WorldWideScience

Sample records for transportation underwriting systematic

  1. Predictive medical information and underwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, John H

    2007-01-01

    Medical underwriting involves the application of actuarial science by analyzing medical information to predict the future risk of a claim. The objective is that individuals with like risk are treated in a like manner so that the premium paid is proportional to the risk of future claim.

  2. Cross-selling lending and underwriting : scope economies and incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Laux, Christian; Walz, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    We highlight the implications of combining underwriting services and lending for the choice of underwriters and for competition in the underwriting business. We show that cross-selling can increase underwriters' incentives, and we explain three phenomena: first, that cross-selling is important for universal banks to enter the investment banking business; second, that cross-selling is particularly attractive for highly leveraged borrowers; third, that less-than-market rates are no prerequisite...

  3. 78 FR 46295 - Enterprise Underwriting Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... 2590-AA53 Enterprise Underwriting Standards AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Proposed...), (together, the Enterprises) relating to mortgage assets affected by Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE... that were encumbered by this retrofit lending program that created a priority ahead of the Enterprise...

  4. The Value of Bond Underwriter Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daetz, Stine Louise; Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    and lower underpricing. However, if the underwriter becomes distressed, this spills over to the issuer's credit risk, because it weakens the relationship and increases the risk of involuntary relationship termination. The credit risk spillover is more pronounced for risky, opaque issuers with high rollover...

  5. 12 CFR 528.2a - Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. 528.2a Section 528.2a Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 528.2a Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. (a) Appraisal. No savings...

  6. 13 CFR 115.15 - Underwriting and servicing standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Underwriting and servicing standards. 115.15 Section 115.15 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND... underwriting and the Surety's principles and practices on unguaranteed bonds. The Principal must satisfy the...

  7. Structured settlement annuities, part 1: overview and the underwriting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C J; Singer, R B

    2000-01-01

    Structured settlement underwriting is the underwriting of medically impaired lives for the purchase of an annuity to fund the settlement. Other than risk assessment, structured settlement (SS) underwriting has little in common with traditional life insurance underwriting. Most noteworthy of these differences is the relative lack of actuarial data on which to base decisions about mortality and the necessity for prospective thinking about risk assessment. The purpose of this paper is to provide a foundation for understanding the structured settlement business and to contrast the underwriting of structured settlements with that of traditional life insurance. This is the first part of a two-part article on SS annuities. Part 2 deals with the mortality experience in SS annuitants and the life-table methodology used to calculate life expectancy for annuitants at increased mortality risk.

  8. The underwriting process of liability insurance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson, S. E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Liability risks may embody far-reaching financial consequences for individuals, business enterprises and professional people. This paper focuses on the underwriting process which should be taken into consideration by short-term insurers when they are underwriting the main types of liability insurance, which include employer’s, householder’s, personal, product, professional and public liability insurance. The improvement of financial decision-making by short-term insurers when underwriting liability insurance represents the objective of this research. A study of secondary data was done to identify the existing literature, which formed the basis for compiling a questionnaire to obtain primary data. The top 10 short-term insurers which are the market leaders of liability insurance in South Africa and who received more than 85% of the annual gross written premiums for liability insurance in South Africa, represented the sample of the empirical study. This paper highlights the importance of the underwriting factors concerning liability insurance, how often the stipulations of insurance policies should be adjusted by the short-term insurers to account for the underwriting factors, as well as the problem areas which the underwriters may experience when they are underwriting liability insurance. Possible solutions to solve the problem areas were also addressed

  9. PENGARUH REPUTASI UNDERWRITER DAN REPUTASI AUDITOR TERHADAP UNDERPRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfauziah Nurfauziah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStock prices in the primary market are set by agreement between the issuer with the underwriter. Underwriters have more information to the request of the issuer's shares, so the information can be used to obtain optimal agreement with the issuer is to minimize the risk of having to buy shares that are not sold cheaply. With that reputation, share price offered in the primary market is lower than expected after stocks entered in the secondary market or did not happen underpricing. Auditors are also able to influence the level of underpricing. Auditor reputation of quality and professionalism demonstrated auditors audited the financial statements of the company. Using auditors of reputation will reduce the opportunities for issuers to cheat in presenting inaccurate information to the market. For this reason, it is needed; a study examines the effect of Underwriter Reputation and Auditor Reputation on Underpricng. The research was carried out on companies that experience underpricing at initial public offering in 2007 until 2009. Based on examining 42 companies that have been underpricing showing no effect of both underwriter and auditor reputation toward underpricing individually as well as all together.Keywords: IPO, underwriter, auditor, underpricing.AbstrakHarga saham di pasar perdana ditetapkan berdasarkan kesepakatan antara emiten dengan underwriter. Underwriter memiliki informasi yang lebih banyak terhadap permintaan saham-saham emiten, sehingga informasi tersebut dapat digunakan untuk memperoleh kesepakatan optimal dengan emiten yaitu dengan memperkecil risiko keharusan membeli saham yang tidak laku terjual dengan harga murah. Dengan reputasinya itu, harga saham yang ditawarkan di pasar perdana diharapkan tidak lebih rendah dibandingkan setelah saham masuk di pasar sekunder atau tidak terjadi underpricing. Auditor juga mampu mempengaruhi tingkat underpricing. Reputasi auditor menunjukkan kualitas dan profesionalisme auditor yang

  10. The Added Value of Medical Testing in Underwriting Life Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsema, J.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background In present-day life-insurance medical underwriting practice the risk assessment starts with a standard health declaration (SHD). Indication for additional medical screening depends predominantly on age and amount of insured capital. From a medical perspective it is questionable whether

  11. Membrane Transporters for Bilirubin and Its Conjugates: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Čvorović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bilirubin is a highly-hydrophobic tetrapyrrole which binds to plasma albumin. It is conjugated in the liver to glucuronic acid, and the water-soluble glucuronides are excreted in urine and bile. The membrane transporters of bilirubin diglucuronide are well-known. Still undefined are however the transporters performing the uptake of bilirubin from the blood into the liver, a process known to be fast and not rate-limited. The biological importance of this process may be appraised by considering that in normal adults 200–300 mg of bilirubin are produced daily, as a result of the physiologic turnover of hemoglobin and cellular cytochromes. Nevertheless, research in this field has yielded controversial and contradicting results. We have undertaken a systematic review of the literature, believing in its utility to improve the existing knowledge and promote further advancements.Methods: We have sourced the PubMed database until 30 June 2017 by applying 5 sequential searches. Screening and eligibility criteria were applied to retain research articles reporting results obtained by using bilirubin molecules in membrane transport assays in vitro or by assessing serum bilirubin levels in in vivo experiments.Results: We have identified 311 articles, retaining 44, reporting data on experimental models having 6 incremental increases of complexity (isolated proteins, membrane vesicles, cells, organ fragments, in vivo rodents, and human studies, demonstrating the function of 19 membrane transporters, encoded by either SLCO or ABC genes. Three other bilirubin transporters have no gene, though one, i.e., bilitranslocase, is annotated in the Transporter Classification Database.Conclusions: This is the first review that has systematically examined the membrane transporters for bilirubin and its conjugates. Paradoxically, the remarkable advancements in the field of membrane transport of bilirubin have pointed to the elusive mechanism(s enabling

  12. THE EFFECT OF MULTINATIONAL UNDERWRITING FIRMS ON INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL DISCLOCURE IN INDONESIAN IPO PROSPECTUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezie L. Warganegara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of multinational underwriters on intellectual capitaldisclosure in Indonesian IPO prospectuses. Intellectual capital disclosure practices were driven by the adviceof underwriters. Multinational underwriters had a greater capacity to produce more relevant information so itreduced the information gap for IPO market participants. The information included IC disclosure practices inIPO prospectuses. This study found that the nationality of underwriting firms positively affected the extent ofintellectual capital disclosure in Indonesian IPO prospectuses. Exposure to IPOs in other countries and theability to combine dispersed knowledge across their international branches seemed to have a positive effect onmulti-national underwriting firms in as much as it led to a higher standard of disclosure of intellectual capitalthan that of local underwriting firms.

  13. Capacity in the energy underwriting market - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhall, L.

    1992-01-01

    It is important to clarify the different definitions of capacity, and in the insurance business this work has two distinct interpretations. The capacity of a Lloyd's syndicate is described by its ability to write premium income. Of more interest is the maximum ability and willingness of an underwriter, whether Lloyds's or Company, to commit itself to catastrophe loss policies. Or put more simply, what is the size of their line? It is this capacity for covering high value catastrophic exposure or Target Risks that will be discussed using the definition that capacity in this case is: ''The ability of insurance markets to cover any single maximum loss''. (Author)

  14. How do underwriters value initial public offerings? An empirical analysis of the french IPO market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates how French underwriters value the stocks of companies they bring public. Underwriters often use several valuation methods to determine their fair value estimate of the initial public offering (IPO) firm's equity. We investigate five of these valuation methods:

  15. 17 CFR 250.4 - Exemption of certain brokers, dealers and underwriters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain brokers... and General Exemptions § 250.4 Exemption of certain brokers, dealers and underwriters. (a) General exemption. Subject to the provision of § 250.6, any broker, dealer or underwriter, as defined in paragraph...

  16. The Added Value of Medical Testing in Underwriting Life Insurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bronsema

    Full Text Available In present-day life-insurance medical underwriting practice the risk assessment starts with a standard health declaration (SHD. Indication for additional medical screening depends predominantly on age and amount of insured capital. From a medical perspective it is questionable whether there is an association between the level of insured capital and medical risk in terms of mortality. The aim of the study is to examine the prognostic value of parameters from the health declaration and application form on extra mortality based on results from additional medical testing.A history register-based cohort study was conducted including about 15.000 application files accepted between 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, lipids, cotinine and glucose levels were used as dependent variables in logistic regression models. Resampling validation was applied using 250 bootstrap samples to calculate area under the curves (AUC's. The AUC was used to discriminate between persons with and without at least 25% extra mortality.BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration by an insurance physician or medical underwriter showed the strongest discrimination in multivariable analysis. Including all variables at minimum cut-off levels resulted in an AUC of 0.710 while by using a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and gender, the AUC was 0.708. Including all variables at maximum cut-off levels lead to an AUC of 0.743 while a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and age resulted in an AUC of 0.741.The outcome of this study shows that BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration were the dominant variables to discriminate between applicants for life-insurance with and without at least 25 percent extra mortality. The variable insured capital set by insurers as factor for additional medical testing could not be established in this study population. The indication for additional medical testing at underwriting life

  17. Accruals quality, underwriter reputation, and corporate bond underpricing: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between accruals quality and the underpricing of corporate bonds in China and how underwriter reputation affects this relationship. We find that (1 accruals quality is negatively associated with the magnitude of bond underpricing and (2 the impact of low accruals quality on underpricing is partially offset by hiring reputable underwriters. A path analysis shows that approximately 11% of the effect of accruals quality on underpricing is attributable to the indirect path through reputable underwriters, suggesting that accruals quality is more effective than reputable underwriters in lowering bond underpricing. These findings are significant for initial bond offerings, but not for secondary bond offerings. We also find that low accruals quality is associated with more restrictive non-price contract terms such as greater collateral requirements and stricter covenants.

  18. 12 CFR 211.605 - Permissible underwriting activities of foreign banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign company that directly underwrites, sells or distributes securities in the United States (emphasis... financial and managerial requirements in order to be able to engage in these activities in the United States...

  19. Dealing with risk: Underwriting sovereign bond issues in London 1870-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Anders L.

    2014-01-01

    Using the records of several leading 19th century issuing houses, this paper analyses the transformation of underwriting practices in London's primary sovereign bond market from 1870 to 1914. It shows how underwriting risk developed from being a liability, which market intermediaries sought to avoid, to becoming a valuable financial commodity. The impetus for this development was increased competition in the loan business from the 1880s onwards, which weakened the negotiating position of issu...

  20. The shape of uncertainty: underwriting decisions in the face of catastrophic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keykhah, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will explore how insurance and re-insurance underwriters price catastrophe risk from natural perils. It will first describe the theoretical nature of pricing risk, and outline studies of underwriting that propose analyzing decision making from a more behavioral than rational choice perspective. The paper then argues that in order to provide the appropriate context for probability (which is the focus of the studies on decision making under uncertainty), it may be helpful to look at the nature of choice within a market and organizational context. Moreover, the nature of probability itself is explored with a review to construct a broader analysis. Finally, it will be argued that the causal framework of the underwriter, in addition to inductive reasoning, provides a shape to uncertainty. (author)

  1. PROSEDUR UNDERWRITING BANCASSURANCE DAN ASURANSI JIWA SYARIAH PADA PT. ASURANSI TAKÂFUL KELUARGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Patriana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the comparative risk selection (of underwriting in bancassurance products and Islamic life insurance products at PT. Family Takaful Insurance. The result revealed that the underwriting procedures of each product are different based on their characteristics. Full protection is designed as a simple of underwriting product only with age provisions and administrative requirements. Financing takâful products cover all financing from the bank. Thus, bank which does the insurance process will make these data as basic information about insurance customers. Since the bank is insured, and apply risk selection process as risky selection process at most insurance companies.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v4i1.2543

  2. Prosedur Underwriting Bancassurance dan Asuransi Jiwa Syariah pada PT Asuransi Takaful Keluarga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Patriana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the comparative risk selection (of underwriting in bancassurance products and Islamic life insurance products at PT Family Takaful Insurance. The result revealed that the underwriting procedures of each product are different based on their characteristics. Full protection is designed as a simple of underwriting product only with age provisions and administrative requirements. Financing takaful products cover all financing from the banj. Thus, bank which does the insurance process will make these data as basic information about insurance customers. Since the bank is insured and apply risk selection process as risky selection process at most insurance companiesDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v4i1.2093

  3. 20 CFR 726.202 - Who may underwrite an operator's liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may underwrite an operator's liability. 726.202 Section 726.202 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL...

  4. 78 FR 75238 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Risk Management Initiatives: New Manual Underwriting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...-AJ07 Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Risk Management Initiatives: New Manual Underwriting... case numbers assigned on or after a date to be established by Mortgagee Letter following publication of... constrained. FHA played this role in the recent housing crisis, and the volume of FHA insurance increased...

  5. 75 FR 60171 - Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0521] Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA Guaranteed Loans) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  6. 78 FR 60379 - Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0521] Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA Guaranteed Loans) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  7. 75 FR 76082 - Agency Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0521] Agency Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA Guaranteed Loans) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... information abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA...

  8. 26 CFR 1.823-6 - Determination of statutory underwriting income or loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis... statutory underwriting income or loss for the taxable year, a mutual insurance company subject to the tax...

  9. 12 CFR 614.4150 - Lending policies and loan underwriting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determining that an applicant has the operational, financial, and management resources necessary to repay the debt from cashflow (2) That are appropriate for each loan program and the institution's risk-bearing... loan underwriting standards. Under the policies of its board, each institution shall adopt written...

  10. 7 CFR 4290.825 - Purchasing securities from an underwriter or other third party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financing of Enterprises by RBICs Structuring Rbic Financing of Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.825 Purchasing securities from an underwriter or...

  11. 12 CFR 616.6300 - Leasing policies, procedures, and underwriting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property and associated risks; (e) Property tax and sales tax reporting; (f) Title and ownership of leased... engaged in lease underwriting must adopt a written policy (or policies). Management, at the direction of the board, must develop procedures that reflect lease practices that control risk and comply with all...

  12. 24 CFR 573.5 - Underwriting standards and availability of loan guarantee assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acceptable financial risk under HUD's generally applicable loan underwriting standards based on the following: (1) The Borrower's ability to pay debt service; and (2) The value of the collateral assigned or... insufficient to make the guarantee an acceptable financial risk, or if the proposed interest rates or fees are...

  13. 46 CFR 308.8 - War risk insurance underwriting agency agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... companies or groups of domestic insurance companies authorized to do a marine insurance business in any States of the United States, appointing such companies or groups of companies as Underwriting Agents to... performance, indemnification effective date, amendment and termination, and nondiscrimination. ...

  14. 78 FR 4159 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Direct Endorsement Underwriter/HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... lender's analysis of the appraisal report, identify areas of weakness for future training, and removing lenders that consistently exhibits careless underwriting and subsequently affect the risk to the... information collected is used by FHA to monitor the quality of the lender's analysis of the appraisal report...

  15. A Quantitative Approach to Credit Risk Management in the Underwriting Process for the Retail Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Costea

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The core of this paper encloses a mathematical approach of credit risk management, based on a scorecard model used in the bank’s underwriting process. The main purpose of this paper is to present how to develop, validate and apply a rating model in practice. Using 21568 loan applications provided by one of the largest banks from Romania, a scorecard is built for the underwriting purposes. The customer data used in the modeling is based on socio-demographic characteristics. The model is developed according to a set of statistical methods for parameter estimation. A real-life example of how to use such a model in the strategic decisions of a bank is presented. The cut-off score for the acceptance of the applications is calibrated to a potential risk appetite of the main four banks in Romania. From an evaluative perspective, this paper is compatible with an exploratory approach to quantitative research methodology.

  16. PROSEDUR UNDERWRITING PRODUK ASURANSI KESEHATAN KUMPULAN PADA PT. ASURANSI TAKAFUL KELUARGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahul Ulum

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Risiko adalah sesuatu yang dapat mengancam aktifitas perusahaan dan dapat menyebabkan gagalnya tujuan. Bagi perusahaan asuransi, risiko adalah ketika terjadi klaim dari peserta. Dengan adanya klaim maka perusahaan akan mengeluarkan sejumlah dana untuk pembayaran klaim tersebut sesuai dengan manfaat yang dijanjikan. Untuk itu, Proses underwriting harus dilakukan dengan cermat dan akurat agar tidak menimbulkan kerugian bagi perusahaan.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v2i1.2476

  17. A systematic review of interventions for promoting active transportation to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillón, Palma; Evenson, Kelly R; Vaughn, Amber; Ward, Dianne S

    2011-02-14

    Active transportation to school is an important contributor to the total physical activity of children and adolescents. However, active school travel has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The purpose of this paper is to review intervention studies related to active school transportation to guide future intervention research. A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention studies of active transportation to school published in the scientific literature through January 2010. Five electronic databases and a manual search were conducted. Detailed information was extracted, including a quantitative assessment comparing the effect sizes, and a qualitative assessment using an established evaluation tool. We identified 14 interventions that focused on active transportation to school. These interventions mainly focused on primary school children in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Almost all the interventions used quasi-experimental designs (10/14), and most of the interventions reported a small effect size on active transportation (6/14). More research with higher quality study designs and measures should be conducted to further evaluate interventions and to determine the most successful strategies for increasing active transportation to school. © 2011 Chillón P et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. A Quantitative and Systematic Methodology to Investigate Energy Consumption Issues in Multimodal Intercity Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Du

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy issues in transportation systems have garnered increasing attention recently. This study proposes a systematic methodology for policy-makers to minimize energy consumption in multimodal intercity transportation systems considering suppliers’ operational constraints and travelers’ mobility requirements. A bi-level optimization model is developed for this purpose and considers the air, rail, private auto, and transit modes. The upper-level model is a mixed integer nonlinear program aiming to minimize energy consumption subject to transportation suppliers’ operational constraints and traffic demand distribution to paths resulting from the lower-level model. The lower-level model is a linear program seeking to maximize the trip utilities of travelers. The interactions between the multimodal transportation suppliers and intercity traffic demand are considered under the goal of minimizing system energy consumption. The proposed bi-level mixed integer model is relaxed and transformed into a mathematical program with complementarity constraints, and solved using a customized branch-and-bound algorithm. Numerical experiments, conducted using multimodal travel options between Lafayette, Indiana and Washington, D.C. reiterate that shifting traffic demand from private cars to the transit and rail modes significantly reduce energy consumption. Moreover, the proposed methodology provides tools to quantitatively analyze system energy consumption and traffic demand distribution among transportation modes under specific policy instruments. The results illustrate the need to systematically incorporate the interactions among traveler preferences, network structure, and supplier operational schemes to provide policy-makers insights for developing traffic demand shift mechanisms to minimize system energy consumption. Hence, the proposed methodology provide policy-makers the capability to analyze energy consumption in the transportation sector by a

  19. The roles of transportation and transportation hubs in the propagation of influenza and coronaviruses: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Annie; Ahmad, Sacha St-Onge; Beck, Charles R; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory viruses spread in humans across wide geographical areas in short periods of time, resulting in high levels of morbidity and mortality. We undertook a systematic review to assess the evidence that air, ground and sea mass transportation systems or hubs are associated with propagating influenza and coronaviruses. Healthcare databases and sources of grey literature were searched using pre-defined criteria between April and June 2014. Two reviewers screened all identified records against the protocol, undertook risk of bias assessments and extracted data using a piloted form. Results were analysed using a narrative synthesis. Forty-one studies met the eligibility criteria. Risk of bias was high in the observational studies, moderate to high in the reviews and moderate to low in the modelling studies. In-flight influenza transmission was identified substantively on five flights with up to four confirmed and six suspected secondary cases per affected flight. Five studies highlighted the role of air travel in accelerating influenza spread to new areas. Influenza outbreaks aboard cruise ships affect 2-7% of passengers. Influenza transmission events have been observed aboard ground transport vehicles. High heterogeneity between studies and the inability to exclude other sources of infection means that the risk of influenza transmission from an index case to other passengers cannot be accurately quantified. A paucity of evidence was identified describing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus transmission events associated with transportation systems or hubs. Air transportation appears important in accelerating and amplifying influenza propagation. Transmission occurs aboard aeroplanes, at the destination and possibly at airports. Control measures to prevent influenza transmission on cruise ships are needed to reduce morbidity and mortality. There is no recent evidence of sea transport accelerating influenza

  20. Predicting long-range transport: a systematic evaluation of two multimedia transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D H; Scheringer, M; McKone, T E; Hungerbühler, K

    2001-03-15

    The United Nations Environment Program has recently developed criteria to identify and restrict chemicals with a potential for persistence and long-range transport (persistent organic pollutants or POPs). There are many stakeholders involved, and the issues are not only scientific but also include social, economic, and political factors. This work focuses on one aspect of the POPs debate, the criteria for determining the potential for long-range transport (LRT). Our goal is to determine if current models are reliable enough to support decisions that classify a chemical based on the LRT potential. We examine the robustness of two multimedia fate models for determining the relative ranking and absolute spatial range of various chemicals in the environment. We also consider the effect of parameter uncertainties and the model uncertainty associated with the selection of an algorithm for gas-particle partitioning on the model results. Given the same chemical properties, both models give virtually the same ranking. However, when chemical parameter uncertainties and model uncertainties such as particle partitioning are considered, the spatial range distributions obtained for the individual chemicals overlap, preventing a distinct rank order. The absolute values obtained for the predicted spatial range or travel distance differ significantly between the two models for the uncertainties evaluated. We find that to evaluate a chemical when large and unresolved uncertainties exist, it is more informative to use two or more models and include multiple types of uncertainty. Model differences and uncertainties must be explicitly confronted to determine how the limitations of scientific knowledge impact predictions in the decision-making process.

  1. Objectively measured walkability and active transport and weight-related outcomes in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Gerlinde; Van Dyck, Delfien; Titze, Sylvia; Stronegger, Willibald

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which GIS-based measures of walkability (density, land-use mix, connectivity and walkability indexes) in urban and suburban neighbourhoods are used in research and which of them are consistently associated with walking and cycling for transport, overall active transportation and weight-related measures in adults. A systematic review of English publications using PubMed, Science Direct, Active Living Research Literature Database, the Transportation Research Information Service and reference lists was conducted. The search terms utilised were synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for the outcomes. Thirty-four publications based on 19 different studies were eligible. Walkability measures such as gross population density, intersection density and walkability indexes most consistently correlated with measures of physical activity for transport. Results on weight-related measures were inconsistent. More research is needed to determine whether walkability is an appropriate measure for predicting weight-related measures and overall active transportation. As most of the consistent correlates, gross population density, intersection density and the walkability indexes have the potential to be used in planning and monitoring.

