually not difficult. In supplemetary materials consumers were provided with recipes for fresh fish. At the same time, major retail chains made MAP-packaged fresh fish filets available in Danish supermarkets. The influence of familiy expectations was harnessed......Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to the attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish......, and actual consumption frequencies. In the pre-campaign survey (effective N=641), significant determinants of consumption were availability in shops, meal preparation skills, and intentions to buy fresh fish. The campaign was especially designed to conquer these barriers. The key proposition...

  1. Fuelwood consumption in Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fuelwood consumption increased in Newfoundland in the 1970's, but although cutting permits were issued for Crown land, most forests were privately leased and no overall figures were available on the annual cut for domestic use. A personal interview telephone survey was therefore implemented in which householders were questioned on how much wood they burned, when they started burning wood, type of stove and wood used, expected consumption in 1978-79, other sources of heat, employment, and distance travelled to obtain wood. Survey methods and results obtained are presented. Woodburning households increased from about 22,000 before 1973 to about 32,000 in 1977-78 and a further increase to about 39,500 was expected in 1978-79. In 1977-78, 462,571 stacked cubic metres of roundwood were burned on the island. Softwood comprised 69% of this total.

  2. The mediatization of ethical consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, mediatization studies have investigated the influence of media in numerous sections of contemporary society. One area that has received limited attention is the mediatization of consumption, particularly issues concerning ethical consumption. This article presents a study of how...... mediatization is transforming modern consumption and contributing to the mainstreaming of ethical consumption. Based on a study of a Danish online eco-store, the article argues that modern ethical consumption increasingly depends on new media practices to present sustainable consumption as practical...

  3. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption) are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual...

  4. Orbit selection of nanosatellite formation in term of fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimnoo, Ammarin; Hiraki, Koju

    In nanosatellite formation mission design, orbit selection is a necessary factor. Fuel consumption is also necessary to maintain the orbit. Therefore, the best orbit should be the one of minimum fuel consumption for nanosatellite formation. The purpose of this paper is to provide a convenient way to estimate fuel consumption for a nanosatellite to keep formation flying. The formation is disturbed by J _{2} perturbation and other perturbing accelerations. Firstly, the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations are used in the analysis. Gaussian variation of parameters is included into the Hill’s equation to analyze the variation of Kaplerian orbital elements. The J _{2} perturbation and other perturbing accelerations such as atmospheric drag, solar-radiation pressure and third-body perturbations are considered. Thus, a linear model based on Hill’s equation is established to estimate fuel consumption. Finally, an example of the best orbit for formation flying with minimum fuel consumption shall be presented.

  5. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Grou...

  7. Migration and transfer of transuranium elements (Pu, Am) and longliving fission products (Sr, Ru, Sb, Cs, Ce, Eu) in natural forest ecosystems of the 30-km-zone around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, D.; Kammerer, L.; Simko, M.; Hiersche, L.; Wirth, E.

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of the C.E.C. research project ECP-5 entitled ''The behaviour of radionuclides in natural and semi-natural ecosystems'' our institute carried out investigations on selected sites of forest ecosystems in the 30-km-zone of Chernobyl in cooperation with research instituts of the C.I.S. states Russia and Ukraine. Our research is concentrated on the transfer of radionuclides from soil to plants of the understorey, especially species of farns and berries, as this plants take up their nutrients mainly from the upper organic horizons. (orig.) [de

  8. Energy consumption: Past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The energy consumption history of the United States and the changes which could occur in consumption characteristics in the next 50 years are presented. The various sources of energy are analyzed to show the limitations involved in development and utilization as a function of time available. Several scenarios were prepared to show the consumption and supply of energy under varying conditions.

  9. Consumption of the Epidermis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie Louise; Schmidt, Henrik; Damsgaard, Tine E

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the extent of ulceration and the presence of epidermal involvement that theoretically precede ulceration (consumption of epidermis, COE) or seen subsequent to inflammation (reactive epidermal hyperplasia or re-epithelialization) allowed better prognostic...... supports that the proliferation drive is noninflammatory. In contrast, the presence of re-epithelialization and/or reactive epidermal hyperplasia demonstrated an 18% (95% CI: 6–53, P = 0.0021) increased density of neutrophils compared with tumor with no evidence of these possibly prolonged late......, effacement, or reactive hyperplasia of the surrounding epidermis....

  10. Proper Islamic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    mobile, religiously committed communities to the opportunities and perils presented by modernisation. It also tells us something about the debates concerning the meanings and practices of Islam within an aggressive, globalised, secularised modernity. In Malaysia this is an especially intriguing issue...... spite of a long line of social theory analyzing the spiritual in the economic, and vice versa, very little of the recent increase in scholarship on Islam addresses its relationship with capitalism. Johan Fischer’s book,Proper Islamic Consumption, begins to fill this gap. […] Fischer’s detailed...

  11. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Scholl, Gerd; Eberle, Ulrike

    to be tackled, including climate change water pollution and water scarcity, soil degradation,eutrophication of water bodies, and loss of habitats and biodiversity. With respect to a growing world population and demographic change, problems are predicted to become more serious in the future; for example...... on a variety of issues, including agriculture and the food supply, the availability of and access to food, physical activity, welfare and social benefits, sound environmental production and consumption, fiscal policies, the role of individual consumer decision-making, public procurement and public provision...

  12. A Theory on Fashion Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Ma; Huijing Shi; Lihua Chen; Yiping Luo

    2012-01-01

    Both the theory of top-down penetration of fashion consumption (Veblen - Simmel model) and the theory of bottom-up fashion consumption have been found consistent with the consumer behavior in the China¡¯s fashion consumer market and the trend of such behavior keeps growing. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a study on fashion consumption to meet the needs of the development of real life and fashion consumption. Firstly, we describe the content of fashion consumption, discuss the connota...

  13. Population growth and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development.

  14. Sustainable Consumption Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Vringer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on purchasing the sustainable product variety, or whether every household in a group is free to spend their budget on any product variety. By conducting several treatments, we tested whether people tend to view sustainable consumption as a social dilemma or as a moral dilemma. We find little support for the hypothesis that social dilemma considerations are the key drivers of sustainable consumption behaviour. Participants seem to be caught in a moral dilemma in which they not only weigh their individual financial costs with the sustainable benefits but they also consider the consequences of restricting other people’s freedom of choice. Complementary survey results further substantiate this claim and show that many people are reluctant to impose restrictions on their peers, but, at the same time, our results also suggest substantial support for the government to regulate the availability of unsustainable product varieties.

  15. Energy Management Systems to Reduce Electrical Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Oriti, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY An energy management system comprises an electrical energy storage element such as a battery, renewable electrical energy sources such as solar and wind, a digital signal processing controller and a solid state power converter to interface the elements together. This hardware demonstration in the lab at the Naval Postgraduate School will focus on solid state power conversion methods to improve the reliability and efficiency of electrical energy consumption by Navy facilit...

  16. Energy consumption declined in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    On presenting the energy consumption figures for 1993 the Minister for Economic Affairs of Baden-Wuerttemberg Dieter Spoeri (SPD) spoke of the eternal task of saving energy. In his view the slight decline in energy consumption from 1992 to 1993 should not be interpreted as a greater willingness to save energy; its main cause is rather to be seen in the course of the economy. According to estimations, total energy consumption fell 0.5% and electricity consumption 1.0% from 1992 to 1993. The economy on the other hand, still a decisive factor in energy consumption, is estimated to have declined 3% during that period. In the ten years from 1983 to 1993 total energy consumption in the Land rose an average annual 1.8% while electricity consumption kept astride with the economy with an average annual rise 2.7%, he said. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Sustainable Consumption: Research Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John

    The Board of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (Mistra) decided in October 2015 that a proposal for a funding application call in the research area of “sustainable consumption” should be drawn up. According to the statutes of Mistra, research funded by the foundation...... international senior researchers in the eld — Lucia A. Reisch, Maurie J. Cohen, John B. Thøgersen and Arnold Tukker (see Appendix 3) — to draft a background report to prepare the call. The group’s tasks were outlined as follows: ► to describe the challenges facing society in this area, and the political (and...... the orientation of a new research program to be used as draft text for the call for funding applications. The aim of this background report is hence to shed light on future research topics within sustainable consumption from a Swedish perspective. The research pro- moted should help to develop Sweden...

  18. High Antibiotic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; José Rabanaque, María; Feja, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Heavy antibiotic users are those individuals with the highest exposure to antibiotics. They play an important role as contributors to the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance. We applied different methods to identify and characterize the group of heavy antibiotic users in Spain as well...... as their exposure to antibiotics. Data on outpatient prescribing of antimicrobials (ATC J01) in 2010 were obtained from a prescription database covering Aragón (northeastern Spain). The antimicrobial consumption at the individual level was analysed both according to the volume of DDD and the number of packages...... purchased per year. Heavy antibiotic users were identified according to Lorenz curves and characterized by age, gender, and their antimicrobial prescription profile. Lorenz curves demonstrated substantial differences in the individual use of antimicrobials. Heavy antibiotic users (5% of individuals...

  19. RCA : resource consumptions accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Valeska Rodriguez Lucas de Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Devido à grande concorrência do mercado o controle de custos passa a ser peça fundamental no auxílio à tomada de decisão quanto à redução dos custos, visando uma lucratividade maior por parte das empresas. Essa dissertação trata sobre um novo modelo de custos, o RCA – Resource Consumption Accounting, que ainda não foi adotado por nenhuma empresa. Esse novo método de custeio foi aplicado como modelo piloto em uma empresa Americana onde os resultados foram favoráveis a ele em relação aos modelo...

  20. Energy consumption and conservation, evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-04-01

    The energy consumption is increasing of more than 1% each year. It is necessary to slow down this growth and much better to inverse it. Observing the main consumption posts, energy saving is possible at short dated for the residential sector and medium and long dated for the transports and the industry. Anyway the individual behaviors are essential. The author presents the situation for each posts, providing data on the energy consumption and saving and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  1. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Group Technique, a variant of the Delphi methodology. Experiences with this methodology over the past two years are reported. Finally, conclusions for the monitoring and surveillance at the national level are given.

  2. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  3. Survey on food consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1979-01-01

    Critical pathway approach is one of the methods for estimating discharge limits of radioactive nuclides into an environment. In connection with this it is presented that a term of 'critical group' is in danger of leading to the misunderstanding of 'dangerous group'. However, in fact, the present discharge is limited to a level as low as practicable. Therefore, on the evaluation of intermal radiation dose for such a low release, a term of 'reference group' should be recommended instead of critical group. In order to select reasonably 'the reference group', it was proposed to calculate 'effective whole body dose-equivalent limit', which was recommended by ICRP publication 26. It is a convenient method to sum up individual weighed dose of each critical organ by using the value of a ratio obtained from Wt as a weighing factor. Finally instructions for the survey on food consumption and the results were summarized on the basis of ten-years survey experiences in coastal area of Ibaraki prefecture. (author)

  4. Frontiers in sustainable consumption research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Cohen, Maurie J.; Thøgersen, John

    2016-01-01

    While the field of sustainable consumption research is relatively young, it has already attracted scholars from all corners of the social sciences. The time has come to identify a new research agenda as trends in sustainable consumption research seem to suggest the dawning of a new phase. Not only...

  5. Canonical Authors in Consumption Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canonical Authors in Consumption Theory is the first work to compile the contributions of the greatest social thinkers in the global conversation about consumption and consumer culture. A prestigious reference work, it offers original chapters by the world's most prominent thought leaders and sur...

  6. Sustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing Jian; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. One aspect of sustainable consumption focused on in this study is the environment friendly purchase or green purchase. Using data collected from consumers in 14 cities in China, we found that consumers who reported green purchase…

  7. Second-home electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Christensen, M.S.; Jensen, O.M.

    2008-01-01

    in electricity consumption. Luxury tourism use and senior citizens' that use a few per cent of the second homes as their home contribute to a minor degree to the overall increase of electricity consumption. Scenarios show that this development may accelerate with increased leisure time, increased use and more...

