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Sample records for transporter acrb insights

  1. Coarse-grained Simulations of Substrate Export through Multidrug Efflux Transporter AcrB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewel, Yead; Dutta, Prashanta; Liu, Jin

    2017-11-01

    The treatment of bacterial infectious diseases hampered by the overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) systems. The MDR system actively pumps the antibiotic drugs as well as other toxic compounds out of the cells. During the pumping, AcrB (one of the key MDR components) undergoes a series of large-scale proton/substrate dependent conformational changes. In this work, we implement a hybrid coarse-grained PACE force field that couples the united-atom protein model with the coarse-grained MARTINI water/lipid, to investigate the conformational changes of AcrB. We first develop the substrate force field which is compatible with PACE, then we implement the force field to explore large scale structural changes of AcrB in microsecond simulations. The effects of the substrate and the protonation states of two key residues: Asp407 and Asp408, are investigated. Our results show that the drug export through AcrB is proton as well as substrate dependent. Our simulations explain molecular mechanisms of substrate transport through AcrB complex, as well as provide valuable insights for designing proper antibiotic drugs. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01GM122081.

  2. Drug transport mechanism of the AcrB efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Klaas M

    2009-05-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, tripartite multidrug efflux systems extrude cytotoxic substances from the cell directly into the medium bypassing periplasm and the outer membrane. In E. coli, the tripartite efflux system AcrA/AcrB/TolC is the pump that extrudes multiple antibiotics, dyes, bile salts and detergents. The inner membrane component AcrB, a member of the Resistance Nodulation cell Division (RND) family, is the major site for substrate recognition and energy transduction of the entire tripartite system. The drug/proton antiport processes in this secondary transporter are suggested to be spatially separated, a feature frequently observed for primary transporters like membrane-bound ATPases. The recently elucidated asymmetric structure of the AcrB trimer reveals three different monomer conformations proposed to represent consecutive states in a directional transport cycle. Each monomer shows a distinct tunnel system with entrances located at the boundary of the outer leaflet of the inner membrane and the periplasm through the periplasmic porter (pore) domain towards the funnel of the trimer and TolC. In one monomer a hydrophobic pocket is present which has been shown to bind the AcrB substrates minocyclin and doxorubicin. The energy conversion from the proton motive force into drug efflux includes proton binding in (and release from) the transmembrane part. The conformational changes observed within a triad of essential, titratable residues (D407/D408/K940) residing in the hydrophobic transmembrane domain appear to be transduced by transmembrane helix 8 and associated with the conformational changes seen in the periplasmic domain. From the asymmetric structure a possible peristaltic pump transport mechanism based on a functional rotation of the AcrB trimer has been postulated. The novel drug transport model combines the alternate access pump mechanism with the rotating site catalysis of F(1)F(o) ATPase as

  3. Substrate binding accelerates the conformational transitions and substrate dissociation in multidrug efflux transporter AcrB

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    Beibei eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The tripartite efflux pump assembly AcrAB-TolC is the major multidrug resistance transporter in E. coli. The inner membrane transporter AcrB is a homotrimer, energized by the proton movement down the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The asymmetric crystal structures of AcrB with three monomers in distinct conformational states (access (A, binding (B and extrusion (E support a functional rotating mechanism, in which each monomer of AcrB cycles among the three states in a concerted way. However, the relationship between the conformational changes during functional rotation and drug translocation has not been totally understood. Here, we explored the conformational changes of the AcrB homotrimer during the ABE→BEA transition in different substrate-binding states using targeted MD simulations. It was found that the dissociation of substrate from the distal binding pocket of B monomer is closely related to the concerted conformational changes in the translocation pathway, especially the side chain reorientation of Phe628 and Tyr327. A second substrate binding at the proximal binding pocket of A monomer evidently accelerates the conformational transitions as well as substrate dissociation in B monomer. The acceleration effect of the multi-substrate binding mode provides a molecular explanation for the positive cooperativity observed in the kinetic studies of substrate efflux and deepens our understanding of the functional rotating mechanism of AcrB.

  4. Computational Study of Correlated Domain Motions in the AcrB Efflux Transporter

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    Robert Schulz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As active part of the major efflux system in E. coli bacteria, AcrB is responsible for the uptake and pumping of toxic substrates from the periplasm toward the extracellular space. In combination with the channel protein TolC and membrane fusion protein AcrA, this efflux pump is able to help the bacterium to survive different kinds of noxious compounds. With the present study we intend to enhance the understanding of the interactions between the domains and monomers, for example, the transduction of mechanical energy from the transmembrane domain into the porter domain, correlated motions of different subdomains within monomers, and cooperative effects between monomers. To this end, targeted molecular dynamics simulations have been employed either steering the whole protein complex or specific parts thereof. By forcing only parts of the complex towards specific conformational states, the risk for transient artificial conformations during the simulations is reduced. Distinct cooperative effects between the monomers in AcrB have been observed. Possible allosteric couplings have been identified providing microscopic insights that might be exploited to design more efficient inhibitors of efflux systems.

  5. Switch loop flexibility affects substrate transport of the AcrB efflux pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Reinke T.; Travers, Timothy; Cha, Hi-jea; Phillips, Joshua L.

    2017-01-01

    The functionally important switch-loop of the trimeric multidrug transporter AcrB separates the access and deep drug binding pockets in every protomer. This loop, comprising 11 amino acid residues, has been shown to be crucial for substrate transport, as drugs have to travel past the loop to reach the deep binding pocket and from there are transported outside the cell via the connected AcrA and TolC channels. It contains four symmetrically arranged glycine residues suggesting that flexibility is a key feature for pump activity. Upon combinatorial substitution of these glycine residues to proline, functional and structural asymmetry was observed. Proline substitutions on the PC1 proximal side completely abolished transport and reduced backbone flexibility of the switch loop, which adopted a conformation restricting the pathway towards the deep binding pocket. Here, two phenylalanine residues located adjacent to the substitution sensitive glycine residues play a role in blocking the pathway upon rigidification of the loop, since the removal of the phenyl rings from the rigid loop restores drug transport activity.

  6. Switch-loop flexibility affects transport of large drugs by the promiscuous AcrB multidrug efflux transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hi-jea; Müller, Reinke T; Pos, Klaas M

    2014-08-01

    Multidrug efflux transporters recognize a variety of structurally unrelated compounds for which the molecular basis is poorly understood. For the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) inner membrane component AcrB of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system from Escherichia coli, drug binding occurs at the access and deep binding pockets. These two binding areas are separated by an 11-amino-acid-residue-containing switch loop whose conformational flexibility is speculated to be essential for drug binding and transport. A G616N substitution in the switch loop has a distinct and local effect on the orientation of the loop and on the ability to transport larger drugs. Here, we report a distinct phenotypical pattern of drug recognition and transport for the G616N variant, indicating that drug substrates with minimal projection areas of >70 Å(2) are less well transported than other substrates. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Coupling of remote alternating-access transport mechanisms for protons and substrates in the multidrug efflux pump AcrB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Thomas; Seeger, Markus A; Anselmi, Claudio; Zhou, Wenchang; Brandstätter, Lorenz; Verrey, François; Diederichs, Kay; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Pos, Klaas M

    2014-09-19

    Membrane transporters of the RND superfamily confer multidrug resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and are essential for cholesterol metabolism and embryonic development in humans. We use high-resolution X-ray crystallography and computational methods to delineate the mechanism of the homotrimeric RND-type proton/drug antiporter AcrB, the active component of the major efflux system AcrAB-TolC in Escherichia coli, and one most complex and intriguing membrane transporters known to date. Analysis of wildtype AcrB and four functionally-inactive variants reveals an unprecedented mechanism that involves two remote alternating-access conformational cycles within each protomer, namely one for protons in the transmembrane region and another for drugs in the periplasmic domain, 50 Å apart. Each of these cycles entails two distinct types of collective motions of two structural repeats, coupled by flanking α-helices that project from the membrane. Moreover, we rationalize how the cross-talk among protomers across the trimerization interface might lead to a more kinetically efficient efflux system.

  8. New insights into the structural and functional involvement of the gate loop in AcrB export activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababou, Abdessamad

    2018-02-01

    AcrB is a major multidrug exporter in Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. Its gate loop, located between the proximal and the distal pockets, have been reported to play important role in the export of many antibiotics. This loop location, rigidity and interactions with substrates have led recent reports to suggest that AcrB export mechanism operates in a sequential manner. First the substrate binds the proximal pocket in the access monomer, then it moves to bind the distal pocket in the binding monomer and subsequently it is extruded in the extrusion monomer. Recently, we have demonstrated that the gate loop is not required for the binding of Erythromycin but the integrity of this loop is important for an efficient export of this substrate. However, here we show that the antibiotic susceptibilities of the same AcrB gate loop mutants for Doxorubicin were unaffected, suggesting that this loop is not required for its export, and we demonstrate that this substrate may use principally the tunnel-1, located between transmembranes 8 and 9, more often than previously reported. To further explain our findings, here we address the gate loop mutations effects on AcrB solution energetics (fold, stability, molecular dynamics) and on the in vivo efflux of Erythromycin and Doxorubicin. Finally, we discuss the efflux and the discrepancy between the structural and the functional experiments for Erythromycin in these gate loop mutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Crucial role of Asp408 in the proton translocation pathway of multidrug transporter AcrB: evidence from site-directed mutagenesis and carbodiimide labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Markus A; von Ballmoos, Christoph; Verrey, François; Pos, Klaas M

    2009-06-30

    The three-component AcrA/AcrB/TolC efflux system of Escherichia coli catalyzes the proton motive force-driven extrusion of a variety of cytotoxic compounds. The inner membrane pump component AcrB belongs to the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) superfamily and is responsible for drug specificity and energy transduction of the entire tripartite efflux system. Systematic mutational analysis of titratable and polar membrane-located amino acids revealed four residues, D407, D408, K940, and, R971, to be of prime importance for AcrB function. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, D408 was shown to specifically react with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) in a pH-dependent manner. The apparent pK(a) of D408 of 7.4 would enable binding and release of protons under physiological conditions. In contrast to other secondary transporters, D408 was not protected from carbodiimide modification in the presence of drugs, which supports the notion of spatially separated transport pathways for drugs and protons. This study provides evidence for a substantial role of membrane-located carboxylates as a central element of the proton translocation pathway in AcrB and other members of the RND superfamily.

  10. Repressive mutations restore function-loss caused by the disruption of trimerization in Escherichia coli multidrug transporter AcrB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoshuai eWang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AcrAB-TolC and their homologs are major multidrug efflux systems in Gram-negative bacteria. The inner membrane component AcrB functions as a trimer. Replacement of Pro223 by Gly in AcrB decreases the trimer stability and drastically reduces the drug efflux activity. The goal of this study is to identify suppressor mutations that restore function to mutant AcrBP223G and explore the mechanism of function recovery. Two methods were used to introduce random mutations into the plasmid of AcrBP223G. Mutants with elevated drug efflux activity were identified, purified, and characterized to examine their expression level, trimer stability, interaction with AcrA, and substrate binding. Nine single-site repressor mutations were identified, including T199M, D256N, A209V, G257V, M662I, Q737L, D788K, P800S, and E810K. Except for M662I, all other mutations located in the docking region of the periplasmic domain. While three mutations, T199M, A209V, and D256N, significantly increased the trimer stability, none of them restored the trimer affinity to the wild type level. M662, the only site of mutation that located in the porter domain, was involved in substrate binding. Our results suggest that the function loss resulted from compromised AcrB trimerization could be restored through various mechanisms involving the compensation of trimer stability and substrate binding.

  11. Functional relevance of AcrB Trimerization in pump assembly and substrate binding.

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    Wei Lu

    Full Text Available AcrB is a multidrug transporter in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. It is an obligate homotrimer and forms a tripartite efflux complex with AcrA and TolC. AcrB is the engine of the efflux machinery and determines substrate specificity. Active efflux depends on several functional features including proton translocation across the inner membrane through a proton relay pathway in the transmembrane domain of AcrB; substrate binding and migration through the substrate translocation pathway; the interaction of AcrB with AcrA and TolC; and the formation of AcrB homotrimer. Here we investigated two aspects of the inter-correlation between these functional features, the dependence of AcrA-AcrB interaction on AcrB trimerization, and the reliance of substrate binding and penetration on protein-protein interaction. Interaction between AcrA and AcrB was investigated through chemical crosslinking, and a previously established in vivo fluorescent labeling method was used to probe substrate binding. Our data suggested that dissociation of the AcrB trimer drastically decreased its interaction with AcrA. In addition, while substrate binding with AcrB seemed to be irrelevant to the presence or absence of AcrA and TolC, the capability of trimerization and conduction of proton influx did affect substrate binding at selected sites along the substrate translocation pathway in AcrB.

  12. Structures of Gate Loop Variants of the AcrB Drug Efflux Pump Bound by Erythromycin Substrate.

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    Abdessamad Ababou

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli use tripartite efflux pumps such as AcrAB-TolC to expel antibiotics and noxious compounds. A key feature of the inner membrane transporter component, AcrB, is a short stretch of residues known as the gate/switch loop that divides the proximal and distal substrate binding pockets. Amino acid substitutions of the gate loop are known to decrease antibiotic resistance conferred by AcrB. Here we present two new AcrB gate loop variants, the first stripped of its bulky side chains, and a second in which the gate loop is removed entirely. By determining the crystal structures of the variant AcrB proteins in the presence and absence of erythromycin and assessing their ability to confer erythromycin tolerance, we demonstrate that the gate loop is important for AcrB export activity but is not required for erythromycin binding.

  13. Structural and functional aspects of the multidrug efflux pump AcrB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Thomas; Brandstätter, Lorenz; Pos, Klaas M

    2009-08-01

    The tripartite efflux system AcrA/AcrB/TolC is the main pump in Escherichia coli for the efflux of multiple antibiotics, dyes, bile salts and detergents. The inner membrane component AcrB is central to substrate recognition and energy transduction and acts as a proton/drug antiporter. Recent structural studies show that homotrimeric AcrB can adopt different monomer conformations representing consecutive states in an allosteric functional rotation transport cycle. The conformational changes create an alternate access drug transport tunnel including a hydrophobic substrate binding pocket in one of the cycle intermediates.

  14. Lack of AcrB Efflux Function Confers Loss of Virulence on Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

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    Xuan Wang-Kan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AcrAB-TolC is the paradigm resistance-nodulation-division (RND multidrug resistance efflux system in Gram-negative bacteria, with AcrB being the pump protein in this complex. We constructed a nonfunctional AcrB mutant by replacing D408, a highly conserved residue essential for proton translocation. Western blotting confirmed that the AcrB D408A mutant had the same native level of expression of AcrB as the parental strain. The mutant had no growth deficiencies in rich or minimal medium. However, compared with wild-type SL1344, the mutant had increased accumulation of Hoechst 33342 dye and decreased efflux of ethidium bromide and was multidrug hypersusceptible. The D408A mutant was attenuated in vivo in mouse and Galleria mellonella models and showed significantly reduced invasion into intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages in vitro. A dose-dependent inhibition of invasion was also observed when two different efflux pump inhibitors were added to the wild-type strain during infection of epithelial cells. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq revealed downregulation of bacterial factors necessary for infection, including those in the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1, 2, and 4; quorum sensing genes; and phoPQ. Several general stress response genes were upregulated, probably due to retention of noxious molecules inside the bacterium. Unlike loss of AcrB protein, loss of efflux function did not induce overexpression of other RND efflux pumps. Our data suggest that gene deletion mutants are unsuitable for studying membrane transporters and, importantly, that inhibitors of AcrB efflux function will not induce expression of other RND pumps.

  15. The AcrB efflux pump: conformational cycling and peristalsis lead to multidrug resistance.

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    Seeger, Markus A; Diederichs, Kay; Eicher, Thomas; Brandstätter, Lorenz; Schiefner, André; Verrey, François; Pos, Klaas M

    2008-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of human pathogenic bacteria is an emerging problem for global public health. This resistance is often associated with the overproduction of membrane transport proteins that are capable to pump chemotherapeutics, antibiotics, detergents, dyes and organic solvents out of the cell. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, tripartite multidrug efflux systems extrude a large variety of cytotoxic substances from the cell membrane directly into the medium bypassing the periplasm and the outer membrane. In E. coli, the tripartite efflux system AcrA/AcrB/TolC is the pump in charge of the efflux of multiple antibiotics, dyes, bile salts and detergents. The trimeric outer membrane factor (OMF) TolC forms a beta-barrel pore in the outer membrane and exhibits a long periplasmic alpha-helical conduit. The periplasmic membrane fusion protein (MFP) AcrA serves as a linker between TolC and the trimeric resistance nodulation cell division (RND) pump AcrB, located in the inner membrane acting as a proton/drug antiporter. The newly elucidated asymmetric structure of trimeric AcrB reveals three different monomer conformations representing consecutive states in a transport cycle. The monomers show tunnels with occlusions at different sites leading from the lateral side through the periplasmic porter (pore) domains towards the funnel of the trimer and TolC. The structural changes create a hydrophobic pocket in one monomer, which is not present in the other two monomers. Minocyclin and doxorubicin, both AcrB substrates, specifically bind to this pocket substantiating its role as drug binding pocket. The energy transduction from the proton motive force into drug efflux includes proton binding in (and release from) the transmembrane part. The conformational changes observed within a triad of essential, titratable residues (Asp407/Asp408/Lys940) residing in the hydrophobic transmembrane domain appear to be transduced by

  16. Unfolding study of a trimeric membrane protein AcrB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cui; Wang, Zhaoshuai; Lu, Wei; Wei, Yinan

    2014-07-01

    The folding of a multi-domain trimeric α-helical membrane protein, Escherichia coli inner membrane protein AcrB, was investigated. AcrB contains both a transmembrane domain and a large periplasmic domain. Protein unfolding in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and urea was monitored using the intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The SDS denaturation curve displayed a sigmoidal profile, which could be fitted with a two-state unfolding model. To investigate the unfolding of separate domains, a triple mutant was created, in which all three Trp residues in the transmembrane domain were replaced with Phe. The SDS unfolding profile of the mutant was comparable to that of the wild type AcrB, suggesting that the observed signal change was largely originated from the unfolding of the soluble domain. Strengthening of trimer association through the introduction of an inter-subunit disulfide bond had little effect on the unfolding profile, suggesting that trimer dissociation was not the rate-limiting step in unfolding monitored by fluorescence emission. Under our experimental condition, AcrB unfolding was not reversible. Furthermore, we experimented with the refolding of a monomeric mutant, AcrBΔloop , from the SDS unfolded state. The CD spectrum of the refolded AcrBΔloop superimposed well onto the spectra of the original folded protein, while the fluorescence spectrum was not fully recovered. In summary, our results suggested that the unfolding of the trimeric AcrB started with a local structural rearrangement. While the refolding of secondary structure in individual monomers could be achieved, the re-association of the trimer might be the limiting factor to obtain folded wild-type AcrB. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  17. Evaluation of a series of 2-napthamide derivatives as inhibitors of the drug efflux pump AcrB for the reversal of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinhu; Mowla, Rumana; Guo, Liwei; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Rahman, Taufiq; De Barros Lopes, Miguel A; Ma, Shutao; Venter, Henrietta

    2017-02-15

    Drug efflux pumps confer multidrug resistance to dangerous pathogens which makes these pumps important drug targets. We have synthesised a novel series of compounds based on a 2-naphthamide pharmacore aimed at inhibiting the efflux pumps from Gram-negative bacteria. The archeatypical transporter AcrB from Escherichia coli was used as model efflux pump as AcrB is widely conserved throughout Gram-negative organisms. The compounds were tested for their antibacterial action, ability to potentiate the action of antibiotics and for their ability to inhibit Nile Red efflux by AcrB. None of the compounds were antimicrobial against E. coli wild type cells. Most of the compounds were able to inhibit Nile Red efflux indicating that they are substrates of the AcrB efflux pump. Three compounds were able to synergise with antibiotics and reverse resistance in the resistant phenotype. Compound A3, 4-(isopentyloxy)-2-naphthamide, reduced the MICs of erythromycin and chloramphenicol to the MIC levels of the drug sensitive strain that lacks an efflux pump. A3 had no effect on the MIC of the non-substrate rifampicin indicating that this compound acts specifically through the AcrB efflux pump. A3 also does not act through non-specific mechanisms such as outer membrane or inner membrane permeabilisation and is not cytotoxic against mammalian cell lines. Therefore, we have designed and synthesised a novel chemical compound with great potential to further optimisation as inhibitor of drug efflux pumps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sugar Transporters in Plants: New Insights and Discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, Benjamin T; Leach, Kristen A; Tran, Thu M; Mertz, Rachel A; Braun, David M

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate partitioning is the process of carbon assimilation and distribution from source tissues, such as leaves, to sink tissues, such as stems, roots and seeds. Sucrose, the primary carbohydrate transported long distance in many plant species, is loaded into the phloem and unloaded into distal sink tissues. However, many factors, both genetic and environmental, influence sucrose metabolism and transport. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of sugar transporters and sucrose metabolic enzymes is key to improving agriculture. In this review, we highlight recent findings that (i) address the path of phloem loading of sucrose in rice and maize leaves; (ii) discuss the phloem unloading pathways in stems and roots and the sugar transporters putatively involved; (iii) describe how heat and drought stress impact carbohydrate partitioning and phloem transport; (iv) shed light on how plant pathogens hijack sugar transporters to obtain carbohydrates for pathogen survival, and how the plant employs sugar transporters to defend against pathogens; and (v) discuss novel roles for sugar transporters in plant biology. These exciting discoveries and insights provide valuable knowledge that will ultimately help mitigate the impending societal challenges due to global climate change and a growing population by improving crop yield and enhancing renewable energy production. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Molecular electronics: insight from first-principles transport simulations.

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    Paulsson, Magnus; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Conduction properties of nanoscale contacts can be studied using first-principles simulations. Such calculations give insight into details behind the conductance that is not readily available in experiments. For example, we may learn how the bonding conditions of a molecule to the electrodes affect the electronic transport. Here we describe key computational ingredients and discuss these in relation to simulations for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments with C60 molecules where the experimental geometry is well characterized. We then show how molecular dynamics simulations may be combined with transport calculations to study more irregular situations, such as the evolution of a nanoscale contact with the mechanically controllable break-junction technique. Finally we discuss calculations of inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy as a characterization technique that reveals information about the atomic arrangement and transport channels.

  20. Integrating passenger and freight transportation : model formulation and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghilas, V.; Demir, E.; Woensel, van T.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating passenger and freight ows creates attractive business opportunities because the same transportation needs can be met with fewer vehicles and emissions. This paper seeks an integrated solution for the transportation of passenger and freight simultaneously, so that fewer vehicles are

  1. Molecular Electronics: Insight from First-Principles Transport Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsson, Magnus; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Conduction properties of nanoscale contacts can be studied using first-principles simulations. Such calculations give insight into details behind the conductance that is not readily available in experiments. For example, we may learn how the bonding conditions of a molecule to the electrodes affect...

  2. Insight into Two ABC Transporter Families Involved in Lantibiotic Resistance

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    Rebecca Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides, which contain (methyl-lanthionine-rings are called lantibiotics. They are produced by several Gram-positive bacteria and are mainly active against these bacteria. Although these are highly potent antimicrobials, some human pathogenic bacteria express specific ABC transporters that confer resistance and counteract their antimicrobial activity. Two distinct ABC transporter families are known to be involved in this process. These are the Cpr- and Bce-type ABC transporter families, named after their involvement in cationic peptide resistance in Clostridium difficile, and bacitracin efflux in Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Both resistance systems differentiate to each other in terms of the proteins involved. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and describe the divergence as well as the common features present in both the systems to confer lantibiotic resistance.

  3. Analysis Insights, August 2015: Sustainable Transportation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we examine transportation systems, alternative fuels, and implications of increasing electrification of transit. Moving people and goods from point A to B has never been easier, but our current transportation systems also take a toll on our environment. Transportation currently accounts for 71% of total U.S. petroleum use and 33% of the nation’s total carbon emissions. With new technology, can we make our transportation system cleaner and more cost effective? NREL is applying its analytical expertise and imagination to do just that. Solutions start with systems thinking. Connecting the dots between physical components - vehicles, fueling stations, and highways - and institutional components - traffic laws, regulations, and vehicle standards - helps illuminate solutions that address the needs of the transportation system's many stakeholders.

  4. New insights into melanosome transport in vertebrate pigment cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspengren, Sara; Hedberg, Daniel; Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Wallin, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    Pigment cells of lower vertebrates provide an excellent model to study organelle transport as they specialize in the translocation of pigment granules in response to defined chemical cues. This review will focus on the well-studied melanophore/melanocyte systems in fish, amphibians, and mammals. We will describe the roles of melanin, melanophores, and melanocytes in animals, current views on how the three motor proteins dynein, kinesin, and myosin-V are involved in melanosome transport along microtubules and actin filaments, and how signal transduction pathways regulate the activities of the motors to achieve aggregation and dispersion of melanosomes. We will also describe how melanosomes are transferred to surrounding skin cells in amphibians and mammals. Comparative studies have revealed that the ability of physiological color change is lost during evolution while the importance of morphological color change, mainly via transfer of pigment to surrounding skin cells, increases. In humans, pigment mainly has a role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, but also perhaps in the immune system.

  5. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Kate L.; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P.; Please, Colin P.; Hanson, Mark A.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Sengers, Bram G.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [14C]l-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [14C]l-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with l-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers.—Widdows, K. L., Panitchob, N., Crocker, I. P., Please, C. P., Hanson, M. A., Sibley, C. P., Johnstone, E. D., Sengers, B. G., Lewis, R. M., Glazier, J. D. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms. PMID:25761365

  6. Transport properties of ruthenophanes – A theoretical insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Leone C., E-mail: leoqmc@ifsc.edu.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário Trindade, CP 476, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina – Campus São José, São José, SC 88103-310 (Brazil); Caramori, Giovanni F. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário Trindade, CP 476, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Bergamo, Pedro A.S. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade de Franca, Franca, SP 14404-600 (Brazil); Parreira, Renato L.T., E-mail: renato.parreira@unifran.edu.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário Trindade, CP 476, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2016-10-20

    In this article, the electron transport properties of a series of ruthenophanes, 1–4, containing electron-donor and electron-acceptor substituents are studied. The electronic transmission at zero bias is mainly driven by only one eigenchannel. The substitutions constrain the energies in which the probability of electronic transmission is significant. The results suggest that the conductance at zero bias is dependent on the nature of the employed substituent. The eigenchannel wave functions show that the central molecules are preferentially coupled with right electrode. The calculated molecular projected self-consistent hamiltonian states also suggest that there is a dependence of the conductance at zero bias with the nature of the employed substituent. The current–voltage analyses suggest that the negative differential resistance effect is present in ruthenophanes, but it is dependent on both the nature of the substituent and the bias. Despite the moderate rectification ratio of the ruthenophanes, they present non-ohmic behaviour, indicating that they can be used as potential candidates in electronic molecular devices such as switches, oscillators, and frequency multipliers.

  7. Solar energetic particle anisotropies and insights into particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leske, R. A., E-mail: ral@srl.caltech.edu; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wiedenbeck, M. E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Christian, E. R.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are shaped by the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies can therefore reveal information about interplanetary conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at remote locations from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures pitch-angle distributions for protons and heavier ions up to iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed using LET include bidirectional flows within interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward-flowing particles when STEREO was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions in which particles with large pitch angles underwent magnetic mirroring at an interplanetary field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Unusual oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 SEP event were also observed and remain puzzling. We report LET anisotropy observations at both STEREO spacecraft and discuss their implications for SEP transport, focusing exclusively on the extreme event of 23 July 2012 in which a large variety of anisotropies were present at various times during the event.

  8. Solar energetic particle anisotropies and insights into particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Christian, E. R.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von

    2016-03-01

    As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are shaped by the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies can therefore reveal information about interplanetary conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at remote locations from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures pitch-angle distributions for protons and heavier ions up to iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed using LET include bidirectional flows within interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward-flowing particles when STEREO was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions in which particles with large pitch angles underwent magnetic mirroring at an interplanetary field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Unusual oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 SEP event were also observed and remain puzzling. We report LET anisotropy observations at both STEREO spacecraft and discuss their implications for SEP transport, focusing exclusively on the extreme event of 23 July 2012 in which a large variety of anisotropies were present at various times during the event.

  9. Transport Insight 2009. An annual behind-the-scenes view in North West European gas transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    Transport Insight provides the users of the gas network, customers (shippers) and other stakeholders with clear and coherent information every year, directly from the source; the Transmission System Operators. TSOs Gas Transport Services (GTS) and Gasunie Deutschland (GUD) have worked closely together to present Transport Insight 2009 as a joint publication. Section 1 describes the major developments and circumstances that affected the gas transmission system in 2008. Section 2 gives in-depth analyses of actual gas transmission at the border clusters of the Gas Transport Services and Gasunie Deutschland grids. These are illustrated in graphs by means of key figures from 2008 and show details of availability, contracted capacity and usage. Section 3 considers trends in Europe, specifically looking at the production decline and swing decline. These sections are followed by the themes in section 4. In these themes a specific topic is discussed in more detail. The first theme describes developments concerning the Title Transfer Facility (TTF) and the Virtual Trading Place (VHP). The second theme focuses on trends in gas storage in Europe.

  10. Transport Insight 2009. An annual behind-the-scenes view in North West European gas transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Transport Insight provides the users of the gas network, customers (shippers) and other stakeholders with clear and coherent information every year, directly from the source; the Transmission System Operators. TSOs Gas Transport Services (GTS) and Gasunie Deutschland (GUD) have worked closely together to present Transport Insight 2009 as a joint publication. Section 1 describes the major developments and circumstances that affected the gas transmission system in 2008. Section 2 gives in-depth analyses of actual gas transmission at the border clusters of the Gas Transport Services and Gasunie Deutschland grids. These are illustrated in graphs by means of key figures from 2008 and show details of availability, contracted capacity and usage. Section 3 considers trends in Europe, specifically looking at the production decline and swing decline. These sections are followed by the themes in section 4. In these themes a specific topic is discussed in more detail. The first theme describes developments concerning the Title Transfer Facility (TTF) and the Virtual Trading Place (VHP). The second theme focuses on trends in gas storage in Europe.

  11. Analysis of transportation networks subject to natural hazards – Insights from a Colombian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muriel-Villegas, Juan E.; Alvarez-Uribe, Karla C.; Patiño-Rodríguez, Carmen E.; Villegas, Juan G.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an applied framework to derive the connectivity reliability and vulnerability of inter-urban transportation systems under network disruptions. The proposed model integrates statistical reliability analysis to find the reliability and vulnerability of transportation networks. Most of the modern research in this field has focused on urban networks where the primary concerns are guaranteeing predefined standards of capacity and travel time. However, at a regional and national level, especially in developing countries, the connectivity of remote populations in the case of disaster is of utmost importance. The applicability of the framework is demonstrated with a case study in the state of Antioquia, Colombia, using historical records from the 2010 to 2011 rainy season, an aspect that stands out and gives additional support compared to previous studies that considers simulated data from assumed distributions. The results provide significant insights to practitioners and researchers for the design and management of transportation systems and route planning strategies under this type of disruptions. - Highlights: • Applied framework to derive the connectivity reliability and vulnerability of inter-urban transportation systems. • The model integrates statistical analysis to find the reliability of transportation networks. • An algorithm is proposed to evaluate the vulnerability of the network. • The applicability of the framework is demonstrated with a case study with real data.

  12. The Prevalence of acrA and acrB Genes Among Multiple-Drug Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated From Patients With UTI in Milad Hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infectious diseases and nosocomial infections worldwide, and uropathogenic Escherichia coli is the primary cause of UTI. Due to increased antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR UPEC clones, the treatment of UTI is difficult. The occurrence of MDR in E. coli has been attributed to the AcrAB-TolC complex of efflux pumps. Objectives The aim of this study was to complete a frequency evaluation of acrA and acrB genes among UPEC MDR strains isolated from patients with UTI who were admitted to Milad hospital in Tehran. Methods For 123 UPEC strains that were isolated and diagnosed from the urine samples of patients using biochemical tests, antibiotic susceptibility was carried out using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Isolates that were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent in three or more of the categories were considered to be MDR. The presence and frequency of acrA and acrB genes was determined using PCR. Results The rates of antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, cefalotin, tetracycline, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and cotrimoxazole were 82.9%, 78.1%, 61.1%, 49.5%, 38.2%, 30.2%, 26.1%, 42.2%, and 60.1%, respectively. The isolates were most sensitive to nitrofurantoin (95.9%, gentamicin (77.2%, and amikacin (71.5%. A total of 78% of the isolates were MDR. The frequency of the acrA gene was 82.90%, the acrB gene was 95.90% and acrA + acrB was 95.90%. There was no significant difference between acrA and acrB frequency relating to bacterial antibiotic resistance. Conclusions Our results showed that ways to control the treatment of UTI for the prevention of MDR occurrence should be sought. For a better study of efflux pumps, a comprehensive and detailed study regarding the presence of efflux pumps gees is required.

  13. Spatial variability of herbicide mobilisation and transport at catchment scale: insights from a field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Doppler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During rain events, herbicides can be transported from their point of application to surface waters, where they may harm aquatic organisms. Since the spatial pattern of mobilisation and transport is heterogeneous, the contributions of different fields to the herbicide load in the stream may vary considerably within one catchment. Therefore, the prediction of contributing areas could help to target mitigation measures efficiently to those locations where they reduce herbicide pollution the most.

    Such spatial predictions require sufficient insight into the underlying transport processes. To improve the understanding of the process chain of herbicide mobilisation on the field and the subsequent transport through the catchment to the stream, we performed a controlled herbicide application on corn fields in a small agricultural catchment (ca. 1 km2 with intensive crop production in the Swiss Plateau. Water samples were collected at different locations in the catchment (overland flow, tile drains and open channel for two months after application in 2009, with a high temporal resolution during rain events. We also analysed soil samples from the experimental fields and measured discharge, groundwater level, soil moisture and the occurrence of overland flow at several locations. Several rain events with varying intensities and magnitudes occurred during the study period. Overland flow and erosion were frequently observed in the entire catchment. Infiltration excess and saturation excess overland flow were both observed. However, the main herbicide loss event was dominated by infiltration excess.