  2. Medical Underwriting In Long-Term Care Insurance: Market Conditions Limit Options For Higher-Risk Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Portia Y; Grabowski, David C; Cohen, Marc; Shi, Xiaomei; Stevenson, David G

    2016-08-01

    A key feature of private long-term care insurance is that medical underwriters screen out would-be buyers who have health conditions that portend near-term physical or cognitive disability. We applied common underwriting criteria based on data from two long-term care insurers to a nationally representative sample of individuals in the target age range (50-71 years) for long-term care insurance. The screening criteria put upper bounds on the current proportion of Americans who could gain coverage in the individual market without changes to medical underwriting practice. Specifically, our simulations show that in the target age range, approximately 30 percent of those whose wealth meets minimum industry standards for suitability for long-term care insurance would have their application for such insurance rejected at the underwriting stage. Among the general population-without considering financial suitability-we estimated that 40 percent would have their applications rejected. The predicted rejection rates are substantially higher than the rejection rates of about 20-25 percent of applicants in the actual market. In evaluating reforms for long-term care financing and their potential to increase private insurance rates, as well as to reduce financial pressure on public safety-net programs, policy makers need to consider the role of underwriting in the market for long-term care insurance. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Scaling analysis in modeling transport and reaction processes a systematic approach to model building and the art of approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, William B

    2007-01-01

    This book is unique as the first effort to expound on the subject of systematic scaling analysis. Not written for a specific discipline, the book targets any reader interested in transport phenomena and reaction processes. The book is logically divided into chapters on the use of systematic scaling analysis in fluid dynamics, heat transfer, mass transfer, and reaction processes. An integrating chapter is included that considers more complex problems involving combined transport phenomena. Each chapter includes several problems that are explained in considerable detail. These are followed by several worked examples for which the general outline for the scaling is given. Each chapter also includes many practice problems. This book is based on recognizing the value of systematic scaling analysis as a pedagogical method for teaching transport and reaction processes and as a research tool for developing and solving models and in designing experiments. Thus, the book can serve as both a textbook and a reference boo...

  4. Levels of ambient air pollution according to mode of transport: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Magda; Schoufour, Josje; Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Koolhaas, Chantal M; Dhana, Klodian; Bramer, Wichor M; Franco, Oscar H

    2017-01-01

    Controversy exists about the differences in air pollution exposure and inhalation dose between mode of transport. We aimed to review air pollution exposure and inhaled dose according to mode of transport and pollutant and their effect in terms of years of life expectancy (YLE). In this systematic review, we searched ten online databases from inception to April 13, 2016, without language or temporal restrictions, for cohort, cross-sectional, and experimental studies that compared exposure to carbon monoxide, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide, and fine and coarse particles in active commuters (pedestrian or cyclist) and commuters using motorised transport (car, motorcycle, bus, or massive motorised transport [MMT-ie, train, subway, or metro]). We excluded studies that measured air pollution exposure exclusively with biomarkers or on the basis of simulated data, reviews, comments, consensuses, editorials, guidelines, in-vitro studies, meta-analyses, ecological studies, and protocols. We extracted average exposure and commuting time per mode of transport and pollutant to calculate inhaled doses. We calculated exposure and inhaled dose ratios using active commuters as the reference and summarised them with medians and IQRs. We also calculated differences in YLE due to fine particle inhaled dose and physical activity. We identified 4037 studies, of which 39 were included in the systematic review. Overall, car commuters had higher exposure to all pollutants than did active commuters in 30 (71%) of 42 comparisons (median ratio 1·22 [IQR 0·90-1·76]), followed by those who commuted by bus in 57 (52%) of 109 (1·0 [0·79-1·41]), by motorcycle in 16 (50%) of 32 (0·99 [0·86-1·38]), by a car with controlled ventilation settings in 39 (45%) of 86 (0·95 [0·66-1·54]), and by MMT in 21 (38%) of 55 (0·67 [0·49-1·13]). Overall, active commuters had higher inhalation doses than did commuters using motorised transport (median ratio car with controlled ventilation settings 0

  5. The Impact of Policy Incentives on Long-Term Care Insurance and Medicaid Costs: Does Underwriting Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Portia Y; Grabowski, David C

    2018-05-16

    To test whether underwriting modifies the effect of state-based incentives on individuals' purchase of long-term care insurance. Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 1996-2012. We estimated difference-in-difference regression models with an interaction of state policy indicators with individuals' probabilities of being approved for long-term care insurance. We imputed probabilities of underwriting approval for respondents in the HRS using a model developed with underwriting decisions from two U.S. insurance firms. We measured the elasticity response to long-term care insurance price using changes in simulated after-tax price as an instrumental variable for premium price. Tax incentives and Partnership programs increased insurance purchase by 3.62 percentage points and 1.8 percentage points, respectively, among those with the lowest risk (highest approval probability). Neither had any statistically significant effects among the highest risk individuals. We show that ignoring the effects of underwriting may lead to biased estimates of the potential state budget savings of long-term care insurance tax incentives. If the private market is to play a role in financing long-term care, policies need to address the underlying adverse selection problems. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. 17 CFR 270.27d-1 - Reserve requirements for principal underwriters and depositors to carry out the obligations to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve requirements for....27d-1 Reserve requirements for principal underwriters and depositors to carry out the obligations to... reserve and as security for the purpose of assuring the refund of charges required by sections 27(d) and...

  7. Cross-continental comparison of the association between the physical environment and active transportation in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; Vanwolleghem, Griet; Hinckson, Erica; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet

    2015-11-26

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between a wide range of physical environmental characteristics and different contexts of active transportation in 6- to 12-year-old children across different continents. A systematic search was conducted in six databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Cinahl, SportDiscus, TRIS and Cochrane) resulting in 65 papers, eligible for inclusion. The investigated physical environmental variables were grouped into six categories: walkability, accessibility, walk/cycle facilities, aesthetics, safety, recreation facilities. The majority of the studies were conducted in North America (n = 35), Europe (n = 17) and Australia (n = 11). Active transportation to school (walking or cycling) was positively associated with walkability. Walking to school was positively associated with walkability, density and accessibility. Evidence for a possible association was found for traffic safety and all forms of active transportation to school. No convincing evidence was found for associations between the physical environment and active transportation during leisure. General safety and traffic safety were associated with active transportation to school in North America and Australia but not associated with active transportation to school in Europe. The physical environment was mainly associated with active transportation to school. Continent specific associations were found, indicating that safety measures were most important in relation to active commuting to school in North America and Australia. There is a need for longitudinal studies and studies conducted in Asia, Africa and South-America and studies focusing specifically on active transportation during leisure.

  8. Gender differences in walking (for leisure, transport and in total) across adult life: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Tessa M; Wagnild, Janelle M

    2017-04-20

    The aim of this systematic review was to examine gender differences in walking for leisure, transport and in total in adults living in high-income countries, and to assess whether gender differences in walking practices change across the life-course. A systematic literature search was conducted of publications dated 1995 to 2015. Papers providing quantitative data on participation in walking of both men and women aged at least 18 years in a high-income country were screened for the quality of the data on gender differences in walking. Data were extracted and results were synthesised using forest plots and narrative summary. Thirty-six studies were included in the review: 18 reported on walking for leisure, 16 on walking for transport (in total, or for particular purposes), and 14 on total walking. Most (33) studies provided data comparing the proportion of men and women who walked (at all or for a minimum duration) over a defined period, usually one week. There was consistent evidence that more women than men walk for leisure, although effect sizes were small. However, this effect varies by age: more younger women than younger men walk for leisure, but the gender difference diminishes with age and appears to reverse in the oldest age groups. Taking all ages together, there was no consistent gender difference in walking for transport or in total walking, although the small number of studies reporting on walking to undertake errands suggested that more women than men walk for this purpose. While there is little evidence that levels of total walking consistently vary by gender, our findings suggest that there are consistent gender differences in participation in walking for some purposes, including for leisure, and that there are gender differences in the impact of age on walking. We conclude that more research is needed to improve our understanding of how walking fits into the lives of women and men across the life-course, especially in relation to gender

  9. GIS measured environmental correlates of active school transport: A systematic review of 14 studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Guy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging frameworks to examine active school transportation (AST commonly emphasize the built environment (BE as having an influence on travel mode decisions. Objective measures of BE attributes have been recommended for advancing knowledge about the influence of the BE on school travel mode choice. An updated systematic review on the relationships between GIS-measured BE attributes and AST is required to inform future research in this area. The objectives of this review are: i to examine and summarize the relationships between objectively measured BE features and AST in children and adolescents and ii to critically discuss GIS methodologies used in this context. Methods Six electronic databases, and websites were systematically searched, and reference lists were searched and screened to identify studies examining AST in students aged five to 18 and reporting GIS as an environmental measurement tool. Fourteen cross-sectional studies were identified. The analyses were classified in terms of density, diversity, and design and further differentiated by the measures used or environmental condition examined. Results Only distance was consistently found to be negatively associated with AST. Consistent findings of positive or negative associations were not found for land use mix, residential density, and intersection density. Potential modifiers of any relationship between these attributes and AST included age, school travel mode, route direction (e.g., to/from school, and trip-end (home or school. Methodological limitations included inconsistencies in geocoding, selection of study sites, buffer methods and the shape of zones (Modifiable Areal Unit Problem [MAUP], the quality of road and pedestrian infrastructure data, and school route estimation. Conclusions The inconsistent use of spatial concepts limits the ability to draw conclusions about the relationship between objectively measured environmental attributes and AST. Future

  10. Safety as a management concept in the air transport sector: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campa-Planas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of the present study is to conduct a literature review of the contribution made by safety in air transport, based on the existing international academic literature in the field of the social sciences. It primarily attempts to examine and verify the relationship between safety-related concepts (co-occurrence, the link between the different authors (co-authorship and the corresponding citations (co-citations. Methodology: To achieve the established objectives, a systematic literature review (SLR has been conducted using the Scopus database between the years 1990 and 2016, identifying international academic papers related to the research topic of the present study. Findings: It has been verified, on the one hand, that safety in the air transport sector is a field of growing interest, as the number of papers has increased considerably in recent years, thus demonstrating the importance that this topic has acquired over time. On the other hand, however, it must be mentioned that the total quantity of papers related to the topic is low in terms of absolute numbers. The results of the co-occurrence analysis show that the most important aspect of safety is safety management, while the strongest link is between safety management and aircraft accidents, a fact that is foreseeable a priori.  Originality/value: The approach used allows a better view of the academic contribution made in relation to safety; this serves as the link among the different elements of the concept studied, and it demonstrates the growing interest in this area.

  11. Contributions of systematic tile drainage to watershed-scale phosphorus transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin W; Williams, Mark R; Fausey, Norman R

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) transport from agricultural fields continues to be a focal point for addressing harmful algal blooms and nuisance algae in freshwater systems throughout the world. In humid, poorly drained regions, attention has turned to P delivery through subsurface tile drainage. However, research on the contributions of tile drainage to watershed-scale P losses is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term P movement through tile drainage and its manifestation at the watershed outlet. Discharge data and associated P concentrations were collected for 8 yr (2005-2012) from six tile drains and from the watershed outlet of a headwater watershed within the Upper Big Walnut Creek watershed in central Ohio. Results showed that tile drainage accounted for 47% of the discharge, 48% of the dissolved P, and 40% of the total P exported from the watershed. Average annual total P loss from the watershed was 0.98 kg ha, and annual total P loss from the six tile drains was 0.48 kg ha. Phosphorus loads in tile and watershed discharge tended to be greater in the winter, spring, and fall, whereas P concentrations were greatest in the summer. Over the 8-yr study, P transported in tile drains represented 90% of all measured concentrations exceeded recommended levels (0.03 mg L) for minimizing harmful algal blooms and nuisance algae. Thus, the results of this study show that in systematically tile-drained headwater watersheds, the amount of P delivered to surface waters via tile drains cannot be dismissed. Given the amount of P loss relative to typical application rates, development and implementation of best management practices (BMPs) must jointly consider economic and environmental benefits. Specifically, implementation of BMPs should focus on late fall, winter, and early spring seasons when most P loading occurs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Systematic Experimental and Computational Investigation of Ion Transport in Novel Polyether Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Danielle; Webb, Michael; Jung, Yukyung; Zheng, Qi; Miller, Thomas, III; Coates, Geoffrey; Balsara, Nitash

    Polyethers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), are considered to be the most promising polymer electrolyte materials due to their high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability, both essential for battery applications. To gain a fundamental understanding of the transport properties of polyether systems, we design a systematic set of linear PEO-like polymers to explore the effect of adding carbon spacers to the backbone of the chain. Ac impedance spectroscopy is employed to measure the ionic conductivity of polyether/lithium salt electrolytes; the results elucidate tradeoffs between lowering the glass transition temperature and diluting the polar groups on the polymer chain. Molecular-level insight is provided by molecular dynamics simulations of the polyether electrolytes. We define the useful and intuitive metric of ``connectivity'', a parameter calculated from simulations which describes the physical arrangements of solvation sites in a polymer melt. Direct comparison of experiment and theory allows us to determine the relationship between connectivity and conductivity. The comparison provides insight regarding the factors that control conductivity, and highlights considerations that must be taken when designing new ion-conducting polymers.

  13. Active Transport to School and Children's Body Weight: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshmand E. Masoumi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of decreasing physical activity of children, they are becoming more obese. Moreover, commuting to school has become more passive during the past decades. The objective was to update the previous systematic reviews by narrowing down the topic to body mass index of children (3-12 years as a representative of body composition.  Applying search terms such as active transport to school, body mass index, childhood obesity, and so on in four online databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, WorldCat, and Google Scholar. Peer-reviewed English journal papers published between 2005 and 2015 presenting empirical quantitative studies were eligible studies to be reviewed. 310 journal papers were screened, 27 of which were reviewed by studying the full text. The final 13 papers were limited to those that focused only on active commuting to school and body mass index of children and adolescents. Out of 13 final studies, 3 found conclusive associations, three indicate partial associations in subgroups or societal or geographical limitations, and seven show no correlations. The existing literature are still inconsistent, so this study suggests conducting surveys with larger samples on less-studied contexts and applying more complex statistical methods for adjusting some of the variables. It is also argued that this topic can be culturally and contextually specific.

  14. A Systematic Transport and Thermodynamic Study of Heavy Transition Metal Oxides with Hexagonal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrouna, Kamal

    There is no apparent, dominant interaction in heavy transition metal oxides (TMO), especially in 5d-TMO, where all relevant interactions are of comparable energy scales, and therefore strongly compete. In particular, the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) strongly competes with the electron-lattice and on-site Coulomb interaction (U). Therefore, any tool that allows one to tune the relative strengths of SOI and U is expected to offer an opportunity for the discovery and study of novel materials. BaIrO3 is a magnetic insulator driven by SOI, whereas the isostructural BaRuO3 is a paramagnetic metal. The contrasting ground states have been shown to result from the critical role of SOI in the iridate. This dissertation thoroughly examines a wide array of newly observed novel phenomena induced by adjusting the relative strengths of SOI and U via a systematic chemical substitution of the Ru4+(4d 4) ions for Ir4+(5d5) ions in BaIrO3, i.e., in high quality single crystals of BaIr1--x RuxO3(0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0). Our investigation of structural, magnetic, transport and thermal properties reveals that Ru substitution directly rebalances the competing energies so profoundly that it generates a rich phase diagram for BaIr 1--xRuxO 3 featuring two major effects: (1) Light Ru doping (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) prompts a simultaneous and precipitous drop in both the magnetic ordering temperature TC and the electrical resistivity, which exhibits metal-insulator transition at around TC. (2) Heavier Ru doping (0.41 ≤ x ≤ 0.82) induces a robust metallic and spin frustration state. For comparison and contrast, we also substituted Rh4+(4d 5) ions for Ir4+(5d5) ions in BaIrO3, i.e. in BaIr1--xRhxO 3(0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1), where Rh only reduces the SOI, but without altering the band filling. Hence, this system remains tuned at the Mott instability and is very susceptible to disorder scattering which gives rise to Anderson localization. KEYWORDS: spin-orbit interaction, heavy transition metal oxides

  15. A systematic review of factors affecting driving and public transportation among youth and young adults with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Stoica, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Although many people with an acquired brain injury (ABI) encounter difficulties with executive functioning and memory which could negatively affect driving, few people are assessed for fitness to drive after injury. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the literature on factors affecting driving and public transportation among youth and young adults with ABI, post injury. Seven databases were systematically searched for articles from 1980 to 2016. Studies were screened independently by two researchers who performed the data extraction. Study quality was appraised using the Standard Quality Assessment Criteria (Kmet) for evaluating primary research from a variety of fields. Of the 6577 studies identified in the search, 25 met the inclusion criteria, which involved 1527 participants with ABI (mean age = 25.1) across eight countries. Six studies focused on driving assessment and fitness to drive, ten on driving performance or risk of accidents and nine studies explored issues related to accessing or navigating public transportation. Quality assessment of the included studies ranged from 0.60 to 0.95. Our findings highlight several gaps in clinical practice and research along with a critical need for enhanced fitness to drive assessments and transportation-related training for young people with ABI.

  16. Association of manual or engine-driven glide path preparation with canal centring and apical transportation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, R C; Peters, O A; de Figueiredo, J A P; Rossi-Fedele, G

    2018-04-28

    The role and effect of glide path preparation in root canal treatment remain controversial. This systematic review aims to compare apical transportation and canal centring of different glide path preparation techniques, with or without subsequent engine-driven root canal preparation. A database search in PubMed, PubMed Central, Embase, Scopus, EBSCO Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source and Virtual Health Library was conducted, using appropriate key words to identify the effect of glide path preparation (or its absence) on apical transportation and canal centring. An assessment for the risk of bias in included studies was carried out. Amongst 2146 studies, 18 satisfied the inclusion criteria. Nine studies assessed glide path preparation per se, comparing apical transportation and canal centring of rotary systems and/or manual files; eleven further investigations examined the efficacy of the glide path prior to final canal preparation with different engine-driven systems. Risk of bias and other study design features with potential influence on study outcomes and clinical implications were assessed. Based on the available evidence, and within the limitation of the studies included, preparation of a glide path using rotary sequences performs similarly (in most of the component studies) or significantly better than manual preparation when assessing apical transportation or canal centring. When compared to the absence of a glide path, canal shaping following glide path preparation was of similar, or significantly better quality, in regard to apical transportation or canal centring. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A systematic study of wave conditions and sediment transport near Mormugao harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, M.P.M.

    Wave conditions and the nature of sediment transport in the Mormugao Harbour area have been evaluated in view of the proposed development project of this harbour It has been found from this study that generally high waves will be experienced...

  18. Systematic study of transport via surface and bulk states in Bi2Te3 topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, S.; Peres, M. L.; Chitta, V. A.; Gratens, X.; Soares, D. A. W.; Fornari, C. I.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E.; Oliveira, N. F., Jr.

    2016-07-01

    We performed magnetoresistance measurements on Bi2Te3 thin film in the temperature range of T = 1.2-4.0 K and for magnetic fields up to 2 T. The curves exhibited anomalous behavior for temperatures below 4.0 K. Different temperature intervals revealed electrical transport through different conductive channels with clear signatures of weak antilocalization. The magnetoresistance curves were explained using the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model and the 2D Dirac modified model. The comparison between the parameters obtained from the two models revealed the transport via topological surface states and bulk states. In addition, a superconductive like transition is observed for the lowest temperatures and we suggest that this effect can be originated from the misfit dislocations caused by strain, giving rise to a superconductive channel between the interface of the film and the substrate.

  19. Efficacy of behavioural interventions for transport behaviour change: systematic review, meta-analysis and intervention coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Bronia; Rehackova, Lucia; Errington, Linda; Sniehotta, Falko F; Roberts, Jennifer; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2014-11-28

    Reducing reliance on motorised transport and increasing use of more physically active modes of travel may offer an opportunity to address physical inactivity. This review evaluates the evidence for the effects of behavioural interventions to reduce car use for journeys made by adults and codes intervention development and content. The review follows the procedure stated in the registration protocol published in the PROSPERO database (registration number CRD42011001797). Controlled studies evaluating behavioural interventions to reduce car use compared with no interventions or alternative interventions on outcome measures of transport behaviours taken in adult participants are included in this review. Searches were conducted on all records in Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline, Ovid PsycInfo, Scopus, Sociological Abstracts, Transportation Research Information Service (TRIS), Transportation Research International Documentation (TRID), and Web of Science databases. Peer reviewed publications in English language meeting the inclusion criteria are eligible. Methodological quality is assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Interventions are categorised in terms of behavioural frameworks, theories and techniques. 15 full text articles are included, representing 13 unique studies, with 4895 participants and 27 intervention arms. Risk of bias across the review is appraised as considerable due to the unclear methodological quality of individual studies. Heterogeneity of included studies is considerable. Meta-analyses reveal no significant effect on reduction of frequency of car use or on increasing the proportion of journeys by alternative, more active modes of transport. There is insufficient data relating to alternative outcomes such as distance and duration which may have important health implications. Interventions were top-down but could not be described as theory-based. Intervention efficacy was associated with the use

  20. Systematic Multi‐Scale Model Development Strategy for the Fragrance Spraying Process and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitzig, M.; Rong, Y.; Gregson, C.

    2012-01-01

    The fast and efficient development and application of reliable models with appropriate degree of detail to predict the behavior of fragrance aerosols are challenging problems of high interest to the related industries. A generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of specific fragrance......‐aided modeling framework, which is structured based on workflows for different general modeling tasks. The benefits of the fragrance spraying template are highlighted by a case study related to the derivation of a fragrance aerosol model that is able to reflect measured dynamic droplet size distribution profiles...... aerosol models is proposed. The main benefits of the fragrance spraying template are the speed‐up of the model development/derivation process, the increase in model quality, and the provision of structured domain knowledge where needed. The fragrance spraying template is integrated in a generic computer...

  1. Colorado River sediment transport: 2. Systematic bed‐elevation and grain‐size effects of sand supply limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Corson, Ingrid C.

    2000-01-01

    The Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons displays evidence of annual supply limitation with respect to sand both prior to [Topping et al, this issue] and after the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Systematic changes in bed elevation and systematic coupled changes in suspended‐sand concentration and grain size result from this supply limitation. During floods, sand supply limitation either causes or modifies a lag between the time of maximum discharge and the time of either maximum or minimum (depending on reach geometry) bed elevation. If, at a cross section where the bed aggrades with increasing flow, the maximum bed elevation is observed to lead the peak or the receding limb of a flood, then this observed response of the bed is due to sand supply limitation. Sand supply limitation also leads to the systematic evolution of sand grain size (both on the bed and in suspension) in the Colorado River. Sand input during a tributary flood travels down the Colorado River as an elongating sediment wave, with the finest sizes (because of their lower settling velocities) traveling the fastest. As the fine front of a sediment wave arrives at a given location, the bed fines and suspended‐sand concentrations increase in response to the enhanced upstream supply of finer sand. Then, as the front of the sediment wave passes that location, the bed is winnowed and suspended‐sand concentrations decrease in response to the depletion of the upstream supply of finer sand. The grain‐size effects of depletion of the upstream sand supply are most obvious during periods of higher dam releases (e.g., the 1996 flood experiment and the 1997 test flow). Because of substantial changes in the grain‐size distribution of the bed, stable relationships between the discharge of water and sand‐transport rates (i.e., stable sand rating curves) are precluded. Sand budgets in a supply‐limited river like the Colorado River can only be constructed through inclusion of the physical

  2. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review of Transport Noise Interventions and Their Impacts on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan Lex; van Kamp, Irene

    2017-08-03

    This paper describes a systematic review (1980-2014) of evidence on effects of transport noise interventions on human health. The sources are road traffic, railways, and air traffic. Health outcomes include sleep disturbance, annoyance, cognitive impairment of children and cardiovascular diseases. A conceptual framework to classify noise interventions and health effects was developed. Evidence was thinly spread across source types, outcomes, and intervention types. Further, diverse intervention study designs, methods of analyses, exposure levels, and changes in exposure do not allow a meta-analysis of the association between changes in noise level and health outcomes, and risk of bias in most studies was high. However, 43 individual transport noise intervention studies were examined (33 road traffic; 7 air traffic; 3 rail) as to whether the intervention was associated with a change in health outcome. Results showed that many of the interventions were associated with changes in health outcomes irrespective of the source type, the outcome or intervention type (source, path or infrastructure). For road traffic sources and the annoyance outcome, the expected effect-size can be estimated from an appropriate exposure-response function, though the change in annoyance in most studies was larger than could be expected based on noise level change.