  8. Second-home electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Frits M.; Morthorst, Poul Erik [Risoe, Systems Analysis Department, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Christensen, Morten S.; Kofoed, Niels-Ulrik [Esbensen Consulting Engineers, Carl Jacobsens Vej 25D, DK-2500 Valby (Denmark); Jensen, Ole Michael [Danish Building Research Institute, Department of Energy and Environment, University of Aalborg, P.O. Box 119, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark)

    2008-01-15

    In Denmark, electricity consumption in first and second homes has developed quite differently. Since 1990, electricity consumption in ordinary residences has grown moderately, while consumption in weekend and second homes has increased considerably. In turn, this development has been blamed on a growing number of luxury cottages, new legislation permitting senior citizens to have their permanent address in their second home and a growing number of electric appliances. In order to examine the growing electricity consumption in second homes and to estimate future demand, a multidisciplinary study combining top-down and bottom-up analyses was conducted, i.e., combining models using aggregated economic parameters and feasibility studies using technical parameters, respectively. The top-down estimation showed that changes in electricity consumption in second homes correlate to changes in income. The bottom-up estimation showed that consumption was mainly affected by the frequency with which second homes were used in the winter time. This indicates that additional second homes, increased full-time use and intensified use of electric appliances are the main reasons for the observed increases in electricity consumption. Luxury tourism use and senior citizens' that use a few per cent of the second homes as their home contribute to a minor degree to the overall increase of electricity consumption. Scenarios show that this development may accelerate with increased leisure time, increased use and more permanent settlement in second homes. (author)

  9. Second-home electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Frits M.; Christensen, Morten S.; Jensen, Ole Michael; Kofoed, Niels-Ulrik; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark, electricity consumption in first and second homes has developed quite differently. Since 1990, electricity consumption in ordinary residences has grown moderately, while consumption in weekend and second homes has increased considerably. In turn, this development has been blamed on a growing number of luxury cottages, new legislation permitting senior citizens to have their permanent address in their second home and a growing number of electric appliances. In order to examine the growing electricity consumption in second homes and to estimate future demand, a multidisciplinary study combining top-down and bottom-up analyses was conducted, i.e., combining models using aggregated economic parameters and feasibility studies using technical parameters, respectively. The top-down estimation showed that changes in electricity consumption in second homes correlate to changes in income. The bottom-up estimation showed that consumption was mainly affected by the frequency with which second homes were used in the winter time. This indicates that additional second homes, increased full-time use and intensified use of electric appliances are the main reasons for the observed increases in electricity consumption. Luxury tourism use and senior citizens' that use a few per cent of the second homes as their home contribute to a minor degree to the overall increase of electricity consumption. Scenarios show that this development may accelerate with increased leisure time, increased use and more permanent settlement in second homes

  10. US Transuranium Registry report of the 241Am content of a whole body. Part IV: Preparation and analysis of the tissues and bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Boyd, H.A.; Eutsler, B.C.; Romero, D.

    1985-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has analyzed autopsy tissue for the USTR, as a part of its study of the uptake, distribution and retention of Pu and other transuranic elements in occupationally exposed workers since 1978. In April 1979, Los Alamos received the internal organs and bone samples from the first whole-body donation to the USTR. The donor was known to have an internal deposition of 241 Am. All soft tissue, the bones from the right half of the skeleton, and the odd-numbered vertebrae were received at Los Alamos in February 1980. The bones were subdivided along anatomical areas of interest. All soft tissues and bone specimens were analyzed for their 241 Am content. A total deposition of 147.4 nCi 241 Am was measured. Approximately 18% of the 241 Am remaining in the body (disregarding that in the left hand), was found in the soft tissues, and 82% was in the bones and teeth. The soft tissues and organs containing the largest amounts of 241 Am were the combined soft tissue (striated muscle, connective tissue and skin) 8.8%; liver, 6.4% and respiratory tract, 1.5%. The remaining organs accounted for 0.9% of the systemic burden

  11. A consumption value-gap analysis for sustainable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aindrila

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies on consumption behavior have depicted environmental apprehension resulting from across wide consumer segments. However, this has not been widely reflected upon the growth in the market shares for green or environment-friendly products mostly because gaps exist between consumers' expectations and perceptions for those products. Previous studies have highlighted the impact of perceived value on potential demand, consumer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The necessity to understand the effects of gaps in expected and perceived values on consumers' behavioral intention and potential demand for green products cannot be undermined as it shapes the consumers' inclination to repeated purchase and consumption and thus foster potential market demand. Pertaining to this reason, the study aims to adopt a consumption value-gap model based on the theory of consumption values to assess their impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand of green products. Consumption value refers to the level of fulfillment of consumer needs by assessment of net utility derived after effective comparison between the benefits (financial or emotional) and the gives (money, time, or energy). The larger the gaps the higher will be the adversarial impact on behavioral intentions. A structural equation modeling was applied to assess data collected through questionnaire survey. The results indicate that functional value-gap and environmental value-gap has the most adversarial impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand for green products.

  12. Household energy consumption attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P

    1976-05-01

    This report contains a summary of the results of a study of household attitudes to energy use and conservation while the author was a member of staff at Massey University. During 1975 seven batches of a mail questionnaire were sent out to a random sample of people drawn from the 1974 Local Body Electoral Rolls. Valid replies were obtained from just under 60% of the 17,500 households to which the forms were sent. The study was undertaken for the simple reason that all energy demand depends on people and yet very little information seemed to be available which showed what people thought about the energy situation and how they felt about the need for conservation. The way people evaluate their energy needs represents a focal element in the energy system as it is this appraisal which results in their demand for energy. The impact of household attitudes goes far beyond the relative share of the energy market taken by the domestic sector, however, as the same people are involved in the demand from all other sectors.

  13. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  14. Survey on marine food consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Predicting the future effluence of low level radioactive waste water from the nuclear fuel retreating facilities to the ocean, critical food and critical group were investigated in the inhabitants of the coast of Ibaragi Prefecture since 1969. The survey included investigation of drinking water, menu of meal, and marine food consumption, and the results of the third item were chiefly presented in this paper. Both interview by visiting each family, and questionaire were adopted for investigation. Subjects were fishermans' families in Wada-cho in Chiba Prefecture and Kuji-cho in Hitachi City, non-fishermans' families in Tokai vilage, and both families in Nakaminato City and Oarai. The ratio of animal protein consumption per whole protein consumption was remarkably higher than the average of all over the country(23.8 per cent), showing 49 per cent in Kuji-cho. Fishermans' families in Kuji-cho revealed to be a critical group. Marine products of their whole body edible included immature anchovy, sardine, and immature prawn with their maximum individual consumption being 5 kg, 10 kg, and 5.6 kg respectively. Therefore, sardine and immature prawn should be taken care of other than immature anchovy. Marine food consumption of a person per day was estimated from the amount consumed during one week in every season, i.e., during 28 days a year. Marine food consumption of fishermans' families in Kuji-cho showed no seasonal change. Average of marine food consumption in fishermans' families of Kuji-cho and Nakaminato, was 190 g and 132 g of raw fishes, 8 g and 6 g of raw shells, and 4 g and 5 g of dried algae. Consumption frequency and consumption rate of marine foods by kinds and seasons were presented in the tables. (Mukohata, S.)

  15. Methodology for calculating power consumption of planetary mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferov, S. I.; Voronov, V. P.; Evtushenko, E. I.; Yakovlev, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the methodology and equations for calculating the power consumption necessary to overcome the resistance of a dry mixture caused by the movement of cylindrical rods in the body of a planetary mixer, as well as the calculation of the power consumed by idling mixers of this type. The equations take into account the size and physico-mechanical properties of mixing material, the size and shape of the mixer's working elements and the kinematics of its movement. The dependence of the power consumption on the angle of rotation in the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the working member is presented.

  16. Muslim consumption and anti-consumption in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2015-01-01

    in Malaysia became the subject of increasing consumer activism and I explore how Malaysian federal state institutions, Islamic organizations and consumers respond to and are affected by calls to boycott (anti-consumption) and boycott (consumption) a range of products. More specifically, this article examines...... the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia (PPIM), which is an organization that protects the interests of Muslim consumers and entrepreneurs, as well as Malay Muslim middle-class informants....

  17. The intersubjectivity of family consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jeppe Trolle

    identity and family scape, I analyze how family members negotiate purchase decisions, and relate to each other’s preferences and desires, as well as those of other families. I consider how family members' interrelations as consumers and long-term negotiations over symbolic meanings of consumption......This study of everyday consumption is based on an ethnographic fieldwork conducted among four Danish middle-class families in Copenhagen, from which an illustrative example of family car purchase is drawn. By introducing two new concepts to the study of family consumption; intra-family consumer...

  18. Workshop on environmental research for actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watters, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The topics of discussion in this fourth workshop centered on the adequacy of plutonium information, the needs and direction of future transuranium research and the research necessary for an appraisal of the potential hazards associated with thorium and high specific activity uranium isotopes. These topics were discussed in four panels which have prepared reports that make up the body of these proceedings. The four panels were: ecosystem research; plant/soils research; marine and freshwater research; and statistics and modeling. In addition to the appraisal and planning studies, a report was given on an intercomparison of analytical quality control

  19. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  20. 1999 world energy consumption (ENERDATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given a compilation of detailed statistical tables on various aspects of world energy production and consumption over the years 1994 to 1999. The present tables indicate the production, trade and consumption of crude oil, liquefied natural gas, oil products, natural gas, coal, lignite, electric power; the energy balance for the year 1999; the total energy consumption in European Union, Western Europe, North America, Japan and Pacific, CIS and Central Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East and Africa for the years 1994 to 1999. The CO 2 emissions for these countries are also given. These data are an extraction of the energy statistics yearbook, ENERDATA, June 2000. They are commented by Mr J.M. Martin. According to ENERDATA, the 1999 world energy consumption stagnates. (O.M.)

  1. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system...... of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth...... of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal...

  2. Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS....... Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per...

  3. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  4. CREATING VALUE WITHIN CONSUMPTION CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adrian Gârdan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of culture consumption is a particular concern within the modern marketing theory. Culture can be seen as representing a body of knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, symbols etc, developed in a certain period of time by a group of individuals, items transmitted with the help of a social learning process to other generations within the group. Thus, the consumption of culture will identify itself with the consumption of any product, service or a combination of them, directly resulted as manifestation of culture, expressions of artistic creativity specific for a certain cultural space. The present paper proposes the analysis of the phenomenon referring to the culture consumption in terms of specific characteristics. The paper reviews the features specific to the modern consumer of culture, the relationship that exists between the individuals’ level of education and the culture consumption and value creation process or augmentation of the intrinsic value of an artistic product as a result of the contribution that the culture consumer can bring himself. The authors highlight the fact that within extremely complex processes which are defining the culture consumption, consumers can assume an active role, becoming on their turn co-participants in the cultural goods and services value creation and transmission. The modern consumer benefits more than ever from the advantages offered by the information technology, being called to respond to major challenges of the postmodernism paradigm in terms of culture consumption. Globalization and other social economic and politic phenomena have profoundly changed the reports between individual and culture, between self and other members of the society, causing synthesis and essential transformations of culture consumption, of culture consumers typologies, and not least of the very forms of artistic expression related to cultural goods and services.

  5. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  6. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  7. Consumption Profiles for Future Households

    OpenAIRE

    Blikø, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a change in energy consumption in Norwegian households. New houses are far better insulated, have high demands for efficient energy carriers and new installations that affect the electricity consumption. Today, most of the electricity in a Norwegian household is used for space heating, but this demand is expected to be reduced in the future, mainly because the need for space heating is reduced as a result of stricter demands for isolation. Electricity co...

