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Sample records for transuranic program complex

  1. National Transuranic Program Charter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The National Transuranic Program Plan and Charter describes the functional elements of the National TRU Program, organizational relationships, programmatic responsibilities, division of work scope among the various DOE organizations that comprise the program, and program baselines against which overall progress will be measured. The charter defines the authorities and responsibilities of various organizations involved in the management of TRU waste throughout the DOE complex

  2. National transuranic program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    As a result of various program initiatives, the U.S. generated and will continue to generate waste contaminated with radioactive materials. Because of increased awareness of the risks and special requirements to safely manage long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides, a new category of radioactive waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, was adopted in 1970. Heads of Field Elements can determine that other alpha-contaminated wastes, peculiar to a specific site, must be managed as transuranic wasteclose quotes. TRU waste is generated and stored at various DOE sites around the country. In December 1993, the National Transuranic Program Office (NTPO) was established as part of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to integrate and coordinate the diverse organizational elements that contribute to the complex-wide management of TRU waste. Numerous sites with small TRU waste inventories are also part of the national TRU waste system. The majority of TRU waste is also contaminated with hazardous materials and is thus considered mixed waste. Mixed waste must be managed in compliance with all federal, state, and local regulations that are applicable to the radioactive and/or hazardous component of the waste. Each generator site is responsible for the management of its respective waste. Sites must plan and implement programs to minimize, characterize, package, treat, store, ship, and dispose of all TRU waste; construct required waste management facilities and equipment; obtain permits; perform site-specific National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses; conduct environmental studies; perform laboratory analyses; and certify that waste meets appropriate disposal facility criteria. Due to the toxicity and long half-lives of TRU radionuclides, TRU waste must be disposed in a manner that offers greater confinement than shallow land burial

  3. Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) Strategy Document presents the general strategy for managing transuranic (TRU) waste materials generated during defense and research activities regulated by the US Department of Energy. The Strategy Document includes discussion of objectives and activities relating to the entire Defense Transuranic Waste Program. However, the primary focus is on the specific management responsibilities of the Transuranic Waste Lead Organization (TLO). The document also includes an updated summary of progress on TLO-managed activities over the past year

  4. Transuranic waste management program and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Cook, L.A.; Stallman, R.M.; Hunter, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1954, defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste has been received at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Prior to 1970, approximately 2.2 million cubic feet of transuranic waste were buried in shallow-land trenches and pits at the RWMC. Since 1970, an additional 2.1 million cubic feet of waste have been retrievably stored in aboveground engineered confinement. A major objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is the proper management of defense-generated transuranic waste. Strategies have been developed for managing INEL stored and buried transuranic waste. These strategies have been incorporated in the Defense Waste Management Plan and are currently being implemented with logistical coordination of transportation systems and schedules for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is providing nondestructive examination and assay of retrievably stored, contact-handled TRU waste. Construction of the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) was recently completed, and PREPP is currently undergoing system checkout. The PRFPP will provide processing capabilities for contact-handled waste not meeting WIPP-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In addition, ongoing studies and technology development efforts for managing the TRU waste such as remote-handled and buried TRU waste, are being conducted

  5. Transuranic Waste Management Program and Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Cook, L.A.; Stallman, R.M.; Hunter, E.K.

    1986-02-01

    Since 1954, defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste has been received at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Prior to 1970, approximately 2.2 million cubic feet of transuranic waste were buried in shallow-land trenches and pits at the RWMC. Since 1970, an additional 2.1 million cubic feet of waste have been retrievably stored in aboveground engineered confinement. A major objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is the proper management of defense-generated transuranic waste. Strategies have been developed for managing INEL stored and buried transuranic waste. These strategies have been incorporated in the Defense Waste Management Plan and are currently being implemented with logistical coordination of transportation systems and schedules for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is providing nondestructive examination and assay of retrievably stored, contact-handled TRU waste. Construction of the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) was recently completed, and PREPP is currently undergoing system checkout. The PREPP will provide processing capabilities for contact-handled waste not meeting WIPP-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In addition, ongoing studies and technology development efforts for managing the TRU waste such as remote-handled and buried TRU waste, are being conducted

  6. Overview of DOE's transuranic waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, M.H.; Detamore, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has assigned to Albuquerque Operations the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) responsibility for long-range planning and management for defense transuranic (TRU) waste. The Transuranic Waste Lead Organization (TLO) has divided the Program into seven elements that support its primary goal of ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal. These elements include waste generation site activities, storage site activities, burial site activities, technology development, transportation, institutional activities and permanent disposal. This paper briefly discusses these seven elements and how they are integrated to provide for successful achievement of the primary goal

  7. Overview of DOE's Transuranic Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, M.H.; Detamore, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has assigned to Albuquerque Operations the Defense Transuranic Waste Program responsibility for long-range planning and management of defense transuranic (TRU) waste. The Transuranic Waste Lead Organization (TLO) has divided the Program into seven elements which support it's primary goal of ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal. These are: waste generation site activities, storage site activities, burial site activities, technology development, transportation, institutional activities, and permanent disposal. This paper will briefly discuss these seven elements and how they are integrated to provide for successful achievement of the primary goal

  8. Transuranic waste management program waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Crisler, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    To ensure that all technology necessary for long term management of transuranic (TRU) wastes is available, the Department of Energy has established the Transuranic Waste Management Program. A principal focus of the program is development of waste forms that can accommodate the very diverse TRU waste inventory and meet geologic isolation criteria. The TRU Program is following two approaches. First, decontamination processes are being developed to allow removal of sufficient surface contamination to permit management of some of the waste as low level waste. The other approach is to develop processes which will allow immobilization by encapsulation of the solids or incorporate head end processes which will make the solids compatible with more typical waste form processes. The assessment of available data indicates that dewatered concretes, synthetic basalts, and borosilicate glass waste forms appear to be viable candidates for immobilization of large fractions of the TRU waste inventory in a geologic repository

  9. Defense transuranic waste program strategy document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This document summarizes the strategy for managing transuranic (TRU) wastes generated in defense and research activities regulated by the US Department of Energy. It supercedes a document issued in July 1980. In addition to showing how current strategies of the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) are consistent with the national objective of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere, this document includes information about the activities of the Transuranic Lead Organization (TLO). To explain how the DTWP strategy is implemented, this document also discusses how the TLO coordinates and integrates the six separate elements of the DTWP: (1) Waste Generation Site Activities, (2) Storage Site Activities, (3) Burial Site Activities, (4) Technology Development, (5) Transportation Development, and (6) Permanent Disposal. Storage practices for TRU wastes do not pose short-term hazards to public health and safety or to the environment. Isolation of TRU wastes in a deep-mined geologic repository is considered the most promising of the waste disposal alternatives available. This assessment is supported by the DOE Record of Decision to proceed with research and development work at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico - a deep-mined geologic research and development project. In support of the WIPP research project and the permanent disposal of TRU waste, the DTWP strategy for the near term will concentrate on completion of procedures and the design and construction of all facilities necessary to certify newly-generated (NG) and stored TRU wastes for emplacement in the WIPP. In addition, the strategy involves evaluating alternatives for disposing of some transuranic wastes by methods which may allow for on-site disposal of these wastes and yet preserve adequate margins of safety to protect public health and the environment

  10. Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-30

    This quality assurance plan identifies the data necessary, and techniques designed to attain the required quality, to meet the specific data quality objectives associated with the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report specifies sampling, waste testing, and analytical methods for transuranic wastes.

  11. Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This quality assurance plan identifies the data necessary, and techniques designed to attain the required quality, to meet the specific data quality objectives associated with the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report specifies sampling, waste testing, and analytical methods for transuranic wastes

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.H.; Bates, L.D.; Box, W.D.; Aaron, W.S.; Setaro, J.A.

    1988-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that all DOE facilities handling defense transuranic (TRU) waste develop and implement a program whereby all TRU waste will be contained, stored, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in accordance with the requirements set forth in the DOE certification documents WIPP-DOE-069, 114, 120, 137, 157, and 158. The program described in this report describes how Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) intends to comply with these requirements and the techniques and procedures used to ensure that ORNL TRU wastes are certifiable for shipment to WIPP. This document describes the program for certification of newly generated (NG) contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. Previsions have been made for addenda, which will extend the coverage of this document to include certification of stored CH-TRU and NG and stored remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste, as necessary. 24 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Impact of dynamic certification requirements on the Nuclear Materials Technology Division's transuranic waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, J.J.; Montoya, A.J.; Wieneke, Ronald E.

    2002-01-01

    The issuance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit in August of 2000, specifically the attachment I3 Waste Analysis Plan (WAP),had a profound impact upon transuranic (TRU) waste certification at Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Plutonium Facility. Program certification was lost until Laboratory internal program documents could be amended to meet the new WAP requirements, waste management personnel could be retrained to incorporate the changes into waste operations and the entire program successfully pass subsequent Carlsbad Field Ofice (CBFO) audit. This action resulted in the suspension of transuranic waste shipments from LANL to WIPP. In addition the changes unnecessarily increased the complexity of TRU waste program activities in waste handling.

  14. The Transuranic Waste Program's integration and planning activities and the contributions of the TRU partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, T.C.; O'Neal, W.; Petersen, C.A.; McDonald, C.E.

    1994-02-01

    The Technical Support Division, EM-351 manages the integration and planning activities of the Transuranic Waste Program. The Transuranic Waste Program manager provides transuranic waste policy, guidance, and issue resolution to Headquarters and the Operations Offices. In addition, the program manager is responsible for developing and implementing an integrated, long-range waste management plan for the transuranic waste system. A steering committee, a core group of support contractors, and numerous interface working groups support the efforts of the program manager. This paper provides an overview of the US Department of Energy's transuranic waste integration activities and a long-range planning process that includes internal and external stakeholder participation. It discusses the contributions and benefits provided by the Transuranic Partnership, most significantly, the integration activities and the body of data collected and assembled by the Partnership

  15. The transuranic waste management program at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosia, J.

    1986-01-01

    Defense transuranic waste at the Savannah River site results from the Department of Energy's national defense activities, including the operation of production reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, and research and development activities. TRU waste has been retrievably stored at the Savannah River Plant since 1974 awaiting disposal. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, now under construction in New Mexico, is a research and development facility for demonstrating the safe disposal of defense TRU waste, including that in storage at the Savannah River Plant. The major objective of the TRU Program at SR is to support the TRU National Program, which is dedicated to preparing waste for, and emplacing waste in, the WIPP. Thus, the SR Program also supports WIPP operations. The SR site specific goals are to phase out the indefinite storage of TRU waste, which has been the mode of waste management since 1974, and to dispose of the defense TRU waste. This paper describes the specific activities at SR which will provide for the disposal of this TRU waste

  16. Systems Engineering in the Development and Implementation of the Savannah River Site Transuranic Waste Disposition Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayfich, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    The use of systems engineering facilitated the strategic planning and implementation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) transuranic waste disposal program. This application represented the first SRS use of systems engineering in the pre-program planning stages during the development of a comprehensive strategic plan for the disposal of transuranic waste at the Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The use of systems engineering focused the efforts of the technical experts to devise a three initiative plan for the disposal of transuranic waste where previous efforts failed. Continued application of systems engineering facilitated the further development and implementation of the first initiative outlined in the strategic plan, i.e., set-up the program and process to begin to characterize and ship waste to the WIPP.This application of systems engineering to the transuranic waste program represented the first opportunity at the SRS for a comprehensive usage of systems engineering at all program levels. The application was initiated at the earliest possible point in the program development, i.e., strategic planning, and successively was used in detailed development and implementation of the program. Systems engineering successfully focused efforts to produce a comprehensive plan for the disposal of SRS transuranic waste at the WIPP, and facilitated development of the SRS capability and infrastructure to characterize, certify, and ship waste

  17. FY85 Program plan for the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    The Defense TRU Waste Program (DTWP) is the focal point for the Department of Energy in national planning, integration, and technical development for TRU waste management. The scope of this program extends from the point of TRU waste generation through delivery to a permanent repository. The TRU program maintains a close interface with repository development to ensure program compatibility and coordination. The defense TRU program does not directly address commercial activities that generate TRU waste. Instead, it is concerned with providing alternatives to manage existing and future defense TRU wastes. The FY85 Program Plan is consistent with the Defense TRU Waste Program goals and objectives stated in the Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document, January 1984. The roles of participants, the responsibilities and authorities for Research and Development (R and D), the organizational interfaces and communication channels for R and D and the establishment of procedures for planning, reporting, and budgeting of all R and D activities meet requirements stated in the Technical Management Plan for the Transuranic Waste Management Program. The Program Plan is revised as needed. The work breakdown structure is reflected graphically immediately following the Administration section and is described in the subsequent narrative. Detailed budget planning (i.e., programmatic funding and capital equipment) is presented for FY85; outyear budget projections are presented for future years

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant transuranic wastes experimental characterization program: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1978-11-01

    A general overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant transuranic wastes experimental characterization program is presented. Objectives and outstanding concerns of this program are discussed. Characteristics of transuranic wastes are also described. Concerns for the terminal isolation of such wastes in a deep bedded salt facility are divided into two phases, those during the short-term operational phase of the facility, and those potentially occurring in the long-term, after decommissioning of the repository. An inclusive summary covering individual studies, their importance to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, investigators, general milestones, and comments are presented

  19. Diphosphonic acid complexants for improved separation efficiency of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    A study was made of the thermodynamics of protonation and complexation of Eu(III), Th(IV), and U(VI) by a series of simple diphosphonic acid chelating agents to assess the potential for application in actinide waste processing. It was found that the strongest complexes are formed with ligands having two phosphonate binding groups on the same C atom (1,1-diphosphonates) and that the water-soluble complexes are formed with protonated ligand species. More efficient separation/recovery processes could be designed using these ligands

  20. Transuranic Solid Waste Management Programs. Progress report, July--December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Progress is reported for three transuranic solid waste management programs funded at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory by the Energy Research and Development Administration Division of Waste Management and Transportation. Under the Transuranic Waste Research and Development Program, a completed evaluation of stainless steel drums showed that although the material has superior corrosion-resistant properties, its higher cost makes a thorough investigation of other container systems mandatory. A program to investigate more economical, nonmetallic containers is proposed. Preliminary fire tests in mild steel drums have been completed with fire propagation not appearing to be a problem unless container integrity is lost. Investigation of the corrosion of mild steel drums and the evaluation of potential corrosion inhibitors, in a variety of humid environments, continues. Experimental results of both laboratory and field investigations on radiolysis of transuranic elements in hydrogenous waste are discussed. Progress in the development of instrumentation for monitoring and segregating low-level wastes is described. New plans and developments for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid Waste Treatment Development Facility are presented. The current focus is on a comparison of all alternative waste reduction systems toward a relative Figure of Merit with universal application. Drawings, flowsheets, and building layouts are included, and the proposed incinerator device is detailed. The release mechanisms, inter- and intraregional transport mechanisms, and exhumation studies relevant to the Evaluation of Transuranic-Contaminated Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas Program are defined and analyzed. A detailed description is given of the formulation of the computer simulation scheme for the intraregional biological transport model

  1. Transuranic waste program at EG and G Idaho, Inc. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Tolman, C.R.

    1980-12-01

    This document summarizes the objectives and technical achievements of the transuranic (TRU) waste research and development program conducted at EG and G Idaho, Inc., during fiscal year 1980. The TRU waste activities covered in this report include: INEL TRU Waste EIS (Environmental Impact Statement), including preparation of the EIS, Support Studies, and the Public Participation Program; INEL TRU Waste Projects, including System Analysis, Stored Waste projects, and Buried Waste projects; and Waste Management Materials Studies, including Process Control and Durability studies

  2. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Mitch; Howard, Bryan; Weyerman, Wade; Mctaggart, Jerri

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  3. Transuranic-waste program at EG and G Idaho, Inc. Annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.B.

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes the objectives and accomplishments of Transuranic (TRU) Waste Program conducted at EG and G Idaho, Inc., during FY 1982. The TRU Waste Program included: (1) Preparation of a revised draft of the Recommendation of a Long-Term Strategy (RLTS) document; (2) Preparation of environmental documentation, including a technical report, Environmental and Other Evaluations of Alternatives for Management of Defense Transuranic Waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, IDO-10103, as well as two environmental evaluations; (3) Preparation of a certification plan and procedures; (4) A nondestructive examination (NDE) project, which includes development of real-time radiography for waste certification, and container integrity equipment for waste container certification; (5) Development of an assay system; (6) Completion of a conceptual design for the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) and SWEPP Support; and (7) Gas-generation analyses and tests. These TRU waste projects were funded at $1640K

  4. Transuranic solid waste management programs. Progress report, July--December 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Progress is reported for three transuranic solid waste management programs funded at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) Division of Fuel Cycle and Production (NFCP). Under the Transuranic Waste Research and Development Program, continued studies have shown the potential attractiveness of fiber drums as an acceptable substitute for the current mild steel storage containers. Various fire retardants have been evaluated, with one indicating significant ability to inhibit fire propagation. Continued radiolysis studies, under laboratory and field conditions, continue to reaffirm earlier LASL results indicating no significant hazard from radiolytic reactions, assuming no change in current allowable loadings. Care must be exercised to differentiate between radiolytic and chemical reactions. Other efforts have identified a modification of chemical processing to reduce the amounts of plutonium requiring retrievable storage. Studies are also in progress to enhance the sensitivity of the LASL MEGAS assay system. The Transuranic-Contaminated Solid Waste Treatment Development Facility building was 72 percent complete as of December 31, 1975, which is in accord with the existing schedule. Procurement of process components is also on schedule. Certain modifications to the facility have been made, and various pre-facility experiments on waste container handling and processing have been completed. The program for the Evaluation of Transuranic-Contaminated Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas continued development of various computer modules for simulation of radionuclide transport within the biosphere. In addition, program staff contributed to an ERDA document on radioactive waste management through the preparation of a report on burial of radioactive waste at ERDA-contractor and commercial sites

  5. Transuranic solid waste management programs. Progress report, July--December 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    Progress is reported for three transuranic solid waste management programs funded at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) Division of Fuel Cycle and Production (NFCP). Under the Transuranic Waste Research and Development Program, continued studies have shown the potential attractiveness of fiber drums as an acceptable substitute for the current mild steel storage containers. Various fire retardants have been evaluated, with one indicating significant ability to inhibit fire propagation. Continued radiolysis studies, under laboratory and field conditions, continue to reaffirm earlier LASL results indicating no significant hazard from radiolytic reactions, assuming no change in current allowable loadings. Care must be exercised to differentiate between radiolytic and chemical reactions. Other efforts have identified a modification of chemical processing to reduce the amounts of plutonium requiring retrievable storage. Studies are also in progress to enhance the sensitivity of the LASL MEGAS assay system. The Transuranic-Contaminated Solid Waste Treatment Development Facility building was 72 percent complete as of December 31, 1975, which is in accord with the existing schedule. Procurement of process components is also on schedule. Certain modifications to the facility have been made, and various pre-facility experiments on waste container handling and processing have been completed. The program for the Evaluation of Transuranic-Contaminated Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas continued development of various computer modules for simulation of radionuclide transport within the biosphere. In addition, program staff contributed to an ERDA document on radioactive waste management through the preparation of a report on burial of radioactive waste at ERDA-contractor and commercial sites.

  6. Long-lived legacy: Managing high-level and transuranic waste at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The document focuses on high-level and transuranic waste at the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Reviews some of the critical areas and aspects of the DOE waste problem in order to provide data and further analysis of important issues. Partial contents, High-Level Waste Management at the DOE Weapons Complex, are as follows: High-Level Waste Management: Present and Planned; Amount and Distribution; Current and Potential Problems; Vitrification; Calcination; Alternative Waste Forms for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Technologies for Pretreatment of High-Level Waste; Waste Minimization; Regulatory Framework; Definition of High-Level Waste; Repository Delays and Contingency Planning; Urgency of High-Level Tank Waste Treatment; Technologies for High-Level Waste Treatment; Rethinking the Waste Form and Package; Waste Form for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Releases to the Atmosphere; Future of the PUREX Plant at Hanford; Waste Minimization; Tritium Production; International Cooperation; Scenarios for Future HLW Production. Partial contents of Chapter 2, Managing Transuranic Waste at the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex, are as follows: Transuranic Waste at Department of Energy Sites; Amount and Distribution; Waste Management: Present and Planned; Current and Potential Problems; Three Technologies for Treating Retrievably Stored Transuranic Waste; In Situ Vitrification; The Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation Plan (RDDT ampersand E); Actinide Conversion (Transmutation); Waste Minimization; The Regulatory Framework; Definition of, and Standards for, Disposal of Transuranic Waste; Repository Delays; Alternative Storage and Disposal Strategies; Remediation of Buried Waste; The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; Waste Minimization; Scenarios for Future Transuranic Waste Production; Conditions of No-Migration Determination

  7. IMPROVEMENTS IN HANFORD TRANSURANIC (TRU) PROGRAM UTILIZING SYSTEMS MODELING AND ANALYSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UYTIOCO EM

    2007-01-01

    Hanford's Transuranic (TRU) Program is responsible for certifying contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and shipping the certified waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Hanford's CH TRU waste includes material that is in retrievable storage as well as above ground storage, and newly generated waste. Certifying a typical container entails retrieving and then characterizing it (Real-Time Radiography, Non-Destructive Assay, and Head Space Gas Sampling), validating records (data review and reconciliation), and designating the container for a payload. The certified payload is then shipped to WIPP. Systems modeling and analysis techniques were applied to Hanford's TRU Program to help streamline the certification process and increase shipping rates

  8. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Materials and Fuels Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Debris Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Grant; P. J. Crane; S. Butler; M. A. Henry

    2010-02-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes the information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of transuranic (TRU) waste between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP). The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and the applicable portion of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and treatment of TRU debris waste in AMWTP. This report has been prepared for contact-handled TRU debris waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at MFC. The TRU debris waste will be shipped to AMWTP for purposes of supercompaction. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU debris waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for waste originating from MFC.

  9. Research and development program for transuranic-contaminated waste within the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    This overview examines the research and development program that has been established within the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) to develop the technology to treat transuranic-contaminated waste. Also considered is the waste expected within the total nuclear fuel cycle

  10. Incinerator development program for processing transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1981, two short-term tests were conducted on a controlled air and a rotary kiln incinerator to assess their potential for processing transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The primary purpose of the test program was a proof-of-principle verification that the incinerators could achieve near-complete combustion of the combustible portion of the waste, while mixed with high percentages of noncombustible and metal waste materials. Other important test objectives were to obtain system design information including off-gas and end-product characteristics and incinerator operating parameters. Approximately 7200 kg of simulated (non-TRU) waste from the INEL were processed during the two tests

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste characterization and certification program - an overview of capabilities and capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, P.S.Z.; Sinkule, B.J.; Janecky, D.R.; Gavett, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has full capability to characterize transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for its projected opening. LANL TRU waste management operations also include facilities to repackage both drums of waste found not to be certifiable for WIPP and oversized boxes of waste that must be size reduced for shipment to WIPP. All characterization activities and repackaging are carried out under a quality assurance program designed to meet Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) requirements. The flow of waste containers through characterization operations, the facilities used for characterization, and the electronic data management system used for data package preparation and certification of TRU waste at LANL are described

  12. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) transuranic performance demonstration program sample packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccoy, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Transuranic Performance Demonstration Program (TPDP) sample packaging is used to transport highway route controlled quantities of weapons grade (WG) plutonium samples from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility and back. The purpose of these shipments is to test the nondestructive assay equipment in the WRAP facility as part of the Nondestructive Waste Assay PDP. The PDP is part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National TRU Program managed by the U. S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Details of this program are found in CAO-94-1045, Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program (CAO 1994); INEL-96/0129, Design of Benign Matrix Drums for the Non-Destructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996a); and INEL-96/0245, Design of Phase 1 Radioactive Working Reference Materials for the Nondestructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996b). Other program documentation is maintained by the national TRU program and each DOE site participating in the program. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the TRU PDP sample packaging meets the onsite transportation safety requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for an onsite Transportation Hazard Indicator (THI) 2 packaging. This SARP, however, does not include evaluation of any operations within the PFP or WRAP facilities, including handling, maintenance, storage, or operating requirements, except as they apply directly to transportation between the gate of PFP and the gate of the WRAP facility. All other activities are subject to the requirements of the facility safety analysis reports (FSAR) of the PFP or WRAP facility and requirements of the PDP

  13. Trasax '90: An integrated transportation emergency response exercise program involving transuranic waste shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, S.; Everitt, J.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and several states and numerous local governments have been preparing for the transportation of transuranic (TRU) waste to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, near Carlsbad. Seven western states, represented by the Western Governors' Association (WGA), submitted a report to the US Congress that discussed the concerns of their constituents related to the transportation of TRU waste through their communities. One of the three major concerns identified was emergency preparedness. Initial funding to resolve concerns identified in the WGA report to Congress was provided by the US Department of Transportation. Upon receiving funding, lead states were assigned responsibilities to devise programs aimed at increasing public confidence in the areas of most concern. The responsibility for emergency response readiness, as demonstrated through a program of training and responding to simulated accident scenarios, was accepted by the state of Colorado. The state of Colorado laid out an exercise program which expanded upon the DOE training programs already offered to emergency responders along Colorado's designated TRU-waste transportation corridor. The ongoing program included a full-scale field exercise staged in Colorado Springs and dubbed, ''TRANSAX '90.''

  14. Mobile/Modular Deployment Project-Enhancing Efficiencies within the National Transuranic Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Basabilvazo, G.B.; Countiss, S.; Moody, D.C.; Behrens, R.G.; Lott, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, the National Transuranic (TRU) Waste Program (NTP) achieved two significant milestones. First, the Waste Isolation Plant (WIPP) opened in March for the permanent disposal of TRU waste generated by, and temporarily stored at, various sites supporting the nation's defense programs. Second, the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, issued by the New Mexico Environment Department, for WIPP became effective in November. While the opening of WIPP brought to closure a number of scientific, engineering, regulatory, and political challenges, achieving this major milestone led to a new set of challenges-how to achieve the Department of Energy's (DOE's) NTP end-state vision: All TRU waste from DOE sites scheduled for closure is removed All legacy TRU waste from DOE sites with an ongoing nuclear mission is disposed 0 All newly generated TRU waste is disposed as it is generated The goal is to operate the national TRU waste program safely, cost effectively, in compliance with applicable regulations and agreements, and at full capacity in a fully integrated mode. The existing schedule for TRU waste disposition would achieve the NTP vision in 2034 at an estimated life-cycle cost of $16B. The DOE's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) seeks to achieve this vision early-by at least 10 years- while saving the nation an estimated $48 to $6B. CBFO's approach is to optimize, or to make as functional as possible, TRU waste disposition. That is, to remove barriers that impede waste disposition, and increase the rate and cost efficiency of waste disposal at WIPP, while maintaining safety. The Mobile/Modular Deployment Project (MMDP) is the principal vehicle for implementing DOE's new commercial model of using best business practices of national authorization basis, standardization, and economies of scale to accelerate the completion of WIPP's mission. The MMDP is one of the cornerstones of the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project (1). The objective of the MMDP is to increase TRU

  15. Annual technology assessment and progress report for the Buried Transuranic Waste Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, J.O.

    1985-12-01

    An improved-confinement technology as applied to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) shallow-land-buried transuranic (TRU) waste is being investigated. An improved-confinement technology, in situ grouting, is being demonstrated in a 2-year engineering feasibility test at the INEL. Grout formulation and development were completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee to support the in situ grouting test. Three grout formulations have been adapted to the arid, unsaturated soil conditions at the INEL: ordinary particulate grout; microfine penetration grout; soil grout. Three test trenches were constructed north of the INEL's Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Nonradioactive waste forms closely resembling TRU waste buried at the INEL have been fabricated and are ready for emplacement into these test trenches. A literature search for a simulated (analog) TRU tracer was completed as well as a chemical characterization of the INEL soil. Data developed from the chemistry characterization and literature search have been inputed into the selection and laboratory testing of the TRU analog tracers. Simulated TRU tracers will be loaded into waste forms prior to emplacement into the test trenches. Test trench data acquisition instrumentation will be installed during waste form emplacement. Instrumentation will monitor for moisture movement and tracer detection. Plans for test completion in FY-1986 are also shown. Various buried waste improved-confinement technologies performed by other Department of Energy sites were assessed for applicability to the INEL buried TRU waste. Primary demonstrations were performed at the Hanford site in Washington and at ORNL. This report also includes information on accomplishments of related activities at the INEL such as the program for Environmental Surveillance of the Radioactive Waste Management complex as well as the Subsurface Migration Studies. 18 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs

  16. Buried Transuranic Waste Studies Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Annual technology assessment and progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, J.O.; Allman, D.W.; Shaw, P.G.; Sill, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    In-situ grouting, an improved-confinement technology that could be applied to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) shallow-land-buried transuranic (TRU) waste, is being investigated by EG and G Idaho, Inc. In situ grouting has been demonstrated as the culmination of a two-year engineering feasibility test at the INEL. In situ stabilization and hydrologic isolation of a simulated buried TRU waste trench at an arid site were performed using an experimental dynamic compaction in situ grouting process developed by Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO). A series of laboratory evaluations relative to the grout permeation characteristics of microfine particulate cements with INEL-type soil was performed prior to the grouting operations. In addition, an extensive pre-grouting hydrologic assessment of the test trench was performed to support the performance assessment analysis. Laboratory testing of various chemical materials yielded a suitable hydrologic tracer for use in the hydrologic monitoring phase of the experiment. Various plutonium transport laboratory evaluations were performed to assess the plutonium retention capabilities of a microfine grout/INEL-soil waste product similar to that expected to result if the grout is injected in situ into the INEL test trench. The test trench will be hydrologically assessed in FY 1987 to determine if the RHO grouting system attained the performance acceptance criteria of the experiment. The report includes a technology assessment of buried waste technologies developed by other DOE sites. Field demonstrations at ORNL and Hanford are reported under this technology assessment. Also included is information on activities related to buried waste management at the INEL. These include environmental surveillance of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex and the Subsurface Migration Studies Program

  17. IMPROVEMENTS IN CONTAINER MANAGEMENT OF TRANSURANIC (TRU) AND LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORED AT THE CENTRAL WASTE COMPLEX (CWC) AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UYTIOCO EM

    2007-01-01

    The Central Waste Complex (CWC) is the interim storage facility for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) mixed waste, transuranic waste, transuranic mixed waste, low-level and low-level mixed radioactive waste at the Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Hanford Site. The majority of the waste stored at the facility is retrieved from the low-level burial grounds in the 200 West Area at the Site, with minor quantities of newly generated waste from on-site and off-site waste generators. The CWC comprises 18 storage buildings that house 13,000 containers. Each waste container within the facility is scanned into its location by building, module, tier and position and the information is stored in a site-wide database. As waste is retrieved from the burial grounds, a preliminary non-destructive assay is performed to determine if the waste is transuranic (TRU) or low-level waste (LLW) and subsequently shipped to the CWC. In general, the TRU and LLW waste containers are stored in separate locations within the CWC, but the final disposition of each waste container is not known upon receipt. The final disposition of each waste container is determined by the appropriate program as process knowledge is applied and characterization data becomes available. Waste containers are stored within the CWC based on their physical chemical and radiological hazards. Further segregation within each building is done by container size (55-gallon, 85-gallon, Standard Waste Box) and waste stream. Due to this waste storage scheme, assembling waste containers for shipment out of the CWC has been time consuming and labor intensive. Qualitatively, the ratio of containers moved to containers in the outgoing shipment has been excessively high, which correlates to additional worker exposure, shipment delays, and operational inefficiencies. These inefficiencies impacted the LLW Program's ability to meet commitments established by the Tri-Party Agreement, an agreement between the State of Washington

  18. Mobile/portable transuranic waste characterization systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a model for their use complex-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, E.D.; Harper, J.R.; Zygmunt, S.J.; Taggart, D.P.; Betts, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has implemented mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems to characterize transuranic (TRU) waste in storage for ultimate shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. These mobile systems are being used to characterize and repackage waste to meet the full requirements of the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the WIPP Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems are being used to supplement the capabilities and throughputs of existing facilities. Utilization of mobile systems is a key factor that is enabling LANL to (1) reduce its TRU waste work-off schedule from 36 years to 8.5 years; (2) eliminate the need to construct a $70M+ TRU waste characterization facility; (3) have waste certified for shipment to WIPP when WIPP opens; (4) continue to ship TRU waste to WIPP at the rate of 5000 drums per year; and (5) reduce overall costs by more than $200M. Aggressive implementation of mobile and portable systems throughout the Department of Energy complex through a centralized-distributed services model will result in similar advantages complex-wide

  19. Transuranic elements and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1974-01-01

    The contamination of oceans and marine life by transuranic elements (elements of atomic number greater than 92) is the main concern of this paper. Wastes of three different types, low-level, intermediate-level, and high-level, are considered. Fallout of Pu and other transuranics is discussed as it affects marine biogeochemistry and geochemistry. Different paths of absorption or uptake under various conditions of release are pointed out in some detail. The transfer of radioactivity to mammals from marine sources is considered in some detail. Waste disposal practices at Windscale are reviewed. It is concluded that the problems associated with transuranic wastes in oceans and marine life are very complex. Monitoring of waste release and uptake is concluded to not be enough. Each situation of release of transuranics to the environment should be treated as an experiment and milked for all the information that it can reveal. The tremendous expenditure of money and manpower necessary for such an undertaking is stressed

  20. Transuranic Behavior in Soils and Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; Rogers, J.E.; McFadden, K.M.; McNair, V.M.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of these investigations are to determine (1) the potential for alteration of transuranic solubility through formation of transuranic complexes in soil and the role of the soil microflora in this process, (2) the extent of uptake nd translocation by plants and the sites of plant deposition of transuranics or their complexes, (3) the bond types and chemical forms of transuranics or their metabolites in microbes, plant tissues and soils, (4) the influence of soil properties, environmental conditions and cropping on these processes, and (5) the retention of airborne pollutants by plant foliage and their subsequent absorption by leaves and transport to seeds and roots

  1. Supplement analysis of transuranic waste characterization and repackaging activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This supplement analysis has been prepared to describe new information relevant to waste retrieval, handling, and characterization at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and to evaluate the need for additional documentation to satisfy the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The INEL proposes to characterize and repackage contact-handled transuranic waste to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Test Phase. Waste retrieval, handling and processing activities in support of test phase activities at the WIPP were addressed in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the WIPP. To ensure that test-phase wastes are properly characterized and packaged, waste containers would be retrieved, nondestructively examined, and transported from the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) to the Hot-Fuel Examination Facility for headspace gas analysis, visual inspections to verify content code, and waste acceptance criteria compliance, then repackaging into WIPP experimental test bins or returned to drums. Following repackaging the characterized wastes would be returned to the RWMC. Waste characterization would help DOE determine WIPP compliance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulations governing disposal of transuranic waste and hazardous waste. Additionally, this program supports onsite compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, compliance with the terms of the No-Migration Variance at WIPP, and provides data to support future waste shipments to WIPP. This analysis will help DOE determine whether there have been substantial changes made to the proposed action at the INEL, or if preparation of a supplement to the WIPP Final Environmental Impact Statement (DOE, 1980) and SEIS (DOE, 1990a) is required. This analysis is based on current information and includes details not available to the SEIS

  2. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - HANDSS-55 TRANSURANIC WASTE REPACKAGING MODULE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Transuranic waste generated at the Savannah River Site from nuclear weapons research, development, and production is currently estimated to be over 10,000 cubic meters. Over half of this amount is stored in 55-gallon drums. The waste in drums is primarily job control waste and equipment generated as the result of routine maintenance performed on the plutonium processing operations. Over the years that the drums have been accumulating, the regulatory definitions of materials approved for disposal have changed. Consequently, many of the drums now contain items that are not approved for disposal at DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The HANDSS-55 technology is being developed to allow remote sorting of the items in these drums and then repackaging of the compliant items for disposal at WIPP

  3. Stored Transuranic Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1970, INEL has provided interim storage capacity for transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes generated by activities supporting US national defense needs. About 60% of the nation's current inventory of TRU-contaminated waste is stored at INEL, awaiting opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the designated federal repository. A number of activities are currently underway for enhancing current management capabilities, conducting projects that support local and national TRU management activities, and preparing for production-level waste retrieval, characterization, examination, certification, and shipment of untreated TRU waste to WIPP in April 1998. Implementation of treatment capability is planned in 2003 to achieve disposal of all stored TRU-contaminated waste by a target date of December 31, 2015, but no later than December 31, 2018

  4. Processing and certification of defense transuranic waste at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Cargo, C.H.; McKinley, K.B.; Smith, T.H.; Anderson, B.C.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1970, defense-generated transuranic waste has been placed into 20-year retrievable storage at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A major objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is to remove all retrievably stored transuranic waste form the INEL. To support this objective, the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) and the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) are currently being constructed. SWEPP will certify waste, using nondestructive examination techniques, for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). PREPP will process uncertifiable waste into a certifiable waste form. 3 references

  5. Contact-handled transuranic transportation system structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Sutherland, S.H.; Duffey, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT) is a Type B overpack being developed for contact-handled transuranic waste. End-on, side-on, and corner impacts of the loaded TRUPACT due to a 9 m drop onto an unyielding surface have been analyzed. In each case the analyses progressed from simplified hand approaches to successively more complex finite element calculations. The first analysis of each series represents the hand calculations which were carried out to obtain initial thicknesses of foam. The remaining analyses were performed using the dynamic and nonlinear analysis capabilities of ADINA, a structural analysis finite element computer program

  6. Complexation of transuranic elements: a look at factors which may enhance their biological availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles produce long-lived α-emitting isotopes of the actinides. Many of these are isotopes of man-made elements for which there are no data on their long-term environmental behaviour. Their radio-toxic properties are sufficient to warrant concern about their behaviour in the environment. It is possible from the migration of some of the naturally occurring actinides to make some predictions as to the behaviour of the man-made actinides in the environment. Identified are complexing agents which may facilitate enhanced transport of actinides from soil into plants and also across the mammalian gut wall. (author)

  7. Transuranic solid waste management research programs. Progress report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    Tests continued to evaluate less costly fiber drums as alternate storage containers for low-level wastes. Tests completed to date indicated that the factory-applied fire retardants were not satisfactory; however, investigations of more promising coatings have been undertaken. The fiber drums were more satisfactory in other aspects. Expanded laboratory and field radiolysis experiments were performed. These were accompanied by investigations of H 2 diffusion through common waste packaging materials and through Los Alamos soil. Radiolysis studies were also initiated on wastes typical of Mound Laboratory. All results to date show that while H 2 is being slowly generated, the quantities are not excessive and should diffuse rapidly away. Construction of the TDF facility began and was 14 percent complete at the end of this reporting period. The incinerator was received, installed and checked out, and is operational. Additional specifications were developed and equipment procurement continued. Progress is reported on development of a system for evaluating radioactively contaminated solid waste burial sites. Source term data are summarized for some Los Alamos areas along with waste composition and configuration considerations. Physical and biotic transport pathways are discussed and development of modeling methods for projecting the environmental fate of transuranic materials is detailed

  8. Transuranic solid waste management research programs. Progress report, January--June 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    Tests continued to evaluate less costly fiber drums as alternate storage containers for low-level wastes. Tests completed to date indicated that the factory-applied fire retardants were not satisfactory; however, investigations of more promising coatings have been undertaken. The fiber drums were more satisfactory in other aspects. Expanded laboratory and field radiolysis experiments were performed. These were accompanied by investigations of H/sub 2/ diffusion through common waste packaging materials and through Los Alamos soil. Radiolysis studies were also initiated on wastes typical of Mound Laboratory. All results to date show that while H/sub 2/ is being slowly generated, the quantities are not excessive and should diffuse rapidly away. Construction of the TDF facility began and was 14 percent complete at the end of this reporting period. The incinerator was received, installed and checked out, and is operational. Additional specifications were developed and equipment procurement continued. Progress is reported on development of a system for evaluating radioactively contaminated solid waste burial sites. Source term data are summarized for some Los Alamos areas along with waste composition and configuration considerations. Physical and biotic transport pathways are discussed and development of modeling methods for projecting the environmental fate of transuranic materials is detailed.