    Despite the frequent and wide-spread occurrence of overland flow, most of this water did not reach the channel directly, but was retained in small depressions in the catchment. From there, it reached the stream via macropores and tile drains. Manholes of the drainage system and storm drains for road and farmyard runoff acted as

  14. Insights into the mutation-induced HHH syndrome from modeling human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fang Wang

    Full Text Available Human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1 is reported in coupling with the hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. For in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of the disease, it is crucially important to acquire the 3D structure of human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1. Since no such structure is available in the current protein structure database, we have developed it via computational approaches based on the recent NMR structure of human mitochondrial uncoupling protein (Berardi MJ, Chou JJ, et al. Nature 2011, 476:109-113. Subsequently, we docked the ligand L-ornithine into the computational structure to search for the favorable binding mode. It was observed that the binding interaction for the most favorable binding mode is featured by six remarkable hydrogen bonds between the receptor and ligand, and that the most favorable binding mode shared the same ligand-binding site with most of the homologous mitochondrial carriers from different organisms, implying that the ligand-binding sites are quite conservative in the mitochondrial carriers family although their sequences similarity is very low with 20% or so. Moreover, according to our structural analysis, the relationship between the disease-causing mutations of human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1 and the HHH syndrome can be classified into the following three categories: (i the mutation occurs in the pseudo-repeat regions so as to change the region of the protein closer to the mitochondrial matrix; (ii the mutation is directly affecting the substrate binding pocket so as to reduce the substrate binding affinity; (iii the mutation is located in the structural region closer to the intermembrane space that can significantly break the salt bridge networks of the protein. These findings may provide useful insights for in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of the HHH syndrome and

  15. Composition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in acanthamoeba castellanii: structural and evolutionary insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryluk, Ryan M R; Chisholm, Kenneth A; Pinto, Devanand M; Gray, Michael W

    2012-11-01

    The mitochondrion, derived in evolution from an α-proteobacterial progenitor, plays a key metabolic role in eukaryotes. Mitochondria house the electron transport chain (ETC) that couples oxidation of organic substrates and electron transfer to proton pumping and synthesis of ATP. The ETC comprises several multiprotein enzyme complexes, all of which have counterparts in bacteria. However, mitochondrial ETC assemblies from animals, plants and fungi are generally more complex than their bacterial counterparts, with a number of 'supernumerary' subunits appearing early in eukaryotic evolution. Little is known, however, about the ETC of unicellular eukaryotes (protists), which are key to understanding the evolution of mitochondria and the ETC. We present an analysis of the ETC proteome from Acanthamoeba castellanii, an ecologically, medically and evolutionarily important member of Amoebozoa (sister to Opisthokonta). Data obtained from tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analyses of purified mitochondria as well as ETC complexes isolated via blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are combined with the results of bioinformatic queries of sequence databases. Our bioinformatic analyses have identified most of the ETC subunits found in other eukaryotes, confirming and extending previous observations. The assignment of proteins as ETC subunits by MS/MS provides important insights into the primary structures of ETC proteins and makes possible, through the use of sensitive profile-based similarity searches, the identification of novel constituents of the ETC along with the annotation of highly divergent but phylogenetically conserved ETC subunits. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. First-principles insights on electron transport in V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Anurag [Advanced Materials Research Group, Computational Nanoscience and Technology Laboratory, Atal Bihari Vajpayee-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh 474015 (India); Chandiramouli, R., E-mail: rcmoulii@gmail.com [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Shanmugha Arts Science Technology and Research Academy (SASTRA) University, Tirumalaisamudram, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu 613 401 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Band structure and electron transport in V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanostructure are investigated using density functional theory. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanostructure exhibits semiconducting behavior. • The electron density is observed to be more in oxygen sites than in vanadium sites. • The electron transport in V{sub 2}O{sub 5} molecular device can be tuned with the applied bias voltage. - Abstract: The present report is on the electron transport properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanostructures, investigated using density functional theory. As the band structure of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} exhibits semiconducting nature, the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanostructures are designed as molecular device and the transport properties are studied. The density of electrons is found to be more in the oxygen sites than in vanadium sites. The device density of states shows that the density of electrons in the energy intervals depends on the applied bias voltage. The transmission spectrum gives the insight on the transport property of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} molecular device. The bias voltage drives the electrons across V{sub 2}O{sub 5} scattering region, where the transmission along V{sub 2}O{sub 5} molecular device mainly depends on the bias voltage. The findings of the present work give insights to fine-tune the transport property of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} molecular device upon varying the bias voltage.

  17. Nature of turbulent transport across sheared zonal flows: insights from gyrokinetic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R; Newman, D E; Leboeuf, J-N; Decyk, V K

    2011-01-01

    The traditional view regarding the reduction of turbulence-induced transport across a stable sheared flow invokes a reduction of the characteristic length scale in the direction perpendicular to the flow as a result of the shearing and stretching of eddies caused by the differential pull exerted in the direction of the flow. A reduced effective transport coefficient then suffices to capture the reduction, that can then be readily incorporated into a transport model. However, recent evidence from gyrokinetic simulations of the toroidal ion-temperature-gradient mode suggests that the dynamics of turbulent transport across sheared flows changes in a more fundamental manner, and that the use of reduced effective transport coefficients fails to capture the full dynamics that may exhibit both subdiffusion and non-Gaussian statistics. In this contribution, after briefly reviewing these results, we propose some candidates for the physical mechanisms responsible for endowing transport with such non-diffusive characteristics, backing these proposals with new numerical gyrokinetic data.

  18. The Structure of a Sugar Transporter of the Glucose EIIC Superfamily Provides Insight into the Elevator Mechanism of Membrane Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jason G; Ren, Zhenning; Stanevich, Vitali; Lee, Jumin; Mitra, Sharmistha; Levin, Elena J; Poget, Sebastien; Quick, Matthias; Im, Wonpil; Zhou, Ming

    2016-06-07

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems are found in bacteria, where they play central roles in sugar uptake and regulation of cellular uptake processes. Little is known about how the membrane-embedded components (EIICs) selectively mediate the passage of carbohydrates across the membrane. Here we report the functional characterization and 2.55-Å resolution structure of a maltose transporter, bcMalT, belonging to the glucose superfamily of EIIC transporters. bcMalT crystallized in an outward-facing occluded conformation, in contrast to the structure of another glucose superfamily EIIC, bcChbC, which crystallized in an inward-facing occluded conformation. The structures differ in the position of a structurally conserved substrate-binding domain that is suggested to play a central role in sugar transport. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations suggest a potential pathway for substrate entry from the periplasm into the bcMalT substrate-binding site. These results provide a mechanistic framework for understanding substrate recognition and translocation for the glucose superfamily EIIC transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Homology modeling of the serotonin transporter: Insights into the primary escitalopram-binding Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne Marie; Tagmose, L.; Jørgensen, A.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    -ray structure of the closely related amino acid transporter, Aquifex aeolicus leucine transporter (LeuT), provides an opportunity to develop a three-dimensional model of the structure of SERT. We present herein a homology model of SERT using LeuT as the template and containing escitalopram as a bound ligand...

  20. Insights into the post-transcriptional regulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirey, Tamara M; Ponting, Chris P

    2016-10-15

    The regulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is central to the control of cellular homeostasis. There are significant gaps in our understanding of how the expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genome-encoded components of the electron transport chain are co-ordinated, and how the assembly of the protein complexes that constitute the electron transport chain are regulated. Furthermore, the role post-transcriptional gene regulation may play in modulating these processes needs to be clarified. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the post-transcriptional gene regulation of the electron transport chain and highlights how noncoding RNAs may contribute significantly both to complex electron transport chain regulatory networks and to mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Structural Basis for a Ribofuranosyl Binding Protein: Insights into the Furanose Specific Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagaria, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Kumaran, D.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC-transporters) are members of one of the largest protein superfamilies, with representatives in all extant phyla. These integral membrane proteins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to carry out certain biological processes, including translocation of various substrates across membranes and non-transport related processes such as translation of RNA and DNA repair. Typically, such transport systems in bacteria consist of an ATP binding component, a transmembrane permease, and a periplasmic receptor or binding protein. Soluble proteins found in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria serve as the primary receptors for transport of many compounds, such as sugars, small peptides, and some ions. Ligand binding activates these periplasmic components, permitting recognition by the membrane spanning domain, which supports for transport and, in some cases, chemotaxis. Transport and chemotaxis processes appear to be independent of one another, and a few mutants of bifunctional periplasmic components reveal the absence of one or the other function. Previously published high-resolution X-ray structures of various periplasmic ligand binding proteins include Arabinose binding protein (ABP), Allose binding protein (ALBP), Glucose-galactose binding protein (GBP) and Ribose binding protein (RBP). Each of these proteins consists of two structurally similar domains connected by a three-stranded hinge region, with ligand buried between the domains. Upon ligand binding and release, various conformational changes have been observed. For RBP, open (apo) and closed (ligand bound) conformations have been reported and so for MBP. The closed/active form of the protein interacts with the integral membrane component of the system in both transport and chemotaxis. Herein, we report 1.9{angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the R{sub f}BP periplasmic component of an ABC-type sugar transport system from Hahella chejuensis (UniProt Id Q2S7D2) bound to

  2. Auxin transport at cellular level: new insights supported by mathematical modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Petr; Kubeš, Martin; Laňková, Martina; Dobrev, Petre; Klíma, Petr; Kohoutová, M.; Petrášek, Jan; Hoyerová, Klára; Jiřina, M.; Zažímalová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 10 (2012), s. 3815-3827 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA ČR GAP305/11/0797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : auxin metabolism * auxin transport * auxin transport inhibitors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.242, year: 2012

  3. Experimental insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport without floodplain storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, J. S.; Hovius, N.; Sachse, D.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Turowski, J. M.; Hilton, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, rock, and biosphere is thought to be a major control on global climate. CO2 flux estimates from oxidation of rock-derived OC and sequestration of biospheric OC during fluvial transit from source to sink are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering. Despite field data showing loss of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport within the river, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated environment, or during longer periods when OC is temporarily stored in river floodplains which may be anoxic. This represents a major knowledge gap, as the unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to develop process-based models that can be employed to predict OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this gap, we investigated the potential for OC oxidation in laboratory experiments simulating fluvial transport without floodplain storage. Mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment were transported for distances of 2000 km in annular flumes while making time-series measurements of sediment TOC and water DOC concentrations. Initial results for transport of OC-rich soil show increasing DOC with transport distance to levels that represent a transfer of 2% of the total OC from the solid to the dissolved phase; however, we observed no detectable change in the solid-phase TOC. Similar results were obtained in a control experiment with identical sediment in still water. These preliminary results suggest minimal OC oxidation within our experiment, and, to the extent that such experiments represent natural transport through river systems, are consistent with the hypothesis that OC losses may occur primarily during floodplain storage rather than fluvial transport.

  4. Long-range transport and global fractionation of POPs: insights from multimedia modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheringer, M.; Salzmann, M.; Stroebe, M.; Wegmann, F.; Fenner, K.; Hungerbuehler, K.

    2004-01-01

    The long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is investigated with two multimedia box models of the global system. ChemRange is a purely evaluative, one-dimensional steady-state (level III) model; CliMoChem is a two-dimensional model with different temperatures, land/water ratios and vegetation types in different latitudinal zones. Model results are presented for three case studies: (i) the effect of atmospheric aerosol particles on the long-range transport of POPs, (ii) the effect of oceanic deposition on the long-range transport of different PCB congeners, (iii) the global fractionation of different PCB congeners. The model results for these case studies show: (i) the low atmospheric half-lives estimated for several organochlorine pesticides are likely to be inconsistent with the observed long-range transport of these compounds; (ii) export to the deep sea reduces the potential for long-range transport of highly hydrophobic compounds (but does not remove these chemicals from the biosphere); (iii) there are different meanings of the term global fractionation that refer to different aspects of the fractionation process and need to be distinguished. The case-study results further indicate that the influences of varying environmental conditions on the physicochemical properties and the degradation rate constants of POPs need to be determined. - Multimedia box models are applied to case studies of the behavior of POPs

  5. Insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport from laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, J. S.; Dellinger, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Fuchs, M. C.; Golombek, N.; Hilton, R. G.; Hovius, N.; Lupker, M.; Repasch, M. N.; Sachse, D.; Turowski, J. M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wittmann, H.

    2017-12-01

    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, hydropshere, biosphere and geosphere can be a major control on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. The carbon fluxes from the oxidation of rock-derived OC (a CO2 source) and erosion, transport, and burial of biospheric OC (a potential CO2 sink) during fluvial transit are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering. Despite field data showing increasing oxidation of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated river, or during periods of temporary storage in river floodplains which may be anoxic. The unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to mechanistically link geochemical and geomorphic processes which are required to develop models capable of predicting OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated OC oxidation in controlled laboratory experiments and a simplified field setting. We performed experiments in annular flumes that simulate fluvial transport without floodplain storage, allowing mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment to be transported for distances of 1000 km. Preliminary experiments exploring both rock-derived and biospheric OC sources show minimal OC oxidation during active river transport, consistent with the idea that the majority of OC loss occurs during transient floodplain storage. These results are also consistent with new field data collected in the Rio Bermejo, Argentina, a lowland river traversing 800 km with no tributary inputs, where aged floodplain deposits have 3 to 10 times lower OC concentrations compared to modern river sediments. Together our field data and experiments support the hypothesis that oxidation of OC occurs primarily during

  6. Modelling the rebound effect with network theory: An insight into the European freight transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Basosi, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a two pronged approach to the study of the rebound effect, with the aim of assessing the magnitude of the effect in the European freight transport sector and proposing a new modelling framework based on network theory. The (direct) rebound effect is assessed with: 1) an econometric regression; 2) a model based on network theory and statistical mechanics. According to the econometric model the European road freight transport sector undergone a negative rebound between of −74% between 1998 and 2007 and −146% between 1998 and 2011. The network analysis delivers an estimation of network rebound ranging between −29.37% and −7.25. Overall, these results indicate that energy efficiency in Europe, between 1998 and 2011, succeed in reducing the energy consumptions amid an increasing demand for transports. Results on rebound estimation depend on the decision of using GDP as an exogenous variable, an assumption that leaves questions open about the causality chain between growth and transports. Furthermore, the network analysis highlights a structural change –a migration of production factors offshore, that might partially explain this negative effect. In this view, rebound effect analysis on a local or regional scale is becoming more and more uncertain in a globally interconnected economic context. - Highlights: • An evaluation of direct rebound effect in the freight transports with an econometric model is performed. • A new concept of rebound effect based on network theory is presented and implemented. • A comparative analysis of the two different approaches is developed. • Both models indicate that the there was a negative rebound effect in European freight transports. • Network theory proved to be a promising approach to energy systems and rebound effect modelling.

  7. Insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport from controlled laboratory and natural field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Dellinger, Mathieu; Golombek, Nina; Hilton, Robert G.; Hovius, Niels; Sachse, Dirk; Turowski, Jens M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wittmann, Hella

    2017-04-01

    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere is thought to be a major control on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and hence global climate. The carbon fluxes from the oxidation of rock-derived OC (a CO2 source) and erosion and transport of biospheric OC (a potential CO2 sink) during fluvial transit are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering (France-Lanord and Derry, 1997; Bouchez et al., 2010). Despite field data showing oxidation of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport within the river, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated environment, or during longer periods when OC is temporarily stored in river floodplains which may be anoxic. This represents a major knowledge gap, as the unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to develop process-based models that can be employed to predict OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this gap, we investigated the potential for OC oxidation in both controlled laboratory experiments and a simplified field setting. We consider both rock-derived and biospheric OC. Our experiments simulated fluvial transport without floodplain storage, allowing mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment to be transported for distances of 1000 km in annular flumes while making time-series measurements of OC concentration in both the solid (POC) and dissolved (DOC) loads, as well as measurements of rhenium concentration, which serves as a proxy for the oxidation of rock-derived OC. These transport experiments were compared to static, control experiments where water and sediment in the same proportion were placed in still water. Initial results for transport of OC-rich soil show similar behavior between the transport and static

  8. New data from Virginia Tech Transportation Institute provides insight into cell phone use and driving distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Sherri

    2009-01-01

    Several large-scale, naturalistic driving studies -- using sophisticated cameras and instrumentation in participants' personal vehicles -- conducted by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), provide a clear picture of driver distraction and cell phone use under real-world driving conditions, according to the institute.

  9. Biogenic silica dissolution in diatom aggregates: insights from reactive transport modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Moriceau, B; Laruelle, GG; Passow, U; Van Cappellen, P; Ragueneau, O

    2014-01-01

    , dSi transport out of the aggregate is modulated by alternatively considering retention (decrease of the dSi diffusion constant) and adsorption (reversible chemical bonds between dSi and the aggregate matrix) processes. Modelled bSiO2 dissolution

  10. Vigna subterranea ammonium transporter gene (VsAMT1: Some bioinformatics insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewole T. Adetunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium transporters (AMTs play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which nitrogen is preferentially absorbed by plants. Vigna subterranea (VsAMT1 and Solanum tuberosum (StAMT1 AMT1s were characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. AMT1-specific primers were designed and used to amplify the AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned VsAMT1 and StAMT1 to the AMT1 family. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that VsAMT1 is 92% and 89% similar to Phaseolus vulgaris PvAMT1.1 and Glycine max AMT1 respectively, while StAMT1 is 92% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, and correspond to the 5th–10th trans-membrane domains. Residues VsAMT1 D23 and StAMT1 D15 are predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of VsAMT1 W1A-L and S87A and StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport. In addition to nitrogen uptake from the roots, VsAMT1 may also contribute to interactions with rhizobia.

  11. Transcriptomic insights on the ABC transporter gene family in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Sturm, Armin; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-04-09

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family encode for membrane proteins involved in the transport of various biomolecules through the cellular membrane. These proteins have been identified in all taxa and present important physiological functions, including the process of insecticide detoxification in arthropods. For that reason the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi represents a model species for understanding the molecular underpinnings involved in insecticide drug resistance. llumina sequencing was performed using sea lice exposed to 2 and 3 ppb of deltamethrin and azamethiphos. Contigs obtained from de novo assembly were annotated by Blastx. RNA-Seq analysis was performed and validated by qPCR analysis. From the transcriptome database of C. rogercresseyi, 57 putative members of ABC protein sequences were identified and phylogenetically classified into the eight subfamilies described for ABC transporters in arthropods. Transcriptomic profiles for ABC proteins subfamilies were evaluated throughout C. rogercresseyi development. Moreover, RNA-Seq analysis was performed for adult male and female salmon lice exposed to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin. High transcript levels of the ABCB and ABCC subfamilies were evidenced. Furthermore, SNPs mining was carried out for the ABC proteins sequences, revealing pivotal genomic information. The present study gives a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of ABC proteins from C. rogercresseyi, providing relevant information about transporter roles during ontogeny and in relation to delousing drug responses in salmon lice. This genomic information represents a valuable tool for pest management in the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry.

  12. Influence of Roughness-Induced Slip on Colloid Transport: Experimental and Modelling Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, J. A.; Johnson, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    A limitation of classic colloid filtration theory is that it applies only to smooth surfaces, yet most natural surfaces present some degree of nano- to micro-scale roughness. A large volume of research has been dedicated to understanding the effects of roughness on particle attachment at the nano-scale since these interactions dictate field scale transport behavior. It has been previously demonstrated that roughness imposes a finite slip vector at the surface that causes particles to experience higher near-surface velocities than would be expected over a smooth surface. Slip near a rough surface can affect two primary mechanisms of particle attenuation: 1) interception of the surface (finding a landing spot) and 2) arrest on the surface (sticking the landing). However, a clear designation on how slip affects particle transport near rough surfaces is missing. The goal of this study was to provide a guide for the height of the slip layer and contact surface in reference to the mean-plane for rough surfaces. Direct observation was used to measure near-surface velocities of particles translating near surfaces of varying roughness spanning three orders of magnitude. The influence of roughness on particle transport was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling with rough surfaces measured with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CFD and experimental results were used to calibrate a Lagrangian particle transport model that utilizes simple modifications to the flow field for a smooth surface using statistically based roughness parameters. Advantages of the Lagrangian model are significantly decreased computation times and applicability to a wide range of natural surfaces without explicitly simulating individual asperities. The results suggest that the no-slip boundary should be placed at the bottom of the maximum asperity valleys, and that the contact surface should be placed at the root mean square (RMS) roughness above the mean plane. Collector

  13. The Leucine transporter from Aquifex aeolicus as a model for the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporters – insights into function and ligand binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova

    In her PhD studies, Adriana K. Kantcheva looked into the structural perspective of a bacterial transporter – the leucine transporter from Aquifex aeolicus (LeuT) – which is a homologue to neurotransmitter sodium symporters (NSS) found in humans, such as the serotonin transporter. Two crystal...... structures of LeuT elucidated new insights regarding ion and substrate binding to this transporter. Studying members of the NSS family is important as these proteins are found in the central nervous system of humans at the synaptic cleft and are implicated in serious conditions such as Parkinson’s disease...

  14. New Insight Into the Diversity of SemiSWEET Sugar Transporters and the Homologs in Prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolei Jia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sugars will eventually be exported transporters (SWEETs and SemiSWEETs represent a family of sugar transporters in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, respectively. SWEETs contain seven transmembrane helices (TMHs, while SemiSWEETs contain three. The functions of SemiSWEETs are less studied. In this perspective article, we analyzed the diversity and conservation of SemiSWEETs and further proposed the possible functions. 1,922 SemiSWEET homologs were retrieved from the UniProt database, which is not proportional to the sequenced prokaryotic genomes. However, these proteins are very diverse in sequences and can be classified into 19 clusters when >50% sequence identity is required. Moreover, a gene context analysis indicated that several SemiSWEETs are located in the operons that are related to diverse carbohydrate metabolism. Several proteins with seven TMHs can be found in bacteria, and sequence alignment suggested that these proteins in bacteria may be formed by the duplication and fusion. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the amino acids for sugar translocation are still conserved and coevolved, although the sequences show diversity. Among them, the functions of a few amino acids are still not clear. These findings highlight the challenges that exist in SemiSWEETs and provide future researchers the foundation to explore these uncharted areas.

  15. ABC transporters in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae: insights into evolution and pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Fabiana Nicolás

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABC transporters represent one of the largest superfamilies of active membrane transport proteins (MTPs with a highly conserved ATPase domain that binds and hydrolyzes ATP, supplying energy for the uptake of a variety of nutrients and for the extrusion of drugs and metabolic wastes. The complete genomes of a non-pathogenic (J and pathogenic (7448 strain of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, as well as of a pathogenic (53 strain of Mycoplasma synoviae have been recently sequenced. A detailed study revealed a high percentage of CDSs encoding MTPs in M. hyopneumoniae strains J (13.4%, 7448 (13.8%, and in M. synoviae 53 (11.2%, and the ABC systems represented from 85.0 to 88.6% of those CDSs. Uptake systems are mainly involved in cell nutrition and some might be associated with virulence. Exporter systems include both drug and multidrug resistant systems (MDR, which may represent mechanisms of resistance to toxic molecules. No relation was found between the phylogeny of the ATPase domains and the lifestyle or pathogenicity of Mycoplasma, but several proteins, potentially useful as targets for the control of infections, were identified.

  16. Biogenic silica dissolution in diatom aggregates: insights from reactive transport modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Moriceau, B

    2014-12-15

    © Inter-Research 2014. Diatom aggregates contribute significantly to the vertical sinking flux of particulate matter in the ocean. These fragile structures form a specific microhabitat for the aggregated cells, but their internal chemical and physical characteristics remain largely unknown. Studies on the impact of aggregation on the Si cycle led to apparent inconsistency. Despite a lower biogenic silica (bSiO2) dissolution rate and diffusion of the silicic acid (dSi) being similar in aggregates and in sea-water, dSi surprisingly accumulates in aggregates. A reaction-diffusion model helps to clarify this incoherence by reconstructing dSi accumulation measured during batch experiments with aggregated and non-aggregated Skeletonema marinoi and Chaetoceros decipiens. The model calculates the effective bSiO2 dissolution rate as opposed to the experimental apparent bSiO2 dissolution rate, which is the results of the effective dissolution of bSiO2 and transport of dSi out of the aggregate. In the model, dSi transport out of the aggregate is modulated by alternatively considering retention (decrease of the dSi diffusion constant) and adsorption (reversible chemical bonds between dSi and the aggregate matrix) processes. Modelled bSiO2 dissolution is modulated by the impact of dSi concentration inside aggregates and diatom viability, as enhanced persistence of metabolically active diatoms has been observed in aggregates. Adsorption better explains dSi accumulation within and outside aggregates, raising the possible importance of dSi travelling within aggregates to the deep sea (potentially representing 20% of the total silica flux). The model indicates that bSiO2 dissolution is effectively decreased in aggregates mainly due to higher diatom viability but also to other parameters discussed herein.

  17. Sorption, transport and biodegradation - An insight into bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoya; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Wang, Jingjing; Wan, Jia; Liu, Yani; Yu, Jiangfang; Yi, Huan; Ye, Shujing; Deng, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Contamination of soils with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticide, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, halohydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of increasing concern. Microbial degradation is potential mechanism for the removal of POPs, but it is often restricted by low bioavailability of POPs. Thus, it is important to enhance bioavailability of POPs in soil bioremediation. A series of reviews on bioavailability of POPs has been published in the past few years. However, bioavailability of POPs in relation to soil organic matter, minerals and soil microbes has been little studied. To fully understand POPs bioavailability in soil, research on interactions of POPs with soil components and microbial responses in bioavailability limitation conditions are needed. This review focuses on bioavailability mechanisms of POPs in terms of sorption, transport and microbial adaptation, which is particularly novel. In consideration of the significance of bioavailability, further studies should investigate the influence of various bioremediation strategies on POPs bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Red and green algal origin of diatom membrane transporters: insights into environmental adaptation and cell evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Xin Chan

    Full Text Available Membrane transporters (MTs facilitate the movement of molecules between cellular compartments. The evolutionary history of these key components of eukaryote genomes remains unclear. Many photosynthetic microbial eukaryotes (e.g., diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates appear to have undergone serial endosymbiosis and thereby recruited foreign genes through endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer (E/HGT. Here we used the diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum as models to examine the evolutionary origin of MTs in this important group of marine primary producers. Using phylogenomics, we used 1,014 diatom MTs as query against a broadly sampled protein sequence database that includes novel genome data from the mesophilic red algae Porphyridium cruentum and Calliarthron tuberculosum, and the stramenopile Ectocarpus siliculosus. Our conservative approach resulted in 879 maximum likelihood trees of which 399 genes show a non-lineal history between diatoms and other eukaryotes and prokaryotes (at the bootstrap value ≥70%. Of the eukaryote-derived MTs, 172 (ca. 25% of 697 examined phylogenies have members of both red/green algae as sister groups, with 103 putatively arising from green algae, 19 from red algae, and 50 have an unresolved affiliation to red and/or green algae. We used topology tests to analyze the most convincing cases of non-lineal gene history in which red and/or green algae were nested within stramenopiles. This analysis showed that ca. 6% of all trees (our most conservative estimate support an algal origin of MTs in stramenopiles with the majority derived from green algae. Our findings demonstrate the complex evolutionary history of photosynthetic eukaryotes and indicate a reticulate origin of MT genes in diatoms. We postulate that the algal-derived MTs acquired via E/HGT provided diatoms and other related microbial eukaryotes the ability to persist under conditions of fluctuating ocean chemistry, likely

  19. Water-mediated interactions enable smooth substrate transport in a bacterial efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargiu, Attilio Vittorio; Ramaswamy, Venkata Krishnan; Malvacio, Ivana; Malloci, Giuliano; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Ruggerone, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    Efflux pumps of the Resistance-Nodulation-cell Division superfamily confer multi-drug resistance to Gram-negative bacteria. The most-studied polyspecific transporter belonging to this class is the inner-membrane trimeric antiporter AcrB of Escherichia coli. In previous studies, a functional rotation mechanism was proposed for its functioning, according to which the three monomers undergo concerted conformational changes facilitating the extrusion of substrates. However, the molecular determinants and the energetics of this mechanism still remain unknown, so its feasibility must be proven mechanistically. A computational protocol able to mimic the functional rotation mechanism in AcrB was developed. By using multi-bias molecular dynamics simulations we characterized the translocation of the substrate doxorubicin driven by conformational changes of the protein. In addition, we estimated for the first time the free energy profile associated to this process. We provided a molecular view of the process in agreement with experimental data. Moreover, we showed that the conformational changes occurring in AcrB enable the formation of a layer of structured waters on the internal surface of the transport channel. This water layer, in turn, allows for a fairly constant hydration of the substrate, facilitating its diffusion over a smooth free energy profile. Our findings reveal a new molecular mechanism of polyspecific transport whereby water contributes by screening potentially strong substrate-protein interactions. We provided a mechanistic understanding of a fundamental process related to multi-drug transport. Our results can help rationalizing the behavior of other polyspecific transporters and designing compounds avoiding extrusion or inhibitors of efflux pumps. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of the marA, soxS, acrB and ramA genes related to the AcrAB/TolC efflux pump in Salmonella entérica strains with and without quinolone resistance-determining regions gyrA gene mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Gomes Ferrari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted in recent years to elucidate the structure, function and significance of AcrB, MarA, SoxS and RamA in Salmonella enterica. In this study, the relative quantification of acrB, soxS, marA and ramA genes expression was evaluated in 14 strains of S. enterica, with or without accompanying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA gene, that were exposed to ciprofloxacin during the exponential growth phase. The presence of ciprofloxacin during the log phase of bacterial growth activated the genes marA, soxS, ramA and acrB in all S. enterica strains analyzed in this study. The highest expression levels for acrB were observed in strains with gyrA mutation, and marA showed the highest expression in the strains without mutation. Considering only the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values 0.125 [1]g/mL (low susceptibility, with and without mutations in gyrA, the most expressed gene was marA. In this study, we observed that strains resistant to nalidixic acid may express genes associated with the efflux pump and the expression of the AcrAB-TolC pump genes seems to occur independently of mutations in gyrA.

  1. Expression of the marA, soxS, acrB and ramA genes related to the AcrAB/TolC efflux pump in Salmonella entérica strains with and without quinolone resistance-determining regions gyrA gene mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Gomes Ferrari

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted in recent years to elucidate the structure, function and significance of AcrB, MarA, SoxS and RamA in Salmonella enterica. In this study, the relative quantification of acrB, soxS, marA and ramA genes expression was evaluated in 14 strains of S. enterica, with or without accompanying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA gene, that were exposed to ciprofloxacin during the exponential growth phase. The presence of ciprofloxacin during the log phase of bacterial growth activated the genes marA, soxS, ramA and acrB in all S. enterica strains analyzed in this study. The highest expression levels for acrB were observed in strains with gyrA mutation, and marA showed the highest expression in the strains without mutation. Considering only the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values 0.125 [1]g/mL (low susceptibility, with and without mutations in gyrA, the most expressed gene was marA. In this study, we observed that strains resistant to nalidixic acid may express genes associated with the efflux pump and the expression of the AcrAB-TolC pump genes seems to occur independently of mutations in gyrA.

  2. Insights from the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Point to High Affinity Glucose Transporters as Targets for Enhancing Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt) from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km(glucose) was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing. PMID:23382943

  3. Insights from the fungus Fusarium oxysporum point to high affinity glucose transporters as targets for enhancing ethanol production from lignocellulose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin S Ali

    Full Text Available Ethanol is the most-widely used biofuel in the world today. Lignocellulosic plant biomass derived from agricultural residue can be converted to ethanol via microbial bioprocessing. Fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum can simultaneously saccharify straw to sugars and ferment sugars to ethanol. But there are many bottlenecks that need to be overcome to increase the efficacy of microbial production of ethanol from straw, not least enhancement of the rate of fermentation of both hexose and pentose sugars. This research tested the hypothesis that the rate of sugar uptake by F. oxysporum would enhance the ethanol yields from lignocellulosic straw and that high affinity glucose transporters can enhance ethanol yields from this substrate. We characterized a novel hexose transporter (Hxt from this fungus. The F. oxysporum Hxt represents a novel transporter with homology to yeast glucose signaling/transporter proteins Rgt2 and Snf3, but it lacks their C-terminal domain which is necessary for glucose signalling. Its expression level decreased with increasing glucose concentration in the medium and in a glucose uptake study the Km((glucose was 0.9 mM, which indicated that the protein is a high affinity glucose transporter. Post-translational gene silencing or over expression of the Hxt in F. oxysporum directly affected the glucose and xylose transport capacity and ethanol yielded by F. oxysporum from straw, glucose and xylose. Thus we conclude that this Hxt has the capacity to transport both C5 and C6 sugars and to enhance ethanol yields from lignocellulosic material. This study has confirmed that high affinity glucose transporters are ideal candidates for improving ethanol yields from lignocellulose because their activity and level of expression is high in low glucose concentrations, which is very common during the process of consolidated processing.

  4. Excitatory amino acid transporters: recent insights into molecular mechanisms, novel modes of modulation and new therapeutic possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Fahlke, Christoph; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden Emil

    2015-01-01

    The five excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT1–5) mediating the synaptic uptake of the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate are differently expressed throughout the CNS and at the synaptic level. Although EAATs are crucial for normal excitatory neurotransmission, explorations into the ......The five excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT1–5) mediating the synaptic uptake of the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate are differently expressed throughout the CNS and at the synaptic level. Although EAATs are crucial for normal excitatory neurotransmission, explorations...

  5. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  6. An insight of in vitro transport of PEGylated non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NSVs) across the intestinal polarized enterocyte monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Rosita; Palumbo, Paola; Celia, Christian; Cinque, Benedetta; Carata, Elisabetta; Carafa, Maria; Paolino, Donatella; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Di Marzio, Luisa

    2018-06-01

    PEGylated non-ionic surfactant-based vesicles (NSVs) are promising drug delivery systems for the local, oral and systemic administrations of therapeutics. The aim of this study was to test the cellular biocompatibility and transport of Nile Red-loaded NSVs (NR-NSVs) across the Caco-2-cell monolayers, which represent an in vitro model of human intestinal epithelium. The NR-NSVs assumed a spherical shape with a mean size of 140 nm, and a narrow size distribution. The NR-NSVs did not modify Caco-2 cell viability, which remained unaltered in vitro up to a concentration of 1 mM. The transport studies demonstrated that the NR-NSVs moved across the Caco-2 monolayers without affecting the transepithelial electrical resistance. These results were supported by flow cytometry analysis, which demonstrated that NR-NSVs were internalized inside the Caco-2 cells. Nanoparticle tracking and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis showed the presence of NR-NSVs in the basolateral side of the Caco-2 monolayers. TEM images also showed that NSVs were transported intact across the Caco-2 monolayers, thus demonstrating a predominant transcytosis mechanism of transport through endocytosis. The NSVs did not affect the integrity of the membrane barrier in vitro, and can potentially be used in clinics to increase the oral bioavailability and delivery of therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel insights into xenobiotic transport by organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and OATP-expression profiling in ovarian carcinoma and other solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, M.