  8. Determinants of Organic Products Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Wemerson Gomes Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased environmental awareness and the growing desire for safer foods to health made the organic products category one of the most growing in the food sector. Thus, this study aimed to identify the most significant socioeconomic variables that influence the frequency of organic products consumption, and for that, it was based on a quantitative-descriptive study with a probability sample of 400 individuals, residing of the urban area of Campo Grande/MS, Brazil, responsible, alone or not, for food purchasing in family. As a tool for data collection, was used a structured questionnaire developed from socioeconomic variables and frequency of consumption of organic products. For the data analysis was performed statistical/econometric tests with the STATA 11.0 statistical software, using Multinomial Logit model (MNL, addition to verification of the explanatory variables effect on the probability of the consumption frequency levels of organic products through the Relative Risk Ratio (RRR, and was analyzed the Marginal Effect (ME exercised by the explanatory variables in each frequency level of organic products consumption. The results showed that the explanatory variables gender, education and economic class were statistically significant in the probability of an individual belong to some of the levels of consumption (rare, occasional and frequent over never having consumed organic products, being higher frequency of consumption when the consumer is female, have higher education or is of higher economic class.

  9. The Comfortable Home and Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates relations between notions of comfort and notions of home, aiming at a better understanding of residential comfort and the related energy consumption. Residential comfort is examined through a practice-theoretical lens and as something that appears in between the social...... and material structures of a home. The approach considers different elements of comfort in homemaking practices, such as the body, materials and social meanings. The paper examines how conceptions of comfort and homeliness interrelate through homemaking practices and thereby redefine comfort within a framework...... of the home and social practices. This implies focus on “the comfortable home” as made up of homemaking practices that include knowhow, sensations and social norms. The empirical basis comprises interviews and visual data from a field study on detached housing on the outskirts of a Danish city. The paper...

  10. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  11. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  12. Potential Health Risk of Herbal Distillates and Decoctions Consumption in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Tavakoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of 26 elements in 16 different herbal distillates and 5 herbal decoctions, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental content of five raw herbal materials used for making decoctions and seven distilled and boiled residues were also evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that herbal products display a wide range of elemental concentrations. Compared with world health regulations, the concentrations of the elements in herbal distillates and decoctions did not exceed the recommended limits. The analysis of herbal extracts did not show a significant transfer of toxic elements during decoction preparation. Comparison of elemental content among fresh herbal material and herbal distillate and decoction of the same herb showed that, besides the elemental abundance of herbal organs, the ionic potential of elements also play an important role in elemental content of herbal products. Based on the results of the research, it seems that most health benefits attributed to herbal products (especially herbal distillates) are more related to their organic compounds rather than elemental composition. Calculated hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were used to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual and combined metals via daily consumption of 100 ml of herbal distillates and 250 ml of herbal decoctions. Both HQs and HI through consumption of herbal distillates and herbal decoctions (except Valerian) were below 1. Apparently, daily consumption of herbal distillates and decoctions at the indicated doses poses no significant health risk to a normal adult.

  13. The industrial energy consumption in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 1999 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 1999 based on each group of branches and energy category, the energy consumption in 1997 for each group of branches and the percentage distribution on energy category, and the fuel and energy consumption of motor vehicles in 1999 based on each group of branches. (SM)

  14. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  15. Optimization of the HLT Resource Consumption in the LHCb Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v.; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Schwemmer, R

    2012-01-01

    Today's computing elements for software based high level trigger processing (HLT) are based on nodes with multiple cores. Using process based parallelization to filter particle collisions from the LHCb experiment on such nodes leads to expensive consumption of memory and hence significant cost increase. In the following an approach is presented to both minimize the resource consumption of the filter applications and to reduce the startup time. Described is the duplication of threads and the handling of files open in read-write mode when duplicating filter processes and the possibility to bootstrap the event filter applications directly from preconfigured checkpoint files. This led to a reduced memory consumption of roughly 60% in the nodes of the LHCb HLT farm and an improved startup time of a factor 10.

  16. Development of the Fuel Element Database of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhayati Ramli; Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Nurfazila Husain; Yahya Ismail; Mat Zin Mat Husin; Mohd Fairus Abd Farid

    2015-01-01

    Since June 28th, 1982, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) operates safely with an accumulated energy release of about 17,200 MWhr, which corresponds to about 882 g of uranium burn-up. The reactor core has been reconfigured 15th times. Presently, there are 111 TRIGA fuel elements in the core, which 66 of the fuel elements are from the initial criticality while the rest of the fuel elements have been added to compensate the uranium consumption. As 59 % of the fuel elements are older than 30 years old, it is necessary to put the history of every fuel element in a database for easy access of the fuel element movement, inspection results history and integrity status. This paper intends to describe how the fuel element database is developed and related formulae used in determining the RTP fuel element elongation. (author)

  17. Chemistry of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook presents an account of the chemistry of the elements for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. It covers not only the 'inorganic' chemistry of the elements, but also analytical, theoretical, industrial, organometallic;, bio-inorganic and other areas of chemistry which apply. The following elements of special nuclear interest are included: Rb, Cs, Fr, Sr, Ba, Ra, Po, At, Rn, Sc, Y, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, Tc, Ru, the Lanthanide Elements, the Actinide Elements. (U.K.)

  18. Energy consumption and energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Data are presented on energy consumption and energy prices related to a number of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) lands covering the period 1951-1990. The information sources are described and the development of energy consumption and prices in Denmark are illustrated in relation to these other countries. The energy intensity (the relation between energy consumption and the gross national product) is dealt with. Here it is possible to follow development during the whole post-war period. It is generally understood that Denmark saved large amounts of energy after 1973-74 but, taken over the whole post-war period, savings and decline in energy-gross national product relations are less dramatic compared to conditions in other OECD countries. Energy coefficients or elasticities show the relative rise in consumption compared to the relative rise in gross national product (growth rate). This is shown to be typically unstable and an eventual connection with the amount of energy price increase and/or the growth rate of the national economy is considered. Results of Granger causuality tests on energy consumption, national income and energy prices are presented. Effective energy prices were very low in Denmark up to 1970 when they suddenly began to increase. Since the oil crisis Denmark's energy consumption has fallen whereas the other countries have used rather more energy than before. Effective promotion of energy savings must be seen in relation to the fact that the 1970 basis level of energy consumption and intensity was unusually high. The high effective energy prices have also encouraged energy savings in Denmark. (AB)

  19. [Food consumption patterns among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela Paniagua, S M; Pérez Milena, A; Pérula de Torres, L A; Fernández García, J A; Maldonado Alconada, J

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical time for the establishment of healthy eating habits. The objective was to analyze food consumption patterns among adolescents and their relationship with family and social factors. Multicentre observational cross-sectional descriptive study using a food frequency questionnaire for the last week. It was answered anonymously. The adolescent's age/gender, parents' studies/occupation and school's location/type were included. The population sample was composed of 1,095 adolescents in sixth grade at primary schools from an Andalusian region. They were chosen by polietapic random sampling that distinguished between public/private and capital/provincial schools. 1,005 surveys were analyzed. The mean age is 11.45 (SD: 0.59). Fifty-three percent were male. The intake of dairy products (only two-thirds taken daily), pasta, fruit and vegetables (daily consumption of 30%) is deficient. Sixty-four point five percent consume legumes weekly. Fish consumption is equal to meat, with a preference for poultry. More than half consume red meat daily. Olive oil is preferred. The intake of "empty calories" (fast food, candies, soft drink) is high. Through multivariate analysis the existence of clusters of healthy and unhealthy foods, related to the social status of the parents and the type of school, is proved. A healthy diet based on the nutritional pyramid is not the consumption pattern in the adolescents surveyed. There is a low consumption of diary products, legumes, fruits and vegetables. There is a relationship between the social class of the family and consumption patterns (healthy and unhealthy). Health strategies are needed to modify such inappropriate consumption.

  20. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver, E-mail: mtk@atp.dk [ATP (Danish Labour Market Supplementary Pension Scheme) (Denmark); Steffensen, Mogens, E-mail: mogens@math.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, Department of Mathematical Sciences (Denmark)

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  1. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all

  2. Perfluoroalkyl substances and fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle; Blackowicz, Michael; Liu, Yangyang; Thompson, Brooke A; Anderson, Henry A; Turyk, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is thought to be consumption of seafood. In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, using a representative sample of the U.S. Data on PFAS levels and self-reported fish consumption over the past 30 days were collected from the 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twelve different PFAS were measured in serum samples from participants. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to identify factors (demographic characteristics and fish consumption habits) associated with serum PFAS concentrations. Additional models were further adjusted for other potential exposures including military service and consumption of ready-to-eat and fast foods. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were examined in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS, MPAH, PFNA, PFUA). The PFAS with the highest concentrations were PFOS, followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA (medians of 8.3, 2.7, 1.5 and 1.0ng/mL). Fish consumption was generally low, with a median of 1.2 fish meals and 0.14 shellfish meals, reported over the past 30 days. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, total fish consumption was associated with reduced MPAH, and with elevated PFDE, PFNA and PFuDA. Shellfish consumption was associated with elevations of all PFAS examined except MPAH. Certain specific fish and shellfish types were also associated with specific PFAS. Adjustment for additional exposure variables resulted in little to no change in effect estimates for seafood variables. PFAS are emerging

  3. Prediction of natural gas consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.L.; Walton, D.J.; Hoskins, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Distributors of natural gas need to predict future consumption in order to purchase a sufficient supply on contract. Distributors that offer their customers equal payment plans need to predict the consumption of each customer 12 months in advance. Estimates of previous consumption are often used for months when meters are inaccessible, or bimonthly-read meters. Existing methods of predicting natural gas consumption, and a proposed new method for each local region are discussed. The proposed model distinguishes the consumption load factors from summer to other seasons by attempting to adjust them by introducing two parameters. The problem is then reduced to a quadratic programming problem. However, since it is not necessary to use both parameters simultaneously, the problem can be solved with a simple iterative procedure. Results show that the new model can improve the two-equation model to a certain scale. The adjustment to heat load factor can reduce the error of prediction markedly while that to base load factor influences the error marginally. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Children's media consumption in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at providing an insight into media consumption among children in Serbia. A consumer survey was conducted to examine differences in children's consumption of various advertising media based on their age, gender and hometown. The research findings revealed significant differences between the two age cohorts in the three out of four tested media categories (TV, print, radio and Internet. On the other hand, the research findings also revealed variations in consumption of radio and print media, and no difference in the consumption of television and Internet between boys and girls. Finally, the research findings suggested significant differences in the consumption of Internet among children living in five cities in Serbia. Though the sample included more than 700 children it cannot be considered strictly representative for the whole country since the survey was conducted in urban areas only. However, the greatest value of this study comes from the fact that the research was placed in Serbia as a transitional society of the Western Balkans which has been seriously underrepresented in the main body of contemporary marketing theory and research studies. Therefore, one of the main goals of this paper was to make a contribution to better understanding of local conditions that might influence marketing decisions when communicating with children as a specific target group on Serbian market.

  5. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  6. Modeling and prediction of Turkey's electricity consumption using Artificial Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavaklioglu, Kadir; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Canyurt, Olcay Ersel; Ceylan, Halim

    2009-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks are proposed to model and predict electricity consumption of Turkey. Multi layer perceptron with backpropagation training algorithm is used as the neural network topology. Tangent-sigmoid and pure-linear transfer functions are selected in the hidden and output layer processing elements, respectively. These input-output network models are a result of relationships that exist among electricity consumption and several other socioeconomic variables. Electricity consumption is modeled as a function of economic indicators such as population, gross national product, imports and exports. It is also modeled using export-import ratio and time input only. Performance comparison among different models is made based on absolute and percentage mean square error. Electricity consumption of Turkey is predicted until 2027 using data from 1975 to 2006 along with other economic indicators. The results show that electricity consumption can be modeled using Artificial Neural Networks, and the models can be used to predict future electricity consumption. (author)

  7. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg -1 , dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg -1 , and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg -1 , dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied

  8. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  9. Palatable Food Consumption in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children’s fast-food consumption frequency......, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale ‘external eating’). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children’s fast-food consumption frequency......, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale ‘food responsiveness’), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home...