  9. Investigations of the uptake of transuranic radionuclides by humic and fulvic acids chemically immobilized on silica gel and their competitive release by complexing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.; Szabo, G.; Clayton, R.F.; Clayton, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The chemistry of the interactions of transuranic elements (TUs) with humic substances needs to be understood so that humate-mediated movement of transuranic radionuclides through the environment can be predicted. This paper reports the chemical immobilization on silica gel of humic and fulvic acids and evaluates the potential of these new materials for the retention of Pu and Am. In addition to the preparation of the foregoing immobilized humic substances, other low molecular weight metal-binding ligands have also been immobilized on silica gel to investigate the binding sites for transuranic elements (TUs) in humic substances. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of Th(IV) complexed by humic acid and the immobilized humic acid are similar thus it appears that immobilization of humic acid does not generate any configurational changes in the Th(IV)-binding sites of the macromolecule. A variety of chelating agents partly mobilize these TUs sorbed on the solid phases. A batch method was used to determine the distribution coefficients (R d ) of Pu and Am between the silica gels and aqueous solutions of phosphate and citrate. The effects of the immobilized ligands, the anions and pH in the solution on sorption were assessed. Distributed coefficients (R d ) for the uptake of Pu and Am by these prepared solid phases are, in some cases, of a similar order of magnitude as those determined for soil and particles suspended in terrestrial surface waters

  10. Annual technology assessment and progress report for the Buried Transuranic Waste Studies Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Low, J.O.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents FY-87 activities for the Buried Transuranic (TRU) Waste Studies Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This program investigates techniques to provide long-term confinement of buried TRU waste, as well as methods of retrieval. The confinement method of in situ grouting was examined in a simulated shallow-land buried TRU waste pit constructed adjacent to the RWMC TRU waste burial pits. The in situ grouting technique involved an experimental dyanmic compaction process which simultaneously grouts and compacts the waste. The simulated waste pit consisted of regions of randomly dumped drums, stacked boxes, and stacked drums, thus representing the various conditions of buried waste at the RWMC. Simulated waste and airborne tracers were loaded into the various simulated buried waste containers. Pregrouting and post-grouting data, such as hydraulic conductivity, were obtained to assess the hydrological integrity of the grouted waste material. In addition, post-grouting destructive examinations were performed and the results analyzed. Retrieval and processing of the TRU buried waste is also being examined at the INEL. At a conceptual level, retrieval of TRU buried waste involves a movable containment building to confine airborne particulate, heavy equipment to remove the waste, processing equipment, and equipment to control the air quality within the building. Studies were performed in FY-87 to identify containment building requirements such as type, mobility, and ventilation. An experimental program to demonstrate the retrieval technique using existing INEL heavy equipment has also been identified. 11 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs

  11. A brief analysis and description of transuranic wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

    1991-08-01

    This document presents a brief summary of the wastes and waste types disposed of in the transuranic contaminated portions of the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from 1954 through 1970. Wastes included in this summary are organics, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, and atypical wastes. In addition to summarizing amounts of wastes disposed and describing the wastes, the document also provides information on disposal pit and trench dimensions and contaminated soil volumes. The report also points out discrepancies that exist in available documentation regarding waste and soil volumes and make recommendations for future efforts at waste characterization. 19 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  12. A brief analysis and description of transuranic wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

    1991-08-01

    This document presents a brief summary of the wastes and waste types disposed of in the transuranic contaminated portions of the Subsurface Disposal Area of the radioactive waste management complex at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from 1954 through 1970. Wastes included in this summary are organics, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, and atypical wastes. In addition to summarizing amounts of wastes disposed and describing the wastes, the document also provides information on disposal pit and trench dimensions and contaminated soil volumes. The report also points out discrepancies that exist in available documentation regarding waste and soil volumes and make recommendations for future efforts at waste characterization. 19 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. BRAND program complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsenko, A.A.; Androsenko, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the structure, input procedure and recording rules of initial data for the BRAND programme complex intended for the Monte Carlo simulation of neutron physics experiments. The BRAND complex ideology is based on non-analogous simulation of the neutron and photon transport process (statistic weights are used, absorption and escape of particles from the considered region is taken into account, shifted readouts from a coordinate part of transition nucleus density are applied, local estimations, etc. are used). The preparation of initial data for three sections is described in detail: general information for Monte Carlo calculation, source definition and data for describing the geometry of the system. The complex is to be processed with the BESM-6 computer, the basic programming lan-- guage is FORTRAN, volume - more than 8000 operators

  14. Analogs for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental approach is being used to estimate the long-term environmental and biogeochemical behaviors of selected transuranic elements. The objective of this research is to estimate the effect that long-term (hundreds of years) environmental weathering has on the behavior of the transuranic elements americium and curium. This is achieved by investigating the actual behavior of naturally occurring rare earth elements, especially neodymium, that serve as transuranic analogs. Determination of the analog element behavior provides data that can be used to estimate the ultimate availability to man of transuranic materials released into the environment

  15. Long-term management plan INEL transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, J.D.

    1978-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory stores large quantities of transuranic-contaminated waste at its Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This report presents a 10-year plan for management of this transuranic waste and includes descriptions of projects involving nuclear waste storage, retrieval, processing, systems analysis, and environmental science. Detailed project schedules and work breakdown charts are provided to give the reader a clear view of transuranic waste management objectives

  16. Implementation plans for buried transuranic waste and stored special-case waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, M.G.; Rodriguez, R.R.

    1987-05-01

    This document presents the current implementation plans for buried transuranic waste and stored special-case waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information contained in this report was also included in several Department of Energy (DOE) planning documents for the Defense Transuranic Waste Program. This information can be found in the following DOE documents: Comprehensive Implementation Plan for the DOE Defense Buried TRU Waste Program; Defense Waste Management Plan for Buried Transuranic-Contaminated Waste, Transuranic-Contaminated Waste, Transuranic-Contaminated Soil, and Difficult-to-Certify Transuranic Waste; and Defense Special-Case Transuranic Waste Implementation Plan. 11 refs

  17. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP

  18. 2. Transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of sample collection, sample storage, sample procedures and radioanalytical procedures for transuranic elements in marine environment are reviewed and recommended. Alpha spectrometry and scintillation techniques are used for measurement of isotopic content. Separation processes for samples are described

  19. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  20. Accident analysis for transuranic waste management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabelssi, B.; Mueller, C.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Tompkins, M.; Jackson, R.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary accident analyses and radiological source term evaluations have been conducted for transuranic waste (TRUW) as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) effort to manage storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes at its various sites. The approach to assessing radiological releases from facility accidents was developed in support of the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). The methodology developed in this work is in accordance with the latest DOE guidelines, which consider the spectrum of possible accident scenarios in the implementation of various actions evaluated in an EIS. The radiological releases from potential risk-dominant accidents in storage and treatment facilities considered in the EM PEIS TRUW alternatives are described in this paper. The results show that significant releases can be predicted for only the most severe and extremely improbable accidents sequences

  1. Transuranic Computational Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2018-02-26

    Recent developments in the chemistry of the transuranic elements are surveyed, with particular emphasis on computational contributions. Examples are drawn from molecular coordination and organometallic chemistry, and from the study of extended solid systems. The role of the metal valence orbitals in covalent bonding is a particular focus, especially the consequences of the stabilization of the 5f orbitals as the actinide series is traversed. The fledgling chemistry of transuranic elements in the +II oxidation state is highlighted. Throughout, the symbiotic interplay of experimental and computational studies is emphasized; the extraordinary challenges of experimental transuranic chemistry afford computational chemistry a particularly valuable role at the frontier of the periodic table. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Intercalibration of transuranic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.

    1982-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the coordinated research programme on Transuranic Cycling Behaviour in the Marine Environment has been to achieve the comparability of the measurement results among the laboratories from different countries participating in the programme. In order to fulfil this objective, the intercalibration exercises of transuranic measurements using sea water and sediment samples were organized by the Monaco Laboratory within the duration of the programme in 1979-1981. The sediment and sea water samples were collected respectively by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre of India and the Hydrographic Institute of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the present report the results of these intercalibration exercises are surveyed

  3. Plutonium and other transuranics in small vertebrates: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Moor, K.S.; Naegle, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The published data relevant to transuranics in small vertebrates inhabiting terrestrial environments is reviewed. Experimental results indicate that atomic size and valence state affect rates of absorption, transportation, and excretion of transuranics in living systems. Whereas there is a marked tendency for transuranics to hydrolyze to insoluble colloidal products at physiological pH, complexing agents and chelation enhance solubility and transportability. The natural modes of uptake of transuranics by vertebrates include absorption from the gut, the intact or damaged skin, and inhalation. Absorption from the gut into the bloodstream is very low. Potential hazards may exist if complexing or chelating agents are present, if absorption is continuous, or if exposure involves young animals. The intact skin provides an effective barrier to absorption of transuranics. Relatively high levels of absorption may occur when transuranics are administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly, particularly with increased acidity and solubility of the compounds. Inhalation is probably the most hazardous natural route of uptake. Insoluble transuranic compounds are retained in the lung and soluble compounds are transported rapidly via the blood to bone, liver, and other organs. Deposition of plutonium in mammalian gonads resulting in a decrease in spermatogenesis, ovarian damage, and reduced fecundity is documented. The current knowledge of the behavior of transuranics in terrestrial environments is limited. Plutonium and americium uptake by small mammals has been documented. Plutonium body burdens were related to depressed leukocyte count on a statistical basis. Reduced rodent populations in areas of high plutonium concentrations illustrate the problems of evaluating uptake by mobile animals

  4. Annual technology assessment and progress report for the buried transuranic waste program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berreth, P.D.

    1984-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing and implementing methods for the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of radioactive waste. In 1983, DOE formulated a comprehensive plan to manage transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The DOE plan for buried TRU waste is to monitor it, take remedial actions as necessary, and reevaluate its safety periodically. The DOE strategy reflects concern that, based on present technology, retrieval and processing of buried waste may be risky and costly. To implement the DOE plan, EG and G Idaho, Inc., prime contractor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), has developed a strategy for long-term management of the 2 million cubic feet of INEL buried TRU waste. That strategy involves four main activities: (a) environmental monitoring, (b) remedial action if necessary, (c) assimilation of data from both special studies and ongoing waste management activities, and (d) selection of a long-term management alternative in 1995. This report, submitted as the first in a series of annual reports, summarizes the buried TRU waste activities performed in fiscal year (FY) 1984 at the INEL in response to the DOE plan. Specifically, technologies applicable to buried waste confinement, retrieval, certification, and processing have been assessed, a long-range plan to conduct buried wasted studies over the next ten years has been prepared, and retrieval and soil management alternatives have been evaluated. 17 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  5. Planning a transportation system for US Defense Transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, K.V.; Hurley, J.D.; Smith, L.J.; McFadden, M.H.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Fedie, M.L.

    1983-05-01

    The development and planning of a transportation system for US Department of Energy (USDOE) Defense Transuranic (TRU) waste has required the talents and expertise of many people. Coordination activities, design activities, fabrication, research and development, operations, and transportation are but a few of the areas around which this system is built. Due to the large number of organizations, regulations and personalities the planning task becomes extremely complex. The intent of this paper is to discuss the steps taken in planning this system, to identify the various organizations around which this system is designed, and to discuss program progress to date, scheduling, and future plans. 9 figures, 1 table

  6. Planning a transportation system for US defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, K.V.; Hurley, J.D.; Smith, L.J.; McFadden, M.H.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Fedie, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The development and planning of a transportation system for US Department of Energy (USDOE) Defense Transuranic (TRU) waste has required the talents and expertise of many people. Coordination activities, design activities, fabrication, research and development, operations, and transportation are but a few of the areas around which this system is built. Due to the large number of organizations, regulations and personalities the planning task becomes extremely complex. The intent of this paper is to discuss the steps taken in planning this system, to identify the various organizations around which this system is designed, and to discuss program progress to date, scheduling, and future plans

  7. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory's many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory's boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department

  8. Hanford site transuranic waste sampling plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling plan (SP) describes the selection of containers for sampling of homogeneous solids and soil/gravel and for visual examination of transuranic and mixed transuranic (collectively referred to as TRU) waste generated at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The activities described in this SP will be conducted under the Hanford Site TRU Waste Certification Program. This SP is designed to meet the requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) (DOE 1996a) (QAPP), site-specific implementation of which is described in the Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Characterization Program Quality Assurance Project Plan (HNF-2599) (Hanford 1998b) (QAPP). The QAPP defines the quality assurance (QA) requirements and protocols for TRU waste characterization activities at the Hanford Site. In addition, the QAPP identifies responsible organizations, describes required program activities, outlines sampling and analysis strategies, and identifies procedures for characterization activities. The QAPP identifies specific requirements for TRU waste sampling plans. Table 1-1 presents these requirements and indicates sections in this SP where these requirements are addressed

  9. Overall strategy and program plan for management of radioactively contaminated liquid wastes and transuranic sludges at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, L.E.; Berry, J.B.; Butterworth, G.E. III; Collins, E.D.; Monk, T.H.; Patton, B.D.; Snider, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    The use of hydrofracture was terminated after 1984, and LW concentrate has been accumulated and stored since that time. Currently, the volume of stored LW concentrate is near the safe fill limit for the 11 storage tanks in the active LW system, and significant operational constraints are being experienced. The tanks that provide the storage capacity of the active LW system contain significant volumes of TRU sludges that have been designated remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes because of associated quantities of other radioisotopes, including 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Thirty-three additional tanks, which are inactive, also contain significant volumes of TRU waste and radioactive LW. A lack of adequate storage volume for LW jeopardizes ORNL's ability to ensure continued conduct of research and development (RandD) activities that generate LW because an unexpected operational incident could quickly deplete the remaining storage volume. Accordingly, a planning team comprised of staff members from the ORNL Nuclear and Chemical Waste Programs (NCWP) was created for developing recommended actions to be taken for management of LW. A program plan is presented which outlines work required for the development of a disposal method for each of the likely future waste streams associated with LW management and the disposal of the bulk of the resulting solid waste on the ORR. 8 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Chemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    The chemical behaviour of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems is governed by a variety of geochemical reactions, such as dissolution reaction (solubility), hydrolysis, complexation with inorganics or organics, redox reaction, colloid formation, geochemical interaction with surfaces of various minerals, coprecipitation, mineralisation etc. This paper reviews the present state of knowledge on some of these particular reactions. The emphasis is placed on how the individual reactions can be appraised for the long-term prediction of the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the natural environment. Of the various reactions, the primary thermodynamic processes of dissolution of transuranic compounds in aquatic solution, complexation with important anions present in groundwater and colloid generation are discussed with notable examples. Various laser spectroscopy in use for the chemical speciation are mentioned briefly as for their spectroscopic capability as well as applicability. The present review discussion is primarily directed to a better understanding of the migration behaviour of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems. (author) 100 refs

  11. Transuranic elements in terrestrial animals and the environment: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    This discussion provides background information to the session on the ''Transuranic Elements in Terrestrial Animals.'' Briefly outlined are some of the historical events leading to the introduction and dispersion of the transuranic elements into the biosphere, to the establishment of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG), and to the studies conducted by the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory (EMSL-LV) and the University of Nevada-Las Vegas involving the transuranics distributed by the ''safety shots'' and the nuclear weapons testing program at the Nevada Test Site and the Tonopah Test Range. These studies are described in relation to the overall objectives of the NAEG program. Other potential sources of the transuranic radionuclides are also discussed

  12. A brief analysis and description of transuranic wastes in the subsurface disposal area of the radioactive waste management complex at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

    1991-02-01

    This document presents a brief summary of the wastes and waste types disposed of in the transuranic contaminated portions of the Subsurface Disposal Area during the period 1954 through 1970. Wastes included in this summary are organics, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, and special-case wastes. In addition to summarizing amounts of wastes disposed and describing the wastes, the document also provides information on disposal pit and trench dimensions and contaminated soil volumes. The report also points out discrepancies that exist in available documentation regarding waste and soil volumes and makes recommendations for future efforts at waste characterization. 20 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  13. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage

  14. Product traceability and quality as applied to the united states transuranic and high-level waste repository programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.Y.; Orrell, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    As with any repository program, predictions of the performance of a site over very long time frames may often meet with skepticism from the public and decision-makers, such as regulatory and governmental agencies. Experience at the WIPP and the YMP indicate that demonstrating the defensibility of data, conceptual models, computer codes, and numerical analyses is critical. Five overarching principles have been found to be the basis of a technically and publicly acceptable repository. The principles are traceability, transparency, reproducibility, retrievability, and reviews. - Traceability allows one to understand the source and justification of data and other input that generate conclusions. - Transparency allows one to follow the logic, calculations, and other operations that produce results. - Reproducibility allows one to reconstruct the results without recourse to the originator of the information. - Retrievability allows one to retrieve documentation that demonstrate these overarching principles. - Reviews ensure that the work is technically acceptable, complete, and accurate. This paper discusses how these principles are applied to the WIPP and the YMP. By setting up quality assurance and management controls (e.g., procedures, audits, peer reviews) these principles are implemented. Without successfully applying these principles the WIPP would not have gone from research to industrial maturity. The YMP is ensuring that these are implemented for activities that support licensing. Any repository program concerned with demonstrating defensibility to the public and regulators would do well by incorporating traceability, transparency, reproducibility, retrievability, and reviews into their program. (authors)

  15. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  17. Workspace Program for Complex-Number Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, M. C.; Howell, Leonard W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    COMPLEX is workspace program designed to empower APL with complexnumber capabilities. Complex-variable methods provide analytical tools invaluable for applications in mathematics, science, and engineering. COMPLEX written in APL.

  18. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Qualit Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP)

  19. Mobile/portable transuranic waste characterization systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a model for their use complex-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, E.D.; Harper, J.R.; Zygmunt, S.J.; Taggart, D.P.; Betts, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has implemented mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems to characterize TRU waste in storage for ultimate shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. These mobile systems are being used to characterize and repackage waste to meet the full requirements of the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the WIPP Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems are being used to supplement the capabilities and throughputs of existing facilities. Utilization of mobile systems is a key factor that is enabling LANL to: (1) reduce its TRU waste work-off schedule from 36 years to 8.5 years; (2) eliminate the need to construct a $70M+ TRU waste characterization facility; (3) have waste certified for shipment to WIPP when WIPP opens; (4) continue to ship TRU waste to WIPP at the rate of 5000 drums per year; and, (5) reduce overall costs by more than $200M. Aggressive implementation of mobile and portable systems throughout the DOE complex through a centralized-distributed services model will result in similar advantages complex-wide

  20. Innovative technologies for the remediation of transuranic- contaminated landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a comprehensive research,development, demonstration, testing and evaluation program to provide innovative technology systems to achieve its environmental management responsibilities. The Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for this research in support of the Offices of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management efforts. In fiscal year (FY) 1992 the OTD established the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID). The BWID mission was to support the development of emerging technologies for their application to the remediation of DOE buried waste site. During FY95, the BWID program was transitioned into a larger program which will focus its attention to DOE Landfills and Contaminated Soils. There search and activities formerly referred to as the BWID will now be associated with the Transuranic-contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Program.(TALS). The TALS Program supports these buried waste remediation efforts by seeking out the best talent to solve the technology challenges as identified in baseline remediation strategies. Experts from throughout the DOE complex, universities, private sector, and the international community are being included in this program to solve these challenges and ensure implementation and commercialization of innovative technologies

  1. Treatment strategies for transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Ross, W.A.; Allen, R.P.; Yasutake, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of treatment options or strategies for transuranic wastes expected to be generated at a commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Six potential options were analyzed, ranging from no treatment to maximum volume reduction and high quality waste forms. Economics for the total management of these (treatment, transportation, disposal) indicate life-cycle savings for extensive treatment are as high as $1.7 billion for 70,000 MTU. Evaluations of the waste processing and waste forms support the selection of a number of the extensive waste treatments. It is concluded that there are significant incentives for extensive treatment of transuranic wastes

  2. Treatment strategies for transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Ross, W.A.; Swanson, J.L.; Allen, R.P.; Yasutake, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of treatment options or strategies for transuranic wastes expected to be generated at a commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Six potential options were analyzed, ranging from no treatment to maximum volume reduction and high quality waste forms. Economics for the total management of these wastes (treatment, transportation, disposal) indicate life-cycle savings for extensive treatment are as high as $1.7 billion for 70,000 MTU. Evaluations of the waste processing and waste forms support the selection of a number of the extensive waste treatments. It is concluded that there are significant incentives for extensive treatment of transuranic wastes

  3. The Complexity of Leveraging University Program Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Gary M.; Arnold, Noelle Witherspoon; Reed, Cynthia J.; Shoho, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies four elements of complexity that influence how university educational leadership programs can leverage program change: faculty reward systems, faculty governance, institutional resources, and state-level influence on leadership preparation. Following the discussion of the elements of complexity, the article provides a…

  4. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, W.C.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-07-01

    This report outlines the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. This document serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of transuranic wastes, waste forms, waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present NRC waste management program. No attempt is made to evaluate or analyze the suitability of one technology over another. Indeed, by the nature of this report, there is little critical evaluation or analysis of technologies because such analysis is only appropriate when evaluating a particular application or transuranic waste streams. Due to fiscal restriction, the data base is developed from a myriad of technical sources and does not necessarily contain operating experience and the current status of all technologies. Such an effort was beyond the scope of this report

  5. Transuranic waste form characterization and data base. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Transuranic Waste Form Characterization and Data Base (Volume 1) provides a wide range of information from which a comprehensive data base can be established and from which standards and criteria can be developed for the present NRC waste management program. Supplementary information on each of the areas discussed in Volume 1 is presented in Appendices A through K (Volumes 2 and 3). The structure of the study (Volume 1) is outlined and appendices of Volumes 2 and 3 correlate with each main section of the report. The Executive Summary reviews the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. Due to the variety of potential treatment processes for transuranic wastes, the end products for long-term storage may have corresponding variations in quantities and characteristics

  6. Containment of transuranic contamination at the early waste retrieval project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harness, J.L.; McKinney, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    On July 26, 1976, while retrieving buried transuranic waste under the Early Waste Retrieval Program, a corroded 55-gallon 17H drum was retrieved. When uprighted, several liters of liquid escaped from the drum. This liquid was contaminated with transuranics, principally Pu-239, Am-241, and some Pu-238. As a result of the spread of this contamination in the Operating Area Confinement, six working days were required to decontaminate the area. At no time did the contamination escape the interior of the Operating Area Confinement building, and no contamination to personnel resulted from this occurrence, nor was a hazard presented to the general public. The facility was designed and constructed to contain the transuranic contamination resulting from such an occurrence. Proper prior planning and personnel training prevented the contamination occurrence from becoming a major event. This report details the occurrence, the recovery, and the information obtained from this event

  7. Characterization of transuranic solid wastes from a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkin, R.

    1975-06-01

    Transuranic-contaminated wastes generated in the processing areas of the Plutonium Chemistry and Metallurgy Group at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) were studied in detail to identify their chemical and physical composition. Nondestructive Assay (NDA) equipment was developed to measure transuranic activity at the 10-nCi/g level in low-density residues typically found in room-generated waste. This information will supply the Waste Management Program with a more positive means of identifying concerns in waste storage and the challenge of optimizing the system of waste form, packaging, and environment of the storage area for 20-yr retrievable waste. A positive method of measuring transuranic activity in waste at the 10-nCi/g level will eliminate the need for administrative control in a sensitive area, and will provide the economic advantage of minimizing the volume of waste stored as retrievable waste. (U.S.)

  8. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, W.C.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-07-01

    This report outlines the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. This document serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of transuranic wastes, waste forms, waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present NRC waste management program. No attempt is made to evaluate or analyze the suitability of one technology over another. Indeed, by the nature of this report, there is little critical evaluation or analysis of technologies because such analysis is only appropriate when evaluating a particular application or transuranic waste streams. Due to fiscal restriction, the data base is developed from a myriad of technical sources and does not necessarily contain operating experience and the current status of all technologies. Such an effort was beyond the scope of this report.

  9. Projected transuranic waste loads requiring treatment, storage, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides information on the volume of TRU waste loads requiring treatment, storage, and disposal at DOE facilities for three siting configurations. Input consisted of updated inventory and generation data from. Waste Isolation Pilot plant Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory report. Results indicate that WIPP's design capacity is sufficient for the CH TRU waste found throughout the DOE Complex

  10. Dismantling of transuranic contaminated facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.

    1985-01-01

    The dismantling of transuranic contaminated facilities raises specific problems. A large part of these problems relates to the management of the waste resulting from dismantling. From the experience gained in the different centers CEA and COGEMA it appears that there are industrial solutions in the group CEA and that an engineering company such as SGN can export them [fr

  11. Intercomparison of transuranics in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a recent intercomparison of transuranic analyses in Nordic sediments undertaken by five laboratories. Five different samplers were tested to determine their consistency and utility. Plutonium and americium were determined in all the samples and the analysis of variance is discussed. (author)

  12. Transuranic behaviour in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    This document summarizes the following specific studies concerning the transuranic behaviour in marine environment: 1. Radionuclides in deep sea amphipods; 2. Actinides, 55 Fe and 137 Cs in N. pacific water columns; 3. Vertical profile of artificial radionuclide concentrations in the central Arctic Ocean; 4. Bioturbation and the distributions of fallout radionuclides in Pacific Ocean sediments

  13. Lagoa Real complex - implementation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The description of the activities from the Lagoa Real Complex is presented, including the development of a complementation process with available drill core samples and drilling an evaluation Cachoeira Deposit. Studies already developed indicate that Cachoeira Deposit has about 70 ton of U3O8 per meter of depth. (author)

  14. Developing an institutional strategy for transporting defense transuranic waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J.V.; Kresny, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1988, the US Department of Energy (DOE) expects to begin emplacing transuranic waste materials in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), an R and D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense program activities. Transuranic wastes are production-related materials, e.g., clothes, rags, tools, and similar items. These materials are contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives of > 20 yr and concentrations > 100 nCi/g. Much of the institutional groundwork has been done with local communities and the State of New Mexico on the siting and construction of the facility. A key to the success of the emplacement demonstration, however, will be a qualified transportation system together with institutional acceptance of the proposed shipments. The DOE's Defense Transuranic Waste Program, and its contractors, has lead responsibility for achieving this goal. The Joint Integration Office (JIO) of the DOE, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is taking the lead in implementing an integrated strategy for assessing nationwide institutional concerns over transportation of defense transuranic wastes and in developing ways to resolve or mitigate these concerns. Parallel prototype programs are under way to introduce both the new packaging systems and the institutional strategy to interested publics and organizations

  15. Analyses for some transuranic and natural radionuclides in the environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    There is considerable present and expected future interest in the contamination of the environment with transuranic elements, particularly plutonium and americium. In addition, the alpha-emitting natural radionuclides are the usual standard of comparison for such transuranic element contamination. The present paper reviews the quality of data available for evaluating the distribution of transuranic elements and some natural radioactive elements in the environment. The overall quality cannot be documented for most programs and the data that are available indicate that the quality is poor. The fact that a few programs maintain high quality analyses indicates that the cause is poor analytical work rather than poor methods of analysis. (author)

  16. Analog elements for transuranic chemistries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The analytical technique for measuring trace concentrations of the analog rare earth elements has been refined for optimal detection. The technique has been used to determine the rare earth concentrations in a series of geological and biological materials, including samples harvested from controlled lysimeter investigations. These studies have demonstrated that any of the trivalent rare earth elements may be used as analog elements for the trivalent transuranics, americium and curium

  17. Transuranic elements in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1975-04-01

    Transuranic elements are present in marine environments as a result of worldwide fallout, close-in fallout, the SNAP-9A burnup, pipeline disposal of reprocessing wastes, neutron capture by uranium in one-pass cooling-water reactors and the B-52 crash in Thule, Greenland. Distributions and movements of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 137 Cs from these introductions in the Atlantic Ocean are being studied partly because the transuranic elements themselves are geochemically interesting, partly because they appear to serve as tracers for specific oceanographic processes, and partly because of concern that man is faced with the problem of disposal of rapidly increasing amounts of transuranics as radioactive waste, and that we must be able, soon, to predict the fates and the effects of those amounts that reach the coastal waters or the deep oceans. Plutonium and americium are widely distributed in the oceans as a result of man's activities. Both appear to be more mobile than expected, and Pu shows little behavior in these environments that had been predicted from laboratory studies. Although their associations with biological material seem to be most striking for rooted plants or Sargassum, it is too premature to dismiss the possibility of their being a real hazard to marine life

  18. Relationship of microbial processes to the fate and behavior of transuranic elements in soils, plants, and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    Soil physicochemical and microbial processes influence the long-term solubility, form, and bioavailability of plutonium and other transuranic elements important in the nuclear fuel cycle. Consideration is given to the chemistry/microbiology of the transuranic elements in soil, emphasizing possible organic complexation reactions in soils and plants and the relationship of these phenomena to gastrointestinal absorption

  19. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John C.

    2010-03-25

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  20. Optimizing transuranic waste management-challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Wu, C.F.; Moody, D.C.; Jennings, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste in March of 1999, the granting of the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit in November 1999, and over two years of operational experience have demonstrated the Department of Energy's (DOE'S) capability in closing the nuclear energy cycle. While these achievements resolved several scientific, engineering, regulatory and political issues, the DOE has identified a new set of challenges that represent opportunities for improving programmatic efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and operational safety in managing the nation's TRU waste. The DOE has recognized that the complex administrative and regulatory requirements for characterization, transportation and disposal of TRU waste are costly (1). A review by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) states that these requirements lead to inefficient waste characterization, handling and transportation operations that in turn can lead to unnecessary radiation exposure to workers without a commensurate decrease in risk to the public and the environment (2). This paper provides an overview of the status of the WJPP repository, explains the principles of the proposed commercial business approach, and describes some of the proposed major enhancements of the TRU waste transportation systems. The DOE is developing a remote-handled (RH) waste program to enable emplacement of RH waste at WPP. This program includes appropriate facility modifications and regulatory changes (3).

  1. Hanford transuranic analytical capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    With the current DOE focus on ER/WM programs, an increase in the quantity of waste samples that requires detailed analysis is forecasted. One of the prime areas of growth is the demand for DOE environmental protocol analyses of TRU waste samples. Currently there is no laboratory capacity to support analysis of TRU waste samples in excess of 200 nCi/gm. This study recommends that an interim solution be undertaken to provide these services. By adding two glove boxes in room 11A of 222S the interim waste analytical needs can be met for a period of four to five years or until a front end facility is erected at or near the 222-S facility. The yearly average of samples is projected to be approximately 600 samples. The figure has changed significantly due to budget changes and has been downgraded from 10,000 samples to the 600 level. Until these budget and sample projection changes become firmer, a long term option is not recommended at this time. A revision to this document is recommended by March 1996 to review the long term option and sample projections

  2. Reliability evaluation methodologies for ensuring container integrity of stored transuranic (TRU) waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.L.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides methodologies for providing defensible estimates of expected transuranic waste storage container lifetimes at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. These methodologies can be used to estimate transuranic waste container reliability (for integrity and degradation) and as an analytical tool to optimize waste container integrity. Container packaging and storage configurations, which directly affect waste container integrity, are also addressed. The methodologies presented provide a means for demonstrating Resource Conservation and Recovery Act waste storage requirements

  3. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package (TRUPACT-11 SARP). In

  4. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loessner, V.

    1983-01-01

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  5. Transuranic behavior in soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; Rogers, J.E.; McFadden, K.M.; Jenne, E.A.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The principal objective of this study is to gather information about soil, plant, and foliar interaction factors that influence the availability of transuranics to agricultural plants and animals. This paper discusses plant processes which influence transport across the plant root membrane and foliar surfaces, and the form and sites of deposition of transuranic elements in mature plants

  6. Transuranic element behavior in soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The principal objective of this study is to define soil, plant, and foliar interaction processes that influence the availability of transuranic elements to agricultural plants and animals as a basis for improved modeling and dose-assessment. Major areas of emphasis are: (1) soil and soil-microbial processes that influence the concentration and form of transuranic elements in soil solutions and availability to the plant root with time; (2) deposition and plant interception of airborne submicronic particles containing transuranic elements and their susceptibility to leaching; (3) plant processes that influence transport across plant root membrane and foliar surfaces, as well as the form and sites of deposition of transuranic elements in mature plants; and (4) the integrated effect of soil and plant processes on transuranic element availability to, and form in, animals that consume plants

  7. Root uptake of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of elements by plant roots is one of the important pathways of entry of many elements into the food chain of man. Data are cited showing plutonium concentration ratios, plant/soil, ranging from 10 -10 to 10 -3 . Concentration ratios for americium range from 10 -7 to 10 +1 . Limited experiments with curium and neptunium indicate that root uptake of curium is similar to that of americium and that plant uptake of neptunium is substantially larger than that of curium and americium. The extreme ranges of concentration ratios cited for plutonium and americium are due to a number of causes. Experimental conditions such as very intensive cropping will lead to abnormally high concentration ratios. In some experiments, addition of chelating agents markedly increased plant root uptake of transuranic elements. Particle size and composition of the source material influenced uptake of the transuranics by plants. Translocation within the plant, and soil factors such as pH and organic matter content, all affect concentration ratios

  8. Design considerations for incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has established a development program to evaluate alternate production-level (100-200 lb/hr throughput) volume reduction processes for transuranic-contaminated solid waste. The first process selected for installation and study is based on controlled-air incineration. Design considerations leading to selection of feed preparation, incineration, residue removal, and off-gas cleanup components and their respective radioactive containment provisions will be presented

  9. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives.

  10. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives

  11. Transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT) system design status and operational support equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, N.W.; Meyer, R.J.; Romesberg, L.E.; Pope, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    A program was initiated in the late 1970's at Sandia National Laboratories to develop an efficient, safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation packaging system for the carriage of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. It is anticipated that eventually a family of TRUPACT (TRansUranic PACKage Transporter) systems having varied dimensions and weight/volume capacities will be needed by the DOE to transport different CH-TRU waste forms. Each TRUPACT system will be a Type B packaging. Large quantities of CH-TRU wastes having many different forms, isotopic contents, and contained in a variety of waste containers have been, are being, and will continue to be produced and stored for ultimate disposal. Packaging design is being closely coordinated with facility designs to ensure the rapid and economic integration of the TRUPACT system. The first packaging developed for transport by truck or rail (bimodal) is designated TRUPACT-I and will become operational in 1984. This paper provides an overview of progress on the TRUPACT-I design and details of equipment to be used for interfacing with users

  12. Hanford site implementation plan for buried, transuranic-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The GAO review of DOE's Defense Waste Management Plan (DWMP) identified deficiencies and provided recommendations. This report responds to the GAO recommendations with regard to the Hanford Site. Since the issuance of the DWMP, an extensive planning base has been developed for all high-level and transuranic waste at the Hanford Site. Thirty-three buried sites have been identified as possibly containing waste that can be classified as transuranic waste. Inventory reports and process flowsheets were used to provide an estimate of the radionuclide and hazardous chemical content of these sites and approximately 370 additional sites that can be classified as low-level waste. A program undertaken to characterize select sites suspected of having TRU waste to refine the inventory estimates. Further development and evaluation are ongoing to determine the appropriate remedial actions, with the objectives of balancing long-term risks with costs and complying with regulations. 18 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  13. A transuranic aerosol measurement system: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevo, C.T.; Kaifer, R.C.; Rueppel, D.W.; Delvasto, R.M.; Biermann, A.H.; Phelps, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    We have completed the design, fabrication, and assembly of a computer-based prototype system for the measurement of transuranic aerosols in the workplace and environment. This system (called WOTAMS for Workplace Transuranic Aerosol Measurement System) incorporates two detectors: (1) an in-line solid-state alpha detector that sends out an alarm the moment a transuranic release occurs, and (2) an in-vacuum detector that increases off-line-analysis sensitivity. The in-line sensitivity of the system is better than 5.0 MPC-h, and the in-vacuum sensitivity exceeds 0.5 MPC-h. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. Status of determining transuranic nuclides speciation in aqueous solution with laser spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Liu Dejun; Yao Jun; Chen Xi; Long Haoqi; Zeng Jishu; Su Xiguang; Fan Xianhua

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge about speciation of transuranic nuclides in aqueous solution is a basis for understanding the chemical and migration behavior of transuranic nuclides in aqueous solution. The speciation of transuranic nuclides with trace concentration is complicated in near neutral aqueous solutions, including change of oxidation state, complexation and colloid generation, etc. The concentrations of transuranium in near neutral aqueous solution usually below the sensitivity range of method such as conventional absorption spectroscopy. The radioactive analysis method has a very low detection limits for radionuclides, however, it wouldn' t allow the direct measurement of the transuranic species. In contrast with these methods, laser spectroscopy is an ideal method with high sensitivity, and non-contact and non-destructive for determining the speciation of transuranic nuclides. This paper summarizes the status and application of LIPAS (Laser-induced Photoacoustic Spectrometry), LIBD (Laser-induced Breakdown Detection) and TRLFS (Time-resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectrometry) to determine the speciation of transuranic nuclides with trace concentration in aqueous solutions. (authors)

  15. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP

  16. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  17. Characterization of transuranic elements at environmental levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes current understanding of transuranic speciation in natural waters. Several predictive models describing the behaviour of these elements in both marine and fresh-water systems illustrate the importance of this information. (author)

  18. Some design aspects of transuranic field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss some design aspects of transuranic field studies. Some of the principal steps in the design of such studies are given and illustrated using examples. This is followed by a review of sampling designs that have been used at nuclear detonation and safety-shot sites on the Nevada Test Site and elsewhere for estimating spatial pattern and total amounts in soil. Some design aspects of ecosystem-type transuranic studies for estimating total amounts as well as movement of transuranics between ecosystem components are also discussed. Acceptance sampling using either attributes or measurements is considered as a possible approach for deciding whether to clean up a contaminated site. Three general guidelines for the design of efficient transuranic studies are presented

  19. Transuranic contaminated waste functional definition and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the problem(s) of TRU waste classification and to document the development of an easy-to-apply standard(s) to determine whether or not this waste package should be emplaced in a geologic repository for final disposition. Transuranic wastes are especially significant because they have long half-lives and some are rather radiotoxic. Transuranic radionuclides are primarily produced by single or multiple neutron capture by U-238 in fuel elements during the operation of a nuclear reactor. Reprocessing of spent fuel elements attempts to remove plutonium, but since the separation is not complete, the resulting high-activity liquids still contain some plutonium as well as other transuranics. Likewise, transuranic contamination of low-activity wastes also occurs when the transuranic materials are handled or processed, which is primarily at federal facilities involved in R and D and nuclear weapons production. Transuranics are persistent in the environment and, as a general rule, are strongly retained by soils. They are not easily transported through most food chains, although some reconcentration does take place in the aquatic food chain. They pose no special biological hazard to humans upon ingestion because they are weakly absorbed from the gastrointestional tract. A greater hazard results from inhalation since they behave like normal dust and fractionate accordingly

  20. Certification document for newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Setaro, J.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has requested that all national laboratories handling defense waste develop and augment a program whereby all newly generated contact-handled transuranic (TRU) waste be contained, stored, and then shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in accordance with the requirements set forth in WIPP-DOE-114. The program described in this report delineates how Oak Ridge National Laboratory intends to comply with these requirements and lists the procedures used by each generator to ensure that their TRU wastes are certifiable for shipment to WIPP

  1. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    This project has two primary objectives. The first is to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at WIPP. The second primary objective is to develop a fundamental understanding of these sludge suspensions by correlating the macroscopic properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of this research effort will enhance the existing understanding of agglomeration phenomena and the properties of complex colloidal suspensions. In addition, the knowledge gained and capabilities developed during this effort will aid in the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites. These objectives will be accomplished by: (1) characterizing the TRU sludges contained in the Hanford tanks that are intended for shipment to WIPP; (2) determining the physical behavior of the Hanford TRU tank sludges under conditions that might exist during treatment and packaging; (3) and modeling the retrieval, treatment, and packaging operations that will be performed at Hanford to dispose of TRU tank sludges

  2. Materials evaluation for a transuranic processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, S.A.; Schwenk, E.B.; Divine, J.R.

    1990-11-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company, with the assistance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is developing a transuranium extraction process for preheating double-shell tank wastes at the Hanford Site to reduce the volume of transuranic waste being sent to a repository. The bench- scale transuranium extraction process development is reaching a stage where a pilot plant design has begun for the construction of a facility in the existing B Plant. Because of the potential corrosivity of neutralized cladding removal waste process streams, existing embedded piping alloys in B Plant are being evaluated and ''new'' alloys are being selected for the full-scale plant screening corrosion tests. Once the waste is acidified with HNO 3 , some of the process streams that are high in F - and low in Al and zr can produce corrosion rates exceeding 30,000 mil/yr in austenitic alloys. Initial results results are reported concerning the applicability of existing plant materials to withstand expected process solutions and conditions to help determine the feasibility of locating the plant at the selected facility. In addition, process changes are presented that should make the process solutions less corrosive to the existing materials. Experimental work confirms that Hastelloy B is unsatisfactory for the expected process solutions; type 304L, 347 and 309S stainless steels are satisfactory for service at room temperature and 60 degrees C, if process stream complexing is performed. Inconel 625 was satisfactory for all solutions. 17 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Transuranic element pathways to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    Transfer to man of transuranic element contamination may occur by the inhalation or ingestion pathways. The measurements of globally dispersed fall-out radioactivity have provided pertinent data on the environmental behaviour of plutonium. Additional data may eventually become available for americium. From the measured and inferred concentrations of fall-out plutonium, the inhalation intake has been determined and the ICRP Task Group lung model used to estimate deposition in the lung and transfer to other body organs. The computed body burden reached a maximum of 4pCi in 1964 and is currently about 2.5pCi. A complete diet sampling has been conducted to determine ingestion intake. Plutonium concentration in food ranged from 0.01pCi/kg in shellfish to undetected (less than 0.0003pCi/kg) in milk. Annual intake in total diet is estimated to have been 1.6pCi in 1972. Low uptake by the gastrointestinal tract makes contribution to organ burdens from ingestion negligible. Long-term pathway considerations include plant uptake from the cumulative deposit in soil and resuspension. Downward movement in soil may limit the significance of these long-term pathway components. (author)

  4. Hanford transuranic storage corrosion review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.; Divine, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    The rate of atmospheric corrosion of the transuranic (TRU) waste drums at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Project, near Richland, Washington, was evaluated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The rate of corrosion is principally contingent upon the effects of humidity, airborne pollutants, and temperature. Results of the study indicate that actual penetration of barrels due to atmospheric corrosion will probably not occur within the 20-year specified recovery period. Several other US burial sites were surveyed, and it appears that there is sufficient uncertainty in the available data to prevent a clearcut statement of the corrosion rate at a specific site. Laboratory and site tests are recommended before any definite conclusions can be made. The corrosion potential at the Hanford TRU waste site could be reduced by a combination of changes in drum materials (for example, using galvanized barrels instead of the currently used mild steel barrels), environmental exposure conditions (for example, covering the barrels in one of numerous possible ways), and storage conditions

  5. Transuranics Laboratory, achievements and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Marine and Aquatic Radioecology Group (MARG) was established in 1985 with the main scope of analysing the consequences of the Palomares accident in the adjacent Mediterranean ecosystem. From then on and up to now , this Group has extended its investigations to other European marine environments, such as the Spanish Mediterranean margin, the Artic and the Atlantic. The main research of long-lived radionuclides (plutonium, americium and Cs-137) determining the orography influence, riverine inputs and their geo-chemical associations. This group is currently accomplishing new challenges on the radioecology field such as the development of techniques for transuranics speciation to determine their geo-chemical association to the main sediment compounds. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides distribution on salt-marsh areas affected by dry-wet periods is being studied as well as the possibilities of fusing crossed techniques for dating recent sediments (pollen, anthropogenic, ''210 Pb, etc). The Laboratory performance description, the procedures used, calculations, challenges and gaps are described in this report. (Author) 22 refs

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste quality assurance project plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Transuranic (TRU) Waste Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) serves as the quality management plan for the characterization of transuranic waste in preparation for certification and transportation. The Transuranic Waste Characterization/Certification Program (TWCP) consists of personnel who sample and analyze waste, validate and report data; and provide project management, quality assurance, audit and assessment, and records management support, all in accordance with established requirements for disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. This QAPjP addresses how the TWCP meets the quality requirements of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the technical requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The TWCP characterizes and certifies retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste using the waste selection, testing, sampling, and analytical techniques and data quality objectives (DQOs) described in the QAPP, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Plan (Certification Plan), and the CST Waste Management Facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)]. At the present, the TWCP does not address remote-handled (RH) waste

  7. Interactions of marine plankton with transuranic elements. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, N.S.; Bjerregaard, P.; Huynh-Ngoc, L.; Harvey, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    To assess the significance of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM) on complexation of transuranic elements in seawater, a series of bioassay experiments was conducted in which the effect of DOM on the accumulation of 241 Am, 237 Pu(III-IV), and 237 Pu(V-VI) by the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was measured. EDTA at 0.3 μM complexed both metals substantially, resulting in reduced radio-isotope uptake by the diatom; the greatest effect was on Pu(III-IV). In contrast, there was no apparent complexation of either element by equimolar concentrations of marine fulvic (MFA) or humic acids (MHA), naturally occurring photooxidizable DOM (uncharacterized), or diatom exudates, as none of these materials reduced isotope uptake; on the contrary, there were indications that some of this DOM enhanced transuranic bioaccumulation in the diatom slightly. Subsequent experiments showed this enhancement was probably due to complexation of transition metals by the DOM, leading to fewer ambient ions 'competing' for binding sites on the cells; 241 Am uptake rates were negatively correlated (r = -0.846, P<.01) with ΣASV-labile Cu + Zn + Cd + Pb. These experiments suggest that naturally occurring DOM may not appreciably complex Am or Pu or greatly affect their bioavailability in the sea. (Auth.)