  3. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  4. Systematic errors in transport calculations of shear viscosity using the Green-Kubo formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J. B.; Torres-Rincon, J. M.; Oliinychenko, D.; Schäfer, A.; Petersen, H.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a reproducible framework in the use of the Green-Kubo formalism to extract transport coefficients. More specifically, in the case of shear viscosity, we investigate the limitations and technical details of fitting the auto-correlation function to a decaying exponential. This fitting procedure is found to be applicable for systems interacting both through constant and energy-dependent cross-sections, although this is only true for sufficiently dilute systems in the latter case. We find that the optimal fit technique consists in simultaneously fixing the intercept of the correlation function and use a fitting interval constrained by the relative error on the correlation function. The formalism is then applied to the full hadron gas, for which we obtain the shear viscosity to entropy ratio.

  5. Systematics in the electron transport and magnetic properties of LnBO3 perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, P.; Rao, C.N.R.

    1980-01-01

    Systematics in the electrical and magnetic properties of transition metal perovskites LnBO 3 (Ln = rare-earth ion, B = 3d transition metal) with the variation of Ln and B ions are reviewed. The electrical resistivity and activation energy of LnBO 3 compounds increase with the decreasing size of the Ln 3+ ion for a given B ion. The low-spin to high-spin transition temperature of Co 3+ ion in LnCoO 3 similarly increase with the decrease in size of Ln 3+ while the magnetic ordering temperatures in LnVO 3 , LnFeO 3 , LnCrO 3 and LnSrCo 2 O 6 decrease with decreasing size of the rare-earth ion. These results may be understood in terms of the increasing acidity of the rare earth ion with decreasing size and the competition between the Ln 3+ and the B 3+ ions for covalency with the oxygen ions. The effect of this competition on the metal oxygen covalency and crystal field parameter is discussed in relation to the results obtained and Goodenough's phase diagram. The possibility of d-f exchange interaction in Lasub(1-x)Lnsub(x)NiOsub(3) is also discussed in the light of ESR results. (auth.)

  6. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  7. Systematic study of the elliptic flow parameter using a transport approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, Md.; Mohanty, B.

    2015-01-01

    Elliptic flow parameter, v 2 is considered as a sensitive probe for early dynamics of the heavy-ion collision. In this work, we have discussed the effect of detector efficiency, procedure of centrality determination, effect of resonance decay and the procedure to correct event plane resolution on the measured v 2 by standard event plane method within the framework of a transport model. The measured value of v 2 depends on the efficiency in particle number counting by the detector. The effect of centrality determination is found to be negligible. The new method of event plane resolution correction for wide centrality bin yields results in v 2 values closer to the true value of the v 2 . The contributions from the resonance decay seems to decrease the value of v 2 of π and K within the ultra relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model based calculation. We also propose a procedure to correct for an event bias effect on v 2 arising while comparing the minimum bias collision centrality v 2 values for different multi-strange hadrons. Finally, we have presented a model based confirmation of the recently proposed relation between v 2 obtained using event plane method and scalar product method to the true value of v 2 . (author)

  8. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  9. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in occupational, leisure-time, and transport related physical activity among European adults: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Beenackers (Marielle); C.B.M. Kamphuis (Carlijn); K. Giskes (Katrina); J. Brug (Hans); A.E. Kunst (Anton); A. Burdorf (Alex); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to socioeconomic inequalities in different domains of physical activity (PA) by European region.Methods: Studies conducted between January 2000 and December 2010 were identified by a systematic search in Pubmed,

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in occupational, leisure-time, and transport related physical activity among European adults: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, Marielle A.; Kamphuis, Carlijn B. M.; Giskes, Katrina; Brug, Johannes; Kunst, Anton E.; Burdorf, Alex; van Lenthe, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to socioeconomic inequalities in different domains of physical activity (PA) by European region. Methods: Studies conducted between January 2000 and December 2010 were identified by a systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of

  12. Work-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other emotional diseases as consequence of traumatic events in public transportation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarner, Annika; Graessel, Elmar; Scholz, Johanna; Niedermeier, Alexander; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2015-07-01

    Drivers in public transportation are at risk of experiencing potential traumatic events such as accidents involving persons, collisions, or suicides. In this context, the question arises to what extent psychological traumatization and posttraumatic diseases occur. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the frequency and nature of work-related posttraumatic disorders, to analyze risk and prognostic factors after potentially traumatic events (accidents resulting in damage to property and/or in injury or death), and address sick leave after such events in the realm of public transportation, based on the available literature. Systematic review based on four databases (PubMed, PSYNDEX/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, PILOTS) between 1980 and June 2013. We identified seven studies (four longitudinal, three cross-sectional) that examine employees after person under train (PUT) events. PTSD prevalences varied broadly between 0.7 and 17 %. The same applies to dysthymia/neurotic depression (1-26 %). However, similarly low prevalences of major depression (1.3-2.8 %) and panic disorder (0.5-1.3 %) have been observed. Risk factors of PTSD comprised individual, work-related, event-related, and prognostic aspects. Following the traumatic event, a total of 69-81 % of the drivers were absent, and if sick leave occurs, this was on average 3-19 days. It became evident that drivers in public transportation run a high risk of sick leave. It was also striking that despite the immense impact of PUT and high number of suicides, only an infinitesimal number of studies exists. Due to various differences (period of follow-up, instrument of measurement and study period), it turned out that the comparability of the results of the studies is limited. For various reasons, further research is urgently needed, as from an occupational health point of view the issue of posttraumatic diseases and implications for fitness for service should be addressed.

  13. Systematic literature review of built environment effects on physical activity and active transport - an update and new findings on health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melody; Hosking, Jamie; Woodward, Alistair; Witten, Karen; MacMillan, Alexandra; Field, Adrian; Baas, Peter; Mackie, Hamish

    2017-11-16

    Evidence is mounting to suggest a causal relationship between the built environment and people's physical activity behaviours, particularly active transport. The evidence base has been hindered to date by restricted consideration of cost and economic factors associated with built environment interventions, investigation of socioeconomic or ethnic differences in intervention effects, and an inability to isolate the effect of the built environment from other intervention types. The aims of this systematic review were to identify which environmental interventions increase physical activity in residents at the local level, and to build on the evidence base by considering intervention cost, and the differential effects of interventions by ethnicity and socioeconomic status. A systematic database search was conducted in June 2015. Articles were eligible if they reported a quantitative empirical study (natural experiment or a prospective, retrospective, experimental, or longitudinal research) investigating the relationship between objectively measured built environment feature(s) and physical activity and/or travel behaviours in children or adults. Quality assessment was conducted and data on intervention cost and whether the effect of the built environment differed by ethnicity or socioeconomic status were extracted. Twenty-eight studies were included in the review. Findings showed a positive effect of walkability components, provision of quality parks and playgrounds, and installation of or improvements in active transport infrastructure on active transport, physical activity, and visits or use of settings. There was some indication that infrastructure improvements may predominantly benefit socioeconomically advantaged groups. Studies were commonly limited by selection bias and insufficient controlling for confounders. Heterogeneity in study design and reporting limited comparability across studies or any clear conclusions to be made regarding intervention cost

  14. Emergency transportation interventions for reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiri, John; Alaofè, Halimatou; Asaolu, Ibitola; Chebet, Joy; Esu, Ekpereonne; Meremikwu, Martin

    2018-04-25

    Transportation interventions seek to decrease delay in reaching a health facility for emergency obstetric care and are, thus, believed to contribute to reductions in such adverse pregnancy and childbirth outcomes as maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is limited empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. The objective of the proposed review is to summarize and critically appraise evidence regarding the effect of emergency transportation interventions on outcomes of labor and delivery in LMICs. The following databases will be searched from inception to March 31, 2018: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO (PsycINFO and CINAHL), the Cochrane Pregnancy and Child Birth Group's Specialized Register, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We will search for studies in the grey literature through Google and Google Scholar. We will solicit unpublished reports from such relevant agencies as United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DfID) among others. Data generated from the search will be managed using Endnote Version 7. We will perform quantitative data synthesis if studies are homogenous in characteristics and provide adequate outcome data for meta-analysis. Otherwise, data will be synthesized, using the narrative synthesis approach. Among the many barriers that women in LMICs face in accessing life-saving interventions during labor and delivery, lack of access to emergency transportation is particularly important. This review will provide a critical summary of evidence regarding the impact of transportation interventions on outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth in LMICs. PROSPERO CRD42017080092.

  15. Lack of association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR and Panic Disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfro Gisele G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to assess the association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR and Panic Disorder (PD. Methods This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies with unrelated individuals of any ethnic origin examining the role of the 5-HTTLPR in PD according to standard diagnostic criteria (DSM or ICD. Articles published in any language between January 1996 and April 2007 were eligible. The electronic databases searched included PubMed, PsychInfo, Lilacs and ISI. Two separate analyses were performed: an analysis by alleles and a stratified analysis separating studies by the quality of control groups. Asymptotic DerSimonian and Laird's Q test were used to assess heterogeneity. Results of individual studies were combined using the fixed effect model with respective 95% confidence intervals. Results Nineteen potential articles were identified, and 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis. No statistically significant association between 5-HTTLPR and PD was found, OR = 0.91 (CI95% 0.80 to 1.03, p = 0.14. Three sub-analyses divided by ethnicity, control group quality and Agoraphobia comorbidity also failed to find any significant association. No evidence of heterogeneity was found between studies in the analyses. Conclusion Results from this systematic review do not provide evidence to support an association between 5-HTTLPR and PD. However, more studies are needed in different ethnic populations in order to evaluate a possible minor effect.

  16. The effectiveness of community-based loan funds for transport during obstetric emergencies in developing countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwolise, Chidiebere Hope; Hussein, Julia; Kanguru, Lovney; Bell, Jacqueline; Patel, Purvi

    2015-09-01

    Scarcity and costs of transport have been implicated as key barriers to accessing care when obstetric emergencies occur in community settings. Community-based loans have been used to increase utilization of health facilities and potentially reduce maternal mortality by providing funding at community level to provide emergency transport. This review aimed to provide evidence of the effect of community-based loan funds on utilization of health facilities and reduction of maternal mortality in developing countries. Electronic databases of published literature and websites were searched for relevant literature using a pre-defined set of search terms, inclusion and exclusion criteria. Screening of titles, abstracts and full-text articles were done by at least two reviewers independently. Quality assessment was carried out on the selected papers. Data related to deliveries and obstetric complications attended at facilities, maternal deaths and live births were extracted to measure and compare the effects of community-based loan funds using odds ratios (ORs) and reductions in maternal mortality ratio. Forest plots are presented where possible. The results of the review show that groups where community-based loan funds were implemented (alongside other interventions) generally recorded increases in utilization of health facilities for deliveries, with ORs of 3.5 (0.97-15.48) and 3.55 (1.56-8.05); and an increase in utilization of emergency obstetric care with ORs of 2.22 (0.51-10.38) and 3.37 (1.78-6.37). Intervention groups also experienced a positive effect on met need for complications and a reduction in maternal mortality. There is some evidence to suggest that community-based loan funds as part of a multifaceted intervention have positive effects. Conclusions are limited by challenges of study design and bias. Further studies which strengthen the evidence of the effects of loan funds, and mechanism for their functionality, are recommended. Published by Oxford

  17. Modelling freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Jong, G. de

    2014-01-01

    Freight Transport Modelling is a unique new reference book that provides insight into the state-of-the-art of freight modelling. Focusing on models used to support public transport policy analysis, Freight Transport Modelling systematically introduces the latest freight transport modelling

  18. Benefits and Harms of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluud, Lise L.; Bennett, Cathy; Grøndahl, Magnus F.; Christensen, Mikkel B.; Knop, Filip K.; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) are a novel drug class for the treatment of diabetes. We aimed at describing the maximal benefits and risks associated with SGLT2-i for patients with type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources and Study Selection We included double-blinded, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating SGLT2-i administered in the highest approved therapeutic doses (canagliflozin 300 mg/day, dapagliflozin 10 mg/day, and empagliflozin 25 mg/day) for ≥12 weeks. Comparison groups could receive placebo or oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) including metformin, sulphonylureas (SU), or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4-i). Trials were identified through electronic databases and extensive manual searches. Primary outcomes were glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, serious adverse events, death, severe hypoglycaemia, ketoacidosis and CVD. Secondary outcomes were fasting plasma glucose, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, lipids, liver function tests, creatinine and adverse events including infections. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Results Meta-analysis of 34 RCTs with 9,154 patients showed that SGLT2-i reduced HbA1c compared with placebo (mean difference -0.69%, 95% confidence interval -0.75 to -0.62%). We downgraded the evidence to ‘low quality’ due to variability and evidence of publication bias (P = 0.015). Canagliflozin was associated with the largest reduction in HbA1c (-0.85%, -0.99% to -0.71%). There were no differences between SGLT2-i and placebo for serious adverse events. SGLT2-i increased the risk of urinary and genital tract infections and increased serum creatinine, and exerted beneficial effects on bodyweight, blood pressure, lipids and alanine aminotransferase (moderate to low quality evidence). Analysis of 12 RCTs found a beneficial effect of SGLT2-i on HbA1c compared with OAD (-0.20%, -0.28 to -0.13%; moderate quality evidence). Conclusion

  19. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  20. Systematic Lithologic Calibration of Neogene Mass-Transport Deposits Seismic Character in Mississippi Canyon of the Northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, M. A.; Snedden, J.

    2017-12-01

    Few publications have attempted detailed lithologic calibration of Mass Transport Deposits, usually as a byproduct of mud log descriptions. While the principal motivation for further understanding these slope failure deposits are driven by the economics of deep-water hydrocarbon exploration, the geohazard-related risks of storm-wave loading, and the shallow gas, also provide a driving concern for these deposits. Such risks can be mitigated and prevented by in depth analysis of slope stability and failure. The Mississippi Canyon of the Northern Gulf of Mexico is one of the few basins to contain enough available density of seismic and well data to provide a well-constrained lithologic characterization throughout a MTD-rich continental margin. The proposed hypothesis evaluates: 1) the differences between attached and detached MTDs in the Neogene Northern Gulf of Mexico through seismic characterization and well log analysis, 2) variations of MTD dimensions and map geometries in relation to depositional age throughout the northeastern and northcentral Gulf of Mexico, and 3) the differentiation between sand-prone and shale-prone MTD's in relation to associated depositional mechanisms. This study will attempt lithologic calibration of MTDs in Pleistocene -Miocene strata of the study area through integration of seismic observations (focused in supra-salt basins, which have the highest seismic data quality) and lithologic related information extracted from logs, mud logs (cuttings), and available core data to further constrain the distribution of MTD types, lithology, and geometries. Initial interpretations reflect a variance of seismic character responses to the presence of sandstone and shale (constrained by wells) throughout different regions and salt tectonic domains of the MTD geobodies. Further analysis will relate different seismic facies throughout MTDs to improve the understanding of seismic character and related lithologic facies throughout the deposits, in

  1. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle

    Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience...... and resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience...

  2. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...

  3. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Dreier; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Palshof, Jesper Andreas

    2016-01-01

    to earlier diagnosis and improved survival. Method: In this paper, we describe the incidence as well as characteristics associated with BM based on a systematic review of the current literature, following the PRISMA guidelines. Results: We show that the incidence of BM in CRC patients ranges from 0.6 to 3...

  4. Effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition on renal function and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubin Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition on renal function and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted systematic searches of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to June 2016 and included randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in adult type 2 diabetic patients reporting estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and/or urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR changes. Data were synthesized using the random-effects model. Results Forty-seven studies with 22,843 participants were included. SGLT2 inhibition was not associated with a significant change in eGFR in general (weighted mean difference (WMD, −0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [−0.90 to 0.23] or in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD (WMD −0.78 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [−2.52 to 0.97]. SGLT2 inhibition was associated with eGFR reduction in short-term trials (WMD −0.98 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [−1.42 to −0.54], and with eGFR preservation in long-term trials (WMD 2.01 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 95% CI [0.86 to 3.16]. Urine ACR reduction after SGLT2 inhibition was not statistically significant in type 2 diabetic patients in general (WMD −7.24 mg/g, 95% CI [−15.54 to 1.06], but was significant in patients with CKD (WMD −107.35 mg/g, 95% CI [−192.53 to −22.18]. Conclusions SGLT2 inhibition was not associated with significant changes in eGFR in patients with type 2 diabetes, likely resulting from a mixture of an initial reduction of eGFR and long-term renal function preservation. SGLT2 inhibition was associated with statistically significant albuminuria reduction in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD.

  5. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Palle; Chauhan, Usha; Greveson, Kay

    2017-01-01

    of evidence is needed and the aim of this article was to systematically review the evidence of IBD advice lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant studies addressing the effect of advice lines. The process of selection of the retrieved studies...... was undertaken in two phases. In phase one, all abstracts were review by two independent reviewers. In phase two, the full text of all included studies were independently reviewed by two reviewers. The included studies underwent quality assessment and data synthesis. RESULTS: Ten published studies and 10...... congress abstracts were included in the review. The studies were heterogeneous both in scientific quality and in the focus of the study. No rigorous evidence was found to support that advice lines improve disease activity in IBD and correspondingly no studies reported worsening in disease activity. Advice...

  6. Systematic Avocating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Green

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeling obliged to undertake complex research tasks outside core working hours is a common occurrence in academia. Detailed and timely research projects are expected; the creation and defence of sufficient intervals within a crowded working schedule is one concern explored in this short version paper. Merely working longer hours fails to provide a satisfactory solution for individuals experiencing concerns of this nature. Personal effort and drive are utilised and requires the application of mental mustering and systematic procedures. The attitude to research work is treating the task as a hobby conceptualised as avocating. Whilst this provides a personal solution through immersion in the task, this approach should raise concerns for employers. The flexibility of grounded theory is evident and the freedom to draw on various bodies of knowledge provides fresh insight into a problem that occurs in organizations in many sectors experiencing multiple priorities. The application of the core category, systematic avocating, may prove beneficial.

  7. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  8. Ion transport in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Stellarator ion transport in the low-collisionality regime with a radial electric field is calculated by a systematic expansion of the drift-Boltzmann equation. The shape of the helical well is taken into account in this calculation. It is found that the barely trapped ions with three to four times the thermal energy give the dominant contribution to the diffusion. Expressions for the ion particle and energy fluxes are derived

  9. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  10. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  11. 77 FR 41107 - Enterprise Underwriting Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    [email protected] . Please include ``RIN 2590- AA53'' in the subject line of the message. U.S. Mail, United Parcel Service, Federal Express, or Other Mail Service: The mailing address for comments is: Alfred M...

  12. Underwriters' view of risk - An adjuster's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews how a risk assessment is performed by an insurance adjuster to determine rates and insurability of a client. It provides a historical perspective on insurance and how information systems are used to monitor past claims to determine future risk. Although this paper does not specifically address the oil and gas industry, it is informative in identifying how insurance rates are determined and risk assessments for various oil and gas operations are performed

  13. 77 FR 36085 - Enterprise Underwriting Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... of Environmental Entrepreneurs asserted that ``PACE can further reduce risk to existing lenders by... energy efficient product purchases, a dramatic reduction in energy prices likely would make it easier for...

  14. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  15. Advanced transport modeling of toroidal plasmas with transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, A.; Murakami, S.; Honda, M.; Izumi, Y.; Yagi, M.; Nakajima, N.; Nakamura, Y.; Ozeki, T.

    2005-01-01

    Transport modeling of toroidal plasmas is one of the most important issue to predict time evolution of burning plasmas and to develop control schemes in reactor plasmas. In order to describe the plasma rotation and rapid transition self-consistently, we have developed an advanced scheme of transport modeling based on dynamical transport equation and applied it to the analysis of transport barrier formation. First we propose a new transport model and examine its behavior by the use of conventional diffusive transport equation. This model includes the electrostatic toroidal ITG mode and the electromagnetic ballooning mode and successfully describes the formation of internal transport barriers. Then the dynamical transport equation is introduced to describe the plasma rotation and the radial electric field self-consistently. The formation of edge transport barriers is systematically studied and compared with experimental observations. The possibility of kinetic transport modeling in velocity space is also examined. Finally the modular structure of integrated modeling code for tokamaks and helical systems is discussed. (author)

  16. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  17. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  18. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  19. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  20. Neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; M'Backe Diop, Cheikh; Nicolas, Anne; Andrieux, Catherine; Archier, Pascal; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Bernard, David; Biaise, Patrick; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Bonin, Bernard; Bouland, Olivier; Bourganel, Stephane; Calvin, Christophe; Chiron, Maurice; Damian, Frederic; Dumonteil, Eric; Fausser, Clement; Fougeras, Philippe; Gabriel, Franck; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal; Hugot, Francois-Xavier; Dat Huynh, Tan; Jouanne, Cedric; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Laye, Frederic; Lee, Yi-Kang; Lenain, Richard; Leray, Sylvie; Litaize, Olivier; Magnaud, Christine; Malvagi, Fausto; Mijuin, Dominique; Mounier, Claude; Naury, Sylvie; Nicolas, Anne; Noguere, Gilles; Palau, Jean-Marc; Le Pallec, Jean-Charles; Peneliau, Yannick; Petit, Odile; Poinot-Salanon, Christine; Raepsaet, Xavier; Reuss, Paul; Richebois, Edwige; Roque, Benedicte; Royer, Eric; Saint-Jean, Cyrille de; Santamarina, Alain; Serot, Olivier; Soldevila, Michel; Tommasi, Jean; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Tsilanizara, Aime; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    This bibliographical note presents a reference book which addresses the study of neutron transport in matter, the study of conditions for a chain reaction and the study of modifications of matter composition due to nuclear reactions. This book presents the main nuclear data, their measurement, assessment and processing, and the spallation. It proposes an overview of methods applied for the study of neutron transport: basic equations and their derived forms, deterministic methods and Monte Carlo method of resolution of the Boltzmann equation, methods of resolution of generalized Bateman equations, methods of time resolution of space kinetics coupled equations. It presents the main calculation codes, discusses the qualification and experimental aspects, and gives an overview of neutron transport applications: neutron transport calculation of reactors, neutron transport coupled with other disciplines, physics of fuel cycle, criticality

  1. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  2. Overview of toroidal momentum transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, A.G.; Hornsby, W.A.; Angioni, C.; Hein, T.; Kluy, N.; Strintzi, D.; Tardini, G.; Bortolon, A.; Camenen, Y.; Casson, F.J.; Snodin, A.P.; Szepesi, G.; Duval, B.; Fiederspiel, L.; Idomura, Y.; Mantica, P.; Parra, F.I.; Tala, T.; De Vries, P.; Weiland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Toroidal momentum transport mechanisms are reviewed and put in a broader perspective. The generation of a finite momentum flux is closely related to the breaking of symmetry (parity) along the field. The symmetry argument allows for the systematic identification of possible transport mechanisms. Those that appear to lowest order in the normalized Larmor radius (the diagonal part, Coriolis pinch, E x B shearing, particle flux, and up-down asymmetric equilibria) are reasonably well understood. At higher order, expected to be of importance in the plasma edge, the theory is still under development.