    2010-01-01

    Eleven members of the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) family have been identified in humans. They are responsible for the Na+ independent cellular uptake of a broad range of substances. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the possible role of OATPs present in various cancer entities including breast, bone, liver and ovary. In the first study, carrier-mediated uptake of paclitaxel was studied in X. laevis oocytes expressing all known human OATPs and in ovarian cancer cell lines. OATP1B1 could be identified as an uptake transporter for paclitaxel showing a Km value of 0.6 μM indicating high affinity to this taxane. Subsequently, the expression status of OATPs and several ABC transporters was assessed in malignant specimens from 191 ovarian cancer patients. OATP3A1 was significantly correlated with the FIGO stage of tumors. Moreover, OATP6A1, ABCB2 and ABCC3 were identified as highly significant predictor for the disease free survival of ovarian cancer patients. In additional studies we showed distinct OATP expression patterns in cancer tissues compared to normal tissue or benign tumors. In general, higher OATP levels were detected in normal tissues compared to malignant ones in breast cancer as well as bone cancer. In liver cancer, we observed upregulation of OATP2A1 and 5A1 in primary and secondary hepatic tumors but OATP4A1 was only upregulated in secondary hepatic tumors. The distinct expression pattern for individual OATPs in tumor cells suggest their specific functions which may involve transport of molecules important for cellular signaling as well as of drugs used in therapy. (author) [de

  8. Investigating the consequences of urban volcanism using a scenario approach II: Insights into transportation network damage and functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Daniel M.; Deligne, Natalia I.; Wilson, Thomas M.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Woods, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Transportation networks are critical infrastructure in urban environments. Before, during and following volcanic activity, these networks can incur direct and indirect impacts, which subsequently reduces the Level-of-Service available to transportation end-users. Additionally, reductions in service can arise from management strategies including evacuation zoning, causing additional complications for transportation end-users and operators. Here, we develop metrics that incorporate Level-of-Service for transportation end-users as the key measure of vulnerability for multi-hazard volcanic impact and risk assessments. A hypothetical eruption scenario recently developed for the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand, is applied to describe potential impacts of a small basaltic eruption on different transportation modes, namely road, rail, and activities at airports and ports. We demonstrate how the new metrics can be applied at specific locations worldwide by considering the geophysical hazard sequence and evacuation zones in this scenario, a process that was strongly informed by consultation with transportation infrastructure providers and emergency management officials. We also discuss the potential implications of modified hazard sequences (e.g. different wind profiles during the scenario, and unrest with no resulting eruption) on transportation vulnerability and population displacement. The vent area of the eruption scenario used in our study is located north of the Māngere Bridge suburb of Auckland. The volcanic activity in the scenario progresses from seismic unrest, through phreatomagmatic explosions generating pyroclastic surges to a magmatic phase generating a scoria cone and lava flows. We find that most physical damage to transportation networks occurs from pyroclastic surges during the initial stages of the eruption. However, the most extensive service reduction across all networks occurs 6 days prior to the eruption onset, largely attributed to the

  9. Insights into the Structure, Function, and Ligand Discovery of the Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter 1, LAT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natesh Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, or SLC7A5 is a sodium- and pH-independent transporter, which supplies essential amino acids (e.g., leucine, phenylalanine to cells. It plays an important role at the Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB where it facilitates the transport of thyroid hormones, pharmaceuticals (e.g., l-DOPA, gabapentin, and metabolites into the brain. Moreover, its expression is highly upregulated in various types of human cancer that are characterized by an intense demand for amino acids for growth and proliferation. Therefore, LAT1 is believed to be an important drug target for cancer treatment. With the crystallization of the arginine/agmatine antiporter (AdiC from Escherichia Coli, numerous homology models of LAT1 have been built to elucidate the substrate binding site, ligand–transporter interaction, and structure–function relationship. The use of these models in combination with molecular docking and experimental testing has identified novel chemotypes of ligands of LAT1. Here, we highlight the structure, function, transport mechanism, and homology modeling of LAT1. Additionally, results from structure–function studies performed on LAT1 are addressed, which have enhanced our knowledge of the mechanism of substrate binding and translocation. This is followed by a discussion on ligand- and structure-based approaches, with an emphasis on elucidating the molecular basis of LAT1 inhibition. Finally, we provide an exhaustive summary of different LAT1 inhibitors that have been identified so far, including the recently discovered irreversible covalent inhibitors.

  10. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  11. New insights on the synthesis and electronic transport in bulk polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO3−δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehkordi, Arash Mehdizadeh; Bhattacharya, Sriparna; Darroudi, Taghi; Alshareef, Husam N.; Tritt, Terry M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have reported a significant enhancement in the electronic and thermoelectric properties of bulk polycrystalline SrTiO 3 ceramics via praseodymium doping. This improvement was originated from the simultaneous enhancement in the thermoelectric power factor and reduction in thermal conductivity, which was contributed to the non-uniform distribution of Pr dopants. In order to further understand the underlying mechanism, we herein investigate the role of praseodymium doping source (Pr 2 O 3 versus Pr 6 O 11 ) on the synthesis and electronic transport in Pr-doped SrTiO 3 ceramics. It was observed that the high-temperature electronic transport properties are independent of the choice of praseodymium doping source for samples prepared following our synthesis strategy. Theoretical calculations were also performed in order to estimate the maximum achievable power factor and the corresponding optimal carrier concentration. The result suggests the possibility of further improvement of the power factor. This study should shed some light on the superior electronic transport in bulk polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO 3 ceramics and provide new insight on further improvement of the thermoelectric power factor

  12. New insights on the synthesis and electronic transport in bulk polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO3−δ

    KAUST Repository

    Dehkordi, Arash Mehdizadeh

    2015-02-07

    Recently, we have reported a significant enhancement in the electronic and thermoelectric properties of bulk polycrystalline SrTiO3 ceramics via praseodymium doping. This improvement was originated from the simultaneous enhancement in the thermoelectric power factor and reduction in thermal conductivity, which was contributed to the non-uniform distribution of Pr dopants. In order to further understand the underlying mechanism, we herein investigate the role of praseodymium doping source (Pr2O3 versus Pr6O11) on the synthesis and electronic transport in Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics. It was observed that the high-temperature electronic transport properties are independent of the choice of praseodymium doping source for samples prepared following our synthesis strategy. Theoretical calculations were also performed in order to estimate the maximum achievable power factor and the corresponding optimal carrier concentration. The result suggests the possibility of further improvement of the power factor. This study should shed some light on the superior electronic transport in bulk polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics and provide new insight on further improvement of the thermoelectric power factor.

  13. Molecular docking simulations provide insights in the substrate binding sites and possible substrates of the ABCC6 transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jakir Hosen

    Full Text Available The human ATP-binding cassette family C member 6 (ABCC6 gene encodes an ABC transporter protein (ABCC6, primarily expressed in liver and kidney. Mutations in the ABCC6 gene cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE, an autosomal recessive connective tissue disease characterized by ectopic mineralization of the elastic fibers. The pathophysiology underlying PXE is incompletely understood, which can at least partly be explained by the undetermined nature of the ABCC6 substrates as well as the unknown substrate recognition and binding sites. Several compounds, including anionic glutathione conjugates (N-ethylmaleimide; NEM-GS and leukotriene C4 (LTC4 were shown to be modestly transported in vitro; conversely, vitamin K3 (VK3 was demonstrated not to be transported by ABCC6. To predict the possible substrate binding pockets of the ABCC6 transporter, we generated a 3D homology model of ABCC6 in both open and closed conformation, qualified for molecular docking and virtual screening approaches. By docking 10 reported in vitro substrates in our ABCC6 3D homology models, we were able to predict the substrate binding residues of ABCC6. Further, virtual screening of 4651 metabolites from the Human Serum Metabolome Database against our open conformation model disclosed possible substrates for ABCC6, which are mostly lipid and biliary secretion compounds, some of which are found to be involved in mineralization. Docking of these possible substrates in the closed conformation model also showed high affinity. Virtual screening expands this possibility to explore more compounds that can interact with ABCC6, and may aid in understanding the mechanisms leading to PXE.

  14. Managing in-country transportation risks in humanitarian supply chains by logistics service providers: Insights from the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Baharmand, Hossein; Comes, Tina; Lauras, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Humanitarian supply chains (HSCs) play a central role in effective and efficient disaster relief operations. Transportation has a critical share in HSCs and managing its risks helps to avoid further disruptions in relief operations. However, there is no common approach to or culture of risk management that its applicability has been studied through recent cases. This paper incorporates an empirical research design and makes a threefold contribution: first, it identifies in-country transportat...

  15. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  16. Measurements of water uptake of maize roots: insights for traits that influence water transport from the soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mutez A.; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Carminati, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Water availability is a primary constraint to the global crop production. Although maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops worldwide, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and types in extracting water from soils. Aim of this study was to investigate the location of water uptake in maize roots. We used neutron radiography to: 1) image the spatial distribution of maize roots in soil and 2) trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maize plants were grown in aluminum containers (40×38×1 cm) filled with sandy soil. The soil was partitioned into different compartments using 1-cm-thick layers of coarse sand. When the plants were two weeks-old we injected D2O into selected soil compartments. The experiments were performed during the day (transpiring plants) and night (non transpiring plants). The transport of D2O into roots was simulated using a convection-diffusion numerical model of D2O transport into roots. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusion coefficient and the water uptake of the different root segments. The maize root architecture consisted of a primary root, 4-5 seminal roots and many lateral roots connected to the primary and seminal roots. Laterals emerged from the proximal 15 cm of the primary and seminal roots. Both during day and night measurements, D2O entered more quickly into lateral roots than into primary and seminal roots. The quick transport of D2O into laterals was caused by the small radius of lateral roots. The diffusion coefficient of lateral roots (4.68×10-7cm2s-1)was similar to that of the distal segments of seminal roots (4.72×10-7cm2s-1) and higher than of the proximal segments (1.42×10-7cm2s-1). Water uptake of lateral roots (1.64×10-5cms-1)was much higher than that of the distal segments of seminal roots (1.18×10-12cms-1). Water uptake of the proximal seminal segments was negligible. We conclude that the function of lateral

  17. Long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Shichang, K.; Ma, Y.

    2017-12-01

    An intensive measurement was conducted at a remote, background, and high-altitude site (Qomolangma station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from April 12 to May 12, 2016 to chemically characterize high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1) and obtain the influence of biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas, frequently transported from south Asia during pre-monsoon season. Two high aerosol loading periods were observed during the study. Overall, the average (± 1σ) PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (± 4.54) µg m-3 for the entire study, comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosols (OA) was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3% of total PM1 mass on average) and its contribution increased with the increase of total PM1 mass loading. The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode ( 500 nm), suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transportations. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a biomass burning related OA (BBOA, 43.7%) and two oxygenated OA (Local-OOA and LRT-OOA; 13.9% and 42.4%) represented sources from local emissions and long-range transportations, respectively. Two polluted air mass origins (generally from the west and southwest of QOMS) and two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions were observed, respectively, suggesting the important sources of wildfires from south Asia. One of polluted aerosol plumes was investigated in detail to illustrate the evolution of aerosol characteristics at QOMS driving by different impacts of wildfires, air mass origins, meteorological conditions and

  18. Closed-flow column experiments—Insights into solute transport provided by a damped oscillating breakthrough behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Transport studies that employ column experiments in closed-flow mode complement classical approaches by providing new characteristic features observed in the solute breakthrough and equilibrium between liquid and solid phase. Specific to the closed-flow mode is the recirculation of the effluent to the inflow via a mixing vessel. Depending on the ratio of volumes of mixing vessel and water-filled pore space, a damped oscillating solute concentration emerges in the effluent and mixing vessel. The oscillation characteristics, e.g., frequency, amplitude, and damping, allow for the investigation of solute transport in a similar fashion as known for classical open-flow column experiments. However, the closed loop conserves substances released during transport within the system. In this way, solute and porous medium can equilibrate with respect to physicochemical conditions. With this paper, the features emerging in the breakthrough curves of saturated column experiments run in closed-flow mode and methods of evaluation are illustrated under experimental boundary conditions forcing the appearance of oscillations. We demonstrate that the effective pore water volume and the pumping rate can be determined from a conservative tracer breakthrough curve uniquely. In this way, external preconditioning of the material, e.g., drying, can be avoided. A reactive breakthrough experiment revealed a significant increase in the pore water pH value as a consequence of the closed loop. These results highlight the specific impact of the closed mass balance. Furthermore, the basis for the modeling of closed-flow experiments is given by the derivation of constitutive equations and numerical implementation, validated with the presented experiments.

  19. Passive Immunoprophylaxis for the Protection of the Mother and Her Baby: Insights from In Vivo Models of Antibody Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqun Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are at high risk for infection by pathogens. Vertical transmission of infectious agents, such as Zika, hepatitis B, and cytomegalovirus during pregnancy, remains a public health problem, associated with dire outcomes for the neonate. Thus, a safe prophylactic and therapeutic approach for protecting the mother and the neonate from infections remains a high priority. Our work is focused on better understanding the safety and efficacy determinants of IgG antibody preparations when used during pregnancy to benefit the mother and her baby. Using pregnant guinea pigs, we demonstrated that biodistribution of administered IgG to the fetus increases with gestation and results in lower maternal and higher fetal antibody concentrations as pregnancy progresses. Data suggests that partition of antibody immunotherapy to the fetal compartment may contribute to a lower maternal exposure (as measured by the AUC and a shorter mean residence time of the IgG therapeutic at the end of pregnancy compared to nonpregnant age-matched controls, irrespective of the administered dose. Our studies provide insights on the importance of selecting an efficacious dose in pregnancy that takes into account IgG biodistribution to the fetus. The use of appropriate animal models of placental transfer and infectious disease during pregnancy would facilitate pharmacokinetic modeling to derive a starting dose in clinical trials.

  20. Na(+) dependent acid-base transporters in the choroid plexus; insights from slc4 and slc9 gene deletion studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henriette L; Nguyen, An T; Pedersen, Fredrik D

    2013-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells....... Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular p...

  1. The scope of public organisations with productive functions: insights from the inefficiency of Italian local public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Di Foggia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that reforms necessary to enhance competition and make the economy more attractive play a major role in the Government activity in Europe. Considering the Italian state of affairs, this paper focuses on the inefficiency of public producers in the light of certain market and legal impediments. This paper describes key barriers that undermine the healthy functioning of an important industrial and service sector of the Italian economy: specifically local public transport. This paper also sheds some light on this problem analysing the impact that a controversial regulation framework may have on an industry and suggests that the degree of liberalisation affects the return on investments.

  2. Vegetation-derived insights on the mobilization and potential transport of radionuclides from the Nopal I natural analog site, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie, B.W.; Pickett, D.A.; Pearcy, E.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico is a source term and contaminant transport natural analog to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In an attempt to characterize the mobilization and potential transport of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone at the Nopal I deposit, vegetation growing on ore piles was analyzed for {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 232}Th decay-series isotopes. Specimens of Phacelia robusta growing on high-grade piles of U ore were collected and analyzed by alpha autoradiography, and by alpha and gamma spectrometry. Activities for U, thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) isotopes (Bq/kg dried plant) were 300, 1,000, and 7,000 for {sup 238}U, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 226}Ra, respectively. The {sup 226}Ra activities in these specimens are among the highest ever measured for plants; furthermore, the plant-to-soil {sup 226}Ra concentration ratio is higher than expected. These results demonstrate the large mobility and bio-availability of Ra in the Nopal I environment, and support previous indications of recent loss of {sup 226}Ra from the ore body. Comparison between the activities of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th decay-chain Th isotopes in the plants and in the ore substrate indicate that relative mobilization into pore solutions of {sup 228}Th > {sup 230}Th > {sup 232}Th, in a ratio of about 50--25:4:1, respectively. The similarity of the plant's {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio ({approximately}1.2) to that of a caliche deposit that formed adjacent to the Nopal ore body around 54 ka suggests the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio of U released from the ore is approximately 1.2. The U and {sup 226}Ra isotope activities of the plants and ore substrate, and solubility considerations, are used to assess a source term model of the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These results suggest the use of a natural analog source term model in performance assessments may be non-conservative.

  3. Vegetation-derived insights on the mobilization and potential transport of radionuclides from the Nopal I natural analog site, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, B.W.; Pickett, D.A.; Pearcy, E.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico is a source term and contaminant transport natural analog to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In an attempt to characterize the mobilization and potential transport of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone at the Nopal I deposit, vegetation growing on ore piles was analyzed for 238 U, 235 U, and 232 Th decay-series isotopes. Specimens of Phacelia robusta growing on high-grade piles of U ore were collected and analyzed by alpha autoradiography, and by alpha and gamma spectrometry. Activities for U, thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) isotopes (Bq/kg dried plant) were 300, 1,000, and 7,000 for 238 U, 230 Th, and 226 Ra, respectively. The 226 Ra activities in these specimens are among the highest ever measured for plants; furthermore, the plant-to-soil 226 Ra concentration ratio is higher than expected. These results demonstrate the large mobility and bio-availability of Ra in the Nopal I environment, and support previous indications of recent loss of 226 Ra from the ore body. Comparison between the activities of 238 U and 232 Th decay-chain Th isotopes in the plants and in the ore substrate indicate that relative mobilization into pore solutions of 228 Th > 230 Th > 232 Th, in a ratio of about 50--25:4:1, respectively. The similarity of the plant's 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio (∼1.2) to that of a caliche deposit that formed adjacent to the Nopal ore body around 54 ka suggests the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio of U released from the ore is approximately 1.2. The U and 226 Ra isotope activities of the plants and ore substrate, and solubility considerations, are used to assess a source term model of the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These results suggest the use of a natural analog source term model in performance assessments may be non-conservative

  4. Insight into electronic, mechanical and transport properties of quaternary CoVTiAl: Spin-polarized DFT + U approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousuf, Saleem, E-mail: nengroosaleem17@gmail.com; Gupta, D.C., E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • 100% spin-polarized material important for the application in spintronics. • It is ferromagnetic and ductile in nature. • Shows semiconducting behavior with a band gap of 1.06 eV. • Possibly efficient high temperature thermoelectric material. - Abstract: We present a preliminary investigation of band structure and thermoelectric properties of new quaternary CoVTiAl Heusler alloy. Structural, magnetic property and 100% spin polarization of equiatomic CoVTiAl predicts ferromagnetic stable ground state. Band profile outlines the indirect semiconducting behavior in spin down channel with band gap of 1.06 eV, and the magnetic moment of 3 µ{sub B} in accordance with Slater-Pauling rule. To evaluate the accuracy of different approximations in predicting thermoelectric properties, the comparison with available experimental data is made which shows fair agreement for the transport coefficients. The high temperature (800 K) positive Seebeck coefficient of 73.71 µV/K describes the p-type character of the material with high efficiency due to highly influential semiconducting behavior around the Fermi level. Considering the combination of 100% spin-polarization, high Seebeck coefficient and large figure of merit, ferromagnetic semiconducting CoVTiAl may prove as a potential candidate for high temperature thermoelectrics and an ideal spin source material for spintronic applications.

  5. Theoretical insights on the electro-thermal transport properties of monolayer MoS{sub 2} with line defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Dipankar, E-mail: dipsah-etc@yahoo.co.in; Mahapatra, Santanu, E-mail: santanu@dese.iisc.ernet.in [Nano-Scale Device Research Laboratory, Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-04-07

    Two dimensional (2D) materials demonstrate several novel electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties which are quite distinctive to those of their bulk form. Among many others, one important potential application of the 2D material is its use in the field of energy harvesting. Owing to that, here we present a detailed study on electrical as well as thermal transport of monolayer MoS{sub 2}, in quasi ballistic regime. Besides the perfect monolayer in its pristine form, we also consider various line defects which have been experimentally observed in mechanically exfoliated MoS{sub 2} samples. For calculating various parameters related to the electrical transmission, we employ the non-equilibrium Green's function-density functional theory combination. However, to obtain the phonon transmission, we take help of the parametrized Stillinger-Weber potential which can accurately delineate the inter-atomic interactions for the monolayer MoS{sub 2}. Due to the presence of line defects, we observed significant reductions in both the charge carrier and the phonon transmissions through a monolayer MoS{sub 2} flake. Moreover, we also report a comparative analysis showing the temperature dependency of the thermoelectric figure of merit values, as obtained for the perfect as well as the other defective 2D samples.

  6. Enhanced Electrochemical and Thermal Transport Properties of Graphene/MoS2 Heterostructures for Energy Storage: Insights from Multiscale Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Feng; Ding, Zhiwei; Fang, Yin; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Xia, Dawei; Lv, Yingying; Wang, Bin; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V; Liao, Jiaxuan; Wu, Mengqiang

    2018-05-02

    Graphene has been combined with molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) to ameliorate the poor cycling stability and rate performance of MoS 2 in lithium ion batteries, yet the underlying mechanisms remain less explored. Here, we develop multiscale modeling to investigate the enhanced electrochemical and thermal transport properties of graphene/MoS 2 heterostructures (GM-Hs) with a complex morphology. The calculated electronic structures demonstrate the greatly improved electrical conductivity of GM-Hs compared to MoS 2 . Increasing the graphene layers in GM-Hs not only improves the electrical conductivity but also stabilizes the intercalated Li atoms in GM-Hs. It is also found that GM-Hs with three graphene layers could achieve and maintain a high thermal conductivity of 85.5 W/(m·K) at a large temperature range (100-500 K), nearly 6 times that of pure MoS 2 [∼15 W/(m·K)], which may accelerate the heat conduction from electrodes to the ambient. Our quantitative findings may shed light on the enhanced battery performances of various graphene/transition-metal chalcogenide composites in energy storage devices.

  7. Insights into a dust event transported through Beijing in spring 2012: Morphology, chemical composition and impact on surface aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Niu, Hongya [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, Hebei 056038 (China); Zhang, Daizhou [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Wu, Zhijun [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen, Chen [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing 100044 (China); Wu, Yusheng; Shang, Dongjie [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hu, Min, E-mail: minhu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Multiple approaches were used to investigate the evolution of surface aerosols in Beijing during the passage of a dust event at high altitude, which was from the Gobi areas of southern Mongolia and covered a wide range of North China. Single particle analysis with electron microscope showed that the majority of coarse particles were mineral ones, and most of them were in the size range of 1–7 μm with a peak of number concentration at about 3.5 μm. Based on elemental composition and morphology, the mineral particles could be classified into several groups, including Si-rich (71%), Ca-rich (15%), Fe-rich (6%), and halite-rich (2%), etc., and they were the main contributors to the aerosol optical depth as the dust occurred. The size distributions of surface aerosols were significantly affected by the dust intrusion. The average number concentration of accumulation mode particles during the event was about 400 cm{sup −3}, which was much lower than that in heavily polluted days (6300 cm{sup −3}). At the stage of floating dust, the number concentration of accumulation mode particles decreased, and coarse particles contributed to total volume concentration of particulate matter as much as 90%. The accumulation mode particles collected in this stage were mostly in the size range of 0.2–0.5 μm, and were rectangular or spherical. They were considered to be particles consisting of ammonium sulfate. New particle formation (NPF) was observed around noon in the three days during the dust event, indicating that the passage of the dust was probably favorable for NPF. - Highlights: • A dust event transported at high altitude through Beijing was investigated. • The dust event caused high variation in surface aerosol number concentrations. • Fine particles in the floating dust period probably consisted of ammonium sulfate. • Passage of the dust induced a favorable condition for new particle formation.

  8. Physical and Transport Property Variations Within Carbonate-Bearing Fault Zones: Insights From the Monte Maggio Fault (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, F.; Carpenter, B. M.; Mollo, S.; Scuderi, M. M.; Scarlato, P.; Collettini, C.

    2017-11-01

    The physical characterization of carbonate-bearing normal faults is fundamental for resource development and seismic hazard. Here we report laboratory measurements of density, porosity, Vp, Vs, elastic moduli, and permeability for a range of effective confining pressures (0.1-100 MPa), conducted on samples representing different structural domains of a carbonate-bearing fault. We find a reduction in porosity from the fault breccia (11.7% total and 6.2% connected) to the main fault plane (9% total and 3.5% connected), with both domains showing higher porosity compared to the protolith (6.8% total and 1.1% connected). With increasing confining pressure, P wave velocity evolves from 4.5 to 5.9 km/s in the fault breccia, is constant at 5.9 km/s approaching the fault plane and is low (4.9 km/s) in clay-rich fault domains. We find that while the fault breccia shows pressure sensitive behavior (a reduction in permeability from 2 × 10-16 to 2 × 10-17 m2), the cemented cataclasite close to the fault plane is characterized by pressure-independent behavior (permeability 4 × 10-17 m2). Our results indicate that the deformation processes occurring within the different fault structural domains influence the physical and transport properties of the fault zone. In situ Vp profiles match well the laboratory measurements demonstrating that laboratory data are valuable for implications at larger scale. Combining the experimental values of elastic moduli and frictional properties it results that at shallow crustal levels, M ≤ 1 earthquakes are less favored, in agreement with earthquake-depth distribution during the L'Aquila 2009 seismic sequence that occurred on carbonates.

  9. Characterization of rainwater chemical composition after a Southeast Asia haze event: insight of transboundary pollutant transport during the northeast monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Lin, Chin Yik; Khan, Md Firoz; Latif, Mohd Talib; Dominick, Doreena; Hamid, Haris Hafizal Abdul; Mohamad, Noorlin; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul; Wahab, Muhammad Ikram Abdul; Kamaludin, Nurul Farahana; Lazim, Mohamad Azwani Shah Mat

    2017-06-01

    Open biomass burning in Peninsula Malaysia, Sumatra, and parts of the Indochinese region is a major source of transboundary haze pollution in the Southeast Asia. To study the influence of haze on rainwater chemistry, a short-term investigation was carried out during the occurrence of a severe haze episode from March to April 2014. Rainwater samples were collected after a prolonged drought and analyzed for heavy metals and major ion concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. The chemical composition and morphology of the solid particulates suspended in rainwater were examined using a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The dataset was further interpreted using enrichment factors (EF), statistical analysis, and a back trajectory (BT) model to find the possible sources of the particulates and pollutants. The results show a drop in rainwater pH from near neutral (pH 6.54) to acidic (transported from the mainland of Indo-China and the marine region in the South China Sea were responsible for the high pollution event in the study area. These findings can be useful in identifying contributions of pollutants from single or multiple sources in rainwater samples during haze episodes.

  10. Reactive transport of uranium in a groundwater bioreduction study: Insights from high-temporal resolution 238U/235U data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, A. E.; Johnson, T. M.; Lundstrom, C. C.; Laubach, P. G.; Long, P. E.; Williams, K. H.

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a detailed investigation of U isotopes in conjunction with a broad geochemical investigation during field-scale biostimulation and desorption experiments. This investigation was carried out in the uranium-contaminated alluvial aquifer of the Rifle field research site. In this well-characterized setting, a more comprehensive understanding of U isotope geochemistry is possible. Our results indicate that U isotope fractionation is consistently observed across multiple experiments at the Rifle site. Microbially-mediated reduction is suggested to account for most or all of the observed fractionation as abiotic reduction has been demonstrated to impart much smaller, often near-zero, isotopic fractionation or isotopic fractionation in the opposite direction. Data from some time intervals are consistent with a simple model for transport and U(VI) reduction, where the fractionation factor (ε = +0.65‰ to +0.85‰) is consistent with experimental studies. However, during other time intervals the observed patterns in our data indicate the importance of other processes in governing U concentrations and 238U/235U ratios. For instance, we demonstrate that departures from Rayleigh behavior in groundwater systems arise from the presence of adsorbed species. We also show that isotope data are sensitive to the onset of oxidation after biostimulation ends, even in the case where reduction continues to remove contaminant uranium downstream. Our study and the described conceptual model support the use of 238U/235U ratios as a tool for evaluating the efficacy of biostimulation and potentially other remedial strategies employed at Rifle and other uranium-contaminated sites.

  11. Insights into a dust event transported through Beijing in spring 2012: Morphology, chemical composition and impact on surface aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wei; Niu, Hongya; Zhang, Daizhou; Wu, Zhijun; Chen, Chen; Wu, Yusheng; Shang, Dongjie; Hu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Multiple approaches were used to investigate the evolution of surface aerosols in Beijing during the passage of a dust event at high altitude, which was from the Gobi areas of southern Mongolia and covered a wide range of North China. Single particle analysis with electron microscope showed that the majority of coarse particles were mineral ones, and most of them were in the size range of 1–7 μm with a peak of number concentration at about 3.5 μm. Based on elemental composition and morphology, the mineral particles could be classified into several groups, including Si-rich (71%), Ca-rich (15%), Fe-rich (6%), and halite-rich (2%), etc., and they were the main contributors to the aerosol optical depth as the dust occurred. The size distributions of surface aerosols were significantly affected by the dust intrusion. The average number concentration of accumulation mode particles during the event was about 400 cm"−"3, which was much lower than that in heavily polluted days (6300 cm"−"3). At the stage of floating dust, the number concentration of accumulation mode particles decreased, and coarse particles contributed to total volume concentration of particulate matter as much as 90%. The accumulation mode particles collected in this stage were mostly in the size range of 0.2–0.5 μm, and were rectangular or spherical. They were considered to be particles consisting of ammonium sulfate. New particle formation (NPF) was observed around noon in the three days during the dust event, indicating that the passage of the dust was probably favorable for NPF. - Highlights: • A dust event transported at high altitude through Beijing was investigated. • The dust event caused high variation in surface aerosol number concentrations. • Fine particles in the floating dust period probably consisted of ammonium sulfate. • Passage of the dust induced a favorable condition for new particle formation.

  12. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  13. Sensitivity of Deep Soil Organic Carbon Age to Sorption, Transport and Microbial Interactions - Insights from a Calibrated Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, B.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.

    2013-12-01

    Subsoil soil organic carbon (SOC) is characterized by conventional radiocarbon ages on the order of centuries to millennia. Most vertically explicit SOC turnover models represent this persistence of deep SOC by one pool that has millennial turnover times. This approach lumps different stabilizing mechanisms such as chemical recalcitrance, sorptive stabilization and energy limitation into a single rate constant. As an alternative, we present a continuous, vertically explicit SOC decomposition model that allows for stabilization via sorption and microbial interactions (COMISSION model). We compare the COMISSION model with the SOC profile of a Haplic Podzol under a Norway spruce forest. In the COMISSION model two pools receive aboveground litter input and vertically distributed root litter input. The readily leachable and soluble fraction of litter input enters a dissolved organic carbon pool (DOC), while the rest enters the residue pool which represents polymeric, non-soluble SOC. The residue pool is depolymerized with extracellular enzymes produced by a microbial pool to enter the DOC pool which represents SOC potentially available for assimilation by microbes. The adsorption/desorption of DOC from/to mineral surfaces controls the availability of carbon in the DOC pool for assimilatory uptake by microbes. The sorption of DOC is modeled with dynamic Langmuir equations. The desorbed part of the DOC pool not only constitutes the substrate for the microbial pool, but is also transported via advection. Interactions of microbes with the residue and DOC pool are modeled with Michaelis-Menten kinetics - this not only allows representing ';priming', but also the retardation of decomposition via energy limitation in the deep soil where substrate is scarce. Further, soil organic matter is recycled within the soil profile through microbial processing - dead microbes either enter the DOC or the residue pool, and thereby also contribute to longer residence times with soil depth

  14. New insights into the interplay between the lysine transporter LysP and the pH sensor CadC in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschmeier, Martina; Schüppel, Valentina; Tetsch, Larissa; Jung, Kirsten

    2014-01-09

    The coordination of signal transduction and substrate transport represents a sophisticated way to integrate information on metabolite fluxes into transcriptional regulation. This widely distributed process involves protein-protein interactions between two integral membrane proteins. Here we report new insights into the molecular mechanism of the regulatory interplay between the lysine-specific permease LysP and the membrane-integrated pH sensor CadC, which together induce lysine-dependent adaptation of E. coli under acidic stress. In vivo analyses revealed that, in the absence of either stimulus, the two proteins form a stable association, which is modulated by lysine and low pH. In addition to its transmembrane helix, the periplasmic domain of CadC also participated in the interaction. Site-directed mutagenesis pinpointed Arg265 and Arg268 in CadC as well as Asp275 and Asp278 in LysP as potential periplasmic interaction sites. Moreover, a systematic analysis of 100 LysP variants with single-site replacements indicated that the lysine signal is transduced from co-sensor to sensor via lysine-dependent conformational changes (upon substrate binding and/or transport) of LysP. Our results suggest a scenario in which CadC is inhibited by LysP via intramembrane and periplasmic contacts under non-inducing conditions. Upon induction, lysine-dependent conformational changes in LysP transduce the lysine signal via a direct conformational coupling to CadC without resolving the interaction completely. Moreover, concomitant pH-dependent protonation of periplasmic amino acids in both proteins dissolves their electrostatic connections resulting in further destabilization of the CadC/LysP interaction. © 2013.

  15. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  16. New insights on the synthesis and electronic transport in bulk polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO3−δ

    KAUST Repository

    Dehkordi, Arash Mehdizadeh; Bhattacharya, Sriparna; Darroudi, Taghi; Alshareef, Husam N.; Tritt, Terry M.

    2015-01-01

    versus Pr6O11) on the synthesis and electronic transport in Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics. It was observed that the high-temperature electronic transport properties are independent of the choice of praseodymium doping source for samples prepared following our

  17. New Insight on Tuning Electrical Transport Properties via Chalcogen Doping in n-type Mg3Sb2-Based Thermoelectric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Song, Lirong; Borup, Kasper

    2018-01-01

    n-type Mg3Sb1.5Bi0.5 has recently been discovered to be a promising thermoelectric material, yet the effective n-type dopants are mainly limited to the chalcogens. This may be attributed to the limited chemical insight into the effects from different n-type dopants. By comparing the effects of di...

  18. Insights into the molecular mechanism of action of Celastraceae sesquiterpenes as specific, non-transported inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Reyes, Carolina P; Pérez-Lomas, Antonio L; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Gamarro, Francisco; Castanys, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes from Celastraceae have been recently shown to bind to human P-glycoprotein (Pgp), functioning as specific, mixed-type inhibitors of its drug transport activity, as well as multidrug resistance (MDR) modulators in vitro. However, nothing is known about whether such compounds are themselves transported by Pgp, or whether they affect Pgp expression as well as its activity, or about the location of their binding site within the protein. We performed transport experiments with a newly synthesized fluorescent sesquiterpene derivative, which retains the anti-Pgp activity of its natural precursor. This probe was poorly transported by Pgp, MRP1, MRP2 and BCRP transporters, compared with classical MDR substrates. Moreover, Pgp did not confer cross-resistance to the most potent dihydro-beta-agarofurans, which did not affect Pgp expression levels in several MDR cell lines. Finally, we observed competitive and non-competitive interactions between one of such dihydro-beta-agarofurans (Mama12) and classical Pgp modulators such as cyclosporin A, verapamil, progesterone, vinblastine and GF120918. These findings suggest that multidrug ABC transporters do not confer resistance to dihydro-beta-agarofurans and could not affect their absorption and biodistribution in the body. Moreover, we mapped their binding site(s) within Pgp, which may prove useful for the rational design of improved modulators based on the structure of dihydro-beta-agarofurans.

  19. Modelling freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Jong, G. de

    2014-01-01

    Freight Transport Modelling is a unique new reference book that provides insight into the state-of-the-art of freight modelling. Focusing on models used to support public transport policy analysis, Freight Transport Modelling systematically introduces the latest freight transport modelling

  20. Insights into the subsurface transport of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water from hydraulic fracturing using soil samples from Qingshankou Formation, Songliao Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Season S; Sun, Yuqing; Tsang, Daniel C W; Graham, Nigel J D; Ok, Yong Sik; Feng, Yujie; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-04-01

    Produced water is a type of wastewater generated from hydraulic fracturing, which may pose a risk to the environment and humans due to its high ionic strength and the presence of elevated concentrations of metals/metalloids that exceed maximum contamination levels. The mobilization of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water and selected soils from Qingshankou Formation in the Songliao Basin in China were investigated using column experiments and synthetic produced water whose quality was representative of waters arising at different times after well creation. Temporal effects of produced water on metal/metalloid transport and sorption/desorption were investigated by using HYDRUS-1D transport modelling. Rapid breakthrough and long tailings of As(V) and Se(VI) transport were observed in Day 1 and Day 14 solutions, but were reduced in Day 90 solution probably due to the elevated ionic strength. The influence of produced water on the hydrogeological conditions (i.e., change between equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport) was evidenced by the change of tracer breakthrough curves before and after the leaching of produced water. This possibly resulted from the sorption of polyacrylamide (PAM (-CH 2 CHCONH 2 -) n ) onto soil surfaces, through its use as a friction reducer in fracturing solutions. The sorption was found to be reversible in this study. Minimal amounts of sorbed As(V) were desorbed whereas the majority of sorbed Se(VI) was readily leached out, to an extent which varied with the composition of the produced water. These results showed that the mobilization of As(V) and Se(VI) in soil largely depended on the solution pH and ionic strength. Understanding the differences in metal/metalloid transport in produced water is important for proper risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using pore-scale imaging and modeling to provide new insights in multi-phase flow, transport and reaction phenomena in porous media (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijeljic, B.; Andrew, M. G.; Menke, H. P.; Blunt, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in X ray imaging techniques made it possible not only to accurately describe solid and fluid(s) distributions in the pore space but also to study dynamics of multi-phase flow and reactive transport in-situ. This has opened up a range of new opportunities to better understand fundamental physics at the pore scale by experiment, and test and validate theoretical models in order to develop predictive tools at the pore scale and use it for upscaling. Firstly, we illustrate this concept by describing a new methodology for predicting non-Fickian transport in millimeter-sized three-dimensional micro-CT images of a beadpack, a sandstone, and a carbonate, representing porous media with an increasing degree of pore-scale complexity. The key strategy is to retain the full information on flow and transport signature of a porous medium by using probability distribution functions (PDFs) of voxel velocities for flow, and both PDFs of particle displacements and PDFs of particle transit times between voxels for transport. For this purpose, direct-simulation flow and transport model is used to analyse the relationship between pore structure, velocity, and the dynamics of the evolving plume. The model predictions for PDFs of particle displacements obtained by the model are in excellent agreement with those measured on similar cores in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. A key determinant for non-Fickian transport is the spread in velocity distribution in the pore space. Further, we present micro-CT imaging of capillary trapping of scCO2 at reservoir conditions in a range of carbonates and sandstones having different pore structure and demonstrate that substantial quantities of scCO2 can be trapped in the pore space. Higher residual scCO2 saturations are found in sandstones compared to carbonates. The trapped ganglia exhibit different distribution of size, related to the inherent structure of pore space. Pore structures with large, open pores that are well connected lead

  2. Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa. It is accredited by the South African National Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science (IBSS). It is a multi-disciplinary journal primarily focusing on African ...