  8. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Hoffman, Edward A.; Bays, Samuel E.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 ('burners') do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 ('breeders') have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is 'attractive' for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR 1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

  9. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suermann, J.F.

    1996-04-01

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits

  10. Transuranic biokinetic parameters for marine invertebrates--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, T P

    2002-04-01

    A catalogue of biokinetic parameters for the transuranic elements plutonium, americium, curium, neptunium, and californium in marine invertebrates is presented. The parameters considered are: the seawater-animal concentration factor (CF); the sediment-animal concentration ratio (CR); transuranic assimilation efficiency; transuranic tissue distribution and transuranic elimination rates. With respect to the seawater-animal CF, authors differ considerably on how they define this parameter and a seven-point reporting system is suggested. Transuranic uptake from sediment by animals is characterised by low CRs. The assimilation efficiencies of transuranic elements in marine invertebrates are high compared to vertebrates and mammals in general and the distribution of transuranics within the body tissue of an animal is dependent on the uptake path. The elimination of transuranics from most species examined conformed to a standard biphasic exponential model though some examples with three elimination phases were identified.

  11. TRANSURANIC METAL HALIDES AND A PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION THEREOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, S.

    1951-03-20

    Halides of transuranic elements are prepared by contacting with aluminum and a halogen, or with an aluminum halide, a transuranic metal oxide, oxyhalide, halide, or mixture thereof at an elevated temperature.

  12. Review of monitoring instruments for transuranics in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. A progress report to the physical and technological programs, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    A comprehensive review of the monitoring instruments for transuranic elements released from nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants has been compiled. The extent of routine operational releases has been reviewed for the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle (including plutonium recycle), the breeder reactor fuel cycle, and the high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel cycle. The stack monitoring instrumentation presently in use at the various fabrication and reprocessing plants around the country is discussed. Sampling difficulties and the effectiveness of the entire sampling system are reviewed, as are the measurement problems for alpha-emitting, long-lived, transuranic aerosols, 129 I, 106 Ru, and tritium oxide. The potential problems in the HTGR fuel cycle such as the measurement of releases of alpha-emitting aerosols and of gaseous releases of 220 Rn and 14 C are also considered

  13. Behaviour of transuranic nuclides in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, K.C.; Mathew, E.; Matkar, V.M.; Dey, N.N.; Abani, M.C.; Chhapgar, B.F.; Mullay, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the nuclear technological developments, the potential for contamination of marine environment with transuranic nuclides has increased. In this context it is necessary to know not only the current levels of these artificial nuclides but there is also a need to understand the physico-chemical, biological and geochemical behaviour of transuranics to evaluate their significance in the marine environment. Studies on these aspects have been carried out in the coastal environment of the west coast of India, near Bombay. The results obtained and conclusions drawn from the various investigations carried out are given in this document

  14. Review of monitoring instruments for transuranics in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. A progress report to the physical and technological programs, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the monitoring instruments for transuranic elements released from nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants has been compiled. The extent of routine operational releases has been reviewed for the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle (including plutonium recycle), the breeder reactor fuel cycle, and the high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel cycle. The stack monitoring instrumentation that is presently in use at the various fabrication and reprocessing plants around the country is examined. Sampling difficulties including the inlet-probe arrangement and the effectiveness of the entire sampling system are discussed, as are the measurement problems for alpha-emitting, long-lived, transuranic aerosols, 129 I, 106 Ru, and tritium oxide. The potential problems in the HTGR fuel cycle such as the measurement of releases of alpha-emitting aerosols and of gaseous releases of 220 Rn and 14 C are also considered. Monitoring requirements range from the detection of low-level, routine releases to high-level accidental releases. Both first and second kinds of detection errors are considered in a discussion of adequate detection limits. The presently deployed monitors are critically examined in this light and the drawbacks and limitations of each are noted. Prototype instrumentation is studied, including Argonne's mechanical separation technique, Battelle's mass separation by surface ionization method, and in particular, LLL's transuranic aerosol measurement system. The potentials, sensitivities, advantages, and limitations of each system are enumerated. The additional potential uses of the LLL system are also discussed

  15. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanisich, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP

  16. Controlled-air incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Neuls, A.S.; Warner, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    A controlled-air incinerator and an associated high-energy aqueous off-gas cleaning system are being installed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Transuranic Waste Treatment Development Facility (TDF) for evaluation as a low-level transuranic-contaminated (TRU) solid waste volume reduction process. Program objectives are: (1) assembly and operation of a production scale (45 kg/hr) operation of ''off-the-shelf'' components representative of current incineration and pollution control technology; (2) process development and modification to meet radioactive health and safety standards, and (3) evaluation of the process to define the advantages and limitations of conventional technology. The results of the program will be the design specifications and operating procedures necessary for successful incineration of TRU waste. Testing, with nonradioactive waste, will begin in October 1976. This discussion covers commercially available incinerator and off-gas cleaning components, the modifications required for radioactive service, process components performance expectations, and a description of the LASL experimental program

  17. Remote-handled transuranic waste study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated from the Nation's defense activities. The WIPP disposal inventory will include up to 250,000 cubic feet of TRU wastes classified as remote handled (RH). The remaining inventory will include contact-handled (CH) TRU wastes, which characteristically have less specific activity (radioactivity per unit volume) than the RH-TRU wastes. The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA), Public Law 102-579, requires a study of the effect of RH-TRU waste on long-term performance. This RH-TRU Waste Study has been conducted to satisfy the requirements defined by the LWA and is considered by the DOE to be a prudent exercise in the compliance certification process of the WIPP repository. The objectives of this study include: conducting an evaluation of the impacts of RH-TRU wastes on the performance assessment (PA) of the repository to determine the effects of Rh-TRU waste as a part of the total WIPP disposal inventory; and conducting a comparison of CH-TRU and RH-TRU wastes to assess the differences and similarities for such issues as gas generation, flammability and explosiveness, solubility, and brine and geochemical interactions. This study was conducted using the data, models, computer codes, and information generated in support of long-term compliance programs, including the WIPP PA. The study is limited in scope to post-closure repository performance and includes an analysis of the issues associated with RH-TRU wastes subsequent to emplacement of these wastes at WIPP in consideration of the current baseline design. 41 refs

  18. Economic comparison of centralizing or decentralizing processing facilities for defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.

    1980-07-01

    This study is part of a set of analyses under direction of the Transuranic Waste Management Program designed to provide comprehensive, systematic methodology and support necessary to better understand options for national long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste. The report summarizes activities to evaluate the economics of possible alternatives in locating facilities to process DOE-managed transuranic waste. The options considered are: (1) Facilities located at all major DOE TRU waste generating sites. (2) Two or three regional facilities. (3) Central processing facility at only one DOE site. The study concludes that processing at only one facility is the lowest cost option, followed, in order of cost, by regional then individual site processing

  19. Using Downhole Probes to Locate and Characterize Buried Transuranic and Mixed Low Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinman, Donald K; Bramblett, Richard L; Hertzog, Russel C

    2012-06-25

    Borehole logging probes were developed and tested to locate and quantify transuranic elements in subsurface disposal areas and in contaminated sites at USDOE Weapons Complex sites. A new method of measuring very high levels of chlroine in the subsurface was developed using pulsed neutron technology from oilfield applications. The probes were demonstrated at the Hanford site in wells containing plutonium and other contaminants.

  20. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in Mediterranean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.; Fukai, R.

    1982-01-01

    For the comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of transuranic elements in the marine environment, the knowledge on the distribution of these elements in various components of marine ecosystems is essential. Since the Mediterranean Sea is considered a sufficiently self-contained system, our approach for studying the processes controlling the transuranic cycling in the sea has been to follow, step by step, the redistribution of plutonium and americium in different components of the marine environment, taking Mediterranean ecosystems as examples. While the studies in the past years have supplied quantitative information on the inputs of plutonium and americium into the Mediterranean from atmospheric fallout and rivers as well as on their behaviour in the Mediterranean water column, only scattered data have been made available so far on the occurrence of the transuranic nuclides in the Mediterranean marine biota or sediments. In order to fill up this information gap, biological and sediment samples were collected from the northwestern Mediterranean region during 1975-1978 for the transuranic measurements. The results of these determinations are given in the present report

  1. Sampling soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  2. 76 FR 33277 - Proposed Approval of the Central Characterization Project's Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... disposal of TRU radioactive waste. As defined by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Pub. L. 102... certification of the WIPP's compliance with disposal regulations for TRU radioactive waste [63 Federal Register... radioactive remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste characterization program implemented by the Central...

  3. Strategies for Evaluating Complex Environmental Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, V.

    2011-12-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of environmental education programs has been difficult to establish for many reasons. Chief among them are the lack of clear program objectives and an inability to conceptualize how environmental education programs work. Both can lead to evaluations that make claims that are difficult to substantiate, such as significant changes in student achievement levels or behavioral changes based on acquisition of knowledge. Many of these challenges can be addressed by establishing the program theory and developing a logic model. However, claims of impact on larger societal outcomes are difficult to attribute solely to program activities. Contribution analysis may offer a promising method for addressing this challenge. Rather than attempt to definitively and causally link a program's activities to desired results, contribution analysis seeks to provide plausible evidence that can reduce uncertainty regarding the 'difference' a program is making to observed outcomes. It sets out to verify the theory of change behind a program and, at the same time, takes into consideration other influencing factors. Contribution analysis is useful in situations where the program is not experimental-there is little or no scope for varying how the program is implemented-and the program has been funded on the basis of a theory of change. In this paper, the author reviews the feasibility of using contribution analysis as a way of evaluating the impact of the GLOBE program, an environmental science and education program. Initially conceptualized by Al Gore in 1995, the program's implementation model is based on worldwide environmental monitoring by students and scientists around the globe. This paper will make a significant and timely contribution to the field of evaluation, and specifically environmental education evaluation by examining the usefulness of this analysis for developing evidence to assess the impact of environmental education programs.

  4. Plans for Managing Hanford Remote Handled Transuranic (TRU) Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCKENNEY, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    The current Hanford Site baseline and life-cycle waste forecast predicts that approximately 1,000 cubic meters of remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste will be generated by waste management and environmental restoration activities at Hanford. These 1,000 cubic meters, comprised of both transuranic and mixed transuranic (TRUM) waste, represent a significant portion of the total estimated inventory of RH-TRU to be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A systems engineering approach is being followed to develop a disposition plan for each RH-TRU/TRUM waste stream at Hanford. A number of significant decision-making efforts are underway to develop and finalize these disposition plans, including: development and approval of a RH-TRU/TRUM Waste Project Management Plan, revision of the Hanford Waste Management Strategic Plan, the Hanford Site Options Study (''Vision 2012''), the Canyon Disposal Initiative Record-of-Decision, and the Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (SW-EIS). Disposition plans may include variations of several options, including (1) sending most RH-TRU/TRUM wastes to WIPP, (2) deferrals of waste disposal decisions in the interest of both efficiency and integration with other planned decision dates and (3) disposition of some materials in place consistent with Department of Energy Orders and the regulations in the interest of safety, risk minimization, and cost. Although finalization of disposition paths must await completion of the aforementioned decision documents, significant activities in support of RH-TRU/TRUM waste disposition are proceeding, including Hanford participation in development of the RH TRU WIPP waste acceptance criteria, preparation of T Plant for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel sludge, sharing of technology information and development activities in cooperation with the Mixed Waste Focus Area, RH-TRU technology demonstrations and deployments, and

  5. Transportation system (TRUPACT) for contact-handled transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romesberg, L.E.; Pope, R.B.; Burgoyne, R.M.

    1982-04-01

    Contact-handled transuranic defense waste is being, and will continue to be, moved between a number of locations in the United States. The DOE is sponsoring development of safe, efficient, licensable, and cost-effective transportation systems to handle this waste. The systems being developed have been named TRUPACT which stands for TRansUranic PACkage Transporter. The system will be compatible with Type A packagings used by waste generators, interim storage facilities, and repositories. TRUPACT is required to be a Type B packaging since larger than Type A quantities of some radionuclides (particularly plutonium) may be involved in the collection of Type A packagings. TRUPACT must provide structural and thermal protection to the waste in hypothetical accident environments specified in DOT regulations 49CFR173 and NRC regulations 10CFR71. Preliminary design of the systems has been completed and final design for a truck system is underway. The status of the development program is reviewed in this paper and the reference design is described. Tests that have been conducted are discussed and long-term program objectives are reviewed

  6. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility

  7. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory code assessment of the Rocky Flats transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report is an assessment of the content codes associated with transuranic waste shipped from the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado, to INEL. The primary objective of this document is to characterize and describe the transuranic wastes shipped to INEL from Rocky Flats by item description code (IDC). This information will aid INEL in determining if the waste meets the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The waste covered by this content code assessment was shipped from Rocky Flats between 1985 and 1989. These years coincide with the dates for information available in the Rocky Flats Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS). The majority of waste shipped during this time was certified to the existing WIPP WAC. This waste is referred to as precertified waste. Reassessment of these precertified waste containers is necessary because of changes in the WIPP WAC. To accomplish this assessment, the analytical and process knowledge available on the various IDCs used at Rocky Flats were evaluated. Rocky Flats sources for this information include employee interviews, SWIMS, Transuranic Waste Certification Program, Transuranic Waste Inspection Procedure, Backlog Waste Baseline Books, WIPP Experimental Waste Characterization Program (headspace analysis), and other related documents, procedures, and programs. Summaries are provided of: (a) certification information, (b) waste description, (c) generation source, (d) recovery method, (e) waste packaging and handling information, (f) container preparation information, (g) assay information, (h) inspection information, (i) analytical data, and (j) RCRA characterization.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silicon based complexing materials: extraction of transuranic elements from high level liquid waste; Synthese et caracterisation de gels hybrides de silice a proprietes complexantes: applications a l'extraction des transuraniens des effluents aqueux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocar, O

    1999-07-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic silica compounds with extractive properties have been developed under an enhanced decontamination program for radioactive aqueous nitric acid waste in nuclear facilities. The materials were obtained by the sol-gel process through hydrolysis and poly-condensation of complexing organo-tri-alkoxy-silanes with the corresponding tetra-alkoxy-silane. Hybrid silica compounds were initially synthesized and characterized from mono- and bis-silyl precursors with malonamide or ethylenediamine patterns. Solids with different specific areas and pore diameters were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, its functionality and its concentration in the tetra-alkoxy-silane. These compounds were then considered and assessed for use in plutonium and americium extraction. Excellent results-partitioning coefficients and capacities have been obtained with malonamide hybrid silica. The comparison with silica compounds impregnated or grafted with the same type of organic group is significant in this respect. Much of the improved performance obtained with hybrid silica may be attributed to the large quantity of complexing groups that can be incorporated in these materials. The effect of the solid texture on the extraction performance was also studied. Although the capacity increased with the specific area, little effect was observed on the distribution coefficients -notably for americium- indicating that the most favorable complexation sites are found on the outer surface. Macroporous malonamide hybrid silica compounds were synthesized to study the effects of the pore diameter, but the results have been inconclusive to date because of the unexpected molecular composition of the materials. (author)

  9. Interpretation of stream programs: characterizing type 2 polynomial time complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Férée , Hugo; Hainry , Emmanuel; Hoyrup , Mathieu; Péchoux , Romain

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We study polynomial time complexity of type 2 functionals. For that purpose, we introduce a first order functional stream language. We give criteria, named well-founded, on such programs relying on second order interpretation that characterize two variants of type 2 polynomial complexity including the Basic Feasible Functions (BFF). These charac- terizations provide a new insight on the complexity of stream programs. Finally, we adapt these results to functions over th...

  10. An evaluation of the concept of transuranic burning using liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodwell, E.; Shaw, R.A.; Williams, R.F.

    1991-03-01

    The evaluation investigates the potential benefits to radioactive waste disposal of separating the transuranic elements from spent reactor fuel before the spent fuel is disposed of in geologic repositories. The evaluation addresses the question whether the benefits to radioactive waste disposal would justify processing the fuel to separate the transuranics, plus a liquid metal reactor (LMR) deployment program to transmute the separated transuranics. The evaluation concludes that adoption of a process-before-disposal policy for all the spent fuel from the light water reactors (LWRs) would accrue only modest benefits with respect to the accumulation of uranium mill tailings, the national inventory of transuranics and the licensing of a geologic repository. It is likely that this process-before-disposal policy would incur a large cost penalty, encounter major institutional difficulties, multiply licensing hurdles, and amplify political and public opposition to the overall nuclear power program. However, plutonium from spent LWR fuel is projected to be substantially more economic than enriched uranium, as fissile material for startup of LMRs when LMR deployment becomes economically justified. At that time, the LMR would fulfill its role as a reactor system that would protect the nation from diminishing energy resources. Development tasks towards defining and developing the most cost-effective LMR and associated fuel cycle remain very important. 29 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs

  11. Historical review of transuranic analytical methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessman, R.A.; Leventhal, L.

    1977-01-01

    The methods used for the analysis of the transuranic elements neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium are reviewed. Particular attention is given to those procedures suitable for low-level environmental and biological assessment. The preparation of such samples, derived from a variety of sources and incorporated in different masses and volumes of soils, water, vegetation, and biological matrices, is described. A comprehensive discussion of matrix dissolution and equilibration techniques indicates that complete dissolution employing tracer techniques is to be preferred. Leaching of large soil samples is satisfactory for worldwide fallout. Individual and sequential separation and purification procedures, including precipitation, extraction, and ion exchange methods, are described. Sample preparation techniques for radiometric assay, such as stippling, evaporation, and plating, are reviewed. For both tracer and nuclide assay, electroplating provides the thin samples suitable for alpha pulse height analysis. Past and current counting methods for the transuranic alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are reviewed

  12. Measurements of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to supplement the baseline data on the distribution of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, which have already been reported, further measurements were carried out on sea water samples collected during 1974-75 cruises. In 1974 profile collections were conducted at a station approximately 50 km south of Monaco in addition to surface sampling at a few stations, while surface waters were taken from several stations covering wider regions of the western Mediterranean during the 1975 cruises. The measurement of 238 Pu as well as 241 Am were for the first time successful on the 1975 samples. These data are considered valuable as the basis for understanding transuranic biogeochemistry in the Mediterranean environment

  13. Los Alamos transuranic waste size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briesmeister, A.; Harper, J.; Reich, B.; Warren, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    To facilitate disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, Los Alamos National Laboratory designed and constructed the Size Reduction Facility (SRF) during the period 1977 to 1981. This report summarizes the engineering development, installation, and early test operations of the SRF. The facility incorporates a large stainless steel enclosure fitted with remote handling and cutting equipment to obtain an estimated 4:1 volume reduction of gloveboxes and other bulky metallic wastes

  14. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  15. Distribution of transuranic elements in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, P W

    1992-01-01

    The transport, retention, and excretion of transuranic elements from the body have been widely studied for many years. A summary of the results is given with an emphasis on the distribution of these elements in bone. Implications of these studies for understanding the relationships between lead in blood and lead in bone are presented. The expected distribution of lead at various bone sites is also considered.

  16. Los Alamos transuranic waste size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briesmeister, A.; Harper, J.; Reich, B.; Warren, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) was designed and constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the period of 1977 to 1981. This paper summarizes the engineering development, installation, and early test operations of the SRF. The facility incorporates a large stainless steel enclosure fitted with remote handling and cutting equipment to obtain an estimated 4:1 volume reduction of gloveboxes and other bulky metallic wastes

  17. Alternative disposal options for transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Three alternative concepts are proposed for the final disposal of stored and retrieved buried transuranic waste. These proposed options answer criticisms of the existing U.S. Department of Energy strategy of directly disposing of stored transuranic waste in deep, geological salt formations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The first option involves enhanced stabilization of stored waste by thermal treatment followed by convoy transportation and internment in the existing WIPP facility. This concept could also be extended to retrieved buried waste with proper permitting. The second option involves in-state, in situ internment using an encapsulating lens around the waste. This concept applies only to previously buried transuranic waste. The third option involves sending stored and retrieved waste to the Nevada Test Site and configuring the waste around a thermonuclear device from the U.S. or Russian arsenal in a specially designed underground chamber. The thermonuclear explosion would transmute plutonium and disassociate hazardous materials while entombing the waste in a national sacrifice area

  18. Leaching of transuranics observed in lysimeter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, A.; Fredriksson, L.

    1994-01-01

    A lysimeter installation, primarily designed for studies on plant uptake of transuranics from a number of Swedish soils, has been used also for studies on leaching of nuclides with drainage water from contaminated top soil layers in lysimeter vessels through 65 cm subsoil layers. Interception by ion exchanging resins simulated the nuclide transfer to a field drainage system. The study dealt with the contamination of agricultural land. The results obtained in the experiments have to be interpreted cautiously with regard to their bearing on field conditions. Also, the experimental period has been short when compared with the expected ecological half time of transuranic elements in the environment. However, the results indicate that over a first decade the leaching to drainage systems of transuranics in equilibrium with soil environments is of the same order as that of the crop uptake. The ranges assessed for leaching with an excess precipitation of 200 mm from a deposit in the plough layer to the drainage system during a decade are: for plutonium - 0.003-0.8%, for americium - 0.004-0.006% and for neptunium - 0.03-0.06%. The values for plutonium and americium are very similar except for the organic soil used which held the former nuclide very loosely bound. The leaching of neptunium seems to be ten times that for the other nuclides. It is higher on sandy soils than on organic and clay soils. (author)

  19. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig

  20. FY-1981 project status for the Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, R.L.; Tait, T.D.

    1981-11-01

    The primary objective of the Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) Project is to provide a facility to process low-level transuranic waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) into a form acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This report provides brief summary descriptions of the project objectives and background, project status through FY-1981, planned activities for FY-1982, and the EG and G TWTF Project office position on processing INEL transuranic waste

  1. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    A process is described for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs

  2. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

    1989-03-21

    A process is described for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

  3. Nevada Applied Ecology Group procedures handbook for environmental transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.G.; Dunaway, P.B.

    1976-10-01

    The activities of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) integrated research studies of environmental plutonium and other transuranics at the Nevada Test Site have required many standardized field and laboratory procedures. These include sampling techniques, collection and preparation, radiochemical and wet chemistry analysis, data bank storage and reporting, and statistical considerations for environmental samples of soil, vegetation, resuspended particles, animals, and other biological material. This document, printed in two volumes, includes most of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group standard procedures, with explanations as to the specific applications involved in the environmental studies. Where there is more than one document concerning a procedure, it has been included to indicate special studies or applications more complex than the routine standard sampling procedures utilized

  4. Nevada Applied Ecology Group procedures handbook for environmental transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.G.; Dunaway, P.B.

    1976-10-01

    The activities of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) integrated research studies of environmental plutonium and other transuranics at the Nevada Test Site have required many standardized field and laboratory procedures. These include sampling techniques, collection and preparation, radiochemical and wet chemistry analysis, data bank storage and reporting, and statistical considerations for environmental samples of soil, vegetation, resuspended particles, animals, and others. This document, printed in two volumes, includes most of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group standard procedures, with explanations as to the specific applications involved in the environmental studies. Where there is more than one document concerning a procedure, it has been included to indicate special studies or applications perhaps more complex than the routine standard sampling procedures utilized

  5. Nondestructive characterization of low-level transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, B.A.; Reinhardt, W.W.

    1981-10-01

    The use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is proposed for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. These NDE methods include real-time x-ray radiography, real-time neutron radiography, x-ray and neutron computed tomography, thermal imaging, container weighing, visual examination, and acoustic measurements. An integrated NDE system is proposed for characterization and certification of TRU waste destined for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Methods for automating both the classification waste and control of a complete nondestructive evaluation/nondestructive assay system are presented. Feasibility testing of the different NDE methods, including real-time x-ray radiography, and development of automated waste classification techniques are covered as part of a five year effort designed to yield a production waste characterization system

  6. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  7. Test plan for demonstration of Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This plan describes tests to demonstrate the capability of the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) to monitor airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides and analyze soil, smear, and filter samples for alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides under field conditions. The RTML will be tested during June 1993 at a site adjacent to the Cold Test Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Measurement systems installed in the RTML that will be demonstrated include two large-area ionization chamber alpha spectrometers, an x-ray/gamma-ray spectrometer, and four alpha continuous air monitors. Test objectives, requirements for data quality, experimental apparatus and procedures, and safety and logistics issues are described

  8. Hydrogen explosion testing with a simulated transuranic drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Transuranic (TRU) waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored onsite for future retrieval and permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some of the TRU waste is stored in vented 210-liter (55-gallon) drums and consists of gloves, wipes, plastic valves, tools, etc. Gas generation caused by radiolysis and biodegradation of these organic waste materials may produce a flammable hydrogen-air mixture (>4% v/v) in the multi-layer plastic waste bags. Using a worst case scenario, a drum explosion test program was carried out to determine the hydrogen concentration necessary to cause removal of the drum lid. Test results indicate an explosive mixture up to 15% v/v of hydrogen can be contained in an SRS TRU drum without total integrity failure via lid removal

  9. Integration of long-range planning for management of defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, K.V.; McFadden, M.H.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Smith, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    As described in The Defense Waste Management Plan, the defense TRU program goal is to achieve permanent disposal and to end interim storage. TRU waste is currently stored at six Department of Energy (DOE) sites, and new waste is generated at several more sites. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project is well defined, and it has been necessary to integrate the activities of other parts of the TRU program in support of DOE Headquarters policy and the WIPP schedules and technical requirements. The strategy is described in the Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document. More detailed, quantitative plans have been developed through the use of several system models, with a Long-Range Master Plan for Defense Transuranic Waste Management as the focal point for coordination of proposed plans with all the parties involved

  10. Analyzing the Implicit Computational Complexity of object-oriented programs

    OpenAIRE

    Marion , Jean-Yves; Péchoux , Romain

    2008-01-01

    International audience; A sup-interpretation is a tool which provides upper bounds on the size of the values computed by the function symbols of a program. Sup-interpretations have shown their interest to deal with the complexity of first order functional programs. This paper is an attempt to adapt the framework of sup-interpretations to a fragment of object-oriented programs, including loop and while constructs and methods with side effects. We give a criterion, called brotherly criterion, w...

  11. Making transuranic assay measurements using modern controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Caldwell, J.T.; Medvick, P.A.; Kunz, W.E.; Hastings, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methodology and computer-controlled instrumentation developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that accurately performs nondestructive assays of large containers bearing transuranic wastes and nonradioactive matrix materials. These assay systems can measure fissile isotopes with 1-mg sensitivity and spontaneous neutron-emitting isotopes at a 10-mg sensitivity. The assays are performed by neutron interrogation, detection, and counting in a custom assay chamber. An International Business Machines Personal Computer (IBM-PC) is used to control the CAMAC-based instrumentation system that acquires the assay data. 6 refs., 7 figs

  12. Hydrothermal processing of transuranic contaminated combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, S.J.; Worl, L.; Harradine, D.; Padilla, D.; McInroy, R.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated the usefulness of hydrothermal processing for the disposal of a wide variety of transuranic contaminated combustible wastes. This paper provides an overview of the implementation and performance of hydrothermal treatment for concentrated salt solutions, explosives, propellants, organic solvents, halogenated solvents, and laboratory trash, such as paper and plastics. Reaction conditions vary from near ambient temperatures and pressure to over 1000degC and 100 MPa pressure. Studies involving both radioactive and non-radioactive waste simulants are discussed. (author)

  13. Statistics and sampling in transuranic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    The existing data on transuranics in the environment exhibit a remarkably high variability from sample to sample (coefficients of variation of 100% or greater). This chapter stresses the necessity of adequate sample size and suggests various ways to increase sampling efficiency. Objectives in sampling are regarded as being of great importance in making decisions as to sampling methodology. Four different classes of sampling methods are described: (1) descriptive sampling, (2) sampling for spatial pattern, (3) analytical sampling, and (4) sampling for modeling. A number of research needs are identified in the various sampling categories along with several problems that appear to be common to two or more such areas

  14. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides

  15. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in soils: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, E.H.; Fowler, E.B.

    1976-01-01

    The literature is reviewed to ascertain the degree of movement and the distribution patterns for transuranic and uranium nuclides in soils. Typical plutonium and uranium profiles are presented and an attempt is made to identify unique characteristics causing deviation from an ideal distribution pattern. By far most of the distribution observations are with plutonium and little is reported for uranium and other transuranic nuclides

  16. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1987-01-01

    This task is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34,000 liters of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. The grout was also completely contained within the two trenches as no grout constituents were observed in the 12 perimeter ground water monitoring wells. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over polyacrylate grout because of its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty of controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization process in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 115 years in the test soil. However, this calculated value is likely to be conservatively low because microbial degradation of the grout set accelerator or residual monomer may be contributing most to the measured microbial respiration. Addition work, using 14 C-labeled acrylate and acrylamide grouts, is being carried out to more accurately estimate the grouts' microbiological half-life

  17. Geochemistry of transuranic elements at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Lowman, F.G.; Marshall, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of transuranic and other radionuclides in the marine environment at Bikini Atoll was studied to better understand the geochemical cycling of radionuclides produced by nuclear testing between 1946 and 1958. The reef areas, which are washed continually by clean ocean water, have low levels of radionuclide concentrations. Radionuclides are contained in fallout particles of pulverized coral. In the water these particles may dissolve, be transported by currents within the Atoll, or enter the North Equatorial Current by tidal exchange of water in the lagoon. The transuranic elements are distributed widely in sediments over the northwest quadrant of the Atoll, which suggests that this area serves as a settling basin for particles. The distribution of plutonium in the water column indicates that plutonium in the sediments is released to the bottom waters and then is transported and diluted by the prevailing currents. Upon interaction with the lagoon environment, plutonium occurs in several physicochemical states. Laboratory tests and field studies at Bikini show that approximately 15% of the plutonium is associated with the colloidal fraction

  18. Hanford site transuranic waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management, and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant' (DOE 1996d) (WIPP WAC). The WIPP WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WIPP WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their management of TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter41 (TRUPACT-11). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-I1 requirements in the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (NRC 1997) (TRUPACT-I1 SARP)

  19. Integrative study of the behavior of transuranic elements in the marine environment. Progress report, June 1, 1981-May 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.; Morse, J.W.

    1981-12-01

    The laboratory at Florida State University is conducting fundamental research under marine conditions of the speciation of actinide elements in sea water. At the Texas A and M University, the adsorption of actinides from such solutions upon various components of sediments is being studied. This approach should yield radiochemical data directly applicable to the understanding of the distribution and speciation of transuranic elements in the marine environment. A limited number of common sediment components are being studied to determine which factors determine the partitioning of transuranic elements among these components. The individual components then will be combined in synthetic sediments of increasing complexity and the distributions studied between these sediments and solutions. Hopefully, this will lead to studies agreeing with model predictions for the adsorption of transuranic elements in marine sediments

  20. Transuranic waste examination quality assurance at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1954, defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste has been received at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A major objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Programs is the proper management of the defense-generated TRU waste. The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is providing nondestructive examination and assay of retrievably stored contact handled TRU waste in order to certify it to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Crtieria (WIPP-WAC). SWEPP's capabilities for certifying contact handled waste containers include weighing, real-time radiographic examination, fissile material assay examination, container integrity examination, radiological surveys and labeling of waste containers. These processes involve not only instrument accuracy but also a wide range of technician interpretation from moderate on the assay to 100% on the radiograph. This, therefore, requires a variety of quality assurance techniques to ensure that the examinations and certifications are being performed correctly. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the methods utilized by SWEPP for checking on the examination process and to ensure that waste certifications are being properly performed. Included is the application of the quality assurance techniques to each examination system, the management of the data generated by the examination, and the verifications to ensure accurate certification. 1 ref

  1. USA program on the waste disposal of nuclear military complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, I.

    1992-01-01

    The USA program on the nuclear military complex waste disposal which focuses on the problems of environment protection and recovery is briefly considered. A group of works on the updating of the existing and on the construction of new nuclear weapon undustries is chosen to be the priority direction. The problem of radioactive waste burial in the Hunford nuclear complex is discussed. Total expenses for military enterprise purification from radioactive wastes are estimated as 91.2-129 billion dollars, and expenses for realization of the whole program are estimated as 180 billion dollars for 50 years

  2. Medical Effects of a Transuranic "Dirty Bomb".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare. Radioactive dispersal devices (RDDs), including the "dirty bomb," involve the use of organotropic radioisotopes such as iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, and transuranic elements. Some of the current studies of RDDs involve large-scale medical effects, social and economic disruption of the society, logistics of casualty management, cleanup, and transportation preparedness, still insufficiently addressed by the environmental and mass casualty medicine. The consequences of a dirty bomb, particularly in the terrorist use in urban areas, are a subject of international studies of multiple agencies involved in the management of disaster medicine. The long-term somatic and genetic impact of some from among over 400 radioisotopes released in the nuclear fission include somatic and transgenerational genetic effects with the potential challenges of the genomic stability of the biosphere. The global contamination is additionally heightened by the presence of transuranic elements in the modern warzone, including depleted uranium recently found to contain plutonium 239, possibly the most dangerous substance known to man with one pound of plutonium capable of causing 8 billion cancers. The planning for the consequences of radioactive dirty bomb are being currently studied in reference to the alkaline earths, osteotropic, and stem cell hazards of internally deposited radioactive isotopes, in particular

  3. Chemical form of transuranic elements in underground environment and its effect on adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tomo

    1990-01-01

    Many of the transuranic elements such as Np, Pu and Am contained in high-level radioactive wastes are highly dangerous to humans and have extremely long lives. Therefore, safety evaluation of them is highly important after their disposal into the ground. Particularly important processes include the migration of these transuranic elements in near and far fields. The migration of a nuclide depends largely on its chemical form in the underground environment. The present report first describes various chemical forms of transuranic elements in underground environments and outlines their migration behaviors. Techniques that have recently become available for determining their chemical forms include photo-acoustic spectroscopy, thermal lensing spectroscopy, laser induced fluorescence, photo-acoustic detection of light scattering, auto-correlation photon spectroscopy, and laser-induced time-resolved spectrofluorometry. Chemical forms of these elements are then discussed focusing on underground environmental conditions, pH-Eh diagram, deposition/dissolution, formation of complex, formation of colloid, and organic complexes. Migration is discussed in relation to ions, insoluble matters, and colloids. (N.K.)

  4. Environmental monitoring program for Itataia industrial complex before operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condessa, M.L.M.B.

    1982-01-01

    This environmental monitoring program aims to characterize the environment in adjacent area of Itataia Industrial Complex. The places and frequencies of samples and measurements, as well as analysis and parameters to be measured in each type of samples are presented. (C.M.) [pt

  5. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  6. Dry separation technology of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tadashi

    1999-01-01

    The separation principle of transuranic elements (TRU) by a dry method, the separation technique of TRU from a high level waste solution and a dry recycle technology of LWR and FBR fuel cycle are explained. The dry method used molten salt and liquid metal. TRU and the rare earth elements in the molten salt (LiCl-KCl, LiCl-KCl/Cd and LiCl-KCl/Bi system) were separated by two methods such as the electrolytic refining and the reduction-extraction method. The former method separated 98% U, Np and Pu, but low Am. The latter method was able to separate more than 99.9% Np and Pu and 99.7% Am. (S.Y.)

  7. Los Alamos Transuranic Waste Size Reduction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.; Warren, J.

    1987-06-01

    The Los Alamos Transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) is a production oriented prototype. The facility is operated to remotely cut and repackage TRU contaminated metallic wastes (e.g., glove boxes, ducting and pipes) for eventual disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The resulting flat sections are packaged into a tested Department of Transportation Type 7A metal container. To date, the facility has successfully processed stainless steel glove boxes (with and without lead shielding construction) and retention tanks. We have found that used glove boxes generate more cutting fumes than do unused glove boxes or metal plates - possibly due to deeply embedded chemical residues from years of service. Water used as a secondary fluid with the plasma arc cutting system significantly reduces visible fume generation during the cutting of used glove boxes and lead-lined glove boxes. 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Recovery of transuranics from process residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Process residues are generated at both the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during aqueous chemical and pyrochemical operations. Frequently, process operations will result in either impure products or produce residues sufficiently contaminated with transuranics to be nondiscardable as waste. Purification and recovery flowsheets for process residues have been developed to generate solutions compatible with subsequent Purex operations and either solid or liquid waste suitable for disposal. The ''scrub alloy'' and the ''anode heel alloy'' are examples of materials generated at RFP which have been processed at SRP using the developed recovery flowsheets. Examples of process residues being generated at SRP for which flowsheets are under development include LECO crucibles and alpha-contaminated hydraulic oil

  9. Los Alamos Transuranic Waste Size Reduction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.; Warren, J.

    1987-01-01

    The Los Alamos Transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) is a production oriented prototype completed in 1981 and later modified during 1986 to enhance production. The facility is operated to remotely cut (with a plasma arc torch) and repackage TRU contaminated metallic wastes (e.g., glove boxes, ducting and pipes) for eventual disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The resulting flat sections are packaged into a tested Department of Transportation Type 7A metal container. To date, the facility has successfully processed stainless steel glove boxes (with and without lead shielding construction) and retention tanks. It was found that used glove boxes generate more cutting fumes than do unused glove boxes or metal plates - possibly due to deeply embedded chemical residues from years of service. Water used as a secondary fluid with the plasma arc cutting system significantly reduces visible fume generation during the cutting of used glove boxes and lead-lined glove boxes

  10. Documentation of acceptable knowledge for LANL Plutonium Facility transuranic waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, A.J.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Foxx, C.; Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Characterization of transuranic waste from the LANL Plutonium Facility for certification and transportation to WIPP includes the use of acceptable knowledge as specified in the WIPP Quality Assurance Program Plan. In accordance with a site-specific procedure, documentation of acceptable knowledge for retrievably stored and currently generated transuranic waste streams is in progress at LANL. A summary overview of the transuranic waste inventory is complete and documented in the Sampling Plan. This document also includes projected waste generation, facility missions, waste generation processes, flow diagrams, times, and material inputs. The second part of acceptable knowledge documentation consists of assembling more detailed acceptable knowledge information into auditable records and is expected to require several years to complete. These records for each waste stream must support final assignment of waste matrix parameters, EPA hazardous waste numbers, and radionuclide characterization. They must also include a determination whether waste streams are defense waste streams for compliance with the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The LANL Plutonium Facility's mission is primarily plutonium processing in basic special nuclear material (SNM) research activities to support national defense and energy programs. It currently has about 100 processes ranging from SNM recovery from residues to development of plutonium 238 heat sources for space applications. Its challenge is to characterize and certify waste streams from such diverse and dynamic operations using acceptable knowledge. This paper reports the progress on the certification of the first of these waste streams to the WIPP WAC

  11. Transuranic waste transportation issues in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.; Rodgers, J.C.; Neill, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) expects to begin disposal of defence transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico before the end of 1988. Approximately 25,000 truck shipments involving 35 million vehicle kilometers will be required to transport about 175,000 m 3 of contact-handled transuranic waste. Up to 5,000 shipments of remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) will also be shipped to WIPP in shielded casks. This paper addresses the shipment of CH-TRU wastes

  12. Measurements of thermodynamic constants of transuranic compounds to predict their geochemistry: Carbonate complexation of Np(V) and Am(III), hydrolysis of Pu(VI) and AM(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitorge, P.

    1984-02-01

    This work is a part of a project to build a waste disposal and to model the behaviour of the radioactive elements. The contribution consists in the prediction of the geochemistry of actinides and the measurement of thermodynamic equilibrium constants, solubility products and redox potentials (E) used in the migration model. It has shown that literature can provide values for some of these constants and proposed theoretical E(pH) diagrams and solubilities of U, Np, Pu, Am. All transport will occur essentially in the aqueous phase leaching the repository site, where hydrolysis and carbonate complexation are important chemical reactions. The hydrolysis and carbonate complexation constants have already been reviewed. The experimental results are compared with the literature data which are usually chosen to predict the solubilities and the proportions of the different forms of these actinides in natural groundwaters

  13. Biological effects of transuranic elements in the environment: human effects and risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.; Wachholz, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The potential for human effects from environmentally dispersed transuranic elements is briefly reviewed. Inhalation of transuranics suspended in air and ingestion of transuranics deposited on or incorporated in foodstuffs are the significant routes of entry. Inhalation is probably the more important of these routes because gastrointestinal absorption of ingested transuranics is so inefficient. Major uncertainties are those concerned with substantially enhanced absorption by the very young and the possibility of increased availability as transuranics become incorporated in biological food chains

  14. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  15. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains 5 appendices. Title listing are: technologies for recovery of transuranics; nondestructive assay of TRU contaminated wastes; miscellaneous waste characteristics; acceptance criteria for TRU waste; and TRU waste treatment technologies

  16. Modeling of a dissolution system for transuranic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Z.; Dease, C.

    1991-02-01

    A system is currently being developed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to treat transuranic wastes by means of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process. The process involves generating Ag( ++ ) from a solution of silver nitrate and nitric acid in an electrochemical cell. Ag( ++ ) is highly reactive and is capable of attacking many organic and inorganic substances. In particular, if a mixture of particles containing transuranic and other scrap metal oxides is allowed to react with Ag( ++ ) in a nitric acid solution, the transuranic oxides will dissolve and can be removed with the solution leaving the other insoluble oxides behind. The dissolution of the transuranic oxides by reactions with Ag( ++ ) occurs due to further oxidation to higher valence states and the formation of soluble ions such as MO 2 + and MO 2 ++ . 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Processing of transuranic waste at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, B.A.; Gruber, L.M.; Mentrup, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been retrievably stored on concrete pads since early 1972. This waste is stored primarily in 55-gallon drums and large carbon steel boxes. Higher activity drums are placed in concrete culverts. In support of a National Program to consolidate and permanently dispose of this waste, a major project is planned at SRP to retrieve and process this waste. This project, the TRU Waste Facility (TWF), will provide equipment and processes to retrieve TRU waste from 20-year retrievable storage and prepare it for permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) geological repository in New Mexico. This project is an integral part of the SRP Long Range TRU Waste Management Program to reduce the amount of TRU waste stored at SRP. The TWF is designed to process 15,000 cubic feet of retrieved waste and 6200 cubic feet of newly generated waste each year of operation. This facility is designed to minimize direct personnel contact with the waste using state-of-the-art remotely operated equipment

  18. Analyzing Program Termination and Complexity Automatically with AProVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesl, Jürgen; Aschermann, Cornelius; Brockschmidt, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In this system description, we present the tool AProVE for automatic termination and complexity proofs of Java, C, Haskell, Prolog, and rewrite systems. In addition to classical term rewrite systems (TRSs), AProVE also supports rewrite systems containing built-in integers (int-TRSs). To analyze...... programs in high-level languages, AProVE automatically converts them to (int-)TRSs. Then, a wide range of techniques is employed to prove termination and to infer complexity bounds for the resulting rewrite systems. The generated proofs can be exported to check their correctness using automatic certifiers...