  3. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  4. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  5. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  6. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  7. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  8. Public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory para...

  9. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, W.

    1992-01-01

    The book presents a systematic survey of the legal provisions governing the transport of radioactive materials, placing emphasis on the nuclear licensing provisions of sections 4, 4b of the Atomic Energy, Act (AtG) and sections 8-10 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), also considering the provisions of the traffic law governing the carriage of hazardous goods. The author's goal is to establish a systematic basis by comparative analysis of the licensing regulations under atomic energy law, for the purpose of formulating a proposed amendment to the law, for the sake of clarity. The author furthermore looks for and develops criteria that can be of help in distinguishing the regulations governing the carriage of hazardous goods from the nuclear regulatory provisions. He also examines whether such a differentiation is detectable, particularly in those amendments to the StrlSchV which came after the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials under the AtG meet with the problem of different classification systems being applied, to radioactive materials in the supervisory regulations on the one hand, and to nuclear materials in Annex 1 to the AtG on the other hand. A classification of natural, non-nuclear grade uranium e.g. by the financial security provisions is difficult as a result of these differences in the laws. The author shows that the transport regulations of the StrlSchV represent an isolated supervisory instrument that has no connecting factor to the sections 28 ff StrlSchV, as radiation protection is provided for by the regulations of the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The author suggests an amendment of existing law incorporating the legal intent of sections 8-10 StrlSchV and of sections 4, 4b AtG into two sections, and abolishing the supervisory provisions of the StrlSchV altogether. (orig./HP) [de

  10. The systematization of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2002-01-01

    this paper presents an approach for the systematization of practical experiences whitin Operations Research, Community work, Systems Sciences, Action Research, etc. A case study is presented: the systematization of the activities of a development center in Denmark.......this paper presents an approach for the systematization of practical experiences whitin Operations Research, Community work, Systems Sciences, Action Research, etc. A case study is presented: the systematization of the activities of a development center in Denmark....

  11. Improving road transport operations through lean thinking: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal, B.; Garza-Reyes, J. A.; Kumar, V.; Lim, M. K.

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, logistics and transportation problems have been addressed through mathematical modelling, operations research, and simulation methods. This paper documents a case study where the road transport operations of a leading Mexican brewery organisation have been improved through lean thinking and waste reduction. Two lean-based principles and tools were combined; the Seven Transportation Extended Wastes (STEWs) and Transportation Value Stream Mapping (TVSM), and three systematic step...

  12. Orbital transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, H. Jr.; Koerner, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Third Aerospace Symposium in Braunschweig presented, for the first time, the possibility of bringing together the classical disciplines of aerospace engineering and the natural science disciplines of meteorology and air chemistry in a european setting. In this way, aspects of environmental impact on the atmosphere could be examined quantitatively. An essential finding of the european conference, is the unrestricted agreement of the experts that the given launch frequencies of the present orbital transport result in a negligible amount of pollutants being released in the atmosphere. The symposium does, however, call attention to the increasing need to consider the effect of orbital and atmospheric environmental impact of a future increase in launch frequencies of orbital transport in connection with future space stations. The Third Aerospace Symposium, 'Orbital Transport, Technical, Meteorological and Chemical Aspects', constituted a first forum of discussion for engineers and scientists. Questions of new orbital transport technologies and their environmental impact were to be discussed towards a first consensus. Through the 34 reports and articles, the general problems of space transportation and environmental protection were addressed, as well as particular aspects of high temperatures during reentry in the atmosphere of the earth, precision navigation of flight vehicles or flow behavior and air chemistry in the stratosphere. (orig./CT). 342 figs

  13. MODERN AND PERSPECTIVE ON-BOARD NTELLECTUAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Topalidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of systematization of modern and perspective intellectual transport sides systems (ITВS it is suggested their classification and planning of new ITВS for realization of safety control of vehicle technical condition.

  14. Guidelines for developing transportation management plans in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A transportation management plan (TMP) is a comprehensive program of traffic control, communication, operation, and demand management strategies designed to maintain acceptable levels of traffic flow in work zones. A systematic procedure and/or check...

  15. Designing for transportation management and operations : a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This primer is focused on the collaborative and systematic consideration of management and operations during transportation : project design and development. This is termed designing for operations. Effectively designing for operations involves...

  16. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    and their results are introduced as well. To provide an overview of current trends, related scientific projects and other analyses on climate change mitigation and transport are given in the report. The references used in this report can also serve as a source of data and inspiration for the reader. This report......This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark’s dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008...... challenges for the transport sectors, which has not yet been systematically analysed from any Governmental body. In this report we list projects which have done so. The first chapter describes policies and initiatives of international relevance within climate mitigation. The following chapters explain...

  17. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  18. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  19. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  20. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2001/1199) of the 10. of december 2001 relative to the passing of safety rules concerning the maritime transport of spent fuels, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes contained in packages. (O.M.)

  1. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  2. Kinetic theory and transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    This textbook presents kinetic theory, which is a systematic approach to describing nonequilibrium systems. The text is balanced between the fundamental concepts of kinetic theory (irreversibility, transport processes, separation of time scales, conservations, coarse graining, distribution functions, etc.) and the results and predictions of the theory, where the relevant properties of different systems are computed. The book is organised in thematic chapters where different paradigmatic systems are studied. The specific features of these systems are described, building and analysing the appropriate kinetic equations. Specifically, the book considers the classical transport of charges, the dynamics of classical gases, Brownian motion, plasmas, and self-gravitating systems, quantum gases, the electronic transport in solids and, finally, semiconductors. Besides these systems that are studied in detail, concepts are applied to some modern examples including the quark–gluon plasma, the motion of bacterial suspen...

  3. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  4. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  5. Institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Luna, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials in the United States represent significant barriers to meeting future needs in the transport of radioactive waste materials to their ultimate repository. While technological problems which must be overcome to perform such movements seem to be within the state-of-the-art, the timely resolution of these institutional issues seems less assured. However, the definition of these issues, as attempted in this paper, together with systematic analysis of cause and possible solutions are the essential elements of the Transportation Technology Center's Institutional Issues Program

  6. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  7. Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport development in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. ... A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  8. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  9. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  10. The Importance of Systematics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-02-18

    Feb 18, 1999 ... Similarly, the work of Nathan Charles Rothschild, a taxonomic authority on flea species, was responsible for the discovery ... The use of genetic data for taxonomic purposes also brings systematics closer to realizing Darwin's desire that classification should reflect evolutionary relationships. Systematics is.

  11. Nonlocal transport in hot plasma. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of describing charged particle transport in hot plasma under the conditions in which the ratio of the electron mean free path to the gradient length is not too small is one of the key problems of plasma physics. However, up to now, there was a deficit of the systematic interpretation of the current state of this problem, which, in most studies, is formulated as the problem of nonlocal transport. In this review, we fill this gap by presenting a self-consistent linear theory of nonlocal transport for small plasma perturbations and an arbitrary collisionality from the classical highly collisional hydrodynamic regime to the collisionless regime. We describe a number of nonlinear transport models and demonstrate the application of the nonclassical transport theory to the solution of some problems of plasma physics, first of all for plasmas produced by nanosecond laser pulses with intensities of 10 13 –10 16 W/cm 2

  12. Energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of primary interaction cross sections and the incorporation of these data into Monte Carlo calculations provide detailed information about the initial spatial distribution of absorbed dose. Our theoretical energy transport studies have focused on the use of this information to predict the evolution of chemical species formed as a result of the energy deposition. This effort has led to a stochastic approach to diffusion kinetics that can account for the influence of track structure on the yield of free radicals in the radiolysis of water. Fluorescence studies with pulsed alpha particle and proton beams provided the first experimental test of our stochastic model of tract structure effects. Our experimental studies use time-resolved emission spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of energy transport in nonpolar liquids. Studies of the concentration dependence of time-resolved emission from solutions of benzene in cyclohexane also show the importance of using low benzene concentrations to minimize the influence of benzene dimers on the emission kinetics

  13. National transportation statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including : its physical components, safety reco...

  14. National Transportation Statistics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record...

  15. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  16. National Transportation Statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

  17. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  18. Quality assurance in the transport of radiography sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parihar, Manju; Singh, R.K.; Upadhyay, K.C.; Agarwal, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    One of the applications of radioisotopes in industry is non destructive testing (NDT) where the industrial radiography sources are often transported in public domain for site radiography. About 1100 cameras are deployed in our country. This transport of the sources can lead to significant radiological impact in case of accidents unless all precautions are taken. It is, therefore, required to have a systematic programme of controls and inspections in the transport of radioactive source. In this paper, we discuss the quality assurance programme that should be applied in various stages of the transport of radioactive sources to ensure a safe transport and prompt delivery of the radioactive consignment at its destination. (author)

  19. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  20. Influence of 3D printing on transport : a theory and experts judgment based conceptual model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Wouter; Van Wee, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Consumer 3D printing is on the rise and has the potential to significantly change the transport and logistics sector. Current literature on 3D printing and transport studies does not provide a systematic model of the impact of 3D printing on transport and related (policy relevant) areas, such as

  1. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  2. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  3. Human transporter database: comprehensive knowledge and discovery tools in the human transporter genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Y Ye

    Full Text Available Transporters are essential in homeostatic exchange of endogenous and exogenous substances at the systematic, organic, cellular, and subcellular levels. Gene mutations of transporters are often related to pharmacogenetics traits. Recent developments in high throughput technologies on genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics allow in depth studies of transporter genes in normal cellular processes and diverse disease conditions. The flood of high throughput data have resulted in urgent need for an updated knowledgebase with curated, organized, and annotated human transporters in an easily accessible way. Using a pipeline with the combination of automated keywords query, sequence similarity search and manual curation on transporters, we collected 1,555 human non-redundant transporter genes to develop the Human Transporter Database (HTD (http://htd.cbi.pku.edu.cn. Based on the extensive annotations, global properties of the transporter genes were illustrated, such as expression patterns and polymorphisms in relationships with their ligands. We noted that the human transporters were enriched in many fundamental biological processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and cardiac muscle contraction, and significantly associated with Mendelian and complex diseases such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. Overall, HTD provides a well-organized interface to facilitate research communities to search detailed molecular and genetic information of transporters for development of personalized medicine.

  4. Salt Repository Project transportation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.L.; Greenberg, A.H.; Anderson, T.L.; Yates, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) has the responsibility to develop a comprehensive transportation program plan (TrPP) that treats the transportation of workers, supplies, and high-level radioactive waste to the site and the transportation of salt, low-level, and transuranic wastes from the site. The TrPP has developed a systematic approach to transportation which is directed towards satisfying statutes, regulations, and directives and is guided by a hierarchy of specific functional requirements, strategies, plans, and reports. The TrPP identifies and develops the planning process for transportation-related studies and provides guidance to staff in performing and documenting these activities. The TrPP also includes an explanation of the responsibilities of the organizational elements involved in these transportation studies. Several of the report chapters relate to identifying routes for transporting nuclear waste to the site. These include a chapter on identifying an access corridor for a new rail route leading to the site, identifying and evaluating emergency-response preparedness capabilities along candidate routes in the state, and identifying alternative routes from the state border, ports, or in-state reactors to the site. The TrPP also includes plans for identifying salt disposal routes and a discussion of repository/transportation interface requirements. 89 refs., 6 figs

  5. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  6. Electrolyte solution transport in electropolar nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianbing; Culligan, Patricia J; Chen Xi; Qiao Yu; Zhou Qulan; Li Yibing; Tak, Moonho; Park, Taehyo

    2010-01-01

    Electrolyte transport in nanochannels plays an important role in a number of emerging areas. Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations, the fundamental transport behavior of an electrolyte/water solution in a confined model nanoenvironment is systematically investigated by varying the nanochannel dimension, solid phase, electrolyte phase, ion concentration and transport rate. It is found that the shear resistance encountered by the nanofluid strongly depends on these material/system parameters; furthermore, several effects are coupled. The mechanisms of the nanofluidic transport characteristics are explained by considering the unique molecular/ion structure formed inside the nanochannel. The lower shear resistance observed in some of the systems studies could be beneficial for nanoconductors, while the higher shear resistance (or higher effective viscosity) observed in other systems might enhance the performance of energy dissipation devices.

  7. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  8. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  9. Transportation librarian's toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The Transportation Librarians Toolkit is a product of the Transportation Library Connectivity pooled fund study, TPF- 5(105), a collaborative, grass-roots effort by transportation libraries to enhance information accessibility and professional expert...

  10. Advanced Transportation Institute 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The seventh version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-08) was conducted in 2008 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered wit...

  11. Advanced Transportation Institute 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The eighth version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-09) was conducted in 2009 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered with...

  12. Innovative Technologies in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    An historical overview of the transportation infrastructure of the United States and Texas is provided. Data for trends in transportation is analyzed and projections for the future are postulated. A survey of current technologies in transportation is...

  13. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  14. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  15. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  16. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  17. Tritium source-related systematic uncertainties of the KATRIN experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz-Moskaliuk, Hendrik [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer experimentelle Kernphysik, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Collaboration: KATRIN-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    KATRIN will perform a direct, kinematics-based measurement of the neutrino mass with a sensitivity of 200 meV (90 % C. L.) reached after 3 years of measurement time. The neutrino mass is obtained by determining the shape of the spectrum of tritium β decay electrons close to the endpoint of 18.6 keV with a spectrometer of MAC-E filter type. To achieve the planned sensitivity, the systematic measurement uncertainties have to be carefully controlled and evaluated. Main sources of systematics are the MAC-E filter on the one hand and the source and transport section (STS) on the other hand. Most of the operational parameters of KATRIN have to be stable at or even below the per mille level and have to meet further strict requirements. This talk reviews the KATRIN systematics with a special focus on the STS. Early commissioning measurements to determine the main systematics are introduced.

  18. The concept of and factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Dąbrowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport accessibility of seaports is a frequently studied area in economic research. In practice, port operators and authorities use it to promote their services and compete in the market. Up to this day, theoretical basis of seaports transport accessibility has not been properly described. The article attempts to systematize and expend the knowledge in this field. New definitions of transport availability from wider and narrower perspectives were suggested; different types of accessibility and their mutual relations were explained. These ideas were complemented by introducing classification of factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports.

  19. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  20. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  1. Neoclassical transport in NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Beidler, C.D.; Maassberg, H.; Houlberg, W.A.; Spong, D.A.; Tribaldos, V.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for calculating neoclassical transport in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) are discussed, with particular attention to developing computationally inexpensive predictions of neoclassical transport. (orig.)

  2. Journal of transportation engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    The Journal of Transportation Engineering contains technical and professional articles on the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of air, highway, rail, and urban transportation...

  3. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  4. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  5. Swaddling: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  6. Systematic, Cooperative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Paula M.

    Evaluation procedures based on a systematic evaluation methodology, decision-maker validity, new measurement and design techniques, low cost, and a high level of cooperation on the part of the school staff were used in the assessment of a public school mathematics program for grades 3-8. The mathematics curriculum was organized into Spirals which…

  7. Swaddling : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  8. Serbia : Systematic Country Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) aims to identify the major constraints on and opportunities for sustaining poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Serbia. The SCD serves as the analytic foundation on which the World Bank Group and the Government of Serbia will define a new Country Partnership Framework for FY2016 to FY2020. It is based on the best possible analysis, drawing on ...

  9. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; Jørgensen, Anders W.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews

  10. Purchasing a General Ticket for Public Transport - A Means-End Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Riegler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Switzerland offers a dense network of public transport means. The Swiss General Ticket (GT) is a popular travel pass, which allows the use of most of the public transport facilities in Switzerland. The buying behavior for public transport general tickets underlies a complex decision process. Public transport customers can deal with the complexity in two ways: either one decides on choice heuristics according to ones rather emotional beliefs or decides systematically based on a rational price ...

  11. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  12. Analytic Theology as Systematic Theology

    OpenAIRE

    Crisp Oliver D.

    2017-01-01

    It is often said that analytic theology is not really systematic theology; it is something else entirely. However, specifying what this “something else” amounts to has proven a little more difficult. In this article I argue that analytic theology may be a species of systematic theology. I show that there is no agreed view on the nature of systematic theology amongst several leading practitioners of systematic theology by comparing the work of John Webster, Brian Gerrish, and Gordon Kaufman. I...

  13. Medicago truncatula transporter database: a comprehensive database resource for M. truncatula transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhenyan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula has been chosen as a model species for genomic studies. It is closely related to an important legume, alfalfa. Transporters are a large group of membrane-spanning proteins. They deliver essential nutrients, eject waste products, and assist the cell in sensing environmental conditions by forming a complex system of pumps and channels. Although studies have effectively characterized individual M. truncatula transporters in several databases, until now there has been no available systematic database that includes all transporters in M. truncatula. Description The M. truncatula transporter database (MTDB contains comprehensive information on the transporters in M. truncatula. Based on the TransportTP method, we have presented a novel prediction pipeline. A total of 3,665 putative transporters have been annotated based on International Medicago Genome Annotated Group (IMGAG V3.5 V3 and the M. truncatula Gene Index (MTGI V10.0 releases and assigned to 162 families according to the transporter classification system. These families were further classified into seven types according to their transport mode and energy coupling mechanism. Extensive annotations referring to each protein were generated, including basic protein function, expressed sequence tag (EST mapping, genome locus, three-dimensional template prediction, transmembrane segment, and domain annotation. A chromosome distribution map and text-based Basic Local Alignment Search Tools were also created. In addition, we have provided a way to explore the expression of putative M. truncatula transporter genes under stress treatments. Conclusions In summary, the MTDB enables the exploration and comparative analysis of putative transporters in M. truncatula. A user-friendly web interface and regular updates make MTDB valuable to researchers in related fields. The MTDB is freely available now to all users at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtTransporter/.

  14. Unstirred Water Layers and the Kinetics of Organic Cation Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Takahiro; Morales, Mark; Zhang, Xiaohong; Martinez, Lucy; Berteloot, Alfred; Secomb, Timothy W.; Wright, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Unstirred water layers (UWLs) present an unavoidable complication in the measurement of transport kinetics in cultured cells and the high rates of transport achieved by overexpressing heterologous transporters exacerbate the UWL effect. This study examined the correlation between measured Jmax and Kt values and the effect of manipulating UWL thickness or transport Jmax on the accuracy of experimentally determined kinetics of the multidrug transporters, OCT2 and MATE1. Methods Transport of TEA and MPP was measured in CHO cells that stably expressed human OCT2 or MATE1. UWL thickness was manipulated by vigorous reciprocal shaking. Several methods were used to manipulate maximal transport rates. Results Vigorous stirring stimulated uptake of OCT2-mediated transport by decreasing apparent Kt (Ktapp) values. Systematic reduction in transport rates was correlated with reduction in Ktapp values. The slope of these relationships indicated a 1500 µm UWL in multiwell plates. Reducing the influence of UWLs (by decreasing either their thickness or the Jmax of substrate transport) reduced Ktapp by 2-fold to >10-fold. Conclusions Failure to take into account the presence of UWLs in experiments using cultured cells to measure transport kinetics can result in significant underestimates of the affinity of multidrug transporters for substrates. PMID:25791216

  15. Dry Port Development: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimazahra BENTALEB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on dry ports as nodes in multimodal transport have been expanded to decrease the mounting congestion on seaports. The principal objective of this study is to inspect how dry port researches have been conducted from different perspective. This paper tries to recap the existing researches that aimed to study dry port concept via a systematic review, to present a general overview of the researches on our relevant region and propose a classification for these researches. This paper present a systematic review of dry port that looks to illustrate the progress of researches on this area between 1986 and 2015, collecting researches on dry port concept and analyzing the main characteristics of the dry port development and their contribution to the multimodal transport. The results indicated that most dry port studies considerate the strategic level and concentrate in the Asian continent. Studies regarding other decision levels and continents have to be developed in further researches. Although the existing studies make a contribution in dry port concept, they allow gaps in terms of operational and tactical decision levels considering their limited geographical region.

  16. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  17. Computational aspects of systematic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilburn, Timothy G; Harrison, Scott H; Cole, James R; Garrity, George M

    2006-06-01

    We review the resources available to systematic biologists who wish to use computers to build classifications. Algorithm development is in an early stage, and only a few examples of integrated applications for systematic biology are available. The availability of data is crucial if systematic biology is to enter the computer age.

  18. Systematic Quality Work in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the meaning that Swedish preschool teachers ascribe to systematic quality work. In Sweden, all preschools are required to work systematically with quality issues. This involves several interdependent steps that follow each other in a specific order. Although the concept of systematic quality work might…

  19. Fostering child-centred approaches to transport research, planning and policy development: a pilot methodology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available countries, this is a surprising oversight. Much of our knowledge of children and transport is gleaned from observation and anecdotal evidence. There has been little systematic study of the issues. Children are not seriously considered stakeholders...

  20. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  1. Magnetic type transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobama, Masao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic transportation of nuclear substances with optional setting for the transportation distance, even for a long distance, facilitating the automation of the transportation and decreasing the space for the installation of a direction converging section of the transporting path. Constitution: A transporting vehicle having a pair of permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies mounted with a predetermined gap to each other along the transporting direction is provided in the transporting path including a bent direction change section for transporting specimens such as nuclear materials, and a plurality of driving vehicles having permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies for magnetically attracting the transporting vehicle from outside of the transporting path are arranged to the outside of the transporting path. At least one of the driving vehicles is made to run along the transporting direction of the transporting path by a driving mechanism incorporating running section such as an endless chain to drive the transportation vehicle, and the transporting vehicle is successively driven by each of the driving mechanisms. (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. DIRECTION OF MODERNIZATION OF THE ARCTIC MARINE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Komkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the modern processes of formation and development of the marine transportation system in the Russian Arctic, analyzes its problem areas and reserves growth. Shows the status and prospects of development of cargo specialized fl eet of ice-class and icebreakers. Particular attention is paid to infrastructure, port management, port The possibility of creating special economic zones. Systematized direction of modernization of the Arctic marine transportation system.

  3. An overview of systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathy A; Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Systematic review is an invaluable tool for the practicing clinician. A well-designed systematic review represents the latest and most complete information available on a particular topic or intervention. This article highlights the key elements of systematic review, what it is and is not, and provides an overview of several reputable organizations supporting the methodological development and conduct of systematic review. Important aspects for evaluating the quality of a systematic review are also included. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Theory of ion heat transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, Y.V.; Yurchenko, E.I.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments which have been carried out in several tokamaks to determine the ion thermal conductivity show that it is several times the value predicted by the neoclassical theory. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is proposed. When the finite width of a banana is taken into account, there are substantial increases in the heat fluxes which stem from the important contribution of superthermal ions to the transport. If the electron diffusive flux is zero, a systematic account of the ions with E>T leads to an ion heat flux with a finite banana width which is two to four times the neoclassical prediction. The effect of the anomalous nature of the electron flux on the ion heat transport is analyzed. An expression is derived for calculating the ion heat transport over the entire range of collision rates

  5. Transportation Business Plan: strategy options document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This document provides the framework for development of a business plan for establishing and operating the transportation system necessary to support a repository. Section I contains introductory material and defines the plan in terms of policy basis, purpose, and scope of business activities. Section II discusses the evolving strategy that will direct the Department's business actions and describes various strategy options that are under consideration. Also discussed in Section II is a process for the systematic development and acquisition of the transportation system. This process is based on a phased development approach with business activities divided into four stages: system definition; engineering development and certification; cask fleet procurement and carrier negotiations; and transportation operations. 8 figures, 2 tables

  6. Transport processes in space physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Zank, Gary P

    2014-01-01

    Transport Processes in Space Physics and Astrophysics' is aimed at graduate level students to provide the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. Subjects emphasized in the work include collisional and collisionless processes in gases (neutral or plasma), analogous processes in turbulence fields and radiation fields, and allows for a simplified treatment of the statistical description of the system. A systematic study that addresses the common tools at a graduate level allows students to progress to a point where they can begin their research in a variety of fields within space physics and astrophysics. This book is for graduate students who expect to complete their research in an area of plasma space physics or plasma astrophysics. By providing a broad synthesis in several areas of transport theory and modeling, the work also benefits resear...