  3. Chemical characterization of long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Xu, Jianzhong; Kang, Shichang; Liu, Yanmei; Zhang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    An intensive field measurement was conducted at a remote, background, high-altitude site (Qomolangma Station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from 12 April to 12 May 2016 to chemically characterize the high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1) and obtain the dynamic processes (emissions, transport, and chemical evolution) of biomass burning (BB), frequently transported from South Asia to the Himalayas during pre-monsoon season. Overall, the average (±1σ) PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (±4.54) µg m-3 for the entire study, which is comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosol (OA) was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3 % of total PM1 on average) followed by black carbon (BC) (25.0 %), sulfate (9.3 %), ammonium (5.8 %), nitrate (5.1 %), and chloride (0.4 %). The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode (˜ 500 nm), suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transport. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a BB-related OA (BBOA, 43.7 %), a nitrogen-containing OA (NOA, 13.9 %) and a more-oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA, 42.4 %). Two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions from the west and southwest of QOMS during the study were observed. A typical BB plume was investigated in detail to illustrate the chemical evolution of aerosol characteristics under distinct air mass origins, meteorological conditions, and atmospheric oxidation processes.

  4. Insight into the local source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the developing Tibetan Plateau: The composition and transport around the Lhasa landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yuan, Guo-Li; Li, Ping; Duan, Xu-Chuan; Yu, Hong-Hui; Qiu, Jun-Lang; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2018-06-01

    In the background region of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the rapid urbanization probably results in the massive generation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which lacks monitoring and evaluation. Since landfill could serve as an important sink of the locally used POPs, the analysis of POPs in the Tibetan landfill area might help us to understand the source composition and their transport in the TP. In this study, the concentration variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in five soil profiles and seven surficial sediments around the largest Tibetan landfill were investigated. The total concentrations of PBDEs ranged from 128 to 1219 ng/kg in soils, and from 447 to 7295 ng/kg in sediments. The dominance of nona- and deca-BDEs possibly indicated the wide usage of deca-BDE as flame retardant in the TP. The vertical and spatial distribution patterns of PBDEs within soils plausibly revealed their main transport pathways by atmospheric dispersion and leachate seepage from landfill. Based on principal components analysis and multiple linear regression, these two pathways were estimated to account for 61% and 39% of the total concentrations, respectively. Additionally, the spatial and vertical distributions of octa-to deca-BDEs within soils were significantly influenced by soil particle size. Although the PBDEs inventory in the study area was comparatively low, the rapid urbanization in the TP might dramatically accelerate the PBDE emissions in the future. This study firstly introduced the presence of local PBDEs in the TP, and the inventory already influenced the surrounding environment. Once involved in the regional cycle of the TP, the local source of PBDEs from waste might significantly serve to raise background level resulting otherwise primarily from long-range atmospheric transport. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of CO in the tropical troposphere using Aura satellite data and the GEOS-Chem model: insights into transport characteristics of the GEOS meteorological products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We use the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model (CTM to interpret the spatial and temporal variations of tropical tropospheric CO observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES. In so doing, we diagnose and evaluate transport in the GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 assimilated meteorological fields that drive the model, with a particular focus on vertical mixing at the end of the dry season when convection moves over the source regions. The results indicate that over South America, deep convection in both GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 decays at too low an altitude early in the wet season, and the source of CO from isoprene in the model (MEGAN v2.1 is too large, causing a lag in the model's seasonal maximum of CO compared to MLS CO in the upper troposphere (UT. TES and MLS data reveal problems with excessive transport of CO to the eastern equatorial Pacific and lofting in the ITCZ in August and September, particularly in GEOS-4. Over southern Africa, GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 simulations match the phase of the observed CO variation from the lower troposphere (LT to the UT fairly well, although the magnitude of the seasonal maximum is underestimated considerably due to low emissions in the model. A sensitivity run with increased emissions leads to improved agreement with observed CO in the LT and middle troposphere (MT, but the amplitude of the seasonal variation is too high in the UT in GEOS-4. Difficulty in matching CO in the LT and UT implies there may be overly vigorous vertical mixing in GEOS-4 early in the wet season. Both simulations and observations show a time lag between the peak in fire emissions (July and August and in CO (September and October. We argue that it is caused by the prevailing subsidence in the LT until convection moves south in September, as well as the low sensitivity of TES data in the LT over the African Plateau. The MLS data suggest that too much CO has been transported from fires in northern Africa to the UT

  6. Insight on specificity of uracil permeases of the NAT/NCS2 family from analysis of the transporter encoded in the pyrimidine utilization operon of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botou, Maria; Lazou, Panayiota; Papakostas, Konstantinos; Lambrinidis, George; Evangelidis, Thomas; Mikros, Emmanuel; Frillingos, Stathis

    2018-04-01

    The uracil permease UraA of Escherichia coli is a structurally known prototype for the ubiquitous Nucleobase-Ascorbate Transporter (NAT) or Nucleobase-Cation Symporter-2 (NCS2) family and represents a well-defined subgroup of bacterial homologs that remain functionally unstudied. Here, we analyze four of these homologs, including RutG of E. coli which shares 35% identity with UraA and is encoded in the catabolic rut (pyrimidine utilization) operon. Using amplified expression in E. coli K-12, we show that RutG is a high-affinity permease for uracil, thymine and, at low efficiency, xanthine and recognizes also 5-fluorouracil and oxypurinol. In contrast, UraA and the homologs from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Aeromonas veronii are permeases specific for uracil and 5-fluorouracil. Molecular docking indicates that thymine is hindered from binding to UraA by a highly conserved Phe residue which is absent in RutG. Site-directed replacement of this Phe with Ala in the three uracil-specific homologs allows high-affinity recognition and/or transport of thymine, emulating the RutG profile. Furthermore, all RutG orthologs from enterobacteria retain an Ala at this position, implying that they can use both uracil and thymine and, possibly, xanthine as substrates and provide the bacterial cell with a range of catabolizable nucleobases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Gas transport below artificial recharge ponds: insights from dissolved noble gases and a dual gas (SF6 and 3He) tracer experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jordan F; Hudson, G Bryant; Avisar, Dror

    2005-06-01

    A dual gas tracer experiment using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and an isotope of helium (3He) and measurements of dissolved noble gases was performed at the El Rio spreading grounds to examine gas transport and trapped air below an artificial recharge pond with a very high recharge rate (approximately 4 m day(-1)). Noble gas concentrations in the groundwater were greater than in surface water due to excess air formation showing that trapped air exists below the pond. Breakthrough curves of SF6 and 3He at two nearby production wells were very similar and suggest that nonequilibrium gas transfer was occurring between the percolating water and the trapped air. At one well screened between 50 and 90 m below ground, both tracers were detected after 5 days and reached a maximum at approximately 24 days. Despite the potential dilution caused by mixing within the production well, the maximum concentration was approximately 25% of the mean pond concentration. More than 50% of the SF6 recharged was recovered by the production wells during the 18 month long experiment. Our results demonstrate that at artificial recharge sites with high infiltration rates and moderately deep water tables, transport times between recharge locations and wells determined with gas tracer experiments are reliable.

  8. 3.3 Å structure of Niemann–Pick C1 protein reveals insights into the function of the C-terminal luminal domain in cholesterol transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaochun; Lu, Feiran; Trinh, Michael N.; Schmiege, Philip; Seemann, Joachim; Wang, Jiawei; Blobel, Günter

    2017-08-07

    Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) and NPC2 proteins are indispensable for the export of LDL-derived cholesterol from late endosomes. Mutations in these proteins result in Niemann–Pick type C disease, a lysosomal storage disease. Despite recent reports of the NPC1 structure depicting its overall architecture, the function of its C-terminal luminal domain (CTD) remains poorly understood even though 45% of NPC disease-causing mutations are in this domain. Here, we report a crystal structure at 3.3 Å resolution of NPC1* (residues 314–1,278), which—in contrast to previous lower resolution structures—features the entire CTD well resolved. Notably, all eight cysteines of the CTD form four disulfide bonds, one of which (C909–C914) enforces a specific loop that in turn mediates an interaction with a loop of the N-terminal domain (NTD). Importantly, this loop and its interaction with the NTD were not observed in any previous structures due to the lower resolution. Our mutagenesis experiments highlight the physiological relevance of the CTD–NTD interaction, which might function to keep the NTD in the proper orientation for receiving cholesterol from NPC2. Additionally, this structure allows us to more precisely map all of the disease-causing mutations, allowing future molecular insights into the pathogenesis of NPC disease.

  9. Chemical characterization of long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An intensive field measurement was conducted at a remote, background, high-altitude site (Qomolangma Station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l. in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from 12 April to 12 May 2016 to chemically characterize the high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1 and obtain the dynamic processes (emissions, transport, and chemical evolution of biomass burning (BB, frequently transported from South Asia to the Himalayas during pre-monsoon season. Overall, the average (±1σ PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (±4.54 µg m−3 for the entire study, which is comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosol (OA was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3 % of total PM1 on average followed by black carbon (BC (25.0 %, sulfate (9.3 %, ammonium (5.8 %, nitrate (5.1 %, and chloride (0.4 %. The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode (∼ 500 nm, suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transport. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a BB-related OA (BBOA, 43.7 %, a nitrogen-containing OA (NOA, 13.9 % and a more-oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA, 42.4 %. Two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions from the west and southwest of QOMS during the study were observed. A typical BB plume was investigated in detail to illustrate the chemical evolution of aerosol characteristics under distinct air mass origins, meteorological conditions, and atmospheric oxidation processes.

  10. The coupling of runoff and dissolved organic matter transport: Insights from in situ fluorescence measurements in small streams and large rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Downing, B. D.; Saraceno, J.; Shanley, J. B.; Aiken, G.; Murdoch, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics in streams and rivers can help characterize mercury transport, assess causes of drinking water issues, and lead to improved understanding of watershed source areas and carbon loads to downstream ecosystems. However, traditional sampling approaches that collect discrete concentration data at weekly to monthly intervals often fail to adequately capture hydrological pulses ranging from early snowmelt periods to short-duration rainfall events. Continuous measurements of chromophoric dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM) in rivers and streams now provide an opportunity to more accurately quantify DOM loads and processes in aquatic ecosystems at a range of scales. In this study, we used continuous FDOM data from in situ sensors along with discharge data to assess the coupling of FDOM transport and runoff in small streams and large rivers. Results from headwater catchments in New England and California show that FDOM is tightly coupled with runoff, supporting strong linkages between watershed flow paths and DOM concentrations in streams. Results also show that the magnitude of FDOM response relative to runoff varies seasonally, with highest concentrations during autumn rainfall events (after leaf fall) and lower concentrations during peak snowmelt for equivalent runoff. In large river basins, FDOM dynamics are also coupled with runoff and exhibit the same seasonal variability in the magnitude of FDOM response relative to discharge. However, the peaks in FDOM typically lag runoff by several days, reflecting the influence of a variety of factors such as water residence times, reservoir releases, and connectivity to organic matter-rich riparian floodplains and wetlands. Our results show that in situ FDOM data will be important for understanding the coupling of runoff and DOM across multiple scales and could serve a critical role in monitoring, assessment and decision-making in both small and large watersheds.

  11. Did the onset of high amplitude glacio-eustatic cycles trigger mass-transport processes on the Northwest Shelf of Australia? Insights from IODP expedition 356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, S. J.; McCaffrey, J.; Wallace, M. W.; Keep, M.; Fulthorpe, C.; Bogus, K.; McHugh, C.

    2017-12-01

    Mass-transport processes on continental margins may have catastrophic consequences, causing tsunamis, major rock falls and avalanches and can destroy offshore hydrocarbon installations. Mass-transport deposits (MTD's) with volumes 17 to >162 km3 are common along the northwest margin of Australia. One of the largest is the Gorgon slide which is offshore from Barrow Island with a minimum volume of 250 km3. Age estimates for slides on the Northwest Shelf are variable and range from Miocene to Recent (Gorgon MTD), late Pliocene to Recent (Thebe/Bonaventure MTD's) and Pleistocene to Recent. This age uncertainty is related to a lack of cored sections through these slides and relies on pre-existing ages and correlations from poorly dated sections (usually industry well sections with minimal samples in the upper 500 m) distal from the MTD's. Therefore, the age, origin and history of these MTD's is not well known. A recent International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition (IODP Expedition 356) to the region obtained a series of continuous cores from the upper 600m to 1.1 km of the Northern Carnarvon and Roebuck Basins. Four sites were cored adjacent to hydrocarbon wells; West Tryal Rocks-2 (Site U1461), Fisher-1 (Site U1462), Picard-1 (Site U1463) and Minilya-1 (Site U1464). Site U1461 yielded 100% core recovery through the Gorgon Slide. Preliminary data from this section suggests that it is relatively young (activity from 0.5 Ma continuing to today. We suggest neotectonism combined with the onset of high amplitude glacio-eustatic cycles may have been triggering factors for this slide.

  12. Physically-based impedance modeling of the negative electrode in All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries: insight into mass transport issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, M.; Casalegno, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Performance losses induced by migration though the porous electrode are negligible. •Convection at carbon fiber results in a linear branch at low frequency in Nyquist plot. •When the reaction is concentrated, diffusion losses though the electrode diminishes. •Diffusion process in the pores becomes more limiting at high current. •Charge transfer resistance decreases with increasing current. -- Abstract: Mass transport of the electrolyte over the porous electrode is one of the most critical issues hindering Vanadium Redox Flow Battery commercialization, leading to increased overpotential at high current and limiting system power density. In this work, a 1D physically based impedance model of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery negative electrode is developed, taking into account electrochemical reactions, convection at carbon fiber, diffusion in the pores and migration and diffusion through electrode thickness. The model is validated with respect to experimental data measured in a symmetric cell hardware, which allows to keep the State of Charge constant during the measurement. The physically based approach permits to elucidate the origin of different impedance features and quantify the corresponding losses. Charge transfer resistance decreases with increasing current and is generally lower compared to the ones related to mass transport phenomena. Migration losses through the porous electrode are negligible, while convection at carbon fiber is relevant and in Nyquist plot results in a linear branch at low frequency. In presence of significant convection losses the reaction tends to concentrate close to the channel: this leads to a reduction of diffusion losses through the electrode, while diffusion process in the pores becomes more limiting.

  13. Boulder Dislodgment Reloaded: New insights from boulder transport and dislodgement by tsunamis and storms from three-dimensional numerical simulations with GPUSPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R.; Zainali, A.

    2014-12-01

    Boulders can be found on many coastlines around the globe. They are generally thought to be moved either during coastal storms or tsunamis because they are too heavy to be moved by more common marine or coastal processes. To understand storm and tsunami risk at given coastline, the event histories of both events need to be separated to produce a robust event statistics for quantitative risk analyses. Because boulders are most likely only moved by coastal storms or tsunamis, they are very suitable to produce the data basis for such event statistics. Boulder transport problem has been approached by comparing the driving with resisting forces acting on a boulder. However, we argue that this approach is not sufficient because the comparison of resisting and driving forces only constitutes boulder motion, but not for boulder dislodgment. Boulder motion means that the boulder starts to move out of its pocket. However, this motion does not guarantee that the boulder will reach the critical dislodgment position. Boulder dislodgment is a necessary condition to identify whether or not a boulder has moved. For boulder dislodgement, an equation of motion is needed, and that equation is Newtons Second Law of Motion (NSL). We perform fully coupled three-dimensional numerical simulation of boulders moved by waves where the boulders move according to NSL. Our numerical simulations are the first of their kind applied to tsunami and storm boulder motion. They show how storm and tsunami waves interact with boulders in a more realistic physical setting, and highlight the importance of submergence. Based on our simulations we perform a dimensional analysis that identifies the Froude number as important parameter, which can be considered large only in the front of tsunami waves, but small in the rest of tsunami wave and also generally small in storm waves. From a general point of view, our results indicate that the boulder transport problem is more complex than recently considered, and

  14. Insights into contaminant transport from unconventional oil and gas developments from analog system analysis of methane-bearing thermal springs in the northern Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Grant; Grasby, Stephen E.

    2018-03-01

    Natural gas is currently being produced from shales of the Montney and Liard basins in western Canada. Production requires hydraulic fracturing due to the low permeability of the shales in the basins. Stratigraphically equivalent shales are present in the northern Canadian Rocky Mountains. Thermal springs with notable hydrocarbon concentrations occur where large-scale faults intersect the same shale units that are the focus of gas development, indicating that under certain circumstances, connection of deep fractured shales to the land surface is possible. To constrain these conditions, simulations were conducted for the spring with the highest hydrocarbon flux (Toad River Spring), results of which indicate that in order to supply sufficient water to a fault to support measurable advection, the effective permeability of the shales in these structurally deformed areas must be one to four orders of magnitude higher than in areas of active gas production to the east. The spatial scale of enhanced permeability is much greater than that which is achieved by hydraulic fracturing and the mechanism of maintaining high pressures at depth is more persistent in time. Examination of groundwater velocities suggests that upward migration of solutes from hydraulic fracturing may take decades to centuries. Results also indicate that any temperature anomaly will be associated with transport along a fault at such velocities. No such temperature anomaly has been documented in regions with unconventional oil and gas development to date. Such an anomaly would be diagnostic of a deep solute source.

  15. Hydro-mechanical evolution of the EDZ as transport path for radionuclides and gas: insights from the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Marschall, P.; Giger, S.; La Vassière De, R.

    2017-01-01

    The excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around the backfilled underground structures of a geological repository represents a release path for radionuclides, which needs to be addressed in the assessment of long-term safety. Additionally, the EDZ may form a highly efficient escape route for corrosion and degradation gases, thus limiting the gas overpressures in the backfilled repository structures. The efficiency of this release path depends not only on the shape and extent of the EDZ, but also on the self-sealing capacity of the host rock formation and the prevailing state conditions, such as in situ stresses and pore pressure. The hydro-mechanical and chemico-osmotic phenomena associated with the formation and temporal evolution of the EDZ are complex, thus precluding a detailed representation of the EDZ in conventional modelling tools for safety assessment. Therefore, simplified EDZ models, able to mimic the safety-relevant functional features of the EDZ in a traceable manner are required. In the framework of the Mont Terri Project, a versatile modelling approach has been developed for the simulation of flow and transport processes along the EDZ with the goal of capturing the evolution of hydraulic significance of the EDZ after closure of the backfilled underground structures. The approach draws on both empirical evidence and experimental data, collected in the niches and tunnels of the Mont Terri rock laboratory. The model was benchmarked with a data set from an in situ self-sealing experiment at the Mont Terri rock laboratory. This paper summarises the outcomes of the benchmark exercise that comprises relevant empirical evidence, experimental data bases and the conceptual framework for modelling the evolution of the hydraulic significance of the EDZ around a backfilled tunnel section during the entire re-saturation phase. (authors)

  16. Temperature dependent charge transport studies across thermodynamic glass transition in P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction: insight from J-V and impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atri; Rahaman, Abdulla Bin; Banerjee, Debamalya

    2018-03-01

    Temperature dependent charge transport properties of P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction are analysed by dc and ac measurements under dark conditions across a wide temperature range of 110-473 K, which includes the thermodynamic glass transition temperature (Tg ˜320 K) of the system. A change from Ohmic conduction to space charge limited current conduction at higher (⩾1.2 V) applied bias voltages above  ⩾200 K is observed from J-V characteristics. From capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement at room temperature, the occurrence of a peak near the built-in voltage is observed below the dielectric relaxation frequency, originating from the competition between drift and diffusion driven motions of charges. Carrier concentration (N) is calculated from C-V measurements taken at different temperatures. Room temperature mobility values at various applied bias voltages are in accordance with that obtained from transient charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage measurement. Sample impedance is measured over five decades of frequency across temperature range by using lock-in detection. This data is used to extract temperature dependence of carrier mobility (μ), and dc conductivity (σ_dc ) which is low frequency extrapolation of ac conductivity. An activation energy of  ˜126 meV for the carrier hopping process at the metal-semiconductor interface is estimated from temperature dependence of σ_dc . Above T g, μ levels off to a constant value, whereas σ_dc starts to decrease after a transition knee at T g that can be seen as a combined effect of changes in μ and N. All these observed changes across T g can be correlated to enhanced polymer motion above the glass transition.

  17. Hydro-mechanical evolution of the EDZ as transport path for radionuclides and gas: insights from the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Marschall, P.; Giger, S. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); La Vassière De, R. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Déchets Radioactifs ANDRA, Meuse Haute-Marne, Center RD 960, Bure (France); and others

    2017-04-15

    The excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around the backfilled underground structures of a geological repository represents a release path for radionuclides, which needs to be addressed in the assessment of long-term safety. Additionally, the EDZ may form a highly efficient escape route for corrosion and degradation gases, thus limiting the gas overpressures in the backfilled repository structures. The efficiency of this release path depends not only on the shape and extent of the EDZ, but also on the self-sealing capacity of the host rock formation and the prevailing state conditions, such as in situ stresses and pore pressure. The hydro-mechanical and chemico-osmotic phenomena associated with the formation and temporal evolution of the EDZ are complex, thus precluding a detailed representation of the EDZ in conventional modelling tools for safety assessment. Therefore, simplified EDZ models, able to mimic the safety-relevant functional features of the EDZ in a traceable manner are required. In the framework of the Mont Terri Project, a versatile modelling approach has been developed for the simulation of flow and transport processes along the EDZ with the goal of capturing the evolution of hydraulic significance of the EDZ after closure of the backfilled underground structures. The approach draws on both empirical evidence and experimental data, collected in the niches and tunnels of the Mont Terri rock laboratory. The model was benchmarked with a data set from an in situ self-sealing experiment at the Mont Terri rock laboratory. This paper summarises the outcomes of the benchmark exercise that comprises relevant empirical evidence, experimental data bases and the conceptual framework for modelling the evolution of the hydraulic significance of the EDZ around a backfilled tunnel section during the entire re-saturation phase. (authors)

  18. Solute transport dynamics in small, shallow groundwater-dominated agricultural catchments: insights from a high-frequency, multisolute 10 yr-long monitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Aubert

    2013-04-01

    stocking period and the dominant process that limits transport to the stream, i.e. the connectivity of the stocking compartment. This mechanistic classification can be applied to any chemical solute to help assess its origin, storage or production location and transfer mechanism in similar catchments.

  19. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  20. Proofs that Develop Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Many mathematics educators have noted that mathematicians do not only read proofs to gain conviction but also to obtain insight. The goal of this article is to discuss what this insight is from mathematicians' perspective. Based on interviews with nine research-active mathematicians, two sources of insight are discussed. The first is reading a…

  1. Transport, logistics and the region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, de P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Cargo transport and logistics have a huge impact on sustainable (regional) economic development. Two broad (policy) challenges are center stage: enhancing co-location of logistics activities and improving efficiency in intermodal transport chains. Academic research can provide relevant insights for

  2. Inactivation of the glutamine/amino acid transporter ASCT2 by 1,2,3-dithiazoles: proteoliposomes as a tool to gain insights in the molecular mechanism of action and of antitumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppedisano, Francesca; Catto, Marco; Koutentis, Panayiotis A.; Nicolotti, Orazio; Pochini, Lorena; Koyioni, Maria; Introcaso, Antonellina; Michaelidou, Sophia S.; Carotti, Angelo; Indiveri, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    The ASCT2 transport system catalyses a sodium-dependent antiport of glutamine and other neutral amino acids which is involved in amino acid metabolism. A library of 1,2,3-dithiazoles was designed, synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the glutamine/amino acid ASCT2 transporter in the model system of proteoliposomes reconstituted with the rat liver transporter. Fifteen of the tested compounds at concentration of 20 μM or below, inhibited more than 50% the glutamine/glutamine antiport catalysed by the reconstituted transporter. These good inhibitors bear a phenyl ring with electron withdrawing substituents. The inhibition was reversed by 1,4-dithioerythritol indicating that the effect was likely owed to the formation of mixed sulfides with the protein's Cys residue(s). A dose–response analysis of the most active compounds gave IC 50 values in the range of 3–30 μM. Kinetic inhibition studies indicated a non-competitive inhibition, presumably because of a potential covalent interaction of the dithiazoles with cysteine thiol groups that are not located at the substrate binding site. Indeed, computational studies using a homology structural model of ASCT2 transporter, suggested as possible binding targets, Cys-207 or Cys-210, that belong to the CXXC motif of the protein. -- Highlights: ► Non‐competitive inhibition of ASCT2 by 1,2,3-dithiazoles was studied in proteoliposomes. ► Different 1,2,3-dithiazoles were synthesized and evaluated as transporter inhibitors. ► Many compounds potently inhibited the glutamine/glutamine antiport catalyzed by ASCT2. ► The inhibition was reversed by DTE indicating reaction with protein Cys. ► The most active compounds gave IC 50 in the range of 3–30 μM.

  3. Inactivation of the glutamine/amino acid transporter ASCT2 by 1,2,3-dithiazoles: proteoliposomes as a tool to gain insights in the molecular mechanism of action and of antitumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppedisano, Francesca [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare Università della Calabria, via P. Bucci 4 c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); Catto, Marco [Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro,”, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Koutentis, Panayiotis A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Nicolotti, Orazio [Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro,”, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Pochini, Lorena [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare Università della Calabria, via P. Bucci 4 c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); Koyioni, Maria [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Introcaso, Antonellina [Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro,”, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Michaelidou, Sophia S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Carotti, Angelo, E-mail: carotti@farmchim.uniba.it [Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università degli Studi “Aldo Moro,”, via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Indiveri, Cesare, E-mail: indiveri@unical.it [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare Università della Calabria, via P. Bucci 4 c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    The ASCT2 transport system catalyses a sodium-dependent antiport of glutamine and other neutral amino acids which is involved in amino acid metabolism. A library of 1,2,3-dithiazoles was designed, synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the glutamine/amino acid ASCT2 transporter in the model system of proteoliposomes reconstituted with the rat liver transporter. Fifteen of the tested compounds at concentration of 20 μM or below, inhibited more than 50% the glutamine/glutamine antiport catalysed by the reconstituted transporter. These good inhibitors bear a phenyl ring with electron withdrawing substituents. The inhibition was reversed by 1,4-dithioerythritol indicating that the effect was likely owed to the formation of mixed sulfides with the protein's Cys residue(s). A dose–response analysis of the most active compounds gave IC{sub 50} values in the range of 3–30 μM. Kinetic inhibition studies indicated a non-competitive inhibition, presumably because of a potential covalent interaction of the dithiazoles with cysteine thiol groups that are not located at the substrate binding site. Indeed, computational studies using a homology structural model of ASCT2 transporter, suggested as possible binding targets, Cys-207 or Cys-210, that belong to the CXXC motif of the protein. -- Highlights: ► Non‐competitive inhibition of ASCT2 by 1,2,3-dithiazoles was studied in proteoliposomes. ► Different 1,2,3-dithiazoles were synthesized and evaluated as transporter inhibitors. ► Many compounds potently inhibited the glutamine/glutamine antiport catalyzed by ASCT2. ► The inhibition was reversed by DTE indicating reaction with protein Cys. ► The most active compounds gave IC{sub 50} in the range of 3–30 μM.

  4. In Search of Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Craig A.; Simon, Herbert A.

    1990-01-01

    Attaining the insight needed to solve the Mutilated Checkerboard problem, which requires discovery of an effective problem representation (EPR), is described. Performance on insight problems can be predicted from the availability of generators and constraints in the search for an EPR. Data for 23 undergraduates were analyzed. (TJH)

  5. Long-term trends in U.S. gas transportation: 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010, June 1992. Gas Research Insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihn, M.L.; Woods, T.J.

    1992-06-01

    The paper summarizes the trends in lower-48 gas transportation in the 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1993 research and development program. The 1992 projection presents an optimistic outlook for the U.S. gas industry in which increased gas supply can be obtained at competitive prices

  6. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter VcaM from Vibrio cholerae is Dependent on the Outer Membrane Factor Family for Its Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jung Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae ATP-binding cassette transporter VcaM (V. cholerae ABC multidrug resistance pump has previously been shown to confer resistance to a variety of medically important drugs. In this study, we set to analyse its properties both in vitro in detergent-solubilised state and in vivo to differentiate its dependency on auxiliary proteins for its function. We report the first detailed kinetic parameters of purified VcaM and the rate of phosphate (Pi production. To determine the possible functional dependencies of VcaM on the tripartite efflux pumps we then utilized different E. coli strains lacking the principal secondary transporter AcrB (Acriflavine resistance protein, as well as cells lacking the outer membrane factor (OMF TolC (Tolerance to colicins. Consistent with the ATPase function of VcaM we found it to be susceptible to sodium orthovanadate (NaOV, however, we also found a clear dependency of VcaM function on TolC. Inhibitors targeting secondary active transporters had no effects on either VcaM-conferred resistance or Hoechst 33342 accumulation, suggesting that VcaM might be capable of engaging with the TolC-channel without periplasmic mediation by additional transporters. Our findings are indicative of VcaM being capable of a one-step substrate translocation from cytosol to extracellular space utilising the TolC-channel, making it the only multidrug ABC-transporter outside of the MacB-family with demonstrable TolC-dependency.

  7. Safety insights from forensics evaluations at Daiichi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rempe

    2017-01-01

    Information obtained from Daiichi is required to inform Decontamination and Decommissioning activities, improving the ability of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO to characterize potential hazards and to ensure the safety of workers involved with cleanup activities. This paper reports initial results from the US Forensics Effort to utilize examination information obtained by TEPCO to enhance the safety of existing and future nuclear power plant designs. In this paper, three examples are presented in which examination information, such as visual images, dose surveys, sample evaluations, and muon tomography examinations, along with data from plant instrumentation, are used to obtain significant safety insights in the areas of component performance, fission product release and transport, debris end-state location, and combustible gas generation and transport. In addition to reducing uncertainties related to severe accident modeling progression, these insights confirm actions, such as the importance of water addition and containment venting, that are emphasized in updated guidance for severe accident prevention, mitigation, and emergency planning.

  8. Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l-Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and Deduced Insights into Ligand-Binding of Human l-Type Amino Acid Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Ilgü

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The l-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is a prokaryotic member of the SLC7 family, which enables pathogenic enterobacteria to survive the extremely acidic gastric environment. Wild-type AdiC from Escherichia coli, as well as its previously reported point mutants N22A and S26A, were overexpressed homologously and purified to homogeneity. A size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay was used to determine the melting temperatures (Tms of the purified AdiC variants in the absence and presence of the selected ligands l-arginine (Arg, agmatine, l-arginine methyl ester, and l-arginine amide. The resulting Tms indicated stabilization of AdiC variants upon ligand binding, in which Tms and ligand binding affinities correlated positively. Considering results from this and previous studies, we revisited the role of AdiC residue S26 in Arg binding and proposed interactions of the α-carboxylate group of Arg exclusively with amide groups of the AdiC backbone. In the context of substrate binding in the human SLC7 family member l-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1; SLC7A5, an analogous role of S66 in LAT1 to S26 in AdiC is discussed based on homology modeling and amino acid sequence analysis. Finally, we propose a binding mechanism for l-amino acid substrates to LATs from the SLC7 family.

  9. Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l-Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and Deduced Insights into Ligand-Binding of Human l-Type Amino Acid Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgü, Hüseyin; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Colas, Claire; Ucurum, Zöhre; Schlessinger, Avner; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2018-03-20

    The l-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is a prokaryotic member of the SLC7 family, which enables pathogenic enterobacteria to survive the extremely acidic gastric environment. Wild-type AdiC from Escherichia coli, as well as its previously reported point mutants N22A and S26A, were overexpressed homologously and purified to homogeneity. A size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay was used to determine the melting temperatures ( T m s) of the purified AdiC variants in the absence and presence of the selected ligands l-arginine (Arg), agmatine, l-arginine methyl ester, and l-arginine amide. The resulting T m s indicated stabilization of AdiC variants upon ligand binding, in which T m s and ligand binding affinities correlated positively. Considering results from this and previous studies, we revisited the role of AdiC residue S26 in Arg binding and proposed interactions of the α-carboxylate group of Arg exclusively with amide groups of the AdiC backbone. In the context of substrate binding in the human SLC7 family member l-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1; SLC7A5), an analogous role of S66 in LAT1 to S26 in AdiC is discussed based on homology modeling and amino acid sequence analysis. Finally, we propose a binding mechanism for l-amino acid substrates to LATs from the SLC7 family.

  10. Accelerating technological change. Towards a more sustainable transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides insights into the mechanisms of technological change by capturing the complexity that characterises the current technological transition of the transport system into existing evolutionary models of technological change. The transition towards a more sustainable transport system

  11. Stubborn contaminants: influence of detergents on the purity of the multidrug ABC transporter BmrA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Benjamin; Kilburg, Arnaud; Chaptal, Vincent; Reyes-Mejia, Gina Catalina; Sarwan, Jonathan; Falson, Pierre; Jault, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in membrane proteins, their crystallization remains a major challenge. In the course of a crystallographic study on the multidrug ATP-binding cassette transporter BmrA, mass spectral analyses on samples purified with six selected detergents revealed unexpected protein contamination visible for the most part on overloaded SDS-PAGE. A major contamination from the outer membrane protein OmpF was detected in purifications with Foscholine 12 (FC12) but not with Lauryldimethylamine-N-oxide (LDAO) or any of the maltose-based detergents. Consequently, in the FC12 purified BmrA, OmpF easily crystallized over BmrA in a new space group, and whose structure is reported here. We therefore devised an optimized protocol to eliminate OmpF during the FC12 purification of BmrA. On the other hand, an additional band visible at ∼110 kDa was detected in all samples purified with the maltose-based detergents. It contained AcrB that crystallized over BmrA despite its trace amounts. Highly pure BmrA preparations could be obtained using either a ΔacrAB E. coli strain and n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside, or a classical E. coli strain and lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol for the overexpression and purification, respectively. Overall our results urge to incorporate a proteomics-based purity analysis into quality control checks prior to commencing crystallization assays of membrane proteins that are notoriously arduous to crystallize. Moreover, the strategies developed here to selectively eliminate obstinate contaminants should be applicable to the purification of other membrane proteins overexpressed in E. coli.