  19. Ultratrace analysis of transuranic actinides by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.M.

    1983-10-31

    Ultratrace quantities of transuranic actinides are detected indirectly by their effect on the fluorescent emissions of a preselected fluorescent species. Transuranic actinides in a sample are coprecipitated with a host lattice material containing at least one preselected fluorescent species. The actinide either quenches or enhances the laser-induced fluorescence of the preselected fluorescent species. The degree of enhancement or quenching is quantitatively related to the concentration of actinide in the sample.

  20. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  1. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2006-12-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  2. Leaching of transuranics observed in lysimeter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, A.; Fredriksson, L.

    1994-01-01

    Transuranic elements in fallout are generally bound in oxide particles, size from submicron to several microns. During the fallout they can be intercepted on plant covers or reach the soil surface. The particles can be re-suspended to the air and reach other residence sites, be linked into the food chain or be redistributed in other ways (Cf Essington et al. 1976) before eventually being incorporated into the soil. The fate of such particles in the soil depends on the size and on the nature of the particulate matter and on environmental factors, the climate and the properties of the soil. In a dry climate the particles tend to be kept intact long time, (Schulz et al. 1976) and they are more easily redistributed than in a humid climate with plant covered moist and living soils. In the former the particles move more easily in the soil profile than in the latter, the particle matter is very slowly dissolved and the average availability of the deposited nuclides for plant uptake can be assumed to be comparatively low. The downward movements of the particles or nuclide compounds bound to small soil particles are enhanced by the swelling and shrinking of soil caused by absorption and depletion of water during the season. Cracks and fissures are created and closed several times a year in soils rich in colloidal material. Sandy soils with coarse material have less cracks, but in dry conditions the empty pore space may allow transport of fine particles. The coarser material also has less specific area and sorption capacity. The nuclide compounds leached with the drainage water in coarse soils should be less retarded than in clays (Cf. Rai and Serne, 1977; Nishita and Haug, 1979 and Rai et al., 1980). The lysimeter installation used for the study reported below was primarily designed to study the plant uptake of transuranics from a number of Swedish soils. However, as such an installation in many ways well simulate field conditions and at the same time is a closed system

  3. Program for Analyzing Flows in a Complex Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) version 4 is a general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady-state and transient flows in a complex fluid network. The program is capable of modeling compressibility, fluid transients (e.g., water hammers), phase changes, mixtures of chemical species, and such externally applied body forces as gravitational and centrifugal ones. A graphical user interface enables the user to interactively develop a simulation of a fluid network consisting of nodes and branches. The user can also run the simulation and view the results in the interface. The system of equations for conservation of mass, energy, chemical species, and momentum is solved numerically by a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive-substitution methods.

  4. Calculation of projected waste loads for transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.; Koebnick, B.; Wang, Y.; Kaicher, C.

    1995-01-01

    The level of treatment and the treatment and interim storage site configurations (decentralized, regional, or centralized) impact transuranic (TRU) waste loads at and en route to sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Other elements that impact waste loads are the volume and characteristics of the waste and the unit operation parameters of the technologies used to treat it. Projected annual complexwide TRU waste loads under various TRU waste management alternatives were calculated using the WASTEunderscoreMGMT computational model. WASTEunderscoreMGMT accepts as input three types of data: (1) the waste stream inventory volume, mass, and contaminant characteristics by generating site and waste stream category; (2) unit operation parameters of treatment technologies; and (3) waste management alternative definitions. Results indicate that the designed capacity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, identified under all waste management alternatives as the permanent disposal facility for DOE-generated TRU waste, is sufficient for the projected complexwide TRU waste load under any of the alternatives

  5. Rapid monitoring for transuranic contaminants during buried waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Shaw, P.G.; Randolph, P.D.; Amaro, C.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Thompson, D.N.; Loomis, G.G.

    1991-03-01

    This document reports results of research performed in support of possible future transuranic waste retrieval operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The focus of this research was to evaluate various methods of performing rapid and, as much as possible, ''on-line'' quantitative measurements of 239 Pu or 241 Am, either as airborne or loose contamination. Four different alpha continuous air monitors were evaluated for lower levels of detection of airborne 239 Pu. All of the continuous air monitors were evaluated by sampling ambient air. In addition, three of the continuous air monitors were evaluated by sampling air synthetically laden with clean dust and dust spiked with 239 Pu. Six methods for making quantitative measurements of loose contamination were investigated. They were: (1) microwave digestion followed by counting in a photon electron rejecting alpha liquid scintillation spectrometer, (2) rapid radiochemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry, (3) measurement of the 241 Am 59 keV gamma ray using a thin window germanium detector, (4) measurement of uranium L-shell x-rays, (5) gross alpha counting using a large-area Ag activated ZnS scintillator, and (6) direct counting of alpha particles using a large-area ionization chamber. 40 refs., 42 figs., 24 tabs

  6. Uncertainty analysis of a nondestructive radioassay system for transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, Y.D.; Blackwood, L.G.; Meachum, T.R.; Yoon, W.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Radioassay of transuranic waste in 207 liter drums currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is achieved using a Passive Active Neutron (PAN) nondestructive assay system. In order to meet data quality assurance requirements for shipping and eventual permanent storage of these drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico, the total uncertainty of the PAN system measurements must be assessed. In particular, the uncertainty calculations are required to include the effects of variations in waste matrix parameters and related variables on the final measurement results. Because of the complexities involved in introducing waste matrix parameter effects into the uncertainty calculations, standard methods of analysis (e.g., experimentation followed by propagation of errors) could not be implemented. Instead, a modified statistical sampling and verification approach was developed. In this modified approach the total performance of the PAN system is simulated using computer models of the assay system and the resultant output is compared with the known input to assess the total uncertainty. This paper describes the simulation process and illustrates its application to waste comprised of weapons grade plutonium-contaminated graphite molds

  7. Description of processes for the immobilization of selected transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.

    1980-12-01

    Processed sludge and incinerator-ash wastes contaminated with transuranic (TRU) elements may require immobilization to prevent the release of these elements to the environment. As part of the TRU Waste Immobilization Program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing applicable waste-form and processing technology that may meet this need. This report defines and describes processes that are capable of immobilizing a selected TRU waste-stream consisting of a blend of three parts process sludge and one part incinerator ash. These selected waste streams are based on the compositions and generation rates of the waste processing and incineration facility at the Rocky Flats Plant. The specific waste forms that could be produced by the described processes include: in-can melted borosilicate-glass monolith; joule-heated melter borosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter aluminosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter basaltic-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter glass-ceramic monolith; cast-cement monolith; pressed-cement pellet; and cold-pressed sintered-ceramic pellet

  8. Complex program of advance in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sychev, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    A draft of the complex program of advance in science and technology of the CMEA member-countries is described in brief. The basis of the program includes five priority trends electronics development complex automatization, advanced development of nuclear energy, production of new materials and tecnologies of their production and processing, advanced developmen of biotechnologies. Development of nuclear energy will be based on WWER-440 and WWER-1000 type NPPs. Heat-only nuclear stations and power and heat nuclear stations will receive a large development effort, as well as sodium-cooled fast reactors of the BN type having 800 and 1600 MW capacity, high-temperature gas-cooled breeders of the BGR-300 type, gas-cooled reactors of the VG-400 type for high-temperature heat supply (500-1000 deg C). It is contemplated to design the TOKAMAK-15 research thermonuclear facility and a pilot thermonuclear reactor for power generation and plutonium production. The program also comprises works aimed at improving reliability and safety of the nuclear installations

  9. Formal verification of complex properties on PLC programs

    CERN Document Server

    Darvas, D; Voros, A; Bartha, T; Blanco Vinuela, E; Gonzalez Suarez, V M

    2014-01-01

    Formal verification has become a recommended practice in the safety-critical application areas. However, due to the complexity of practical control and safety systems, the state space explosion often prevents the use of formal analysis. In this paper we extend our former verification methodology with effective property preserving reduction techniques. For this purpose we developed general rule-based reductions and a customized version of the Cone of Influence (COI) reduction. Using these methods, the verification of complex requirements formalised with temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) can be orders of magnitude faster. We use the NuSMV model checker on a real-life PLC program from CERN to demonstrate the performance of our reduction techniques.

  10. Students' explanations in complex learning of disciplinary programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camilo

    Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) has been denominated as the third pillar of science and as a set of important skills to solve the problems of a global society. Along with the theoretical and the experimental approaches, computation offers a third alternative to solve complex problems that require processing large amounts of data, or representing complex phenomena that are not easy to experiment with. Despite the relevance of CSE, current professionals and scientists are not well prepared to take advantage of this set of tools and methods. Computation is usually taught in an isolated way from engineering disciplines, and therefore, engineers do not know how to exploit CSE affordances. This dissertation intends to introduce computational tools and methods contextualized within the Materials Science and Engineering curriculum. Considering that learning how to program is a complex task, the dissertation explores effective pedagogical practices that can support student disciplinary and computational learning. Two case studies will be evaluated to identify the characteristics of effective worked examples in the context of CSE. Specifically, this dissertation explores students explanations of these worked examples in two engineering courses with different levels of transparency: a programming course in materials science and engineering glass box and a thermodynamics course involving computational representations black box. Results from this study suggest that students benefit in different ways from writing in-code comments. These benefits include but are not limited to: connecting xv individual lines of code to the overall problem, getting familiar with the syntax, learning effective algorithm design strategies, and connecting computation with their discipline. Students in the glass box context generate higher quality explanations than students in the black box context. These explanations are related to students prior experiences. Specifically, students with

  11. Method and program for complex calculation of heterogeneous reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, A.G.; Glebov, A.P.; Elovskaya, L.F.; Kuznetsova, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    An algorithm and the GITA program for complex one-dimensional calculation of a heterogeneous reactor which permits to conduct calculations for the reactor and its cell simultaneously using the same algorithm are described. Multigroup macrocross sections for reactor zones in the thermal energy range are determined according to the technique for calculating a cell with complicate structure and then the continuous multi group calculation of the reactor in the thermal energy range and in the range of neutron thermalization is made. The kinetic equation is solved using the Pi- and DSn- approximations [fr

  12. Management of transuranic wastes throughout the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, L.T.; Christensen, H.; De Jonghe, P.; Frejaville, G.; Lavie, J.M.; Thackrah, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    Transuranic (TRU) wastes are those radioactive wastes, except spent fuel and high-level wastes, that are contaminated with sufficient long-lived, alpha-emitting nuclides that the decay to innocuous levels in engineered storage structures or shallow-land burial sites cannot be used as a disposal method. This class of waste is produced principally during spent fuel reprocessing, recycle fuel fabrication, and weapons material production. At least ten countries are involved in operations producing this class of waste, which represents a small fraction of the alpha-emitting nuclides in the world's inventory and of the total volume of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear activities. No consensus has been reached on a numerical definition; definitions in use vary from >0.03 to >1000 nCi transuranium radionuclides per gram of waste (TRU/g). The definitions are presently used to separate wastes going to sea dumping or shallow-land burial from those requiring greater isolation. All countries emphasize plutonium recovery and volume reduction in their plans for treating TRU wastes. Incineration is the most prevalent treatment in use. When fixation is used, cement and bitumen are the preferred fixation media. All high-concentration TRU wastes are now being placed in interim storage. No TRU wastes are presently being disposed except the low-concentration wastes being dumped at sea by Belgium and the United Kingdom and those being injected into geologic strata by the United States (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and the USSR. All countries prefer and are planning to use deep geologic repositories for final disposal of TRU wastes. According to present schedules, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility in the United States, with a scheduled startup date of 1989, will be the first operating repository since the closure of the Federal Republic of Germany's Asse Salt Mine in 1977

  13. Induction melting of simulated transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenaglia, R.D.; McCall, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Coreless induction melting was investigated as a method to melt and consolidate waste material representative of the transuranic waste (TRU) stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Waste material was introduced onto the surface of a molten cast iron bath in a coreless induction furnace. Waste metallics were incorporated into the bath. Noncombustibles formed a slag which was poured or skimmed from the bath surface. Stack sampling was performed to characterize the off-gas and particulate matter evolved. Experimental melting tests were performed for a variety of types of wastes including metallics, chemical sludge, soil, concrete, and glass. Each test also included a representative level of combustible materials consisting of paper, wood, cloth, polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene. Metallic wastes were readily processed by induction melting with a minimum of slag production. Test waste consisting primarily of chemical sludge provided fluid slags which could be poured from the bath surface. Processing of wastes consisting of soil, concrete, or glass was limited by the inability to achieve fluid slags. It appears from test results that coreless induction melting is a feasible method to process INEL-type waste materials if two problems can be resolved. First, slag fluidity must be improved to facilitate the collection of slags formed from soil, concrete, or glass containing wastes. Secondly, refractory life must be further optimized to permit prolonged processing of the waste materials. The use of a chrome-bearing high-alumina refractory was found to resist slag line attach much better than a magnesia refractory, although some attack was still noted

  14. Long-term management USDOE transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Gilbert, K.V.; Lowrey, R.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Activities for permanent disposal of US DOE TRU waste are presently focused on newly generated and stored waste. The buried waste and contaminated soils pose no near term problem. Decisions on any possible actions for these wastes will be deferred until the newly generated and stored wastes are being placed into disposal on a routine basis. Several elements must be in place before such disposal can become routine. These elements consist of: a disposal facility; waste acceptance criteria; waste certification mechanisms; waste processing facilities; and a waste transportation system. Each of these elements has been the subject of considerable activity in the recent past. Progress and plans for each element are summarized. As of January 1981, DOE has 60,500 m 3 of waste classified as Transuranic waste (TRU) in retrievable storage, and projects that additional TRU waste will be generated at an average rate of 4500 m 3 per year for the next 10 years. Over 99% of this waste is contact handled, with the remainder being remote handled, i.e., surface radiation dose levels exceeding 200 mrem/h. An estimated 273,000 m 3 of TRU waste were placed in shallow land burial prior to establishment of the 1970 policy. In addition, large quantities of soil at DOE sites are contaminated with TRU elements due to disposal of liquid wastes and by contact of soil with solid, buried waste whose original containers are now badly degraded. Possibly as much as 10,000,000 m 3 of soil are contaminated above 10 nCi/gm. Less than 1,000,000 m 3 are estimated to be contaminated above 100 nCi/gm

  15. Multi-dimensional Rankings, Program Termination, and Complexity Bounds of Flowchart Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Christophe; Darte, Alain; Feautrier, Paul; Gonnord, Laure

    Proving the termination of a flowchart program can be done by exhibiting a ranking function, i.e., a function from the program states to a well-founded set, which strictly decreases at each program step. A standard method to automatically generate such a function is to compute invariants for each program point and to search for a ranking in a restricted class of functions that can be handled with linear programming techniques. Previous algorithms based on affine rankings either are applicable only to simple loops (i.e., single-node flowcharts) and rely on enumeration, or are not complete in the sense that they are not guaranteed to find a ranking in the class of functions they consider, if one exists. Our first contribution is to propose an efficient algorithm to compute ranking functions: It can handle flowcharts of arbitrary structure, the class of candidate rankings it explores is larger, and our method, although greedy, is provably complete. Our second contribution is to show how to use the ranking functions we generate to get upper bounds for the computational complexity (number of transitions) of the source program. This estimate is a polynomial, which means that we can handle programs with more than linear complexity. We applied the method on a collection of test cases from the literature. We also show the links and differences with previous techniques based on the insertion of counters.

  16. Scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance of the waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    The recent successful certification and opening of a first-of-a-kind, deep geological repository for safe disposal of long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, New Mexico, United States of America (USA), embody both long-standing local and wide-spread, gradually achieved, scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance. The related historical background and development are outlined and the main contributors to the successful siting, certification, and acceptance of the WIPP TRUW repository, which may also serve as a model to success for other radioactive waste disposal programs, are described. (author)

  17. Incorporation of transuranic elements in titanate nuclear waste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, H.J.; Ray, I.L.F.; Theile, H.; Trisoglio, C.; Walker, C.T.; White, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The incorporation of actinide elements and their rare-earth element analogues in titanate nuclear waste forms in reviewed. New partitioning data are presented for three waste forms containing Purex waste simulant in combination with either NpO 2 , PuO 2 , or Am 2 O 3 . The greater proportion of transuranics partition between perovskite and zirconolite, while some americium may enter loveringite. Autoradiography revealed clusters of plutonium atoms which have been interpreted as unreacted dioxide or sesquioxide. It is concluded that the solid-state behavior of transuranic elements in titanate waste forms is poorly understood, certainly not well enough to tailor a ceramic for the incorporation of waste from reprocessing of fast breeder reactor fuel in which transuranic species are more abundant than in Purex waste

  18. Assessment of allowable transuranic activity levels for WIPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This study provides a technical evaluation for the establishment of an upper limit on the transuranic content of waste packages to be received. To accomplish this, the predicted radiological performance of WIPP is compared to the radiological performance requirements applicable to WIPP. These performance requirements include radiation protection standards for both routine facility operations and credible operational accidents. These requirements are discussed in Chapter 2.0. From the margin between predicted performance and the performance requirements, the maximum allowable transuranic content of waste packages can then be inferred. Within the resulting compliance envelope, a waste acceptance criterion can be established that delineates the allowable level of transuranic radioactivity content for contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste packages. 13 refs., 8 tabs

  19. Use of analog elements to predict the equilibrium and behavior of transuranic elements in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Several naturally-occurring elements with chemical properties similar to those of selected transuranic elements have been chosen and are being examined as potential predictors of transuranic geochemical behaviors. This approach may allow the estimation of the long-term behaviors of transuranic elements in the environment by analyses of the steady-state behaviors of their analog elements. The elements receiving principal attention are the transuranics Am and Cm and their proposed lanthanide element analog Nd

  20. High-level waste program integration within the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, J.H.; Malone, K.; Schaus, P.S.

    1998-03-01

    Eleven major Department of Energy (DOE) site contractors were chartered by the Assistant Secretary to use a systems engineering approach to develop and evaluate technically defensible cost savings opportunities across the complex. Known as the complex-wide Environmental Management Integration (EMI), this process evaluated all the major DOE waste streams including high level waste (HLW). Across the DOE complex, this waste stream has the highest life cycle cost and is scheduled to take until at least 2035 before all HLW is processed for disposal. Technical contract experts from the four DOE sites that manage high level waste participated in the integration analysis: Hanford, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In addition, subject matter experts from the Yucca Mountain Project and the Tanks Focus Area participated in the analysis. Also, departmental representatives from the US Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) monitored the analysis and results. Workouts were held throughout the year to develop recommendations to achieve a complex-wide integrated program. From this effort, the HLW Environmental Management (EM) Team identified a set of programmatic and technical opportunities that could result in potential cost savings and avoidance in excess of $18 billion and an accelerated completion of the HLW mission by seven years. The cost savings, schedule improvements, and volume reduction are attributed to a multifaceted HLW treatment disposal strategy which involves waste pretreatment, standardized waste matrices, risk-based retrieval, early development and deployment of a shipping system for glass canisters, and reasonable, low cost tank closure

  1. Patterns of transuranic uptake by aquatic organisms: consequences and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Literature on the behavior of plutonium and transuranic elements in aquatic organisms is reviewed. The commonality of observed distribution coefficients over a wide array of aquatic environments (both freshwater and marine) and the lack of biomagnification in aquatic food chains from these environments are demonstrated. These findings lead to the conclusion that physical processes dominate in the transfer of transuranic elements from aquatic environments to man. The question of the nature of the association of plutonium with aquatic biota (surface sorption vs biological incorporation) is discussed as well as the importance of short food chains in the transfer of plutonium to man

  2. Structural analysis of the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoreaux, G.H.; Sutherland, S.H.; Duffey, T.A.

    1981-07-01

    The TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT) is a Type B container under development at the Transportation Technology Center, Sandia National Laboratory, for use in the transportation of contact-handled transuranic waste. This report describes the numerical analyses of the container's response to end-on, side-on, and center of gravity over corner impacts on an unyielding surface following a 9 m free fall. The results of the analyses are compared to available experimental data. In general, the analytical predictions and experimental comparisons confirm the validity of the TRUPACT design concept

  3. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE STRONIUM AND TRANSURANIC SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMALLEY CS

    2011-04-25

    In order to meet contract requirements on the concentrations of strontium-90 and transuranic isotopes in the immobilized low-activity waste, strontium-90 and transuranics must be removed from the supernate of tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. The process currently proposed for this application is an in-tank precipitation process using strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate. Development work on the process has not proceeded since 2005. The purpose of the evaluation is to identify whether any promising alternative processes have been developed since this issue was last examined, evaluate the alternatives and the baseline process, and recommend which process should be carried forward.

  4. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document represents the development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specific identification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance with waste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The content code gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability of the waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the 72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on the manner in which a payload can be assembled. The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7 of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON, RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. Each content code uniquely

  5. Storage of transuranic contaminated solid wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehmann, George

    1975-01-01

    The storage method for low-level transuranic wastes employed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is discussed in detail. The techniques used for wastes containing greater than ten nanocuries of transuranic material per gram of waste as well as the technique for lesser concentrations of transuranic wastes are described. The safety, efficiency and adequacy of these storage methods are presented

  6. Roadmap for disposal of Electrorefiner Salt as Transuranic Waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trone, Janis R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, Lawrence C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The experimental breeder reactor (EBR-II) used fuel with a layer of sodium surrounding the uranium-zirconium fuel to improve heat transfer. Disposing of EBR-II fuel in a geologic repository without treatment is not prudent because of the potentially energetic reaction of the sodium with water. In 2000, the US Department of Energy (DOE) decided to treat the sodium-bonded fuel with an electrorefiner (ER), which produces metallic uranium product, a metallic waste, mostly from the cladding, and the salt waste in the ER, which contains most of the actinides and fission products. Two waste forms were proposed for disposal in a mined repository; the metallic waste, which was to be cast into ingots, and the ER salt waste, which was to be further treated to produce a ceramic waste form. However, alternative disposal pathways for metallic and salt waste streams may reduce the complexity. For example, performance assessments show that geologic repositories can easily accommodate the ER salt waste without treating it to form a ceramic waste form. Because EBR-II was used for atomic energy defense activities, the treated waste likely meets the definition of transuranic waste. Hence, disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southern New Mexico, may be feasible. This report reviews the direct disposal pathway for ER salt waste and describes eleven tasks necessary for implementing disposal at WIPP, provided space is available, DOE decides to use this alternative disposal pathway in an updated environmental impact statement, and the State of New Mexico grants permission.

  7. Research and development plans for disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.; Platt, A.M.

    1978-09-01

    This plan recommends a 20-year, 206 million (1975 $'s) R and D program on geologic structures in the contiguous U.S. and on the midplate Pacific seabed with the objective of developing an acceptable method for disposal of commercial high-level and transuranic wastes by 1997. No differentiation between high-level and transuranic waste disposal is made in the first 5 years of the program. A unique application of probability theory to R and D planning establishes, at a 95% confidence level, that the program objective will be met if at least fifteen generic options and five specific disposal sites are explored in detail and at least two pilot plants are constructed and operated. A parallel effort on analysis and evaluation maximizes information available for decisions on the acceptability of the disposal techniques. Based on considerations of technical feasibility, timing and technical risk, the other disposal concepts, e.g., ice sheets, partitioning, transmutation and space disposal cited in BNWL-1900 are not recommended for near future R and D

  8. Use of a simplified pathways model to improve the environmental surveillance program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, M.J.; Rope, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Systems analysis, including a simple pathways model based on first-order kinetics, is a useful way to design or improve environmental monitoring networks. This method allows investigators and administrators to consider interactions that may be occurring in the system and provides guidance in determining the need to collect data on various system components and processes. A simplified pathways model of radionuclide movement from low-level waste and transuranic waste buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex was developed (1) to identify critical pathways that should be monitored and (2) to identify key input parameters that need investigation by special studies. The model was modified from the Savannah River Laboratory DOSTOMAN code. Site-specific data were used in the model, if available. Physical and biological pathways include airborne and waterborne transport of surface soil, subsurface migration to the aquifer, waste container degradation, plant uptake, small mammal burrowing, and a few simplified food chain pathways. The model was run using a set of radionuclides determined to be significant in terms of relative hazard. Critical transport pathways which should be monitored were selected based on relative influence on model results. Key input parameters were identified for possible special studies by evaluating the sensitivity of model response to the parameters used to define transport pathways. A description of the approaches used and the guidance recommended to improve the environmental surveillance program are presented in this paper. 5 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  9. Defense Remote Handled Transuranic Waste Cost/Schedule Optimization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, G.D.; Wolaver, R.W.; Carson, P.H.

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the DOE information with which it can establish the most efficient program for the long management and disposal, in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste. To fulfill this purpose, a comprehensive review of waste characteristics, existing and projected waste inventories, processing and transportation options, and WIPP requirements was made. Cost differences between waste management alternatives were analyzed and compared to an established baseline. The result of this study is an information package that DOE can use as the basis for policy decisions. As part of this study, a comprehensive list of alternatives for each element of the baseline was developed and reviewed with the sites. The principle conclusions of the study follow. A single processing facility for RH TRU waste is both necessary and sufficient. The RH TRU processing facility should be located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Shielding of RH TRU to contact handled levels is not an economic alternative in general, but is an acceptable alternative for specific waste streams. Compaction is only cost effective at the ORNL processing facility, with a possible exception at Hanford for small compaction of paint cans of newly generated glovebox waste. It is more cost effective to ship certified waste to WIPP in 55-gal drums than in canisters, assuming a suitable drum cask becomes available. Some waste forms cannot be packaged in drums, a canister/shielded cask capability is also required. To achieve the desired disposal rate, the ORNL processing facility must be operational by 1996. Implementing the conclusions of this study can save approximately $110 million, compared to the baseline, in facility, transportation, and interim storage costs through the year 2013. 10 figs., 28 tabs

  10. The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant program at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.B.; Anderson, B.C.; Clements, T.L.; Hinckley, J.P.; Mayberry, J.L.; Smith, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1970, defense transuranic waste has been placed into 20-year retrievable storage at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is to remove all retrievably stored transuranic waste from the INEL. The January 1981 DOE Record of Decision on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) stated, ''The WIPP facility will dispose of defense transuranic waste stored retrievably at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.'' After retrieval and before shipment, processing may be necessary to prepare the waste for acceptance, handling, and enhanced long-term isolation in the WIPP. However, some of the waste is certifiable to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria without container opening or waste processing. To minimize costs, the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is being developed to certify INEL stored transuranic waste without container opening or waste processing. The SWEPP certification concept is based on records assessment, nondestructive examination techniques, assay techniques, health physics examinations, and limited opening of containers at another facility for quality control

  11. Utilization of borosilicate glass for transuranic waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledford, J.A.; Williams, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    Incinerated transuranic waste and other low-level residues have been successfully vitrified by mixing with boric acid and sodium carbonate and heating to 1050 0 C in a bench-scale continuous melter. The resulting borosilicate glass demonstrates excellent mechanical durability and chemical stability

  12. Management feature of transuranic for HTGR and LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jinfeng; Li Fu; Sun Yuliang

    2013-01-01

    Long-lived actinides from spent fuels can cause potential long-term environ- mental hazards. The generation and incineration of transuranic in different closed fuel cycles were studied. U and Pu were recycled from spent fuel in the 250 MW high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-pebble-bed-module (HTR-PM) U-Pu fuelled core, and then PuO 2 and MOX fuel elements were designed based on this recycled U and Pu. These fuel elements were used to build up a new PuO 2 or MOX fuelled core with the same geometry of the original reactor. Characteristics of transuranic incineration with HTGR open and closed fuel cycles were studied with VSOP code, and the corresponding results from the light water reactor were compared and analyzed. The transuranic generation with HTGR open fuel cycle is almost half of the corresponding result of the light water reactor. Thus, HTGR closed fuel cycles can effectively burn transuranic. (authors)

  13. Sampling of soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  14. US Department of Energy acceptance of commercial transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboas, A.L.; Bennett, W.S.; Brown, C.M.

    1980-02-01

    Contaminated transuranic wastes generated as a result of non-defense activities have been disposed of by shallow land burial at a commercially operated (NECO) facility located on the Hanford federal reservation, which is licensed by the State of Washington and by the NRC. About 15,000 ft 3 of commercial TRU waste have been generated each year, but generation for the next three years could triple due to decontamination and decommissioning scheduled to start in 1980. Disposal at other commercial burial sites has been precluded due to sites closing or prohibitions on acceptance of transuranic wastes. The State of Washington recently modified the NECO-Hanford operating license, effective February 29, 1980, to provide that radioactive wastes contaminated with transuranics in excess of 10 nCi/g will not be accepted for disposal. Consistent with the state policy, the NRC amended the NECO special nuclear material license so that Pu in excess of 10n Ci/g cannot be accepted after February 29, 1980. As a result, NRC requested DOE to examine the feasibility of accepting these wastes at a DOE operated site. TRU wastes accepted by the DOE would be placed in retrievable storage in accordance with DOE policy which requires retrievable storage of transuranic wastes pending final disposition in a geologic repository. DOE transuranic wastes are stored at six major DOE sites: INEL, Hanford, LASL, NTS, ORNL, and SRP. A specific site for receiving commercial TRU waste has not yet been selected. Shipments to DOE-Hanford would cause the least disruption to past practices. Commercial TRU wastes would be subject to waste form and packaging criteria established by the DOE. The waste generators would be expected to incur all applicable costs for DOE to take ownership of the waste, and provide storage, processing, and repository disposal. The 1980 charge to generators for DOE acceptance of commercial TRU waste is $147 per cubic foot

  15. Separation of transuranic elements and some fission products in irradiated spent fuels. Program 2005; Separacion de elementos transuranicos y algunos productos de fision presentes en los combustibles nucleares irradiados Programa 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaca, C.; Espartero, A. G.; Cordoba, G. de; Gascon, J. L.; Pina, G.; Martinez-Esparza, A.; Uriarte, A.

    2006-07-01

    past century. In the same dates, the Instituto de Investigacion de Reactores Atomicos of Russia (RIAR) started the development of pyro-metallurgical reprocessing of spent fuels UO2 and MOX. Later these research activities have followed with other types of fuels. In 1988 the Commission of Atomic Energy of Japan launched a program of R and D, named OMEGA Project for partitioning and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides. This program is being carried out by four Japanese institutions: JAERI, PNC, JNC and CRIEPI. From 1999 two Projects on pyro-metallurgical partitioning PYROREP and EUROPART started in the European Union, with the participation of the following countries France, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain and the Czech Republic, together with the JRC-ITU in collaboration with CRIEPI (Japan). The activities of the CIEMAT in Project PYROREP have been carried out together with the Dept. of Analytical Chemistry of the Universidad of Valladolid. Later and within the EUROPART Project, a collaboration agreement between CIEMAT and CEA has been signed and it has been included in a collaboration and financial agreement between ENRESA and CIEMAT from 1998. (Author)

  16. Hazardous gas production by alpha particles in solid organic transuranic waste matrices. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaVerne, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    'This project uses fundamental radiation chemical techniques to elucidate the basic processes occurring in the heavy-ion radiolysis of solid hydrocarbon matrices such as polymers and organic resins that are associated with many of the transuranic waste deposits or the transportation of these radionuclides. The environmental management of mixed waste containing transuranic radionuclides is difficult because these nuclides are alpha particle emitters and the energy deposited by the alpha particles causes chemical transformations in the matrices accompanying the waste. Most radiolysis programs focus on conventional radiation such as gamma rays, but the chemical changes induced by alpha particles and other heavy ions are typically very different and product yields can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The objective of this research is to measure the production of gases, especially molecular hydrogen, produced in the proton, helium ion, and carbon ion radiolysis of selected solid organic matrices in order to obtain fundamental mechanistic information on the radiolytic decomposition of these materials. This knowledge can also be used to directly give reasonable estimates of explosive or flammability hazards in the storage or transport of transuranic wastes in order to enhance the safety of DOE sites. This report summarizes the work after eight months of a three-year project on determining the production of hazardous gases in transuranic waste. The first stage of the project was to design and build an assembly to irradiate solid organic matrices using accelerated ion beams. It is necessary to measure absolute radiolytic yields, and simulate some of the conditions found in the field. A window assembly was constructed allowing the beam to pass consecutively through a collimator, a vacuum exit window and into the solid sample. The beam is stopped in the sample and the entire end of the assembly is a Faraday cup. Integration of the collected current, in conjunction

  17. The information exchange between moduluses in the system of module programming of the computation complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinin, A.I.; Kolesov, V.E.; Nevinitsa, A.I.

    1975-01-01

    The report contains description of the method of construction of computer programs complexes for computation purposes for M-220 computers using the ALGOL-60 code for programming. The complex is organised on the modulus system principle and can include substantial number of modulus programs. The information exchange between separate moduli is done by means of special interpreting program and the information unit exchanged is a specially arranged file of data. For addressing to the interpreting program in the ALGOL-60 frameworks small number of specially created procedure-codes is used. The method proposed gives possibilities to program separate moduli of the complex independently and to expand the complex if necessary. In this case separate moduli or groups of moduli depending on the method of segmentation of the general problem solved by the complex will be of the independent interest and could be used out of the complex as traditional programs. (author)

  18. A measurement system for large, complex software programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rone, Kyle Y.; Olson, Kitty M.; Davis, Nathan E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes measurement systems required to forecast, measure, and control activities for large, complex software development and support programs. Initial software cost and quality analysis provides the foundation for meaningful management decisions as a project evolves. In modeling the cost and quality of software systems, the relationship between the functionality, quality, cost, and schedule of the product must be considered. This explicit relationship is dictated by the criticality of the software being developed. This balance between cost and quality is a viable software engineering trade-off throughout the life cycle. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate the cost and quality of software systems is essential to providing reliable software on time and within budget. Software cost models relate the product error rate to the percent of the project labor that is required for independent verification and validation. The criticality of the software determines which cost model is used to estimate the labor required to develop the software. Software quality models yield an expected error discovery rate based on the software size, criticality, software development environment, and the level of competence of the project and developers with respect to the processes being employed.

  19. Innovative Applications of In Situ Gamma Spectroscopy for Non-destructive Assay of Transuranic Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watters, D.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Duke, S.J.; Nicosia, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Cabrera Services (CABRERA), under contract to National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), supported the transuranic (TRU) waste reduction initiative at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). CABRERA developed advanced NDA techniques for oversized boxes (OSB) and drums using in situ gamma spectroscopy during several phases of the project. A more thorough characterization method was employed during the planning phase of the project to better understand the TRU content and distribution within each container, while a comprehensive NDA program was designed and implemented during the intrusive phase that guided waste segregation and re-packaging of both TRU and low-level wastes (LLW). NSTec took receipt of 58 oversized boxes of suspect TRU waste from Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). TRU waste is defined as greater than 3.7 kilobecquerels per gram [kBq/g] (100 nanocuries (nCi)/g) activity from alpha-emitting radionuclides with atomic number greater than 92 having a half-life greater than 20 years. Each box was custom-made to house a variety of suspect TRU wastes resulting from years of weapons program research, development, and testing. Since their arrival at NTS, the boxes have undergone several iterations of non-destructive assay (NDA) in preparation for the comprehensive repackaging effort. NDA has included two rounds of in situ gamma spectroscopy and real-time radiography (RTR) scans that were videotaped. Contents have been confirmed to include glove boxes, HEPA filters and their housings, and assorted process equipment and piping. TRU content was determined via directly measuring plutonium-239 (Pu-239), americium-241 (Am-241), and other radionuclides, while adding calculated results for non-measurable nuclides using reliable scaling factors developed from acceptable knowledge (AK). Advantages of CABRERA's NDA methods included: - More NDA information is available in the same amount of counting time, allowing NSTec to make more

  20. Transuranic waste management at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Betty [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bland, Jesse John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This paper documents the history of the TRU program at Sandia, previous and current activities associated with TRU material and waste, interfaces with other TRU waste generator sites and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP), and paths forward for TRU material and waste. This document is a snapshot in time of the TRU program and should be updated as necessary, or when significant changes have occurred in the Sandia TRU program or in the TRU regulatory environment. This paper should serve as a roadmap to capture past TRU work so that efforts are not repeated and ground is not lost due to future inactivity and personnel changes.

  1. RETRIEVING SUSPECT TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS PROGRESS PLANS AND CHALLENGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the scope and status of the program for retrieval of suspect transuranic (TRU) waste stored in the Hanford Site low-level burial grounds. Beginning in 1970 and continuing until the late 1980's, waste suspected of containing significant quantities of transuranic isotopes was placed in ''retrievable'' storage in designated modules in the Hanford burial grounds, with the intent that the waste would be retrieved when a national repository for disposal of such waste became operational. Approximately 15,000 cubic meters of waste, suspected of being TRU, was placed in storage modules in four burial grounds. With the availability of the national repository (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), retrieval of the suspect TRU waste is now underway. Retrieval efforts, to date, have been conducted in storage modules that contain waste, which is in general, contact-handled, relatively new (1980's and later), is stacked in neat, engineered configurations, and has a relatively good record of waste characteristics. Even with these optimum conditions, retrieval personnel have had to deal with a large number of structurally degraded containers, radioactive contamination issues, and industrial hazards (including organic vapors). Future retrieval efforts in older, less engineered modules are expected to present additional hazards and difficult challenges

  2. Semantical Characterizations and Complexity of Equivalences in Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Eiter, Thomas; Fink, Michael; Woltran, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    In recent research on non-monotonic logic programming, repeatedly strong equivalence of logic programs P and Q has been considered, which holds if the programs P union R and Q union R have the same answer sets for any other program R. This property strengthens equivalence of P and Q with respect to answer sets (which is the particular case for R is the empty set), and has its applications in program optimization, verification, and modular logic programming. In this paper, we consider more lib...

  3. Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component invento...... of a product program. These findings represent an improved decision basis for the planning of reactive and proactive initiatives of rationalizing a product program.......This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component...... inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number...

  4. Efficient separations & processing crosscutting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect chemical and physical separations technologies and chemical processes which treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE complex. The ESP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R & D) leading to the demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management.

  5. Integrative study of the behavior of transuranic elements in the marine environment. Progress report, June 1, 1982-May 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.; Morse, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The adsorption of actinides from marine solutions into sediments was studied to model the distribution and speciation of transuranic elements in the marine environment. The basic plan involves measuring the complexity and hydrolysis constants of actinides in oxidation states III to VI and studying a limited number of common sediment components to determine which factors determine the partitioning of actinides among these components. Individual sediment components then will be combined in synthetic sediments of increasing complexity and the distributions studied between these sediments and solutions

  6. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs

  7. Effects of transuranics on pulmonary lymph nodes of rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Pulmonary lymph nodes have been suggested as the ''critical'' tissue for insoluble, inhaled transuranic compounds owing to the high concentration of transuranics in these lymph nodes. About 800 rats were given from 0.2 to 3600 nCi of 238 PuO 2 or 239 PuO 2 by inhalation, intratracheal instillation, intrapleural injection, or intraperitoneal injection. From about 1 to 10 percent of deposited plutonium was translocated to pulmonary lymph nodes, the amount depending on the time after deposition and the route of administration; 238 PuO 2 was cleared from pulmonary lymph nodes faster than 239 PuO 2 owing to the greater in vivo solubility of 238 PuO 2 . No primary tumors of pulmonary lymph nodes were observed, indicating that this tissue was not the critical tissue for carcinogenic induction

  8. Environmental aspects of the transuranics: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Martin, F.M.; Faust, R.A.

    1976-07-01

    This bibliography of 500 references is compiled from the Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope is environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. Laboratory and field studies dealing with the effects of plutonium-239 on animals are highlighted in this bibliography. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews on the effects of other radionuclides upon man and his environment has been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with first authors appearing alphabetically in each category. Indexes are given for author, geographic location, keywords, taxons, permuted title and publication description

  9. Environmental aspects of the transuranics. A selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.M.; Faust, R.A.; Sanders, C.T.

    1975-07-01

    This bibliography of 470 references is from the computer file built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope is environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. Biological aspects of the transuranics is highlighted in this bibliography. In addition, supporting materials involving basic ecology studies, ecology of the Nevada Test Site, and reviews on other radionuclides are entered at the request of the NAEG. Significant numeric data is shown in tabular display or is noted for reference to the original document. The references are arranged by subject category with first authors arranged alphabetically within the category. Indexes are given for author, keywords, geographic location, permuted title, taxons, and publication description. (U.S.)

  10. Environmental aspects of the transuranics: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Martin, F.M.; Faust, R.A. (comp.)

    1976-07-01

    This bibliography of 500 references is compiled from the Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA`s Nevada Operations Office. The general scope is environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. Laboratory and field studies dealing with the effects of plutonium-239 on animals are highlighted in this bibliography. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews on the effects of other radionuclides upon man and his environment has been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with first authors appearing alphabetically in each category. Indexes are given for author, geographic location, keywords, taxons, permuted title and publication description.

  11. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Environmental aspects of the transuranics: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martin, F.M.; Fore, C.S.

    1977-03-01

    This eighth published bibliography of 427 references is compiled from the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center's Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics. The data base was built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope covers environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. This bibliography highlights literature on plutonium 238 and 239 and americium in the critical organs of man and animals. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews and summarizing literature on other radionuclides have been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with leading authors appearing alphabetically in each category. Indexes are provided for author(s), geographic location, keyword(s), taxon, title, and publication description

  13. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  14. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Nixon, Archie E.; Dodge, Robert L.; Fife, Keith W.; Sandoval, Arnold M.; Garcia, Vincent E.