  7. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Ya Gao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green–Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  8. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe; Limmer, David

    2017-10-01

    We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation function. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which is a scaled cumulant generating function analogous to the free energy. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green-Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  9. Transport container storage. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, B.; Kuehn, H.D.; Schulz, E.

    1987-01-01

    In connection with mandatory licensing procedures and in the framework of quality control for serially produced containers from spheroidal graphite cast iron of quality grade GGG 40, destined to be used in the transport and storage of radioactive materials, each prototype and each production sample of a design is subjected to comprehensive destructive and non-destructive material tests. The data obtained are needed on the one hand to check whether specified, representative material characteristics are observed; on the other hand they are systematically evaluated to update knowledge and technical standards. The Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing (BAM) has so far examined 528 individual containers (513 production samples and 15 prototypes) of wall thicknesses from 80 millimetres to 500 millimetres in this connection. It has turned out that the measures for quality assurance and quality control as substantiated by a concept of expertise definitely confirm the validity of component test results for production samples. (orig.) [de

  10. Optimal transport on supply-demand networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Li-Chao; Zhou, Changsong; Zhou, Tao

    2010-06-01

    In the literature, transport networks are usually treated as homogeneous networks, that is, every node has the same function, simultaneously providing and requiring resources. However, some real networks, such as power grids and supply chain networks, show a far different scenario in which nodes are classified into two categories: supply nodes provide some kinds of services, while demand nodes require them. In this paper, we propose a general transport model for these supply-demand networks, associated with a criterion to quantify their transport capacities. In a supply-demand network with heterogeneous degree distribution, its transport capacity strongly depends on the locations of supply nodes. We therefore design a simulated annealing algorithm to find the near optimal configuration of supply nodes, which remarkably enhances the transport capacity compared with a random configuration and outperforms the degree target algorithm, the betweenness target algorithm, and the greedy method. This work provides a start point for systematically analyzing and optimizing transport dynamics on supply-demand networks.

  11. Plasma transport in stochastic magnetic fields. I. General considerations and test particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Kleva, R.G.; Oberman, C.

    1978-05-01

    A systematic theory is developed for the computation of electron transport in stochastic magnetic fields. Small scale magnetic perturbations arising, for example, from finite-β micro-instabilities are assumed to destroy the flux surfaces of a standard tokamak equilibrium. Because the magnetic lines then wander in a volume, electron radial flux is enhanced due to the rapid particle transport along as well as across the lines. By treating the magnetic lines as random variables, it is possible to develop a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function. This is solved approximately to yield the diffusion coefficient

  12. Plasma transport in stochastic magnetic fields. I. General considerations and test particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krommes, J.A.; Kleva, R.G.; Oberman, C.

    1978-05-01

    A systematic theory is developed for the computation of electron transport in stochastic magnetic fields. Small scale magnetic perturbations arising, for example, from finite-..beta.. micro-instabilities are assumed to destroy the flux surfaces of a standard tokamak equilibrium. Because the magnetic lines then wander in a volume, electron radial flux is enhanced due to the rapid particle transport along as well as across the lines. By treating the magnetic lines as random variables, it is possible to develop a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function. This is solved approximately to yield the diffusion coefficient.

  13. Transportation Technology: Rail Transport and Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    Transportation can simply be defined as the movement of goods, services, and people from one location to another. Without an efficient means to transport goods from place to place, the economy would be nothing like it is today. Throughout the history of the United States, American railroads have paved the way toward creating a nation of great…

  14. Information disclosure on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan, the transport of nuclear fuel materials strictly meets the above international convention and domestic regulations as well. Information on the transport of nuclear fuel materials within the country and between the country and foreign countries is treated carefully. Nuclear fuel materials are categorized for transport and are physically protected accordingly. Certain transportation information is treated with special precautions, including prior arrangements among sender, recipient and carrier, and prior agreement between entities subject to the jurisdiction and regulation of supplier and recipient countries. In the case of international transport, this information includes specifying time, place and procedures for transferring transport and responsibility. (O.M.)

  15. Secure Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  16. Monte Carlo Transport for Electron Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet multigroup electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. is adapted into a Monte Carlo transport method in order to better model the effects of non-local behavior. The end goal is a hybrid transport-diffusion method that combines Monte Carlo Transport with a discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC). The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in short mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions. The Monte Carlo nature of the approach allows the algorithm to be massively parallelized. Work to date on the method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  17. 26 CFR 1.821-5 - Special transitional underwriting loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or...

  18. 78 FR 73208 - Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.: Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... information. OSHA did not perform any on-site reviews in relation to this application. The OTPCA staff... electronically to the Federal eRulemaking Portal at http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions online..., including any personal information, in the public docket without revision, and these materials may be...

  19. Systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, K. D.; Lloyd, C. E.; Skinner, T. C.

    2007-01-01

    mixed results, with one study reporting quality of life benefits and one reporting no evidence of quality of life benefits. Conclusions: There is conflicting evidence reported in the various studies on the quality of life benefits of CSII in Type 1 diabetes. Existing research is flawed, making......Aim: To review systematically the published literature addressing whether continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) provides any quality of life benefits to people with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Electronic databases and published references were searched and a consultation with two...

  20. Systematic Equation Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

  1. Sustainable Transportation and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mundorf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing a shift in thinking about Transportation and Mobility, which makes this Special Issue on Sustainable Transportation and Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health especially timely.[...

  2. Arizona transportation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  3. Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Drone Integration Pilot Program MEET THE SECRETARY TRANSPORTATION TUESDAY FEATURED NEWS The Briefing Room Connect With ... Carriers - Get a DOT Number Find Your State Transportation Department 5 Star Automobile Crash Test Ratings Office ...

  4. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  5. TRANSPORTATION ECONOMIC TRENDS 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The report has eight chapters: - Chapter 1 introduces the Transportation Services Index, a monthly summary of freight and passenger movement. - Chapter 2 explains what transportation contributes to the American economy. - Chapter 3 examines the costs...

  6. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  7. Transport not as others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhier, Fabien.

    1979-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials will increase with the development of nuclear power station. Problems arising are examined. Some examples of past accidents are given. Thermal and impact tests of containers and categories of transport are recalled [fr

  8. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification

  9. National transportation statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    National Transportation Statistics presents statistics on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, economic performance, the human and natural environment, and national security. This is a large online documen...

  10. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  11. Resolution and systematic limitations in beam based alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenenbaum, P.G.

    2000-03-15

    Beam based alignment of quadrupoles by variation of quadrupole strength is a widely-used technique in accelerators today. The authors describe the dominant systematic limitation of this technique, which arises from the change in the center position of the quadrupole as the strength is varied, and derive expressions for the resulting error. In addition, the authors derive an expression for the statistical resolution of such techniques in a periodic transport line, given knowledge of the line's transport matrices, the resolution of the beam position monitor system, and the details of the strength variation procedure. These results are applied to the Next Linear Collider main linear accelerator, an 11 kilometer accelerator containing 750 quadrupoles and 5,000 accelerator structures. The authors find that in principle a statistical resolution of 1 micron is easily achievable but the systematic error due to variation of the magnetic centers could be several times larger.

  12. Prioritising transport infrastructure projects: Towards a multi-criterion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review ... systematic framework for the appraisal of transport infrastructure projects of the type 'budget cycle projects with local ... Cost/benefit analysis, when applied in a classic sense, is not suitable for this purpose, given its ... (optimal allocation of resources), equity (impact distribution aspects),

  13. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, I.R.; Carr, M.

    1997-01-01

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  14. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  15. TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Karin; Dijohn, Joseph; Misek, Shamus

    2005-01-01

    The Transportation Information Clearinghouse (TIC) Project was the result of collaboration among the Regional Transportation Authority, the Workforce Boards of Metropolitan Chicago and the Urban Transportation Center (UTC) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). The primary objective of the project was to identify privatelyprovided, employer-based, non-traditional transportation services in operation as well as specific information about these services in order for employers, Workforc...

  16. Mathematical modeling plasma transport in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiang, Ji [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this work, the author applied a systematic calibration, validation and application procedure based on the methodology of mathematical modeling to international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) ignition studies. The multi-mode plasma transport model used here includes a linear combination of drift wave branch and ballooning branch instabilities with two a priori uncertain constants to account for anomalous plasma transport in tokamaks. A Bayesian parameter estimation method is used including experimental calibration error/model offsets and error bar rescaling factors to determine the two uncertain constants in the transport model with quantitative confidence level estimates for the calibrated parameters, which gives two saturation levels of instabilities. This method is first tested using a gyroBohm multi-mode transport model with a pair of DIII-D discharge experimental data, and then applied to calibrating a nominal multi-mode transport model against a broad database using twelve discharges from seven different tokamaks. The calibrated transport model is then validated on five discharges from JT-60 with no adjustable constants. The results are in a good agreement with experimental data. Finally, the resulting class of multi-mode tokamak plasma transport models is applied to the transport analysis of the ignition probability in a next generation machine, ITER. A reference simulation of basic ITER engineering design activity (EDA) parameters shows that a self-sustained thermonuclear burn with 1.5 GW output power can be achieved provided that impurity control makes radiative losses sufficiently small at an average plasma density of 1.2 X 1020/m3 with 50 MW auxiliary heating. The ignition probability of ITER for the EDA parameters, can be formally as high as 99.9% in the present context. The same probability for concept design activity (CDA) parameters of ITER, which has smaller size and lower current, is only 62.6%.

  17. Mathematical modeling plasma transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiang, Ji

    1995-01-01

    In this work, the author applied a systematic calibration, validation and application procedure based on the methodology of mathematical modeling to international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) ignition studies. The multi-mode plasma transport model used here includes a linear combination of drift wave branch and ballooning branch instabilities with two a priori uncertain constants to account for anomalous plasma transport in tokamaks. A Bayesian parameter estimation method is used including experimental calibration error/model offsets and error bar rescaling factors to determine the two uncertain constants in the transport model with quantitative confidence level estimates for the calibrated parameters, which gives two saturation levels of instabilities. This method is first tested using a gyroBohm multi-mode transport model with a pair of DIII-D discharge experimental data, and then applied to calibrating a nominal multi-mode transport model against a broad database using twelve discharges from seven different tokamaks. The calibrated transport model is then validated on five discharges from JT-60 with no adjustable constants. The results are in a good agreement with experimental data. Finally, the resulting class of multi-mode tokamak plasma transport models is applied to the transport analysis of the ignition probability in a next generation machine, ITER. A reference simulation of basic ITER engineering design activity (EDA) parameters shows that a self-sustained thermonuclear burn with 1.5 GW output power can be achieved provided that impurity control makes radiative losses sufficiently small at an average plasma density of 1.2 X 10 20 /m 3 with 50 MW auxiliary heating. The ignition probability of ITER for the EDA parameters, can be formally as high as 99.9% in the present context. The same probability for concept design activity (CDA) parameters of ITER, which has smaller size and lower current, is only 62.6%

  18. Changes in the Trade and Promotion of Passenger Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Passenger air carriers will be able to systematically overbook transport capacities on certain aerial routes due to the quick adaptation to modern trading means, to the modern promotion of services and to the modern means of information of potential travellers. Though ticket booking in aerial transport made its debut as a simple process of automation of ticket sale, it soon turned into a strong marketing instrument with unexpected effects on competitiveness on the market of tourism aerial transport. The use of modern ways of operating Computer Reservation Systems and Billing Settlement Plans by passenger air companies and by tour operators improves service standards.

  19. Transport statistics 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Haan, ML

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains information on all major modes of transport in South Africa. The transport sector is placed in perspective relative to the macro economy and a number of important transport indicators are given. The document also contains...

  20. Transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Yves

    1982-01-01

    Transport safety depends on the packaging, and the degree of safety must be adapted to the potential hazards of the substance carried. The various kinds of packagings and their strength are examined and the transport of irradiated fuels from the safety angle is taken as example and a comparison is made with the transport of conventional dangerous substances [fr

  1. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials is dependent of transport regulations. In practice integrated doses for personnel during transport are very low but are more important during loading or unloading a facility (reactor, plant, laboratory, ...). Risks occur also if packagings are used outside specifications. Recommendations to avoid these risks are given [fr

  2. Transportation in African Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the structure, role, and needs of Africa's national and intracontinental transportation system. Characteristics of rail, water, road, and air transportation are examined. The conclusion is that high investment in transportation systems is essential to the development process. (Author/KC)

  3. Competing Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a circular city model, I consider network design and pricing decisions for a single fast transport connection that faces competition from a slower but better accessible transport mode. To access the fast transport network individuals have to make complementary trips by slow mode. This

  4. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  5. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  6. Gynecomastia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Anders; Lewin, Richard; Rufolo, Guglielmo; Elander, Anna; Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio; Selvaggi, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    Gynecomastia is a common medical problem presenting in nearly a third of the male population. Treatment for gynecomastia can be either pharmacological or surgical. Patients with gynecomastia often experience affected quality-of-life. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the quality of evidence of the current literature in relation to different treatment modalities and Quality-of-Life in patients with gynecomastia. A systematic search of the literature was performed in PubMed, Medline, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and SveMed+ in accordance with the PRISMA statement. All searches were undertaken between September-November 2014. The PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes, and study design) approach was used to specify inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was graded according to MINORS. Quality of evidence was rated according to GRADE. Data from the included studies were extracted based on study characteristics, participants specifics, type of intervention/treatment, and type of outcome measures into data extraction forms. A total of 134 abstracts were identified in the literature search. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, 14 concerning treatment and three concerning Quality-of-Life. All studies were non-randomised with a high risk of bias and very low quality of evidence according to GRADE. Several different surgical methods have been described with good results, minimal scars, and various levels of complications. Traditional surgical excision of glandular tissue combined with liposuction provides most consistent results and a low rate of complications. Pubertal gynecomastia may safely be managed by pharmacological anti-oestrogen treatment.

  7. Telerheumatology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John A; Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Glover, Janis; Fraenkel, Liana

    2017-10-01

    To identify and summarize the published and gray literature on the use of telemedicine for the diagnosis and management of inflammatory and/or autoimmune rheumatic disease. We performed a registered systematic search (CRD42015025382) for studies using MEDLINE (1946 to July 2015), Embase (1974 to July 2015), Web of Science (1900 to July 2015), and Scopus (1946 to July 2015) databases. We included studies that demonstrated the use of telemedicine for diagnosis and/or management of inflammatory/autoimmune rheumatic disease. Following data extraction, we performed a descriptive analysis. Our literature search identified 1,468 potentially eligible studies. Of these studies, 20 were ultimately included in this review. Studies varied significantly in publication type, quality of evidence, and the reporting of methods. Most demonstrated a high risk of bias. Rheumatoid arthritis was the most commonly studied rheumatic disease (42% of patients). Studies demonstrated conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of telemedicine (18 found it effective, 1 found it effective but possibly harmful, and 1 found it ineffective). A limited number of studies included some component of a cost analysis (n = 6; 16% of patients); all of these found telemedicine to be cost-effective. Studies identified by this systematic review generally found telemedicine to be effective for the diagnosis and management of autoimmune/inflammatory rheumatic disease; however, there is limited evidence to support this conclusion. Further studies are needed to determine the best uses of telemedicine for the diagnosis and management of these conditions. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion ..... transportation problems of his textile customers and palm produce producers and ... unflinching loyalty and solidarity with their illustrious son, General.

  9. Theoretical approaches to determining the financial provision of public transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Vygovska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the improvement of theoretical approaches in determining the financial provision of transportation by public transport at the regional level. The author summarizes the concept of the «financial security» and defines the main difference from the term «financing». The systematization of key differences in the financial provision of a transport company from other financial entities of the economic sector at the national and regional levels is carried out. The disadvantages and advantages of sources of financial support are analyzed. The purpose of the article is to study theoretical approaches in determining the financial provision of transportation by public transport at the regional level. The prospects for further scientific research are the need to identify new scientific approaches and techniques to substantiate and elaborate the concept of the «financial provision of transportation by public transport». The practical application of the research should be formed in a detailed analysis of cash flow streams in the system of «state – regional authority – economic entity». The financial provision of transportation by public transport at the regional level has not been given the sufficient attention in the scientific research within the country. This fact confirms the need for a thorough analysis of the transport industry as a whole.

  10. Sediment transport via needle ice: a new method for diffusive transport on laboratory-scale hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, K. E.; Roering, J. J.; Rempel, A. W.

    2012-12-01

    controlled by systematically varying the frequency and/or duration of temperature perturbations. The rate of sediment transport on soil mantled hillslopes depends on topographic slope and transport occurs in an "active layer", i.e., the soil mantle. We show that needle ice transports sediment diffusively and has great potential as a method for laboratory simulation of a soil-mantled hillslope since transport is confined to a layer only a few millimeters from the surface. Furthermore, while past experiments are limited to modeling landscape response to precipitation or uplift, our method to systematically control the vigor of hillslope processes will enable us to model potential climate-driven changes in hillslope transport efficiency.

  11. Transportation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  12. Convective transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Yu, G.Q.; Xu, X.Q.; Nevins, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Scrape-off-layer (SOL) convection in fusion experiments appears to be a universal phenomenon that can 'short-circuit' the divertor in some cases. The theory of 'blob' transport provides a simple and robust physical paradigm for studying convective transport. This paper summarizes recent advances in the theory of blob transport and its comparison with 2D and 3D computer simulations. We also discuss the common physical basis relating radial transport of blobs, pellets, and ELMs and a new blob regime that may lead to a connection between blob transport and the density limit. (author)

  13. Theory of contributon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, J.W.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1980-10-01

    A general discussion of the physics of contributon transport is presented. To facilitate this discussion, a Boltzmann-like transport equation for contributons is obtained, and special contributon cross sections are defined. However, the main goal of this study is to identify contributon transport equations and investigate possible deterministic solution techniques. Four approaches to the deterministic solution of the contributon transport problem are investigated. These approaches are an attempt to exploit certain attractive properties of the contributon flux, psi = phi phi + , where phi and phi + are the solutions to the forward and adjoint Boltzmann transport equations

  14. Transportation Business Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle

  15. Commercial Consolidation Model Applied to Transport Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme de Aragão, J.J.; Santos Fontes Pereira, L. dos; Yamashita, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Since the 1990s, transport concessions, including public-private partnerships (PPPs), have been increasingly adopted by governments as an alternative for financing and operations in public investments, especially in transport infrastructure. The advantage pointed out by proponents of these models lies in merging the expertise and capital of the private sector to the public interest. Several arrangements are possible and have been employed in different cases. After the duration of the first PPP contracts in transportation, many authors have analyzed the success and failure factors of partnerships. The occurrence of failures in some stages of the process can greatly encumber the public administration, incurring losses to the fiscal responsibility of the competent bodies. This article aims to propose a new commercial consolidation model applied to transport infrastructure to ensure fiscal sustainability and overcome the weaknesses of current models. Initially, a systematic review of the literature covering studies on transport concessions between 1990 and 2015 is offered, where the different approaches between various countries are compared and the critical success factors indicated in the studies are identified. In the subsequent part of the paper, an approach for the commercial consolidation of the infrastructure concessions is presented, where the concessionary is paid following a finalistic performance model, which includes the overall fiscal balance of regional growth. Finally, the papers analyses the usefulness of the model in coping with the critical success factors explained before. (Author)

  16. Transportation safety training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, have developed and implemented a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  18. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  19. Indicators and beyond: Assessing the sustainability of transport projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    on the topic of sustainable transport indicator frameworks. Case study work draws upon extensive desktop-based analysis of impact assessment reports and other publically available material about real cases of large transport infrastructure appraisals. The HS2 high-speed rail (HSR) project appraisal in the UK......Credibly demonstrating actual progress towards a genuinely sustainable transport situation remains a challenge. A key problem is that the incorporation of sustainability in transport policy and planning at present is not systematic. A motivating assumption behind this thesis is that a transition...... toward a sustainable transport system will require strong support from decision-support processes and assessment tools that do not only adopt the language of sustainability, but fully integrate an explicit notion of sustainability in all of their conceptual, operational and procedural approaches...

  20. Systematic Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Méndez Fernández, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The speed of innovation and the global allocation of resources to accelerate development or to reduce cost put pressure on the software industry. In the global competition, especially so-called high-price countries have to present arguments why the higher development cost is justified and what...... makes these countries an attractive host for software companies. Often, high-quality engineering and excellent quality of products, e.g., machinery and equipment, are mentioned. Yet, the question is: Can such arguments be also found for the software industry? We aim at investigating the degree...... of professionalism and systematization of software development to draw a map of strengths and weaknesses. To this end, we conducted as a first step an exploratory survey in Germany, presented in this paper. In this survey, we focused on the perceived importance of the two general software engineering process areas...

  1. Iridology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E

    1999-02-01

    Iridologists claim to be able to diagnose medical conditions through abnormalities of pigmentation in the iris. This technique is popular in many countries. Therefore it is relevant to ask whether it is valid. To systematically review all interpretable tests of the validity of iridology as a diagnostic tool. DATA SOURCE AND EXTRACTION: Three independent literature searches were performed to identify all blinded tests. Data were extracted in a predefined, standardized fashion. Four case control studies were found. The majority of these investigations suggests that iridology is not a valid diagnostic method. The validity of iridology as a diagnostic tool is not supported by scientific evaluations. Patients and therapists should be discouraged from using this method.

  2. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  3. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually

  4. Segmental transports for posttraumatic lower extremity bone defects: are femoral bone transports safer than tibial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodakis, Emmanouil; Kenawey, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Ettinger, Max; Jagodzinski, Michael; Hankemeier, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    The long-term outcomes following femoral and tibial segment transports are not well documented. Purpose of the study is to compare the complication rates and life quality scores of femoral and tibial transports in order to find what are the complication rates of femoral and tibial monorail bone transports and if they are different? We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 8 femoral and 14 tibial consecutive segment transports performed with the monorail technique between 2001 and 2008 in our institution. Mean follow-up was 5.1 ± 2.1 years with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Aetiology of the defects was posttraumatic in all cases. Four femoral (50%) and nine tibial (64%) fractures were open. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey was used to compare the life quality after femoral and tibial bone transports. The Mann-Whiney U test, Fisher exact test, and the Student's two tailed t-test were used for statistical analysis. P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The tibial transport was associated with higher rates of severe complications and additional procedures (1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 3.4 ± 2.7, p = 0.048). Three patients of the tibial group were amputated because of recurrent infections and one developed a complete regenerate insufficiency that was treated with partial diaphyseal tibial replacement. Contrary to that none of patients of the femoral group developed a complete regenerate insufficiency or was amputated. Tibial bone transports have a higher rate of complete and incomplete regenerate insufficiency and can more often end in an amputation. The authors suggest systematic weekly controls of the CRP value and of the callus formation in patients with posttraumatic tibia bone transports. Further comparative studies comparing the results of bone transports with and without intramedullary implants are necessary.