  10. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  11. Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Angela M; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S

    2018-01-01

    previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard......BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without......·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100...

  12. Energy consumption trends in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinis, A.; Miskinis, V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes some problems related to integration into EU, current state of the Lithuania economy and energy sector and changes in energy consumption during transition period. It provides and analysis of the main indicators of energy consumption, such as the ratio of primary energy consumption to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), primary and final energy intensity and others based on estimates of Purchasing Power Parity. The paper also discusses problems arising at evaluation of economical and energy indices for the countries in transition and compares them with those existing in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe and in Western countries. It shows uneven tendencies of energy intensity occurring under transitions in Lithuania and other Baltic States. (author)

  13. Tattoos, piercings, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have found a link between body tattoos or piercings and risky behavior. However, these studies only examined survey data but not real behavior. Young men (mean = 20.6 years) and women (mean = 20.2 years) leaving a bar were asked whether they wore tattoos and piercings or not and were requested to breathe into a breathalyzer in order to evaluate their alcohol consumption. It was found that participants with piercings and/or tattoos as well as combined piercings and tattoos revealed higher levels of alcohol consumption. Piercings and tattoos could serve as signs of alcohol consumption for educators, parents, and physicians. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Changing practices of energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Skjølsvold, Tomas Moe

    2017-01-01

    to produce hydrogen for transport use), whereas others emphasise the role of individual consumers. The latter approach is dominant within the smart grid vision. In this paper, we explore implications of smart grid technologies in households for the everyday practices related to electricity consumption...... (microgeneration) influence the everyday practices? What kind of influence does the combination of PVs with other “smart” energy technologies have on everyday practices and electricity consumption patterns? A specific focus is on the time patterns of households’ energy consumption. The analysis is based...... settlement scheme (hourly versus annual net metering) and the trial context play a role. Also, the study finds a broader interest in increasing the level of self-sufficiency through combining PVs with home batteries. Finally, the paper discusses a distinct (male) gendering in relation to who is most actively...

  15. LTE UE Power Consumption Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Riis; Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    is based on a review of the major power consuming parts in an LTE UE radio modem. The model includes functions of UL and DL power and data rate. Measurements on a commercial LTE USB dongle were used to assign realistic power consumption values to each model parameter. Verification measurements......In this work a novel LTE user equipment (UE) power consumption model is presented. It was developed for LTE system level optimization, because it is important to understand how network settings like scheduling of resources and transmit power control affect the UE’s battery life. The proposed model...... on the dongle show that the model results in an average error of 2.6%. The measurements show that UL transmit power and DL data rate determines the overall power consumption, while UL data rate and DL receive power have smaller impact....

  16. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  17. Elemental marking of arthropod pests in agricultural systems: single and multigenerational marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Leslie Hayes

    1991-01-01

    Use of elemental markers to study movement of arthropod pests of field crops is reviewed. Trace elements, rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs), have provided a nondisruptive method of marking natural adult populations via developmental stage consumption of treated host plants. Multigenerational marking occurs with the transfer of elemental markers from marked adults to...

  18. Stochastic estimation of electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanovic, I.; Konjic, T.; Zahirovic, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Electricity consumption forecasting represents a part of the stable functioning of the power system. It is very important because of rationality and increase of control process efficiency and development planning of all aspects of society. On a scientific basis, forecasting is a possible way to solve problems. Among different models that have been used in the area of forecasting, the stochastic aspect of forecasting as a part of quantitative models takes a very important place in applications. ARIMA models and Kalman filter as stochastic estimators have been treated together for electricity consumption forecasting. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to present the stochastic forecasting aspect using short time series. (author)

  19. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ZAMFIR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will follow the involvement that the government has,through its expenses, on the consumption behavior. The involvement that the government has inthe consumption behavior is made through fees and taxes that are applied on income. Fees andtaxes are applied to the different forms of income but in this article we will be focused only onthe influence of them on wages. In order to analyze the involvement of government expenses onconsumption behavior an utility model will be used.

  20. "Conscious Consumption": Ecocapitalism as Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise a set of questions about “conscious consumption.” It is an essay of a bibliographic nature whose central thesis consists in affirming that in a capitalist society conscious consumption cannot be instituted as an affirmation of the principle of socioenvironmental sustainability. The paper presents the ideological nature of this formulation, which associates consumerism and the possibility of overcoming it only to the need for behavioral changes, without explaining its socioeconomic dimensions and its functionality as a mechanism for the reproduction of the destructive logic of capital.

  1. The assessment of essential elements in moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyamfi, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Moringa is known to contain elements that are essential to life. Major roles played by elements include enzyme activation, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, immune functions. The two major groups of elements are major and minor elements (trace elements). Major elements such as Na, Ca, K, Mg and trace elements such as Fe, V, Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Co, Mn, Pb, Al, Br were determined using both NAA and AAS. The results revealed the presence of the following elements and anions: Al, Br, Ca, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, V, Zn, PO 4 3- , NO 3 - . The elements Cd, Pb and Co were below the detection limits of the analytical technique. Risk assessment was performed to determine the risk of exposure to people who consume Moringa. Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Hazard Index (HI) were calculated to assess the risks associated with Moringa consumption. Since all the HQ and Hi values were less than one, it was concluded that no chronic risks was likely to occur from Moringa consumption. A significant test was performed to give a good interpretation of data. Further research is required to carry out the effectiveness of Moringa preparations in reducing the risks associated with diseases such as diabetes, hypertension. Air drying could be the preferred method for drying Moringa because it is hygienic, cheaper and has less effect on the elemental concentrations. (au)

  2. Consumption patterns and cultural values in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemien van der Veen; Agnes Neulinger; Jacob Rosendahl; Tino Bech-Larsen

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 6 in Consumption culture in Europe. The chapter focuses on cultural differences in consumption across Europe and describes general attitudes towards consumption and brands, the significance of shopping, and how these are linked to the motives of consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic

  3. The world energy consumption in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Enerdata 2005 data, this analysis presents the situation of the world energy consumption in 2005, the electric power consumption per region and production per source, the consumption increase for each energy source and the petroleum and gas consumption increase. (A.L.B.)

  4. The industrial energy consumption in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 2001 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 2001 based on each group of branches and energy category, and the emission of CO 2 . (LN)

  5. Unrecorded Alcohol Consumption: Quantitative Methods of Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2010-01-01

    unrecorded alcohol; methods of estimation In this paper we focused on methods of estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Present methods of estimation of unrevorded alcohol consumption allow only approximate estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Tacking into consideration the extreme importance of such kind of data, further investigation is necessary to improve the reliability of methods estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption.

  6. Data Element Registry Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  7. Evolution of food consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Peț

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Closely connected to production, consumption plays an active catalyst role because all economic activities end in consumption. From this perspective, consumption research is a good solution to identify offer accurately and meet the needs and, on the other hand, it is an important source of information in marketing. Consumption ranges among the first in the process of goods use. Consumption is the process of using goods to meet consumption needs (though not all needs since there is always a gap between needs and consumption.

  8. The industrial energy consumption in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The statistics present the industry's energy consumption and composition, and the development from 1973 to 2003. In this period the composition of the energy consumption has changed considerably: a decrease in the consumption of liquid fuels and an increase in the consumption of natural gas and electric power. The energy consumption in the Danish industry decreased with almost 9 % from 2001 to 2003. This relatively large decrease was mainly due to the closing down of a steel factory. In the wood industry the energy consumption decreased with 36 % from 2001 to 2003, while the energy consumption in the electronics industry increased. (ln)

  9. Energy consumption 2005 with Danish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The energy consumption in the Danish industries decreased with 4% from 2003 to 2005. The consumption of liquid fuels and district heat decreased with 27% and 21%, respectively. The consumption of solid fuels increased with 13%. The aim of the statistics is to elucidate the industry's energy consumption and its composition. The statistics present the development in the industry from 1973 to 2005, in which period the composition of the energy consumption has changed significantly. Especially, consumption of liquid fuels has decreased and consumption of gas and electricity has increased. (ln)

  10. Build-up and management of transuranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Kunihiko

    1984-01-01

    About 17,000,000 kW is generated by nuclear power station at present and this figure correspond to 20 % of total power generation in Japan, and is expected to increase year after year. Following the increase of power generation, build-up of Transuraium from nuclear power station will increase as a matter of course. In 2,000 AD; the build-up of Pu and TPu is expected to reach up to 200 T(TPu = 24 T). Effective management of TPu build-up is now an urgent problem Recycling of Pu and TPu including LWR-Pu recycling, ATR-Pu recycling and FBR-Pu recycling were investigated. In LWR-Pu recycling, recycling quantities of Pu and TPu, and generation of power increase following the repetition of recycling. In ATR-Pu recycling, the increase of TPu following recycling is more remakable than that of LWR-Pu recycling. On the contrary, in FBR-Pu recycling, TPu decreases following the repetition of recycling. The decrease of TPu is thought to be caused by extinction effect in FBR. All of these recycling are suitable for the utilization of Pu, but FBR-Pu recycling is most effective for utilization of Pu and decrease of TPu. Accordingly, when LWR or ATR recycling is applied, Pu shall be transferred to FBR after 1 - 2 recycling. For long-term management of TPu, recycling is not sufficient and some positive method such as oxtinction by strong neutron source like proton linear accelerator is necessary. Fundamental researches on nuclear fuel cycle, nuclide separation method and extinction process of TPu must be carried out. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  11. Inorganic elements in sugar samples consumed in several countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, P.M.B.; Campos, T.P.R.; Menezes, M.A. de B.C.; Jacimovic, Radojko

    2016-01-01

    Sugar is considered safe food ingredient, however, it can present inorganic elements as impurities uptake during cultivation and production process. Therefore, this study aimed at identifies the presence of these elements in granulated and brown sugar samples available for consumption in public places in several countries. The neutron activation technique applying the methodology to analyse larger samples, 5 g-sample, established at CDTN/CNEN based on k 0 -method was used to determine the elemental concentrations. Several essential and nonessential elements were determined in a large range of concentrations. The results are discussed comparing to maximum values foreseen in the international and Brazilian legislations. (author)

  12. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  13. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  14. Protein consumptions in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Maghsoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stroke is one of the most common causes of disabilities and death all over the world. The mortality rate of stroke is predicted to be doubled by 2030 in the Middle East countries. Nutrition is an effective strategy in prevention and management of stroke. This study assessed the relationship between various protein types and stroke risk. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in a University hospital. The data regarding consumption of usual food intake of 69 cases (46 men and 23 women and 60 controls (30 men and 30 women was collected with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The mean consumption of red and white meat and vegetable and processed proteins consumption were compared between two groups. Results: The percent of total of daily protein intake were lower in patients with stroke in both sexes (25.92% vs 30.55% in men and 30.7% vs 31.14% in women. Conclusion: Lower protein consumption may be observed in patients with stroke patients in both sex.

  15. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  16. Interventions to encourage sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is hampered by a discrepancy between consumers’ attitudes and their actual behaviour in the market place. Psychological construal level theory provides an explanation for the attitude to behaviour gap as a motivational conflict between high and low level of mental construal.

  17. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  18. Energy Consumption Management in Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the basic issues in low power design is presented, including techniques for the analysis of energy consumption in the early design phase of analog and digital circuits. The concept of energy complexity will be introduced in conjunction with techniques for parameterized energy management.