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National

  15. Transuranic (TRU) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Nixon, Archie E.; Fife, Keith W.; Sandoval, Arnold M.; Garcia, Vincent E.; Dodge, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actinide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter or longer glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glovebox as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste volume generation by almost 2½ times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  16. Strategic management of health risks posed by buried transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jump, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A strategy is presented for reducing health risks at sites contaminated with buried transuranic (TRU) wastes by first taking measures to immobilize the contaminants until the second step, final action, becomes cost-effective and poses less risk to the remediation workers. The first step of this strategy does not preclude further action if it is warranted and is in harmony with environmental laws and regulations

  17. Waste management facilities cost information for transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing transuranic waste. The report's information on treatment and storage modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  18. Online high sensitivity measurement system for transuranic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    A measurement system for transuranic aerosols has been designed that will be able to withstand the corrosive nature of stack effluents and yet have extremely high sensitivity. It will be capable of measuring 1 maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of plutonium or americium in 30 minutes with a fractional standard deviation of less than 0.33. Background resulting from 218 Po is eliminated by alpha energy discrimination and a decay scheme analysis. A microprocessor controls all data acquisition, data reduction, and instrument calibration

  19. Ecological effects of transuranics in the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter explores the ecological effects of transuranium radionuclides in terrestrial environments. No direct studies that relate the level of transuranic contamination to specific changes in structure or function of ecological systems have been carried out. The only alternative approach presently available is to infer such relationships from observations of biota in contaminated environments and models. Advantages and shortcomings of these observations as well as those of the direct experimental approach are discussed

  20. US experience with acid digestion of combustible transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.

    1982-09-01

    Contaminated transuranic waste from a plutonium finishing plant has been processed in a waste treatment demonstration plant, the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) located at Hanford, Washington, USA. Waste treatment experience, including process and equipment performance, the behavior of plutonium in the system, and chemical and nuclear safety are all discussed. The complementary relationship of this research and development to that at the ALONA pilot plant in Mol, Belgium is noted. 7 figures, 4 tables

  1. Search for far transuranic elements in galactic comic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelygin, V.P.; Lkhagvasuren, D.; Otgonsuren, O.; Stetsenko, S.G.; Yakupi, B.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental results on the search for the tracks of far transuranic elements of the galactic origin in olivine crystals from Marjalahti meteorite are presented. A total af 174 mm 3 of olivines taken from the surface layers of the meteorite and 60 mm 3 taken from its inner parts have been examined. The upper limit of the abundance of the Z >= 110 nuclei has been established to be -9 of the abundance of the Fe group nuclei. (orig.) [de

  2. Fixation of transuranics with different degrees of oxidation on clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billon, A.

    1982-01-01

    Distribution coefficient (Ksub(d)) measurements available in the literature relate to plutonium, without reference to any particular valence state. It would be of interest to be able to ascertain the behaviour of this element (and the transuranics in general) from the nature of the chemical species taking part in the interaction with a natural or artificial medium (radioactive waste containment barriers). The author cites the results of measurements made for Np(IV), Np(V), Pu(IV), Pu(VI) and Am(III). Two types of clay have been tried out - bentonite and attapulgite. When the transuranic has been oxidized to a suitable degree, preferably by an electrochemical technique, it is brought into contact with a clay suspension. After stirring, decantation and filtration, the transuranic is analysed in the aqueous phase, by photospectrometry when the concentration makes it possible to do so (for NpO 2 + and PuO 2 2+ , which have high molar absorption coefficients epsilon), or else by counting techniques (liquid scintillation and gamma spectrometry). The results are given in the form of graphs (log Ksub(d) = f(pH)) or tables. Emphasis is given to the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The effect of several mineral or organic anions (EDTA) on the retention of Np(V) is considered. An analysis is made of the behaviour of plutonium in accordance with its degree of oxidation. (author)

  3. Mapping of transuranic elements in soil by nuclear track methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.

    2001-01-01

    An alternative method is presented to map the distribution of transuranic elements, which is characterized by its simplicity in both implementation and instrumentation. The method is based on the interaction of alpha particles in polymeric materials and the formation of tracks, which become visible after chemical etching. Nuclear track detectors are placed on the soil in order to evaluate the distribution of the radioactive material and its relative intensity for transuranic contaminants. CR-39 polycarbonate was used as a nuclear track detector in this study. Chemical etching was done with a 6.25M KOH solution in a closed system for 16 hours. The readings were performed in an automatic system using digital image analysis. The results show the distribution of the contaminants and their location, identifying the zones with large intensities. This method is attractive for use in areas contaminated with alpha particles, and specially transuranic elements, because it involves in situ measurements, generates very low amounts of radioactive waste, and the detectors are easily handled. (author)

  4. Adsorption of transuranic elements from large volume sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.

    1976-01-01

    Some years ago a sampler for concentrating radionuclides from large volumes of sea water was developed by Silker et al. of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories. They used pure A1 2 O 3 as the adsorbent. The device has been applied successfully to the determination of 238 Pu and 239 Pu in several sea water samples. Our experience on the application of an identical system for the determination of transuranics in Mediterranean sea water was not quite as satisfactory as we had hoped. The chemistry involved in leaching up to 1 kg Al 2 O 3 . with acid, followed by removal of dissolved aluminium from the transuranic fraction, is rather tedious and time-consuming for routine use. The adsorption efficiency of transuranics, checked by dual-bed adsorption did not give consistent results. However, since the principle of the device is attractive enough for handling large volume water samples, it was felt that it was worthwhile to test other types of adsorbents which are easier to handle than Al 2 O 3 . For this purpose, chitosan and manganese dioxide were chosen and series of experiments were conducted in order to examine the suitability of these materials as an adsorbent in the system

  5. ACCELERATION OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSURANIC WASTE DISPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, Gerald A.

    2007-01-01

    One of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) most significant risks is the site's inventory of transuranic waste retrievably stored above and below-ground in Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, particularly the dispersible high-activity waste stored above-ground in deteriorating facilities. The high activity waste represents approximately 50% (by activity) of the total 292,000 PE-Ci inventory remaining to be disposed. The transuramic waste inventory includes contact-handled and remote-handled waste packaged in drums, boxes, and oversized containers which are retrievably stored both above and below-ground. Although currently managed as transuranic waste, some of the inventory is low-level waste that can be disposed onsite or at approved offsite facilities. Dispositioning the transuranic waste inventory requires retrieval of the containers from above and below-ground storage, examination and repackaging or remediation as necessary, characterization, certification and loading for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad New Mexico, all in accordance with well-defined requirements and controls. Although operations are established to process and characterize the lower-activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, LAN L does not currently have the capability to repack high activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers (> 56 PE-Ci) or to process oversized containers with activity levels over 0.52 PE-Ci. Operational issues and compliance requirements have resulted in less than optimal processing capabilities for lower activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, limiting preparation and reducing dependability of shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Since becoming the Los Alamos National Laboratory contract in June 2006, Los Alamos National Security (LANS) L.L.C. has developed a comprehensive, integrated plan to effectively and efficiently disposition the transuranic waste inventory, working in concert with the Department of

  6. Management of transuranics using Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The 50 years of activities following the discovery of self-sustained fission chains have given rise to a buildup of roughly 900 tonnes of manmade transuranics. The formation of the transuranics is initiated by the parasitic neutron capture on the abundant isotope (U 238 ) of uranium ore to produce Pu 239 and the minor actinides are formed via the unavoidable parasitic neutron capture on the transuranic isotopes themselves. of the total, 260 tonnes of Pu 239 were generated for use in weapons while the remainder were generated as a byproduct of electrical power produced worldwide by the commercial thermal nuclear power industry. What to be done with these actinides? The options for disposition include interminable storage, burial, or recycle for use. The pros and cons of each option are being vigorously debated regarding the impact upon the issues of human and ecological risk both current and future; weapon proliferation potential both current and future; and total life cycle benefits and costs. (authors). 1 fig

  7. Experience from the ECORS program in regions of complex geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damotte, B.

    1993-04-01

    The French ECORS program was launched in 1983 by a cooperation agreement between universities and petroleum companies. Crustal surveys have tried to find explanations for the formation of geological features, such as rifts, mountains ranges or subsidence in sedimentary basins. Several seismic surveys were carried out, some across areas with complex geological structures. The seismic techniques and equipment used were those developed by petroleum geophysicists, adapted to the depth aimed at (30-50 km) and to various physical constraints encountered in the field. In France, ECORS has recorded 850 km of deep seismic lines onshore across plains and mountains, on various kinds of geological formations. Different variations of the seismic method (reflection, refraction, long-offset seismic) were used, often simultaneously. Multiple coverage profiling constitutes the essential part of this data acquisition. Vibrators and dynamite shots were employed with a spread generally 15 km long, but sometimes 100 km long. Some typical seismic examples show that obtaining crustal reflections essentialy depends on two factors: (1) the type and structure of shallow formations, and (2) the sources used. Thus, when seismic energy is strongly absorbed across the first kilometers in shallow formations, or when these formations are highly structured, standard multiple-coverage profiling is not able to provide results beyond a few seconds. In this case, it is recommended to simultaneously carry out long-offset seismic in low multiple coverage. Other more methodological examples show: how the impact on the crust of a surface fault may be evaluated according to the seismic method implemented ( VIBROSEIS 96-fold coverage or single dynamite shot); that vibrators make it possible to implement wide-angle seismic surveying with an offset 80 km long; how to implement the seismic reflection method on complex formations in high mountains. All data were processed using industrial seismic software

  8. Automation of program model developing for complex structure control objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.P.; Sizova, T.B.; Mikhejkina, N.D.; Sankovskij, G.A.; Tyufyagin, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    A brief description of software for automated developing the models of integrating modular programming system, program module generator and program module library providing thermal-hydraulic calcualtion of process dynamics in power unit equipment components and on-line control system operation simulation is given. Technical recommendations for model development are based on experience in creation of concrete models of NPP power units. 8 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  9. Transuranic chemical species in groundwater. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Nelson, D.M.; Abel, K.H.

    1985-02-01

    For the past several years, staff at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have been studying the mobility of actinides, primarily plutonium, in the groundwater of a low-level disposal site. This research has provided valuable insights into the behavior of plutonium in the groundwater. Based on the analytical data and geochemical modeling, it appears that the plutonium that enters the trench, primarily in the higher oxidation states, Pu(V,VI), is rapidly reduced as the water migrates through the highly reducing sediments of the trench and is removed from the water by adsorption of the reduced plutonium, Pu(III,IV), onto the sediments. The Pu(V,VI) also appears to be reduced in the groundwater, although not as rapidly as in the trench sediments, and removed by adsorption. Because of the redox reduction that occurs during the migration of the groundwater, the system is not at redox equilibrium. Based on the discrepancies between the calculated and analytically determined redox distribution and charge-form speciation, the thermodynamic data bases for plutonium appear either to be missing or to contain incorrect thermodynamic data for several aqueous plutonium species, including the carbonate and organic complexes of plutonium. Further research is required to determine the kinetics of plutonium oxidation/reduction reactions in natural groundwater systems and to determine thermodynamic data for carbonate and organic complexes of plutonium. 52 references, 1 figure, 6 tables

  10. Studies on the mobility of some heavy metals and transuranic radionuclides in major Indian soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Vyas, B.N.; Athalye, V.V.; Ramachandran, V.; Mistry, K.B.

    1983-01-01

    Studies on the mobility of the heavy metals, chromium, lead, zinc and transuranic radionuclides plutonium and americium in three major Indian soils, namely a vertisol-pellustert (black soil), an oxisol (laterite soil) and an entisol-haplaquent (alluvial soil), indicated that more than 98% of the surface-deposited pollutants were retained in the top 0 to 2.5 cm layer when leached with rain-water. In general, the mobility of these elements was either unaffected or marginally reduced at high doses of added organic matter as compared with controls. However, leaching with dilute solutions of (10 -4 M-bar) EDTA, EDDHA and DTPA resulted in enhancement of the mobility of all these pollutants with a high degree of chelate specificity for individual ions, depending upon the soil type. Rapid formation of stable soluble Cr-EDDHA, Pu-DTPA and Am-DTPA complexes facilitated the leaching of these pollutants from the contaminated soils. (author)

  11. Sampling and decontamination plan for the Transuranic Storage Area--1/-R container storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, G.A.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the sampling and decontamination of the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-l/-R container storage area and the earthen-covered portion of the TSA-2 container storage unit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Stored containers from the earthen-covered asphalt pads will be retrieved from the TSA-l/-R and TSA-2 container storage units. Container retrieval will be conducted under the TSA retrieval enclosure, a fabricated steel building to be constructed over the earthen-covered pad to provide containment and weather protection. Following container retrieval, the TSA retrieval enclosure will be decontaminated to remove radioactive and hazardous contamination. The underlying soils will be sampled and analyzed to determine whether any contaminated soils require removal

  12. Software complex for developing dynamically packed program system for experiment automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluka, G.; Salamatin, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Software complex for developing dynamically packed program system for experiment automation is considered. The complex includes general-purpose programming systems represented as the RT-11 standard operating system and specially developed problem-oriented moduli providing execution of certain jobs. The described complex is realized in the PASKAL' and MAKRO-2 languages and it is rather flexible to variations of the technique of the experiment

  13. Managing Complex Programs in a Post-LSI Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mockensturm, Jeffery J

    2008-01-01

    .... External forces played a major role in the evolution of these practices: A defense procurement holiday throughout the 1990s significantly reduced defense procurement spending and commensurate programs to manage...

  14. The Conceptual Complexity of Vocabulary in Elementary-Grades Core Science Program Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, W. Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Kung, Melody; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2017-01-01

    The researchers explored the conceptual complexity of vocabulary in contemporary elementary-grades core science program textbooks to address two research questions: (1) Can a progression of concepts' complexity level be described across grades? (2) Was there gradual developmental growth of the most complex concepts' networks of associated concepts…

  15. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Repackaging at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sanza, E.F.; Pyles, G.; Ciucci, J.; Arnold, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the activities required to modify a facility and the process of characterizing, repackaging, and preparing for shipment the Nevada Test Site's (NTS) legacy transuranic (TRU) waste in 58 oversize boxes (OSB). The waste, generated at other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites and shipped to the NTS between 1974 and 1990, requires size-reduction for off-site shipment and disposal. The waste processing approach was tailored to reduce the volume of TRU waste by employing decontamination and non-destructive assay. As a result, the low-level waste (LLW) generated by this process was packaged, with minimal size reduction, in large sea-land containers for disposal at the NTS Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The remaining TRU waste was repackaged and sent to the Idaho National Laboratory Consolidation Site for additional characterization in preparation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the NTS Management and Operating (M and O) contractor, NSTec, successfully partnered to modify and upgrade an existing facility, the Visual Examination and Repackaging Building (VERB). The VERB modifications, including a new ventilation system and modified containment structure, required an approved Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis prior to project procurement and construction. Upgrade of the VERB from a radiological facility to a Hazard Category 3 Nuclear Facility required new rigor in the design and construction areas and was executed on an aggressive schedule. The facility Documented Safety Analysis required that OSBs be vented prior to introduction into the VERB. Box venting was safely completed after developing and implementing two types of custom venting systems for the heavy gauge box construction. A remotely operated punching process was used on boxes with wall thickness of up to 3.05 mm (0.120 in) to insert aluminum

  16. Combining extractant systems for the simultaneous extraction of transuranic elements and selected fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    The popularity of solvent extraction (SX) stems from its ability to operate in a continuous mode, to achieve high throughputs and high decontamination factors of product streams, and to utilize relatively small quantities of very selective chemical compounds as metal ion complexants. The chemical pretreatment of nuclear waste for the purpose of waste minimization will probably utilize one or more SX processes. Because of the diversity and complexity of nuclear waste, perhaps the greatest difficulty for the separation chemist is to develop processes that remove not only actinides but also selected fission products in a single process. A stand alone acid-side SX process (TRUEX) for removal of uranium and transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am) from nuclear waste has been widely reported. Recently, an acid-side SX process (SREX) to extract and recover 90 Sr from high-level nuclear waste has also been reported. Both the TRUEX and SREX processes extract Tc to a significant extent although not as efficiently as they extract transuranics and Sr. Ideally one would like to have a process that can extract and recover all actinides as well as 99 Tc, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs. A possible solution to multielement extraction is to mix two extractants with totally different properties into a single process solvent formulation. For this approach to be successful, both extractants must be essentially the same type, either neutral, liquid cationic, or liquid anionic. Experimental work has been carried out on mixed TRUEX and SREX processes, for synthetically created waste, and demonstrates the combined solvent formulation is effective at extracting both the actinides and Tc, as well as Sr. There is no evidence for the presence of either synergistic or antagonistic effects between the two extractants. This demonstates the feasibility of at least part of a combined solvent extraction scheme

  17. Inventory and sources of transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    In the past, solid radioactive waste has often been buried in the most accessible and convenient vacant place, without a great deal of thought for the long-term consequences. The transuranium (TRU) elements were very strictly conserved and, at first, solid waste containing separated fission products was not a serious land burial problem. Wartime pressures for production and lack of knowledge or understanding led to siting and operational practices that, in many situations, are unsatisfactory by present day standards. Purpose of this report is to support the development of standards and criteria which will specifically address the problem of TRU contaminated waste generated by Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear programs and commercial application of nuclear technology. This report covers: DOE facilities, commercial disposal sites, commercial nuclear industry, TRU-contaminated waste inventory, and waste projections

  18. Methodologies for certification of transuranic waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.N.; Kok, K.D.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this study was to postulate methodologies for certification that a waste package is acceptable for disposal in a licensed geologic repository. Within the context of this report, certification means the overall process which verifies that a waste package meets the criteria or specifications established for acceptance for disposal in a repository. The overall methodology for certification will include (1) certifying authorities, (2) tests and procedures, and (3) documentation and quality assurance programs. Each criterion will require a methodology that is specific to that criterion. In some cases, different waste forms will require a different methodology. The purpose of predicting certification methodologies is to provide additional information as to what changes, if any, are needed for the TRU waste in storage

  19. New aspects on the transuranics transfer in the Palomares marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L.; Lobo, A.M.; Holm, E.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental contamination of transuranics following the Palomares accident in 1966 (Southern Spain) has been continuous monitored on land and scientific programs are still running. The study of the land to sea transfer of the contamination started in 1986, focussed on the depositional history recorded in marine sediments. At the continental shelf, south of the mouth of the Almanzora river, enhanced levels of plutonium and americium were found which could be related to the accident. Additional analysis of marine sediments, collected far from the impact point, showed the presence of a hot particle. The study of the chronology of this sediment core and the isotopic ratios are given in this paper to assess the origin and pathway of the particle. The route of this particle was found to be the aerial transfer at the time of the accident. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  20. Multi-year strategic plan for the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain: ASCOT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program was developed by the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Office of Energy Research in the Department of Energy (DOE). The program was originally designed to study atmospheric process in regions of complex terrain and the impact of energy sources on air quality in those regions. The ASCOT program has been the principal atmospheric boundary layer research program of DOE. This document contains a description of the ASCOT program's objectives over the next five years and beyond, placing them in the context of current and anticipated needs of DOE and initiatives described in the National Energy Strategy

  1. Project plans for transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy comples-10522

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mctaggart, Jerri Lynne; Lott, Sheila; Gadbury, Casey

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), has been tasked to write Project Plans for all of the Small Quantity Sites (SQS) with defense related Transuranic (TRU) waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Transuranic Work-Off Plans were precursors to the Project Plans. LANL-CO prepared a Work-Off Plan for each small quantity site. The Work-Off Plan that identified issues, drivers, schedules, and inventory. Eight sites have been chosen to deinventory their legacy TRU waste; Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, General Electric-Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Area 300, Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Radiation Development, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Separations Process Research Unit. Each plan was written for contact and/or remote handled waste if present at the site. These project plans will assist the small quantity sites to ship legacy TRU waste offsite and de-inventory the site of legacy TRU waste. The DOE is working very diligently to reduce the nuclear foot print in the United States. Each of the eight SQSs will be de-inventoried of legacy TRU waste during a campaign that ends September 2011. The small quantity sites have a fraction of the waste that large quantity sites possess. During this campaign, the small quantity sites will package all of the legacy TRU waste and ship to Idaho or directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The sites will then be removed from the Transuranic Waste Inventory if they are de-inventoried of all waste. Each Project Plan includes the respective site inventory report, schedules, resources, drivers and any issues. These project plans have been written by the difficult waste team and will be approved by each site. Team members have been assigned to each site to write site specific project plans. Once the project plans have been written, the difficult team members will visit the sites to ensure nothing has

  2. Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.

    1982-03-01

    The economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic wastes are evaluated by comparing the costs of reduction of the wastes with the savings possible in transportation and disposal. A general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings is developed, an initial set of cost data is established, conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste are developed. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled, newly generated and retrievably stored DOE transuranic wastes. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal and transportation savings, and volume reduction techniques and costs. Section IV contains the results and conclusions of the study. The major conclusions drawn from the study are: For DOE sites with a small amount of waste requiring disposal ( 3 /year) the cost of volume reduction is greater than the transportation and disposal savings from volume reduction provided the waste requires little additional preparation to meet transportation and disposal criteria. Wastes that do not meet these criteria require site specific economic analysis outside the general evaluations of this study. For Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, incineration and metal shredding are cost-effective, provided a facility is to be constructed as a consequence of repackaging the fraction of stored waste which may require repackaging and immobilizing chemical process waste to meet disposal criteria

  3. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10 -5 parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables

  4. Transuranic depositional history in South Greenland firn layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, M.; Goldberg, E.D.; Herron, M.M.; Langway, C.C. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the surface layers of the Greenland ice sheet have preserved a continuous and detailed record of atmospheric fallout of transuranic nuclides from weapons tests over the past 30 yr. It was found that fallout maxima occurred in the 1950s and 1960s for sup(239+240)Pu and in 1965-66 for 238 Pu. This work may be extended by using alpine glaciers in mid-latitudes for a reconstruction of fallout patterns over the past three decades for an evaluation of present day dispersions of these nuclides as a consequence of atmospheric fallout and other possible entries. (author)

  5. Technology status report: Transuranic contamination control at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes proposed FY-92 work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in the field of contamination control during transuranic waste handling operations. The proposed work is both applied research and demonstration testing. The INEL needs for contamination control applied research and demonstration testing are listed along with a description of past accomplishments. The INEL proposal is compared to other proposals for contamination control work that are under consideration for funding by the Department of Energy. Benefits of this work and impacts of not sponsoring this work are also given. 21 refs

  6. Transuranic elements in nature - plutonium all around us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.; Baptista de Alleluia, I.

    1979-01-01

    At first the transuranic element plutonium was thought to be an artificial element which was formed during nuclear reactions. However, in the earth's crust traces of plutonium have also been found which has constantly been renewing itself ever since the birth of our solar system. But it is the quantities of artificially produced plutonium which make up the bulk of this element on our planet. Part of it has spread fairly equally over the whole of the earth. Plutonium can be proved to exist on every field an in every sample of air today. (orig.) [de

  7. Certification plan transuranic waste: Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWBF; and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification

  8. Molten salt/metal extractions for recovery of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The integral fast reactor (EFR) is an advanced reactor concept that incorporates metallic driver and blanket fuels, an inherently safe, liquid-sodium-cooled, pool-type, reactor design, and on-site pyrochemical reprocessing (including electrorefining) of spent fuels and wastes. This paper describes a pyrochemical method that is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory to recover transuranic elements from the EFR electrorefiner process salt. The method uses multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and cadmium metal at high temperatures. The chemical basis of the salt extraction method, the test equipment, and a test plan are discussed

  9. Gas generation from transuranic waste degradation: an interim assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1979-10-01

    A review of all available, applicable data pertaining to gas generation from the degradation of transuranic waste matrix material and packaging is presented. Waste forms are representative of existing defense-related TRU wastes and include cellulosics, plastics, rubbers, concrete, process sludges, and mild steel. Degradation mechanisms studied were radiolysis, thermal, bacterial, and chemical corrosion. Gas generation rates are presented in terms of moles of gas produced per year per drum, and in G(gas) values for radiolytic degradation. Comparison of generation rates is made, as is a discussion of potential short- and long-term concerns. Techniques for reducing gas generation rates are discussed. 6 figures, 10 tables

  10. Methods for removing transuranic elements from waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Connor, C.; Sedlet, J.; Srinivasan, B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-11-01

    This report outlines a treatment scheme for separating and concentrating the transuranic (TRU) elements present in aqueous waste solutions stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The treatment method selected is carrier precipitation. Potential carriers will be evaluated in future laboratory work, beginning with ferric hydroxide and magnetite. The process will result in a supernatant with alpha activity low enough that it can be treated in the existing evaporator/concentrator at ANL. The separated TRU waste will be packaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  11. Prospective Vigilance: Assessing Complex Coordinated Attack Preparedness Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CCA complex coordinate attack EMS emergency medical services FBI Federal Bureau...the Bombings in London on 7th July 2005, vol. HC 1087 (London: The Stationery Office, 2006), https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads...School Center for Homeland Defense and Security Mobile Education Team, DHS Office of Bombing Prevention, and DHS Active Shooter training. 55 NCTC, DHS

  12. Proceedings of the second FY87 meeting of the National Working Group for Reduction in Transuranic Waste Arisings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The Second FY87 Meeting of the National Working Group for Reduction in Transuranic Waste Arisings (NWGRTWA) was held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Tuesday and Wednesday, July 28--29, 1987. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss (1) modeling programs for waste reduction, (2) proposed FY88 and out-year tasks including the SRL Pu incineration, immobilization improvement, erbia coating technology, and (3) improvements in up-stream recovery operations to effect waste reduction. In addition, tours were made of the LLNL Waste Operations, the Laser Fusion (NOVA), and the Magnetic Fusion (MFTF)

  13. Scaled Testing of Hydrogen Gas Getters for Transuranic Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuba, J.; Mroz, E.; Haga, M.; Hollis, W. K.; Peterson, E.; Stone, M.; Orme, C.; Luther, T.; Benson, M.

    2006-01-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage and shipment containers. Hydrogen forms a flammable mixture with air over a wide range of concentrations (5% to 75%), and very low energy is needed to ignite hydrogen-air mixtures. For these reasons, the concentration of hydrogen in waste shipment containers (Transuranic Package Transporter-II or TRUPACT-II containers) needs to remain below the lower explosion limit of hydrogen in air (5 vol%). Accident scenarios and the resulting safety analysis require that this limit not be exceeded. The use of 'hydrogen getters' is being investigated as a way to prevent the build up of hydrogen in TRUPACT-II containers. Preferred getters are solid materials that scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and chemically and irreversibly bind it into the solid state. In this study, two getter systems are evaluated: a) 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl)benzene or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds; and b) a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter, VEI or TruGetter, characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds. Carbon in both getter types may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. With oxygen present, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB and VEI performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests using small test volumes (ml-scale), high hydrogen generation rates, and short time spans of hours to days. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether DEB and VEI perform satisfactorily in actual drum-scale tests with realistic hydrogen generation rates and time frames. The two getter systems were evaluated in test vessels comprised of a Gas Generation Test Program-style bell-jar and a drum equipped with a composite drum filter. The vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the

  14. Colloid generation and solid-liquid distribution of transuranic elements in natural aquifier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rommel, H.; Kim, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    The sorption and desorption behaviour of transuranic elements in the presence of their pseudocolloids has been investigated in deep geological aquifer systems at Gorleben area. The generation of transuranic colloids and their influence on the determination of distribution coefficients in a laboratory experimental system are evaluated quantitatively. Discussion is made on the possible extrapolation of laboratory results to natural systems. (author)

  15. Colloid generation and solid-liquid distribution of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Rommel, H.

    1986-01-01

    The sorption and desorption behaviour of transuranic elements in the presence of their pseudocolloids has been investigated in deep geological aquifer systems at Gorleben area. The generation of transuranic colloids and their influence on the determination of distribution coefficients in a laboratory experimental system are evaluated quantitatively. Discussion is made on the possible extrapolation of laboratory results to natural systems. (orig.)

  16. Evidence for the remobilisation of transuranic elements in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursthouse, A S; Livens, F R

    1993-09-01

    The transuranium elements, Np, Pu and Am discharged from the BNFL fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield have accumulated in the local environment. The processes responsible for their dispersal rely both on physical transportation and their chemical reactivity. The transuranics have a complex chemistry, with multiple oxidation states and a strongly polarising character. In the environment, the particle active III/IV and more mobile VNI oxidation state groups are important and govern their geochemical behaviour and subsequent dispersal.Studies of the behaviour of the transuranics, particularly Pu, in the Irish Sea, have shown that the majority of the radionuclides in the liquid effluent discharged from Sellafield, quickly becomes associated with the marine sediments. Their dispersal and distribution in the environment is then governed primarily by the movement of particulate material and for some sites it has been suggested that sediment profiles preserve the historical record of discharges from the plant.In tidally inundated soils, radionuclide levels are greatly enhanced. These soils are water-logged for long periods of the year, are strongly anoxic and accretion rate are very low. The distribution of Np, Pu and Am in the soil suggests that simple sedimentary accumulation mechanism cannot provide an adequate explanation for the profiles observed. From preliminary studies of soil pore water composition and detailed analysis of the variation of isotopic ratios in the soil cores, it is apparent that a small but significant component of the radionuclide inventory is mobile. In addition, it is clear that the mechanisms responsible for this mobility allows differentiation between the transuranium nuclides.

  17. The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.L.; Gephart, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESPIP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The ESPIP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESPIP supports applied R ampersand D leading to demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Examples of current ESPIP-funded separations technologies are described here

  18. Data base of the environmental aspects of the transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfuderer, H.

    1975-01-01

    Indexed and abstracted references to the environmental aspects of the transuranium elements are entered into and are retrievable from a dynamic, computerized information file (or data base) that is easily modified to reflect changing research needs. The information is distilled from the documents with the specific needs of the researcher in mind, such as numeric results, new methods, or instrumentation. The major areas of evaluation are: biological and medical studies on the effects of the transuranics, particularly as these elements relate to health considerations in man; biological and ecological availability, turnover, and food chain dynamics; analysis of environmental materials; environmental transport mechanisms, including resuspension; waste disposal as related to environmental concerns; monitoring; and regulations and standards for environmental levels. Annotated references are indexed to allow easy access for retrieving references to documents of interest to the user. The goal is to furnish the users all the references related to their specific query and few that are unrelated. This is done by liberal use of subject categories and keyterms. The studies on man and animals are divided into the subject categories of medical and biological aspects. Those aspects that are considered important when the document is analyzed are tabulated. These data are sought for in the article, included in the abstracts, and indexed with keyterms. This checklist is one of the ways the Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics strives to give users a reference to every paper in their subject area

  19. Transuranic waste baseline inventory report. Revision No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (TWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties from across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system into a series of open-quotes waste profilesclose quotes that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The purpose of Revisions 0 and 1 of this report was to provide data to be included in the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) performance assessment (PA) processes for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revision 2 of the document expanded the original purpose and was also intended to support the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) requirement for providing the total DOE TRU waste inventory. The document included a chapter and an appendix that discussed the total DOE TRU waste inventory, including nondefense, commercial, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-contaminated, and buried (predominately pre-1970) TRU wastes that are not planned to be disposed of at WIPP

  20. Distribution of transuranic elements in a freshwater pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1975-05-01

    Preliminary results are reported from a study initiated on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am in a freshwater environment. This study involves a waste pond which has been receiving Pu processing wastes for about 30 years. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization. In addition, the ecological distribution of Pu and Am was investigated. The pond is also highly enriched with nutrients, thus supporting a high level of algal and macrophyte production. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrators of Pu transuranics in the pond system. The major sink for Pu and Am in this system is the sediments. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments, is also a major concentrator of transuranics in this system []Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Dragonfly, larvae, watercress, and snails show concentrations which approximate those of the sediments but nearly all other food web components have levels of Pu and Am which are lower than those of the sediments, thus, Pu and Am seem to be relatively immobile in the aquatic ecosystem. (CH)

  1. Input of transuranic elements through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am were carried out on river water as well as its suspended matter collected seasonally in 1977 from two Mediterranean rivers, the Var and the Rhone. The results show that although the concentrations of the soluble fractions of these radionuclides are higher in the Rhone than in the Var, even the elevated concentrations of soluble 137 Cs (approximately 40 fCi.ltr -1 ) and sup(239+240)Pu (approximately 0.1 fCi.ltr -1 ) in the Rhone are much lower than the average concentrations of these nuclides in Mediterranean surface waters. On the other hand, the concentrations of the nuclides measured in suspended matter are roughly an order of magnitude higher in the Rhone than in the Var. Based on the results of measurements on the two rivers, and assuming that the annual average concentrations of the radionuclides in the Var and the Rhone respectively represent those in radiologically uncontaminated and contaminated Mediterranean rivers, the total inputs of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea have been estimated. Comparison of these estimated values with the inputs of fallout radionuclides by rain indicates that although local accumulation of transuranic nuclides may be observed on sediments taken from some limited estuarine areas, the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, as a whole, is exclusively governed today by the fallout input of these elements. (author)

  2. Decontamination of transuranic contaminated metals by melt refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Melt refining of transuranic contaminated metals is a possible decontamination process with the potential advantages of producing metal for reuse and of simplifying chemical analyses. By routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g( about0.1ppm) level by melt refining, scrap metal can be removed from the transuranic waste category. (To demonstrate the effectiveness of this melt refining process, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppm (μg/g) PuO 2 and melted with various fluxes. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents, and corresponding partition ratios for plutonium were calculated. Some metals were double refined in order to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate the effect of slag weight on the degree of plutonium removal. In general, all four metals could be decontaminated below 1 ppm (μg/g) Pu ( about100 nCi/g) by a single slag treatment. Doubling the slag weight did not improve decontamination significantly; however, double slag treatment using 5 wt.% slag did decontaminate the metals to below 0.1 ppm (μg/g) Pu (10 nCi/g).)

  3. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Loehr, C.A.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions

  4. Multi-dimensional Rankings, Program Termination, and Complexity Bounds of Flowchart Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Alias , Christophe; Darte , Alain; Feautrier , Paul; Gonnord , Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Proving the termination of a flowchart program can be done by exhibiting a ranking function, i.e., a function from the program states to a well-founded set, which strictly decreases at each program step. A standard method to automatically generate such a function is to compute invariants for each program point and to search for a ranking in a restricted class of functions that can be handled with linear programming techniques. Previous algorithms based on affine rankin...

  5. Solid waste operations complex engineering verification program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    This plan supersedes, but does not replace, the previous Waste Receiving and Processing/Solid Waste Engineering Development Program Plan. In doing this, it does not repeat the basic definitions of the various types or classes of development activities nor provide the rigorous written description of each facility and assign the equipment to development classes. The methodology described in the previous document is still valid and was used to determine the types of verification efforts required. This Engineering Verification Program Plan will be updated on a yearly basis. This EVPP provides programmatic definition of all engineering verification activities for the following SWOC projects: (1) Project W-026 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1; (2) Project W-100 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A; (3) Project W-112 - Phase V Storage Facility; and (4) Project W-113 - Solid Waste Retrieval. No engineering verification activities are defined for Project W-112 as no verification work was identified. The Acceptance Test Procedures/Operational Test Procedures will be part of each project's Title III operation test efforts. The ATPs/OTPs are not covered by this EVPP

  6. Complex exercise rehabilitation program for women of the II period of age with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Ok; Olga, Kozyreva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a complex exercise program integrating Eastern and Western complex exercise rehabilitation programs in order to examine the effects of it on the human body with the subjects for women of the II period of mature age with metabolic syndrome. The subjects of this study are 60 II period of mature aged women with metabolic syndrome living in G City, and the experimental group conducted Taekwon-aerobic exercise, European rehabilitation gymnastics, gym ball e...

  7. Radiation protection program at an accelerator facility complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanuja, Jaya

    2007-01-01

    Broad aspects of Radiation Protection Program at the Tyco Healthcare/Mallinckrodt Inc. will be presented with emphasis on Occupational dose, Public dose and ALARA program. Regulatory requirements, compliance and radio nuclides of concern for external exposure and internal contamination will be discussed. The facility is subject to in depth annual inspections by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to ensure compliance with regulations and operating license requirements. The facility is required to have an emergency contingency plan in place. A simulated emergency drill scenario is witnessed and graded by the NRC and state inspectors, with full participation by the fire department and the local hospital. Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) is in charge of all radiological aspects of the facility, and reports to the plant manager directly. The RSO or any of his staff has the authority to stop a job if there is a radiological concern. The Radiation protection organization interfaces with Production, QA and Engineering and ensures there is no conflict with Industrial Safety, OSHA and FDA requirements. Any employee has the right to call the regulatory officials if he/she has a concern. Operational aspects of Radiation protection program such as radiological survey, contamination control and limits, air sample survey, radio active waste processing and record retention requirements are per plant procedures and regulatory requirements. Shielding and administrative requirements for designing a modification to an existing design or a new lab/hot cell is subject to in-depth review and approval by Radiation Safety Committee. Each department has a Dose Reduction Subcommittee which meets periodically to discuss if any changes in procedures or facility can be made to decrease the dose. The subcommittee also trends the dose to ensure it is trending downward. Even though 99 Mo/ 99m TC generators are manufactured at the facility, majority of the dose is from cyclotron maintenance

  8. BRAND program complex for neutron-physical experiment simulation by the Monte-Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsenko, A.A.; Androsenko, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Possibilities of the BRAND program complex for neutron and γ-radiation transport simulation by the Monte-Carlo method are described in short. The complex includes the following modules: geometric module, source module, detector module, modules of simulation of a vector of particle motion direction after interaction and a free path. The complex is written in the FORTRAN langauage and realized by the BESM-6 computer

  9. Evaluation of a self-guided transport vehicle for remote transportation of transuranic and other hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.M.; Moody, S.J.; Peterson, R. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic ft of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic ft of waste is up to 10 million cubic ft of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate a technology for transporting exhumed transuranic wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at other hazardous or radioactive waste sites through the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conducted at the INEEL Robotics Center in the summer of 1995, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for remote transport of exhumed buried waste. The technology consisted of a Self-Guided Transport Vehicle designed to remotely convey retrieved waste from the retrieval digface and transport it to a receiving/processing area with minimal human intervention. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate performance parameters such as precision and accuracy of navigation and transportation rates.

  10. Evaluation of a self-guided transport vehicle for remote transportation of transuranic and other hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, P.M.; Moody, S.J.; Peterson, R.

    1997-04-01

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic ft of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic ft of waste is up to 10 million cubic ft of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate a technology for transporting exhumed transuranic wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at other hazardous or radioactive waste sites through the U.S. Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conducted at the INEEL Robotics Center in the summer of 1995, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for remote transport of exhumed buried waste. The technology consisted of a Self-Guided Transport Vehicle designed to remotely convey retrieved waste from the retrieval digface and transport it to a receiving/processing area with minimal human intervention. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate performance parameters such as precision and accuracy of navigation and transportation rates

  11. Syntactic Complexity Metrics and the Readability of Programs in a Functional Computer Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Engel, F.L.; Bouwhuis, D.G.; Bosser, T.; d'Ydewalle, G.

    This article reports on the defintion and the measutement of the software complexity metrics of Halstead and McCabe for programs written in the functional programming language Miranda. An automated measurement of these metrics is described. In a case study, the correlation is established between the

  12. Has First-Grade Core Reading Program Text Complexity Changed across Six Decades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Relyea, Jackie Eunjung; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to address possible text complexity shifts across the past six decades for a continually best-selling first-grade core reading program. The anthologies of one publisher's seven first-grade core reading programs were examined using computer-based analytics, dating from 1962 to 2013. Variables were Overall Text…

  13. Developing Leadership for Increasing Complexity: A Review of Online Graduate Leadership Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Steven L.; Palmer, Sarah; Hughes, Patrick J.

    2018-01-01

    Leadership education must evolve to keep pace with the growing recognition that effective leadership happens in a complex environment and is as much a systemic variable as a personal one. As part of a program review process, a graduate leadership program at a private Midwestern university conducted a qualitative review of 18 online graduate…

  14. Improving International Marketing Programs to Reflect Global Complexity and Risk: Curriculum Drivers and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the curriculum redesign of a master's-level program in international marketing from a UK perspective. In order to ensure that the program would be more fit-for-purpose for future managers working under conditions of complexity, uncertainty, and within regimes often very different from the home market, the team began the…

  15. A computer program for external modes in complex ionic crystals (the rigid molecular-ion model)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplot, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program DISPR has been developed to calculate the external mode phonon dispersion relation in the harmonic approximation for complex ionic crystals using the rigid molecular ion model. A description of the program, the flow diagram and the required input information are given. A sample calculation for α-KNO 3 is presented. The program can handle any type of crystal lattice with any number of atoms and molecules per unit cell with suitable changes in dimension statements. (M.G.B.)

  16. 1992 annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    In 1992 the Santa Fe Institute hosted more than 100 short- and long-term research visitors who conducted a total of 212 person-months of residential research in complex systems. To date this 1992 work has resulted in more than 50 SFI Working Papers and nearly 150 publications in the scientific literature. The Institute`s book series in the sciences of complexity continues to grow, now numbering more than 20 volumes. The fifth annual complex systems summer school brought nearly 60 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to Santa Fe for an intensive introduction to the field. Research on complex systems-the focus of work at SFI-involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex adaptive behavior range upwards from DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complex behavior include spin glasses, cellular automata, and genetic algorithms. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simple components; (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy); and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions.

  17. Pyrometallurgical partitioning of uranium and transuranic elements from rare earth elements by electrorefining and reductive extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uozumi, Koichi; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Inoue, Tadashi; Storvick, T.S.; Krueger, C.L.; Nabelek, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    High-level liquid waste generated from PUREX reprocessing contains a small amount of transuranic elements, such as Np, Pu, Am, and Cm, with long-lived radioactivities. A pyrometallurgical partitioning process is being developed to recover transuranic elements from such waste. Small amounts of U contained in the high-level liquid waste are also recovered in the process. A key issue for developing the process is effective separation of U and the transuranic elements from the rare-earth elements, because the two elemental groups are chemically analogous. A series of process tests were carried out in the present study to demonstrate that a combination of electrorefining and reductive extraction is useful for separating U and transuranic elements from the rare-earth elements. The results indicate that 99% of U and each transuranic elements is recovered by the combination process as a product, and that the quantity of rare-earth elements contained in the product is smaller than the transuranic elements by weight. The overall mass balance of U and transuranic elements in the system ranged within the experimental errors assigned to sampling and analysis. (author)

  18. 1991 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    1991 was continued rapid growth for the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) as it broadened its interdisciplinary research into the organization, evolution and operation of complex systems and sought deeply the principles underlying their dynamic behavior. Research on complex systems--the focus of work at SFI--involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex behavior range upwards from proteins and DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complexity include nonlinear equations, spin glasses, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and an array of other computational models. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simples components, (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy), and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions. The importance of understanding such systems in enormous: many of the most serious challenges facing humanity--e.g., environmental sustainability, economic stability, the control of disease--as well as many of the hardest scientific questions--e.g., protein folding, the distinction between self and non-self in the immune system, the nature of intelligence, the origin of life--require deep understanding of complex systems.