  5. Modelling of transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1993-09-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs

  6. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  7. Reinventing the Wheel: The Economic Benefits of Wheeled Transportation in Early British Colonial West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Isaías N. Chaves; Stanley L. Engerman; James A. Robinson

    2013-01-01

    One of the great puzzles of Sub-Saharan African economic history is that wheeled transportation was barely used prior to the colonial period. Instead, head porterage was the main method of transportation. The consensus among historians is that this was a rational adaption to the underlying conditions and factor endowments. In this paper we undertake the first systematic investigation of the relative costs of the different forms of wheeled transportation in Africa. We focus on calculating the ...

  8. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  9. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  11. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  12. Modeling in transport phenomena a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tosun, Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Modeling in Transport Phenomena, Second Edition presents and clearly explains with example problems the basic concepts and their applications to fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction engineering and thermodynamics. A balanced approach is presented between analysis and synthesis, students will understand how to use the solution in engineering analysis. Systematic derivations of the equations and the physical significance of each term are given in detail, for students to easily understand and follow up the material. There is a strong incentive in science and engineering to

  13. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  14. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  15. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  16. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  17. Astrocytic GABA Transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Wellendorph, Petrine; Frølund, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , and several of these compounds have been shown to exhibit pronounced anticonvulsant activity in a variety of animal seizure models. As proof of concept of the validity of this drug development approach, one GABA-transport inhibitor, tiagabine, has been developed as a clinically active antiepileptic drug......Inactivation of GABA-mediated neurotransmission is achieved by high-affinity transporters located at both GABAergic neurons and the surrounding astrocytes. Early studies of the pharmacological properties of neuronal and glial GABA transporters suggested that different types of transporters might...... be expressed in the two cell types, and such a scenario was confirmed by the cloning of four distinctly different GABA transporters from a number of different species. These GABA-transport entities have been extensively characterized using a large number of GABA analogues of restricted conformation...

  18. Two decades' experience with interfacility transport on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Benjamin; Cooley, Elaine; Copenhaver, William; Brierley, Kristin; Teman, Nicholas; Landis, Denise; Rycus, Peter; Hemmila, Mark; Napolitano, Lena M; Haft, Jonathan; Park, Pauline K; Bartlett, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    Interfacility transport of patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been performed in large numbers at only a few programs. Limited data are available on outcomes after ECMO transport to justify expanding or discontinuing these programs. This was a retrospective review of a 20-year, single-institution experience with interhospital ECMO transport as well as a systematic review of reports of transfers of patients on ECMO. Results of both were compared with historical data from the international registry of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO). Between 1990 and 2012, ECMO was used to facilitate transport of 221 patients to our institution, and 135 (62%) survived to discharge. Review of an additional 27 case series describing ECMO transport of 643 patients showed an overall survival of 61%. After stratifying by age and primary indication for ECMO, survival of transported patients was not significantly different compared with all ECMO patients in the ELSO registry, with the exception of pediatric patients treated for respiratory failure (transported patients in this category had higher survival than those in the ELSO registry). Interfacility transport on ECMO is feasible and can be accomplished safely in the critically ill. Survival of transported patients is comparable to age-matched and treatment-matched ECMO patients at large. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  20. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  1. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  2. Handling and Transport Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France); Savouyaud, J. [Head of Electro-Mechanical Sub-Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Arrangements for special or dangerous transport operations by road arising out of the activities of the Atomic Energy Commission are made by the Works and Installations Division which acts in concert with the Monitoring and Protection Division (MPD) whenever radioactive substances or appliances are involved. In view of the risk of irradiation and contamination entailed in handling and transporting radioactive substances, including waste, a specialized transport and storage team has been formed as a complement to the emergency and decontamination teams.

  3. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  4. Freight transport and intermodality

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Mañanes, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    During recent decades, there has been very substantial growth in the freight transport sector. Freight transport is increasing faster than the economy or passenger transport. Demand is increasing more rapidly than supply and is resulting in environmental and social problems. Increasing congestion, too, is affecting efficient and reliable freight distribution, and consequently having a deleterious effect on local economies. Intermodality is therefore needed to make better use of alternative mo...

  5. Climate Change and Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Yevdokimov, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    As stated at the beginning of this chapter, the relationship between transportation and climate is two-directional. Based on our statistical analysis performed for Canada, we can make some general conclusions about this relationship. On the one hand, transportation is one of the largest contributors to GHG emissions which, in turn, cause various changes in climate. On the other hand, these climate changes negatively affect transportation in terms of its infrastructure and operations. Therefor...

  6. Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2016-01-01

    Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...... rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice...... set. An individual is said to demonstrate bounded rational behaviour if he/she does not systematically consider all attributes deemed relevant for the decision problem at hand, does not consider all choice options and/or does not choose the best choice alternative. Such simplified representation...

  7. Spin transport in oxygen adsorbed graphene nanoribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipin

    2018-04-01

    The spin transport properties of pristine graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have been most widely studied using theoretical and experimental tools. The possibilities of oxidation of fabricated graphene based nano electronic devices may change the device characteristics, which motivates to further explore the properties of graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs). Therefore, we present a systematic computational study on the spin polarized transport in surface oxidized GNR in antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin configuration using density functional theory combined with non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. It is found that the conductance in oxidized GNRs is significantly suppressed in the valance band and the conduction band. A further reduction in the conductance profile is seen in presence of two oxygen atoms on the ribbon plane. This change in the conductance may be attributed to change in the surface topology of the ribbon basal plane due to presence of the oxygen adatoms, where the charge transfer take place between the ribbon basal plane and the oxygen atoms.

  8. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  9. Urban transportation projects conceptualised:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    is straightforward: transportation projects transform cities. The paradoxical reality thus is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences...... operation when discussing transportation projects in big cities. The tradition of Science and Technology Studies might have provided some clues. In the following paper we discuss the most prominent aspects of some theories in STS in order to understand and conceptualize the cases of Bogotá and Copenhagen...

  10. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  11. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  12. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  13. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...

  14. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  15. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, M.

    2000-01-01

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations

  16. Heavy transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Assuming that very often a long transport route from the factory of the manufacturer to the provided site has to be reckoned with, in general only transport with a ship is possible. As each site is only called by a certain steamship line, at a very early stage of planning the nuclear power plant the possibilities and capacities of the lines and means of transportation under discussion should be investigated. In planning the unloading equipment at the site, due consideration should be given to the fact that at a later time this equipment should also be suitable for the transport of heavy components and spent fuel assemblies. (orig.) [de

  17. Heme transport and erythropoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Fleming, Mark D.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    In humans, systemic heme homeostasis is achieved via coordinated regulation of heme synthesis, transport and degradation. Although the heme biosynthesis and degradation pathways have been well characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking and incorporation into hemoproteins remains poorly understood. In the past few years, researchers have exploited genetic, cellular and biochemical tools, to identify heme transporters and, in the process, reveal unexpected functions for this elusive group of proteins. However, given the complexity of heme trafficking pathways, current knowledge of heme transporters is fragmented and sometimes contradictory. This review seeks to focus on recent studies on heme transporters with specific emphasis on their functions during erythropoiesis. PMID:23415705

  18. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  19. "Systematizing" ethics consultation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Eves, Margot M; Allen, Nathan G; Smith, Martin L; Peña, Adam M; Cheney, John R; Majumder, Mary A

    2015-03-01

    While valuable work has been done addressing clinical ethics within established healthcare systems, we anticipate that the projected growth in acquisitions of community hospitals and facilities by large tertiary hospitals will impact the field of clinical ethics and the day-to-day responsibilities of clinical ethicists in ways that have yet to be explored. Toward the goal of providing clinical ethicists guidance on a range of issues that they may encounter in the systematization process, we discuss key considerations and potential challenges in implementing system-wide ethics consultation services. Specifically, we identify four models for organizing, developing, and enhancing ethics consultation activities within a system created through acquisitions: (1) train-the-trainer, (2) local capacity-building, (3) circuit-riding, and (4) consolidated accountability. We note each model's benefits and challenges. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to consider the broader landscape of issues affected by consolidation. We anticipate that clinical ethicists, volunteer consultants, and hospital administrators will benefit from our recommendations.

  20. Aromatherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, B; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    Aromatherapy is becoming increasingly popular; however there are few clear indications for its use. To systematically review the literature on aromatherapy in order to discover whether any clinical indication may be recommended for its use, computerised literature searches were performed to retrieve all randomised controlled trials of aromatherapy from the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, British Nursing Index, CISCOM, and AMED. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the Jadad score. All trials were evaluated independently by both authors and data were extracted in a pre-defined, standardised fashion. Twelve trials were located: six of them had no independent replication; six related to the relaxing effects of aromatherapy combined with massage. These studies suggest that aromatherapy massage has a mild, transient anxiolytic effect. Based on a critical assessment of the six studies relating to relaxation, the effects of aromatherapy are probably not strong enough for it to be considered for the treatment of anxiety. The hypothesis that it is effective for any other indication is not supported by the findings of rigorous clinical trials. PMID:10962794

  1. Systematic Reviews in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSilvestro, Kevin J; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Spindler, Kurt P; Freedman, Kevin B

    2016-02-01

    The number of systematic reviews published in the orthopaedic literature has increased, and these reviews can help guide clinical decision making. However, the quality of these reviews can affect the reader's ability to use the data to arrive at accurate conclusions and make clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the sports medicine literature to determine whether such reviews should be used to guide treatment decisions. The hypothesis was that many systematic reviews in the orthopaedic sports medicine literature may not follow the appropriate reporting guidelines or methodological criteria recommended for systematic reviews. Systematic review. All clinical sports medicine systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2013 published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS), Arthroscopy, Sports Health, and Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy (KSSTA) were reviewed and evaluated for level of evidence according to the guidelines from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, for reporting quality according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, and for methodological quality according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Analysis was performed by year and journal of publication, and the levels of evidence included in the systematic reviews were also analyzed. A total of 200 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified over the study period. Of these, 53% included evidence levels 4 and 5 in their analyses, with just 32% including evidence levels 1 and 2 only. There were significant differences in the proportion of articles with high levels of evidence (P Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in orthopaedics sports medicine literature relied on evidence levels 4 and 5 in 53% of studies over the 5-year study period. Overall, PRISMA and

  2. Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

  3. Personality and risk perception in transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhri, Aslak; Backer-Grøndahl, Agathe

    2012-11-01

    Within research on individual variations in risk perception, personality has been suggested as one important factor. In the present study, personality traits (44 items from the Big Five inventory) were investigated in relation to risk perception in transport and transport behavioural adaptations. In a sample of 312 participants, we found that the personality trait 'emotional stability versus neuroticism' was negatively correlated with risk perception (operationalised as "thinking about the possibility") of an accident (-0.38) and an unpleasant incident, such as crime, violence, robbery (-0.25). 'Agreeableness' was also negatively related to risk perception, however first and foremost in relation to perceived risk for unpleasant incidents on transport modes in which one interacts with other people (0.25). Moreover, regression analyses showed that 'emotional stability' was a significant predictor of behavioural adaptations on bus. Regression analyses explained between 17 and 26 percent of variance in behavioural adaptations. The results show that different groups of people vary systematically in their perception of risk in transport. Furthermore, these differences are manifest as a difference in risk-preventive behaviour at a strategic level, i.e. as decisions about avoiding risky situations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Range of validity of transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berges, Juergen; Borsanyi, Szabolcs

    2006-01-01

    Transport equations can be derived from quantum field theory assuming a loss of information about the details of the initial state and a gradient expansion. While the latter can be systematically improved, the assumption about a memory loss is not known to be controlled by a small expansion parameter. We determine the range of validity of transport equations for the example of a scalar g 2 Φ 4 theory. We solve the nonequilibrium time evolution using the three-loop 2PI effective action. The approximation includes off-shell and memory effects and assumes no gradient expansion. This is compared to transport equations to lowest order (LO) and beyond (NLO). We find that the earliest time for the validity of transport equations is set by the characteristic relaxation time scale t damp =-2ω/Σ ρ (eq) , where -Σ ρ (eq) /2 denotes the on-shell imaginary-part of the self-energy. This time scale agrees with the characteristic time for partial memory loss, but is much shorter than thermal equilibration times. For times larger than about t damp the gradient expansion to NLO is found to describe the full results rather well for g 2 (less-or-similar sign)1

  5. On the Langevin approach to particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, Eric

    2006-01-01

    In the Langevin description of Brownian motion, the action of the surrounding medium upon the Brownian particle is split up into a systematic friction force of Stokes type and a randomly fluctuating force, alternatively termed noise. That simple description accounts for several basic features of particle transport in a medium, making it attractive to teach at the undergraduate level, but its range of applicability is limited. The limitation is illustrated here by showing that the Langevin description fails to account realistically for the transport of a charged particle in a medium under crossed electric and magnetic fields and the ensuing Hall effect. That particular failure is rooted in the concept of the friction force rather than in the accompanying random force. It is then shown that the framework of kinetic theory offers a better account of the Hall effect. It is concluded that the Langevin description is nothing but an extension of Drude's transport model subsuming diffusion, and so it inherits basic limitations from that model. This paper thus describes the interrelationship of the Langevin approach, the Drude model and kinetic theory, in a specific transport problem of physical interest

  6. Passenger transport research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, airport and airline services epitomise what many would like to see in everyday public transport. The CSIR investigates what it will take to provide a commercial public transport service in South Africa which resembles commercial air...

  7. Bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Cees P.

    Effective clearance of inhaled particles requires mucus production and continuous mucus transport from the lower airways to the oropharynx. Mucus production takes place mainly in the peripheral airways. Mucus transport is achieved by the action of the ciliated cells that cover the inner surface of

  8. Biofuels for sustainable transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, S.

    2000-05-23

    Biomass is an attractive energy source, and transportation fuels made from biomass offer a number of benefits. Developing the technology to produce and use biofuels will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, biocrude, and methane.

  9. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  10. Trajectory structures and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Madalina; Spineanu, Florin

    2004-01-01

    The special problem of transport in two-dimensional divergence-free stochastic velocity fields is studied by developing a statistical approach, the nested subensemble method. The nonlinear process of trapping determined by such fields generates trajectory structures whose statistical characteristics are determined. These structures strongly influence the transport

  11. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Nathan; Lill, H

    1994-01-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma

  12. Nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Various methods of nuclear materials transportation at different stages of the fuel cycle (U 3 O 8 , UF 6 production enrichment, fuel element manufacturing, storage) are considered. The advantages and drawbacks of railway, automobile, maritime and air transport are analyzed. Some types of containers are characterized

  13. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2002-01-01

    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2, wh...

  14. Transport of plutonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This leaflet discusses the subject under the headings: why do we need plutonium; why must we transport it; what action is carried out; how is it moved; what are the risks. The transport of the material in specially designed containers, from Dounreay in Caithness by road and sea to Sellafield in Cumbria, is described. (U.K.)

  15. Electronic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of the electron transport properties of liquid alkali metals is described. Conductivity coefficients, Boltzmann theory, Ziman theory, alkali form factors, Ziman theory and alkalis, Faber-Ziman alloy theory, Faber-Ziman theory and alkali-alkali methods, status of Ziman theory, and other transport properties, are all discussed. (UK)

  16. Transport and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Ph.D. study of the scope for sustainable transport in Denmark, and particularly of the role of the motor vehicle in this context. The distribution of groceries is used as case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark, concluding that this has resulted in increases of the transport...

  17. Macropores and macropore transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Lamandé, Mathieu; Torp, Søren Bent

    2012-01-01

    Preferential transport of water through soil macropores is a governing process in the facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between macropore density and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil and to test the sampling...

  18. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  19. Planning Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This good practice guide is composed for the master course 13120 Public Transport Planning held at the Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark. It is intended to use as guide in the different planning aspects and assignments of the course. Since the course is about the planning...... of new public transport infrastructure this guide also focuses on the planning of new infrastructure. Furthermore, the new infrastructure in the course is expected to be a light rail and even though this guide aims at being general for public transport some of the issues evidently become more relevant...... will enable a capability for planning both bus and rail. The guide is build as a full sketch investigation of a new public transport project ranging chronological from project clarification to physical and timetable planning to traffic modeling and project appraisal. The same steps that are expected...

  20. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N; Lill, H

    1994-11-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma membrane transporters are driven by an electrochemical gradient of sodium generated by a Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Two distinct families of transporters were identified in this group. One cotransports sodium with glutamate and other amino acids and requires additionally an outwardly directed potassium gradient. The second cotransports sodium, chloride and a variety of neurotransmitters, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine and monoamines. Genes and cDNA encoding several members of the latter family have been cloned and studied in detail. The structure and function as well as the evolutionary relationships among these neurotransmitter transporters are discussed.

  1. Fuel transporting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratori, Hirozo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: In a liquid-metal cooled reactor, to reduce the waiting time of fuel handling apparatuses and shorten the fuel exchange time. Constitution: A fuel transporting machine is arranged between a reactor vessel and an out-pile storage tank, thereby dividing the transportation line of the pot for contracting fuel and transporting the same. By assuming such a construction, the flow of fuel transportation which has heretofore been carried out through fuel transportation pipes is not limited to one direction but the take-out of fuels from the reactor and the take-in thereof from the storage tank can be carried out constantly, and much time is not required for fuel exchange. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Fuelling tomorrow's transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, S.; Donovan, N.

    1995-11-01

    Fuelling Tomorrow's Transport provides a thorough analysis of key industry trends; developments in technology, fuel use and efficiency; environmental and legislative constraints; and company and governmental policy. It discusses in detail the changes facing the transport industry and analyses how the various technological, political and economic developments will affect the industry into the next century. Key issues addressed include: current and future fuel use in road, marine and aviation transport; growth in the transport sector and the impact on the oil market; likely scenarios for future transport fuelling; the latest developments in alternative fuels and engines, including electricity, natural gas, nuclear power and liquid hydrogen, and the commercial feasibility of these technologies; government policy and current and proposed legislative and fiscal incentives for the development and take-up of alternative fuels and engines; the driving force of the environmental debate; the current research and development programmes of individual companies; and the commercial openings offered by these developments. (author)

  3. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  4. Systematic Review Workshop (August 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal for this workshop is to receive scientific input regarding approaches for different steps within a systematic review, such as evaluating individual studies, synthesizing evidence within a particular discipline, etc.

  5. Applications of a systematic homogenization theory for nodal diffusion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong-bin; Dorning, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The authors recently have developed a self-consistent and systematic lattice cell and fuel bundle homogenization theory based on a multiple spatial scales asymptotic expansion of the transport equation in the ratio of the mean free path to the reactor characteristics dimension for use with nodal diffusion methods. The mathematical development leads naturally to self-consistent analytical expressions for homogenized diffusion coefficients and cross sections and flux discontinuity factors to be used in nodal diffusion calculations. The expressions for the homogenized nuclear parameters that follow from the systematic homogenization theory (SHT) are different from those for the traditional flux and volume-weighted (FVW) parameters. The calculations summarized here show that the systematic homogenization theory developed recently for nodal diffusion methods yields accurate values for k eff and assembly powers even when compared with the results of a fine mesh transport calculation. Thus, it provides a practical alternative to equivalence theory and GET (Ref. 3) and to simplified equivalence theory, which requires auxiliary fine-mesh calculations for assemblies embedded in a typical environment to determine the discontinuity factors and the equivalent diffusion coefficient for a homogenized assembly

  6. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  7. Logistic innovations in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Antonowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article discusses the issue of logistic innovations in transport. The essentials of logistic innovations in transport together with some examples of specific innovations are presented. The role of the client's needs in transport innovations is indicated. The most vital postulates affecting the innovativeness of shipping companies and derived from the author's experience as well as scholarly publications, are time, safety, reliability as well as comprehensiveness of service offer. Following the analysis of the issue, and on the grounds of Kaizen's and Lean's method, the concept of continuous innovations is suggested as very useful for the development of transport. The potential of clusters as the source of logistic innovations in transport is emphasised. Methods: The discussion of the issue was preceded by the author's analysis of written sources on innovativeness, the evaluation of ratings of innovativeness as well as the analysis of rewarded innovative solutions in transport subsequent to the businesses participation in the programme of innovative solutions in transport. The role of innovation practical business operations is argued following the analysis of some strategic documents such as: 2011 White Paper and the Strategy for the Development of Transport by 2020 adopted by the Polish government in 2013. Aim: The aim of the article is to present the role and significance of the issue of logistic innovations in transport and to cite instances of practical solutions implemented by shipping companies, the solutions which resulted in measurable effects. Following the author's observation of the instances of innovative solutions as well as his analysis of the ratings of innovativeness, the article aims to present the conclusions as for the specific kinds of activities which are indispensable to foster innovativeness in transport. Conclusions: The conclusions derived from the author's analyses and observations show that logistic

  8. Quality assurance inspections in the transportation packaging supplier industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovich, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the quality assurance inspections of the transportation packaging supplier industry, conducted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on a routine basis since 1989 are discussed. The term supplier is used to include designers, fabricators, and distributors that hold NRC approved Quality Assurance Programs and Certificates of Compliance for packagings to transport radioactive materials. The objective of the inspections is to provide assurance that transportation packagings are fabricated and procured in accordance with 10 CFR Parts 21 and 71 requirements. The inspections are conducted in a systematic and comprehensive manner, utilizing uniform inspection techniques in order to assure uniformity and comparability. During the April 1989 and May 1991 period approximately 21 inspections were conducted by the Transportation Branch, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards of the NRC. The majority of the findings were identified in the areas of quality assurance procedures, control of special processes (e.g. welding, radiography), and maintenance of QA records

  9. Two-echelon transportation optimisation: a meta-narrative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Freight transportation constitutes one of the main activities that influences economy and society, as it assures a vital link between suppliers and customers and it represents a major source of employment. Multi-echelon distribution is one of the most common strategies adopted by the transportation companies in an aim of cost reduction. Although vehicle routing problems are very common in operational research, they are essentially related to single-echelon cases. This paper presents the main concepts of multi-echelon distribution with cross-docks and a unified notation for two-chelon transportation cost optimization. A systematic review is also presented, in order to list the main issues and methods that can be helpful for scientists and transportation practitioners.

  10. Nonequilibrium Green function techniques applied to hot electron quantum transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauho, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    During the last few years considerable effort has been devoted to deriving quantum transport equations for semiconductors under extreme conditions (high electric fields, spatial quantization in one or two directions). Here we review the results obtained with nonequilibrium Green function techniques as formulated by Baym and Kadanoff, or by Keldysh. In particular, the following topics will be discussed: (i) Systematic approaches to reduce the transport equation governing the correlation function to a transport equation for the Wigner function; (ii) Approximations reducing the nonmarkovian quantum transport equation to a numerically tractable form, and results for model semiconductors; (iii) Recent progress in extending the formalism to inhomogeneous systems; and (iv) Nonequilibrium screening. In all sections we try to direct the reader's attention to points where the present understanding is (at best) incomplete, and indicate possible lines for future work. (orig.)

  11. Railway diagnosis of electric transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Vladimir Sergeevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in noise level at cities is increasing the requirements to functional interaction of road users - pedestrians and drivers - with the parameters of the environment as a leading component of Afferentation synthesis in the complicated complex of locomotive activity. City noise is one of the most widespread factors of unfavorable living and working conditions. The noise of high intensity provokes diseases, lowers labor activity. At present, many large cities pay much attention to electric vehicles. The authors present an analysis of the poor state of tram track in areas of high noise and vibration of car and under-sleeper base design. A negative effect of noise and vibration on the formation of urban areas environment is shown as well as the impact of these conditions on the person. The advantages of the application of electric transport are specified, noise displacement curve of railway and under sleeper base is plotted depending on the frequency of the applied load and the modulus of elasticity, as well as under sleeper base vibroacceleration depending on time. The authors offer a systematic study on the basis of a mathematical model of the sources of noise in the process of a tram motion.