  12. Stubborn contaminants: influence of detergents on the purity of the multidrug ABC transporter BmrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wiseman

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in membrane proteins, their crystallization remains a major challenge. In the course of a crystallographic study on the multidrug ATP-binding cassette transporter BmrA, mass spectral analyses on samples purified with six selected detergents revealed unexpected protein contamination visible for the most part on overloaded SDS-PAGE. A major contamination from the outer membrane protein OmpF was detected in purifications with Foscholine 12 (FC12 but not with Lauryldimethylamine-N-oxide (LDAO or any of the maltose-based detergents. Consequently, in the FC12 purified BmrA, OmpF easily crystallized over BmrA in a new space group, and whose structure is reported here. We therefore devised an optimized protocol to eliminate OmpF during the FC12 purification of BmrA. On the other hand, an additional band visible at ∼110 kDa was detected in all samples purified with the maltose-based detergents. It contained AcrB that crystallized over BmrA despite its trace amounts. Highly pure BmrA preparations could be obtained using either a ΔacrAB E. coli strain and n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside, or a classical E. coli strain and lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol for the overexpression and purification, respectively. Overall our results urge to incorporate a proteomics-based purity analysis into quality control checks prior to commencing crystallization assays of membrane proteins that are notoriously arduous to crystallize. Moreover, the strategies developed here to selectively eliminate obstinate contaminants should be applicable to the purification of other membrane proteins overexpressed in E. coli.

  13. Dreaming and insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  14. OpenGL Insights

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Get Real-World Insight from Experienced Professionals in the OpenGL Community With OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL, real-time rendering is becoming available everywhere, from AAA games to mobile phones to web pages. Assembling contributions from experienced developers, vendors, researchers, and educators, OpenGL Insights presents real-world techniques for intermediate and advanced OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL developers. Go Beyond the Basics The book thoroughly covers a range of topics, including OpenGL 4.2 and recent extensions. It explains how to optimize for mobile devices, explores the design

  15. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  16. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  17. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Fischer, Ingrid

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  18. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Havinga, Marieke; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  19. Africa Insight: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA). It is accredited by the Department of Higher ... Abstract: All articles should be accompanied by an abstract of between 100 and 125 words stating the main research problem, major findings and conclusion(s).

  20. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  1. [Poor insight and psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O

    2017-01-01

    A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning. The theoretical approaches regarding impaired insight include the disturbed perceptual input, the impaired linkage between thought and emotion and the breakdown of the process of self-monitoring and error checking. The inability to distinguish between internally and externally generated mental events has been described by the metarepresentation theory. This theory includes the awareness of ones' goals, which leads to disorders of willed action, the awareness of intention, which leads to movement disorders, and the awareness of intentions of others, which leads to paranoid delusions. The theory of metarepresentation implies mainly output mechanisms, like the frontal cortex, while the input mechanism implies posterior brain systems, including the parietal lobe. There are many similarities between the disturbances of awareness seen in schizophrenia and those seen as a result of known neurological impairment. Neuropsychological models of impaired insight typically attribute the disturbance to any of a variety of core deficits in the processing of information. In this respect, lack of insight is on conceptual par with alogia, apraxia or aphasia in reflecting disturbed cognitive processing. In

  2. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  3. The genetics of axonal transport and axonal transport disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E Duncan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurons are specialized cells with a complex architecture that includes elaborate dendritic branches and a long, narrow axon that extends from the cell body to the synaptic terminal. The organized transport of essential biological materials throughout the neuron is required to support its growth, function, and viability. In this review, we focus on insights that have emerged from the genetic analysis of long-distance axonal transport between the cell body and the synaptic terminal. We also discuss recent genetic evidence that supports the hypothesis that disruptions in axonal transport may cause or dramatically contribute to neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Big Textual Data in Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beheshti-Kashi, Samaneh; Buch, Rasmus Brødsgaard; Lachaize, Maxime

    2018-01-01

    applications have been converting to utilizable and meaningful insights. However, prior to this, the availability of textual sources relevant for logistics and transportation has to be examined. Accordingly, the identification of potential textual sources and their evaluation in terms of extraction barriers...

  5. The politics of insight

    OpenAIRE

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insig...

  6. HPC Insights, Fall 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Power 6 ( Davinci ) systems. We have also made use of the Air Force Research Laboratory DSRC Altix (Hawk) and the Engineer Research and Development...the design and development of high performance gas turbine combustion systems both as a pretest analysis tool to predict static and dynamic...application while gaining insight into MATLAB’s value as an engineering tool . I would like to thank the MHPCC and the Akamai Workforce Initiative

  7. The politics of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs.

  8. The politics of insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  9. What are System Dynamics Insights?

    OpenAIRE

    Stave, K.; Zimmermann, N. S.; Kim, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of system dynamics insights. In our field, the term “insight” is generally understood to mean dynamic insight, that is, a deep understanding about the relationship between structure and behavior. We argue this is only one aspect of the range of insights possible from system dynamics activities, and describe a broader range of potential system dynamics insights. We also propose an initial framework for discussion that relates different types of system dynamics a...

  10. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  11. Thermal Transport in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangzhao; Hu, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Phosphorene, a novel elemental 2D semiconductor, possesses fascinating chemical and physical properties which are distinctively different from other 2D materials. The rapidly growing applications of phosphorene in nano/optoelectronics and thermoelectrics call for comprehensive studies of thermal transport properties. In this Review, based on the theoretical and experimental progresses, the thermal transport properties of single-layer phosphorene, multilayer phosphorene (nanofilms), and bulk black phosphorus are summarized to give a general view of the overall thermal conductivity trend from single-layer to bulk form. The mechanism underlying the discrepancy in the reported thermal conductivity of phosphorene is discussed by reviewing the effect of different functionals and cutoff distances on the thermal transport evaluations. This Review then provides fundamental insight into the thermal transport in phosphorene by reviewing the role of resonant bonding in driving giant phonon anharmonicity and long-range interactions. In addition, the extrinsic thermal conductivity of phosphorene is reviewed by discussing the effects of strain and substrate, together with phosphorene based heterostructures and nanoribbons. This Review summarizes the progress of thermal transport in phosphorene from both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements, which would be of significance to the design and development of efficient phosphorene based nanoelectronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  13. Insight in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, S N; Sachs, G S; Baldassano, C F; Truman, C J

    1997-01-01

    Lack of insight complicates the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychotic and affective disorders. No studies of insight in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have been reported. Thirty patients with SAD diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R but no other axis I conditions were treated short-term with light-therapy. Insight was measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) as modified by the authors to assess the self-report of insight into depressive symptoms. Increasing scores (1 to 5) indicated increasing unawareness of illness (i.e., less insight). SAD patients displayed a moderate amount of insight when depressed (mean SUMD score, 2.5). When recovered, they showed no significant change in insight into past depressive symptoms (mean SUMD score, 2.8). Greater insight into current depressive symptoms correlated with more depressive symptoms on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score ([HRSD] r = .35, P depressive symptoms that does not change after recovery, a result in agreement with studies of insight in psychosis and mania. Further, in SAD, increased severity of illness may be associated with increased insight into depressive symptoms, consistent with the hypothesis of depressive realism.

  14. 2016 Mars Insight Mission Design and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilleira, Fernando; Frauenholz, Ray; Fujii, Ken; Wallace, Mark; You, Tung-Han

    2014-01-01

    Scheduled for a launch in the 2016 Earth to Mars opportunity, the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport (InSight) Mission will arrive to Mars in late September 2016 with the primary objective of placing a science lander on the surface of the Red Planet followed by the deployment of two science instruments to investigate the fundamental processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution. In order to achieve a successful landing, the InSight Project has selected a launch/arrival strategy that satisfies the following key and driving requirements: (1) Deliver a total launch mass of 727 kg, (2) target a nominal landing site with a cumulative Delta V99 less than 30 m/s, and (3) approach EDL with a V-infinity upper limit of 3.941 km/s and (4) an entry flight-path angle (EFPA) of -12.5 +/- 0.26 deg, 3-sigma; the InSight trajectories have been designed such that they (5) provide UHF-band communications via Direct-To-Earth and MRO from Entry through landing plus 60 s, (6) with injection aimpoints biased away from Mars such that the probability of the launch vehicle upper stage impacting Mars is less than 1.0 X 10(exp 4) for fifty years after launch, and (7) non-nominal impact probabilities due to failure during the Cruise phase less than 1.0 X 10(exp 2).

  15. Insights on STEM Careers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-05

    This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.

  16. Osho - Insights on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment.

  17. Outsourcing/Offshoring Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tate, Wendy; Bals, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Findings: Both the geographical and governance dimensions are part of the rightshoring decision which is an important conceptual foundation for this special issue, as it invited insightful pieces on all of these phenomena (e.g. outsourcing, insourcing, offshoring, reshoring), acknowledging...... for future research out of the six papers are summarized in Table III. There is ample opportunity to further shed light on these suggestions as well as to cover parts of the “rightshoring” framework presented, that remain less covered here (e.g. insourcing and/or reshoring). Practical implications: The array...... of potential “rightshoring” options fosters clarity about the phenomena studied and their implications. The main practical implications of the six papers are summarized in Table II. Originality/value: The overall conceptual framework highlights the positioning of the final papers included into the special...

  18. Insights into business student's book

    CERN Document Server

    Lannon, Michael; Trappe, Tonya

    1993-01-01

    With Challenging reading and listening texts from a range of authentic business sources, New Insights into Business will really engage your students. The thorough language and vocabulary syllabus together with the strong focus on business skills development gives students everything they need to function effectively in the workplace. New Insights into Business is a self-contained course and is also an ideal follow-on to First Insights into Business.

  19. Insight in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The issue of insight in schizophrenia must be assumed to be one of the most important aspects of the clinical examination. Comprehensive studies have shown that between 50% and 80% of all patients suffering from schizophrenia do not believe that they have a disorder. In recent years, poor insight in schizophrenia has been the subject of increasing interest, as manifested in a number of studies discussed in the present review. Some of these studies focus on insight correlated to various parameters such as psychopathology, neuropsychology, clinical relevance and compliance. Other studies refer to more theoretical implications, among these the issue of defining the concept of insight: whether insight can be seen as a "primary" phenomenon in schizophrenia, and whether insight may be graduated, dimensioned or increased. Several authors have developed rating scales in an attempt to obtain a measure for the degree or dimension of insight. Here, the range of parameters employed gives an excellent impression of the complexity of the concept of insight. In the concluding discussion, a phenomenological aspect is brought in, in an attempt to place the concept of insight in relation to disturbances of the self in schizophrenia and to primary symptoms in schizophrenia, amongst these autism.

  20. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  1. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  2. Globalization, transportation and Kyoto; Globalisatie, transport en Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenburg, C.A.; Ubbels, B. [Afdeling Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nijkamp, P. [Economische Faculteit, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2000-12-08

    Globalization of the economy will probably coincide with more transport, as a result of which the environmental burden will increase. Thus, the Kyoto standards will be difficult to realize. Based on four economic scenarios with different levels of globalization insight is gained into the possible consequences of future developments (economic development, investment, consumption, (regional) specializations, and trade up to 2020) in the transportation sector, focusing on the Netherlands. Those developments have been made concrete by means of the Worldscan model, developed by the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB). 8 refs.

  3. Insights into PRA methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.; Lofgren, E.; Atefi, B.; Liner, R.; Blond, R.; Amico, P.

    1984-08-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for six nuclear power plants were examined to gain insight into how the choice of analytical methods can affect the results of PRAs. The PRA sreflectope considered was limited to internally initiated accidents sequences through core melt. For twenty methodological topic areas, a baseline or minimal methodology was specified. The choice of methods for each topic in the six PRAs was characterized in terms of the incremental level of effort above the baseline. A higher level of effort generally reflects a higher level of detail or a higher degree of sophistication in the analytical approach to a particular topic area. The impact on results was measured in terms of how additional effort beyond the baseline level changed the relative importance and ordering of dominant accident sequences compared to what would have been observed had methods corresponding to the baseline level of effort been employed. This measure of impact is a more useful indicator of how methods affect perceptions of plant vulnerabilities than changes in core melt frequency would be. However, the change in core melt frequency was used as a secondary measure of impact for nine topics where availability of information permitted. Results are presented primarily in the form of effort-impact matrices for each of the twenty topic areas. A suggested effort-impact profile for future PRAs is presented

  4. Grigor Narekatsi's astronomical insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Samvel

    2015-07-01

    What stand out in the solid system of Gr. Narekatsi's naturalistic views are his astronomical insights on the material nature of light, its high speed and the Sun being composed of "material air". Especially surprising and fascinating are his views on stars and their clusters. What astronomers, including great Armenian academician V. Ambartsumian (scattering of stellar associations), would understand and prove with much difficulty thousand years later, Narekatsi predicted in the 10th century: "Stars appear and disappear untimely", "You who gather and scatter the speechless constellations, like a flock of sheep". Gr. Narekatsti's reformative views were manifested in all the spheres of the 10th century social life; he is a reformer of church life, great language constructor, innovator in literature and music, freethinker in philosophy and science. His ideology is the reflection of the 10th century Armenian Renaissance. During the 9th-10th centuries, great masses of Armenians, forced to migrate to the Balkans, took with them and spread reformative ideas. The forefather of the western science, which originated in the period of Reformation, is considered to be the great philosopher Nicholas of Cusa. The study of Gr. Narekatsti's logic and naturalistic views enables us to claim that Gr. Narekatsti is the great grandfather of European science.

  5. O insight em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  6. Cognitive insight: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, L S C; Sabbe, B G C; Oldenburg, J F E

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive insight is the ability to re-evaluate thoughts and beliefs in order to make thoughtful conclusions. It differs from clinical insight, as it focuses on more general metacognitive processes. Therefore, it could be relevant to diverse disorders and non-clinical subjects. There is a growing body of research on cognitive insight in individuals with and without psychosis. This review has summarised the current state of the art regarding this topic. We conclude that while cognitive insight in its current form seems valid for use in individuals with psychosis, it is less so for individuals without psychosis. Additionally, higher cognitive insight not always leads to better psychological functioning. For instance, higher levels of self-reflection are often associated with depressive mood. We therefore recommend the sub-components of cognitive insight to be studied separately. Also, it is unclear what position cognitive insight takes within the spectrum of metacognitive processes and how it relates to other self-related concepts that have been defined previously in literature. Combining future and past research on cognitive insight and its analogue concepts will help in the formation of a uniform definition that fits all subjects discussed here. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Hyperons: Insights into baryon structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, J.

    1991-08-01

    The baryon octet is composed mainly of hyperons. Modern high energy hyperon beams provide a tool for the study of hyperon static properties and interactions. Experiments with these beams have provided new insights into hyperon rare decays, magnetic moments, and interactions. These experiments provide us with insights into the strong, weak, and electromagnetic structure of the baryons. 65 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; M'Backe Diop, Cheikh; Nicolas, Anne; Andrieux, Catherine; Archier, Pascal; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Bernard, David; Biaise, Patrick; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Bonin, Bernard; Bouland, Olivier; Bourganel, Stephane; Calvin, Christophe; Chiron, Maurice; Damian, Frederic; Dumonteil, Eric; Fausser, Clement; Fougeras, Philippe; Gabriel, Franck; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal; Hugot, Francois-Xavier; Dat Huynh, Tan; Jouanne, Cedric; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Laye, Frederic; Lee, Yi-Kang; Lenain, Richard; Leray, Sylvie; Litaize, Olivier; Magnaud, Christine; Malvagi, Fausto; Mijuin, Dominique; Mounier, Claude; Naury, Sylvie; Nicolas, Anne; Noguere, Gilles; Palau, Jean-Marc; Le Pallec, Jean-Charles; Peneliau, Yannick; Petit, Odile; Poinot-Salanon, Christine; Raepsaet, Xavier; Reuss, Paul; Richebois, Edwige; Roque, Benedicte; Royer, Eric; Saint-Jean, Cyrille de; Santamarina, Alain; Serot, Olivier; Soldevila, Michel; Tommasi, Jean; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Tsilanizara, Aime; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    This bibliographical note presents a reference book which addresses the study of neutron transport in matter, the study of conditions for a chain reaction and the study of modifications of matter composition due to nuclear reactions. This book presents the main nuclear data, their measurement, assessment and processing, and the spallation. It proposes an overview of methods applied for the study of neutron transport: basic equations and their derived forms, deterministic methods and Monte Carlo method of resolution of the Boltzmann equation, methods of resolution of generalized Bateman equations, methods of time resolution of space kinetics coupled equations. It presents the main calculation codes, discusses the qualification and experimental aspects, and gives an overview of neutron transport applications: neutron transport calculation of reactors, neutron transport coupled with other disciplines, physics of fuel cycle, criticality

  9. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  10. Spermatogenesis in mammals: proteomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocu, Sophie; Calvel, Pierre; Rolland, Antoine D; Pineau, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly sophisticated process involved in the transmission of genetic heritage. It includes halving ploidy, repackaging of the chromatin for transport, and the equipment of developing spermatids and eventually spermatozoa with the advanced apparatus (e.g., tightly packed mitochondrial sheat in the mid piece, elongating of the tail, reduction of cytoplasmic volume) to elicit motility once they reach the epididymis. Mammalian spermatogenesis is divided into three phases. In the first the primitive germ cells or spermatogonia undergo a series of mitotic divisions. In the second the spermatocytes undergo two consecutive divisions in meiosis to produce haploid spermatids. In the third the spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa in a process called spermiogenesis. Paracrine, autocrine, juxtacrine, and endocrine pathways all contribute to the regulation of the process. The array of structural elements and chemical factors modulating somatic and germ cell activity is such that the network linking the various cellular activities during spermatogenesis is unimaginably complex. Over the past two decades, advances in genomics have greatly improved our knowledge of spermatogenesis, by identifying numerous genes essential for the development of functional male gametes. Large-scale analyses of testicular function have deepened our insight into normal and pathological spermatogenesis. Progress in genome sequencing and microarray technology have been exploited for genome-wide expression studies, leading to the identification of hundreds of genes differentially expressed within the testis. However, although proteomics has now come of age, the proteomics-based investigation of spermatogenesis remains in its infancy. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of large-scale proteomic analyses of spermatogenesis, from germ cell development during sex determination to spermatogenesis in the adult. Indeed, a few laboratories have undertaken differential protein profiling

  11. Behavioural economics, travel behaviour and environmental-transport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Sierra, M.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Miralles, C.

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector creates much environmental pressure. Many current policies aimed at reducing this pressure are not fully effective because the behavioural aspects of travellers are insufficiently recognised. Insights from behavioural economics can contribute to a better understanding of travel

  12. The serotonin transporter: Examination of the changes in transporter affinity induced by ligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    The plasmalemmal serotonin transporter uses transmembrane gradients of Na + , Cl - and K + to accumulate serotonin within blood platelets. Transport is competitively inhibited by the antidepressant imipramine. Like serotonin transport, imipramine binding requires Na + . Unlike serotonin, however, imipramine does not appear to be transported. To gain insight into the mechanism of serotonin transport the author have analyzed the influences of Na + and Cl - , the two ions cotransported with serotonin, on both serotonin transport and the interaction of imipramine and other antidepressant drugs with the plasmalemmal serotonin transporter of human platelets. Additionally, the author have synthesized, purified and characterized the binding of 2-iodoimipramine to the serotonin transporter. Finally, the author have conducted a preliminary study of the inhibition of serotonin transport and imipramine binding produced by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. My results reveal many instances of positive heterotropic cooperativity in ligand binding to the serotonin transporter. Na + binding enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine and several other antidepressant drugs, and also increases the affinity for Cl - . Cl - enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine, as well as for Na + . At concentrations in the range of its K M for transport serotonin is a competitive inhibitor of imipramine binding. At much higher concentrations, however, serotonin also inhibits imipramines dissociation rate constant. This latter effect which is Na + -independent and species specific, is apparently produced by serotonin binding at a second, low affinity site on, or near, the transporter complex. Iodoimipramine competitively inhibit both [ 3 H]imipramine binding and [ 3 H]serotonin transport

  13. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  14. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  15. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  16. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  17. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  18. Public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory para...

  19. Anthelmintic metabolism in parasitic helminths: proteomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Peter M; MacKintosh, Neil; Morphew, Russell M

    2012-08-01

    Anthelmintics are the cornerstone of parasitic helminth control. Surprisingly, understanding of the biochemical pathways used by parasitic helminths to detoxify anthelmintics is fragmented, despite the increasing global threat of anthelmintic resistance within the ruminant and equine industries. Reductionist biochemistry has likely over-estimated the enzymatic role of glutathione transferases in anthelmintic metabolism and neglected the potential role of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily (CYPs). Proteomic technologies offers the opportunity to support genomics, reverse genetics and pharmacokinetics, and provide an integrated insight into both the cellular mechanisms underpinning response to anthelmintics and also the identification of biomarker panels for monitoring the development of anthelmintic resistance. To date, there have been limited attempts to include proteomics in anthelmintic metabolism studies. Optimisations of membrane, post-translational modification and interaction proteomic technologies in helminths are needed to especially study Phase I CYPs and Phase III ABC transporter pumps for anthelmintics and their metabolites.

  20. Parental insightfulness: retrospect and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren-Karie, Nina; Oppenheim, David

    2018-06-01

    We open this introductory paper to the special issue with the theoretical and clinical roots of the insightfulness concept. Next, the Insightfulness Assessment (IA) is presented, followed by a review of key empirical findings supporting the IA. The central points in the papers in this special issue are reviewed next. These include the use of the IA with parents of children ranging in age from infancy to adolescence, its applicability outside the parent-child relationship (e.g. insightfulness toward a close friend), its use with high-risk mothers, and the usefulness of insightfulness both as a continuous and a categorical measure. The clinical applications of the IA are discussed, and we close with future directions for IA research.

  1. Franchise Business Model: Theoretical Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Levickaitė, Rasa; Reimeris, Ramojus

    2010-01-01

    The article is based on literature review, theoretical insights, and deals with the topic of franchise business model. The objective of the paper is to analyse peculiarities of franchise business model and its developing conditions in Lithuania. The aim of the paper is to make an overview on franchise business model and its environment in Lithuanian business context. The overview is based on international and local theoretical insights. In terms of practical meaning, this article should be re...

  2. Orbital transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, H. Jr.; Koerner, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Third Aerospace Symposium in Braunschweig presented, for the first time, the possibility of bringing together the classical disciplines of aerospace engineering and the natural science disciplines of meteorology and air chemistry in a european setting. In this way, aspects of environmental impact on the atmosphere could be examined quantitatively. An essential finding of the european conference, is the unrestricted agreement of the experts that the given launch frequencies of the present orbital transport result in a negligible amount of pollutants being released in the atmosphere. The symposium does, however, call attention to the increasing need to consider the effect of orbital and atmospheric environmental impact of a future increase in launch frequencies of orbital transport in connection with future space stations. The Third Aerospace Symposium, 'Orbital Transport, Technical, Meteorological and Chemical Aspects', constituted a first forum of discussion for engineers and scientists. Questions of new orbital transport technologies and their environmental impact were to be discussed towards a first consensus. Through the 34 reports and articles, the general problems of space transportation and environmental protection were addressed, as well as particular aspects of high temperatures during reentry in the atmosphere of the earth, precision navigation of flight vehicles or flow behavior and air chemistry in the stratosphere. (orig./CT). 342 figs

  3. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  4. Selective Ionic Transport Pathways in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Anmin; Cheng, Yingchun; Ning, Shoucong; Foroozan, Tara; Yasaei, Poya; Li, Wen; Song, Boao; Yuan, Yifei; Chen, Lin; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Mashayek, Farzad; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza

    2016-04-13

    Despite many theoretical predictions indicating exceptionally low energy barriers of ionic transport in phosphorene, the ionic transport pathways in this two-dimensional (2D) material has not been experimentally demonstrated. Here, using in situ aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and density functional theory, we studied sodium ion transport in phosphorene. Our high-resolution TEM imaging complemented by electron energy loss spectroscopy demonstrates a precise description of anisotropic sodium ions migration along the [100] direction in phosphorene. This work also provides new insight into the effect of surface and the edge sites on the transport properties of phosphorene. According to our observation, the sodium ion transport is preferred in zigzag edge rather than the armchair edge. The use of this highly selective ionic transport property may endow phosphorene with new functionalities for novel chemical device applications.

  5. CHARLES HORTON COOLEY'S THEORY OF TRANSPORTATION: TOWARDS AN INTERACTIONIST APPROACH FOR TRANSPORTATION STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takeshi

    The aim of this paper is to interpret Charles Horton Cooley's "Theory of Transportation", situating it in his interactionist sociology of communication and social process. Cooley defines transportation as a spatial and physical form of communication. He also develops a interactionist theory of valuation and articulates that value as an end of action is shaped an d transformed by communication and interaction. These insights suggest that transportation as a form of communication will change and develop economic society through transforming personal desires and values so as to change behaviours. Cooley's theory implies that an interactionist approach is useful for understanding the subjective side of phenomena of transportation.

  6. The ADVANCE project: Insights and achievments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    ADVANCE [Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt] was a public/private partnership conceived and developed by four founding parties. The founding parties include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University operating together under the auspices of the Illinois Universities Transportation Research Consortium (IUTRC), and Motorola, Inc. The major responsibilities of each party are fully described in the Project agreement. Subsequently, these four were joined on the Steering Committee by the American Automobile Association (AAA). This unique blending of public sector, private sector and university interests, augmented by more than two dozen other private sector participants, provided a strong set of resources for ADVANCE. The ADVANCE test area covered over 300 square miles including portions of the City of Chicago and 40 northwest suburban communities. The Project encompasses the high growth areas adjacent to O`Hare International Airport, the Schaumburg/Hoffman Estates office and retail complexes, and the Lake-Cook Road development corridor. It also includes major sports and entertainment complexes such as the Arlington International Racecourse and the Rosemont Horizon. The population in the area is more than 750,000. The Insights and Perspectives Compendium is intended to provide useful information to project managers, system developers, and system integrators of future similar ITS implementations. It is intended for those that are technically interested in the ADVANCE Project and have a basic understanding of the project.

  7. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  8. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  9. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  10. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2001/1199) of the 10. of december 2001 relative to the passing of safety rules concerning the maritime transport of spent fuels, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes contained in packages. (O.M.)

  11. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  12. Understanding Insight in the Context of Q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, David

    2012-01-01

    In Revans' learning formula, L = P + Q, Q represents "questioning insight", by which Revans means that insight comes out of the process of questioning programmed knowledge (P) in the light of experience. We typically focus on the content of an insight rather than on the act of insight. Drawing primarily on the work of Bernard Lonergan this paper…

  13. Coupled electric and transport phenomena in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    The coupled electrical and transport properties of clay-containing porous media are the topics of interest in this study. Both experimental and numerical (pore network modeling) techniques are employed to gain insight into the macro-scale interaction between electrical and solute transport phenomena

  14. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  15. Insight in psychosis: Metacognitive processes and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    de Vos, Annerieke

    2016-01-01

    Insight is impaired in 50- 80% of the patients with schizophrenia. Annerieke de Vos working at GGZ Drenthe and the University Medical Hospital Groningen, aimed to elucidate which processes underlie impaired insight and tried to improve insight in patients by targeting these processes. On September 21st she will defend her thesis entitled: "Insight in psychosis. Metacognitive processes and treatment.". Patients with impaired insight may fail to recognize that things in life are not going well ...

  16. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  17. New Insights into Behavioral Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Baltussen (Guido)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis applies insights from psychology and other behavioral sciences to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional finance approach (which assumes that agents and markets are rational) and improves our understanding of financial markets and its participants. More specific, this

  18. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  19. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  20. Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport development in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. ... A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  1. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  2. The alternating access mechanism of transport as observed in the sodium-hydantoin transporter Mhp1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyand, Simone; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Beckstein, Oliver; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Iwata, So; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Cameron, Alexander D.

    2011-01-01

    Crystal structures of a membrane protein transporter in three different conformational states provide insights into the transport mechanism. Secondary active transporters move molecules across cell membranes by coupling this process to the energetically favourable downhill movement of ions or protons along an electrochemical gradient. They function by the alternating access model of transport in which, through conformational changes, the substrate binding site alternately faces either side of the membrane. Owing to the difficulties in obtaining the crystal structure of a single transporter in different conformational states, relatively little structural information is known to explain how this process occurs. Here, the structure of the sodium-benzylhydantoin transporter, Mhp1, from Microbacterium liquefaciens, has been determined in three conformational states; from this a mechanism is proposed for switching from the outward-facing open conformation through an occluded structure to the inward-facing open state

  3. Energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of primary interaction cross sections and the incorporation of these data into Monte Carlo calculations provide detailed information about the initial spatial distribution of absorbed dose. Our theoretical energy transport studies have focused on the use of this information to predict the evolution of chemical species formed as a result of the energy deposition. This effort has led to a stochastic approach to diffusion kinetics that can account for the influence of track structure on the yield of free radicals in the radiolysis of water. Fluorescence studies with pulsed alpha particle and proton beams provided the first experimental test of our stochastic model of tract structure effects. Our experimental studies use time-resolved emission spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of energy transport in nonpolar liquids. Studies of the concentration dependence of time-resolved emission from solutions of benzene in cyclohexane also show the importance of using low benzene concentrations to minimize the influence of benzene dimers on the emission kinetics

  4. Carbonate landscapes evolution: Insights from 36Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Vincent; Thomas, Franck; Ollivier, Vincent; Bellier, Olivier; Shabanian, Esmaeil; Miramont, Cécile; Fleury, Jules; Benedetti, Lucilla; Guillou, Valéry; Aster Team

    2017-04-01

    Carbonate landscapes cover a significant fraction of the Earth surface, but their long-term dynamics is still poorly understood. When comparing with the situation in areas underlain by quartz-rich lithologies, where the routine use of 10Be-derived denudation rates has delivered fundamental insights on landscape evolution processes, this knowledge gap is particularly notable. Recent advances in the measurement of 36Cl and better understanding of its production pathways has opened the way to the development of a similar physically-based and quantitative analysis of landscape evolution in carbonate settings. However, beyond these methodological considerations, we still face fundamental geomorphological open questions, as for example the assessment of the importance of congruent carbonate dissolution in long-wavelength topographic evolution. Such unresolved problems concerning the relative importance of physical and chemical weathering processes lead to question the applicability of standard slope-dependent Geomorphic Transport Laws in carbonate settings. These issues have been addressed studying the geomorphological evolution of selected limestone ranges in Provence, SE France, where 36Cl concentration measurements in bedrock and stream sediment samples allow constraining denudation over 10 ka time-scale. We first identify a significant denudation contrast between the summit surface and the flanks of the ranges, pointing to a substantial contribution of gravity-driven processes to the landscape evolution, in addition to dissolution. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the relationships between hillslope morphology and hilltop denudation allow to identify a fundamental transition between two regimes: (1) a dynamics where hillslope evolution is controlled by linear diffusive downslope regolith transport; and, (2) a domain where denudation is limited by the rate at which physical and chemical weathering processes can produce clasts and lower the hilltop. Such an abrupt

  5. Bioinformatic survey of ABC transporters in dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzalski, Marek; Ciesielska, Anita; Stączek, Paweł

    2016-01-15

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a very large and ubiquitous superfamily of membrane proteins. They are responsible for ATP hydrolysis driven translocation of countless substrates. Being a very old and diverse group of proteins present in all organisms they share a common feature, which is the presence of an evolutionary conservative nucleotide binding domain (NBD)--the engine that drives the transport. Another common domain is a transmembrane domain (TMD) which consists of several membrane-spanning helices. This part of protein is substrate-specific, thus it is much more variable. ABC transporters are known for driving drug efflux in many pathogens and cancer cells, therefore they are the subject of extensive studies. There are many examples of conferring a drug resistance phenotype in fungal pathogens by ABC transporters, however, little is known about these proteins in dermatophytes--a group of fungi causing superficial mycoses. So far only a single ABC transporter has been extensively studied in this group of pathogens. We analyzed available genomic sequences of seven dermatophyte species in order to provide an insight into dermatophyte ABC protein inventory. Phylogenetic studies of ABC transporter genes and their products were conducted and included ABC transporters of other fungi. Our results show that each dermatophyte genome studied possesses a great variety of ABC transporter genes. Detailed analysis of selected genes and their products indicates that relatively recent duplication of ABC transporter genes could lead to novel substrate specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. National transportation statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including : its physical components, safety reco...

  7. National Transportation Statistics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record...

  8. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  9. National Transportation Statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

  10. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  11. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  12. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  13. Insight in psychosis : Metacognitive processes and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Annerieke

    2016-01-01

    Insight is impaired in 50- 80% of the patients with schizophrenia. Annerieke de Vos working at GGZ Drenthe and the University Medical Hospital Groningen, aimed to elucidate which processes underlie impaired insight and tried to improve insight in patients by targeting these processes. On September

  14. Quantifying the Qualitative: Measuring the Insight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    No scales currently exist that measure variability in the insight experience. Two scales were created to measure two factors hypothesized to be key drivers of the insight experience: insight radicality (i.e., perceived deviation between previous and new problem representations) and restructuring experience (i.e., the subjective experience of the…

  15. How LeuT shapes our understanding of the mechanisms of sodium-coupled neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmatsa, Aravind; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters are ion-coupled symporters that drive the uptake of neurotransmitters from neural synapses. In the past decade, the structure of a bacterial amino acid transporter, leucine transporter (LeuT), has given valuable insights into the understanding of architecture and mechanism of mammalian neurotransmitter transporters. Different conformations of LeuT, including a substrate-free state, inward-open state, and competitive and non-competitive inhibitor-bound states, have revealed a mechanistic framework for the transport and transport inhibition of neurotransmitters. The current review integrates our understanding of the mechanistic and pharmacological properties of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters obtained through structural snapshots of LeuT.

  16. Transport parameters for the modelling of water transport in ionomer membranes for PEM-fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Frank; Eigenberger, Gerhart

    2004-01-01

    The water transport number (drag coefficient) and the hydraulic permeability were measured for Nafion. The results show a significant increase of both parameters with increasing water content indicating that they are strongly influenced by the membrane microstructure. Based on these experimental studies a new model approach to describe water transport in the H 2 -PEFC membrane is presented. This approach considers water transport by electro-osmosis caused by the proton flux through the membrane and by osmosis caused by a gradient in the chemical potential of water. It is parametrized by the measured data for the water transport number and the hydraulic permeability of Nafion. First simulation results applying this approach to a one-dimensional model of the H 2 -PEFC show good agreement with experimental data. Therefore, the developed model can be used for a new insight into the dominating mechanisms of water transport in the membrane

  17. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  18. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  19. GOES-R: Satellite Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  20. Theory of mind correlates with clinical insight but not cognitive insight in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xu; Parker, Giverny J; Hong, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Yi; Lui, Simon S Y; Neumann, David L; Cheung, Eric F C; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-03-30

    Research on the relationship between insight and social cognition, in particular Theory of Mind (ToM), in schizophrenia has yielded mixed findings to date. Very few studies, however, have assessed both clinical insight and cognitive insight when examining their relationships with ToM in schizophrenia. The current study thus investigated the relationship between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and ToM in a sample of 56 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. Twenty-seven patients were classified as low in clinical insight according to their scores on the 'insight' item (G12) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Moreover, cognitive insight and ToM were assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Yoni task, respectively. The results indicated that patients with poor clinical insight performed worse on tasks of second-order cognitive and affective ToM, while the ToM performance of patients with high clinical insight was equivalent to that of healthy controls. Furthermore, while clinical insight was correlated with ToM and clinical symptoms, cognitive insight did not correlate with clinical insight, ToM, or clinical symptoms. Clinical insight thus appears to be an important factor related to ToM in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  2. Membrane transport mechanism 3D structure and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a molecular view of membrane transport by means of numerous biochemical and biophysical techniques. The rapidly growing number of atomic structures of transporters in different conformations and the constant progress in bioinformatics have recently added deeper insights.   The unifying mechanism of energized solute transport across membranes is assumed to consist of the conformational cycling of a carrier protein to provide access to substrate binding sites from either side of a cellular membrane. Due to the central role of active membrane transport there is considerable interest in deciphering the principles of one of the most fundamental processes in nature: the alternating access mechanism.   This book brings together particularly significant structure-function studies on a variety of carrier systems from different transporter families: Glutamate symporters, LeuT-like fold transporters, MFS transporters and SMR (RND) exporters, as well as ABC-type importers.   The selected examples im...