  19. 1991 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    1991 was continued rapid growth for the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) as it broadened its interdisciplinary research into the organization, evolution and operation of complex systems and sought deeply the principles underlying their dynamic behavior. Research on complex systems--the focus of work at SFI--involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex behavior range upwards from proteins and DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complexity include nonlinear equations, spin glasses, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and an array of other computational models. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simples components, (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy), and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions. The importance of understanding such systems in enormous: many of the most serious challenges facing humanity--e.g., environmental sustainability, economic stability, the control of disease--as well as many of the hardest scientific questions--e.g., protein folding, the distinction between self and non-self in the immune system, the nature of intelligence, the origin of life--require deep understanding of complex systems.

  20. A Conceptual Schema of the Programming Process in the Complex Adult Education Organization with Special Emphasis on Its Sociological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Edgar J.; And Others

    Objectives of this paper were to define the concept of programing, to discuss programing in a complex adult education organization, and to point out aspects of programing of a sociological nature. Programing is a decision-making process. In a complex adult education organization, the process can be divided into eight phases: formulating the…

  1. Immobilization of transuranic sludge in glass-ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, J.M.; Schuman, R.P.; Flinn, J.E.

    1982-03-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effectiveness of glass-ceramic waste forms, particularly iron-enriched basalt, for immobilizing transuranic waste sludges from the Rocky Flats plant operations. Two sludges were used in the study - one was nonradioactive and the other contained approx. 2200 dps/mg of 241 Am. The glass-ceramic waste forms were produced from laboratory-scale melting operations with subsequent controlled cooling. The waste forms were examined to assess the microstructures which resulted from systematically varied compositions and controlled cooling sequences. Leach tests in deionized water were performed on small monolithic specimens of the various glass-ceramic materials. The test results showed a rather strong temperature dependence for leach rates. Also, for some of these materials, marked differences in the 241 Am leaching behavior were seen in measurements obtained on acidified versus neutral aliquots of the spent leachates. 8 figures, 12 tables

  2. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Retireval Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, G.M.; Christensen, D.V.; Stanford, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) project for remediation of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste from Pads 1, 2, and 4. Some of the TRU waste packages retrieved from Pad I are anticipated to be part of LANL's initial inventory to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in April 1998. The TRU Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP) was initiated in February 1993 in response to the New Mexico Environment Department's (NMED's) Consent Agreement for Compliance Order, ''New Mexico Hazardous Waste Agreement (NMHWA) 93-03.'' The TWISP involves the recovery of approximately 16,865 TRU and TRU-mixed waste containers currently under earthen cover on Pads 1, 2, and 4 at Technical Area 54, Area G, and placement of that waste into inspectable storage. All waste will be moved into inspectable storage by September 30, 2003. Waste recovery and storage operations emphasize protection of worker safety, public health, and the environment

  3. Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colburn, R.P.

    1995-05-05

    The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document.

  4. W-026, transuranic waste (TRU) glovebox acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    On July 18, 1997, the Transuranic (TRU) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13021A-86. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, sorting table, lidder/delidder device and the TRU empty drum compactor were also conducted. As of February 25, 1998, 10 of the 102 test exceptions that affect the TRU glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test exceptions are provided as appendices to this report

  5. Geomicrobiological redox cycling of the transuranic element neptunium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Gareth T W; Geissler, Andrea; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Livens, Francis R; Boothman, Christopher; Begg, James D C; Denecke, Melissa A; Rothe, Jörg; Dardenne, Kathy; Burke, Ian T; Charnock, John M; Morris, Katherine

    2010-12-01

    Microbial processes can affect the environmental behavior of redox sensitive radionuclides, and understanding these reactions is essential for the safe management of radioactive wastes. Neptunium, an alpha-emitting transuranic element, is of particular importance because of its long half-life, high radiotoxicity, and relatively high solubility as Np(V)O(2)(+) under oxic conditions. Here, we describe experiments to explore the biogeochemistry of Np where Np(V) was added to oxic sediment microcosms with indigenous microorganisms and anaerobically incubated. Enhanced Np removal to sediments occurred during microbially mediated metal reduction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed this was due to reduction to poorly soluble Np(IV) on solids. In subsequent reoxidation experiments, sediment-associated Np(IV) was somewhat resistant to oxidative remobilization. These results demonstrate the influence of microbial processes on Np solubility and highlight the critical importance of radionuclide biogeochemistry in nuclear legacy management.

  6. Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colburn, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document

  7. Vitrification of transuranic and beta-gamma contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, M.D.

    1980-06-01

    Vitrification of solid transuranic contaminated (TRU) wastes alone and with high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) was studied. Homogeneous glasses containing 20 to 30 wt % ash were made by using glass frits previously developed at the Savannah River Plant and Pacific Northwest Laboratories. If the ash is vitrified along with the HLLW, 1.0 wt % as can be added to the waste forms without affecting their quality. This loading of ash is well above the loading required by the relative amounts of HLLW and TRU ash that will be processed at the Savannah River Plant. Vitrification of TRU-contaminated electropolishing sludges and high efficiency particular air filter materials along with HLLW would require an increase in the quantity of glass to be produced. However, if these TRU-contaminated solids were vitrified with the HLLW, the addition of low-level beta-gamma contaminated ash would require no further increase in glass production

  8. Management of remote-handled defense transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebra, M.A.; Pierce, G.D.; Carson, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by defense-related activities are scheduled for emplacement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico beginning in October 1988. After five years of operation as a research and development facility, the WIPP may be designated as a permanent repository for these wastes, if it has been demonstrated that this deep, geologically stable formation is a safe disposal option. Defense TRU wastes are currently stored at various Department of Energy (DOE) sites across the nation. Approximately 2% by volume of currently stored TRU wastes are defined, on the basis of dose rates, as remote-handled (RH). RH wastes continue to be generated at various locations operated by DOE contractors. They require special handling and processing prior to and during emplacement in the WIPP. This paper describes the strategy for managing defense RH TRU wastes

  9. Test plan for preparing the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory for field deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    This plan describes experimental work that will be performed during fiscal year 1994 to prepare the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) for routine field use by US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs. The RTML is a mobile, field-deployable laboratory developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that provides a rapid, cost-effective means of characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste remediation sites for low-level radioactive contaminants. Analytical instruments currently installed in the RTML include an extended-range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer; two, large-area, ionization chamber alpha spectrometers; and four alpha continuous air monitors. The RTML was field tested at the INEL during June 1993 in conjunction with the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration's remote retrieval demonstration. The major tasks described in this test plan are to (a) evaluate the beta detectors for use in screening soil samples for 90 Sr, (b) upgrade the alpha spectral analysis software programs, and (c) upgrade the photon spectral analysis software programs

  10. Distribution of transuranic elements in a freshwater pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    During the past two years a unique study has been initiated on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater environment. This study involves a waste pond which has been receiving occasional low-level plutonium processing wastes for about 30 years. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization. In addition, the ecological distribution of plutonium and americium is being investigated. The purpose of this work is to explain plutonium and americium concentrations at specific ecological sites, important export routes out of the pond, and potential pathways to man. The pond is also highly enriched with nutrients, thus supporting a high level of algal and macrophyte production. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrator of transuranics in the pond system. The major sink for plutonium and americium in this system is the sediments. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments, is also a major concentrator of transuranics in this system. Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Dragonfly larvae, watercress, and snails show concentrations which approximate those of the sediments but nearly all other food web components have levels of plutonium and americium which are lower than those of the sediments. Thus, plutonium and americium seem to be relatively immobile in the aquatic ecosystem. However, the role of algae as a potential mechanism for the long-range ecological transport of plutonium and americium will receive additional attention

  11. In situ quantitative determination of transuranic elements in areas of high-level gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Wogman, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is described for passive neutron monitoring of transuranic elements. The method provides quantitative determinations of transuranic element concentrations in a variety of field situations where no other measurement method is possible. The technique can measure concentrations of transuranic oxides as low as 8 nCi/cmsup 3 and is capable of operating in gamma radiation fields up to megarads per hour. Information on chemical and isotopic composition can also be obtained from the data. Several successful applications of the technique are discussed. 1 ref

  12. In situ quantitative determination of transuranic elements in areas of high-level gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Wogman, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is described for passive neutron monitoring of transuranic elements. The method provides quantitative determinations of transuranic element concentrations in a variety of field situations where no other measurement method is possible. The technique can measure concentrations of transuranic oxides as low as 8 nCi/cm 3 and is capable of operating in gamma radiation fields up to megarads per hour. Information on chemical and isotopic composition can also be obtained from the data. Several successful applications of the technique are discussed

  13. Relationship of microbial processes to the fate of transuranic elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Drucker, H.

    1975-09-01

    Any assessment of the long-term behavior of the transuranics in the terrestrial environment must be based on determination of the factors influencing solubility in soil. The influence of soil properties and abiotic and biotic processes on the long-term solubility of the transuranics entering soils is reviewed in detail. Principal emphasis is directed toward the role of soil microorganisms. Emphasis is given to plutonium, but, where possible, the available information is used to discuss long-term behavior of other transuranics

  14. Evaluation of retrieval activities and equipment for removal of containers from the transuranic storage area retrieval enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannister, R.; Rhoden, G.; Davies, G.B.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1970, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has accepted over 55,000 cubic meters of Transuranic contaminated hazardous waste for interim storage. The waste has been neatly stored in ''cell'' configurations on adjoining, above ground asphalt pads at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA). A number of reports have been supplied for review and comment describing the methodology and equipment proposed for retrieval of drums and boxes from a storage facility at the INEL site. The contract for this review requires two main issues to be addressed. First, the adequacy of equipment and methodology for the retrieval of containers which have been breached, lost structural integrity, or are otherwise damaged, Second, to review the strategies and equipment for retrieval of intact waste containers. These issues are presented in the following report along with additional detail in the methodology to complete the description of the operations required for retrieval under most operational scenarios. The documentation reviewed is considered to be at an interim stage and is therefore expected to be subject to the development of the methodology from the existing level of detail with input from the facility operators. This review aims to anticipate some of this development by providing suggested detailed methods of retrieval and equipment for both normal and abnormal operations

  15. The effect of a complex training program on skating abilities in ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changyoung; Lee, Sookyung; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] Little data exist on systemic training programs to improve skating abilities in ice hockey players. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a complex training program on skating abilities in ice hockey players. [Methods] Ten male ice hockey players (training group) that engaged in 12 weeks of complex training and skating training and ten male players (control group) that only participated in 12 weeks of skating training completed on-ice skating tests including a 5 time 18 meters shuttle, t-test, Rink dash 5 times, and line drill before, during, and the training. [Results] Significant group-by-time interactions were found in all skating ability tests. [Conclusion] The complex training program intervention for 12 weeks improved their skating abilities of the ice hockey players.

  16. Fabrication of a tissue-equivalent torso phantom for intercalibration of in-vivo transuranic-nuclide counting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Dean, P.N.; Anderson, A.L.; Fisher, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent human-torso phantom has been constructed for calibration of the counting systems used for in-vivo measurement of transuranic nuclides. The phantom contains a human male rib cage, removable model organs, and includes tissue-equivalent chest plates that can be placed over the torso to simulate people with a wide range of statures. The organs included are lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes. Polyurethane with different concentrations of calcium carbonate was used to simulate the linear photon-attenuation properties of various human tissues--lean muscle, adipose-muscle mixtures, and cartilage. Foamed polyurethane with calcium carbonate simulates lung tissue. Transuranic isotopes can be incorporated uniformly in the phantom's lungs and other polyurethane-based organs by dissolution of the nitrate form in acetone with lanthanum nitrate carrier. Organs have now been labelled with highly pure 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 241 Am for calibration measurements. This phantom is the first of three that will be used in a U.S. Department of Energy program of intercomparisons involving more than ten laboratories. The results of the intercomparison will allow participating laboratories to prepare sets of transmission curves that can be used to predict the performance of their counting systems for a wide range of subject builds and organ depositions. The intercomparison will also provide valuable information on the relative performance of a variety of detector systems and counting techniques

  17. Development of an Engineered Product Storage Concept for the UREX+1 Combined Transuranic/Lanthanide Product Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean M.; Downar, Thomas J.; Taiwo, Temitope A.; Williamson, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing next generation processing methods to recycle uranium and transuranic (TRU) isotopes from spent nuclear fuel. The objective of the 3-year project described in this report was to develop near-term options for storing TRU oxides isolated through the uranium extraction (UREX+) process. More specifically, a Zircaloy matrix cermet was developed as a storage form for transuranics with the understanding that the cermet also has the ability to serve as a inert matrix fuel form for TRU burning after intermediate storage. The goals of this research projects were: (1) to develop the processing steps required to transform the effluent TRU nitrate solutions and the spent Xircaloy cladding into a zireonium matrix cermet storage form; and (2) to evaluate the impact of phenomena that govern durability of the storage form, material processing, and TRU utilization in fast reactor fuel. This report represents a compilation of the results generated under this program. The information is presented as a brief technical narrative in the following sections with appended papers, presentations and academic theses to provide a detailed review of the project's accomplishments

  18. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the environment at accident sites, a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, A.C.; Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. The authors intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of the literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments

  19. LMR design concepts for transuranic management in low sodium void worth cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The fuel cycle processing techniques and hard neutron spectrum of the integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal fuel cycle have favorable characteristics for the management of transuranics; and the wide range of breeding characteristics available in metal fuelled cores provides for flexibility in transuranic management strategy. Previous studies indicate that most design options which decrease the breeding ratio also allow a decrease in sodium void worth; therefore, low void worths are achievable in transuranic burning (low breeding ratio) core designs. This paper describes numerous trade studies assessing various design options for a low void worth transuranic burner core. A flat annular core design appears to be a promising concept; the high leakage geometry yields a low breeding ratio and small sodium void worth. To allow flexibility in breeding characteristics, alternate design options which achieve fissile self-sufficiency are also evaluated. A self-sufficient core design which is interchangeable with the burner core and maintains a low sodium void worth is developed. (author)

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This document provides baseline inventories of transuranic wastes for the WIPP facility. Information on waste forms, forecasting of future inventories, and waste stream originators is also provided. A diskette is provided which contains the inventory database

  1. Application to ship nonmixed transuranic waste to the Nevada Test Site for interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This report documents various regulations on radioactive waste processing and discusses how the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant will comply with and meet these requirements. Specific procedures are discussed concerning transuranic, metal scrap, salt block, solid, and glove box wastes

  2. Behaviour of transuranic radionuclides in soils, plants and soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, B.N.; Mistry, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper reviews the investigations undertaken to elucidate the physicochemical, edaphic and physiological aspects of the behaviour of long-lived transuranic radionuclides 239 Pu and 241 Am in typical Indian soils and soil-plant systems. 23 refs

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 1. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This document provides baseline inventories of transuranic wastes for the WIPP facility. Information on waste forms, forecasting of future inventories, and waste stream originators is also provided. A diskette is provided which contains the inventory database.

  4. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described.

  5. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.L.

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described

  6. Review of biokinetic and biological transport of transuranic radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Cross, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    Present understanding of the uptake, retention, and loss of transuranic radionuclides by marine biota is limited. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that for certain species assimilation of plutonium and americium from labeled food is an efficient process and that direct uptake from seawater is important in the bioaccumulation of all transuranic radionuclides studied to date. Organisms appear to play an important role in the vertical transport of these radioelements from the surface layers of the ocean to greater depths

  7. Transuranic waste assay instrumentation: new developments and directions at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, D.A.; Umbarger, C.J.; West, L.; Smith, W.J.; Cates, M.R.; Noel, B.W.; Honey, F.J.; Franks, L.A.; Pigg, J.L.; Trundle, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is developing assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. This also includes wastes generated in the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities and wastes generated during burial ground exhumation. The assay instrumentation will have a detection capability for the transuranics of less than 10 nCi of activity per gram of waste whenever practicable.

  8. Transuranic waste assay instrumentation: new developments and directions at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Umbarger, C.J.; West, L.; Smith, W.J.; Cates, M.R.; Noel, B.W.; Honey, F.J.; Franks, L.A.; Pigg, J.L.; Trundle, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is developing assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. This also includes wastes generated in the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities and wastes generated during burial ground exhumation. The assay instrumentation will have a detection capability for the transuranics of less than 10 nCi of activity per gram of waste whenever practicable

  9. 1993 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report provides a summary of many of the research projects completed by the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) during 1993. These research efforts continue to focus on two general areas: the study of, and search for, underlying scientific principles governing complex adaptive systems, and the exploration of new theories of computation that incorporate natural mechanisms of adaptation (mutation, genetics, evolution).

  10. Analysis of the matrix structure of the Nuclear Weapons Complex waste minimization and hazard reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two of the primary goals of this program in waste minimization that the major waste problems facing the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) are being addressed systematically and to prevent duplication of effort by forming an integrated approach across the complex. Production, disposal, and the hazards of both the wastes and the in-process chemicals used were to be studied. The eight waste streams chosen (electroplating, miscellaneous, mixed, plutonium, polymers, solvents, tritium, and uranium) were deemed to be the most serious problems facing the Nuclear Weapons Complex

  11. Neutron measurement method for the detection of transuranic elements in the nuclear fuel cycle; Neutronenmessverfahren fuer den Nachweis von Transuranen im Kernbrennstoff-Kreislauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokcic-Kostic, Marina; Schultheis, Roland [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    By handling and storing burned-down fuel elements it is duty to measure the existing nuclear fuel content. For the criticality analysis of the interim storage, for instance, it is imperative to know the nuclear fuel inventory in order to give a detailed description on the safety of storage to the supervisory authority. Among other things, it is necessary to consider that the possibility of mixing up stored fuel elements in the fuel pool was not able to be excluded. Due to high penetration of matter and its origin from decay or spontaneous fission of transuranic elements neutron verification methods are suited best for the proof of fission material as long as it has been burned-down beforehand. If fission chambers are additionally used as detectors, measurements can be even carried out in environments with high gamma levels. A highly improved measuring quality can be achieved, by comparing measurement results with the results of computer-aided simulations such as e.g. burn-up programs or MCNP- calculations. Hereby the impact on the measurement result by special marginal conditions of the measuring environment (e.g. addition of boric acid into the water of the fuel pool) can be estimated and thus revised. It is shown, that the passive neutron measurement is much easier to manage as an active measurement. As restriction it is to be considered, that measurements refer essentially to transuranic elements. Uranium such as U-235, however, is difficult to detect. For fuel elements applies, that the creation of transuranic elements is directly linked to the burn-up of U-235. Hence direct conclusions to the burn-up of U-235 can be drawn, by measuring transuranic content. (orig.)

  12. Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Content Codes (RH-Trucon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC). The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: (1) A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. (2) A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is ''3''. The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR

  13. Program of complex rehabilitation of pregnant with alimentary-constitutional obesity in the third trimester.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko T.N.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article is presented the complex rehabilitation program for pregnant with alimentary-constitutional obesity in the third trimester. The program is directed on the decline of bodyweight, with the purpose of increase of scray-protective reactions of organism of pregnant and to the decline of obstetric traumatism in births. In an experiment took part 90 pregnant of the third trimester with obesity of I-III degree, middle genesial age. The developed and inculcated program foresaw the use of physical, psychological and medical rehabilitation.

  14. Complications Associated with Long-Term Disposition of Newly-Generated Transuranic Waste: A National Laboratory Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchard, B.J.; Harvego, L.A.; Carlson, T.L.; Grant, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a multipurpose national laboratory delivering specialized science and engineering solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sponsorship of INL was formally transferred to the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) by Secretary Spencer Abraham in July 2002. The move to NE, and designation as the DOE lead nuclear energy laboratory for reactor technology, supports the nation's expanding nuclear energy initiatives, placing INL at the center of work to develop advanced Generation IV nuclear energy systems; nuclear energy/hydrogen coproduction technology; advanced nuclear energy fuel cycle technologies; and providing national security answers to national infrastructure needs. As a result of the Laboratory's NE mission, INL generates both contact-handled and remote-handled transuranic (TRU) waste from ongoing operations. Generation rates are relatively small and fluctuate based on specific programs and project activities being conducted; however, the Laboratory will continue to generate TRU waste well into the future in association with the NE mission. Currently, plans and capabilities are being established to transfer INL's contact-handled TRU waste to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) for certification and disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Remote-handled TRU waste is currently placed in storage at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). In an effort to minimize future liabilities associated with the INL NE mission, INL is evaluating and assessing options for the management and disposition of all its TRU waste on a real-time basis at time of generation. This paper summarizes near-term activities to minimize future re handling of INL's TRU waste, as well as, potential complications associated with the long-term disposition of newly-generated TRU waste. Potential complications impacting the disposition of INL newly-generated TRU waste include, but are not limited to: (1

  15. Construction and clinical application of complex utility programs in the SEGAMS-80 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mate, E.; Csirik, J.; Csernay, L.; Makay, A.

    1981-01-01

    SEGAMS-80 is a system for processing isotope-diagnostic pictures easily and safely for physicians. The functions built into the system form a tree-structure. In certain stages of processing, tables completed according to the medical point of view show identification and a short description of the actual performable functions. The functions available allow an interactive performance of diagnostic processes for different purposes. Interactivity is undesirable while processing routine examinations, since the functions to be performed, their sequence and parameters could be identical in all cases. SEGAMS-80 makes it possible to construct complex programs, to put them into the system and execute them. During the complex program the desired functions are automatically executed. The operator's interference is needed only where the author of the complex program has stated that it is necessary from the medical aspects. Experience gained with several SEGAMS-80 systems has shown that they can be successfully used in isotope diagnostics, without requiring any training in computing techniques from the physicians. A schematic description is given of the structure of SEGAMS-80 together with a detailed account of how to construct complex utility programs. (author)

  16. Safety analysis and inventory control of transuranic and low-level waste in common storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Bonner, A.L.; Joyce, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed For the inventory control of low-level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, when both are stored in the same location, and both contribute to an inventory constrained by safety considerations. Development of the method arose from the necessity to make safety analysis calculations for the addition of LLW, in quantities greater than existing inventory limits would allow when stored with TRU waste, in the Hanford Central Waste Complex (CWC)-Ensuring that the dose consequences of credible releases are maintained at low-hazard limits or less, was used to allow greater than Type A quantities of LLW into the CWC. Basically, what happens is the original limited amount of TRU allowed is reduced by some equivalent amount of LLW introduced. The total quantity of TRU, and LLW in excess of Type A quantities, must be administratively maintained via curie equivalency Factors to ensure operation as a low-hazard Facility. The ''equivalency'' between TRU and LLW proposed here is specific only to the CWC, but the methodology can be used for other specific applications, such as TRU and LLW storage or handling facilities where inventory limits must be enforced or where a simplified inventory system is required

  17. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Landsberger, S.

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration

  18. Direct conversion of plutonium metal, scrap, residue, and transuranic waste to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Malling, J.F.; Rudolph, J.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the direct conversion of metals, ceramics, organics, and amorphous solids to borosilicate glass has been invented. The process is called the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS). Traditional glass-making processes can convert only oxide materials to glass. However, many wastes contain complex mixtures of metals, ceramics, organics, and amorphous solids. Conversion of such mixtures to oxides followed by their conversion to glass is often impractical. GMODS may create a practical method to convert such mixtures to glass. Plutonium-containing materials (PCMS) exist in many forms, including metals, ceramics, organics, amorphous solids, and mixtures thereof. These PCMs vary from plutonium metal to filters made of metal, organic binders, and glass fibers. For storage and/or disposal of PCMS, it is desirable to convert PCMs to borosilicate glass. Borosilicate glass is the preferred repository waste form for high-level waste (HLW) because of its properties. PCMs converted to a transuranic borosilicate homogeneous glass would easily pass all waste acceptance and storage criteria. Conversion of PCMs to a glass would also simplify safeguards by conversion of heterogeneous PCMs to homogeneous glass. Thermodynamic calculations and proof-of-principle experiments on the GMODS process with cerium (plutonium surrogate), uranium, stainless steel, aluminum, Zircaloy-2, and carbon were successfully conducted. Initial analysis has identified potential flowsheets and equipment. Major unknowns remain, but the preliminary data suggests that GMODS may be a major new treatment option for PCMs

  19. Investigation of Varied Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation Chemistries for Crossflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Precipitation chemistries for strontium and transuranic (TRU) removal have been tested for crossflow filterability and lanthanide removal with simulants of Hanford tank 241-AN-107 supernate. This is the initial work indicating the usefulness of a strontium and permanganate precipitation process as applied to the Hanford River Protection Project. Precipitations with both ferric and ferrous iron were shown to be at least two orders of magnitude less filterable than a 0.1 gpm/ft target average flux that was desired at the time. A precipitate from a strontium nitrate strike alone was found to filter easily and to make the desired average flux. Other chemistries tested included precipitant of lanthanum(III), nickel (II), calcium (II), and a redox chemistry using sodium permanganate. Of these chemistries a strontium and permanganate strike including calcium provided the highest filter flux compared to the other chemistries. It showed the most promise in lanthanide removal as well. This work provides a promising direction for further work to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project. The work reported here was originally intended to satisfy needs for crossflow filter testing of a strontium and ferric precipitation method for treating Envelope C using a 241-AN-107 simulant

  20. Proposed Changes to EPA's Transuranic Waste Characterization Approval Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, R.D.; Feltcorn, E.M.; Ortiz, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the changes to the waste characterization (WC) approval process proposed in August 2002 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency or we). EPA regulates the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository in Carlsbad, New Mexico. EPA regulations require that waste generator/storage sites seek EPA approval of WC processes used to characterize TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP. The regulations also require that EPA verify, through site inspections, characterization of each waste stream or group of waste streams proposed for disposal at the WIPP. As part of verification, the Agency inspects equipment, procedures, and interviews personnel to determine if the processes used by a site can adequately characterize the waste in order to meet the waste acceptance criteria for WIPP. The paper discusses EPA's mandate, current regulations, inspection experience, and proposed changes. We expect that th e proposed changes will provide equivalent or improved oversight. Also, they would give EPA greater flexibility in scheduling and conducting inspections, and should clarify the regulatory process of inspections for both Department of Energy (DOE) and the public

  1. Promises and Challenges of Thorium Implementation for Transuranic Transmutation - 13550

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.; Wenner, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Lindley, B. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fiorina, C. [Polytechnic of Milan (Italy); Phillips, C. [Energy Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of implementing a thorium fuel cycle for recycle and transmutation of long-lived actinide components from used nuclear fuel. A multi-stage reactor system is proposed; the first stage consists of current UO{sub 2} once-through LWRs supplying transuranic isotopes that are continuously recycled and burned in second stage reactors in either a uranium (U) or thorium (Th) carrier. The second stage reactors considered for the analysis are Reduced Moderation Pressurized Water Reactors (RMPWRs), reconfigured from current PWR core designs, and Fast Reactors (FRs) with a burner core design. While both RMPWRs and FRs can in principle be employed, each reactor and associated technology has pros and cons. FRs have unmatched flexibility and transmutation efficiency. RMPWRs have higher fuel manufacturing and reprocessing requirements, but may represent a cheaper solution and the opportunity for a shorter time to licensing and deployment. All options require substantial developments in manufacturing, due to the high radiation field, and reprocessing, due to the very high actinide recovery ratio to elicit the claimed radiotoxicity reduction. Th reduces the number of transmutation reactors, and is required to enable a viable RMPWR design, but presents additional challenges on manufacturing and reprocessing. The tradeoff between the various options does not make the choice obvious. Moreover, without an overarching supporting policy in place, the costly and challenging technologies required inherently discourage industrialization of any transmutation scheme, regardless of the adoption of U or Th. (authors)

  2. The effects of transuranic separation on waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    Rogers and Associates Engineering has analyzed waste streams from fuel cycles involving actinide partitioning and transmutation to determine appropriate disposal facilities for the waste and the cost of disposal. The focus of the study is the economic impact of actinide partitioning and transmutation on waste disposal, although there is a qualitative discussion of the impacts of actinide burning on disposal risk. This effort is part of a multi-contractor task being coordinated by the Electric Power Research Institute to address the technical feasibility and economic impact of transuranic burning. Waste streams were defined by General Electric Corporation for eight alternative processing cases -- involving aqueous and pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from light water reactors and liquid metal reactors and for low-actinide-recovery and high-actinide-recovery technologies. Disposal options are determined for three possible futures: one involving the present socio-political-licensing environment and using cost estimates for existing or planned facilities, an optimistic future with lower siting and licensing costs, and a pessimistic future with high siting and licensing costs and some extraordinary measures to assure waste isolation. The optimistic future allows the disposal of certain types of waste in a facility that provides a degree of waste isolation that is intermediate between a repository and a low-level-waste facility. 30 refs., 18 figs., 45 tabs

  3. Geochemistry of long lived transuranic actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA initiated in 1987 a new Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on geochemistry of long lived transuranic actinides and fission products for a duration of 5 years. The framework of the CRP consists of three main components: (1) development of a working hypothesis with focus on laboratory studies; (2) testing of the working hypothesis with the focus on the field studies; and (3) transport modelling. The contents of this document reflect the results reported on by a number of Member States who participated in this Co-ordinated Research Programme which investigated the geochemical processes and mechanisms which affect rock-water interactions and migration of the chemical elements in geological media as scientific background in support of safety assessments of repositories for high level radioactive wastes. Studies conducted considered the migration of the long lived radionuclides of Tc, I, Np and Pu in both the near and far field. The programme investigated natural occurrences and geochemical processes and mechanisms which may affect migration of the chemical elements under consideration in geological media which may be used for disposal of radioactive wastes. 47 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  4. Hanford contact-handled transuranic drum retrieval project planning document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEMITER, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the US that has generated and stored transuranic (TRU) wastes. The wastes were primarily placed in 55-gallon drums, stacked in trenches, and covered with soil. In 1970, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered that TRU wastes be segregated from other radioactive wastes and placed in retrievable storage until such time that the waste could be sent to a geologic repository and permanently disposed. Retrievable storage also defined container storage life by specifying that a container must be retrievable as a contamination-free container for 20 years. Hanford stored approximately 37,400 TRU containers in 20-year retrievable storage from 1970 to 1988. The Hanford TRU wastes placed in 20-year retrievable storage are considered disposed under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations since they were placed in storage prior to September 1988. The majority of containers were 55-gallon drums, but 20-year retrievable storage includes several TRU wastes covered with soil in different storage methods

  5. Incineration method for volume reduction and disposal of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borham, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is designed to process 7 TPD of transuranic (TRU) waste producing 8.5 TPD of cemented waste and 4100 ACFM of combustion gases with a volume reduction of up to 17:1. The waste and its container are shredded then fed to a rotary kiln heated to 1700 0 F, then cooled and classified by a trommel screen. The fine portion is mixed with a cement grout which is placed with the coarse portion in steel drums for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The kiln off-gas is reheated to 2000 0 F to destroy any remaining hydrocarbons and toxic volatiles. The gases are cooled and passed in a venturi scrubber to remove particulates and corrosive gases. The venturi off-gas is passed through a mist eliminator and is reheated to 50 0 F above the dew point prior to passing through a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter. The scrub solution is concentrated to 25% solids by an inertial filter. The sludge containing the combustion chemical contaminants is encapsulated with the residue of the incinerated waste

  6. Full-scale retrieval of simulated buried transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentich, D.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the results of a field test conducted to determine the effectiveness of using conventional type construction equipment for the retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste. A cold (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) test pit (1,100 yd 3 volume) was constructed with boxes and drums filled with simulated waste materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, concrete, and sludge. Large objects, including truck beds, tanks, vaults, pipes, and beams, were also placed in the pit. These materials were intended to simulate the type of wastes found in TRU buried waste pits and trenches. A series of commercially available equipment items, such as excavators and tracked loaders outfitted with different end effectors, were used to remove the simulated waste. Work was performed from both the abovegrade and belowgrade positions. During the demonstration, a number of observations, measurements, and analyses were performed to determine which equipment was the most effective in removing the waste. The retrieval rates for the various excavation techniques were recorded. The inherent dust control capabilities of the excavation methods used were observed. The feasibility of teleoperating reading equipment was also addressed

  7. Heterogeneous Recycle of Transuranics Fuels in Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Edward; Taiwo, Temitope; Hill, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary physics evaluation of the impacts of heterogeneous recycle using Pu+Np driver and minor actinide target fuel assemblies in fast reactor cores has been performed by comparing results to those obtained for a reference homogeneous recycle core using driver assemblies containing grouped transuranic (TRU) fuel. Parametric studies are performed on the reference heterogeneous recycle core to evaluate the impacts of variations in the pre- and post-separation cooling times, target material type (uranium and non-uranium based), target amount and location, and other parameters on the system performance. This study focused on startup, single-pass cores for the purpose of quantifying impacts and also included comparisons to the option of simply storing the LWR spent nuclear fuel over a 50-year period. An evaluation of homogeneous recycle cores with elevated minor actinide contents is presented to illustrate the impact of using progressively higher TRU content on the core and transmutation performance, as a means of starting with known fuel technology with the aim of ultimately employing grouped TRU fuel in such cores. Reactivity coefficients and safety parameters are presented to indicate that the cores evaluated appear workable from a safety perspective, though more detailed safety and systems evaluations are required. (authors)

  8. Laser ablation of silicate glasses doped with transuranic actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.K.; Haire, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    Direct sampling laser ablation plasma mass spectrometry (DS-LAMS) was applied to silica glasses doped with 237 Np, 242 Pu or 241 Am using a unique instrument recently installed into a transuranic glovebox. The primary goal was to assess the utility of mass spectrometry of directly ablated ions for facile evaluation of actinide (An) constituents of silicate glass immobilization matrices used for encapsulation of radionuclides. The instrument and general procedures have been described elsewhere. Three high-purity silicate glasses prepared by a sol-gel process (SG) and one conventional high-temperature (HT; melting point ∼ 1,450 C) borosilicate glass were studied. These glasses comprised the following constituents, with compositions expressed in mass percentages: Np-HT ∼ 30% SiO 2 + 6% B 2 O 3 + 3% BaO + 13% Al 2 O 3 + 10% PbO + 30% La 2 O 3 + 8% 237 NpO 2 ; Np-SG ∼ 70% SiO 2 + 30% 237 NpO 2 ; Pu-SG ∼ 70% SiO 2 + 30% 242 PuO 2 ; Am-SG ∼ 85% SiO 2 + 15% 241 AmO 2

  9. Investigation of Varied Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation Chemistries for Crossflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-07-27

    Precipitation chemistries for strontium and transuranic (TRU) removal have been tested for crossflow filterability and lanthanide removal with simulants of Hanford tank 241-AN-107 supernate. This is the initial work indicating the usefulness of a strontium and permanganate precipitation process as applied to the Hanford River Protection Project. Precipitations with both ferric and ferrous iron were shown to be at least two orders of magnitude less filterable than a 0.1 gpm/ft target average flux that was desired at the time. A precipitate from a strontium nitrate strike alone was found to filter easily and to make the desired average flux. Other chemistries tested included precipitant of lanthanum(III), nickel (II), calcium (II), and a redox chemistry using sodium permanganate. Of these chemistries a strontium and permanganate strike including calcium provided the highest filter flux compared to the other chemistries. It showed the most promise in lanthanide removal as well. This work provides a promising direction for further work to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project. The work reported here was originally intended to satisfy needs for crossflow filter testing of a strontium and ferric precipitation method for treating Envelope C using a 241-AN-107 simulant.

  10. Approach for systematic evaluation of transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Koebnick, B.; Kotek, T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for systematic evaluation of management alternatives that are being considered for the treatment, storage, and disposal of transuranic waste (TRUW) at U.S. Department of Energy sites. The approach, which is currently under development, would apply WASTE-MGMT, a database application model developed at Argonne National Laboratory, to estimate projected environmental releases and would evaluate impact measures such as health risk and costs associated with each of the waste management alternatives. The customized application would combine site-specific TRUW inventory and characterization data with treatment and transportation parameters to estimate the quantities and characteristics of the wastes to be treated, emissions of hazardous substances from the treatment facilities, and the quantities and characteristics of the wastes to be shipped between sites. These data would then be used to estimate for several TRUW management scenarios the costs and health risks of constructing and operating the required treatment facilities and of transporting TRUW for treatment and final disposal. Treatment, storage, and disposal of TRUW at DOE sites is composed of many variables and options at each stage. The approach described in this paper would provide for efficient consideration of all of these facets when evaluating potentially feasible TRUW management alternatives. By expanding existing databases, this model could eventually be adapted to accommodate the introduction of new treatment technologies, updated TRUW characterization data, and/or revised waste acceptance criteria

  11. Assessment of LANL transuranic mixed waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; McCance, C.H.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present findings from the evaluation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TRU Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria to determine its compliance with applicable DOE requirements. The driving requirements for s TRU Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria are essentially those contained in the ''TRU Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant'' or WIPP WAC (DOE Report WIPP-DOE-069), 40 CFR 261-270, and DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management), specifically Chapter II which is entitled ''Management of Transuranic Waste''. The primary purpose of the LANL WAC is the establishment of those criteria that must be met by generators of TRU mixed waste before such waste can be accepted by the Waste Management Group. An annotated outline of a genetic TRU mixed waste acceptance criteria document was prepared from those requirements contained in the WIPP WAC, 40 CFR 261-270, and 5820.2A, and is based solely upon those requirements

  12. Risk perception on management of nuclear high-level and transuranic waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Lawrence A. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    The Department of Energy`s program for disposing of nuclear High-Level Waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of actual risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive waste from the nations military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. In addition, the analysis indicates that even the highly educated technical community is not well informed on the latest technology involved with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. It is not surprising then, that the general public feels uncomfortable with DOE`s management plans for with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. Postponing the permanent geologic repository and use of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. It would also allow time for the public to become better educated if DOE chooses to become proactive.

  13. Cryofracture as a tool for preprocessing retrieved buried and stored transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Winberg, M.R.; Ancho, M.L.; Osborne, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes important features of an experimental demonstration of applying the Cryofracture process to size-reduce retrieved buried and stored transuranic-contaminated wastes. By size reducing retrieved buried and stored waste, treatment technologies such as thermal treatment can be expedited. Additionally, size reduction of the waste can decrease the amount of storage space required by reducing the volume requirements of storage containers. A demonstration program was performed at the Cryofracture facility by Nuclear Remedial Technologies for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Cryofracture is a size-reducing process whereby objects are frozen to liquid nitrogen temperatures and crushed in a large hydraulic press. Material s at cryogenic temperatures have low ductility and are easily size-reduced by fracturing. Six 55-gallon drums and six 2 x 2 x 8 ft boxes containing simulated waste with tracers were subjected to the Cryofracture process. Data was obtained on (a) cool-down time, (b) yield strength of the containers, (c) size distribution of the waste before and after the Cryofracture process, (d) volume reduction of the waste, and (e) sampling of air and surface dusts for spread of tracers to evaluate potential contamination spread. The Cryofracture process was compared to conventional shredders and detailed cost estimates were established for construction of a Cryofracture facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

  14. Savannah River Certification Plan for newly generated, contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbicki, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    This Certification Plan document describes the necessary processes and methods for certifying unclassified, newly generated, contact-handled solid transuranic (TRU) waste at the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory (SRP, SRL) to comply with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). Section 2 contains the organizational structure as related to waste certification including a summary of functional responsibilities, levels of authority, and lines of communication of the various organizations involved in certification activities. Section 3 describes general plant operations and TRU waste generation. Included is a description of the TRU Waste classification system. Section 4 contains the SR site TRU Waste Quality Assurance Program Plan. Section 5 describes waste container procurement, inspection, and certification prior to being loaded with TRU waste. Certification of waste packages, after package closure in the waste generating areas, is described in Section 6. The packaging and certification of individual waste forms is described in Attachments 1-5. Included in each attachment is a description of controls used to ensure that waste packages meet all applicable waste form compliance requirements for shipment to the WIPP. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Caldwell, J.T. (Pajarito Scientific Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Test plan guidance for transuranic-contaminated arid landfill remedial technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.; Shaw, P.