  19. Back to consumption and production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen; Kos Koklic, Mateja; Bajde, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    of production and consumption. Yet, in response to the mounting commercial and legal pressures, Web 2.0 companies pro-actively regulate prosumption, deploying advanced technological devices and innovative contractual arrangements. Exploring the case of Warner Music Group lockdown on YouTube, we investigate...

  20. The Ecological Economics of Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Reisch, Lucia A.

    In accordance with the transdisciplinary basis of ecological economics, this volume encompasses contributions from different perspectives, often cutting across disciplines. It is divided into three parts that group contributions on · problematizing consumption both as a concept and as an economic...

  1. Does Consumption Lag Behind Incomes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1942-01-01

    textabstractThe fact that consumption outlay of individuals as well as of groups of individuals depends on their income is well known. Although this statement will hardly be doubted, it may be tested statistically from family budget statistics, as has been done by various investigators. These

  2. Consumption, lifestyles and constellatoric strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    1996-01-01

    The condtribution reveals a contradiction between complexity and operationality in the discussions about energy consumption between social researchers and policy makers. By mean of two examples from his own research the author argues for a transgression of the narrow ecology-centred view. The first...... of "constellatoric strategies"; coordinated interplays between different coordinated efforts which creates synergy effects....

  3. Energy consumption trends in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Abidin; Yalcintas, Melek

    2010-01-01

    This study begins with a review of energy consumption by end-use sector in Hawaii. Then, the energy generated from renewable energy sources is analyzed between 1991 and 2006. The results show that while geothermal is a considerable source of renewable energy on the Island of Hawaii (also known as Big Island), fossil fuel is the main energy source in the State of Hawaii. The energy intensity index for the State of Hawaii is then calculated by dividing energy consumption per capita by the income per capita. The calculated energy intensity index reveals that energy consumption is directly controlled by per capita income. The results also indicate that the energy intensity index increases over time despite positive developments in energy efficient technologies. In the second part of the paper, the effect of the tourism industry on energy usage in the State of Hawaii is analyzed. The results show that tourism volume, measured in terms of tourist arrival numbers, does not change the energy consumption directly. However, a change in tourism volume does affect per capita income within a few months to a year. In the last part of the study, the energy efficiency index of Hawaii is compared with consumption averages for the US, California and the most energy efficient country in Europe, Denmark. The comparison shows that Hawaii lags behind California and Denmark in terms of energy efficiency. The comparison also shows that an increase in energy efficiency corresponds to an increase in per capita income across the board, which is in agreement with a recent report published by the American Physical Society.

  4. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  5. Hypercoagulability after energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, Matthew J; Cardenas, Jessica C; Radwan, Zayde A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Energy drink consumption in the United States has more than doubled over the last decade and has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and even sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that energy drink consumption may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events by increasing platelet aggregation, thereby resulting in a relatively hypercoagulable state and increased risk of thrombosis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers aged 18-40 y were given 16 oz of bottled water or a standardized, sugar-free energy drink on two separate occasions, 1-wk apart. Beverages were consumed after an overnight fast over a 30-min period. Coagulation parameters and platelet function were measured before and 60 min after consumption using thrombelastography and impedance aggregometry. No statistically significant differences in coagulation were detected using kaolin or rapid thrombelastography. In addition, no differences in platelet aggregation were detected using ristocetin, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, or adenosine diphosphate-induced multiple impedance aggregometry. However, compared to water controls, energy drink consumption resulted in a significant increase in platelet aggregation via arachidonic acid-induced activation (area under the aggregation curve, 72.4 U versus 66.3 U; P = 0.018). Energy drinks are associated with increased platelet activity via arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation within 1 h of consumption. Although larger clinical studies are needed to further address the safety and health concerns of these drinks, the increased platelet response may provide a mechanism by which energy drinks increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  7. Generalized finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachspress, E.

    2009-01-01

    Triangles and rectangles are the ubiquitous elements in finite element studies. Only these elements admit polynomial basis functions. Rational functions provide a basis for elements having any number of straight and curved sides. Numerical complexities initially associated with rational bases precluded extensive use. Recent analysis has reduced these difficulties and programs have been written to illustrate effectiveness. Although incorporation in major finite element software requires considerable effort, there are advantages in some applications which warrant implementation. An outline of the basic theory and of recent innovations is presented here. (authors)

  8. Limitless Analytic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, O. D. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present equations for new limitless analytic line elements. These elements possess a virtually unlimited number of degrees of freedom. We apply these new limitless analytic elements to head-specified boundaries and to problems with inhomogeneities in hydraulic conductivity. Applications of these new analytic elements to practical problems involving head-specified boundaries require the solution of a very large number of equations. To make the new elements useful in practice, an efficient iterative scheme is required. We present an improved version of the scheme presented by Bandilla et al. (2007), based on the application of Cauchy integrals. The limitless analytic elements are useful when modeling strings of elements, rivers for example, where local conditions are difficult to model, e.g., when a well is close to a river. The solution of such problems is facilitated by increasing the order of the elements to obtain a good solution. This makes it unnecessary to resort to dividing the element in question into many smaller elements to obtain a satisfactory solution.

  9. Quantification model for energy consumption in edification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercader, Mª P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in this paper focuses on the generation of a model for the quantification of energy consumption in building. This is to be done through one of the most relevant environmental impact indicators associated with weight per m2 of construction, as well as the energy consumption resulting from the manufacturing process of materials used in building construction. The practical application of the proposed model on different buildings typologies in Seville, will provide information regarding the building materials, the subsystems and the most relevant construction elements. Hence, we will be able to observe the impact the built surface has on the environment. The results obtained aim to reference the scientific community, providing quantitative data comparable to other types of buildings and geographical areas. Furthermore, it may also allow the analysis and the characterization of feasible solutions to reduce the environmental impact generated by the different materials, subsystems and construction elements commonly used in the different building types defined in this study.

    La investigación realizada en el presente trabajo plantea la generación de un modelo de cuantificación del consumo energético en edificación, a través de uno de los indicadores de impacto ambiental más relevantes asociados al peso por m2 de construcción, el consumo energético derivado del proceso de fabricación de los materiales de construcción empleados en edificación. La aplicación práctica del modelo propuesto sobre diferentes tipologías edificatorias en Sevilla aportará información respecto a los materiales de construcción, subsistemas y elementos constructivos más impactantes, permitiendo visualizar la influencia que presenta la superficie construida en cuanto al impacto ambiental generado. Los resultados obtenidos pretenden servir de referencia a la comunidad científica, aportando datos num

  10. Global risks from energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Hippel, F.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion of some of the global risks associated with current and frequently proposed future levels of consumption of energy from oil, coal, fission, fusion, and renewable sources points out the the dangers are serious and relatively near term. These include world war over Persian Gulf oil, climate change due to the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, the accelerated proliferation of nuclear weapons, and competition between food and energy for land and water. The author urges placing a greater emphasis on how we use energy and how to reduce energy waste. At the levels of consumption which economically justified levels of energy efficiency could bring about, enough flexibility could develop in our choice of a future energy-supply mix to dramatically reduce the associated global risks. 47 references, 3 figures

  11. ALMR potential for actinide consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockey, C.L.; Thompson, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored fast reactor design based on the Power Reactor, Innovative Small Module (PRISM) concept originated by General Electric. This reactor combines a high degree of passive safety characteristics with a high level of modularity and factory fabrication to achieve attractive economics. The current reference design is a 471 MWt modular reactor fueled with ternary metal fuel. This paper discusses actinide transmutation core designs that fit the design envelope of the ALMR and utilize spent LWR fuel as startup material and for makeup. Actinide transmutation may be accomplished in the ALMR core by using either a breeding or burning configuration. Lifetime actinide mass consumption is calculated as well as changes in consumption behavior throughout the lifetime of the reactor. Impacts on system operational and safety performance are evaluated in a preliminary fashion. Waste disposal impacts are discussed. (author)

  12. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  13. Raw milk consumption and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  14. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy consumption and technological developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.R.

    1990-02-01

    The paper determines an outline of the world energy prospects based on principal trends of the development of energy consumption analysed over the long past period. According to the author's conclusion the development of energy systems will be determined in the nearest future (30 - 40 years) by contemporary energy technologies based on the exploitation of traditional energy resources but in the far future technologies based on the exploitation of thermonuclear and solar energy will play the decisive role. (author)

  16. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  17. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  18. Improvement of sunflower for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijanović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing sunflower (Heliianthus annuus L for consumption is becoming more and more attractive in the whole world and in our country, as well. The consumption of this product has been considerably increased because it is being used more and more in various forms: sunflower seed in a hull, hulled kernels fried or non-fried, salted or non-salted with addition of various spices. The sunflower kernel is used for preparing over 100 different food products: special types of bread, cakes, ice-cream, chocolate. In accordance with the trade demands, the aims of sunflower seeds for consumption improvement are: high productivity, greater content of proteins, lesser content of oil, oncreased mass of 1000 seeds, lesser portion of the hull easy nibbling, as well as tolerance to dominant diseases in the growing region. In the Agricultural and Technological Research Center in Zajecar, 4 genotypes of protein sunflower (two cultivars and two hybrids have been created so far. This study shows the results achieved in increasing the content of protein, the mass of 1000 seeds, decreasing the content of oil and hull of the new 90 hybrid combination. The hybrid combinations were obtained by crossing of the CMS and restorer lines.

  19. [Why is bread consumption decreasing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, M F; Chabert, C; Serville, Y

    1977-01-01

    In France bread plays a very special and ambivalent role among our foodstuffs because of the considerable drop in its consumption, its alleged harmful effects on our health and the respect in which it is traditionally held. More than half the 1 089 adults interviewed in this study say they have decreased their consumption of bread in the last 10 years. The reasons given vary according to age, body weight and urbanization level. The main reasons given for this restriction are the desire to prevent or reduce obesity, the decrease in physical activity, the general reduction in food consumption and the possibility of diversifying foods even further. Moreover, the decreasing appeal of bread in relation to other foods, as well as a modification in the structure of meals, in which bread becomes less useful to accompany other food, accentuate this loss of attraction. However, the respect for bread as part of the staple diet remains very acute as 95 p. 100 of those interviewed express a reluctance to throw bread away, more for cultural than economic reasons. Mechanization and urbanization having brought about a decrease in energy needs, the most common alimentary adaptation is general caloric restriction by which glucids, and especially bread, are curtailed.

  20. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  1. Fuel consumption in the transport of technical broadleaf roundwood in lowland areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of fuel consumption in the transport of technical roundwood of soft broadleaves from the felling site to a roadside landing using forwarders and tractor assemblies. The research was performed in various operating conditions in the area of FE "Banat" Pančevo. On the basis of the results of the analysis of variance, the data recorded in a variety of conditions were grouped. In addition, the dependence of fuel consumption on the average volume of tour was estimated. The results of the conducted analysis indicate that operating conditions significantly affect fuel consumption of the investigated vehicles. The elements of statistical analysis of the dependence of fuel consumption on the volume of load indicate that an increase in load causes increased fuel consumption per unit of production. Having in mind the results of the analysis of variance, unique norms of fuel consumption were adopted for practical purposes. The highest average consumption (1.21 L/m3 was achieved by a tractor assembly (Same Laser 130 tractor and Imako TP12 trailer with a Loglift 61F hydraulic crane, while significantly lower consumption was achieved by a John Deere 1210E forwarder (1.06 L/m3. In favourable operating conditions, consumption of the forwarder was about 0.9 L/m3.

  2. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  3. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  4. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14 C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  5. Energy consumption of mobile communication systems; Energieverbrauch der mobilen Kommunikation - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliano, A.; Hufschmid, M.

    2008-02-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on a research project that was concerned with the energy consumption of the infrastructure necessary to provide mobile communication services. The measurement and analysis of the energy consumption of the infrastructure was an essential part of this research project. Furthermore, future scenarios and their impact on energy consumption are discussed. The results of the research work are presented and the correlation between power requirements and the data traffic encountered at GSM and UMTS base stations is analysed. Furthermore, measurements that were conducted to determine the power consumption of different network elements are discussed. Finally, alternatives for further action and recommendations for improvements in the energy consumption of such installations are formulated.