  12. Transportation Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    Materials in this curriculum guide represent a selection of the major transportation consumer topics and ideas and are designed to set the stage for more intensive transportation consumer education curriculum development and teacher efforts. (Eleven manuals covering the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the…

  13. Children and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-12-09

    This issue of the 'Sustainable Transportation Monitor', published by the Centre for Sustainable Transportation located in Mississauga, Ontario, reports on key findings from a project involving children and transportation in the Halton and Peel regions of Ontario, recently completed by the Centre. Excerpts from the report summarized in this issue include data on children's travel in Halton and Peel, and a discussion on possible contribution of transport practices to the growing incidence of obesity among Canadian children. Results of the study indicate that until about age 18, travel by children on schooldays is dominated by the journey to and from school. School bus is the choice of 28 per cent, and passenger car by 23 per cent among 11-to-14- year-olds; the share of travel by car is larger for older young people and also likely larger among 6-to-10-year-olds. Physical inactivity has been highlighted as the contributing factor to excess body weight and obesity in this, and other studies. Data collected for this study corroborates the findings of other studies by showing a positive correlation between obesity and transport energy use in 18 affluent countries, suggesting that a high level of use of motorized transport contributes to inactivity and body weight gain. Several alternate means of transportation, with the potential to combat obesity, are proposed. 46 refs.

  14. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  15. Transports and environment; Transports et environnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases reduction, this study proposes many advices to control the fuel consumption of the vehicles and to change habits in the transportation sector. It presents also the alternatives to the pollutant today vehicles in the domain of the vehicles and buses fuels but also the new motors. Many Internet addresses are provided to complete the presentation. (A.L.B.)

  16. Application of radiation protection programmes to transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, Jorge; Capadona, Nancy; Barenghi, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The principles for implementing radiation protection programmes (RPP) are detailed in the draft IAEA safety guide TS-G-1.5 'Radiation protection programmes for transport of radioactive material'. The document is described in this paper and analysis is made for typical applications to current operations carried out by consignors, carriers and consignees. Systematic establishment and application of RPPs is a way to control radiological protection during different steps of transport activity. The most widely transported packages in the world are radiopharmaceuticals by road. It is described an application of RPP for an organization involved in road transport of Type A packages containing radiopharmaceuticals. Considerations based on the radionuclides, quantities and activities transported are the basis to design and establish the scope of the RPP for the organizations involved in transport. Next stage is the determination of roles and responsibilities for each activity related to transport of radioactive materials. An approach to the dose received by workers is evaluated considering the type, category and quantity of packages, the radionuclides, the frequency of consignments and how long are the storages. The average of transports made in the last years must be taken into account and special measures intended to optimize the protection are evaluated. Tasks like monitoring, control of surface contamination and segregation measures, are designed based on the dose evaluation and optimization. The RPP also indicates main measures to follow in case of emergency during transport taking account of radionuclides, activities and category of packages for different accident scenarios. Basis for training personnel involved in handling of radioactive materials to insure they have appropriate knowledge about preparing packages, measuring dose rates, calculating transport index, labelling, marking and placarding, transport documents, etc, are considered. The RPP is a part

  17. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  18. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  19. Transport in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassberg, H.; Brakel, R.; Burhenn, R.; Gasparino, U.; Grigull, P.; Kick, M.; Kuehner, G.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Stroth, U.; Weller, A.

    1993-01-01

    The local electron and ion heat transport as well as the particle and impurity transport properties in stellarators are reviewed. In this context, neoclassical theory is used as a guideline for the comparison of the experimental results of the quite different confinement concepts. At sufficiently high temperatures depending on the specific magnetic configuration, neoclassical predictions are confirmed by experimental findings. The confinement properties in the LMFP collisionality regime are discussed with respect to the next stellarator generation, for which at higher temperatures the neoclassical transport is expected to become more important. (orig.)

  20. CNG transport opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The recent announcement by the Australian Government of funding for a dramatic increase in supply infrastructure for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered vehicles has shored up predictions that natural gas will achieve a thirty-fold increase in its share of the Australian transport energy market by 2015. This projection, would put sales of natural gas for transport fuel in the year 2014/15 at about 10% of current retail sales across the nation. In the general transport sector, the lower particulate and noise pollution, compared with diesel-powered vehicles, is a significant advantage

  1. Means of Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    The car is probably one of the most central signifiers of modern scientific and technological progress. Not only did its introduction in early 20th century America quite literally move scientific progress into the street, it also provided its increasing number of users with new and technologically....... According to film theorist Julian Smith, the automobile has been just as much “embraced … as a form of emotional transport, the state or condition of being transported by ecstasy” as “perceived as a mode of transportation in the primary and ordinary sense of the word.” This paper analyses the ways in which...

  2. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  3. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  4. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  5. The systematic error of temperature noise correlation measurement method and self-calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hong; Tong Yunxian

    1993-04-01

    The turbulent transport behavior of fluid noise and the nature of noise affect on the velocity measurement system have been studied. The systematic error of velocity measurement system is analyzed. A theoretical calibration method is proposed, which makes the velocity measurement of time-correlation as an absolute measurement method. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experiments

  6. Modeling the fate transport of cesium in crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.B.; Kuo, Y.M.; Hsu, C.N.; Li, M.H.; Cheng, H.P.; Teng, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to assess the safety of a underground radwaste repository, reactive transport models suitable for evaluating the fate and transport of radionuclides need to be established based on experimental observation and analysis. The goal of this study is to construct adequate models simulating the reactive transport of cesium (Cs) in crushed granite through a systematic analysis, where synthetic groundwater (SGW) and synthetic seawater (SSW) were employed as the liquid phase. To build such models, this study applied N 2 -BET, x-ray diffraction (XRD), polar-microscopy/ auto-radiography, and solid-phase digestion for the analysis of granite, kinetic batch tests for the characterization of sorption/desorption of Cs, and multi-stage advection-dispersion column tests for the determination of major transport processes and the calibration/validation of hypothesized reactive transport models. Based on the results of solid phase analysis and batch tests, a two-site Langmuir kinetic model has been determined capable of appropriately describing Cs sorption/desorption under test conditions. From the results of non-reactive HTO column tests, a mobile/immobile transport model was proposed to capture the major transport processes in our column system. However, the combination of the two-site Langmuir model and the mobile/immobile transport model failed to provide numerical breakthrough curves matching the Cs experimental breakthroughs. It implied that our model needs to be further refined. To achieve this, the setup of our column test needs to be modified first to reduce the volume of column connecting space, so that the effect of extra diffusion/dispersion on breakthroughs would be minimized and major transport characteristics can be clearly revealed. Moreover, more investigations on the reaction mechanisms and transport processes of the reactive transport system must be conducted. (authors)

  7. NJ transportation fact book, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The New Jersey Transportation Fact Book 2006-07 presents information about the New Jersey Department of Transportation : and other agencies that provide transportation services in New Jersey. We hope it will prove helpful.

  8. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2013 (NTAD2013) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  9. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2015 (NTAD2015) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  10. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2012 (NTAD2012) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  11. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2011 (NTAD2011) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  12. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2009 (NTAD2009) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  13. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2014 (NTAD2014) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  14. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2010 (NTAD2010) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  15. Development of Indian passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, R. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    1998-05-01

    The Indian transport sector has been studied using logistic substitution. The share of rail transport is declining, while road and air transport are increasing. These developments are not desirable from an energy-efficiency perspective. (author)

  16. Transportation statistics annual report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) presents data and information compiled by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a component of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOTs) Research and Innovative Technology Admini...

  17. Transportation statistics annual report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) presents data and information selected by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a component of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT's) Research and Innovative Technology Administra...

  18. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration produces the Pocket Guide to Transportation as a compact resource that provides snapshots of the U.S. transportation system and highlights major tr...

  19. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide that provides transportation statistics at your fingertips. It provides key information and highlights major trends on the U.S. transportation system. This year features a new and...

  20. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  1. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...

  2. Transportation energy data book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and : published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of : Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicl...

  3. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.

  4. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The norm which establishes the requirements of radiation protection and safety related to the transport of radioactive materials, aiming to keep a suitable control level of eventual exposure of personnels, materials and environment of ionizing radiation, including: specifications on radioactive materials for transport, selection of package type; specification of requirements of the design and assays of acceptance of packages; disposal related to the transport; and liability and administrative requirements, are presented. This norm is applied to: truckage, water carriage and air service; design, fabrication, assays and mantenaince of packages; preparation, despatching, handling, loading storage in transition and reception in the ultimate storage of packages; and transport of void packages which have been contained radioactive materials. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Transport and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, C; Jennings, T

    1976-01-01

    This book examines the impact of transport operations on the environment. Noise, air pollution, vibration, accidents, delays caused by slow-moving vehicles, road wear, visual intrusion, the severance of communities--all these social costs of transport are studied, together with policies that might reduce them. The difficulties in measuring costs and benefits and the value judgments that may guide transport policy are reviewed. Specific problems examined include the journey to work, traffic-free shopping streets, urban motor-ways, and inter-change depots for goods vehicles. The role of central and local government is considered, particular attention being given to methods of allowing for environmental benefits when planning new transport investment; the implications of EEC policy are also noted.

  6. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The existing U.S. hub-and-spoke air transportation system is reaching saturation. Major aspects of the current system, such as capacity, safety, mobility, customer satisfaction, security, communications, and ecological effects, require improvements. The changing dynamics - increased presence of general aviation, unmanned autonomous vehicles, military aircraft in civil airspace as part of homeland defense - contributes to growing complexity of airspace. The system has proven remarkably resistant to change. NASA Langley Research Center and the National Institute of Aerospace conducted a workshop on Transportation Network Topologies on 9-10 December 2003 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The workshop aimed to examine the feasibility of traditional methods for complex system analysis and design as well as potential novel alternatives in application to transportation systems, identify state-of-the-art models and methods, conduct gap analysis, and thus to lay a foundation for establishing a focused research program in complex systems applied to air transportation.

  7. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  8. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    ... and the environment in which the private sector operates. They must also assess the role of government in determining transportation policy, as federal, state, and local agencies regulate every mode of this industry. While the U.S...

  9. Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index Blog What Can I ... Search form Search the Site Main menu Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  10. Remote controlled transport device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Tada, Eisuke; Sato, Masaki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for transporting equipments for maintenance and parts between a maintenance port and a facility for maintenance by remote control in a radioactive material handling facility such as a nuclear power plant. Namely, a power supply bus bar is disposed along a transferring path in order to supply power to a transporting means, and is divided into every region having a predetermined length. Each of the power supply bus bar regions is controlled for the power supply by a control device. Accordingly, the transporting means can be moved and driven successively being independent on every power supply bus bar region. Accordingly, a plurality of transporting means can be operated independently in a transferring path without laying around power cables and control signal cables. (I.S.)

  11. Active transport and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    Increasing heat may impede peoples' ability to be active outdoors thus limiting active transport options. Co-benefits from mitigation of and adaptation to global warming should not be assumed but need to be actively designed into strategies.

  12. Transportation and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This project explored the link between transportation and tourism in Texas. A session on transit and tourism was organized and conducted as part of the 2012 Texas Transit Conference. Speakers at the session described public transit services oriented ...

  13. Risicobeheersing transport diervoeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.L.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Ipema, A.H.; Boekhoff, M.

    2007-01-01

    Welke knelpunten en oplossingsrichtingen bestaan in de praktijk van het transport diervoeders met betrekking tot de implementatie van de diervoederhygiëneverordening, toegespitst op informatievoorziening over wettelijke en bovenwettelijke eisen, naleving, controle en handhaving?

  14. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  15. Manpower and Transportation Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies three routing and scheduling problems arising in manpower and transportation planning. These problems are rooted in real applications, and carry interesting characteristics. By exploiting the structures of the problems, this thesis provides effective mathematical models and

  16. Energy and transportation(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  17. MANAGEMENT OF TOURISM TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, the relevance of transport activities in relation to tourism activities is essential, because it is extremely important and necessary to offer feasible information about tourism services to help consumer to choose the mode of travel to destinations ideal holiday. The methods used in the development of this hypothesis were explanation, exemplification (brief presentation of each mode of transport comparison etc. Analyzing the current situation of national, European and World Wide tourism transportation, the paper proposes practical applications able to explain that the conduct of economic activities as an integral part of the sector of trade and services within a national economy, would not be possible without the involvement of transport, whether by road, rail and air and naval. The results of the analysis are perfectly applicable offering guests the opportunity to reach the most remote corners of the world in a short time, high degree of comfort and affordable price.

  18. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  19. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  20. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  1. Energy and transportation(*)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, J.

    2015-08-01

    Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  2. Transport statistics 1996

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shepperson, L

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains transport and related statistics on roads, vehicles, infrastructure, passengers, freight, rail, air, maritime and road traffic, and international comparisons. The information compiled in this publication has been gathered...

  3. CHARTB multigroup transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.

    1979-03-01

    The physics and numerical implementation of the radiation transport routine used in the CHARTB MHD code are discussed. It is a one-dimensional (Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical symmetry), multigroup,, diffusion approximation. Tests and applications will be discussed as well

  4. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  5. On linear transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    The equations. governing the transport of radiation in plane media of finite thickness are formulated and solved in terms reflection and extintion of radiation inthe case of semi infinite media. 13 refs

  6. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  7. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  8. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W; van Dalen, Elvira C; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2009-12-01

    To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. We identified eligible systematic reviews through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality assessment tool. We compared the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in regular journals with that of Cochrane systematic reviews. We included 117 systematic reviews, 99 systematic reviews published in regular journals and 18 Cochrane systematic reviews. The average methodological quality of systematic reviews was low for all ten items, but the quality of Cochrane systematic reviews was significantly higher than systematic reviews published in regular journals. On a 1-7 scale, the median overall quality score for all systematic reviews was 2 (range 1-7), with a score of 1 (range 1-7) for systematic reviews in regular journals compared to 6 (range 3-7) in Cochrane systematic reviews (pmethodological flaws leading to a high risk of bias. While Cochrane systematic reviews were of higher methodological quality than systematic reviews in regular journals, some of them also had methodological problems. Therefore, the methodology of each individual systematic review should be scrutinized before accepting its results.

  9. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  10. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Suzana K; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Beuthe, Michel; Gasca, Jorge; Greene, David; Lee, David S.; Muromachi, Yasunori; Newton, Peter J.; Plotkin, Steven; Sperling, Daniel; Wit, Ron; Zhou, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Transport activity, a key component of economic development and human welfare, is increasing around the world as economies grow. For most policymakers, the most pressing problems associated with this increasing transport activity are traffic fatalities and injuries, congestion, air pollution and petroleum dependence. These problems are especially acute in the most rapidly growing economies of the developing world. Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can take its place among these other ...

  11. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  12. Tape transport mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groh, E.F.; McDowell, W.; Modjeski, N.S.; Keefe, D.J.; Groer, P.

    1979-01-01

    A device is provided for transporting, in a stepwise manner, tape between a feed reel and takeup reel. An indexer moves across the normal path of the tape displacing it while the tape on the takeup reel side of the indexer is braked. After displacement, the takeup reel takes up the displaced tape while the tape on the feed reel side of the indexer is braked, providing stepwise tape transport in precise intervals determined by the amount of displacement caused by the indexer

  13. Monitoring of transport contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of transport contamination is considered. A particularly thorough monitoring is recommended to be carried out in loading-unloading operations. The monitoring is performed when leaving loading-unloading site and zone under control and prior to preventive examination, technical service or repair. The method of monitoring of auto transport contamination with high-energy β-emitters by means of a special stand permitting the automation of the monitoring process is described [ru

  14. Digital intelligence sources transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Wang Renbo

    2011-01-01

    It presents from the collection of particle-ray counting, infrared data communication, real-time monitoring and alarming, GPRS and other issues start to realize the digital management of radioactive sources, complete the real-time monitoring of all aspects, include the storing of radioactive sources, transporting and using, framing intelligent radioactive sources transporter, as a result, achieving reliable security supervision of radioactive sources. (authors)

  15. Spin transport in nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Pramanik, S.; bandyopadhyay, S.; Cahay, M.

    2003-01-01

    We study high-field spin transport of electrons in a quasi one-dimensional channel of a $GaAs$ gate controlled spin interferometer (SPINFET) using a semiclassical formalism (spin density matrix evolution coupled with Boltzmann transport equation). Spin dephasing (or depolarization) is predominantly caused by D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation associated with momentum dependent spin orbit coupling effects that arise due to bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling) and structural inve...

  16. Thermoelectric transport in superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinecke, T L; Broido, D A

    1997-07-01

    The thermoelectric transport properties of superlattices have been studied using an exact solution of the Boltzmann equation. The role of heat transport along the barrier layers, of carrier tunneling through the barriers, of valley degeneracy and of the well width and energy dependences of the carrier-phonon scattering rates on the thermoelectric figure of merit are given. Calculations are given for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and for PbTe, and the results of recent experiments are discussed.

  17. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  18. [Concrete pain prevention measures regarding hospital internal transport in a cancer center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbak, Jean-Marie; Vignozzi, Annick; Bussy, Catherine; Charleux, Diane; Laplanche, Agnès; Mathivon, Delphine; Di Palma, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Iatrogenic pain is a common problem for cancer patients, including those due to hospital internal transport. An original prospective study conducted in 2006 allowed risk factor identification, and from 2007, a pluri-annual progress plan was implemented. Its actions were systematically evaluated and all phases of transportation reconsidered: preparation, patient transport to and care in medicotechnical units. Measures applied to anticipate these pains help improve the quality of hospital care. All professionals involved in the patient transportation system need to be made aware of this and not only hospital porters.

  19. New organic photorefractive material composed of a charge-transporting dendrimer and a stilbene chromophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jaeil; Ducharme, Stephen; Leonov, Alexei G.; Lu, Liu; Takacs, James M.

    1999-10-01

    In this report, we introduce new organic photorefractive composites consisting of charge transporting den-drimers highly doped with a stilbene nonlinear optic chromophore, The purpose of making these composites is to improve charge transport, by reducing inhomogeneity when compared to ordinary polymer-based systems. Because the structure of this material gives us freedom to control the orientation of charge transport agents synthetically, we can study the charge transport mechanism more systematically than in polymers. We discuss this point and present the characterization results for this material.

  20. Climate change : transportation table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogilvie, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets for the post-2000 period. If ratified, Canada will be committed to reduce emissions of GHGs by 6 per cent below 1990 levels during the period 2008-2012. A recommended national strategy is to establish 'issue tables' that will advise the Ministers of Energy and Environment on preferred options to reach the Kyoto target and to identify early actions that can be taken. The 'Transportation Table' which is the focus of this paper, is one of the 15 sectoral tables. The Transportation Table will identify by July 1999, specific measures to mitigate GHG emissions from Canada's transportation sector. Currently, GHG emissions from the transportation sector are predicted to be 27 per cent above 1990 levels by 2010. Fuel taxes, emissions trading, and research into improved vehicle technologies and automotive fuels are some of the recommended options which can help reduce emissions trading from the transportation sector. Studies are underway to deal with emissions from transport in two sub-groups, freight and passenger. 1 fig

  1. Experimental constraints on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Petty, K.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Forest, C.B.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; De Haas, J.C.M.; James, R.A.; Makowski, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    Characterization of the cross-field energy transport in magnetic confinement experiments in a manner applicable to the accurate assessment of future machine performance continues to be a challenging goal. Experimental results from the DIII-D tokamak in the areas of dimensionless scaling and non-diffusive transport represent progress toward this goal. Dimensionless scaling shows how beneficial the increase in machine size and magnetic field is for future devices. The experiments on DIII-D are the first to determine separately the electron and ion scaling with normalized gyroradius ρ * ; the electrons scale as expected from gyro-Bohm class theories, while the ions scale consistent with the Goldston empirical scaling. This result predicts an increase in transport relative to Bohm diffusion as ρ * decreases in future devices. The existence of distinct ρ * scalings for ions and electrons cautions against a physical interpretation of one-fluid or global analysis. The second class of experiments reported here are the first to demonstrate the existence of non-diffusive energy transport. Electron cyclotron heating was applied at the half radius; the electron temperature profile remains substantially peaked. Power balance analysis indicates that heat must flow in the direction of increasing temperature, which is inconsistent with purely diffusive transport. The dynamics of electron temperature perturbations indicate the presence in the heat flux of a term dependent on temperature rather than its gradient. These two observations strongly constrain the types of models which can be applied to cross-field heat transport

  2. Transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brobst, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty years of almost accident-free transport of nuclear materials is pointed to as evidence of a fundamentally correct approach to the problems involved. The increased volume and new technical problems in the future will require extension of these good practices in both regulations and packaging. The general principles of safety in the transport of radioactive materials are discussed first, followed by the transport of spent fuel and of radioactive waste. The security and physical protection of nuclear shipments is then treated. In discussing future problems, the question of public understanding and acceptance is taken first, thereafter transport safeguards and the technical bases for the safety regulations. There is also said to be a need for a new technology for spent fuel casks, while a re-examination of the IAEA transport standards for radiation doses is recommended. The IAEA regulations regarding quality assurance are said to be incomplete, and more information is required on correlations between engineering analysis, scale model testing and full scale crash testing. Transport stresses on contents need to be considered while administrative controls have been neglected. (JIW)

  3. Transport processes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.

    1988-01-01

    This part is devoted to the classical transport theory in plasmas. Ch. 1 is a chapter of 'pure' hamiltonian mechanics and starts with the study of the motion of an individual charged particle in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Ch. 2 introduces the tools of statistical mechanics for the study of large collections of charged particles. A kinetic theory is derived as a basic tool for transport theory. In ch. 3 the hydro-dynamic - or plasmadynamic - balance equations are derived. The macroscopic dynamical equations have the structure of an infinite hierarchy. This introduces the necessity of construction of a transport theory, by which te infinite set of equations can be reduced to a finite, closed set. This can only be done by a detailed analysis of the kinetic equation under well defined conditions. The tools for such nan analysis are developed in ch. 4. In ch. 5 the transport equations, relating the unknown fluxes of matter, momentum, energy and electricity to the hydrodynamic variables, are derived and discussed. In ch. 6 the results are incorporated into the wider framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics by connecting the transport processes to the central concept of entropy production. In ch. 7 the results of transport theory are put back into the equations of plasmadynamics

  4. Transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigefumi

    1978-01-01

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  5. Mass transport thermodynamics in nonisothermal molecular liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Semen N [Institute for Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schimpf, M E [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Boise State University, Boise, ID (United States)

    2009-10-31

    Mass transport in a nonisothermal binary molecular mixture is systematically discussed in terms of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, which for the first time allows a consistent and unambiguous description of the process. The thermodynamic and hydrodynamic approaches are compared, revealing that nonequilibrium thermodynamics and physicochemical hydrodynamics yield essentially the same results for molecular systems. The applicability limits for the proposed version of the thermodynamic approach are determined for large particles. (methodological notes)

  6. The Logistical Aspects of Freight Transportation and Forwarding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimina Anna I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the theoretical and practical aspects of freight transportation and forwarding services based on the principles of logistics. The indicators of dynamics of freight transportation in Ukraine compared to last year and the structure by types of transport have been provided. The indicators of the foreign trade performance of Ukraine have been presented, including the counter-current export and import flows, as well as the external trade balance, which directly impacts the volume and dynamics of freight transportation and forwarding services. The main parameters of the transportation and forwarding logistics system were systematized, taking into consideration the technical and operational characteristics of the rolling stock, the route of communication, and the terminals. The role and features of the functions of the inter/multimodal transportation operators – freight forwarders of the «tonnage customers» have been considered. The article determines principles for the organization of work of freight forwarders, as well as the terms of agreement of the parties when the freight forwarding contract is concluded. The conditions for developing a logistics approach to the implementation of freight transportation and forwarding services have been generalized.