    1995-05-01

    This document provides guidance for preparing plans to test or demonstrate buried waste assessment or remediation technologies supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Landfill Stabilization Focus Area, Transuranic-Contaminated Arid Landfill Product Line. This document also provides guidance for development of data quality objectives, along with the necessary data to meet the project objectives. The purpose is to ensure that useful data of known quality are collected to support conclusions associated with the designated demonstration or test. A properly prepared test plan will integrate specific and appropriate objectives with needed measurements to ensure data will reflect the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's mission, be consistent with Landfill Stabilization Focus Area test goals, and be useful for the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs and other potential partners (e.g., commercial concerns). The test plan becomes the planning and working document for the demonstration or test to be conducted ensuring procedures are followed that will allow data of sufficient quality to be collected for comparison and evaluation

  17. Risk perception on management of nuclear high-level and transuranic waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dees, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's program for disposing of nuclear High-Level Waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of actual risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive waste from the nations military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. In addition, the analysis indicates that even the highly educated technical community is not well informed on the latest technology involved with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. It is not surprising then, that the general public feels uncomfortable with DOE's management plans for with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. Postponing the permanent geologic repository and use of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. It would also allow time for the public to become better educated if DOE chooses to become proactive

  18. Liquid membrane system for the removal and concentration of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmins, M.R.; Wysk, S.R.; Smolensky, L.A.; Jiang, D.; Lumetta, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this program is to develop an efficient, reliable, and radiation-resistant modified liquid membrane system (MLMS) for the selective removal and concentration of transuranic elements (TRUs) and strontium-90 from dissolved Hanford sludge wastes. The efforts are divided into three categories: (1) demonstration and optimization of the MLMS for the TRUEX and SREX processes using simulant waste solution; (2) development of a radiation-resistant microporous divider and membrane module for testing with actual waste solutions; and (3) demonstration of the MLMS for the TRUEX and SREX processes using actual Hanford waste. Successful completion of these development efforts will yield a compact, versatile, and reliable MLMS for implementation with the TRUEX and SREX processes. The MLMS is simple, stable, more efficient, and easier to control and operate than conventional solvent-extraction processes, such as those employing centrifugal contactors. In addition, the MLMS process offers operational cost savings over the conventional technology, by exhibiting at least a 10% reduction in the consumption of extractant chemicals

  19. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Understanding valve program complexity in a refurbishment environment - learning from the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of Valve Program development, planning, execution and management in a refurbishment environment is an enormous undertaking requiring the proper coordination and integration of many moving parts. As such, lack of attention and understanding of this complexity has led to significant cost and schedule overruns in past refurbishment projects in the province. OPEX indicates the challenges in completing valve scope during refurbishments are related but not limited to; lack of detailed condition assessments, improper scope development, insignificant strategic approach to work task planning, scheduling and procurement, absence of contingency planning for common ‘as found’ conditions during execution, lack of proper training requirements, etc. In addition, past contracting strategies to employ numerous companies in collaboration to complete such a complex and specialized program, has resulted in further complications surrounding the management and integration of multiple quality programs and internal company processes. Finally, the aftermath of such fragmented projects results in an absolute closeout nightmare, often times taking years to locate, sift through and re-integrate pertinent information back into customer systems. Valve Program complexity cannot be understood by just anyone, only those that have lived through a refurbishment project and experienced the challenges mentioned above have the knowledge, skill, and ability to appreciate how to tactically apply past learning to realize future improvements. Furthermore, effective contractor-customer collaboration is crucial; true and in-depth knowledge and understanding of the customer quality programs, engineering and work management processes, configuration management requirements, and most importantly the imperative significance of nuclear safety, are all essential components to ensure overall alignment and program success. (author)

  1. Understanding valve program complexity in a refurbishment environment - learning from the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, H.E. [Babcock & Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The complexity of Valve Program development, planning, execution and management in a refurbishment environment is an enormous undertaking requiring the proper coordination and integration of many moving parts. As such, lack of attention and understanding of this complexity has led to significant cost and schedule overruns in past refurbishment projects in the province. OPEX indicates the challenges in completing valve scope during refurbishments are related but not limited to; lack of detailed condition assessments, improper scope development, insignificant strategic approach to work task planning, scheduling and procurement, absence of contingency planning for common ‘as found’ conditions during execution, lack of proper training requirements, etc. In addition, past contracting strategies to employ numerous companies in collaboration to complete such a complex and specialized program, has resulted in further complications surrounding the management and integration of multiple quality programs and internal company processes. Finally, the aftermath of such fragmented projects results in an absolute closeout nightmare, often times taking years to locate, sift through and re-integrate pertinent information back into customer systems. Valve Program complexity cannot be understood by just anyone, only those that have lived through a refurbishment project and experienced the challenges mentioned above have the knowledge, skill, and ability to appreciate how to tactically apply past learning to realize future improvements. Furthermore, effective contractor-customer collaboration is crucial; true and in-depth knowledge and understanding of the customer quality programs, engineering and work management processes, configuration management requirements, and most importantly the imperative significance of nuclear safety, are all essential components to ensure overall alignment and program success. (author)

  2. Design and implementation of the control system for nuclear plant VVER-1000. Instrumentation (program technical complexes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siora, A.; Tokarev, V.; Bakhmach, E.

    2004-01-01

    Program-technical complexes (PTC) are designed as control and protection systems in water-moderated atomic reactors, including emergency and preventive systems, automatic control, unloading, reactor capacity limitation and accelerated preventive protection systems. Utilization of programmable logic integrated circuits from world leading manufacturers makes the complexes simple in structure, compact, with low energy demands and mutually independent for key and supporting functions The results of PTC assessment and implementation in Ukraine are outlined. Opportunities for a future development of RADIJ company in the area of control and protection systems for VVER reactors are also discussed

  3. Conceptual design of retrieval systems for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogleman, S.F.

    1980-04-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have jurisdiction over the nuclear waste management program. Design studies were previously made of proposed repository site configurations for the receiving, processing, and storage of nuclear wastes. However, these studies did not provide operational designs that were suitable for highly reliable TRU retrieval in the deep geologic salt environment for the required 60-year period. The purpose of this report is to develop a conceptual design of a baseline retrieval system for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. The conceptual design is to serve as a working model for the analysis of the performance available from the current state-of-the-art equipment and systems. Suggested regulations would be based upon the results of the performance analyses

  4. Rotary kiln incinerator engineering tests on simulated transuranic wastes from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattengill, M.G.; Brunner, F.A.; Fasso, J.L.; Mitchel, S.R.; Praskac, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    Nine rotary kiln incineration tests were performed at Colorado School of Mines Research Institute on simulated transuranic waste materials. The rotary kiln incinerator used as 3 ft ID and 30 ft long and was included in an incineration system that also included an afterburner and a baghouse. The purpose of the incineration test program was to determine the applicability and operating characteristics of the rotary kiln with relation to the complete incineration of the simulated waste materials. The results of the study showed that the rotary kiln did completely incinerate the waste materials. Off-gas determinations showed emission levels of SO 2 , NO/sub x/, H 2 SO 4 , HC1, particulate loading, and hydrocarbons, as well as exhaust gas volume, to be within reasonable controllable ranges in a production operation. Included in the report are the results of materials and energy balances, based upon data collected, and design recommendations based upon the data and upon observations during the incineration operation

  5. Developing Standards for Language Teacher Education Programs in Indonesia: Professionalizing or Losing in Complexity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luciana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting standards for language teacher education programs, materials, and evaluation sparks some hope in attempts to improve the quality of the programs. Yet, this very fact augmented by my examination of ten language teacher education programs in Java, Bali, and Lampung (FKIP and PGRI triggers a critical look at the idea of standard development. In particular, I would like to explore whether it can lead to a better professionalism or we are just lost in the complexity of the standardization itself. This paper consists of four sections. Departing from an overview of language teacher education programs in Indonesia and the theoretical foundations, some major problems in this area are identified. Following this, the discussion is focused on the idea of standard development for language teacher education programs in Indonesia. Eventually, some suggestions are put forth to highlight the need for establishing coherent curriculum framework bridging the two realms of language teacher education and school milieu as well as providing learners with knowledge base that enables them to cope with complex demands of school settings and more essentially, to act as an agent in the social change process.

  6. On the complexity of a combined homotopy interior method for convex programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Xu, Qing; Feng, Guochen

    2007-03-01

    In [G.C. Feng, Z.H. Lin, B. Yu, Existence of an interior pathway to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point of a nonconvex programming problem, Nonlinear Anal. 32 (1998) 761-768; G.C. Feng, B. Yu, Combined homotopy interior point method for nonlinear programming problems, in: H. Fujita, M. Yamaguti (Eds.), Advances in Numerical Mathematics, Proceedings of the Second Japan-China Seminar on Numerical Mathematics, Lecture Notes in Numerical and Applied Analysis, vol. 14, Kinokuniya, Tokyo, 1995, pp. 9-16; Z.H. Lin, B. Yu, G.C. Feng, A combined homotopy interior point method for convex programming problem, Appl. Math. Comput. 84 (1997) 193-211.], a combined homotopy was constructed for solving non-convex programming and convex programming with weaker conditions, without assuming the logarithmic barrier function to be strictly convex and the solution set to be bounded. It was proven that a smooth interior path from an interior point of the feasible set to a K-K-T point of the problem exists. This shows that combined homotopy interior point methods can solve the problem that commonly used interior point methods cannot solveE However, so far, there is no result on its complexity, even for linear programming. The main difficulty is that the objective function is not monotonically decreasing on the combined homotopy path. In this paper, by taking a piecewise technique, under commonly used conditions, polynomiality of a combined homotopy interior point method is given for convex nonlinear programming.

  7. Proposal of a fast gas-cooled reactor using transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Anderson Altair Pinheiro de

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades, nations that have invested in research and energy generation through nuclear source have devoted part of their efforts in developing new technologies for nuclear reactors. Part of this investment focuses on new material testing, particularly regarding new fuels. In a world view that breaths sustainability, the reprocess and reuse of spent fuel from conventional reactors comes alive in nuclear technology, presenting itself as a real alternative of energy source for the latest generation of reactors. Different concepts of fourth generation reactors have been proposed and must meet some basic requirements, such as: extended burnup, improvement of passive safety, better radioactive waste management, possibility to use reprocessed fuel and proliferation resistance. In this context, the GFR (Gas-cooled Fast Reactor) is one of the future promises, presenting satisfactory neutronic results on the use of type of fuel (U, Pu) C. In the present work, the fuel of a traditional GFR reactor that uses (U, Pu)C was sub was replaced by a transuranic reprocessed fuel (TRU), obtained by non-proliferation reprocessing technology. The UO 2 fuel initially enriched by 3.1% was burned in a standard PWR, with full burn of 33,000 MWd/T. Afterward it was left in a pool for 5 years and finally reprocessed by UREX + method. Two fuels were studied and evaluated, one diluted with depleted uranium (U, TRU)C, and the other diluted in thorium (Th, TRU)C. Assessments were done in steady state and as well as during burning and were compared with results obtained using the standard fuel, (U, Pu) C. The outcome shows that the use of TRU as a fuel, in GFR type reactors, is a real possibility. The research was done using the SCALE 6.0 code modules. (author)

  8. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste - transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.; Scott, P.A.; Bray, L.A.

    1986-09-01

    At the Hanford Plutonium and Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX), in Richland, Washington, plutonium and uranium products are recovered from irradiated fuel by a solvent extraction process. A byproduct of this process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste (CAW), is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks (DSTs) on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant located nearby. In B-Plant, the transuranic (TRU) elements in NCAW are separated from the non-TRU elements. The majority of the TRU elements in NCAW are in the solids. Therefore, the primary processing operation is to separate the NCAW solids (NCAW-TRU) from the NCAW liquid. These two waste streams will be pumped to suitable holding tanks before being further processed for permanent disposal. To ensure that the retrieval and transportation of NCAW and NCAW-TRU are successful, researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the rheological and transport properties of the slurries. This evaluation had two phases. First, researchers conducted laboratory rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW and NCAW-TRU. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. This scale-up procedure has already been successfully used to predict the critical transport properties of a slurry (Neutralized Cladding Removal Waste) with rheological properties similar to those displayed by NCAW and NCAW-TRU

  9. Intermediate depth burial of classified transuranic wastes in arid alluvium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; Crowe, B.M.; Di Sanza, F.

    1999-01-01

    Intermediate depth disposal operations were conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1984 through 1989. These operations emplaced high-specific activity low-level wastes (LLW) and limited quantities of classified transuranic (TRU) wastes in 37 m (120-ft) deep, Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes. The GCD boreholes are 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and founded in a thick sequence of arid alluvium. The bottom 15 m (50 ft) of each borehole was used for waste emplacement and the upper 21 m (70 ft) was backfilled with native alluvium. The bottom of each GCD borehole is almost 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in one of the most arid portions of the US, with an average precipitation of 13 cm (5 inches) per year. The limited precipitation, coupled with generally warm temperatures and low humidities results in a hydrologic system dominated by evapotranspiration. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191 defines the requirements for protection of human health from disposed TRU wastes. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU wastes emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA's 40 CFR 191 requirements. This paper describes DOE's actions undertaken to evaluate whether the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes will, or will not, endanger human health. Based on preliminary modeling, the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes meet the EPA's requirements, and are, therefore, protective of human health

  10. Studies of Heavy-Ion Reactions and Transuranic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, W. Udo [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Physics

    2016-07-28

    Studies of heavy-ion reactions and transuranic nuclei performed by the University of Rochester Nuclear Science Research Group have been successful in furthering experimental systematics and theoretical understanding of the behavior of nuclear systems excited to their limits of stability. The theoretical results explain specifically the “boiling” and “vaporization” of atomic nuclei, but are more generally applicable to isolated, quantal many-particle systems which, under thermal or mechanical stresses, all disintegrate by evaporation, via surface cluster emission, or via fission-like processes. Accompanying experimental investigations by the group have demonstrated several new types of dynamical instability of nuclei: In central, “head-on” collisions, target nuclei exhibit limited ability to stop energetic projectile nuclei and to dissipate the imparted linear momentum. Substantial matter overlap (“neck”) between projectile and target nuclei, which is observed at elevated collision energies, can be stretched considerably and break at several places simultaneously. These results provide new testing grounds for microscopic theory of the cohesion of nuclear matter. This property has remained elusive, even though the elementary nucleon-nucleon forces are well known since some time. Technical R&D has resulted in a detailed characterization of a novel plastic material, which can now be used in the design of sensitive diagnostic systems for various types of radio-activity. Innovative application of powerful laser systems has produced intense, controllable sources of exotic particle radioactivity for nuclear investigations. Several students have received their Ph.D. degree in experimental nuclear science for their work on basic nuclear research or R&D projects.

  11. Studies of Heavy-Ion Reactions and Transuranic Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, W. Udo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of heavy-ion reactions and transuranic nuclei performed by the University of Rochester Nuclear Science Research Group have been successful in furthering experimental systematics and theoretical understanding of the behavior of nuclear systems excited to their limits of stability. The theoretical results explain specifically the ''boiling'' and ''vaporization'' of atomic nuclei, but are more generally applicable to isolated, quantal many-particle systems which, under thermal or mechanical stresses, all disintegrate by evaporation, via surface cluster emission, or via fission-like processes. Accompanying experimental investigations by the group have demonstrated several new types of dynamical instability of nuclei: In central, ''head-on'' collisions, target nuclei exhibit limited ability to stop energetic projectile nuclei and to dissipate the imparted linear momentum. Substantial matter overlap (''neck'') between projectile and target nuclei, which is observed at elevated collision energies, can be stretched considerably and break at several places simultaneously. These results provide new testing grounds for microscopic theory of the cohesion of nuclear matter. This property has remained elusive, even though the elementary nucleon-nucleon forces are well known since some time. Technical R&D has resulted in a detailed characterization of a novel plastic material, which can now be used in the design of sensitive diagnostic systems for various types of radio-activity. Innovative application of powerful laser systems has produced intense, controllable sources of exotic particle radioactivity for nuclear investigations. Several students have received their Ph.D. degree in experimental nuclear science for their work on basic nuclear research or R&D projects.

  12. Enabling Requirements-Based Programming for Highly-Dependable Complex Parallel and Distributed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    The manual application of formal methods in system specification has produced successes, but in the end, despite any claims and assertions by practitioners, there is no provable relationship between a manually derived system specification or formal model and the customer's original requirements. Complex parallel and distributed system present the worst case implications for today s dearth of viable approaches for achieving system dependability. No avenue other than formal methods constitutes a serious contender for resolving the problem, and so recognition of requirements-based programming has come at a critical juncture. We describe a new, NASA-developed automated requirement-based programming method that can be applied to certain classes of systems, including complex parallel and distributed systems, to achieve a high degree of dependability.

  13. [Effects of a preventive intervention program for improving self-complexity on depression among college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Junko; Hori, Masashi; Otsuka, Yasumasa

    2010-06-01

    The present study developed an intervention program for self-complexity (SC; Linville, 1987), and examined the effects of this program on college students. Participants (N = 40) were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received one session of psycho-education about SC, and kept daily records of self-aspects (social roles, interpersonal relationships, specific events/behaviors, traits, abilities, etc.) for one week. All participants were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire three times (pre, post, and follow-up). The questionnaire was comprised of items evaluating depression (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), SC, positive self-complexity (P-SC), and negative self-complexity (N-SC). The results indicated that P-SC at the post-test was significantly increased and P-SC at the follow-up test was marginally increased in the intervention group, compared with the control group. Furthermore, structured equation modeling revealed that in the intervention group, high P-SC was related to low level of depressed mood after the program.

  14. Optimal Control of Complex Systems Based on Improved Dual Heuristic Dynamic Programming Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When applied to solving the data modeling and optimal control problems of complex systems, the dual heuristic dynamic programming (DHP technique, which is based on the BP neural network algorithm (BP-DHP, has difficulty in prediction accuracy, slow convergence speed, poor stability, and so forth. In this paper, a dual DHP technique based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM algorithm (ELM-DHP was proposed. Through constructing three kinds of network structures, the paper gives the detailed realization process of the DHP technique in the ELM. The controller designed upon the ELM-DHP algorithm controlled a molecular distillation system with complex features, such as multivariability, strong coupling, and nonlinearity. Finally, the effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the simulation that compares DHP and HDP algorithms based on ELM and BP neural network. The algorithm can also be applied to solve the data modeling and optimal control problems of similar complex systems.

  15. Long-range plan for buried transuranic waste studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berreth, P.D.; Fischer, D.K.; Suckel, R.A.

    1984-11-01

    This document presents a plan to perform detailed studies of alternatives considered for the long-term management of buried transuranic waste at the INEL. The studies will provide the technical basis for DOE to make a decision on the future management of that waste. Although the waste is currently being handled in an acceptable manner, new solutions are continually being researched to improve handling techniques. Three alternatives are being considered: (a) leave the waste as is; (b) improve in situ confinement of the waste; (c) retrieve, process, and certify the waste for disposal at a federal repository. Fifteen studies are described in this plan for the latter two alternatives. The leave-as-is alternative involves continuing present procedures for managing the buried waste. An ongoing environmental surveillance program, a low-level-waste stabilization program, and enhanced subsurface migration studies begun in FY-1984 at the INEL will provide data for the decision-making process for INEL buried TRU waste. These ongoing studies for the leave-as-is alternative are summarized in this plan in limited detail. The improved-confinement alternative involves leaving the waste in place, but providing additional protection against wind water penetration, erosion, and plant and animal intrusion. Several studies proposed will examine special techniques to immobilize or encapsulate the buried waste. Studies of the third alternative will investigate improved retrieval, processing and certification techniques. New equipment, such as industrial manipulators and excavating machinery, will be tested in the retrieval studies. Processing and certification studies will examine rapidly changing or new technologies. 19 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  16. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  17. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  18. Long-range plan for buried transuranic waste studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, J.O.

    1985-12-01

    This document presents a plan to perform detailed studies of alternatives considered for the long-term management of buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The studies will provide the technical basis for DOE to make a decision on the future management of that waste. Although the waste is currently being handled in an acceptable manner, new solutions are continually being researched to improve management techniques. Three alternatives are being considered: (a) leave the waste as is; (b) improve in situ confinement of the waste; and (c) retrieve, process, and certify the waste for disposal at a federal repository. Fourteen studies are described in this plan for Alternatives 2 and 3. The leave-as-is alternative involves continuing present procedures for managing the buried waste. An ongoing environmental surveillance program, a low-level-waste stabilization program, and enhanced subsurface migration studies begun in FY-1984 at the INEL will provide data for the decision-making process for the INEL buried TRU waste. These ongoing studies for the leave-as-is alternative are summarized in this plan in limited detail. The improved-confinement alternative involves leaving the waste in place, but providing additional protection against wind, water penetration, erosion, and plant and animal intrusion. Several studies proposed under this alternative will examine special techniques to immobilize or encapsulate the buried waste. An in situ grouting study was implemented at the INEL starting in FY-1985 and will be completed at the end of FY-1986 with the grouting of a simulated INEL buried TRU waste trench. Studies of the third alternative will investigate improved retrieval, processing, and certification techniques. New equipment, such as industrial manipulators and excavating machinery, will be tested in the retrieval studies. Processing and certification studies will examine rapidly changing or new technologies

  19. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  20. Foreign research reactor uranium supply program: The Y-12 national security complex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.; Eddy, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Uranium Supply Program at the Y-12 National Security Complex supports the nonproliferation objectives of the HEU Disposition Program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, and the United States FRR Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program. The Y-12 National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Y-12 Site Office maintains the prime contracts with foreign governments for the supply of Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) for their research reactors. The LEU is produced by down blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) that has been declared surplus to the U.S. national defense needs. The down blending and sale of the LEU supports the Surplus HEU Disposition Program Record of Decision to make the HEU non-weapons usable and to recover the economic value of the uranium to the extent feasible. This program supports the important U.S. government and nuclear nonproliferation commitment to serve as a reliable and cost-effective uranium supplier for those foreign research reactors that are converting or have converted to LEU fuel under the guidance of the NNSA RERTR Program. In conjunction with the FRR SNF Acceptance Program which supports the global nonproliferation efforts to disposition U.S.-origin HEU, the Y-12 FRR Uranium Supply Program can provide the LEU for the replacement fuel fabrication. In addition to feedstock for fuel fabrication, Y-12 supplies LEU for target fabrication for medical isotope production. The Y-12 process uses supply forecasting tools, production improvements and efficient delivery preparations to successfully support the global research reactor community

  1. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Abd Rahman, Safura; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-12-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes.

  2. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramly, Mohammad Rizal; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rahman, Safura Abd; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-01-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes

  3. Neutron measurement method for the detection of transuranic elements in the nuclear fuel cycle; Neutronenmessverfahren fuer den Nachweis von Transuranen im Kernbrennstoff-Kreislauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokcic-Kostic, Marina; Schultheis, Roland [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    By handling and storing burned-down fuel elements operators are obliged to measure the existing nuclear fuel content. Due to high penetration of matter and its origin from decay or spontaneous fission of transuranic elements neutron verification methods are suited best for the proof of fission material as long as it has been burned-down beforehand. A highly improved measuring quality can be achieved by comparing measurement results with the results of computer-aided simulations such as e.g. burn-up programs or MCNP- calculations. (orig.)

  4. Innovative technologies for the remediation of transuranic-contaminated landfills. Appendix 13: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Transuranic-Contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Programme, formerly the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Programme, was organized by the Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, to (a) manage the development of emerging technologies that could be successfully applied to remediation and (b) promote the use of these technologies to improve environmental restoration and waste management operations for transuranic-contaminated landfills in arid environments. Implementing the Transuranic-Contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Programme involved three key strategies: 1) A systems engineering approach was used to include an overall perspective of the entire remediation process; 2) State-of-the-art science and technology were sought for improving the remediation system; 3) Integrated product teams which were comprised of end users, regulators, stakeholders, as well as industry partners were formed

  5. Transuranic radionuclides in the environment surrounding radioactive waste diposal sites, a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, A.C.; Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Brunk, J.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Jones, H.E.; Kehl, S.; Stuart, M.L.; Wasley, L.M.; Bradsher, R.V.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e. site specific). An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. In an attempt to gather relevant information about the transuranic radionuclides in a variety of environments, we conducted an extensive literature search. In our literature search we identified over 5700 potential written sources of information for review. In addition, we have identified many references which were not found through the literature searches, but which were known to contain useful data. A total of approximately 2600 documents were determined to contain information which would be useful for an in depth study of radionuclides in different environments. The journal articles, books, reports and other documents were reviewed to obtain the source term of the radionuclides studied. Most references containing laboratory study data were not included in our databases. Although these may contain valuable data, we were trying to compile references with information on the behavior of the transuranics in the specific environment being studied

  6. Fusion option to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The fusion option is examined to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. The analysis of this report shows that the top rated solution, the elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products, can be achieved in a fusion reactor. A 167 MW of fusion power from a D-T plasma for sixty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can transmute all the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products of the 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. The operating time can be reduced to thirty years with use of 334 MW of fusion power, a system study is needed to define the optimum time. In addition, the fusion solution eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. Meanwhile, such utilization of the fusion power will provide an excellent opportunity to develop fusion energy for the future. Fusion blankets with a liquid carrier for the transuranic elements can achieve a transmutation rate for the transuranic elements up to 80 kg/MW.y of fusion power with k eff of 0.98. In addition, the liquid blankets have several advantages relative to the other blanket options. The energy from this transmutation is utilized to produce revenue for the system. Molten salt (Flibe) and lithium-lead eutectic are identified as the most promising liquids for this application, both materials are under development for future fusion blanket concepts. The Flibe molten salt with transuranic elements was developed and used successfully as nuclear fuel for the molten salt breeder reactor in the 1960's

  7. Quantities of transuranic elements in the environment from operations relating to nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facer, G.

    1980-01-01

    Only nuclear explosions near or above the earth's surface or under water have contributed substantial amounts of transuranic materials to the world bioenvironment. The amounts of transuranics placed in the environment through underground test ventings, accidents involving US nuclear weapons, and releases during weapon production operations have been negligible in comparison with those from atmospheric testing of nuclear explosives. On the order of 10 5 Ci of plutonium has been dispersed within our environment from about 400 nuclear explosive tests, including those by the US, Great Britain, and Russia, between 1945 and 1963, plus more recent nuclear explosive tests in the atmosphere by China, India, and France

  8. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustig, D.

    1996-01-01

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author)

  9. Dual germanium detector system for the routine assay of low level transuranics in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowell, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    As an outgrowth of previous on soil radioassay, we have developed an automated assay system for determining the transuranic radionuclide content of soils, with particular interest in Pu. The system utilizes two commercial planar intrinsic germanium detectors in opposition. The large area of the detectors (2100 mm 2 ) and the thinness of the detector crystals (7 mm) permit sensitive analysis of the L x ray emission region of the transuranics (13 to 21 keV). With counting times of 5 hours, we obtain detection limits of 241 Am

  10. Integration of complex-wide mixed low-level waste activities for program acceleration and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a contractor-led effort to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives which would allow the Environmental Management program to accomplish its mission objectives in an accelerated fashion and at a reduced cost. These alternatives, or opportunities, could then be evaluated by DOE and stakeholders for possible implementation, given precursor requirements (regulatory changes, etc.) could be met and benefits to the Complex realized. This contractor effort initially focused on six waste types, one of which was Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). Many opportunities were identified by the contractor team for integrating MLLW activities across the DOE Complex. These opportunities were further narrowed to six that had the most promise for implementation and savings to the DOE Complex. The opportunities include six items: (1) the consolidation of individual site analytical services procurement efforts, (2) the consolidation of individual site MLLW treatment services procurement efforts, (3) establishment of ''de minimus'' radioactivity levels, (4) standardization of characterization requirements, (5) increased utilization of existing DOE treatment facilities, and (6) using a combination of DOE and commercial MLLW disposal capacity. The results of the integration effort showed that by managing MLLW activities across the DOE Complex as a cohesive unit rather than as independent site efforts, the DOE could improve the rate of progress toward meeting its objectives and reduce its overall MLLW program costs. Savings potential for MLLW, if the identified opportunities could be implemented, could total $224 million or more. Implementation of the opportunities also could result in the acceleration of the MLLW ''work off schedule'' across the DOE Complex by five years

  11. EXAMPLE OF A RISK-BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL: SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRIGNANO AL

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP

  12. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is being designed for construction in the north end of the Central Waste Complex. The WRAP Facility will receive, store, and process radioactive solid waste of both transuranic (TRU) and mixed waste (mixed radioactive-chemical waste) categories. Most of the waste is in 208-L (55-gal) steel drums. Other containers such as wood and steel boxes, and various sized drums will also be processed in the facility. The largest volume of waste and the type addressed in this report is TRU in 208-L (55-gal) drums that is scheduled to be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1). Half of the TRU waste processed by WRAP 1 is expected to be retrieved stored waste and the other half newly generated waste. Both the stored and new waste will be processed to certify it for permanent storage in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or disposal. The stored waste will go through a process of retrieval, examination, analysis, segregation, repackaging, relabeling, and documentation before certification and WIPP shipment. Newly generated waste should be much easier to process and certify. However, a substantial number of drums of both retrievable and newly generated waste will require temporary storage and handling in WRAP. Most of the TRU waste is combustible or has combustible components. Therefore, the presence of a substantial volume of drummed combustible waste raises concern about fire safety in WRAP and similar waste drum storage facilities. This report analyzes the fire related characteristics of the expected WRAP TRU waste stream

  13. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Clemo, T.M.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites' compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site

  14. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Clemo, T.M. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites` compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site.

  15. Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications II. Users Manual and Program Description. 2; Users Manual and Program Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1996-01-01

    This users manual is the second part of a two-part report describing the NASA Lewis CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications) program. The program obtains chemical equilibrium compositions of complex mixtures with applications to several types of problems. The topics presented in this manual are: (1) details for preparing input data sets; (2) a description of output tables for various types of problems; (3) the overall modular organization of the program with information on how to make modifications; (4) a description of the function of each subroutine; (5) error messages and their significance; and (6) a number of examples that illustrate various types of problems handled by CEA and that cover many of the options available in both input and output. Seven appendixes give information on the thermodynamic and thermal transport data used in CEA; some information on common variables used in or generated by the equilibrium module; and output tables for 14 example problems. The CEA program was written in ANSI standard FORTRAN 77. CEA should work on any system with sufficient storage. There are about 6300 lines in the source code, which uses about 225 kilobytes of memory. The compiled program takes about 975 kilobytes.

  16. The content of goals in individual educational programs for students with complex communication needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Nina; Rowland, Charity; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Steiner, Sandra; Granlund, Mats; Adolfsson, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the contents of communication-related goals in individualized education programs (IEPs) for students with complex communication needs. Goals in 43 IEPs were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth version (ICF-CY). The results show that the communication-related IEP goals contain information on multiple domains of functioning in the ICF-CY. However, judging by the amount of codes linked to ICF-CY chapters, the IEPs contain a relatively small proportion of goals that focus on interaction with others, or participation in classroom and leisure activities. Special education teachers and speech-language pathologists working with students with complex communication needs may need support to formulate communication-related IEP goals with a focus on interaction and participation in school activities.

  17. Programming and machining of complex parts based on CATIA solid modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiurong

    2017-09-01

    The complex parts of the use of CATIA solid modeling programming and simulation processing design, elaborated in the field of CNC machining, programming and the importance of processing technology. In parts of the design process, first make a deep analysis on the principle, and then the size of the design, the size of each chain, connected to each other. After the use of backstepping and a variety of methods to calculate the final size of the parts. In the selection of parts materials, careful study, repeated testing, the final choice of 6061 aluminum alloy. According to the actual situation of the processing site, it is necessary to make a comprehensive consideration of various factors in the machining process. The simulation process should be based on the actual processing, not only pay attention to shape. It can be used as reference for machining.

  18. The Feed Materials Program of the Manhattan Project: A Foundational Component of the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2014-12-01

    The feed materials program of the Manhattan Project was responsible for procuring uranium-bearing ores and materials and processing them into forms suitable for use as source materials for the Project's uranium-enrichment factories and plutonium-producing reactors. This aspect of the Manhattan Project has tended to be overlooked in comparison with the Project's more dramatic accomplishments, but was absolutely vital to the success of those endeavors: without appropriate raw materials and the means to process them, nuclear weapons and much of the subsequent cold war would never have come to pass. Drawing from information available in Manhattan Engineer District Documents, this paper examines the sources and processing of uranium-bearing materials used in making the first nuclear weapons and how the feed materials program became a central foundational component of the postwar nuclear weapons complex.

  19. [Economic evaluation of a program of coordination between levels for complex chronic patients' management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allepuz Palau, Alejandro; Piñeiro Méndez, Pilar; Molina Hinojosa, José Carlos; Jou Ferre, Victoria; Gabarró Julià, Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The complex chronic patient program (CCP) of the Alt Penedès aims to improve the coordination of care. The objective was to evaluate the relationship between the costs associated with the program, and its results in the form of avoided admissions. Dost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the health System based on a before-after study. Alt Penedès. Health services utilisation (hospital [admissions, emergency visits, day-care hospital] and primary care visits). CCP Program results were compared with those prior to its implementation. The cost assigned to each resource corresponded to the hospital CatSalut's concert and ICS fees for primary care. A sensitivity analysis using boot strapping was performed. The intervention was considered cost-effective if the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) did not exceed the cost of admission (€ 1,742.01). 149 patients were included. Admissions dropped from 212 to 145. The ICER was €1,416.3 (94,892.9€/67). Sensitivity analysis showed that in 95% of cases the cost might vary between €70,847.3 and €121,882.5 and avoided admissions between 30 and 102. In 72.4% of the simulations the program was cost-effective. Sensitivity analysis showed that in most situations the PCC Program would be cost-effective, although in a percentage of cases the program could raise overall cost of care, despite always reducing the number of admissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

  1. An integrated systems approach to remote retrieval of buried transuranic waste using a telerobotic transport vehicle, innovative end effector, and remote excavator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.; Hyde, R.; Peterson, R.

    1995-02-01

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic feet of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic feet of waste is up to 10 million cubic feet of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate technologies for excavating, and transporting buried transuranic wastes at the INEL, and other hazardous or radioactive waste sites throughout the US Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conduced at RAHCO Internationals facilities in Spokane, Washington, in the summer of 1994, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for digging, dumping, and transporting buried waste. Three technologies were evaluated in the demonstration: an Innovative End Effector for dust free dumping, a Telerobotic Transport Vehicle to convey retrieved waste from the digface, and a Remote Operated Excavator to deploy the Innovative End Effector and perform waste retrieval operations. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate retrieval performance parameters such as retrieval rates, transportation rates, human factors, and the equipment's capability to control contamination spread

  2. 224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy Richland Field Office and serves as cooperator of the 224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility, the storage unit addressed in this permit application. At the time of submission of this portion of the Hanford Facility. Dangerous Waste Permit Application covering the 224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility, many issues identified in comments to the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit remain unresolved. This permit application reflects the positions taken by the US Department of Energy, Company on the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit and may not be read to conflict with those comments. The 224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision 0) consists of both a Part A and Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this unit, including the Part A revision currently in effect, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B Checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). The 224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains information current as of March 1, 1992

  3. LMR design concepts for transuranic management in low sodium void worth cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The fuel cycle processing techniques and hard neuron spectrum of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal fuel cycle have favorable characteristics for the management of transuranics; and the wide range of breeding characteristics available in metal fuelled cores provides for flexibility in transuranic management strategy. Previous studies indicate that most design options which decrease the breeding ratio also show a decrease in sodium void worth; therefore, low void worths are achievable in transuranic burning (low breeding ratio) core designs. This paper describes numerous trade studies assessing various design options for a low void worth transuranic burner core. A flat annular core design appears to be a promising concept; the high leakage geometry yields a low breeding ratio and small sodium void worth. To allow flexibility in breeding characteristics, alternate design options which achieve fissile self-sufficiency are also evaluated. A self-sufficient core design which is interchangeable with the burner core and maintains a low sodium void worth is developed. 13 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping

  5. Transuranics in bone of deceased former residents of Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, B.; Schupfner, R.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Spennemann, D.H.R.

    1995-01-01

    Rongelap Atoll received intensive fallout from the 1 March 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test 105 miles upwind at Bikini. Fearful of their continued exposure to radiation, the residences of Rongelap Atoll went into voluntary exile in 1985. Transuranic soil concentrations on Rongelap Island are about 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the average for the Northern hemisphere; the three dominating transuranic are 239,240 Pu and 241 Am. Only conflicting information has been available about the extent of transuranic uptake by the Rongelap community. As part of the Rongelap Resettlement Project, the community endorsed the exhumation of bones of deceased former atoll residents to provide an independent estimate of plutonium intake. This approach has the advantage of reducing the uncertainties associated with pathway modeling and the interpretation of urine data. Six graves (4 adults, 2 children) were selected for exhumation. Femora and tibiae were selected as well as humeri from the children's graves. The rest of the remains were left undisturbed. The results of the analysis of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am are presented. Assuming that the data can be considered as representative for the Rongelap population as a whole, the contamination with transuranics on Rongelap Atoll appears to result in radiation exposures in the order of 1% of the compliance limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose equivalent per year. (author)

  6. Transuranics in bone of deceased former residents of Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, B. [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Takoma Park, MD (United States)]|[Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung e.V., Heidelberg (Germany); Schupfner, R.; Schuettelkopf, H. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Lab. for Environmental Radioactivity; Spennemann, D.H.R. [Charles Sturt Univ., Albury (Australia). School of Environmental and Information Sciences

    1995-11-01

    Rongelap Atoll received intensive fallout from the 1 March 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test 105 miles upwind at Bikini. Fearful of their continued exposure to radiation, the residences of Rongelap Atoll went into voluntary exile in 1985. Transuranic soil concentrations on Rongelap Island are about 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the average for the Northern hemisphere; the three dominating transuranic are {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. Only conflicting information has been available about the extent of transuranic uptake by the Rongelap community. As part of the Rongelap Resettlement Project, the community endorsed the exhumation of bones of deceased former atoll residents to provide an independent estimate of plutonium intake. This approach has the advantage of reducing the uncertainties associated with pathway modeling and the interpretation of urine data. Six graves (4 adults, 2 children) were selected for exhumation. Femora and tibiae were selected as well as humeri from the children`s graves. The rest of the remains were left undisturbed. The results of the analysis of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are presented. Assuming that the data can be considered as representative for the Rongelap population as a whole, the contamination with transuranics on Rongelap Atoll appears to result in radiation exposures in the order of 1% of the compliance limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose equivalent per year. (author).

  7. Transuranics in bone of deceased former residents of Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, B; Schupfner, R; Schüttelkopf, H; Spennemann, D H

    1995-11-01

    Rongelap Atoll received intensive fallout from the 1 March 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test 105 miles upwind at Bikini. Fearful of their continued exposure to radiation, the residents of Rongelap Atoll went into voluntary exile in 1985. Transuranic soil concentrations on Rongelap Island are about 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the average for the Northern hemisphere; the three dominating transuranics are 239,240Pu and 241Am. Only conflicting information has been available about the extent of transuranic uptake by the Rongelap community. As part of the Rongelap Resettlement Project, the community endorsed the exhumation of bones of deceased former atoll residents to provide an independent estimate of plutonium intake. This approach has the advantage of reducing the uncertainties associated with pathway modeling and the interpretation of urine data. Six graves (4 adults, 2 children) were selected for exhumation. Femora and tibiae were selected as well as humeri from the children's graves. The rest of the remains was left undisturbed. The results of the analysis of 239,240Pu and 241Am are presented. Assuming that the data can be considered as representative for the Rongelap population as a whole, the contamination with transuranics on Rongelap Atoll appears to result in radiation exposures in the order of 1% of the compliance limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose equivalent per year.

  8. Concentrations of transuranic elements in critical organs and tissues of goats (CAPRA HIRCUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averin, V.S.; Vaskovtsova, V.A.; Kuhtsevich, A.B.; Tagai, S.A.; Tsarenok, A.A.; Buzdalkin, K.N.; Gvozdik, A.F.; Makarovets, I.V.; Nilova, E.K.

    2012-01-01

    Parameters of Am 241 and Pu 238, 239+240 transfer from the dietary soil-based component (mineral soil) to organs and tissues of goats during a grazing period of 80 and 160 days have been determined. The maximum specific activities of transuranic elements have been found in liver of goats. (authors)

  9. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  10. Complex of programs for calculating radiation fields outside plane protecting shields, bombarded by high-energy nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, E.K.; Man'ko, B.V.; Serov, A.Ya.; Sychev, B.S.

    1979-01-01

    A complex of programs for modelling various radiation situations at high energy proton accelerators is considered. The programs are divided into there main groups according to their purposes. The first group includes programs for preparing constants describing the processes of different particle interaction with a substanc The second group of programs calculates the complete function of particle distribution arising in shields under irradiation by high energy nucleons. Concrete radiation situations arising at high energy proton accelerators are calculated by means of the programs of the third group. A list of programs as well as their short characteristic are given

  11. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  12. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  13. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the performance

  14. Automation of ORIGEN2 calculations for the transuranic waste baseline inventory database using a pre-processor and a post-processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscum-Powell, J.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to automate ORIGEN2 calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Database (WTWBID); this was done by developing a pre-processor to generate ORIGEN2 input files from WWBID inventory files and a post-processor to remove excess information from the ORIGEN2 output files. The calculations performed with ORIGEN2 estimate the radioactive decay and buildup of various radionuclides in the waste streams identified in the WTWBID. The resulting radionuclide inventories are needed for performance assessment calculations for the WIPP site. The work resulted in the development of PreORG, which requires interaction with the user to generate ORIGEN2 input files on a site-by-site basis, and PostORG, which processes ORIGEN2 output into more manageable files. Both programs are written in the FORTRAN 77 computer language. After running PreORG, the user will run ORIGEN2 to generate the desired data; upon completion of ORIGEN2 calculations, the user can run PostORG to process the output to make it more manageable. All the programs run on a 386 PC or higher with a math co-processor or a computer platform running under VMS operating system. The pre- and post-processors for ORIGEN2 were generated for use with Rev. 1 data of the WTWBID and can also be used with Rev. 2 and 3 data of the TWBID (Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Database)

  15. Logic programming to infer complex RNA expression patterns from RNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirick, Tyler; Militello, Giuseppe; Ponomareva, Yuliya; John, David; Döring, Claudia; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Uchida, Shizuka

    2018-03-01

    To meet the increasing demand in the field, numerous long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) databases are available. Given many lncRNAs are specifically expressed in certain cell types and/or time-dependent manners, most lncRNA databases fall short of providing such profiles. We developed a strategy using logic programming to handle the complex organization of organs, their tissues and cell types as well as gender and developmental time points. To showcase this strategy, we introduce 'RenalDB' (http://renaldb.uni-frankfurt.de), a database providing expression profiles of RNAs in major organs focusing on kidney tissues and cells. RenalDB uses logic programming to describe complex anatomy, sample metadata and logical relationships defining expression, enrichment or specificity. We validated the content of RenalDB with biological experiments and functionally characterized two long intergenic noncoding RNAs: LOC440173 is important for cell growth or cell survival, whereas PAXIP1-AS1 is a regulator of cell death. We anticipate RenalDB will be used as a first step toward functional studies of lncRNAs in the kidney.