  6. Low-density geochemical mapping at continental scale reveals background for emerging tech-critical elements

    OpenAIRE

    Négrel , Philippe; Ladenberger , Anna; Reimann , Clemens; Birke , Manfred; Demetriades , Alecos; Sadeghi , Martiya

    2018-01-01

    International audience; The demand for a variety of mineral and/or element resources (e.g., rare earth elements, platinum group elements, cobalt, beryllium, lithium.. .) has increased with the continued consumption in developed countries and the emergence of developing economies. These elements are essential for maintaining and improving future quality of life, including many high-technology yet low-carbon industries. Two factors have been used by the NRC (National Research Council) to rank c...

  7. Analogs for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental approach is being used to estimate the long-term environmental and biogeochemical behaviors of selected transuranic elements. The objective of this research is to estimate the effect that long-term (hundreds of years) environmental weathering has on the behavior of the transuranic elements americium and curium. This is achieved by investigating the actual behavior of naturally occurring rare earth elements, especially neodymium, that serve as transuranic analogs. Determination of the analog element behavior provides data that can be used to estimate the ultimate availability to man of transuranic materials released into the environment

  8. Chemistry of superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry of superheavy elements - or transactinides from their position in the Periodic Table - is summarized. After giving an overview over historical developments, nuclear aspects about synthesis of neutron-rich isotopes of these elements, produced in hot-fusion reactions, and their nuclear decay properties are briefly mentioned. Specific requirements to cope with the one-atom-at-a-time situation in automated chemical separations and recent developments in aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry are presented. Exciting, current developments, first applications, and future prospects of chemical separations behind physical recoil separators ('pre-separator') are discussed in detail. The status of our current knowledge about the chemistry of rutherfordium (Rf, element 104), dubnium (Db, element 105), seaborgium (Sg, element 106), bohrium (Bh, element 107), hassium (Hs, element 108), copernicium (Cn, element 112), and element 114 is discussed from an experimental point of view. Recent results are emphasized and compared with empirical extrapolations and with fully-relativistic theoretical calculations, especially also under the aspect of the architecture of the Periodic Table. (orig.)

  9. Self-consumption. German experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This document presents, first, the definition and context of self-consumption (photovoltaic and cogeneration), then its profitability (regulation and financial incentive), next, the direct consumption by third parties, and finally, the opportunities and technical challenges

  10. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human ... influence consumption of Mursik, a traditionally fermented milk product from ...

  11. Energetic consumption levels and human development indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boa Nova, Antonio Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The article overviews the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes. The human development indexes are described based on the United Nations Development Programme. A comparison between the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes is also presented

  12. Platinum-group elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Loferski, Patricia J.; Parks, Heather L.; Schulte, Ruth F.; Seal, Robert R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The platinum-group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium—are metals that have similar physical and chemical properties and tend to occur together in nature. PGEs are indispensable to many industrial applications but are mined in only a few places. The availability and accessibility of PGEs could be disrupted by economic, environmental, political, and social events. The United States net import reliance as a percentage of apparent consumption is about 90 percent.PGEs have many industrial applications. They are used in catalytic converters to reduce carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrous oxide emissions in automobile exhaust. The chemical industry requires platinum or platinum-rhodium alloys to manufacture nitric oxide, which is the raw material used to manufacture explosives, fertilizers, and nitric acid. In the petrochemical industry, platinum-supported catalysts are needed to refine crude oil and to produce aromatic compounds and high-octane gasoline. Alloys of PGEs are exceptionally hard and durable, making them the best known coating for industrial crucibles used in the manufacture of chemicals and synthetic materials. PGEs are used by the glass manufacturing industry in the production of fiberglass and flat-panel and liquid crystal displays. In the electronics industry, PGEs are used in computer hard disks, hybridized integrated circuits, and multilayer ceramic capacitors.Aside from their industrial applications, PGEs are used in such other fields as health, consumer goods, and finance. Platinum, for example, is used in medical implants, such as pacemakers, and PGEs are used in cancer-fighting drugs. Platinum alloys are an ideal choice for jewelry because of their white color, strength, and resistance to tarnish. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium in the form of coins and bars are also used as investment commodities, and various financial instruments based on the value of these PGEs are traded on major exchanges

  13. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  14. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  15. Optimal Smooth Consumption and Annuity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    We propose an optimization criterion that yields extraordinary consumption smoothing compared to the well known results of the life-cycle model. Under this criterion we solve the related consumption and investment optimization problem faced by individuals with preferences for intertemporal stabil...... stability in consumption. We find that the consumption and investment patterns demanded under the optimization criterion is in general offered as annuity benefits from products in the class of ‘Formula Based Smoothed Investment-Linked Annuities’....

  16. Trace Elements Profile among Alcohol Abusers in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This showed that Mn, Fe and Cu were significantly increased while Zn was reduced significantly in alcohol abusers when compared with the control group of total abstainers. Excessive consumption of burukutu seems to significantly alter the trace elements status in abusers. Duration of intake and excessive use of burukutu ...

  17. Levels of Major and Minor Elements in Some Commercial Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, 2Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, ... Purpose: To evaluate the macro- and micro-nutrient elements of some commercially available fruit juices in ... national regulations. ... the consumption of natural products, such as fruit ... analytical techniques, each with its advantages.

  18. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. 59 Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO 4 or CaCO 3 ) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO 3 , CaHPO 4 , hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation

  19. Studies of the physico-chemical properties on the transuranian elements in connection with the migration phenomenon in the geosphere. Task 3 Characterization of radioactive waste forms. A series of final reports (1985-89)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorge, P.; Oliver, J.; Mangin, J.P.; Billon, A.

    1991-01-01

    In the first part, the properties of the transuranium elements (TRU) mainly Pu Np Am have been investigated in terms of complexation by OH and CO3 ligands in aqueous solution. The species which are formed in given physicochemical conditions (ionic strength, concentrations...) are studied with no direct reference to well defined ground waters. Equilibrium constants of complexes and redox potential values are useful in the drawing up of Pourbaix's diagrams. Areas of stability of species in function of Eh pH pCO2 are given for the different elements in a few cases. The second part of this report deals with the study of the transfer of tritiated water cesium and strontium through highly compacted clay (diffusion coefficient). In a third part a code for the computation of ion migration and diffusion in areas close to radwaste storage facilities has been developed. This type of application was found to require a mesh pattern and boundary conditions different from the usual, which justifies the writing of a new code called CONDIMENT. (Convection and Diffusion of elements) 49 figs.; 18 tabs.; 21 refs

  20. Decreasing the Functioning Consumptions of Plastics Injection Moulding Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, V.; Vasilache, M.; Vasilache, A.

    2017-06-01

    A share of about 75% in the cost of a plastic moulded part is held by the energy consumption of the injection machine. It is the heating system of the plasticising unit which is responsible for the energophague character of the process. The transfer rate from the heating elements to the plasticising cylinder depends hardly on the geometry of the system. A new heating system is designed, replacing the classical systems which are applied on the exterior of the cylinder with an “engrooved system”. Proposed heating system leads to decreasing of energy consumption up to 30 % and maintenance costs up to 10 %. A supplementary possibility to decrease the maintenance costs is to modify the geometry of the injection torpedo. The proposed geometry eliminates the possibility of any breaking or gripping related to the injection torpedo.

  1. Value of flexible consumption in the electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    A transition from an oil and coal based energy system to a systems based on renewable and sustainable energy sources has begun in many countries throughout the developed world. As a pioneer, Denmark currently has a wind energy penetration of 30% in the electricity sector and an end goal of 100......% renewables in all energy sectors by 2050. The main elements in this transition are an increase in the wind energy production and electrification of main energy sectors such as transport and heating. Activation of flexible consumption in the electricity markets is believed to be one of the means to compensate...... for the growth of fluctuating renewables and the decrease of conventional power plants providing system-stabilizing services. In this work, we examine the requirements for flexible consumption to be active in the spot market and the regulating power market in the Nordic system and estimate the costs of entering...

  2. Seagrass leaf element content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.A.; Smulders, Fee O.H.; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A.; Govers, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the role of seagrass leaf elements and in particular micronutrients and their ranges is limited. We present a global database, consisting of 1126 unique leaf values for ten elements, obtained from literature and unpublished data, spanning 25 different seagrass species from 28 countries.

  3. Berkeley new element program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiorso, A.

    1975-09-01

    The work done with element 106 is reviewed, and a new experiment which bears on the properties of the isotope of mass 260 with atomic number 104 is discussed. It is noted that in the case of element 106 a link is demonstrated to the granddaughter as well as the daughter

  4. Elemental Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  5. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogard, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in power producing nuclear reactors, comprising a plurality of axially aligned ceramic cylindrical fuel bodies of the sintered type, and a cladding tube of metal or metal alloys, wherein said cladding tube on its cylindrical inner surface is provided with a plurality of slightly protruding spacing elements distributed over said inner surface

  6. Power Consumption of a MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Selkey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A MOSFET is defined as metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. These electrical components are combined or integrated to form control and logic functions for laptop and desktop computers, power controls in printing devices, motor controls and are used in many other electrical circuits. All electrical devices consume electrical power based on current and voltage. For this paper we calculated the power consumption of a Toshiba 2SK3563 MOSFET during its triode mode by finding the area under the current-voltage characteristic curve.

  7. Taxation and Consumption of Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolakis, Dimitris

    1983-01-01

    In this article, the impact that a sales tax might have upon wine consumption and, hence, on the wine and grape growing industries, is analysed. Implications for government revenue are also considered. It is shown that the relative responsiveness of supply and demand, rather than the level in the marketing chain at which a tax is levied, determines where the tax burden finally falls. The imposition of a tax on wine might force certain sectors of the wine and grape industries to undergo a phas...

  8. Heavy consumption and drink driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing mixed methods project about untreated heavy alcohol consumption amongst adult Danes. It is based upon 21 in-depth qualitative interviews with convicted drink drivers. All interviewees were contacted while attending mandatory courses in “Alcohol and Traffic safety...... on the interviewee’s risk behaviour, especially in relation to driving. The interviewees are first divided into 1) a group of young “edgeworkers” with pronounced general risk behaviour, 2) a group of middle-aged “post-edgeworkers”, most with criminal records, and 3) a group of middle-aged and older heavy consumers...

  9. Electricity consumption in Geneva's businesses and administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassand, M.; Malatesta, D.; Chevalier, H.

    1999-01-01

    The article describes a data-collection project that gave an overview of energy consumption in Geneva's businesses and the canton's administration. For the first time, data on the patterns of use of electrical equipment were collected. The development of the sampling process is discussed, and the development of the categories defined for the analysis of the results is described. The role of various types of objects and their typical electricity consumption is discussed and trends in consumption are described. Results discussed include electricity consumption per employee and the degree of awareness regarding costs and consumption in various business types

  10. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  11. Life-Cycle Consumption and Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas Høgholm

    I show that conventional estimators based on the consumption Euler equation, extensively used in studies of intertemporal consumption behavior, produce inconsistent estimates of the effect of children on consumption if potentially binding credit constraints are ignored. As a more constructive...... contribution, I supply a tractable approach to obtaining bounds on the effect of children and a structural estimation strategy when households face constraints. Finally, I estimate the effect of children on consumption using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) for the US and high quality Danish...... administrative register data. Results suggest that children does not affect household consumption in the same magnitude previously assumed....