  3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kgogo, Obonye

    2016-04-01

    The report provides insight and investigates whether Transport Regulations in Botswana follow international standards for transport of radioactive material. Radioactive materials are very useful in most of our activities and are manufactured in different countries, therefore end up traversing from one country to another and being transported in national roads .The IAEA regulation for the Transport of radioactive material is used as the reference guideline in this study. The current Regulations for Transport of radioactive material in Botswana do not cover all factors which need to be considered when transporting radioactive although they refer to IAEA regulations. Basing on an inadequacy of the regulations and category of radioactive materials in the country recommendations were made concerning security, packaging and worker training's. The regulations for the Transport of radioactive material in Botswana need to be reviewed and updated so that they can relate to international standard. (au)

  4. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  5. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  6. Using heterologous expression systems to characterize potassium and sodium transport activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alonso; Benito, Begoña; Cagnac, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The expression of plant transporters in simple well-characterized cell systems is an irreplaceable technique for gaining insights into the kinetic and energetic features of plant transporters. Among all the available expression systems, yeast cells offer the highest simplicity and have the capacity to mimic the in vivo properties of plant transporters. Here, we describe the use of yeast mutants to express K(+) and Na(+) plant transporters and discuss some experimental problems that can produce misleading results.

  7. Perceptions of the road transport management system (RTMS): promoting voluntary certification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kamdar, A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available infrastructure, improving road safety and increasing productivity. The surveyed views of the road traffic authorities, banks, insurance companies, the RTMS steering committee, and road transport operators provide insights into the perceptions and experiences...

  8. Regional elevator survey : grain transportation & industry trends for Great Plains elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    One potential means for gaining insight into the current state of the elevator industry, : and into expectations for future trends, is through a survey. The objective of this study is to profile the transportation and industry characteristics of the ...

  9. Managing complexity insights, concepts, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Each chapter in Managing Complexity focuses on analyzing real-world complex systems and transferring knowledge from the complex-systems sciences to applications in business, industry and society. The interdisciplinary contributions range from markets and production through logistics, traffic control, and critical infrastructures, up to network design, information systems, social conflicts and building consensus. They serve to raise readers' awareness concerning the often counter-intuitive behavior of complex systems and to help them integrate insights gained in complexity research into everyday planning, decision making, strategic optimization, and policy. Intended for a broad readership, the contributions have been kept largely non-technical and address a general, scientifically literate audience involved in corporate, academic, and public institutions.

  10. Transportation librarian's toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The Transportation Librarians Toolkit is a product of the Transportation Library Connectivity pooled fund study, TPF- 5(105), a collaborative, grass-roots effort by transportation libraries to enhance information accessibility and professional expert...

  11. Advanced Transportation Institute 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The seventh version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-08) was conducted in 2008 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered wit...

  12. Advanced Transportation Institute 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The eighth version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-09) was conducted in 2009 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered with...

  13. Innovative Technologies in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    An historical overview of the transportation infrastructure of the United States and Texas is provided. Data for trends in transportation is analyzed and projections for the future are postulated. A survey of current technologies in transportation is...

  14. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  15. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  16. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  17. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  18. Simulating the Interactions Among Land Use, Transportation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most transportation studies, computer models that forecast travel behavior statistics for a future year use static projections of the spatial distribution of future population and employment growth as inputs. As a result, they are unable to account for the temporally dynamic and non-linear interactions among transportation, land use, and socioeconomic systems. System dynamics (SD) provides a common framework for modeling the complex interactions among transportation and other related systems. This study uses a SD model to simulate the cascading impacts of a proposed light rail transit (LRT) system in central North Carolina, USA. The Durham-Orange Light Rail Project (D-O LRP) SD model incorporates relationships among the land use, transportation, and economy sectors to simulate the complex feedbacks that give rise to the travel behavior changes forecasted by the region’s transportation model. This paper demonstrates the sensitivity of changes in travel behavior to the proposed LRT system and the assumptions that went into the transportation modeling, and compares those results to the impacts of an alternative fare-free transit system. SD models such as the D-O LRP SD model can complement transportation studies by providing valuable insight into the interdependent community systems that collectively contribute to travel behavior changes. Presented at the 35th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society in Cambridge, MA, July 18th, 2017

  19. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Kim, Wonjung; Holbrook, N. Michele; Bush, John W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impedance increases with concentration, and consider material flow in four different natural systems: blood flow in vertebrates, sugar transport in vascular plants and two modes of nectar drinking in birds and insects. The model provides a simple method for determining the optimum concentration copt in these systems. The model further suggests that the impedance at the optimum concentration μopt may be expressed in terms of the impedance of the pure (c = 0) carrier medium μ0 as μopt∼2αμ0, where the power α is prescribed by the specific flow constraints, for example constant pressure for blood flow (α = 1) or constant work rate for certain nectar-drinking insects (α = 6). Comparing the model predictions with experimental data from more than 100 animal and plant species, we find that the simple model rationalizes the observed concentrations and impedances. The model provides a universal framework for studying flows impeded by concentration, and yields insight into optimization in engineered systems, such as traffic flow. PMID:23594815

  20. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  1. Neoclassical transport in NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Beidler, C.D.; Maassberg, H.; Houlberg, W.A.; Spong, D.A.; Tribaldos, V.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for calculating neoclassical transport in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) are discussed, with particular attention to developing computationally inexpensive predictions of neoclassical transport. (orig.)

  2. Journal of transportation engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    The Journal of Transportation Engineering contains technical and professional articles on the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of air, highway, rail, and urban transportation...

  3. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  4. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  5. Do behavioural insights matter for competition policy?

    OpenAIRE

    CIRIOLO Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural insights make use of behavioural economics and psychology to analyse how humans behave when adopting economic decisions. The use of behavioural insights to improve policy-making is becoming increasing popular all over the world. Pensions, taxes, unemployment, energy efficiency, adult education, charitable giving and, of course, competition policy have benefitted from the application of behavioural insights. Emanuele Ciriolo, from the European Commission Joint Research Centre, expl...

  6. Genetic correlates of insight in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Vorderstrasse, Allison; Keefe, Richard S E; Dungan, Jennifer R

    2018-05-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is clinically important as it is associated with several adverse outcomes. Genetic contributions to insight are unknown. We examined genetic contributions to insight by investigating if polygenic risk scores (PRS) and candidate regions were associated with insight. Schizophrenia case-only analysis of the Clinical Antipsychotics Trials of Intervention Effectiveness trial. Schizophrenia PRS was constructed using Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) leave-one out GWAS as discovery data set. For candidate regions, we selected 105 schizophrenia-associated autosomal loci and 11 schizophrenia-related oligodendrocyte genes. We used regressions to examine PRS associations and set-based testing for candidate analysis. We examined data from 730 subjects. Best-fit PRS at p-threshold of 1e-07 was associated with total insight (R 2 =0.005, P=0.05, empirical P=0.054) and treatment insight (R 2 =0.005, P=0.048, empirical P=0.048). For models that controlled for neurocognition, PRS significantly predicted treatment insight but at higher p-thresholds (0.1 to 0.5) but did not survive correction. Patients with highest polygenic burden had 5.9 times increased risk for poor insight compared to patients with lowest burden. PRS explained 3.2% (P=0.002, empirical P=0.011) of variance in poor insight. Set-based analyses identified two variants associated with poor insight- rs320703, an intergenic variant (within-set P=6e-04, FDR P=0.046) and rs1479165 in SOX2-OT (within-set P=9e-04, FDR P=0.046). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study examining genetic basis of insight. We provide evidence for genetic contributions to impaired insight. Relevance of findings and necessity for replication are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Probabilistic safety assessment applications and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchler, M.J.; Burns, N.L.; Liparulo, N.J.; Mink, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The insights gained through a comparison of seven PRA studies (Italian PUN, Sizewell B, Ringhals 2, Millstone 3, Zion 1 and 2, Oconee 3, and Seabrook) included insights regarding the adequacy of the PRA technology utilized in the studies and the potential areas for improvement and insights regarding the adequacy of plant designs and how PRA has been utilized to enhance the design and operation of nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  8. Insights gained through probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchler, M.J.; Burns, N.L.; Liparulo, N.J.; Mink, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The insights gained through a comparison of seven probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) studies (Italian PUN, Sizewell B, Ringhals 2, Millstone 3, Zion 1 and 2, Oconee 3, and Seabrook) included insights regarding the adequacy of the PRA technology utilized in the studies and the potential areas for improvement and insights regarding the adequacy of plant designs and how PRA has been utilized to enhance the design and operation of nuclear power plants

  9. Research Insights About Risk Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese R. Viscelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, expectations for increased risk governance have been placed explicitly on boards of directors. In response, boards are being held responsible for not only understanding and approving management’s risk management processes, but they are also being held responsible for assessing the risks identified by those processes as part of overseeing management’s pursuit of value. These increasing responsibilities have led a number of organizations to adopt enterprise risk management (ERM as a holistic approach to risk management that extends beyond traditional silo-based risk management techniques. As boards, often through their audit committee, consider management’s implementation of ERM as part of the board’s risk oversight, a number of questions emerge that can be informed by academic research related to ERM. This article summarizes findings from ERM research to provide insights related to the board’s risk governance responsibilities. We also identify a number of research questions that warrant further analysis by governance scholars. It is our hope that this article will spawn varying types of research about ERM and corporate governance.

  10. Chronic alcoholism: insights from neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, S; Petit, G; Maurage, P; Kornreich, C; Verbanck, P; Noël, X

    2009-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the anatomical structures and cellular processes underlying psychiatric disorders may help bridge the gap between clinical signs and basic physiological processes. Accordingly, considerable insight has been gained in recent years into a common psychiatric condition, i.e., chronic alcoholism. We reviewed various physiological parameters that are altered in chronic alcoholic patients compared to healthy individuals--continuous electroencephalogram, oculomotor measures, cognitive event-related potentials and event-related oscillations--to identify links between these physiological parameters, altered cognitive processes and specific clinical symptoms. Alcoholic patients display: (1) high beta and theta power in the resting electroencephalogram, suggesting hyperarousal of their central nervous system; (2) abnormalities in smooth pursuit eye movements, in saccadic inhibition during antisaccade tasks, and in prepulse inhibition, suggesting disturbed attention modulation and abnormal patterns of prefrontal activation that may stem from the same prefrontal "inhibitory" cortical dysfunction; (3) decreased amplitude for cognitive event-related potentials situated along the continuum of information-processing, suggesting that alcoholism is associated with neurophysiological deficits at the level of the sensory cortex and not only disturbances involving associative cortices and limbic structures; and (4) decreased theta, gamma and delta oscillations, suggesting cognitive disinhibition at a functional level. The heterogeneity of alcoholic disorders in terms of symptomatology, course and outcome is the result of various pathophysiological processes that physiological parameters may help to define. These alterations may be related to precise cognitive processes that could be easily monitored neurophysiologically in order to create more homogeneous subgroups of alcoholic individuals.

  11. Functional Insights from Structural Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forouhar,F.; Kuzin, A.; Seetharaman, J.; Lee, I.; Zhou, W.; Abashidze, M.; Chen, Y.; Montelione, G.; Tong, L.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Structural genomics efforts have produced structural information, either directly or by modeling, for thousands of proteins over the past few years. While many of these proteins have known functions, a large percentage of them have not been characterized at the functional level. The structural information has provided valuable functional insights on some of these proteins, through careful structural analyses, serendipity, and structure-guided functional screening. Some of the success stories based on structures solved at the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) are reported here. These include a novel methyl salicylate esterase with important role in plant innate immunity, a novel RNA methyltransferase (H. influenzae yggJ (HI0303)), a novel spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (B. subtilis PaiA), a novel methyltransferase or AdoMet binding protein (A. fulgidus AF{_}0241), an ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (B. subtilis YvqK), a novel carboxysome pore (E. coli EutN), a proline racemase homolog with a disrupted active site (B. melitensis BME11586), an FMN-dependent enzyme (S. pneumoniae SP{_}1951), and a 12-stranded {beta}-barrel with a novel fold (V. parahaemolyticus VPA1032).

  12. Integrating routing decisions in public transportation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    This book treats three planning problems arising in public railway transportation planning: line planning, timetabling, and delay management, with the objective to minimize passengers’ travel time. While many optimization approaches simplify these problems by assuming that passengers’ route choice is independent of the solution, this book focuses on models which take into account that passengers will adapt their travel route to the implemented planning solution. That is, a planning solution and passengers’ routes are determined and evaluated simultaneously. This work is technically deep, with insightful findings regarding complexity and algorithmic approaches to public transportation problems with integrated passenger routing. It is intended for researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, or operations research, working in the field of public transportation from an optimization standpoint. It is also ideal for students who want to gain intuition and experience in doing complexity proofs ...

  13. Dynamics of mitochondrial transport in axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Francis Niescier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The polarized structure and long neurites of neurons pose a unique challenge for proper mitochondrial distribution. It is widely accepted that mitochondria move from the cell body to axon ends and vice versa; however, we have found that mitochondria originating from the axon ends moving in the retrograde direction never reach to the cell body, and only a limited number of mitochondria moving in the anterograde direction from the cell body arrive at the axon ends of mouse hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we have derived a mathematical formula using the Fokker-Planck equation to characterize features of mitochondrial transport, and the equation could determine altered mitochondrial transport in axons overexpressing parkin. Our analysis will provide new insights into the dynamics of mitochondrial transport in axons of normal and unhealthy neurons.

  14. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  15. A Microgenetic Study of Insightful Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luwel, Koen; Siegler, Robert S.; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2008-01-01

    An eight-session microgenetic study of acquisition of an insightful problem-solving strategy was conducted. A total of 35 second graders who did not use this insightful strategy initially were assigned to two groups that differed in the frequency of problems likely to facilitate discovery and generalization of the strategy. Children in the…

  16. Mining Login Data for Actionable Student Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Lalitha; Aghababyan, Ani; Mojarad, Shirin; Riedesel, Mark; Essa, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Student login data is a key resource for gaining insight into their learning experience. However, the scale and the complexity of this data necessitate a thorough exploration to identify potential actionable insights, thus rendering it less valuable compared to student achievement data. To compensate for the underestimation of login data…

  17. Course of insight in manic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insight is an important factor associated with non compliance and poor outcome. Poor level of insight has been described as a characteristic in patients with acute bipolar disorder with more unawareness in social consequences with increasing severity in manic episode. Aim: Main aim of study was to see the baseline and longitudinal relationship between dimensions of insight with improvement in psychopathology. Setting and Design: Forty four patients diagnosed with mania, were selected from an inpatient setting at Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, Agra with mean age of 31.07(±9.00 years. They were assessed at base line and were followed up weekly or psychopathology and insight. Materials and Methods: The Young′s mania rating scale for psychopathology and insight was assessed on three dimensions of SUMD. Results: Twenty five patients eventually completed the study. There was a positive correlation with global insight and with psychopathology consistent in longitudinal follow-up (P<0.05, but not correlating for awareness for achieved effect of medication and social consequences. Linear regression showed a positive relationship at the first and second week of assessment of SUMD and YMRS scores (P=0.001; 0.019. Conclusion: Improvement in insight is graded in a manic episode as compared to psychopathology. There is slower improvement in awareness of social consequences of mental disorder. It means that improvement in psychopathology may not necessarily indicate remission and need further supervision to improve insight and hence monitoring.

  18. Transportation Energy Futures: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Aeppli, A. E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, D. F. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McKenzie, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Witzke, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation modes—truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline—each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. A variety of factors influence the modes chosen by shippers, carriers, and others involved in freight supply chains. Analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares, and federal policy actions could influence future freight mode choices. This report considers how these topics have been addressed in existing literature and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt mode choices that reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  20. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  1. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  2. Magnetic type transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobama, Masao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic transportation of nuclear substances with optional setting for the transportation distance, even for a long distance, facilitating the automation of the transportation and decreasing the space for the installation of a direction converging section of the transporting path. Constitution: A transporting vehicle having a pair of permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies mounted with a predetermined gap to each other along the transporting direction is provided in the transporting path including a bent direction change section for transporting specimens such as nuclear materials, and a plurality of driving vehicles having permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies for magnetically attracting the transporting vehicle from outside of the transporting path are arranged to the outside of the transporting path. At least one of the driving vehicles is made to run along the transporting direction of the transporting path by a driving mechanism incorporating running section such as an endless chain to drive the transportation vehicle, and the transporting vehicle is successively driven by each of the driving mechanisms. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Newer insights in teledermatology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garehatty Rudrappa Kanthraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study and practice of dermatology care using interactive audio, visual, and data communications from a distance is called teledermatology. A teledermatology practice (TP provides teleconsultation as well tele-education. Initially, dermatologists used videoconference. Convenience, cost-effectiveness and easy application of the practice made "store and forward" to emerge as a basic teledermatology tool. The advent of newer technologies like third generation (3G and fourth generation (4G mobile teledermatology (MT and dermatologists′ interest to adopt tertiary TP to pool expert (second opinion to address difficult-to-manage cases (DMCs has resulted in a rapid change in TP. Online discussion groups (ODGs, author-based second opinion teledermatology (AST, or a combination of both are the types of tertiary TP. This article analyzes the feasibility studies and provides latest insight into TP with a revised classification to plan and allocate budget and apply appropriate technology. Using the acronym CAP-HAT, which represents five important factors like case, approach, purpose, health care professionals, and technology, one can frame a TP. Store-and-forward teledermatology (SAFT is used to address routine cases (spotters. Chronic cases need frequent follow-up care. Leg ulcer and localized vitiligo need MT while psoriasis and leprosy require SAFT. Pigmented skin lesions require MT for triage and combination of teledermoscopy, telepathology, and teledermatology for diagnosis. A self-practising dermatologist and national health care system dermatologist use SAFT for routine cases and a combination of ASTwith an ODG to address a DMC. A TP alone or in combination with face-to-face consultation delivers quality care.

  4. Monocarboxylate Transporters and Lactate Metabolism in Equine Athletes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pösö AR

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is known as the end product of anaerobic glycolysis, a pathway that is of key importance during high intensity exercise. Instead of being a waste product lactate is now regarded as a valuable substrate that significantly contributes to the energy production of heart, noncontracting muscles and even brain. The recent cloning of monocarboxylate transporters, a conserved protein family that transports lactate through biological membranes, has given a new insight into the role of lactate in whole body metabolism. This paper reviews current literature on lactate and monocarboxylate transporters with special reference to horses.

  5. Transportation Technology: Rail Transport and Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    Transportation can simply be defined as the movement of goods, services, and people from one location to another. Without an efficient means to transport goods from place to place, the economy would be nothing like it is today. Throughout the history of the United States, American railroads have paved the way toward creating a nation of great…

  6. In silico analysis of the regulation of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in C3 plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Sierra, A.; Yin, Xinyou; Harbinson, Jeremy; Driever, Steven Michiel; Molenaar, Jaap; Kramer, David M.; Struik, Paul

    2018-01-01

    We present a new simulation model of the reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of C3 species. We show that including recent insights about the regulation of the thylakoid proton motive force, ATP/NADPH balancing mechanisms (cyclic and non-cyclic alternative electron transport),

  7. Information disclosure on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan, the transport of nuclear fuel materials strictly meets the above international convention and domestic regulations as well. Information on the transport of nuclear fuel materials within the country and between the country and foreign countries is treated carefully. Nuclear fuel materials are categorized for transport and are physically protected accordingly. Certain transportation information is treated with special precautions, including prior arrangements among sender, recipient and carrier, and prior agreement between entities subject to the jurisdiction and regulation of supplier and recipient countries. In the case of international transport, this information includes specifying time, place and procedures for transferring transport and responsibility. (O.M.)

  8. Secure Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  9. Monte Carlo Transport for Electron Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet multigroup electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. is adapted into a Monte Carlo transport method in order to better model the effects of non-local behavior. The end goal is a hybrid transport-diffusion method that combines Monte Carlo Transport with a discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC). The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in short mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions. The Monte Carlo nature of the approach allows the algorithm to be massively parallelized. Work to date on the method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  10. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  11. Transportation fuels of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Society is putting more emphasis on the mobile transportation sector to achieve future goals of sustainability and a cleaner environment. To achieve these goals, does society need to jump to a new combination of fuel and vehicle technology or can we just continue to improve on the current fuels and drive train technology that has powered us the past 70 or more years? Do we need to move to more exotic energy conversion technology (fuel cell vehicles?), or can improving fuel properties further allow us to continue using combustion engines to power our vehicles? What fuel properties can still be improved in gasoline and diesel? Besides removing sulfur, should there be less aromatics in fuels? Should aromatics be eliminated? Is there a role for oxygenates in gasoline and diesel? Do blending oxygenates in fuels help or hinder in achieving the environmental goals? Can we and should we reduce our dependency on crude oil for transportation energy? Why have not the previous government-sponsored Alternative Fuel programs displaced crude oil? The marketplace will determine which fuel and vehicle technology combination will eventually be used in the future. Does the information we know today give us insight to this future? This paper will attempt to address some of the key issues and questions on the role fuels may play in that marketplace decision

  12. Innovative electron transport methods in EGS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielajew, A.F.; Wilderman, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    The initial formulation of a Monte Carlo scheme for the transport of high-energy (>≅ 100 keV) electrons was established by Berger in 1963. Calling his method the 'condensed history theory', Berger combined the theoretical results of the previous generation of research into developing approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation with numerical algorithms for exploiting the power of computers to permit iterative, piece-wise solution of the transport equation in a computationally intensive but much less approximate fashion. The methods devised by Berger, with comparatively little modification, provide the foundation of all present day Monte Carlo electron transport simulation algorithms. Only in the last 15 years, beginning with the development and publication of the PRESTA algorithm, has there been a significant revisitation of the problem of simulating electron transport within the condensed history framework. Research in this area is ongoing, highly active, and far from complete. It presents an enormous challenge, demanding derivation of new analytical transport solutions based on underlying fundamental interaction mechanisms, intuitive insight in the development of computer algorithms, and state of the art computer science skills in order to permit deployment of these techniques in an efficient manner. The EGS5 project, a modern ground-up rewrite of the EGS4 code, is now in the design phase. EGS5 will take modern photon and electron transport algorithms and deploy them in an easy-to-maintain, modern computer language-ANSI-standard C ++. Moreover, the well-known difficulties of applying EGS4 to practical geometries (geometry code development, tally routine design) should be made easier and more intuitive through the use of a visual user interface being designed by Quantum Research, Inc., work that is presented elsewhere in this conference. This report commences with a historical review of electron transport models culminating with the proposal of a

  13. Cobalt 60 gamma irradiation current status, trends and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, John T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status, trends and insights into the continued, safe use of cobalt 60 gamma irradiation. Also presented are some of the many initiatives undertaken at MDS Nordion. Topics covered include our investment for the future supply of raw materials and the latest news from source production. Briefly presented are the tasks associated with the safe transport of cobalt 60 around the world. Discussed is cobalt 60 usage at the customer site; more specifically maintaining source integrity, source utilization and irradiator design trends. Highlighted are industry trends for North America, Europe and the rest of the world. Finally presented are the challenges and opportunities for the industry. Stressed in the paper is the need to work together

  14. Insight Is Not in the Problem: Investigating Insight in Problem Solving across Task Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Margaret E; Little, Daniel R; Cropper, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    The feeling of insight in problem solving is typically associated with the sudden realization of a solution that appears obviously correct (Kounios et al., 2006). Salvi et al. (2016) found that a solution accompanied with sudden insight is more likely to be correct than a problem solved through conscious and incremental steps. However, Metcalfe (1986) indicated that participants would often present an inelegant but plausible (wrong) answer as correct with a high feeling of warmth (a subjective measure of closeness to solution). This discrepancy may be due to the use of different tasks or due to different methods in the measurement of insight (i.e., using a binary vs. continuous scale). In three experiments, we investigated both findings, using many different problem tasks (e.g., Compound Remote Associates, so-called classic insight problems, and non-insight problems). Participants rated insight-related affect (feelings of Aha-experience, confidence, surprise, impasse, and pleasure) on continuous scales. As expected we found that, for problems designed to elicit insight, correct solutions elicited higher proportions of reported insight in the solution compared to non-insight solutions; further, correct solutions elicited stronger feelings of insight compared to incorrect solutions.

  15. Impaired insight into illness and cognitive insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Resting state functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Menon, Mahesh; Mamo, David C.; Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary; Pollock, Bruce G.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Impaired insight into illness (clinical insight) in schizophrenia has negative effects on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Schizophrenia is described as a disorder of disrupted brain connectivity. In line with this concept, resting state networks (RSNs) appear differentially affected in persons with schizophrenia. Therefore, impaired clinical, or the related construct of cognitive insight (which posits that impaired clinical insight is a function of metacognitive deficits), may reflect alterations in RSN functional connectivity (fc). Based on our previous research, which showed that impaired insight into illness was associated with increased left hemisphere volume relative to right, we hypothesized that impaired clinical insight would be associated with increased connectivity in the DMN with specific left hemisphere brain regions. Methods Resting state MRI scans were acquired for participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 20). Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI fc analyses were performed using the CONN-fMRI fc toolbox v13 for established RSNs. Clinical and cognitive insight were measured with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight—Expanded Version and Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, respectively, and included as the regressors in fc analyses. Results As hypothesized, impaired clinical insight was associated with increased connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) with the left angular gyrus, and also in the self-referential network (SRN) with the left insula. Cognitive insight was associated with increased connectivity in the dorsal attention network (DAN) with the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Conclusion Increased connectivity in DMN and SRN with the left angular gyrus and insula, respectively, may represent neural correlates of impaired clinical insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and is consistent with the literature attributing impaired insight to left

  16. Sustainable Transportation and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mundorf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing a shift in thinking about Transportation and Mobility, which makes this Special Issue on Sustainable Transportation and Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health especially timely.[...

  17. Arizona transportation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  18. Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Drone Integration Pilot Program MEET THE SECRETARY TRANSPORTATION TUESDAY FEATURED NEWS The Briefing Room Connect With ... Carriers - Get a DOT Number Find Your State Transportation Department 5 Star Automobile Crash Test Ratings Office ...

  19. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  20. TRANSPORTATION ECONOMIC TRENDS 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The report has eight chapters: - Chapter 1 introduces the Transportation Services Index, a monthly summary of freight and passenger movement. - Chapter 2 explains what transportation contributes to the American economy. - Chapter 3 examines the costs...

  1. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  2. Transport not as others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhier, Fabien.

    1979-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials will increase with the development of nuclear power station. Problems arising are examined. Some examples of past accidents are given. Thermal and impact tests of containers and categories of transport are recalled [fr

  3. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification

  4. National transportation statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    National Transportation Statistics presents statistics on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, economic performance, the human and natural environment, and national security. This is a large online documen...

  5. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  6. Physiological and molecular insights into drought tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological and molecular insights into drought tolerance. Sagadevan G Mundree, Bienyameen Baker, Shaheen Mowla, Shaun Peters, Saberi Marais, Clare Vander Willigen, Kershini Govender, Alice Maredza, Samson Muyanga, Jill M Farrant, Jennifer A Thomson ...

  7. Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research. ... To develop a global strategy for consumer marketing of biofortified crops, research is needed to understand consumer ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Proteus, New Insights for a New Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waddell, William; Kim, Joanne; Smith, Jack

    2004-01-01

    .... The Proteus concept offers a range of new insights that, when used in the planning process, will assist military, intelligence, and industry leaders in their efforts to prepare for future success...

  9. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, I.R.; Carr, M.

    1997-01-01

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  10. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  11. TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Karin; Dijohn, Joseph; Misek, Shamus

    2005-01-01

    The Transportation Information Clearinghouse (TIC) Project was the result of collaboration among the Regional Transportation Authority, the Workforce Boards of Metropolitan Chicago and the Urban Transportation Center (UTC) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). The primary objective of the project was to identify privatelyprovided, employer-based, non-traditional transportation services in operation as well as specific information about these services in order for employers, Workforc...

  12. Regulation of transport processes across the tonoplast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard; Trentmann, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    In plants, the vacuole builds up the cellular turgor and represents an important component in cellular responses to diverse stress stimuli. Rapid volume changes of cells, particularly of motor cells, like guard cells, are caused by variation of osmolytes and consequently of the water contents in the vacuole. Moreover, directed solute uptake into or release out of the large central vacuole allows adaptation of cytosolic metabolite levels according to the current physiological requirements and specific cellular demands. Therefore, solute passage across the vacuolar membrane, the tonoplast, has to be tightly regulated. Important principles in vacuolar transport regulation are changes of tonoplast transport protein abundances by differential expression of genes or changes of their activities, e.g., due to post-translational modification or by interacting proteins. Because vacuolar transport is in most cases driven by an electro-chemical gradient altered activities of tonoplast proton pumps significantly influence vacuolar transport capacities. Intense studies on individual tonoplast proteins but also unbiased system biological approaches have provided important insights into the regulation of vacuolar transport. This short review refers to selected examples of tonoplast proteins and their regulation, with special focus on protein phosphorylation. PMID:25309559

  13. Diffusion transport of nanoparticles at nanochannel boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, T. S.; Milosevic, M.; Kojic, M.; Hussain, F.; Kojic, N.; Serda, R.; Ferrari, M.; Ziemys, A.

    2013-01-01

    The manipulation of matter at the nanoscale has unleashed a great potential for engineering biomedical drug carriers, but the transport of nanoparticles (NPs) under nanoscale confinement is still poorly understood. Using colloidal physics to describe NP interactions, we have computationally studied the passive transport of NPs using experimentally relevant conditions from bulk into a nanochannel of 60–90 nm height. NP size, channel height, and the Debye length are comparable so that changes in nanoscale dimensions may induce substantial changes in NP transport kinetics. We show that subtle changes in nanochannel dimensions may alter the energy barrier by about six orders of magnitude resulting in different NP penetration depths and diffusion mechanisms: ballistic, first-order and quasi zero-order transport regimes. The analysis of NP diffusion by continuum methods reveals that apparent diffusivity is reduced by decreasing channel size. The continuum finite element (FE) numerical method reproduced the colloidal model results only when surface interactions were accounted for. These results give a new insight into NP passive transport at the boundaries of nanoconfined domains, and have implications on the design of nanoscale fluidics and NP systems for biomedical and engineering applications.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Transportation Task Report On Achieving Moderator Exclusion And Supporting Standardized Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, D.K.; Carlsen, B.W.; Alsaed, H.

    2011-01-01

    Following the defunding of the Yucca Mountain Project, it is reasonable to assume that commercial used fuel will remain in storage for the foreseeable future. This report proposes supplementing the ongoing research and development work related to potential degradation of used fuel, baskets, poisons, and storage canisters during an extended period of storage with a parallel path. This parallel path can assure criticality safety during transportation by implementing a concept that achieves moderator exclusion (no in-leakage of moderator into the used fuel cavity). Using updated risk assessment insights for additional technical justification and relying upon a component inside of the transportation cask that provides a watertight function, a strong argument can be made that moderator intrusion is not credible and should not be a required assumption for criticality evaluations during normal conditions of transportation. A demonstrating testing program supporting a detailed analytical effort as well as updated risk assessment insights can provide the basis for moderator exclusion during hypothetical accident conditions. This report also discusses how this engineered concept can support the goal of standardized transportation.

  15. Transport statistics 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Haan, ML

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains information on all major modes of transport in South Africa. The transport sector is placed in perspective relative to the macro economy and a number of important transport indicators are given. The document also contains...

  16. Transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Yves

    1982-01-01

    Transport safety depends on the packaging, and the degree of safety must be adapted to the potential hazards of the substance carried. The various kinds of packagings and their strength are examined and the transport of irradiated fuels from the safety angle is taken as example and a comparison is made with the transport of conventional dangerous substances [fr

  17. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials is dependent of transport regulations. In practice integrated doses for personnel during transport are very low but are more important during loading or unloading a facility (reactor, plant, laboratory, ...). Risks occur also if packagings are used outside specifications. Recommendations to avoid these risks are given [fr

  18. Transportation in African Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the structure, role, and needs of Africa's national and intracontinental transportation system. Characteristics of rail, water, road, and air transportation are examined. The conclusion is that high investment in transportation systems is essential to the development process. (Author/KC)

  19. Competing Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a circular city model, I consider network design and pricing decisions for a single fast transport connection that faces competition from a slower but better accessible transport mode. To access the fast transport network individuals have to make complementary trips by slow mode. This

  20. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  1. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  2. Live Cell Imaging of Alphaherpes Virus Anterograde Transport and Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew P.; Kratchmarov, Radomir; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in live cell fluorescence microscopy techniques, as well as the construction of recombinant viral strains that express fluorescent fusion proteins have enabled real-time visualization of transport and spread of alphaherpes virus infection of neurons. The utility of novel fluorescent fusion proteins to viral membrane, tegument, and capsids, in conjunction with live cell imaging, identified viral particle assemblies undergoing transport within axons. Similar tools have been successfully employed for analyses of cell-cell spread of viral particles to quantify the number and diversity of virions transmitted between cells. Importantly, the techniques of live cell imaging of anterograde transport and spread produce a wealth of information including particle transport velocities, distributions of particles, and temporal analyses of protein localization. Alongside classical viral genetic techniques, these methodologies have provided critical insights into important mechanistic questions. In this article we describe in detail the imaging methods that were developed to answer basic questions of alphaherpes virus transport and spread. PMID:23978901

  3. Probabilistic Risk Assessment on Maritime Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Robby; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management has been an indispensable issue in South Korea. Before a long term SNF solution is implemented, there exists the need to distribute the spent fuel pool storage loads. Transportation of SNF assemblies from populated pools to vacant ones may preferably be done through the maritime mode since all nuclear power plants in South Korea are located at coastal sites. To determine its feasibility, it is necessary to assess risks of the maritime SNF transportation. This work proposes a methodology to assess the risk arising from ship collisions during the transportation of SNF by sea. Its scope is limited to the damage probability of SNF packages given a collision event. The effect of transport parameters' variation to the package damage probability was investigated to obtain insights into possible ways to minimize risks. A reference vessel and transport cask are given in a case study to illustrate the methodology's application.

  4. Crossover from band-like to thermally activated charge transport in organic transistors due to strain-induced traps

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Yaochuan; Diemer, Peter J.; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Hallani, Rawad K.; Jarolimek, Karol; Day, Cynthia S.; Risko, Chad; Anthony, John E.; Amassian, Aram; Jurchescu, Oana D.

    2017-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the charge-carrier mobility provides essential insight into the charge transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors. Such knowledge imparts critical understanding of the electrical properties of these materials

  5. Public expenditure competition in the transport sector: intermodal and spatial considerations for Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore Tsekeris

    2011-01-01

    The development of transport networks requires public investments, in terms of government expenditure, on several types of (road, rail, port, airport, and urban public transport) infrastructure, including their operational and maintenance services. This paper develops and implements a system-wide spatioeconomic model to analyze the expenditure competition among different types of investment in the Greek transport sector. The suggested approach can offer valuable insight into the economies of ...

  6. The Migration of Railway Freight Transport from Command Economy to Market Economy: The Case of China.

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, R.; Chen, H.; Nash, C.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the Chinese railways freight transport has been facing great challenges from the transport market and economic expansion. The total freight volume has been increasing. But the market share of railway freight has decreased greatly, especially since the beginning of migration from command economy to market economy. In this paper, we make some insight into five aspects. Firstly, the historical and current situation of freight transport in China and the relationship between econo...

  7. Diabetic Hyperglycemia: Link to Impaired Glucose Transport in Pancreatic β Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Roger H.

    1991-03-01

    Glucose uptake into pancreatic β cells by means of the glucose transporter GLUT-2, which has a high Michaelis constant, is essential for the normal insulin secretory response to hyperglycemia. In both autoimmune and nonautoimmune diabetes, this glucose transport is reduced as a consequence of down-regulation of the normal β-cell transporter. In autoimmune diabetes, circulating immunoglobulins can further impair this glucose transport by inhibiting functionally intact transporters. Insights into mechanisms of the unresponsiveness of β cells to hyperglycemia may improve the management and prevention of diabetes.