  16. Analysis of transuranic isotopes in irradiated U3Si2-Al fuel by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dian Anggraini; Aslina B Ginting; Arif Nugroho

    2011-01-01

    Separation and analysis of transuranic isotopes (uranium and plutonium) in irradiated U 3 Si 2 -Al plate has been done. The analysis experiment includes sample preparation (i.e. cutting, dissolving, filtering, dilution), fission products separation from heavy elements, and analysis of transuranic isotopes content with alpha spectrometer. The separation of transuranic isotopes (U, Pu) was done by two methods, i.e. direct method and ion exchanger method with zeolite. Measurement of standard transuranic isotope (AMR 43) and standard U 3 O 8 was done in advance in order to determine percentage of 235 U recovery and detector efficiency. Recovery of 235 U isotope was obtained as much as 92,58%, which fulfills validation requirement, and the detector efficiency was 0.314. Based on the measured recovery and detector efficiency, the separation was done by direct electrodeposition method of 250 µL irradiated U 3 Si 2 -Al solution. The deposited sample was subsequently analyzed with alpha spectrometer. The separation with ion exchanger was done by mixing and shaking of 300 µL irradiated U 3 Si 2 -Al solution and 0.5 gram zeolite to separate the liquid phase from the solid phase. The liquid phase was electrodeposited and analyzed with alpha spectrometer. The analysis of transuranic isotopes (U, Pu) by both methods shows different results. Heavy element ( 238 U, 236 U, 234 U, 239 Pu) content obtained by direct method was 0.0525 g/g and 235 U= 0.0076 g/g, while the separation using zeolite ion exchanger resulted in Heavy element = 0.0253 g/g and 235 U = 0.0092 g/g. (author)

  17. Transuranic waste management at Savannah River - past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosia, J.

    1985-01-01

    The major objective of the TRU program at Savannah River is to support the TRU National Program, which is dedicated to preparing waste for, and emplacing waste in, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, (WIPP). Thus, the Savannah River Program also supports WIPP operations. The Savannah River site specific goals to phase out the indefinite storage of TRU waste, which has been the mode of waste management since 1974, and to dispose of Savannah River's Defense TRU waste

  18. Transuranic Contamination in Sediment and Groundwater at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2009-08-20

    A review of transuranic radionuclide contamination in sediments and groundwater at the DOE’s Hanford Site was conducted. The review focused primarily on plutonium-239/240 and americium-241; however, other transuranic nuclides were discussed as well, including neptunium-237, plutonium-238, and plutonium-241. The scope of the review included liquid process wastes intentionally disposed to constructed waste disposal facilities such as trenches and cribs, burial grounds, and unplanned releases to the ground surface. The review did not include liquid wastes disposed to tanks or solid wastes disposed to burial grounds. It is estimated that over 11,800 Ci of plutonium-239, 28,700 Ci of americium-241, and 55 Ci of neptunium-237 have been disposed as liquid waste to the near surface environment at the Hanford Site. Despite the very large quantities of transuranic contaminants disposed to the vadose zone at Hanford, only minuscule amounts have entered the groundwater. Currently, no wells onsite exceed the DOE derived concentration guide for plutonium-239/240 (30 pCi/L) or any other transuranic contaminant in filtered samples. The DOE derived concentration guide was exceeded by a small fraction in unfiltered samples from one well (299-E28-23) in recent years (35.4 and 40.4 pCi/L in FY 2006). The primary reason that disposal of these large quantities of transuranic radionuclides directly to the vadose zone at the Hanford Site has not resulted in widespread groundwater contamination is that under the typical oxidizing and neutral to slightly alkaline pH conditions of the Hanford vadose zone, transuranic radionuclides (plutonium and americium in particular) have a very low solubility and high affinity for surface adsorption to mineral surfaces common within the Hanford vadose zone. Other important factors are the fact that the vadose zone is typically very thick (hundreds of feet) and the net infiltration rate is very low due to the desert climate. In some cases where

  19. Assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The following report contains an assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) for the Y-12 National Security Complex at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. The GWPP is administered by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. for the purpose of groundwater surveillance monitoring. After over 20 years of extensive site characterization and delineation efforts, groundwater in the three hydrogeologic areas that comprise the Y-12 Complex requires a long-term monitoring network strategy that will efficiently satisfy surveillance monitoring objectives set forth in DOE Order 450.1. The GWPP assessment consisted of two phases, a qualitative review of the program and a quantitative evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software methodology. The specific objective of the qualitative section of the review of the GWPP was to evaluate the methods of data collection, management, and reporting and the function of the monitoring network for the Y-12 facility using guidance from regulatory and academic sources. The results of the qualitative review are used to suggest modifications to the overall program that would be consistent with achieving objectives for long-term groundwater monitoring. While cost minimization is a consideration in the development of the monitoring program, the primary goal is to provide a comprehensive strategy to provide quality data to support site decision making during facility operations, long-term resource restoration, and property redevelopment. The MAROS software is designed to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network by applying statistical techniques to existing historic and current site analytical data. The MAROS methodology also considers hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors. The software identifies trends and suggests components for an improved monitoring plan by analyzing individual monitoring wells in the current

  20. Waste management under multiple complexities: Inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Huang, Guo H.; Lv Ying; Li Gongchen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming is proposed. ► It’s the first application to waste management under multiple complexities. ► It tackles nonlinear economies-of-scale effects in interval-parameter constraints. ► It estimates costs more accurately than the linear-regression-based model. ► Uncertainties are decreased and more satisfactory interval solutions are obtained. - Abstract: To tackle nonlinear economies-of-scale (EOS) effects in interval-parameter constraints for a representative waste management problem, an inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming (IPFP) model is developed. In IPFP, interval parameters for waste amounts and transportation/operation costs can be quantified; aspiration levels for net system costs, as well as tolerance intervals for both capacities of waste treatment facilities and waste generation rates can be reflected; and the nonlinear EOS effects transformed from objective function to constraints can be approximated. An interactive algorithm is proposed for solving the IPFP model, which in nature is an interval-parameter mixed-integer quadratically constrained programming model. To demonstrate the IPFP’s advantages, two alternative models are developed to compare their performances. One is a conventional linear-regression-based inexact fuzzy programming model (IPFP2) and the other is an IPFP model with all right-hand-sides of fussy constraints being the corresponding interval numbers (IPFP3). The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP2 indicate that the optimized waste amounts would have the similar patterns in both models. However, when dealing with EOS effects in constraints, the IPFP2 may underestimate the net system costs while the IPFP can estimate the costs more accurately. The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP3 indicate that their solutions would be significantly different. The decreased system uncertainties in IPFP’s solutions demonstrate

  1. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  2. Transuranic element uptake and cycling in a forest over an old burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    The consequences of returning the Savannah River Site (SRS) burial ground area to general public access at the time of completion of the SRS mission is being investigated. This study was established with the objective of determining the uptake of buried, low-level, transuranic waste from unlined earthen trenches by forest vegetation. From SRS startup in 1953 through 1974, solid waste contaminated with α-emitting transuranic nuclides was buried, unencapsulated, in earthen trenches. Burial records show that this material includes plutonium-238 ( 238 Pu), plutonium isotopes 239 and 240 ( 239,240 Pu), americium-241 ( 241 Am), and neptunium-237 ( 237 Np). In 1979, two tree plots were established, one over a trench in the burial ground and the other in an area without trenches. In the 2 years following establishment of the tree plots, 1979 and 1980, whole trees of each species were collected from each plot and analyzed for 239 Pu and 238 Pu. Beginning in 1986, needle samples were collected from selected pine trees in each of the plots. Because of poor growth and survival, the hardwood trees were not sampled after 1980. The results of data analysis support the conclusions that: (1) there is more 238 Pu uptake by pine tree seedlings than the other species, (2) there is greater transuranic radionuclide uptake in grown pine trees than in seedlings, and (3) there are greater concentrations of transuranic radionuclides in the grown pine trees on the trench plots than in the pine trees on the control plot. These data indicate that tree roots will extract transuranic isotopes from buried, low level waste. The amount of radioisotopes moved from the trenches to the surface is small and the level in the trees is low enough that dose from direct exposure will be very small. A model was developed to estimate the potential for the transfer from the SRS alpha trenches. The results suggest that even following 100 years of transport, the transuranic, alpha dose from consuming food crops

  3. Study of the association between exposure to transuranic radionuclides and cancer death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahian, Naz Afarin

    An exploratory epidemiological study has been conducted on 319 deceased nuclear workers, who had recorded intakes and histories of employment for at least one year during the time period from 1943 to 1995, at different facilities including the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites, and thorium and uranium mining and milling plants. These workers voluntarily agreed to donate their organs or whole body to the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) for scientific research purposes. The majority of this population was involved in documented radiological incidents during their careers. Many were exposed to transuranic radionuclides primarily via inhalation or puncture wounds. The purpose of this study was to find the level of dose that was received by the USTUR registrants following accidents and subsequent to mitigating actions, and to investigate whether or not there is any association between exposure to these transuranic radionuclides and cancer deaths. The external and internal dose assessments were performed using occupational radiation exposure histories and postmortem concentrations of transuranic radionuclides in critical organs, respectively. Statistical data analyses were performed to identify whether or not the USTUR registrants can be categorized as a 'low-dose' population and to investigate the potential correlation between exposure to transuranic radionuclides and causes of death within this population due to cancers of the lungs and liver as well as cancers of all sites, while controlling for the effects of other confounders. Based on the statistical tests performed, the USTUR registrants can be categorized as a low-dose population in terms of their occupational external exposures. However, when considering their total effective dose equivalents from both external penetrating radiation and internal exposure to transuranic radionuclides, they can not be categorized as a low-dose population with a 95% confidence level (alpha = 0

  4. U.S. Department of Energy defense waste management program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Program Implementation Plan describes the Department of Energy's current approach to managing its defense high-level, low-level, and transuranic radioactive waste. It documents implementation of the policies described in the 1983 Defense Waste Management Plan

  5. Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This regulation sets environmental standards for public protection from the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level wastes and wastes that contain elements with atomic numbers higher than uranium (transuranic wastes).

  6. Deep Burn: Development of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature Helium-Cooled Reactors- Monthly Highlights September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Besmann, Theodore M.; Collins, Emory D.; Bell, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    The DB Program monthly highlights report for August 2010, ORNL/TM-2010/184, was distributed to program participants by email on September 17. This report discusses: (1) Core and Fuel Analysis - (a) Core Design Optimization in the HTR (high temperature helium-cooled reactor) Prismatic Design (Logos), (b) Core Design Optimization in the HTR Pebble Bed Design (INL), (c) Microfuel analysis for the DB HTR (INL, GA, Logos); (2) Spent Fuel Management - (a) TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) repository behavior (UNLV), (b) Repository performance of TRISO fuel (UCB); (3) Fuel Cycle Integration of the HTR (high temperature helium-cooled reactor) - Synergy with other reactor fuel cycles (GA, Logos); (4) TRU (transuranic elements) HTR Fuel Qualification - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) Actinide and Fission Product Transport, (c) Radiation Damage and Properties; (5) HTR Spent Fuel Recycle - (a) TRU Kernel Development (ORNL), (b) Coating Development (ORNL), (c) Characterization Development and Support, (d) ZrC Properties and Handbook; and (6) HTR Fuel Recycle - (a) Graphite Recycle (ORNL), (b) Aqueous Reprocessing, (c) Pyrochemical Reprocessing METROX (metal recovery from oxide fuel) Process Development (ANL).

  7. Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Rawson, S.A.; Hubbell, J.M.; Minkin, S.C.; Baca, R.G.; Vigil, M.J.; Bonzon, C.J.; Landon, J.L.; Laney, P.T.

    1989-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, D.L.; Rawson, S.A.; Hubbell, J.M.; Minkin, S.C.; Baca, R.G.; Vigil, M.J.; Bonzon, C.J.; Landon, J.L.; Laney, P.T.

    1989-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located

  10. Filter testing and development for prolonged transuranic service and waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, J.A.; Buttedahl, O.I.; Skaats, C.D.; Terada, K.; Woodard, R.W.

    1977-02-01

    The life of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters used in transuranic service is influenced greatly by the gaseous and particulate matter to which the filters are exposed. The most severe conditions encountered at Rocky Flats are at the ventilation systems serving the plutonium recovery operations in Bldg. 771. A project of filter testing and development for prolonged transuranic service and waste reduction was formally initiated at Rocky Flats on July 1, 1975. The project is directed toward improving filtration methods which will prolong the life of HEPA filter systems without sacrificing effectiveness. Another important aspect of the project is to reduce the volume of HEPA filter waste shipped from the plant for long-term storage. Progress to September 30, 1976, is reported

  11. Synthesis of neutron-rich transuranic nuclei in fissile spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishustin, Igor, E-mail: mishustin@fias.uni-frankfurt.de [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.-W. Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); “Kurchatov Institute”, National Research Center, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Malyshkin, Yury, E-mail: malyshkin@fias.uni-frankfurt.de [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.-W. Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pshenichnov, Igor, E-mail: pshenich@fias.uni-frankfurt.de [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.-W. Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Greiner, Walter [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.-W. Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    A possibility of synthesizing neutron-rich superheavy elements in spallation targets of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) is considered. A dedicated software called Nuclide Composition Dynamics (NuCoD) was developed to model the evolution of isotope composition in the targets during a long-time irradiation by intense proton and deuteron beams. Simulation results show that transuranic elements up to {sup 249}Bk can be produced in multiple neutron capture reactions in macroscopic quantities. However, the neutron flux achievable in a spallation target is still insufficient to overcome the so-called fermium gap. Further optimization of the target design, in particular, by including moderating material and covering it by a reflector could turn ADS into an alternative source of transuranic elements in addition to nuclear fission reactors.

  12. Incorporation of transuranics into vegetable and field crops grown at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, F.H.F.; Leavitt, V.D.; Beckert, W.F.; McFarlane, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Radish, lettuce, barley, and alfalfa plants were grown from seeds in undisturbed soil in Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site to determine the uptake of transuranics under field conditions. The plants were grown in small greenhouses erected over the soil to preclude aerial deposition of resuspended transuranics on the growing plants. The crops were irrigated during the growing season with either distilled water, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in distilled water, fertilizer in distilled water, or a combination of DTPA and fertilizer in distilled water. The plutonium and americium contents of the harvested plants showed differences which are mostly attributable to the effects of the treatments and the resulting changes in soil pH during the experiment

  13. Environmental aspects of the transuranics: a selected, annotated bibliography. [Pu-238, Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martin, F.M.; Fore, C.S. (comps.)

    1977-03-01

    This eighth published bibliography of 427 references is compiled from the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center's Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics. The data base was built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope covers environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. This bibliography highlights literature on plutonium 238 and 239 and americium in the critical organs of man and animals. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews and summarizing literature on other radionuclides have been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with leading authors appearing alphabetically in each category. Indexes are provided for author(s), geographic location, keyword(s), taxon, title, and publication description.

  14. Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willit, James L [Batavia, IL

    2010-09-21

    An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

  15. Environmental aspects of the transuranics. A selected, annotated bibliography. Volume 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Fore, C.S.; Dailey, N.S.

    1978-09-01

    This ninth published bibliography of 589 references is compiled from the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center's Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics. The data base was built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of DOE's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope covers environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. This annotated bibliography highlights literature on plutonium 238 and 239 and americium 241 in the critical organs of man and animals. Studies on the migration of plutonium and the transplutonics through the environment are also emphasized. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews and summarizing literature on other radionuclides have been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with leading authors appearing alphabetically within each category. Indexes are provided for author(s), geographic location, keywords, taxonomic name, title, and publication description

  16. Chemical speciation and bioavailability of transuranics for a freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiels, G.M.; Murray, C.N.; Rade, J.

    1981-01-01

    It is now becoming clear that the determination of the physico-chemical forms of transuranic elements is an important step in assessing their behaviour at very low environmental levels. Data from both simulated environmental systems as well as in-situ investigations have shown the necessity of understanding the source term of contamination, which probably plays a major role in the long-term distribution of these elements. In the present paper an experimental procedure is outlined, which allows a more extensive investigation into some aspects of the biogeochemical behaviour of two transuranics: 237 Pu and 241 Am. Two chemical methods were applied to a study of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis L.. Data were obtained on the uptake and retention patterns of different oxidation states of 237 Pu and 241 Am at the organ and cellular levels of the pond snail. An attempt was made to relate the environmental chemistry of both radionuclides to the fixation in L. stagnalis. (author)

  17. Critical evaluation of the limit of transuranic contamination of low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    The suggested limit for transuranics of 10 nanocuries/gram as a break point at which wastes should go to a national repository is seriously questioned. It is shown that insofar as protection of water supplies is concerned, the key to the problem is $sup 90$Sr, not transuranics, and in any case, the limit should be based on a site-determined inventory, not on concentration. Concentration is only important as a protection for future stumblers who might dig into the waste. Calculations are presented to show that for this purpose the limit should be higher by several orders of magnitude. The 10 nanocurie/gram should be used as a definition of complete innocuousness. 4 refs

  18. Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willit, James L.

    2007-09-11

    An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

  19. Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Yasutake, K.M.; Allen, R.P.

    1985-07-01

    This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m 3 /MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m 3 /MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs

  20. Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Rick E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Frederickson, James R. [AREVA, Avignon (France); Criddle, James [AREVA, Avignon (France); Hamilton, Dennis [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Mike W. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-10-18

    This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

  1. Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Yasutake, K.M.; Allen, R.P.

    1985-07-01

    This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m/sup 3//MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m/sup 3//MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  2. Technologies for recovery of transuranics and immobilization of non-high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, G.L.

    1976-06-01

    This paper supplements the preceding Symposium paper on ''Treatment Technologies for Non-High-Level Wastes (U.S.A.)'' by C. R. Cooley and D. E. Clark (HEDL-SA-851), and covers the additional treatment technologies in use and under development for recovering transuranics and immobilizing non-high-level wastes for transportation and storage. Methods used for nondestructive assay (NDA) of TRU elements in non-high-level wastes are also discussed briefly

  3. Preoperational checkout of the remote-handled transuranic waste handling at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This plan describes the preoperational checkout for handling Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Wastes from their receipt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to their emplacement underground. This plan identifies the handling operations to be performed, personnel groups responsible for executing these operations, and required equipment items. In addition, this plan describes the quality assurance that will be exercised throughout the checkout, and finally, it establishes criteria by which to measure the success of the checkout. 7 refs., 5 figs

  4. Predictions and implications of a poisson process model to describe corrosion of transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, B.F.; Holmes, J.A.; Wilbert, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    A risk assessment methodology is described in this paper to compare risks associated with immediate or near-term retrieval of transuranic (TRU) waste drums from bermed storage versus delayed retrieval. Assuming a Poisson process adequately describes corrosion, significant breaching of drums is expected to begin at - 15 and 24 yr for pitting and general corrosion, respectively. Because of this breaching, more risk will be incurred by delayed than by immediate retrieval

  5. Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Rick E.; Frederickson, James R.; Criddle, James; Hamilton, Dennis; Johnson, Mike W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS)

  6. Synthesis of neutron-rich transuranic nuclei in fissile spallation targets

    OpenAIRE

    Mishustin, Igor; Malyshkin, Yury; Pshenichnov, Igor; Greiner, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A possibility of synthesizing neutron-reach super-heavy elements in spallation targets of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) is considered. A dedicated software called Nuclide Composition Dynamics (NuCoD) was developed to model the evolution of isotope composition in the targets during a long-time irradiation by intense proton and deuteron beams. Simulation results show that transuranic elements up to Bk-249 can be produced in multiple neutron capture reactions in macroscopic quantities. Howeve...

  7. Quantification of transuranic elements by time interval correlation spectroscopy of the detected neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten; Bruggeman; Paepen; Carchon

    2000-03-01

    The non-destructive quantification of transuranic elements in nuclear waste management or in safeguards verifications is commonly performed by passive neutron assay techniques. To minimise the number of unknown sample-dependent parameters, Neutron Multiplicity Counting (NMC) is applied. We developed a new NMC-technique, called Time Interval Correlation Spectroscopy (TICS), which is based on the measurement of Rossi-alpha time interval distributions. Compared to other NMC-techniques, TICS offers several advantages.

  8. Maria Goeppert Mayer's Theoretical Work on Rare-Earth and Transuranic Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Frank Y.

    2008-01-01

    After the discovery of element 93 neptunium by Edwin McMillan and Philip H. Abelson in 1941, Maria Goeppert Mayer applied the Thomas-Fermi model to calculate the electronic configuration of heavy elements and predicted the occurrence of a second rare-earth series in the vicinity of elements 91 or 92 extending to the transuranic elements. Mayer was motivated by Enrico Fermi, who was at the time contemplating military uses of nuclear energy. Historical development of nuclear science research le...

  9. Fabrication of a set of realistic torso phantoms for calibration of transuranic nuclide lung counting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, A.L.; Sundbeck, C.W.; Alderson, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    A set of 16 tissue equivalent torso phantoms has been fabricated for use by major laboratories involved in counting transuranic nuclides in the lung. These phantoms, which have bone equivalent plastic rib cages, duplicate the performance of the DOE Realistic Phantom set. The new phantoms (and their successors) provide the user laboratories with a highly realistic calibration tool. Moreover, use of these phantoms will allow participating laboratories to intercompare calibration information, both on formal and informal bases. 3 refs., 2 figs

  10. A passive-active neutron device for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estep, R.J.; Coop, K.L.; Deane, T.M.; Lujan, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A combined passive-active neutron assay device was constructed for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste. A study of matrix and source position effects in active assays showed that a knowledge of the source position alone is not sufficient to correct for position-related errors in highly moderating or absorbing matrices. An alternate function for the active assay of solid fuel pellets was derived, although the efficacy of this approach remains to be established

  11. Deposition, translocation and effects of transuranic particles inhaled by experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Ballou, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahlum, D.D.; Park, J.F.; Sanders, C.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Inhalation exposure constitutes the most likely route of entrance for transuranics into the body. Cancer is the most likely consequence of exposure, but several thousand workers have been exposed during the last 30 yrs without, so far, evidence of exposure-related effects. Several soluble and insoluble transuranic compounds have been studied in rodents and dogs, either alone or combined with exposure to other materials (e.g., PuO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/ fuel and Na). These studies have provided a wide variety of spatial and temporal dose distribution patterns in the lung. The distribution and total initial deposition in the respiratory tract is a function of the physical characteristics of the inhaled aerosols (size distribution, shape, hygroscopicity) and of the morphology and physiology of the animal. Translocation rates, organ and tissue distribution and excretion in urine and feces, are a function of the physicochemical characteristics of the deposited material (solubility, specific activity, chemical compound, etc.). Differences in rate of translocation of the solubilized material, primarily to the liver and bone, determines the radiation dose to the various tissues involved. Insoluble particles of plutonium dioxide are transferred to the thoracic lymph nodes, which may be functionally destroyed as a consequence. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are the main causes of death in animals with cumulative radiation doses to the lung of a few thousand rads. The most significant long-term effect of inhaled transuranic compounds in animals is the development of lung and bone tumors. The main type of lung tumor in both dog and rat is the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). However, tumor type is a function of radiation dose and dose-distribution at high doses. Bone ranks next to lung as the tissue developing the most tumors following inhalation of transuranics

  12. Deposition, translocation, and effects of transuranic particles inhaled by experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Ballou, J.E.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahlum, D.D.; Park, J.F.; Sanders, C.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Stuart, B.O.

    1977-01-01

    Inhalation exposure constitutes the most likely route of entrance for transuranics into the body. Cancer is the most likely consequence of exposure, but several thousand workers have been exposed during the last 30 yrs without, so far, evidence of exposure-related effects. Several soluble and insoluble transuranic compounds have been studied in rodents and dogs, either alone or combined with exposure to other materials (e.g., PuO 2 --UO 2 fuel and Na). These studies have provided a wide variety of spatial and temporal dose distribution patterns in the lung. The distribution and total initial deposition in the respiratory tract is a function of the physical characteristics of the inhaled aerosols (size distribution, shape, hygroscopicity) and of the morphology and physiology of the animal. Translocation rates, organ and tissue distribution and excretion in urine and feces, are a function of the physicochemical characteristics of the deposited material (solubility, specific activity, chemical compound, etc.). Differences in rate of translocation of the solubilized material, primarily to the liver and bone, determines the radiation dose to the various tissues involved. Insoluble particles of plutonium dioxide are transferred to the thoracic lymph nodes, which may be functionally destroyed as a consequence. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are the main causes of death in animals with cumulative radiation doses to the lung of a few thousand rads. The most significant long-term effect of inhaled transuranic compounds in animals is the development of lung and bone tumors. The main type of lung tumor in both dog and rat is the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). However, tumor type is a function of radiation dose and dose-distribution at high doses. Bone ranks next to lung as the tissue developing the most tumors following inhalation of transuranics

  13. Study of the interactions between organic matter and transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, V.; Billon, A.; Theyssier, M.; Dellis, T.

    1991-01-01

    The study of the occurrence of humic substances present in natural waters and their physico-chemical properties, in particular their complexing behaviour, constitutes the main objectives of this research programme. In the first part, the report presents the description of the selected aquifer (representative of a granitic geological formation: Fanay-Augeres), the method for the collection and concentration of the humic substances (a sorption technique) and their characterization by different physico-chemical techniques (elementary and mineral composition, spectroscopic properties, size, proton capacity, datation). The results show that Fanay-Augeres humic substances (considered as site-specific humic substances) represent 41% of the total organic carbon (TOC) present in the aquifer (2ppm) and have properties similar to other aquatic humic substances. The second part describes the study of the interactions occurring between these humic substances and trivalent cations (Eu and Am). Two different analytical methods have been developed to perform these investigations: spectrophotometry and size-exclusion chromatography. Interaction constants and complexing capacities have been determined and compared with literature data. Fanay-Augeres humic substances present complexing for trivalent actinides which agrees with published data. Further developments needed in complexation studies are described. 10 figs.; 15 tabs.; 39 refs

  14. Role of animal toxicity studies in the evaluation of human health risks from internally deposited transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1977-02-01

    The extrapolation of animal data to man has always been a problem for those concerned with human biology. Especially if one is interested in the effects of toxicants, opportunities for direct observation in man are usually limited, and approval of planned experiments employing human subjects is difficult to obtain. In no case are these limitations more restrictive than for transuranic elements, for which no life-threatening effects have yet been demonstrated in man. This lack of human experience is coupled with a massive public concern over possible future effects of transuranics, which contrasts sharply with the general public apathy toward a multitude of present environmental pollutants of clearly established toxicity. This concern for the transuranics, especially 239 Pu, and for other radionuclides has prompted the expenditure of many millions of dollars (and francs and marks and pounds and roubles) on studies to investigate their toxicity in animals. Results of these studies are extensive, and still accumulating, but in many quarters there is now a reluctance to accept these results as relevant to the prediction of human effects

  15. Management of transuranics using the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The 50 years of activities following the discovery of self-sustaining fission chains have given rise to a buildup of roughly 900 tons of manmade transuranics. Of the total, about 260 tons of Pu 239 were generated for use in weapons while the remainder were generated as a byproduct of electrical power produced worldwide by the commercial thermal nuclear power industry. What is to be done with these actinides? The options for disposition include interminable storage, burial, or recycle for use. The pros and cons of each option are being vigorously debated regarding the impact upon the issues of human and ecological risk -- both current and future; weapons proliferation potential -- both current and future; and total life cycle benefits and costs. As to the options for utilization, commercial uses for actinides (uranium and transuranics) are of limited diversity. The actinides have in the past and will in the future find application in large scale mostly by virtue of their ability to release energy through fission, and here their utility is unmatched -- whether the application be in commercial electricity generation or in armaments. The integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle offers a number of features for management of the current and future burden of manmade transuranic materials and for capturing the energy content of the U 238 . These features are discussed here

  16. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains appendices A to F. The properties of transuranium (TRU) radionuclides are described. Immobilization of TRU wastes by bituminization, urea-formaldehyde polymers, and cements is discussed. Research programs at DOE facilities engaged in TRU waste characterization and management studies are described

  17. A Little Here, A Little There, A Fairly Big Problem Everywhere: Small Quantity Site Transuranic Waste Disposition Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, Dale Elden; Parker, Douglas Wayne; Moss, J.; Monk, Thomas Hugh; Fritz, Lori Lee; Daugherty, B.; Hladek, K.; Kosiewicx, S.

    2000-01-01

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far

  18. Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

    1998-01-01

    Use of nature's laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia

  19. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford waste via hydrothermal processing -- FY 1994/95 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.J.; Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Gano, S.R.; Lehmann, R.W.; Momont, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating and developing organic destruction technologies that may be incorporated into the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) to treat Hanford tank waste. Organic (and ferrocyanide) destruction removes the compounds responsible for waste safety issues, and conditions the supernatant for low-level waste disposal by removing compounds that may be responsible for promoting strontium and transuranic (TRU) components solubility. Destruction or defunctionalization of complexing organics in tank wastes eliminates organic species that can reduce the efficiency of radionuclide (E.g., 90 Sr) separation processes, such as ion exchange, solvent extraction, and precipitation. The technologies being evaluated and tested for organic destruction are low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) and wet air oxidation (WAO). Four activities are described: Batch HTP/WAO testing with Actual Tank Waste (Section 3.0), Batch HTP Testing with Simulant (Section 4.0), Batch WAO testing with Simulant (Section 5.0), and Continuous Bench-scale WAO Testing with Simulant (Section 6.0). For each of these activities, the objectives, test approach, results, status, and direction of future investigations are discussed. The background and history of the HTP/WAO technology is summarized below. Conclusions and Recommendations are provided in Section 2.0. A continuous HTP off-gas safety evaluation conducted in FY 1994 is included as Appendix A

  20. Solidification Tests Conducted on Transuranic Mixed Oil Waste (TRUM) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunkow, W. G.; Campbell, D.; Geimer, R.; Gilbreath, C.; Rivera, M.

    2002-01-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) near Golden, Colorado is the first major nuclear weapons site within the DOE complex that has been declared a full closure site. RFETS has been given the challenge of closing the site by 2006. Key to meeting this challenge is the removal of all waste from the site followed by site restoration. Crucial to meeting this challenge is Kaiser-Hill's (RFETS Operating Contractor) ability to dispose of significant quantities of ''orphan'' wastes. Orphan wastes are those with no current disposition for treatment or disposal. Once such waste stream, generically referred to as Transuranic oils, poses a significant threat to meeting the closure schedule. Historically, this waste stream, which consist of a variety of oil contaminated with a range of organic solvents were treated by simply mixing with Environstone. This treatment method rendered a solidified waste form, but unfortunately not a TRUPACT-II transportable waste. So for the last ten years, RFETS has been accumulating these TRU oils while searching for a non-controversial treatment option

  1. Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

    1998-10-01

    Use of nature`s laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia.

  2. A little here, a little there, a fairly big problem everywhere: Small-quantity-site transuranic waste disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Luke; D. Parker; J. Moss; T. Monk; L. Fritz; B. Daugherty; K. Hladek; S. Kosiewicx

    2000-01-01

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound Laboratory. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far

  3. Integrative shell of the program complex MARS (Version 1.0) radiation transfer in three-dimensional geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyarev, I.I.; Lokhovitskij, A.E.; Maslov, M.A.; Yazynin, I.A.

    1994-01-01

    The first version of integrative shell of the program complex MARS is written for calculating radiation transfer in the three-dimensional geometries. The integrative shell allows the user to work in convenient form with complex MARS, creat input files data and get graphic visualization of calculated functions. Version 1.0 is adapted for personal computers of types IBM-286,386,486 with operative size memory not smaller than 500K. 5 refs

  4. Flibe blanket concept for transmuting transuranic elements and long lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A Molten salt (Flibe) fusion blanket concept has been developed to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. This blanket concept can achieve the top rated solution, the complete elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products. Small driven fusion devices with low neutron wall loading and low neutron fluence can perform this function. A 344-MW integrated fusion power from D-T plasmas for thirty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can dispose of 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. In addition, the utilization of this blanket concept eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. This application provides an excellent opportunity to develop and to enhance the public acceptance of the fusion energy for the future. The energy from the transmutation process is utilized to produce revenue. Flibe, lithium-lead eutectic, and liquid lead are possible candidates. The liquid blankets have several features, which are suited for W application. It can operate at constant thermal power without interruption for refueling by adjusting the concentration of the transuranic elements and lithium-6. These liquids operate at low-pressure, which reduces the primary stresses in the structure material. Development and fabrication costs of solid transuranic materials are eliminated. Burnup limit of the transuranic elements due to radiation effects is eliminated. Heat is generated within the liquid, which simplifies the heat removal process without producing thermal stresses. These blanket concepts have large negative temperature coefficient with respect to the blanket reactivity, which enhances the safety performance. These liquids are chemically and thermally stable under irradiation conditions, which minimize the radioactive waste volume. The operational record of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor with Flibe was very successful

  5. Exploitation of a Breakthrough in Magnetic Confinement Fusion to Improve Transuranic Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Erich [Nuclear and Radiation Engineering Program, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh; Valanju, Prashant [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic nuclear waste is developed by combining a subcritical fusion-fission hybrid assembly uniquely equipped to burn the worst thermal non-fissile transuranic isotopes with a new fuel cycle that uses cheaper light water reactors for most of the transmutation. The centerpiece of this fuel cycle, the high power density compact fusion neutron source (CFNS, 100 MW, outer radius <3 m), is made possible by a new divertor with a heat-handling capacity five times that of the standard alternative. The number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of waste is about an order of magnitude below the corresponding number of critical fast spectrum reactors (FR) as the latter cannot fully exploit the new fuel cycle. Also, the time needed for 99% transuranic waste destruction reduces from centuries (with FR) to decades. The generic Hybrid, combining neutron-rich fusion with energy-rich fission, was first conceptualized several decades ago. However, it is only now that accumulated advances in fusion science and technology allow designing a neutron source like CFNS that is simultaneously compact and high power density, offering a neutron source an order of magnitude stronger than that obtained from accelerator driven systems. The former is essential for efficient coupling to the fission blanket, and the latter is key to efficient neutron production necessary to yield high neutron fluxes needed for effective transmutation. The recent invention of the SuperX-Divertor (SXD)1, a new magnetic configuration that allows the system to safely exhaust large heat and particle fluxes peculiar to CFNS-like devices, is a crucial addition to the underlying knowledge base. The subcritical FFTS acquires a definite advantage over the critical FR approach because of its ability to support an innovative fuel cycle that makes the cheaper LWR do the bulk (75%) of the transuranic transmutation via deep burn in an inert matrix fuel

  6. Bourbaki's structure theory in the problem of complex systems simulation models synthesis and model-oriented programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Yu. I.

    2015-01-01

    The work is devoted to the application of Bourbaki's structure theory to substantiate the synthesis of simulation models of complex multicomponent systems, where every component may be a complex system itself. An application of the Bourbaki's structure theory offers a new approach to the design and computer implementation of simulation models of complex multicomponent systems—model synthesis and model-oriented programming. It differs from the traditional object-oriented approach. The central concept of this new approach and at the same time, the basic building block for the construction of more complex structures is the concept of models-components. A model-component endowed with a more complicated structure than, for example, the object in the object-oriented analysis. This structure provides to the model-component an independent behavior-the ability of standard responds to standard requests of its internal and external environment. At the same time, the computer implementation of model-component's behavior is invariant under the integration of models-components into complexes. This fact allows one firstly to construct fractal models of any complexity, and secondly to implement a computational process of such constructions uniformly-by a single universal program. In addition, the proposed paradigm allows one to exclude imperative programming and to generate computer code with a high degree of parallelism.

  7. Development of nuclear transmutation technology for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko

    1996-01-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P-T) of long-lived radioactive nuclides is conceived as the technology to improve the high-level radioactive waste management. This report discusses the incentives of P-T, generation of long-lived nuclides in fission reactors, nuclear transmutation technologies, R and D activities of the partitioning and transmutation technology development programs at JAERI and in the world. (author)

  8. Transuranic contaminated waste container characterization and data base. Revision I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing regulations governing the management, handling and disposal of transuranium (TRU) radioisotope contaminated wastes as part of the NRC's overall waste management program. In the development of such regulations, numerous subtasks have been identified which require completion before meaningful regulations can be proposed, their impact evaluated and the regulations implemented. This report was prepared to assist in the development of the technical data base necessary to support rule-making actions dealing with TRU-contaminated wastes. An earlier report presented the waste sources, characteristics and inventory of both Department of Energy (DOE) generated and commercially generated TRU waste. In this report a wide variety of waste sources as well as a large TRU inventory were identified. The purpose of this report is to identify the different packaging systems used and proposed for TRU waste and to document their characteristics. This document then serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of TRU waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present TRU waste management program. It is the purpose of this report to serve as a working document which will be used as appropriate in the TRU Waste Management Program. This report, and those following, will be compatible not only in format, but also in reference material and direction

  9. Programming molecular self-assembly of intrinsically disordered proteins containing sequences of low complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Joseph R.; Carroll, Nick J.; Rubinstein, Michael; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; López, Gabriel P.

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic protein-rich intracellular structures that contain phase-separated intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) composed of sequences of low complexity (SLC) have been shown to serve a variety of important cellular functions, which include signalling, compartmentalization and stabilization. However, our understanding of these structures and our ability to synthesize models of them have been limited. We present design rules for IDPs possessing SLCs that phase separate into diverse assemblies within droplet microenvironments. Using theoretical analyses, we interpret the phase behaviour of archetypal IDP sequences and demonstrate the rational design of a vast library of multicomponent protein-rich structures that ranges from uniform nano-, meso- and microscale puncta (distinct protein droplets) to multilayered orthogonally phase-separated granular structures. The ability to predict and program IDP-rich assemblies in this fashion offers new insights into (1) genetic-to-molecular-to-macroscale relationships that encode hierarchical IDP assemblies, (2) design rules of such assemblies in cell biology and (3) molecular-level engineering of self-assembled recombinant IDP-rich materials.

  10. Waste Generator Instructions: Key to Successful Implementation of the US DOE's 435.1 for Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions (LA-UR-12-24155) - 13218

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, David M.; Hayes, Timothy A.; Pope, Howard L.; Enriquez, Alejandro E.; Carson, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    In times of continuing fiscal constraints, a management and operation tool that is straightforward to implement, works as advertised, and virtually ensures compliant waste packaging should be carefully considered and employed wherever practicable. In the near future, the Department of Energy (DOE) will issue the first major update to DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This update will contain a requirement for sites that do not have a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste certification program to use two newly developed technical standards: Contact-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions and Remote-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions. The technical standards are being developed from the DOE O 435.1 Notice, Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Packaging, approved August 2011. The packaging instructions will provide detailed information and instruction for packaging almost every conceivable type of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal at WIPP. While providing specificity, the packaging instructions leave to each site's own discretion the actual mechanics of how those Instructions will be functionally implemented at the floor level. While the Technical Standards are designed to provide precise information for compliant packaging, the density of the information in the packaging instructions necessitates a type of Rosetta Stone that translates the requirements into concise, clear, easy to use and operationally practical recipes that are waste stream and facility specific for use by both first line management and hands-on operations personnel. The Waste Generator Instructions provide the operator with step-by-step instructions that will integrate the sites' various operational requirements (e.g., health and safety limits, radiological limits or dose limits) and result in a WIPP certifiable waste and package that can be transported to and emplaced at WIPP. These little known but widely productive Waste

  11. Acquisition Program Teamwork and Performance Seen Anew: Exposing the Interplay of Architecture and Behaviors in Complex Defense Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    created an organizational crisis, spurring what is arguably the most successful acquisition reform effort in U.S. defense industry history. Diagnosis and...programs as sociotechnical systems with program performance driven by interpersonal and inter- organizational dynamics as well as technical system...interdependencies are acknowledged in traditional organizational /management literature, they are seldom defined at the level of specificity that is required

  12. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford tank waste via addition of metal cations and chemical oxidant: FY 1995 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Elliott, K.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Gano, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    Chelating organics and some of their degradation products in the Hanford tank waste, such as EDTA, HEDTA, and NTA act to solubilize strontium and transuranics (TRU) in the tank waste supernatant. Displacement of strontium and TRU will facilitate the removal of these radionuclides via precipitation/filtration, ion exchange, or solvent extraction so that low-level waste feed specifications can be met. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has investigated two methods for releasing organic-complexed strontium and TRU components to allow for effective pretreatment of tank waste supernatant: metal cation addition (to promote displacement and flocculation) and chemical oxidant (pennanganate) addition (to promote chelator destruction/defunctionalization and possibly flocculation). These methods, which can be conducted at near-ambient. temperatures and pressures, could be deployed as intank processes

  13. Several problems of algorithmization in integrated computation programs on third generation computers for short circuit currents in complex power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, V.A.; Pisarenko, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of modeling complex power networks with short circuits in the networks are described. The methods are implemented in integrated computation programs for short circuit currents and equivalents in electrical networks with a large number of branch points (up to 1000) on a computer with a limited on line memory capacity (M equals 4030 for the computer).

  14. Plans of reorganization of USA nuclear military complex and provision of military program by special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenovskaya, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    Consideration is given to plans and implementation of the program of reorganization of USA nuclear military complex, related with conducted reduction of nuclear arsenal after concluding the Strategic Nuclear Armament Reduction Treaty. Particular attention is paid to problems of satisfying short-term and long-term requirements in special nuclear materials and in tritium in particular

  15. Report on the emergency response training and equipment activities through 1991 for the transportation of transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility with the mission of demonstrating the safe shipment, emplacement and retrieval of radioactive transuranic (TRU) wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States. It is the only long-term storage facility constructed for TRU waste. This report provides the status on the Department of Energy (DOE) efforts as of December 31, 1991, regarding emergency response training and equipment funding provided to local, state, and tribal governments for waste shipments to the WIPP. Because of a growing public awareness of transportation activities involving nuclear materials, this report has been prepared to provide a status of the DOE's activities in this regard, as well as the cooperative efforts between the DOE and state and tribal governments

  16. TRU [transuranic] waste certification compliance requirements for acceptance of newly generated contact-handled wastes to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Compliance requirements are presented for certifying that unclassified, newly generated (NG), contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) solid wastes from defense programs meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Where appropriate, transportation and interim storage requirements are incorporated; however, interim storage sites may have additional requirements consistent with these requirements. All applicable Department of Energy (DOE) orders must continue to be met. The compliance requirements for stored or buried waste are not addressed in this document. The compliance requirements are divided into four sections, primarily determined by the general feature that the requirements address. These sections are General Requirements, Waste Container Requirements, Waste Form Requirements, and Waste Package Requirements. The waste package is the combination of waste container and waste. 10 refs., 1 fig

  17. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex temperature-programmed desorption data by multivariate curve resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Reyes, Juan Carlos F.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.; Brown, Steven D.

    2010-10-01

    The substantial amount of information carried in temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments is often difficult to mine due to the occurrence of competing reaction pathways that produce compounds with similar mass spectrometric features. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) is introduced as a tool capable of overcoming this problem by mathematically detecting spectral variations and correlations between several m/z traces, which is later translated into the extraction of the cracking pattern and the desorption profile for each desorbate. Different from the elegant (though complex) methods currently available to analyze TPD data, MCR analysis is applicable even when no information regarding the specific surface reaction/desorption process or the nature of the desorbing species is available. However, when available, any information can be used as constraints that guide the outcome, increasing the accuracy of the resolution. This approach is especially valuable when the compounds desorbing are different from what would be expected based on a chemical intuition, when the cracking pattern of the model test compound is difficult or impossible to obtain (because it could be unstable or very rare), and when knowing major components desorbing from the surface could in more traditional methods actually bias the quantification of minor components. The enhanced level of understanding of thermal processes achieved through MCR analysis is demonstrated by analyzing three phenomena: i) the cryogenic desorption of vinyltrimethylsilane from silicon, an introductory system where the known multilayer and monolayer components are resolved; ii) acrolein hydrogenation on a bimetallic Pt-Ni-Pt catalyst, where a rapid identification of hydrogenated products as well as other desorbing species is achieved, and iii) the thermal reaction of Ti[N(CH 3) 2] 4 on Si(100), where the products of surface decomposition are identified and an estimation of the surface composition after the

  19. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Ben C.; Heacker, Fred K.; Shannon, Christopher [Wastren Advantage, Inc., Transuranic Waste Processing Center, 100 WIPP Road, Lenoir City, Tennessee 37771 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct

  20. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Ben C.; Heacker, Fred K.; Shannon, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct and install