  12. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  13. Resource consumption, sustainability, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareva, Irina; Morin, Benjamin; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Preserving a system's viability in the presence of diversity erosion is critical if the goal is to sustainably support biodiversity. Reduction in population heterogeneity, whether inter- or intraspecies, may increase population fragility, either decreasing its ability to adapt effectively to environmental changes or facilitating the survival and success of ordinarily rare phenotypes. The latter may result in over-representation of individuals who may participate in resource utilization patterns that can lead to over-exploitation, exhaustion, and, ultimately, collapse of both the resource and the population that depends on it. Here, we aim to identify regimes that can signal whether a consumer-resource system is capable of supporting viable degrees of heterogeneity. The framework used here is an expansion of a previously introduced consumer-resource type system of a population of individuals classified by their resource consumption. Application of the Reduction Theorem to the system enables us to evaluate the health of the system through tracking both the mean value of the parameter of resource (over)consumption, and the population variance, as both change over time. The article concludes with a discussion that highlights applicability of the proposed system to investigation of systems that are affected by particularly devastating overly adapted populations, namely cancerous cells. Potential intervention approaches for system management are discussed in the context of cancer therapies.

  14. PERSPECTIVES UPON CONSUMPTION AND HAPPINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihaela STROE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are described by economists as rational people when making a decision and when interacting with different types of framing problems. Theories explaining rational "consumer's rational behaviour" , assume that emotions can be controlled and even ignored so people be able to behave in a rational manner. An important issue was to establish the rational economic report between resources and needs and finding ways to optimize it. Rational consumer behaviour is considered to be one that ensures maximum consumer satisfaction with maximum efficiency at minimum cost. Each user asks himself at one point, if happiness is found in material goods and services. Economists would like that the consumers believe that in their attempt to explain buying behaviour. However, it is a matter of debate if psychological records tend to state otherwise. It is suggested that people buy goods and services hoping that they will substitute the factors that make them truly happy . It is debatable whether consumption is detrimental to human happiness and if the link between consumption and happiness extends to all buying experiences.

  15. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  16. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  17. Forecasting Alcohol Consumption in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Slováčková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a forecast of developments in alcohol consumption based on current alcohol consumption per capita (expressed in litres of pure alcohol, and time series extrapolations. Alcohol consumption is to be considered from the vantage point of knowing the specifics of the product and the consequences of its excessive consumption. The predictive methodology makes use of the Box‑Jenkins method; the ARIMA model, taking into account the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation process, which is a prerequisite for the successful identification of a time series model; model parameter estimation; appropriate transformations of time series; determining the order of differentiation and subsequent verification of the model. The chosen methodology for future trends in alcohol consumptions is a prerequisite for the proposed optional measures to control alcohol consumption in the Czech Republic. Due to the long term nature of the process to draw up and implement alcohol consumption regulation measures, the forecast covers the forthcoming 10 years.

  18. Urban Systems and Energy Consumptions: A Critical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available City transformations are also due to the development of new energy sources, which have influenced economy and lifestyles, as well as the physical and functional organization of urban systems. Cities are the key place where it is need to act for the achievement of strategic environmental objectives, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions and energy saving. The hard resolution of these challenges depends on several factors: their multidimensional nature, the change of the economic and settlement development model, and also the complexity of the relationships between the elements that constitute the urban systems and that affect energy consumption. According to this awareness the Project Smart Energy Master for the energy management of territory financed by PON 04A2_00120 R & C Axis II, from 2012 to 2015 has been developed: it is aimed at supporting local authorities in the development of strategies for the reduction of energy consumption through actions designed to change behavior (in terms of use and energy consumption and to improve the energy efficiency of equipment and infrastructure. With the goal of describing some of the results of the methodological phase of this project, this paper proposes a review of the major studies on the issue of energy consumption at the urban scale in the first section; in the second section the outcomes of the first phase of the development of the comprehension/interpretive model related to the identification of the set of physical/environmental variables at urban scale, that most affect the energy consumption, are described; the third makes a critical review of the reference scientific literature, characterised by a too sectoral approach, compared to the complexity of the topic.

  19. Discovery of element 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  20. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Levin, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of particles in a hollow gas permeable container having a multiplicity of openings of size smallr than the size of the particles. The container is preferably held in the spring in the plenum of the fuel element. (E.C.B.)

  1. Elemental diffusion in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, Georges; Montmerle, Thierry

    1977-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the origin of the elements in the universe. The scheme of nucleosynthesis is kept to explain the stellar generation of helium, carbon, etc... from the initial hydrogen; but a nonlinear theory is then elaborated to account for the anomalous abundances which were observed. The chemical elements would diffuse throughout the outer layers of a star under the action of the opposite forces of gravitation and radiation. This theory, with completing the nucleosynthesis, would contribute to give a consistent scheme of the elemental origin and abundances [fr

  2. Energy consumption of sport halls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The energy consumption of Finland's sports halls (ball games halls, ice hockey halls and swimming halls) represent approximately 1% of that of the country's whole building stock. In the light of the facts revealed by the energy study the potential energy saving rate in sports halls is 15-25%. The total savings would be something like FIM 30-40 million per annum, of which about a half would be achieved without energy-economic investments only by changing utilization habits and by automatic control measures. The energy-economic investments are for the most part connected with ventilation and their repayment period is from one to five years. On the basis of the energy study the following specific consumption are presented as target values: swimming halls: heat (kWh/m*H3/a)100, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)35, water (l/m*H3/a)1000 icehockey halls (warm): heat (kWh/m*H3/a)25, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)15, water (l/m*H3/a)200, ball games halls (multi-purpose halls): heat (kWh/m*H3/a)30, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)25, water (l/m*H3/a)130. In the study the following points proved to be the central areas of energy saving in sports halls: 1. Flexible regulation of the temperature in sports spaces on the basis of the sport in question. 2. The ventilation of swimming halls should be adjusted in such a way that the humidity of the hall air would comply with the limit humidity curve determined by the quality of structures and the temperature of the outdoor air. 3. An ice skating hall is an establishment producing condensing energy from 8 to 9 months a year worth of approx. 100.000-150.000 Finnmarks. The development of the recovery of condensing energy has become more important. 4. The ventilation of ball games halls may account for over 50% of the energy consumption of the whole building. Therefore special attention should be paid to the optimatization of ventilation as a whole.

  3. Bridge element deterioration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development of bridge element deterioration rates using the NYSDOT : bridge inspection database using Markov chains and Weibull-based approaches. It is observed : that Weibull-based approach is more reliable for developing b...

  4. 2. Transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of sample collection, sample storage, sample procedures and radioanalytical procedures for transuranic elements in marine environment are reviewed and recommended. Alpha spectrometry and scintillation techniques are used for measurement of isotopic content. Separation processes for samples are described

  5. Heavy element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Heavy element research activities in metallurgy and ceramics during 1976 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are reviewed. Topics include: microstructure, properties and alloy design; ceramic alloy program; high resolution and high voltage electron microscopy; and powder metallurgy

  6. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    An array of rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurised water reactor is claimed. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel elements for a pressurised water reactor comprise arrays of rods of zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  8. Transposable elements in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kathleen H

    2017-07-01

    Transposable elements give rise to interspersed repeats, sequences that comprise most of our genomes. These mobile DNAs have been historically underappreciated - both because they have been presumed to be unimportant, and because their high copy number and variability pose unique technical challenges. Neither impediment now seems steadfast. Interest in the human mobilome has never been greater, and methods enabling its study are maturing at a fast pace. This Review describes the activity of transposable elements in human cancers, particularly long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1). LINE-1 sequences are self-propagating, protein-coding retrotransposons, and their activity results in somatically acquired insertions in cancer genomes. Altered expression of transposable elements and animation of genomic LINE-1 sequences appear to be hallmarks of cancer, and can be responsible for driving mutations in tumorigenesis.

  9. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...

  10. Communication, Consumption and Peripheral Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÍZIA VILLAÇA

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses central/peripheral dynamics and its new semantics in the big scenario of globalization. The processes of hybridization between the local and the global spaces are discussed focusing the strategies of inclusion and exclusion through some examples from media and cultural industry. The methodology helps to reflect about the theme using elements of epistemology communication, consumer society and cultural studies.

  11. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  12. Fuel element store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1987-01-01

    The spherical fuel elements are stored dry in cans. The cans themselves are stacked in parallel storage shafts, which are combined into a rectangular storage space. The storage space is made earthquake-proof by surrounding it with concrete. It consists of a ceiling assembled from several steel parts, which is connected to the floor by support elements. A cooling air ventilation station supplies the individual storage shaft and therefore the cans with cooling air via incoming and outgoing pipes. (DG) [de

  13. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  14. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  15. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  16. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.T.; Thompson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of protecting the cladding of a nuclear fuel element from internal attack and a nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor are disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an additive of a barium-containing material and the barium-containing material collects reactive gases through chemical reaction or adsorption at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to fuel element plenum temperatures. The additive is located in the plenum of the fuel element and preferably in the form of particles in a hollow container having a multiplicity of gas permeable openings in one portion of the container with the openings being of a size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles. The additive is comprised of elemental barium or a barium alloy containing one or more metals in addition to barium such as aluminum, zirconium, nickel, titanium and combinations thereof. 6 claims, 3 drawing figures

  17. Energy consumption and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, L G

    1972-10-01

    A mathematical model relating Gross National Product (GNP) per capita to useful energy consumed per capita is demonstrated to predict the shift in this relationship actually experienced in the U.K. and the U.S. over a period of years. World GNP growths in the recent past are used to forecast GNP growth to the year 2030 and also (via the model) the necessary fuel consumption for such growth; likewise, potential production of fossil fuels (exclusive of tar sands and oil shale) is shown to 2030, based on two different assumptions about total world reserves. Fossil fuel ceases to meet world requirements for energy at some time between 1985 and 1995. The most likely candidate for filling the gap is nuclear power.

  18. Measurement of forearm oxygen consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    1988-01-01

    The classical forearm technique widely used for studies of skeletal muscle metabolism requires arterial cannulation. To avoid arterial puncture it is becoming more common to arterialize blood from a contralateral hand vein by local heating. This modification and the classical method have produced...... blood flow and decreases skeletal muscle blood flow. This facilitates mixing of superficial blood with deep venous blood. Contralateral heating increased deep venous oxygen saturation and abolished the pronounced glucose-induced increase in oxygen consumption observed in the control experiments after...... contradictory results regarding the contribution of skeletal muscle to glucose-induced thermogenesis. The effect on forearm circulation and the metabolism of heating the contralateral hand was examined before and after an oral glucose load. The results suggest that contralateral heating increases subcutaneous...

  19. Towards Sustainable Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulku, M. Ali; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    an environmentally conscious (green) consumer who will buy one of two available, horizontally differentiated products: a modular product (M) manufactured by Firm M or a standard product (S) manufactured by Firm S. Firm M can take advantage of its modular production technology and product return policy...... and numerical examples to render practical insights: The refund rate has a strong impact on profits; sensitivity of product greenness can be increased by conscientious advertising, and the reusability of modular parts encourages lower pricing and higher market share. We assert that modularity is a strong...... concept and practice in developing sustainable products and thereby in production, which, in turn, may enhance sustainable consumption. This study's findings have direct implications for reverse supply chain management, and firms should take these findings into account early in the product design phase....

  20. Consumption-based Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    implementations of standard valuation models, both in terms of median absolute valuation errors (MAVE) and in terms of excess returns on simple investment strategies based on the differences between model and market prices. The CCAPM-based valuation model yields a significantly lower MAVE than the best performing...... standard valuation model. Both types of models can identify investment strategies with subsequent excess returns. The CCAPM-based valuation model yields time-series of realized hedge returns with more and higher positive returns and fewer and less negative returns compared with the time-series of realized...... through a risk-adjusted cost of equity in the denominator. The risk adjustments are derived based on assumptions about the time-series properties of residual income returns and aggregate consumption rather than on historical stock returns. We compare the performance of the model with several...