  8. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion ..... transportation problems of his textile customers and palm produce producers and ... unflinching loyalty and solidarity with their illustrious son, General.

  9. Transportation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  10. Convective transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Yu, G.Q.; Xu, X.Q.; Nevins, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Scrape-off-layer (SOL) convection in fusion experiments appears to be a universal phenomenon that can 'short-circuit' the divertor in some cases. The theory of 'blob' transport provides a simple and robust physical paradigm for studying convective transport. This paper summarizes recent advances in the theory of blob transport and its comparison with 2D and 3D computer simulations. We also discuss the common physical basis relating radial transport of blobs, pellets, and ELMs and a new blob regime that may lead to a connection between blob transport and the density limit. (author)

  11. Theory of contributon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, J.W.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1980-10-01

    A general discussion of the physics of contributon transport is presented. To facilitate this discussion, a Boltzmann-like transport equation for contributons is obtained, and special contributon cross sections are defined. However, the main goal of this study is to identify contributon transport equations and investigate possible deterministic solution techniques. Four approaches to the deterministic solution of the contributon transport problem are investigated. These approaches are an attempt to exploit certain attractive properties of the contributon flux, psi = phi phi + , where phi and phi + are the solutions to the forward and adjoint Boltzmann transport equations

  12. Transportation Business Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle

  13. Transportation safety training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, have developed and implemented a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  15. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  16. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  17. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...... response of thin conducting films at up to multi-terahertz frequencies. In this thesis THz-TDS is applied towards two main goals; (1) investigation of the fundamental carrier transport dynamics in graphene at femtosecond to picosecond timescales and (2) application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy...... to rapid and non-contact electrical characterization of large-area graphene, relevant for industrial integration. We show that THz-TDS is an accurate and reliable probe of graphene sheet conductance, and that the technique provides insight into fundamental aspects of the nanoscopic nature of conduction...

  18. Mitochondrial Iron Transport and Homeostasis in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshika eJain

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential nutrient for plants and although the mechanisms controlling iron uptake from the soil are relatively well understood, comparatively little is known about subcellular trafficking of iron in plant cells. Mitochondria represent a significant iron sink within cells, as iron is required for the proper functioning of respiratory chain protein complexes. Mitochondria are a site of Fe-S cluster synthesis, and possibly heme synthesis as well. Here we review recent insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling mitochondrial iron transport and homeostasis. We focus on the recent identification of a mitochondrial iron uptake transporter in rice and a possible role for metalloreductases in iron uptake by mitochondria. In addition, we highlight recent advances in mitochondrial iron homeostasis with an emphasis on the roles of frataxin and ferritin in iron trafficking and storage within mitochondria.

  19. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually

  20. Modelling of transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1993-09-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs

  1. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  2. Is Insight Always the Same? A Protocol Analysis of Insight in Compound Remote Associate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Edward A.; Moss, Jarrod

    2012-01-01

    Compound Remote Associate (CRA) problems have been used to investigate insight problem solving using both behavioral and neuroimaging techniques. However, it is unclear to what extent CRA problems exhibit characteristics of insight such as impasses and restructuring. CRA problem-solving characteristics were examined in a study in which…

  3. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  4. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  5. IPE data base structure and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.; Youngblood, R.

    1993-01-01

    A data base (the ''IPE Insights Data Base''), has been developed that stores data obtained from the Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) which licensees of nuclear power plants are conducting in response to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Generic Letter GL88-20. The data base, which is a collection of linked dbase files, stores information about individual plant designs, core damage frequency, and containment performance in a uniform, structured way. This data base can be queried and used as a computational tool to derive insights regarding the plants for which data is stored. This paper sets out the objectives of the IPE Insights Data Base, describes its structure and contents, illustrates sample queries, and discusses possible future uses

  6. IPE data base structure and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.; Youngblood, R.

    1994-01-01

    A data base (the open-quotes IPE Insights Data Baseclose quotes), has been developed that stores data obtained from the Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) which licensees of nuclear power plants are conducting in response to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Generic Letter GL88-20. The data base, which is a collection of linked dBase files, stores information about individual plant designs, core damage frequency, and containment performance in a uniform, structured way. This data base can be queried and used as a computational tool to derive insights regarding the plants for which data is stored. This paper sets out the objectives of the IPE Insights Data Base, describes its structure and contents, illustrates sample queries, and discusses possible future uses

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  9. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  10. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    . Sources Used:The writing is based on research literature related to illness insight and on personal recovery experiences.Conclusions and Implications for Practice: It is helpful to consider the integration of the issue of illness insight when addressing the questions and consequences of diagnosis......Topic: This account reflects on the topic of illness insight and recovery. Purpose: The purpose of the account is to clarify our understanding about the importance of illness insight in peoples’ recovery process, especially when relating the question of illness insight to the question of identity......, and to assist individuals to work through the false analogy between illness and identity while supporting the transformation from patient to person. It is also necessary for clinicians to develop a clear understanding of peoples’ actual needs and gain more knowledge about peoples’ own views and experiences...

  11. Mechanistic insights of intestinal absorption and renal conservation of folate in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Thakur, Shilpa; Najar, Rauf Ahmad; Nada, Ritambhara; Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2013-03-01

    Folate mediated one-carbon metabolism is of fundamental importance for various cellular processes, including DNA synthesis and methylation of biological molecules. Due to the exogenous requirement of folate in mammals, there exists a well developed epithelial folate transport system for regulation of normal folate homeostasis. The intestinal and renal folate uptake is tightly and diversely regulated and disturbances in folate homeostasis like in alcoholism have pathological consequences. The study was sought to delineate the regulatory mechanism of folate uptake in intestine and reabsorption in renal tubular cells that could evaluate insights of malabsorption during alcoholism. The folate transporters PCFT and RFC were found to be associated with lipid rafts of membrane surfaces in intestine and kidney. Importantly, the observed lower intestinal and renal folate uptake was associated with decreased levels of folate transporter viz. PCFT and RFC in lipid rafts of intestinal and renal membrane surfaces. The decreased association of folate transporters in lipid rafts was associated with decreased protein and mRNA levels. In addition, immunohistochemical studies showed that alcoholic conditions deranged that localization of PCFT and RFC. These findings could explain the possible mechanistic insights that may result in folate malabsorption during alcoholism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  13. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  14. Astrocytic GABA Transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Wellendorph, Petrine; Frølund, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , and several of these compounds have been shown to exhibit pronounced anticonvulsant activity in a variety of animal seizure models. As proof of concept of the validity of this drug development approach, one GABA-transport inhibitor, tiagabine, has been developed as a clinically active antiepileptic drug......Inactivation of GABA-mediated neurotransmission is achieved by high-affinity transporters located at both GABAergic neurons and the surrounding astrocytes. Early studies of the pharmacological properties of neuronal and glial GABA transporters suggested that different types of transporters might...... be expressed in the two cell types, and such a scenario was confirmed by the cloning of four distinctly different GABA transporters from a number of different species. These GABA-transport entities have been extensively characterized using a large number of GABA analogues of restricted conformation...

  15. Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.

    2011-01-01

    The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…

  16. Insight, Cognitive Insight and Sociodemographic Features in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Presenting with Reactive and Autogeneus Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre ÇAMLI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to test hypothesis that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD patients who have autogenous obsessions and reactive obsessions show different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with different insight and cognitive insight levels. Method: Sixty-one patients diagnosed as OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-I are recruited. 31 patients had reactive obsessions and 30 had autogenous obsessions. The sociodemographic characteristics of patients and the symptomatology were evaluated using psychiatric scales including SCID-I, Yale Brown Obsessive- Compulsive Scale (YBOCS, Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-SC and Beck Insight Scale. Results: The percentage of women in reactive obsessive group was higher and also this group had significantly less antipsychotic medication prescribed than the autogenous obsessive group. No significant difference was found for the other demographic variables. No significant difference was identified for the Beck Insight Self-Reflectiveness subscale but for the Self-Certainty subscale, reactive obsessives had higher scores. Although there was no significant difference for the composit index points, which is the subtraction of the two subscales, the p value was close to the limit. On the other hand YBOCS item- 11 scores which evaluates insight were higher in autogenous obsessives meaning low levels of insight. Conclusion: For the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; there was no significant difference between the groups except gender distribution and antipsychotic medication. Our data about insight seems inconsistent but insight and cognitive insight can be different entities which show different levels of insight. Further investigation with different obsession types is needed.

  17. Contribution of AcrAB-ToIC to multidrug resistance in an Escherichia coli sequence type 131 isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuster, Sabine; Vavra, Martina; Schweigger, Tobias M.; Rossen, John W. A.; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kern, Winfried V.

    Drug efflux by resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type transporters, such as AcrAB-ToIC of Escherichia can, is an important resistance mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria; however, its contribution to multidrug resistance (MDR) in clinical isolates is poorly defined. We inactivated acrB of a

  18. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  19. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  20. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  1. Handling and Transport Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France); Savouyaud, J. [Head of Electro-Mechanical Sub-Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Arrangements for special or dangerous transport operations by road arising out of the activities of the Atomic Energy Commission are made by the Works and Installations Division which acts in concert with the Monitoring and Protection Division (MPD) whenever radioactive substances or appliances are involved. In view of the risk of irradiation and contamination entailed in handling and transporting radioactive substances, including waste, a specialized transport and storage team has been formed as a complement to the emergency and decontamination teams.

  2. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  3. Freight transport and intermodality

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Mañanes, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    During recent decades, there has been very substantial growth in the freight transport sector. Freight transport is increasing faster than the economy or passenger transport. Demand is increasing more rapidly than supply and is resulting in environmental and social problems. Increasing congestion, too, is affecting efficient and reliable freight distribution, and consequently having a deleterious effect on local economies. Intermodality is therefore needed to make better use of alternative mo...

  4. Climate Change and Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Yevdokimov, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    As stated at the beginning of this chapter, the relationship between transportation and climate is two-directional. Based on our statistical analysis performed for Canada, we can make some general conclusions about this relationship. On the one hand, transportation is one of the largest contributors to GHG emissions which, in turn, cause various changes in climate. On the other hand, these climate changes negatively affect transportation in terms of its infrastructure and operations. Therefor...

  5. Transportation of hazardous and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boryczka, M.; Shaver, D.

    1989-01-01

    Transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials is a vital part of the nation's economy. In recent years public concern over the relative safety of transporting hazardous materials has risen sharply. The United States has a long history of transporting hazardous and radioactive material; rocket propellants, commercial spent fuel, low-level and high-level radioactive waste has been shipped for years. While the track record for shipping these materials is excellent, the knowledge that hazardous materials are passing through communities raises the ire of citizens and local governments. Public outcry over shipments containing hazardous cargo has been especially prominent when shippers have attempted to transport rocket propellants or spent nuclear fuel. Studies of recent shipments have provided insight into the difficulties of shipping in a politically charged environment, the major issues of concern to citizens, and some of the more successful methods of dealing with public concerns. This paper focuses on lessons learned from these studies which include interviews with shippers, carriers, and regulators

  6. Empirical particle transport model for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petravic, M.; Kuo-Petravic, G.

    1986-08-01

    A simple empirical particle transport model has been constructed with the purpose of gaining insight into the L- to H-mode transition in tokamaks. The aim was to construct the simplest possible model which would reproduce the measured density profiles in the L-regime, and also produce a qualitatively correct transition to the H-regime without having to assume a completely different transport mode for the bulk of the plasma. Rather than using completely ad hoc constructions for the particle diffusion coefficient, we assume D = 1/5 chi/sub total/, where chi/sub total/ ≅ chi/sub e/ is the thermal diffusivity, and then use the κ/sub e/ = n/sub e/chi/sub e/ values derived from experiments. The observed temperature profiles are then automatically reproduced, but nontrivially, the correct density profiles are also obtained, for realistic fueling rates and profiles. Our conclusion is that it is sufficient to reduce the transport coefficients within a few centimeters of the surface to produce the H-mode behavior. An additional simple assumption, concerning the particle mean-free path, leads to a convective transport term which reverses sign a few centimeters inside the surface, as required by the H-mode density profiles

  7. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  8. Urban transportation projects conceptualised:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    is straightforward: transportation projects transform cities. The paradoxical reality thus is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences...... operation when discussing transportation projects in big cities. The tradition of Science and Technology Studies might have provided some clues. In the following paper we discuss the most prominent aspects of some theories in STS in order to understand and conceptualize the cases of Bogotá and Copenhagen...

  9. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  10. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  11. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  12. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...

  13. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  14. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, M.

    2000-01-01

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations

  15. Heavy transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Assuming that very often a long transport route from the factory of the manufacturer to the provided site has to be reckoned with, in general only transport with a ship is possible. As each site is only called by a certain steamship line, at a very early stage of planning the nuclear power plant the possibilities and capacities of the lines and means of transportation under discussion should be investigated. In planning the unloading equipment at the site, due consideration should be given to the fact that at a later time this equipment should also be suitable for the transport of heavy components and spent fuel assemblies. (orig.) [de

  16. Heme transport and erythropoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Fleming, Mark D.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    In humans, systemic heme homeostasis is achieved via coordinated regulation of heme synthesis, transport and degradation. Although the heme biosynthesis and degradation pathways have been well characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking and incorporation into hemoproteins remains poorly understood. In the past few years, researchers have exploited genetic, cellular and biochemical tools, to identify heme transporters and, in the process, reveal unexpected functions for this elusive group of proteins. However, given the complexity of heme trafficking pathways, current knowledge of heme transporters is fragmented and sometimes contradictory. This review seeks to focus on recent studies on heme transporters with specific emphasis on their functions during erythropoiesis. PMID:23415705

  17. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  18. Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

  19. Georgetown University Research Psychologist Shares Terrorism Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2013-01-01

    Georgetown University research psychologist Dr. Anne Speckhard has spent the last decade interviewing more than four hundred terrorists, terrorist supporters, family members, close associates and even terrorist's hostages in Western Europe and the Middle East. Speckhard shared her insights with students at the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security in July.

  20. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  1. Some new insights into collimator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Atkins, F.B.; Tsui, B.M.W.; Beck, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    Relationships among collimator design parameters, physical properties of the resulting images, and human observer performance are discussed. The insight provided by these relationships hopefully will prove useful to the individual who must design or select a collimator for a particular imaging task

  2. Gestures and Insight in Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding--in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities.…

  3. Scientific Visualization: From Data to Insight

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 7. Scientific Visualization: From Data to Insight. Vijay Natarajan. General Article Volume 18 Issue 7 July 2013 pp 615-629. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/07/0615-0629 ...

  4. Innovative Leadership: Insights from a Learning Technologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Professor Ricardo Torres Kompen is a leading proponent for, and researcher in, personal learning environments (PLEs). During his interview, Torres Kompen clarified his research on PLEs, particularly the digital toolbox within PLEs. He elaborated on experiences with implementing PLE initiatives, personal insights on using social media and Web 2.0…

  5. Vitamin B12: advances and insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    individuals in critical life phases. This book has been written by experts who documented latest developments in the field. It is written for individuals looking for in depth knowledge of the nutritional, chemistry, biochemistry, health and medical relevance of the vitamin. The book provides insights...

  6. Developmental Social Cognitive Neuroscience: Insights from Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David; Singleton, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The condition of deafness presents a developmental context that provides insight into the biological, cultural, and linguistic factors underlying the development of neural systems that impact social cognition. Studies of visual attention, behavioral regulation, language development, and face and human action perception are discussed. Visually…

  7. Innovate or perish: The RSM Insight debate

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Russell

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Although innovation is one the hottest management topics of the 21st century, very few firms excel at it. Here, in the first RSM Insight debate, three of the school’s leading management scholars discuss how firms should approach the subject of innovation and what it takes to be successful at it.

  8. Innovate or perish : The RSM Insight debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilbert (Russell)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Although innovation is one the hottest management topics of the 21st century, very few firms excel at it. Here, in the first RSM Insight debate, three of the school’s leading management scholars discuss how firms should approach the subject of innovation and what

  9. Insight in schizophrenia : Associations with empathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Spikman, J. M.; Jeronimus, B. F.; Aleman, A.

    Many people with schizophrenia (50-80 %) demonstrate impaired insight, something which has been associated with a poorer outcome. Two types of empathy can be distinguished: affective empathy via shared emotions and cognitive empathy, also referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). ToM can be subdivided

  10. Tour Guiding Research Insights, Issues and Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    The book Tour guiding research – insights, issues and implications by Betty Weiler and Rosemary Black is a most welcome contribution to the specific research field of guided tours within tourism studies. It sets forth to “give an authoritative state-of-art review of the scholarly literature on tour...

  11. Insights and their emergence in everyday practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasmundi, Sarah Bro; Linell, Per

    2017-01-01

    of sense-making, problem-solving and task performance in naturalistic contexts. Second, it presents a promising method for the analysis of cognitive activities, Cognitive Event Analysis (CEA), with which we investigate real-life medical interactions, especially the emergence of insights in procedural task......-cultural patterns of behaviour....

  12. Safeguarding our environment: insight from an African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The care and management of the natural environment constitutes an important aspect of environmental philosophy; an area of study that critically scrutinizes and evaluates human activities in his environment. African environmental ethics approaches problematic fundamental issues in deep ecology with a unique insight, ...

  13. Swahili residential architecture reconsidered | Steyn | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Insight. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  14. Insights on some chiral smectic phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. August 2003 physics pp. 285–295. Insights on some chiral ... Liquid crystals; smectics; chirality; frustrated phases; twist grain boundary phases. ... molecules are more or less packed in layers and smectic phases can be seen ..... (imaging plate or CCD camera) which was located at about 300 mm from the sample.

  15. Cognitive Psychology--An Educational Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive psychology offers relevant insights into improving the teaching and learning process. The author has selected ten questions from a graduate class in cognition and learning taken at The Teachers College, Columbia University. The questions will be used to examine the most effective ways to learn and recall information.

  16. A simple Boltzmann transport equation for ballistic to diffusive transient heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassen, Jesse; Lundstrom, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Developing simplified, but accurate, theoretical approaches to treat heat transport on all length and time scales is needed to further enable scientific insight and technology innovation. Using a simplified form of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), originally developed for electron transport, we demonstrate how ballistic phonon effects and finite-velocity propagation are easily and naturally captured. We show how this approach compares well to the phonon BTE, and readily handles a full phonon dispersion and energy-dependent mean-free-path. This study of transient heat transport shows (i) how fundamental temperature jumps at the contacts depend simply on the ballistic thermal resistance, (ii) that phonon transport at early times approach the ballistic limit in samples of any length, and (iii) perceived reductions in heat conduction, when ballistic effects are present, originate from reductions in temperature gradient. Importantly, this framework can be recast exactly as the Cattaneo and hyperbolic heat equations, and we discuss how the key to capturing ballistic heat effects is to use the correct physical boundary conditions

  17. Transport hysteresis and hydrogen isotope effect on confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2018-03-01

    A Gedankenexperiment on hydrogen isotope effect is developed, using the transport model with transport hysteresis. The transport model with hysteresis is applied to case where the modulational electron cyclotron heating is imposed near the mid-radius of the toroidal plasmas. The perturbation propagates either outward or inward, being associated with the clockwise (CW) hysteresis or counter-clockwise (CCW) hysteresis, respectively. The hydrogen isotope effects on the CW and CCW hysteresis are investigated. The local component of turbulence-driven transport is assumed to be the gyro-Bohm diffusion. While the effect of hydrogen mass number is screened in the response of CW hysteresis, it is amplified in CCW hysteresis. This result motivates the experimental studies to compare CW and CCW cases in order to obtain further insight into the physics of hydrogen isotope effects.

  18. An intermodal transportation geospatial network modeling for containerized soybean shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Containerized shipping is a growing market for agricultural exports, particularly soybeans. In order to understand the optimal strategies for improving the United States’ economic competitiveness in this emerging market, this research develops an intermodal transportation network modeling framework, focusing on U.S. soybean container shipments. Built upon detailed modal cost analyses, a Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transportation (GIFT model has been developed to understand the optimal network design for U.S. soybean exports. Based on market demand and domestic supply figures, the model is able to determine which domestically produced soybeans should go to which foreign markets, and by which transport modes. This research and its continual studies, will provide insights into future policies and practices that can improve the transportation efficiency of soybean logistics.

  19. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun; Lee, Sang hoon

    2016-01-01

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed

  20. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang hoon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed.

  1. Passenger transport research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, airport and airline services epitomise what many would like to see in everyday public transport. The CSIR investigates what it will take to provide a commercial public transport service in South Africa which resembles commercial air...

  2. Bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Cees P.

    Effective clearance of inhaled particles requires mucus production and continuous mucus transport from the lower airways to the oropharynx. Mucus production takes place mainly in the peripheral airways. Mucus transport is achieved by the action of the ciliated cells that cover the inner surface of

  3. Biofuels for sustainable transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, S.

    2000-05-23

    Biomass is an attractive energy source, and transportation fuels made from biomass offer a number of benefits. Developing the technology to produce and use biofuels will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, biocrude, and methane.

  4. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  5. Trajectory structures and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Madalina; Spineanu, Florin

    2004-01-01

    The special problem of transport in two-dimensional divergence-free stochastic velocity fields is studied by developing a statistical approach, the nested subensemble method. The nonlinear process of trapping determined by such fields generates trajectory structures whose statistical characteristics are determined. These structures strongly influence the transport

  6. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Nathan; Lill, H

    1994-01-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma

  7. Nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Various methods of nuclear materials transportation at different stages of the fuel cycle (U 3 O 8 , UF 6 production enrichment, fuel element manufacturing, storage) are considered. The advantages and drawbacks of railway, automobile, maritime and air transport are analyzed. Some types of containers are characterized

  8. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2002-01-01

    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2, wh...

  9. Transport of plutonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This leaflet discusses the subject under the headings: why do we need plutonium; why must we transport it; what action is carried out; how is it moved; what are the risks. The transport of the material in specially designed containers, from Dounreay in Caithness by road and sea to Sellafield in Cumbria, is described. (U.K.)

  10. Electronic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of the electron transport properties of liquid alkali metals is described. Conductivity coefficients, Boltzmann theory, Ziman theory, alkali form factors, Ziman theory and alkalis, Faber-Ziman alloy theory, Faber-Ziman theory and alkali-alkali methods, status of Ziman theory, and other transport properties, are all discussed. (UK)

  11. Transport and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Ph.D. study of the scope for sustainable transport in Denmark, and particularly of the role of the motor vehicle in this context. The distribution of groceries is used as case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark, concluding that this has resulted in increases of the transport...

  12. Macropores and macropore transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Lamandé, Mathieu; Torp, Søren Bent

    2012-01-01

    Preferential transport of water through soil macropores is a governing process in the facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between macropore density and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil and to test the sampling...

  13. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  14. Planning Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This good practice guide is composed for the master course 13120 Public Transport Planning held at the Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark. It is intended to use as guide in the different planning aspects and assignments of the course. Since the course is about the planning...... of new public transport infrastructure this guide also focuses on the planning of new infrastructure. Furthermore, the new infrastructure in the course is expected to be a light rail and even though this guide aims at being general for public transport some of the issues evidently become more relevant...... will enable a capability for planning both bus and rail. The guide is build as a full sketch investigation of a new public transport project ranging chronological from project clarification to physical and timetable planning to traffic modeling and project appraisal. The same steps that are expected...

  15. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N; Lill, H

    1994-11-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma membrane transporters are driven by an electrochemical gradient of sodium generated by a Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Two distinct families of transporters were identified in this group. One cotransports sodium with glutamate and other amino acids and requires additionally an outwardly directed potassium gradient. The second cotransports sodium, chloride and a variety of neurotransmitters, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine and monoamines. Genes and cDNA encoding several members of the latter family have been cloned and studied in detail. The structure and function as well as the evolutionary relationships among these neurotransmitter transporters are discussed.

  16. Fuel transporting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratori, Hirozo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: In a liquid-metal cooled reactor, to reduce the waiting time of fuel handling apparatuses and shorten the fuel exchange time. Constitution: A fuel transporting machine is arranged between a reactor vessel and an out-pile storage tank, thereby dividing the transportation line of the pot for contracting fuel and transporting the same. By assuming such a construction, the flow of fuel transportation which has heretofore been carried out through fuel transportation pipes is not limited to one direction but the take-out of fuels from the reactor and the take-in thereof from the storage tank can be carried out constantly, and much time is not required for fuel exchange. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Fuelling tomorrow's transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, S.; Donovan, N.

    1995-11-01

    Fuelling Tomorrow's Transport provides a thorough analysis of key industry trends; developments in technology, fuel use and efficiency; environmental and legislative constraints; and company and governmental policy. It discusses in detail the changes facing the transport industry and analyses how the various technological, political and economic developments will affect the industry into the next century. Key issues addressed include: current and future fuel use in road, marine and aviation transport; growth in the transport sector and the impact on the oil market; likely scenarios for future transport fuelling; the latest developments in alternative fuels and engines, including electricity, natural gas, nuclear power and liquid hydrogen, and the commercial feasibility of these technologies; government policy and current and proposed legislative and fiscal incentives for the development and take-up of alternative fuels and engines; the driving force of the environmental debate; the current research and development programmes of individual companies; and the commercial openings offered by these developments. (author)

  18. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  19. Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Muller, Erik [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-01-05

    The development of the Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) has produced significant results under our previous HEP funded efforts both on the fabrication of working devices and the understanding of the underlying physics governing its performance. The results presented here substantiate the use of diamond as both a secondary electron amplifier for high-brightness, high-average-current electron sources and as a photon and particle detector in harsh radiation environments. Very high average current densities (>10A/cm2) have been transported through diamond material. The transport has been measured as a function of incident photon energy and found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. Measurements of the charge transport for photon energies near the carbon K-edge (290 eV for sp3 bonded carbon) have provided insight into carrier loss due to diffusion; modeling of this aspect of charge transport is underway. The response of diamond to nanosecond x-ray pulses has been measured; in this regime the charge transport is as expected. Electron emission from hydrogenated diamond has been measured using both electron and x-ray generated carriers; a gain of 178 has been observed for electron-generated carriers. The energy spectrum of the emitted electrons has been measured, providing insight into the electron affinity and ultimately the thermal emittance. The origin of charge trapping in diamond has been investigated for both bulk and surface trapping

  20. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  1. Dust devil track survey at Elysium Planitia, Mars: Implications for the InSight landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Dennis; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2016-03-01

    The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) robotic lander is scheduled to land in Elysium Planitia on Mars in September 2016. InSight will perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation including seismic measurements. Knowledge about encounter rates of dust devils with the InSight lander are important for two main reasons: (1) dust devils will affect the scientific measurements, i.e., wind-induced seismic noise, and (2) the power-supply of the InSight lander and instruments is provided by solar arrays and previous landers and rovers on Mars were affected by a steady decline in electrical power output due to atmospheric dust deposition on the solar panels. Long term science operations were only made possible by dust clearing events of the solar arrays caused by wind gusts and dust devils. In this study we analyzed dust devil tracks (DDTs) at the final InSight landing site region in Elysium Planitia. Formation of DDTs is caused by the removal of a layer of dust by passing dust devils, hence in principle the same process as clearing of dust from solar panels. We mapped the number, size (width and length), and orientation of DDTs in repeat observations using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images covering the exact same surface area acquired within a relatively short time span (solar panel clearing recurrence interval estimate of ∼11 Mars years using the mean annual DDT formation rate, and the mean DDT width and length from all measured DDTs. Due to several uncertainties this solar panel clearing recurrence interval for the InSight landing should be seen as an upper limit estimate.

  2. The association of lifetime insight and cognition in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Zarzuela, Amalia; Peralta, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-03-01

    Poor insight has been related to poor course in psychosis. However, the role of cognition in insight remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of cognition and lifetime psychopathological dimensions on insight in psychosis. We followed up 42 patients with psychotic disorders over 10years. Lifetime psychopathological dimensions and cognitive performance were assessed. Patients were divided into two groups by lifetime patterns of insight and compared with 42 healthy volunteers. Lower IQ and poorer social cognition were associated with higher risks of poorer lifetime insight of feeling ill and global insight respectively. Lifetime negative symptoms were associated with a higher risk of poorer lifetime insight into symptoms. Lifetime lack of insight is independent of cognitive impairment in specific domains, except for social cognition. Higher IQ may contribute to better lifetime awareness of illness, while better ability to manage emotions is involved in lifetime global insight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical correlates of loss of insight in bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Assis da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Affective state may influence insight, especially regarding mania. Nevertheless, studies have so far suggested that depression seems not to significantly impair insight. To the best of our knowledge, this study pioneers the evaluation of how insight variations in bipolar depression correlate with clinical variables. Method A group of 165 bipolar patients, 52 of whom had depressive episodes according to DSM-5 criteria, were followed during a year. All patients underwent clinical assessment, and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders (ISAD. Repeated-measures ANOVA was calculated comparing scores on the four ISAD factors (insight into symptoms, the condition itself, self-esteem and social relationships in order to investigate differences in insight according to different objects. Correlational analysis explored which clinical symptoms were linked to reduced insight. Results Worse total insight correlated with suicide attempt/ideation and fewer subsyndromal manic symptoms such as mood elevation, increased energy and sexual interest. Worse self-esteem insight was associated with not only suicide ideation/attempt but also with activity reduction and psychomotor retardation. Worse symptom insight also correlated with psychomotor retardation. Better insight into having an affective disorder was associated with more intense hypochondria symptoms. Finally, worse insight into having an illness was associated with psychotic episodes. Conclusion Our study found that symptoms other than psychosis – suicide ideation, psychomotor retardation and reduction of activity and work – correlate with insight impairment in bipolar depression.

  4. Logistic innovations in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Antonowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article discusses the issue of logistic innovations in transport. The essentials of logistic innovations in transport together with some examples of specific innovations are presented. The role of the client's needs in transport innovations is indicated. The most vital postulates affecting the innovativeness of shipping companies and derived from the author's experience as well as scholarly publications, are time, safety, reliability as well as comprehensiveness of service offer. Following the analysis of the issue, and on the grounds of Kaizen's and Lean's method, the concept of continuous innovations is suggested as very useful for the development of transport. The potential of clusters as the source of logistic innovations in transport is emphasised. Methods: The discussion of the issue was preceded by the author's analysis of written sources on innovativeness, the evaluation of ratings of innovativeness as well as the analysis of rewarded innovative solutions in transport subsequent to the businesses participation in the programme of innovative solutions in transport. The role of innovation practical business operations is argued following the analysis of some strategic documents such as: 2011 White Paper and the Strategy for the Development of Transport by 2020 adopted by the Polish government in 2013. Aim: The aim of the article is to present the role and significance of the issue of logistic innovations in transport and to cite instances of practical solutions implemented by shipping companies, the solutions which resulted in measurable effects. Following the author's observation of the instances of innovative solutions as well as his analysis of the ratings of innovativeness, the article aims to present the conclusions as for the specific kinds of activities which are indispensable to foster innovativeness in transport. Conclusions: The conclusions derived from the author's analyses and observations show that logistic

  5. Neurosteroid Transport in the Brain: Role of ABC and SLC Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Grube

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, comprising pregnane, androstane, and sulfated steroids can alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other receptors and have therefore a therapeutic potential in several brain disorders. They can be formed in brain cells or are synthesized by an endocrine gland and reach the brain by penetrating the blood–brain barrier (BBB. Especially sulfated steroids such as pregnenolone sulfate (PregS and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS depend on transporter proteins to cross membranes. In this review, we discuss the involvement of ATP-binding cassette (ABC- and solute carrier (SLC-type membrane proteins in the transport of these compounds at the BBB and in the choroid plexus (CP, but also in the secretion from neurons and glial cells. Among the ABC transporters, especially BCRP (ABCG2 and several MRP/ABCC subfamily members (MRP1, MRP4, MRP8 are expressed in the brain and known to efflux conjugated steroids. Furthermore, several SLC transporters have been shown to mediate cellular uptake of steroid sulfates. These include members of the OATP/SLCO subfamily, namely OATP1A2 and OATP2B1, as well as OAT3 (SLC22A3, which have been reported to be expressed at the BBB, in the CP and in part in neurons. Furthermore, a role of the organic solute transporter OSTα-OSTβ (SLC51A/B in brain DHEAS/PregS homeostasis has been proposed. This transporter was reported to be localized especially in steroidogenic cells of the cerebellum and hippocampus. To date, the impact of transporters on neurosteroid homeostasis is still poorly understood. Further insights are desirable also with regard to the therapeutic potential of these compounds.

  6. Small substrate transport and mechanism of a molybdate ATP binding cassette transporter in a lipid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Austin J; Harrison, Alistair; Alvarez, Frances J D; Davidson, Amy L; Pinkett, Heather W

    2014-05-23

    Embedded in the plasma membrane of all bacteria, ATP binding cassette (ABC) importers facilitate the uptake of several vital nutrients and cofactors. The ABC transporter, MolBC-A, imports molybdate by passing substrate from the binding protein MolA to a membrane-spanning translocation pathway of MolB. To understand the mechanism of transport in the biological membrane as a whole, the effects of the lipid bilayer on transport needed to be addressed. Continuous wave-electron paramagnetic resonance and in vivo molybdate uptake studies were used to test the impact of the lipid environment on the mechanism and function of MolBC-A. Working with the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae, we found that MolBC-A functions as a low affinity molybdate transporter in its native environment. In periods of high extracellular molybdate concentration, H. influenzae makes use of parallel molybdate transport systems (MolBC-A and ModBC-A) to take up a greater amount of molybdate than a strain with ModBC-A alone. In addition, the movement of the translocation pathway in response to nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in a lipid environment is conserved when compared with in-detergent analysis. However, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that a lipid environment restricts the flexibility of the MolBC translocation pathway. By combining continuous wave-electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and substrate uptake studies, we reveal details of molybdate transport and the logistics of uptake systems that employ multiple transporters for the same substrate, offering insight into the mechanisms of nutrient uptake in bacteria. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Transport zonation limits coupled nitrification-denitrification in permeable sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Adam John; Glud, R.N.; Cardenas, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    - and N-15-N-2 gas. The measured two-dimensional profiles correlate with computational model simulations, showing a deep pool of N-2 gas forming, and being advected to the surface below ripple peaks. Further isotope pairing calculations on these data indicate that coupled nitrification......-denitrification is severely limited in permeable sediments because the flow and transport field limits interaction between oxic and anoxic pore water. The approach allowed for new detailed insight into subsurface denitrification zones in complex permeable sediments....

  8. Theory of high-resolution tunneling spin transport on a magnetic skyrmion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotás, Krisztián; Rózsa, Levente; Szunyogh, László

    2018-05-01

    Tunneling spin transport characteristics of a magnetic skyrmion are described theoretically in magnetic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The spin-polarized charge current in STM (SP-STM) and tunneling spin transport vector quantities, the longitudinal spin current and the spin transfer torque, are calculated in high spatial resolution within the same theoretical framework. A connection between the conventional charge current SP-STM image contrasts and the magnitudes of the spin transport vectors is demonstrated that enables the estimation of tunneling spin transport properties based on experimentally measured SP-STM images. A considerable tunability of the spin transport vectors by the involved spin polarizations is also highlighted. These possibilities and the combined theory of tunneling charge and vector spin transport pave the way for gaining deep insight into electric-current-induced tunneling spin transport properties in SP-STM and to the related dynamics of complex magnetic textures at surfaces.

  9. Transportation Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    Materials in this curriculum guide represent a selection of the major transportation consumer topics and ideas and are designed to set the stage for more intensive transportation consumer education curriculum development and teacher efforts. (Eleven manuals covering the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the…

  10. The "Insight Paradox" in Schizophrenia: Magnitude, Moderators and Mediators of the Association Between Insight and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Calcagno, Pietro; Respino, Matteo; Marozzi, Valentina; Masotti, Mattia; Bugliani, Michele; Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Galderisi, Silvana; Maj, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The so-called "insight paradox" posits that among patients with schizophrenia higher levels of insight are associated with increased levels of depression. Although different studies examined this issue, only few took in account potential confounders or factors that could influence this association. In a sample of clinically stable patients with schizophrenia, insight and depression were evaluated using the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Other rating scales were used to assess the severity of psychotic symptoms, extrapyramidal symptoms, hopelessness, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and service engagement. Regression models were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between insight and depression while accounting for the role of confounders. Putative psychological and sociodemographic factors that could act as mediators and moderators were examined using the PROCESS macro. By accounting for the role of confounding factors, the strength of the association between insight into symptoms and depression increased from 13% to 25% explained covariance. Patients with lower socioeconomic status (F = 8.5, P = .04), more severe illness (F = 4.8, P = .03) and lower levels of service engagement (F = 4.7, P = .03) displayed the strongest association between insight and depression. Lastly, hopelessness, internalized stigma and perceived discrimination acted as significant mediators. The relationship between insight and depression should be considered a well established phenomenon among patients with schizophrenia: it seems stronger than previously reported especially among patients with lower socioeconomic status, severe illness and poor engagement with services. These findings may have relevant implications for the promotion of insight among patients with schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved

  11. Children and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-12-09

    This issue of the 'Sustainable Transportation Monitor', published by the Centre for Sustainable Transportation located in Mississauga, Ontario, reports on key findings from a project involving children and transportation in the Halton and Peel regions of Ontario, recently completed by the Centre. Excerpts from the report summarized in this issue include data on children's travel in Halton and Peel, and a discussion on possible contribution of transport practices to the growing incidence of obesity among Canadian children. Results of the study indicate that until about age 18, travel by children on schooldays is dominated by the journey to and from school. School bus is the choice of 28 per cent, and passenger car by 23 per cent among 11-to-14- year-olds; the share of travel by car is larger for older young people and also likely larger among 6-to-10-year-olds. Physical inactivity has been highlighted as the contributing factor to excess body weight and obesity in this, and other studies. Data collected for this study corroborates the findings of other studies by showing a positive correlation between obesity and transport energy use in 18 affluent countries, suggesting that a high level of use of motorized transport contributes to inactivity and body weight gain. Several alternate means of transportation, with the potential to combat obesity, are proposed. 46 refs.

  12. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  13. Transports and environment; Transports et environnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases reduction, this study proposes many advices to control the fuel consumption of the vehicles and to change habits in the transportation sector. It presents also the alternatives to the pollutant today vehicles in the domain of the vehicles and buses fuels but also the new motors. Many Internet addresses are provided to complete the presentation. (A.L.B.)

  14. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  15. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  16. Transport in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassberg, H.; Brakel, R.; Burhenn, R.; Gasparino, U.; Grigull, P.; Kick, M.; Kuehner, G.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Stroth, U.; Weller, A.

    1993-01-01

    The local electron and ion heat transport as well as the particle and impurity transport properties in stellarators are reviewed. In this context, neoclassical theory is used as a guideline for the comparison of the experimental results of the quite different confinement concepts. At sufficiently high temperatures depending on the specific magnetic configuration, neoclassical predictions are confirmed by experimental findings. The confinement properties in the LMFP collisionality regime are discussed with respect to the next stellarator generation, for which at higher temperatures the neoclassical transport is expected to become more important. (orig.)

  17. CNG transport opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The recent announcement by the Australian Government of funding for a dramatic increase in supply infrastructure for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered vehicles has shored up predictions that natural gas will achieve a thirty-fold increase in its share of the Australian transport energy market by 2015. This projection, would put sales of natural gas for transport fuel in the year 2014/15 at about 10% of current retail sales across the nation. In the general transport sector, the lower particulate and noise pollution, compared with diesel-powered vehicles, is a significant advantage

  18. Means of Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    The car is probably one of the most central signifiers of modern scientific and technological progress. Not only did its introduction in early 20th century America quite literally move scientific progress into the street, it also provided its increasing number of users with new and technologically....... According to film theorist Julian Smith, the automobile has been just as much “embraced … as a form of emotional transport, the state or condition of being transported by ecstasy” as “perceived as a mode of transportation in the primary and ordinary sense of the word.” This paper analyses the ways in which...

  19. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  20. Critical infrastructures risk and vulnerability assessment in transportation of dangerous goods transportation by road and rail

    CERN Document Server

    Vamanu, Bogdan I; Katina, Polinpapilinho F

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses a key issue in today’s society: the safer transport of dangerous goods, taking into account people, the environment and economics. In particular, it offers a potential approach to identifying the issues, developing the models, providing the methods and recommending the tools to address the risks and vulnerabilities involved. We believe this can only be achieved by assessing those risks in a comprehensive, quantifiable and integrated manner. Examining both rail and road transportation, the book is divided into three sections, covering: the mature and accepted (by both academia and practitioners) methodology of risk assessment; the vulnerability assessment – a novel approach proposed as a vital complement to risk; guidance and support to build the tools that make methods and equations to yield: the Decision Support Systems. Throughout the book, the authors do not endeavor to provide THE solution. Instead, the book offers insightful food for thought for students, researchers, practitioner...

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  3. Improved Insight into Transport Phenomena in Porous Materials at Submicrometer Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gooya, Reza

    in porous media. Surface properties of the pores are important toinclude in simulation of two phase flƒow. ThŒese properties can be parameterized in termsof contact angles between the two liquid and the solid phases. O‰en the contact angle istreated as a constant, i.e. static and not dependent on the flƒuid...... velocity. In fact it is notconstant. Simulations using di‚fferent formulations of the contact angle were performedas a function of ƒflow velocity and the results were compared with experimental resultsobtained by flƒow of two phases in a micrometer sized channel. ŒThe best correspondencewith...

  4. New insights into gill ionocyte and ion transporter function in euryhaline and diadromous fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, Junya; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Teleost fishes are able to acclimatize to seawater by secreting excess NaCl by means of specialized “ionocytes” in the gill epithelium. Antibodies against Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) have been used since 1996 as a marker for identifying branchial ionocytes. Immunohistochemistry of NKA by itself and in combination with Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter and CFTR Cl− channel provided convincing evidence that ionocytes are functional during seawater acclimation, and also revealed morphological variations in ionocytes among teleost species. Recent development of antibodies to freshwater- and seawater-specific isoforms of the NKA alpha-subunit has allowed functional distinction of ion absorptive and secretory ionocytes in Atlantic salmon. Cutaneous ionocytes of tilapia embryos serve as a model for branchial ionocytes, allowing identification of 4 types: two involved in ion uptake, one responsible for salt secretion and one with unknown function. Combining molecular genetics, advanced imaging techniques and immunohistochemistry will rapidly advance our understanding of both the unity and diversity of ionocyte function and regulation in fish osmoregulation.

  5. Small-scale sediment transport patterns and bedform morphodynamics: New insights from high resolution multibeam bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Rubin, David M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2011-01-01

    New multibeam echosounder and processing technologies yield sub-meter-scale bathymetric resolution, revealing striking details of bedform morphology that are shaped by complex boundary-layer flow dynamics at a range of spatial and temporal scales. An inertially aided post processed kinematic (IAPPK) technique generates a smoothed best estimate trajectory (SBET) solution to tie the vessel motion-related effects of each sounding directly to the ellipsoid, significantly reducing artifacts commonly found in multibeam data, increasing point density, and sharpening seafloor features. The new technique was applied to a large bedform field in 20–30 m water depths in central San Francisco Bay, California (USA), revealing bedforms that suggest boundary-layer flow deflection by the crests where 12-m-wavelength, 0.2-m-amplitude bedforms are superimposed on 60-m-wavelength, 1-m-amplitude bedforms, with crests that often were strongly oblique (approaching 90°) to the larger features on the lee side, and near-parallel on the stoss side. During one survey in April 2008, superimposed bedform crests were continuous between the crests of the larger features, indicating that flow detachment in the lee of the larger bedforms is not always a dominant process. Assessment of bedform crest peakedness, asymmetry, and small-scale bedform evolution between surveys indicates the impact of different flow regimes on the entire bedform field. This paper presents unique fine-scale imagery of compound and superimposed bedforms, which is used to (1) assess the physical forcing and evolution of a bedform field in San Francisco Bay, and (2) in conjunction with numerical modeling, gain a better fundamental understanding of boundary-layer flow dynamics that result in the observed superimposed bedform orientation.

  6. The Role of Maternal-Fetal Cholesterol Transport in Early Fetal Life : Current Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, Maria E.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Bakker, Marian K.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Plosch, Torsten

    The importance of maternal cholesterol as an exogenous cholesterol source for the growing embryo was first reported in studies of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Although most of the fetus's cholesterol is synthesized by the fetus itself, there is now growing evidence that during the first weeks of

  7. The role of maternal-fetal cholesterol transport in early fetal life: Current insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Baardman (Taco); W.S. Kerstjens-Frederikse (Wilhelmina); R.M.F. Berger (Rolf); M.K. Bakker (Marian); R.M.W. Hofstra (Robert); T. Plösch (Torsten)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of maternal cholesterol as an exogenous cholesterol source for the growing embryo was first reported in studies of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Although most of the fetus's cholesterol is synthesized by the fetus itself, there is now growing evidence that during the first

  8. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    Inflorescences of sugar palms exude copious amounts of sugar-rich sap, when their peduncles are scarred. In Thailand this phenomenon form the basis of a widespread cottage industry based on species such as Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifera, Cocos nucifera and Nypa fruticans. The extracted sugar...... sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  9. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  10. Forming a Perceived Franchise Value: Theoretical Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Levickaitė, Rasa; Reimeris, Ramojus

    2011-01-01

    The article is based on literature review, theoretical insights and deals with the topic of perceived franchise value. The objective of the paper is – what elements form the franchisee's perceived value in service business (comparing with alternative of own business model). The aim of the paper is to propose systematic value elements in the process of forming a value of a franchise business model perceived by the franchisee. In terms of practical meaning, this article should be relevant to en...

  11. Biblical Leadership: Insights for Today's Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Hershey H.; Friedman, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The scholarly literature in management has paid little attention to the study of Biblical figures as leaders. This paper aims to advance the effort to fill this gap by demonstrating that many insights about successful and unsuccessful leadership may be derived from the Bible. Successful leaders demonstrated a willingness to be different, a passion for justice, humility, and a concern for others. Unsuccessful leaders were sidetracked from their mission by the hunger for power or by lust and envy.

  12. Paris after Trump: An Inconvenient Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    With his announcement to pull the US out of the Paris Agreement US President Donald Trump has snubbed the international climate policy community. Key remaining parties to the Agreement such as Europe and China might call for carbon tariffs on US imports as a sanctioning instrument to coerce US compliance. Our analysis, however, reveals an inconvenient insight for advocates of carbon tariffs: given the possibility of retaliatory tariffs across all imported goods, carbon tariffs do not constitu...

  13. Exploring Insight: Focus on Shifts of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik, Alik; Koichu, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses a sequence of events that preceded an insight solution to a challenging problem in the context of numerical sequences. A three­week long solution process by a pair of ninth­-grade students is analysed by means of the theory of shifts of attention. The goal for this article is to reveal the potential of this theory…

  14. Egypt: Pharoahs and Fundamentalists? | Swart | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gerrie Swart, Hussein Solomon, Anneli Botha. Abstract. Africa Insight Vol.33(4) 2003: 78-81. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ai.v33i4.22345 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  15. The Association of Insight and Change in Insight with Clinical Symptoms in Depressed Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongbo; Chang, Qing; Ma, Yarong

    2018-04-25

    Lack of insight has been extensively studied and was found to be adversely correlated with impaired treatment compliance and worse long term clinical outcomes among patients with schizophrenia, while not much is known about this phenonmenon in patients with severe depression. To explore the correlates of insight and its relation to symptom changes among the most seriously ill patients with affective disorders, those who require hospitalization. Patients hospitalized in a large psychiatric hospital in south China with either major depressive disorder (MDD)(N=55) or bipolar depression (BD) (N=85) based on ICD-10 diagnostic criteria were assessed with the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire (ITAQ) one week after admission and at the time of discharge. Clinical symptoms were measured at the same time with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and the Depression subscale of the Symptom Check list-90 (SCL-90). Length of stay (LOS), duration of illness, duration of untreated mood disorder, number of previous episodes of depression and previous admissions for depression were documented during interviews with patients and their families and from a review of medical records. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analysis were used to examine the relationship of sociodemographic characteristics, clinical symptomatology and clinical history, to insight at the time of admission. The relationships between change in clinical symptoms and change in insight from admission to discharge were also examined. Stepwise multiple regression models suggested that any previous admissions for depression and higher anxiety factor scores on the HAMD-17 are significant independent predictors of insight accounting for 22.9% of the variance. Multiple regression analysis residual change scores (change scores adjusted for baseline values) on the ITAQ showed that improved insight over average stays of 51 days were inversely related to the residual psychomotor

  16. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  17. Risk insights from seismic margin reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the information that has been derived from the three seismic-margin reviews conducted so far, and the information that is potentially available from using the seismic-margin method more generally. There are two different methodologies for conducting seismic margin reviews of nuclear power plants, one developed under NRC sponsorship and one developed under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute. Both methodologies will be covered in this paper. The paper begins with a summary of the steps necessary to complete a margin review, and will then outline the key technical difficulties that need to be addressed. After this introduction, the paper covers the safety and operational insights derived from the three seismic-margin reviews already completed: the NRC-sponsored review at Maine Yankee; the EPRI-sponsored review at Catawba; and the joint EPRI/NRC/utility effort at Hatch. The emphasis is on engineering insights, with attention to the aspects of the reviews that are easiest to perform and that provide the most readily available insights

  18. Insights from an overview of four PRAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.; Arrieta, L.; Teichmann, T.; Davis, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of an investigation of four probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), those for Millstone 3 Seabrook, Shoreham, and Oconee 3, performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Reliability and Risk Assessment branch of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This group of four PRAs was subjected to an overview process with the basic goal of ascertaining what insights might be gained (beyond those already documented within the individual PRAs) by an independent evaluation of the group with respect to nuclear plant safety and vulnerability. Specifically, the objectives of the study were 1) to identify and rank initiators, systems, components, and failure modes from dominant accident sequences according to their contribution to core melt probability and public risk; and 2) to derive from this process plant-specific and generic insights. The effort was not intended to verify the specific details and results of each PRA but rather - having accepted the results - to see what they might mean in a more global context. This paper also presents some comments and insights into the amenability of certain features of these PRAs to this type of overview process

  19. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  20. NJ transportation fact book, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The New Jersey Transportation Fact Book 2006-07 presents information about the New Jersey Department of Transportation : and other agencies that provide transportation services in New Jersey. We hope it will prove helpful.

  1. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2013 (NTAD2013) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  2. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2015 (NTAD2015) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  3. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2012 (NTAD2012) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  4. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2011 (NTAD2011) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  5. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2009 (NTAD2009) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  6. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2014 (NTAD2014) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  7. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2010 (NTAD2010) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  8. Development of Indian passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, R. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    1998-05-01

    The Indian transport sector has been studied using logistic substitution. The share of rail transport is declining, while road and air transport are increasing. These developments are not desirable from an energy-efficiency perspective. (author)

  9. Transportation statistics annual report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) presents data and information compiled by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a component of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOTs) Research and Innovative Technology Admini...

  10. Transportation statistics annual report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) presents data and information selected by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a component of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT's) Research and Innovative Technology Administra...

  11. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration produces the Pocket Guide to Transportation as a compact resource that provides snapshots of the U.S. transportation system and highlights major tr...

  12. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide that provides transportation statistics at your fingertips. It provides key information and highlights major trends on the U.S. transportation system. This year features a new and...

  13. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  14. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...

  15. Transportation energy data book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and : published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of : Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicl...

  16. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.

  17. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The norm which establishes the requirements of radiation protection and safety related to the transport of radioactive materials, aiming to keep a suitable control level of eventual exposure of personnels, materials and environment of ionizing radiation, including: specifications on radioactive materials for transport, selection of package type; specification of requirements of the design and assays of acceptance of packages; disposal related to the transport; and liability and administrative requirements, are presented. This norm is applied to: truckage, water carriage and air service; design, fabrication, assays and mantenaince of packages; preparation, despatching, handling, loading storage in transition and reception in the ultimate storage of packages; and transport of void packages which have been contained radioactive materials. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Transport and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, C; Jennings, T

    1976-01-01

    This book examines the impact of transport operations on the environment. Noise, air pollution, vibration, accidents, delays caused by slow-moving vehicles, road wear, visual intrusion, the severance of communities--all these social costs of transport are studied, together with policies that might reduce them. The difficulties in measuring costs and benefits and the value judgments that may guide transport policy are reviewed. Specific problems examined include the journey to work, traffic-free shopping streets, urban motor-ways, and inter-change depots for goods vehicles. The role of central and local government is considered, particular attention being given to methods of allowing for environmental benefits when planning new transport investment; the implications of EEC policy are also noted.

  19. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The existing U.S. hub-and-spoke air transportation system is reaching saturation. Major aspects of the current system, such as capacity, safety, mobility, customer satisfaction, security, communications, and ecological effects, require improvements. The changing dynamics - increased presence of general aviation, unmanned autonomous vehicles, military aircraft in civil airspace as part of homeland defense - contributes to growing complexity of airspace. The system has proven remarkably resistant to change. NASA Langley Research Center and the National Institute of Aerospace conducted a workshop on Transportation Network Topologies on 9-10 December 2003 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The workshop aimed to examine the feasibility of traditional methods for complex system analysis and design as well as potential novel alternatives in application to transportation systems, identify state-of-the-art models and methods, conduct gap analysis, and thus to lay a foundation for establishing a focused research program in complex systems applied to air transportation.

  20. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  1. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    ... and the environment in which the private sector operates. They must also assess the role of government in determining transportation policy, as federal, state, and local agencies regulate every mode of this industry. While the U.S...

  2. Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index Blog What Can I ... Search form Search the Site Main menu Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  3. Remote controlled transport device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Tada, Eisuke; Sato, Masaki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for transporting equipments for maintenance and parts between a maintenance port and a facility for maintenance by remote control in a radioactive material handling facility such as a nuclear power plant. Namely, a power supply bus bar is disposed along a transferring path in order to supply power to a transporting means, and is divided into every region having a predetermined length. Each of the power supply bus bar regions is controlled for the power supply by a control device. Accordingly, the transporting means can be moved and driven successively being independent on every power supply bus bar region. Accordingly, a plurality of transporting means can be operated independently in a transferring path without laying around power cables and control signal cables. (I.S.)

  4. Active transport and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    Increasing heat may impede peoples' ability to be active outdoors thus limiting active transport options. Co-benefits from mitigation of and adaptation to global warming should not be assumed but need to be actively designed into strategies.

  5. Transportation and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This project explored the link between transportation and tourism in Texas. A session on transit and tourism was organized and conducted as part of the 2012 Texas Transit Conference. Speakers at the session described public transit services oriented ...

  6. Risicobeheersing transport diervoeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.L.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Ipema, A.H.; Boekhoff, M.

    2007-01-01

    Welke knelpunten en oplossingsrichtingen bestaan in de praktijk van het transport diervoeders met betrekking tot de implementatie van de diervoederhygiëneverordening, toegespitst op informatievoorziening over wettelijke en bovenwettelijke eisen, naleving, controle en handhaving?

  7. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  8. Manpower and Transportation Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies three routing and scheduling problems arising in manpower and transportation planning. These problems are rooted in real applications, and carry interesting characteristics. By exploiting the structures of the problems, this thesis provides effective mathematical models and

  9. Energy and transportation(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  10. MANAGEMENT OF TOURISM TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, the relevance of transport activities in relation to tourism activities is essential, because it is extremely important and necessary to offer feasible information about tourism services to help consumer to choose the mode of travel to destinations ideal holiday. The methods used in the development of this hypothesis were explanation, exemplification (brief presentation of each mode of transport comparison etc. Analyzing the current situation of national, European and World Wide tourism transportation, the paper proposes practical applications able to explain that the conduct of economic activities as an integral part of the sector of trade and services within a national economy, would not be possible without the involvement of transport, whether by road, rail and air and naval. The results of the analysis are perfectly applicable offering guests the opportunity to reach the most remote corners of the world in a short time, high degree of comfort and affordable price.

  11. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  12. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  13. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  14. Energy and transportation(*)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, J.

    2015-08-01

    Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  15. Transport statistics 1996

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shepperson, L

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains transport and related statistics on roads, vehicles, infrastructure, passengers, freight, rail, air, maritime and road traffic, and international comparisons. The information compiled in this publication has been gathered...

  16. CHARTB multigroup transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.

    1979-03-01

    The physics and numerical implementation of the radiation transport routine used in the CHARTB MHD code are discussed. It is a one-dimensional (Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical symmetry), multigroup,, diffusion approximation. Tests and applications will be discussed as well

  17. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  18. On linear transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    The equations. governing the transport of radiation in plane media of finite thickness are formulated and solved in terms reflection and extintion of radiation inthe case of semi infinite media. 13 refs

  19. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  20. Water and solute transport across the peritoneal membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelle, Johann; Devuyst, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    We review the molecular mechanisms of peritoneal transport and discuss how a better understanding of these mechanisms is relevant for dialysis therapy. Peritoneal dialysis involves diffusion and osmosis through the highly vascularized peritoneal membrane. Computer simulations, expression studies and functional analyses in Aqp1 knockout mice demonstrated the critical role of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in water removal during peritoneal dialysis. Pharmacologic regulation of AQP1, either through increased expression or gating, is associated with increased water transport in rodent models of peritoneal dialysis. Water transport is impaired during acute peritonitis, despite unchanged expression of AQP1, resulting from the increased microvascular area that dissipates the osmotic gradient across the membrane. In long-term peritoneal dialysis patients, the fibrotic interstitium also impairs water transport, resulting in ultrafiltration failure. Recent data suggest that stroke and drug intoxications might benefit from peritoneal dialysis and could represent novel applications of peritoneal transport in the future. A better understanding of the regulation of osmotic water transport across the peritoneum offers novel insights into the role of water channels in microvascular endothelia, the functional importance of structural changes in the peritoneal interstitium and the transport of water and solutes across biological membranes in general.

  1. The theory and simulation of relativistic electron beam transport in the ion-focused regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, S.B.; Holloway, J.P.; Kammash, T.; Gilgenbach, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Several recent experiments involving relativistic electron beam (REB) transport in plasma channels show two density regimes for efficient transport; a low-density regime known as the ion-focused regime (IFR) and a high-pressure regime. The results obtained in this paper use three separate models to explain the dependency of REB transport efficiency on the plasma density in the IFR. Conditions for efficient beam transport are determined by examining equilibrium solutions of the Vlasov--Maxwell equations under conditions relevant to IFR transport. The dynamic force balance required for efficient IFR transport is studied using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. These simulations provide new insight into the transient beam front physics as well as the dynamic approach to IFR equilibrium. Nonlinear solutions to the beam envelope are constructed to explain oscillations in the beam envelope observed in the PIC simulations but not contained in the Vlasov equilibrium analysis. A test particle analysis is also developed as a method to visualize equilibrium solutions of the Vlasov equation. This not only provides further insight into the transport mechanism but also illustrates the connections between the three theories used to describe IFR transport. Separately these models provide valuable information about transverse beam confinement; together they provide a clear physical understanding of REB transport in the IFR

  2. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  3. Coupled Transport Phenomena in the Opalinus Clay: Implications for Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, J.M.

    1999-09-01

    Coupled phenomena (thermal and chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration, coupled diffusion, thermal diffusion, thermal filtration, Dufour effect) may play an important role in fluid, solute and heat transport in clay-rich formations, such as the Opalinus Clay (OPA), which are being considered as potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. In this study, the potential effects of coupled phenomena on radionuclide transport in the vicinity of a repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SF) hosted by the Opalinus Clay, at times equal to or greater than the expected lifetime of the waste canisters (about 1000 years), have been addressed. Firstly, estimates of the solute fluxes associated with chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration, thermal diffusion and thermal osmosis have been calculated. Available experimental data concerning coupled transport phenomena in compacted clays, and the hydrogeological and geochemical conditions to which the Opalinus Clay is subject, have been used for these estimates. These estimates suggest that thermal osmosis is the only coupled transport mechanism that could have a strong impact on solute and fluid transport in the vicinity of the repository. Secondly, estimates of the heat fluxes associated with thermal filtration and the Dufour effect in the vicinity of the repository have been calculated. The calculated heat fluxes are absolutely negligible compared to the heat flux caused by thermal conduction. As a further step to obtain additional insight into the effects of coupled phenomena on solute transport, the solute fluxes associated with advection, chemical diffusion, thermal and chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration and thermal diffusion have been incorporated into a simple one-dimensional transport equation. The analytical solution of this equation, with appropriate parameters, shows again that thermal osmosis is the only coupled transport mechanism that could have a strong effect on repository

  4. Coupled Transport Phenomena in the Opalinus Clay: Implications for Radionuclide Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, J.M.

    1999-09-01

    Coupled phenomena (thermal and chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration, coupled diffusion, thermal diffusion, thermal filtration, Dufour effect) may play an important role in fluid, solute and heat transport in clay-rich formations, such as the Opalinus Clay (OPA), which are being considered as potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. In this study, the potential effects of coupled phenomena on radionuclide transport in the vicinity of a repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SF) hosted by the Opalinus Clay, at times equal to or greater than the expected lifetime of the waste canisters (about 1000 years), have been addressed. Firstly, estimates of the solute fluxes associated with chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration, thermal diffusion and thermal osmosis have been calculated. Available experimental data concerning coupled transport phenomena in compacted clays, and the hydrogeological and geochemical conditions to which the Opalinus Clay is subject, have been used for these estimates. These estimates suggest that thermal osmosis is the only coupled transport mechanism that could have a strong impact on solute and fluid transport in the vicinity of the repository. Secondly, estimates of the heat fluxes associated with thermal filtration and the Dufour effect in the vicinity of the repository have been calculated. The calculated heat fluxes are absolutely negligible compared to the heat flux caused by thermal conduction. As a further step to obtain additional insight into the effects of coupled phenomena on solute transport, the solute fluxes associated with advection, chemical diffusion, thermal and chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration and thermal diffusion have been incorporated into a simple one-dimensional transport equation. The analytical solution of this equation, with appropriate parameters, shows again that thermal osmosis is the only coupled transport mechanism that could have a strong effect on repository

  5. A strategy for introducing hydrogen into transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, A.E.; Keith, D.W.; Corbett, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable effort is being expended on research and demonstration projects aimed at introducing hydrogen into the transportation sector as a fuel, generally motivated by concerns about carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum imports (or scarcity). In this paper we focus on one aspect of strategy for introducing hydrogen--the choice of transportation mode. Our analysis suggests that cost of introducing hydrogen can be reduced by selecting a mode that uses a small number of relatively large vehicles that are operated by professional crews along a limited number of point-to-point routes or within a small geographic area. In addition, technological innovation in vehicle design will take place most quickly in modes where individual vehicles are produced to order and each receives significant engineering attention (not those manufactured in vast quantities on assembly lines). The immediate environmental benefits of introducing hydrogen fuel will occur in modes that have relatively less stringent pollution regulations applied to them. These insights, suggest that heavy-duty freight modes would be a less costly way to introduce hydrogen as a transportation fuel and a more effective way to advance hydrogen-related technologies so that they could subsequently be used more widely in light-duty vehicles

  6. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  7. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Suzana K; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Beuthe, Michel; Gasca, Jorge; Greene, David; Lee, David S.; Muromachi, Yasunori; Newton, Peter J.; Plotkin, Steven; Sperling, Daniel; Wit, Ron; Zhou, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Transport activity, a key component of economic development and human welfare, is increasing around the world as economies grow. For most policymakers, the most pressing problems associated with this increasing transport activity are traffic fatalities and injuries, congestion, air pollution and petroleum dependence. These problems are especially acute in the most rapidly growing economies of the developing world. Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can take its place among these other ...

  8. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  9. Tape transport mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groh, E.F.; McDowell, W.; Modjeski, N.S.; Keefe, D.J.; Groer, P.

    1979-01-01

    A device is provided for transporting, in a stepwise manner, tape between a feed reel and takeup reel. An indexer moves across the normal path of the tape displacing it while the tape on the takeup reel side of the indexer is braked. After displacement, the takeup reel takes up the displaced tape while the tape on the feed reel side of the indexer is braked, providing stepwise tape transport in precise intervals determined by the amount of displacement caused by the indexer

  10. Monitoring of transport contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of transport contamination is considered. A particularly thorough monitoring is recommended to be carried out in loading-unloading operations. The monitoring is performed when leaving loading-unloading site and zone under control and prior to preventive examination, technical service or repair. The method of monitoring of auto transport contamination with high-energy β-emitters by means of a special stand permitting the automation of the monitoring process is described [ru

  11. Digital intelligence sources transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Wang Renbo

    2011-01-01

    It presents from the collection of particle-ray counting, infrared data communication, real-time monitoring and alarming, GPRS and other issues start to realize the digital management of radioactive sources, complete the real-time monitoring of all aspects, include the storing of radioactive sources, transporting and using, framing intelligent radioactive sources transporter, as a result, achieving reliable security supervision of radioactive sources. (authors)

  12. Spin transport in nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Pramanik, S.; bandyopadhyay, S.; Cahay, M.

    2003-01-01

    We study high-field spin transport of electrons in a quasi one-dimensional channel of a $GaAs$ gate controlled spin interferometer (SPINFET) using a semiclassical formalism (spin density matrix evolution coupled with Boltzmann transport equation). Spin dephasing (or depolarization) is predominantly caused by D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation associated with momentum dependent spin orbit coupling effects that arise due to bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling) and structural inve...

  13. Thermoelectric transport in superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinecke, T L; Broido, D A

    1997-07-01

    The thermoelectric transport properties of superlattices have been studied using an exact solution of the Boltzmann equation. The role of heat transport along the barrier layers, of carrier tunneling through the barriers, of valley degeneracy and of the well width and energy dependences of the carrier-phonon scattering rates on the thermoelectric figure of merit are given. Calculations are given for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and for PbTe, and the results of recent experiments are discussed.

  14. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  15. Climate change : transportation table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogilvie, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets for the post-2000 period. If ratified, Canada will be committed to reduce emissions of GHGs by 6 per cent below 1990 levels during the period 2008-2012. A recommended national strategy is to establish 'issue tables' that will advise the Ministers of Energy and Environment on preferred options to reach the Kyoto target and to identify early actions that can be taken. The 'Transportation Table' which is the focus of this paper, is one of the 15 sectoral tables. The Transportation Table will identify by July 1999, specific measures to mitigate GHG emissions from Canada's transportation sector. Currently, GHG emissions from the transportation sector are predicted to be 27 per cent above 1990 levels by 2010. Fuel taxes, emissions trading, and research into improved vehicle technologies and automotive fuels are some of the recommended options which can help reduce emissions trading from the transportation sector. Studies are underway to deal with emissions from transport in two sub-groups, freight and passenger. 1 fig

  16. Experimental constraints on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Petty, K.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Forest, C.B.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; De Haas, J.C.M.; James, R.A.; Makowski, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    Characterization of the cross-field energy transport in magnetic confinement experiments in a manner applicable to the accurate assessment of future machine performance continues to be a challenging goal. Experimental results from the DIII-D tokamak in the areas of dimensionless scaling and non-diffusive transport represent progress toward this goal. Dimensionless scaling shows how beneficial the increase in machine size and magnetic field is for future devices. The experiments on DIII-D are the first to determine separately the electron and ion scaling with normalized gyroradius ρ * ; the electrons scale as expected from gyro-Bohm class theories, while the ions scale consistent with the Goldston empirical scaling. This result predicts an increase in transport relative to Bohm diffusion as ρ * decreases in future devices. The existence of distinct ρ * scalings for ions and electrons cautions against a physical interpretation of one-fluid or global analysis. The second class of experiments reported here are the first to demonstrate the existence of non-diffusive energy transport. Electron cyclotron heating was applied at the half radius; the electron temperature profile remains substantially peaked. Power balance analysis indicates that heat must flow in the direction of increasing temperature, which is inconsistent with purely diffusive transport. The dynamics of electron temperature perturbations indicate the presence in the heat flux of a term dependent on temperature rather than its gradient. These two observations strongly constrain the types of models which can be applied to cross-field heat transport

  17. Transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brobst, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty years of almost accident-free transport of nuclear materials is pointed to as evidence of a fundamentally correct approach to the problems involved. The increased volume and new technical problems in the future will require extension of these good practices in both regulations and packaging. The general principles of safety in the transport of radioactive materials are discussed first, followed by the transport of spent fuel and of radioactive waste. The security and physical protection of nuclear shipments is then treated. In discussing future problems, the question of public understanding and acceptance is taken first, thereafter transport safeguards and the technical bases for the safety regulations. There is also said to be a need for a new technology for spent fuel casks, while a re-examination of the IAEA transport standards for radiation doses is recommended. The IAEA regulations regarding quality assurance are said to be incomplete, and more information is required on correlations between engineering analysis, scale model testing and full scale crash testing. Transport stresses on contents need to be considered while administrative controls have been neglected. (JIW)

  18. Transport processes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.

    1988-01-01

    This part is devoted to the classical transport theory in plasmas. Ch. 1 is a chapter of 'pure' hamiltonian mechanics and starts with the study of the motion of an individual charged particle in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Ch. 2 introduces the tools of statistical mechanics for the study of large collections of charged particles. A kinetic theory is derived as a basic tool for transport theory. In ch. 3 the hydro-dynamic - or plasmadynamic - balance equations are derived. The macroscopic dynamical equations have the structure of an infinite hierarchy. This introduces the necessity of construction of a transport theory, by which te infinite set of equations can be reduced to a finite, closed set. This can only be done by a detailed analysis of the kinetic equation under well defined conditions. The tools for such nan analysis are developed in ch. 4. In ch. 5 the transport equations, relating the unknown fluxes of matter, momentum, energy and electricity to the hydrodynamic variables, are derived and discussed. In ch. 6 the results are incorporated into the wider framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics by connecting the transport processes to the central concept of entropy production. In ch. 7 the results of transport theory are put back into the equations of plasmadynamics

  19. Transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigefumi

    1978-01-01

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  20. Phylogenic insights into the enucleation of erythroblasts in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunomura, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    Two key questions remain unanswered in the erythropoiesis field: Why and how do erythroblasts enucleate in mammalian species? Recent studies have unveiled the roles of various molecules, cytoskeletal proteins, motor proteins, vesicle transport, signaling pathways, lipid rafts and actomyosin ring contraction in the enucleation process. However, few reports provide insights into the fitness benefit for mammalian species of having anucleate erythrocytes. Herein, we discuss the biological significance of enucleation of human erythroblasts based on our recent results and on evolutionary considerations related to the biology of hemoglobin and the comparative biochemistry of erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal proteins, such as protein 4.1R. We specifically focus on the Mesozoic era, a geological period during which dinosaurs and the ancestors of mammalian species coexisted. Approximately 200 million years ago, at the beginning of this era, the earth's atmosphere was hypoxic. Interestingly, animals adopted different respiration systems to adapt to this hypoxic environment. Recent studies using state-of-the-art technologies have shown that dinosaurs might have had nucleated erythrocytes. After dinosaurs became extinct about 65.5 million years ago, their respiration system was maintained by birds. We propose a new adaptive theory that establishes a correlation between evolution towards nucleated or anucleate erythrocytes depending on organism respiration systems during the Mesozoic era.