  1. Consumption-based Equity Valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Peter Ove

    2013-01-01

    the performance of the model with several implementations of standard valuation models, both in terms of absolute valuation errors, and in terms of the returns on simple investment strategies based on the differences between model and market prices in the respective valuation models. The CCAPM-based valuation...... model performs substantially better than the best performing standard valuation model when comparing absolute valuation errors. Both types of models are able to identify investment strategies with subsequent excess returns but also in this setting, the CCAPM-based valuation model outperforms...... residual income for risk in the numerator rather than through a risk-adjusted cost of equity in the denominator. The risk-adjustments are derived based on assumptions about the time-series properties of residual income returns and aggregate consumption rather than on historical stock returns. We compare...

  2. Energy catastrophes and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of energy catastrophes in the production of energy serves to make estimation of the true social costs of energy production difficult. As a result, there is a distinct possibility that the private marginal cost curve of energy producers lies to the left or right of the true cost curve. If so, social welfare will not be maximized, and underconsumption or overconsumption of fuels will exist. The occurrence of energy catastrophes and observance of the market reaction to these occurrences indicates that overconsumption of energy has been the case in the past. Postulations as to market reactions to further energy catastrophes lead to the presumption that energy consumption levels remain above those that are socially optimal

  3. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  4. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  5. Does trade liberalization effect energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, Gairuzazmi M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of trade liberalization on the environment can be directly linked to energy consumption, because energy consumption and production are the underlying cause of most pollutants that harm the environment. The descriptive statistics show that average annual growth of energy consumption per capita after trade liberalization varies among countries; hence it is a possibility that the effect of trade liberalization is conditional on factors other than liberalization per se. The regression results show that trade liberalization per se does not affect the growth of energy consumption of the developing countries analyzed, but its interaction with capital per labor reduces the growth of energy consumption as capital per labor increases. However, the effect is only significant after a certain minimum threshold level capital per labor is reached. On the other hand, economic growth increases energy consumption and its effect is not conditioned on trade liberalization. These two different effects mean that, with regards to energy consumption, countries at a higher level of economic development are more likely to reap the benefit of liberalization relative to less developed countries. - Research highlights: ► This paper examines the effect of trade liberalization on energy consumption. ► Developed countries are more likely to reap the benefit of trade liberalization. ► Growth of energy consumption after trade liberalization varies among countries. ► Interaction of capital per labor with liberalization reduces energy consumption.

  6. Consumption of food in EC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ven-Breken, T.J. van de; Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Noordijk, H.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1990-08-01

    Annual consumption of 10 classes of food and drink is reported for the total population of each EC-country. National food consumption data are generalized by distinguishing groups of countries with similar diet. Group 1: UK and Ireland (low consumption of fruit, high consumption of potatoes and fresh dairy products). Group 2: Italy and Greece (high consumption of cereals, vegetables and fruit, low consumption of fresh dairy products). Group 3: France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, FRG and Spain (intermediate consumption of most foodstuffs). Portugal and Denmark could not be classified in any group. Changes in food consumption related to differences in age, sex, social class, regional habits and level of urbanisation are reported.In some cases, variation of annual food consumption over the different seasons on the relative contribution of food from local origin to the total diet, could be estimated. Differences of region, age and level of urbanisation appear to have the largest influence on consumed amounts. As for age, the values for the different age-groups range from 50 to 80 percent of the adult diet. Regional consumption may diverge from 70-130 percent of the average national consumption, with values of 200 percent for potatoes and fruit. Consumption in urban areas compared with the entire country diverges from 70-100 percent. In rural areas the values diverge from 100-140 percent. Self-support of vegetables and milk seems to be important for most countries. Of the other products, self-support of wheat and cheese is only of importance in the south of the EC. When combining the effects of the different factors, a range of consumed amounts for specific population groups of 50 to 200 percent of the average national consumption was determined. (author). 38 refs.; 13 figs.; 75 tabs

  7. Food Safety Is a Key Determinant of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Urban Beninese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nago, Eunice S.; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Lachat, Carl K.; Dossa, Romain A.; Kolsteren, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in urban Beninese adolescents and elements to develop a school-based fruit and vegetable program. Design: Sixteen focus groups conducted with a key word guide. Setting and Participants: Two private and 2 public secondary schools in Cotonou, Benin. One hundred fifty-three…

  8. Analysis of China department water consumption efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Jia-Hong

    2018-03-01

    The water comparable non-competitive input-out model of China in 2002, 2007 and 2012 is established to calculate the department water consumption efficiency. The water direct and complete consumption coefficients of 38 departments are analysed. Agriculture and Electricity and steam supply have the highest water consumption coefficients and utilize water resource mainly by the direct way. Manufacture of food products and tobacco products, Manufacture of textiles, Manufacture of wearing apparel and leather products and Information service activities have high water complete consumption coefficients and affect water consumption mainly by the indirect way. Water complete consumption efficiency measures the efficiency from the view of final product, which reflected the department water use driving force more precisely.

  9. Mathematical models of natural gas consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabo, Kristian; Scitovski, Rudolf; Vazler, Ivan; Zekic-Susac, Marijana

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of natural gas consumption hourly forecast on the basis of hourly movement of temperature and natural gas consumption in the preceding period. There are various methods and approaches for solving this problem in the literature. Some mathematical models with linear and nonlinear model functions relating to natural gas consumption forecast with the past natural gas consumption data, temperature data and temperature forecast data are mentioned. The methods are tested on concrete examples referring to temperature and natural gas consumption for the area of the city of Osijek (Croatia) from the beginning of the year 2008. The results show that most acceptable forecast is provided by mathematical models in which natural gas consumption and temperature are related explicitly.

  10. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  11. Alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    Since the 1960s wine consumption has decreased dramatically in especially the Southern European countries whereas the countries in the northern parts of Europe have experienced a substitution from beer and spirits toward wines. In this sense there has been a process of convergence taking place...... regarding per capita consumption of wine among the European countries. Also for the total consumption of alcohol, i.e. the per capita consumption of beer, wine and spirits, the hypothesis of convergence seems to hold. In the same time span the number of alcohol related diseases as e.g. liver diseases, have...... changed significantly in the same direction as the developments in alcohol consumption. The changes in the consumption levels of alcohol in general -- and wine in particular -- are influenced by many factors of which health arguments may have played a crucial role. The alcohol policies of the European...

  12. Sustainable food consumption in China and India

    OpenAIRE

    von Meyer-Höfer, Marie; Juarez Tijerino, Andrea Maria; Spiller, Achim

    2015-01-01

    This study examines sustainable food consumption in China and India, based on online consumer survey data. It explores which factors influence sustainable food consumption in these countries, based upon a model related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Structural equation modelling is used for the analysis and comparison of both countries. Among the similarities found are the significant influence of subjective norms on intention towards sustainable food consumption and the influence of per...

  13. Power Consumption Based Android Malware Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyu Yang; Ruiwen Tang

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that Android platform’s sand-box mechanism prevents security protection software from accessing effective information to detect malware, this paper proposes a malicious software detection method based on power consumption. Firstly, the mobile battery consumption status information was obtained, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) was built by using Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC). Then, the GMM was used to analyze power consumption; malicious software...

  14. Self-consumption in Germany. Experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about self-consumption from photovoltaic power plants and cogeneration plants in Germany: share of self-consumption in the overall electricity consumption, definition and economic models, legal aspects and feed-in tariffs, financial incentives for households, tertiary sector and industry, impact on grid dimensioning, challenge of storage on electric system optimisation, economic impact and 'lack of solidarity', possible future legal evolutions

  15. Domestic fuel energy consumption in an Indian urban ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M.K.; Rao, B.G.; Nisanka, S.K.; Sahu, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    Berhampur is one of the oldest and biggest towns of Orissa State where 93% of people earn their living from non-primary economic activities. The fuel consumption structure reveals an element of rural bias since the domestic sector derives 49% of its energy used for cooking and heating from biomass sources. Firewood is the only fuel used by all income groups and almost all occupations. Other traditional fuels such as dungcake, agricultural waste and leaf litter are used in the town with different degrees of dominance in various occupation groups and income classes. The inequality of income distribution is reflected in the fuel consumption structure of the rich and poor with greater dependence on non-biomass in the high income group and biomass in the low income group. Family size is an important determinant of biomass fuel use. For the urban poor, there is a relationship between income and fuel consumption. There exists scope for enlarging the biomass base by utilising the available bio-wastes and developing a green belt around the town. This requires some rural features in the urban area using new technologies. (author)

  16. An inverse association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuetong; Wu, Yuan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Lingjun; Tong, Na; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Dongying; Chen, Jinfei

    2017-06-06

    It is well known that the tea extracts, mainly polyphenols as chemo-preventive elements, could act as cancer progression blockers. Although the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk has been widely investigated, the results still remain inconsistent. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate their relationships by enrolling qualified 29 literatures. The summary odds ratio (OR) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was 0.93 with 0.87-1.00 of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among all studies with modest heterogeneity (P = 0.001, I2 = 43.4%). Stratified analysis revealed that tea, especially green tea, had a protective effect among female and rectal cancer patients. Particularly, the dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant inverse association between an increment of 1 cup/day of tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the subgroup of the green tea drinking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.01, Pnonlinear = 0.003) and female (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56-0.81, Pnonlinear colorectal cancer risk, which may have significant public health implications in the prevention of colorectal cancer and further similar researches.

  17. Factors associated with protein consumption in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália GASPARETO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective We evaluated factors associated with protein consumption by the elderly. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in a sample of 295 elderly consumers of health facilities in São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil. Protein consumption data (g and g/kg were obtained through 24-hour dietary recalls, which was reapplied in a 30% sub-sample to estimate habitual consumption, with an interval of two weeks. The association between protein consumption and sociodemographic, economic, health, and dietary variables was tested using multiple linear regression. Results There was a positive association between protein consumption (g and g/kg and better Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised, between protein consumption (g and male sex, and a negative association between protein consumption (g/kg and greater calf circumference. Higher average protein consumption (g or g/kg was observed among married elderly, individuals with higher income and schooling, who were economically active, eutrophic, without dyslipidemia and symptoms of dysphagia, who consumed three main meals and an intermediate snack. Conclusion The results showed that protein consumption was associated with diet quality, sex, and calf circumference. The identification of elderly groups prone to protein inadequacy may direct individual and collective interventions to prevent muscle mass reduction and its implications, such as sarcopenia and other adverse outcomes.

  18. Energy consumption in France's industry. Conjuncture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    Energy consumption in the industry represents today 1/5 of France's end-use energy consumption. Gas and electricity are the most consumed and represent 2/3 of the overall. The 5 most energy consuming industries are the following: paper and cardboard industry, food industry, rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products industry, metallurgy and chemical industry. The reduction of the industry's energy consumption is explained by the decline of production, but above all by the energy efficiency improvement of the sector. Technological innovations in production means have indeed led to reduce energy consumption

  19. Power Consumption Based Android Malware Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that Android platform’s sand-box mechanism prevents security protection software from accessing effective information to detect malware, this paper proposes a malicious software detection method based on power consumption. Firstly, the mobile battery consumption status information was obtained, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM was built by using Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC. Then, the GMM was used to analyze power consumption; malicious software can be classified and detected through classification processing. Experiment results demonstrate that the function of an application and its power consumption have a close relationship, and our method can detect some typical malicious application software accurately.

  20. Fuel element transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benna, P.; Neuenfeldt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The reprocessing system includes a large number of waterfilled ponds next to each other for the intermediate storage of fuel elements from LWR's. The fuel element transport device is allocated to a middle pond. The individual ponds are separated from each other by walls, and are only accessible from the middle pond via narrow passages. The transport device includes a telescopic running rail for a trolley with a grab device for the fuel element. The running rail is supported in turn by a second trolley, which can be moved by wheels on rails. Part of the drive of the first trolley is arranged on the second one. Using this transport device, adjacent ponds can be served through the passage openings. (DG) [de