  7. Paleoclassical transport explains electron transport barriers in RTP and TEXTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Callen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The recently developed paleoclassical transport model sets the minimum level of electron thermal transport in a tokamak. This transport level has proven to be in good agreement with experimental observations in many cases when fluctuation-induced anomalous transport is small, i.e. in (near-) ohmic

  8. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  9. National Space Transportation System (NSTS) technology needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhalter, David L.; Ulrich, Kimberly K.

    1990-01-01

    The National Space Transportation System (NSTS) is one of the Nation's most valuable resources, providing manned transportation to and from space in support of payloads and scientific research. The NSTS program is currently faced with the problem of hardware obsolescence, which could result in unacceptable schedule and cost impacts to the flight program. Obsolescence problems occur because certain components are no longer being manufactured or repair turnaround time is excessive. In order to achieve a long-term, reliable transportation system that can support manned access to space through 2010 and beyond, NASA must develop a strategic plan for a phased implementation of enhancements which will satisfy this long-term goal. The NSTS program has initiated the Assured Shuttle Availability (ASA) project with the following objectives: eliminate hardware obsolescence in critical areas, increase reliability and safety of the vehicle, decrease operational costs and turnaround time, and improve operational capability. The strategy for ASA will be to first meet the mandatory needs - keep the Shuttle flying. Non-mandatory changes that will improve operational capability and enhance performance will then be considered if funding is adequate. Upgrade packages should be developed to install within designated inspection periods, grouped in a systematic approach to reduce cost and schedule impacts, and allow the capability to provide a Block 2 Shuttle (Phase 3).

  10. The difficulties of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Martin J; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-10-01

    The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. We drew on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor intensive, and to provide potential solutions. Several linguistic properties of peer-reviewed corpora-including nonrandom selection of review topics, small-world properties of semantic networks, and spatiotemporal variation in word meaning-greatly increase the effort needed to complete the systematic review process. Conversely, the resolution of these semantic complexities is a common motivation for narrative reviews, but this process is rarely enacted with the rigor applied during linguistic analysis. Therefore, linguistics provides a unifying framework for understanding some key challenges of systematic review and highlights 2 useful directions for future research. First, in cases where semantic complexity generates barriers to synthesis, ecologists should consider drawing on existing methods-such as natural language processing or the construction of research thesauri and ontologies-that provide tools for mapping and resolving that complexity. These tools could help individual researchers classify research material in a more robust manner and provide valuable guidance for future researchers on that topic. Second, a linguistic perspective highlights that scientific writing is a rich resource worthy of detailed study, an observation that can sometimes be lost during the search for data during systematic review or meta-analysis. For example, mapping semantic networks can reveal redundancy and complementarity among scientific concepts, leading to new insights and research questions. Consequently

  11. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  12. A Systematic Method for Search Term Selection in Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a…

  13. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  14. Systematic and reliable multiscale modelling of lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Selcuk; Schmuck, Markus

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the increasing interest in lithium batteries as energy storage devices (e.g. cars/bycicles/public transport, social robot companions, mobile phones, and tablets), we investigate three basic cells: (i) a single intercalation host; (ii) a periodic arrangement of intercalation hosts; and (iii) a rigorously upscaled formulation of (ii) as initiated in. By systematically accounting for Li transport and interfacial reactions in (i)-(iii), we compute the associated chracteristic current-voltage curves and power densities. Finally, we discuss the influence of how the intercalation particles are arranged. Our findings are expected to improve the understanding of how microscopic properties affect the battery behaviour observed on the macroscale and at the same time, the upscaled formulation (iii) serves as an efficient computational tool. This work has been supported by EPSRC, UK, through the Grant No. EP/P011713/1.

  15. Radioactive material transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    As a supporting member of a sealing container for containing spent fuels, etc., a straight pipe or a cylinder has been used. However, upon dropping test, the supporting member is buckled toward the central axis of a transporting container and a shock absorber is crushed in the axial direction to prevent its pushing force to the outer side, which may possibly hinder normal shock moderating function. Then, at least more than one-half of the supporting member is protruded radially to the outer side of the sealing container beyond the fixed portion with the sealed container, so that the member has a portion extended in the radial outside of the transporting container with an angle greater than the angle formed between a line connecting the outer circumference at the bottom of an outer cylinder with the gravitational center of the transporting container and the central axis of the transporting container. As a result, buckling of the supporting member toward the central axis of the transporting container upon dropping test can be prevented and the deformation of the shock absorber is neither not prevented to exhibit normal shock absorbing effect. This can improve the reliability and reduce the amount of shock absorbers. (N.H.)

  16. Sustainable Urban Transport Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitor Melania R.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection has become a common issue in every area, but extremely important for the domains which deal with intensive energy consumption as it is the case of the transportation. Achieving the sustainable cities on the other hand, is also focused on the protection of the environment in order to provide a higher quality of life for the population. Therefore it is considered that by improving the urban transportation planning additional benefits could be provided for both the environment and the sustainable development of the cities. One possibility is to supplement the traditionally land-use plans with the transportrelated zones analysis, where the city is divided in public transport, pedestrian and caroriented zones. Analyzing the transport-related zones of a city is important as it provides additional information in the assessment of the development trend. The process of zoning was conducted for the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In this paper, the outcome of the zoning was analyzed for a more comprehensive review of the urban transport in order to attain a sustainable-oriented approach of the urban area development.

  17. A new transport hub

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s new Mobility Centre, allowing you to switch easily from one mode of transport to another, has just been officially opened.   Inauguration of the CERN Mobility Centre by Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Lluis Miralles, Head of the SMB department. CERN’s new Mobility Centre, on the car park next to the Globe of Science and Innovation was officially opened on Tuesday, 22 March. The centre brings together all of CERN’s transport options in a single location. "Our aim is to create an intermodal hub where CERN users and personnel can switch from one mode of transport to another, and from CERN transport to public transport," explains Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings (SMB) department. The Mobility Centre incorporates the CERN bike and car rental services, the self-service car- and bike-sharing schemes, and SIXT car rental facilities (for long-distance journeys). It is located right ne...

  18. Nuclear materials transport worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellpflug, J.

    1987-01-01

    This Greenpeace report shows: nuclear materials transport is an extremely hazardous business. There is no safe protection against accidents, kidnapping, or sabotage. Any moment of a day, at any place, a nuclear transport accident may bring the world to disaster, releasing plutonium or radioactive fission products to the environment. Such an event is not less probable than the MCA at Chernobyl. The author of the book in hand follows the secret track of radioactive materials around the world, from uranium mines to the nuclear power plants, from reprocessing facilities to the waste repositories. He explores the routes of transport and the risks involved, he gives the names of transport firms and discloses incidents and carelessness, tells about damaged waste drums and plutonium that 'disappeared'. He also tells about worldwide, organised resistance to such nuclear transports, explaining the Greenpeace missions on the open sea, or the 'day X' operation at the Gorleben site, informing the reader about protests and actions for a world freed from the threat of nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Hydrogen and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsons, E.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 the Latvian transport consumed 43 PJ, which makes up 23% of the total priMary resources used in the country. On the world scale this latter figure was 17.6% in 2003. On the 1st October of 2005 in Latvia 808.6 thous. of cars, 119.9 thous. of lorries, 10,7 thous. of buses and 27.1 thous. of motorcycles were registred. The annual growth in the number of light motor cars in the last years was 5.5% on the average. In 2005 the Latvian transport consumed 335 thous. tons of petrol and 542 thous. tons of diesel fuel, which makes up 87.4% of the total resources used (in terms of the combustion heat). In the period of 2002-2005 the annual growth of energy resources consumed by transport was 4.87% on the average. According to forecasts, in 2015 the transports of our country will spend 1.64 times more energy resources as compared with 2005. If the transport of 2015 uses hydrogen, then for Latvia 270 thous. tons of this product will be needed. To obtain 270 thous. tons of hydrogen from water using the up-to-date equipment for electrolysis a considerable amount of electric energy is required. Such amount can be produced by generating stations of the total capacity of 1680 MWe(net). This figure is close to that for the total installed capacity of electric energy production already existing in Latvia. (Author)

  20. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseland, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  1. Transport in Stochastic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haran, O.; Shvarts, D.; Thieberger, R.

    1998-01-01

    Classical transport of neutral particles in a binary, scattering, stochastic media is discussed. It is assumed that the cross-sections of the constituent materials and their volume fractions are known. The inner structure of the media is stochastic, but there exist a statistical knowledge about the lump sizes, shapes and arrangement. The transmission through the composite media depends on the specific heterogeneous realization of the media. The current research focuses on the averaged transmission through an ensemble of realizations, frm which an effective cross-section for the media can be derived. The problem of one dimensional transport in stochastic media has been studied extensively [1]. In the one dimensional description of the problem, particles are transported along a line populated with alternating material segments of random lengths. The current work discusses transport in two-dimensional stochastic media. The phenomenon that is unique to the multi-dimensional description of the problem is obstacle bypassing. Obstacle bypassing tends to reduce the opacity of the media, thereby reducing its effective cross-section. The importance of this phenomenon depends on the manner in which the obstacles are arranged in the media. Results of transport simulations in multi-dimensional stochastic media are presented. Effective cross-sections derived from the simulations are compared against those obtained for the one-dimensional problem, and against those obtained from effective multi-dimensional models, which are partially based on a Markovian assumption

  2. Thermal Transport in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangzhao; Hu, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Phosphorene, a novel elemental 2D semiconductor, possesses fascinating chemical and physical properties which are distinctively different from other 2D materials. The rapidly growing applications of phosphorene in nano/optoelectronics and thermoelectrics call for comprehensive studies of thermal transport properties. In this Review, based on the theoretical and experimental progresses, the thermal transport properties of single-layer phosphorene, multilayer phosphorene (nanofilms), and bulk black phosphorus are summarized to give a general view of the overall thermal conductivity trend from single-layer to bulk form. The mechanism underlying the discrepancy in the reported thermal conductivity of phosphorene is discussed by reviewing the effect of different functionals and cutoff distances on the thermal transport evaluations. This Review then provides fundamental insight into the thermal transport in phosphorene by reviewing the role of resonant bonding in driving giant phonon anharmonicity and long-range interactions. In addition, the extrinsic thermal conductivity of phosphorene is reviewed by discussing the effects of strain and substrate, together with phosphorene based heterostructures and nanoribbons. This Review summarizes the progress of thermal transport in phosphorene from both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements, which would be of significance to the design and development of efficient phosphorene based nanoelectronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Transport Emissions and Energy Consumption Impacts of Private Capital Investment in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Xue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducing private capital into the public transport system for its sustainable development has been increasing around the world. However, previous research ignores emissions and energy consumption impacts, which are important for private capital investment policy-making. To address this problem, the system dynamic (SD approach was used to quantitatively analyze the cumulative effects of different private capital investment models in public transport from the environmental perspective. The SD model validity was verified in the case study of Jinan public traffic. Simulation results show that the fuel consumption and emission reductions are obvious when the private capital considering passenger value invests in public transport compared with the no private capital investment and traditional investment models. There are obvious cumulative reductions for fuel consumption, CO2, CO, SO2, and PM10 emissions for 100 months compared with no private capital investment. This research verifies the superiority of the passenger value investment model in public transport from the environmental point of view, and supplies a theoretical tool for administrators to evaluate the private capital investment effects systematically.

  4. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR; Abdulmuttalip DEMİREL

    2004-01-01

    Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properti...

  5. Flux-based transport enhancement as a plausible unifying mechanism for auxin transport in meristem development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Stoma

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants continuously generate new organs through the activity of populations of stem cells called meristems. The shoot apical meristem initiates leaves, flowers, and lateral meristems in highly ordered, spiralled, or whorled patterns via a process called phyllotaxis. It is commonly accepted that the active transport of the plant hormone auxin plays a major role in this process. Current hypotheses propose that cellular hormone transporters of the PIN family would create local auxin maxima at precise positions, which in turn would lead to organ initiation. To explain how auxin transporters could create hormone fluxes to distinct regions within the plant, different concepts have been proposed. A major hypothesis, canalization, proposes that the auxin transporters act by amplifying and stabilizing existing fluxes, which could be initiated, for example, by local diffusion. This convincingly explains the organised auxin fluxes during vein formation, but for the shoot apical meristem a second hypothesis was proposed, where the hormone would be systematically transported towards the areas with the highest concentrations. This implies the coexistence of two radically different mechanisms for PIN allocation in the membrane, one based on flux sensing and the other on local concentration sensing. Because these patterning processes require the interaction of hundreds of cells, it is impossible to estimate on a purely intuitive basis if a particular scenario is plausible or not. Therefore, computational modelling provides a powerful means to test this type of complex hypothesis. Here, using a dedicated computer simulation tool, we show that a flux-based polarization hypothesis is able to explain auxin transport at the shoot meristem as well, thus providing a unifying concept for the control of auxin distribution in the plant. Further experiments are now required to distinguish between flux-based polarization and other hypotheses.

  6. Transport regulation for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong.

    1986-01-01

    Taking into account the specific dangers associated with the transport of radioactive materials (contamination, irradiation, heat, criticality), IAEA regulations concerning technical specifications and administrative procedures to ward off these dangers are presented. The international agreements related to the land transport, maritime transport and air transport of radioactive materials are also briefly reviewed

  7. Transport Research Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortúzar, Juan de Dios; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Rizzi, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Transport is a large, multidisciplinary and fascinating field, encompassing vastly different areas of research. In fact transport interests span from not very well understood (in fieldwork) issues related with survey methods to highly complex questions associated with the dynamic equilibration...... of supply and demand in strategic planning contexts; the latter involving large zoning systems, huge multimodal networks and highly complex dynamic modelling approaches (Mahmassani, 2001). But questions also arise at a more macro level (and in a different time span) regarding the interaction of transport....... For these reasons, in this chapter we will just concentrate on issues related with modelling the demand for travel in the relatively short term. In particular, we will refer to modelling discrete short-term choices, such as mode, route and/or trip timing; although in our analysis we will pay attention to research...

  8. Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  9. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Transportable criticality alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    The Transportable Criticality Alarm System was developed at the Hanford Site in 1982 to comply with the requirements of US Department of Energy Order DOE 5480.1, 12/18/80, and ANSI/ANS-8.3- 1979. The portable unit that it replaced failed to comply with the new requirements in that it did not provide the necessary warning of malfunctions, nor did it provide the Hanford Site standard criticality alarm signal. Modern technology allowed the Transportable Criticality Alarm System to comply with the criticality requirements cited and to incorporate other features that make it more usable, maintainable, and reliable. The Transportable Criticality Alarm System (TCAS) provides temporary criticality coverage in manned areas where the facility criticality alarm system is not operable. This gamma radiation-sensitive system has been in use for the past 6 yr at the Hanford Site. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Electrical railway transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Morris; Zaninelli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock. This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways. Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for ...

  12. Economical motor transport operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, P

    1979-09-01

    Motor transport is one area in a company where energy conservation is a function primarily of operative education and motivation rather than mechanical or technical control and monitoring. Unless the driver wants to save energy by proper operation of the vehicle, there is nothing the company can do to force him, whatever equipment it fits to the vehicles, or incentives it offers. This article gives an overview of the use of energy in road transport and examines a number of actions that can be taken to conserve energy. It discusses the question of the cost-effectiveness of transport energy conservation in the light of the complex issues involved. The problems and opportunities of implementing energy-saving programs are examined. (MCW)

  13. Fuel element transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benna, P.; Neuenfeldt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The reprocessing system includes a large number of waterfilled ponds next to each other for the intermediate storage of fuel elements from LWR's. The fuel element transport device is allocated to a middle pond. The individual ponds are separated from each other by walls, and are only accessible from the middle pond via narrow passages. The transport device includes a telescopic running rail for a trolley with a grab device for the fuel element. The running rail is supported in turn by a second trolley, which can be moved by wheels on rails. Part of the drive of the first trolley is arranged on the second one. Using this transport device, adjacent ponds can be served through the passage openings. (DG) [de

  14. Preface: Nonclassical Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.

    2008-01-01

    Transport phenomena in highly heterogeneous media can be dramatically different from those in homogeneous media and therefore are of great fundamental and practical interest. Anomalous transport occurs in semiconductor physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, biology, and other areas. It plays an especially important role in hydrogeology because it may govern the rate of migration and degree of dispersion of groundwater contaminants from hazardous waste sites. The series of four articles in this special section of Vadose Zone Journal is devoted to transport phenomena in heterogeneous media in the context of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. It contains the results of joint investigations performed at the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The work was supported by the U.S. DOE (under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231). The problems addressed in this research involve a broad range of space and time scales and were approached using modern methods of theoretical and computational physics, such as scaling analysis and diagrammatic techniques used before in critical phenomena theory. Special attention is paid to the asymptotics of concentration behavior (concentration tails). This issue is exceptionally important for the reliability assessments of radioactive waste disposal because, depending on the structure of the tails, concentrations at large distances from the source can differ by many orders of magnitude. In the first paper of this special section, Bolshov et al. (2008b) present an overview of field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior in geologic media. It is recognized that natural fracture networks as a rule have fractal geometry and can be classified as percolation systems. This is one of the main factors giving rise to anomalous transport in geologic media. Another important factor is the presence of contaminant traps provided by

  15. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  16. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  17. Transportable hyperpolarized metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao; Bornet, Aurélien; Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Gajan, David; Rossini, Aaron J.; Emsley, Lyndon; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear spin hyperpolarization of 13C-labelled metabolites by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization can enhance the NMR signals of metabolites by several orders of magnitude, which has enabled in vivo metabolic imaging by MRI. However, because of the short lifetime of the hyperpolarized magnetization (typically <1 min), the polarization process must be carried out close to the point of use. Here we introduce a concept that markedly extends hyperpolarization lifetimes and enables the transportation of hyperpolarized metabolites. The hyperpolarized sample can thus be removed from the polarizer and stored or transported for use at remote MRI or NMR sites. We show that hyperpolarization in alanine and glycine survives 16 h storage and transport, maintaining overall polarization enhancements of up to three orders of magnitude. PMID:28072398

  18. LNG in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Mike; White, Nick; Le Fevre, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the content of a 402 p. study published by CEDIGAZ, the International Center for Natural Gas Information. According to this study, LNG as a fuel will capture a significant market share in the transport sector by 2035. The greatest potential is seen in road transport, were annual demand is projected to reach 96 million tons per year (mtpa) in CEDIGAZ' base scenario while demand in the marine sector could grow to an estimated 77 mtpa. The rail sector could add another 6 mtpa to global demand. However, the development of LNG as a transport fuel faces a number of challenges, and will have to go hand in hand with the development of fueling infrastructure

  19. Paleoclassical electron heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Radial electron heat transport in low collisionality, magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas is shown to result from paleoclassical Coulomb collision processes (parallel electron heat conduction and magnetic field diffusion). In such plasmas the electron temperature equilibrates along magnetic field lines a long length L, which is the minimum of the electron collision length and a maximum effective half length of helical field lines. Thus, the diffusing field lines induce a radial electron heat diffusivity M ≅ L/(πR 0q ) ∼ 10 >> 1 times the magnetic field diffusivity η/μ 0 ≅ ν e (c/ω p ) 2 . The paleoclassical electron heat flux model provides interpretations for many features of 'anomalous' electron heat transport: magnitude and radial profile of electron heat diffusivity (in tokamaks, STs, and RFPs), Alcator scaling in high density plasmas, transport barriers around low order rational surfaces and near a separatrix, and a natural heat pinch (or minimum temperature gradient) heat flux form. (author)

  20. Bæredygtig transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Henning de; Søndergaard, Mads

    2009-01-01

    I denne artikel sættes fokus på bæredygtighed og transport. Baggrunden for artiklen er en undersøgelse af status for bæredygtig transport i et antal danske virksomheder i samarbejde med DHL. Indledningen giver en baggrund for fokus på bæredygtighed, efterfølgende sættes der fokus på "Green SCM......" for at afklare hvad det indeholder, definitioner mv. Dette er udgangspunktet for en præsentation af resultaterne fra undersøgelsen af bæredygtig transport. Undersøgelsen opsummeres og leder frem til en række implikationer for henholdsvis kunder (transportkøberne) og transportleverandørerne....

  1. TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Main aspects that determine conditions of transportation industry effective management and decrease of transportation expenses are discussed. Theoretical concepts making it possible to solve the problem of scientific management of the whole country’s goods transportation costs are provided for. Main approaches are presented to the solution of motor transport operation ecological optimization problem as well as to the rise of motor transport workers’ labor productivity, to the increase of transportation vehicles use efficiency and to determine functional capacity of the motor transport complex.

  2. Bicep2. III. INSTRUMENTAL SYSTEMATICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R. W.; Bock, J. J.; Brevik, J. A.; Filippini, J. P.; Golwala, S. R.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S. J.; Bischoff, C. A.; Buder, I.; Karkare, K. S.; Bullock, E.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Fliescher, S.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    In a companion paper, we have reported a >5σ detection of degree scale B-mode polarization at 150 GHz by the Bicep2 experiment. Here we provide a detailed study of potential instrumental systematic contamination to that measurement. We focus extensively on spurious polarization that can potentially arise from beam imperfections. We present a heuristic classification of beam imperfections according to their symmetries and uniformities, and discuss how resulting contamination adds or cancels in maps that combine observations made at multiple orientations of the telescope about its boresight axis. We introduce a technique, which we call “deprojection,” for filtering the leading order beam-induced contamination from time-ordered data, and show that it reduces power in Bicep2's actual and null-test BB spectra consistent with predictions using high signal-to-noise beam shape measurements. We detail the simulation pipeline that we use to directly simulate instrumental systematics and the calibration data used as input to that pipeline. Finally, we present the constraints on BB contamination from individual sources of potential systematics. We find that systematics contribute BB power that is a factor of ∼10× below Bicep2's three-year statistical uncertainty, and negligible compared to the observed BB signal. The contribution to the best-fit tensor/scalar ratio is at a level equivalent to r = (3–6) × 10 −3

  3. Bicep2. III. INSTRUMENTAL SYSTEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Aikin, R. W.; Bock, J. J.; Brevik, J. A.; Filippini, J. P.; Golwala, S. R.; Hildebrandt, S. R. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barkats, D. [Joint ALMA Observatory, ESO, Santiago (Chile); Benton, S. J. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bischoff, C. A.; Buder, I.; Karkare, K. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS 42, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bullock, E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dowell, C. D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Duband, L. [SBT, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France); Fliescher, S. [Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D., E-mail: csheehy@uchicago.edu [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Collaboration: Bicep2 Collaboration; and others

    2015-12-01

    In a companion paper, we have reported a >5σ detection of degree scale B-mode polarization at 150 GHz by the Bicep2 experiment. Here we provide a detailed study of potential instrumental systematic contamination to that measurement. We focus extensively on spurious polarization that can potentially arise from beam imperfections. We present a heuristic classification of beam imperfections according to their symmetries and uniformities, and discuss how resulting contamination adds or cancels in maps that combine observations made at multiple orientations of the telescope about its boresight axis. We introduce a technique, which we call “deprojection,” for filtering the leading order beam-induced contamination from time-ordered data, and show that it reduces power in Bicep2's actual and null-test BB spectra consistent with predictions using high signal-to-noise beam shape measurements. We detail the simulation pipeline that we use to directly simulate instrumental systematics and the calibration data used as input to that pipeline. Finally, we present the constraints on BB contamination from individual sources of potential systematics. We find that systematics contribute BB power that is a factor of ∼10× below Bicep2's three-year statistical uncertainty, and negligible compared to the observed BB signal. The contribution to the best-fit tensor/scalar ratio is at a level equivalent to r = (3–6) × 10{sup −3}.

  4. Methodology of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Espinós, E; Hernández, V; Domínguez-Escrig, J L; Fernández-Pello, S; Hevia, V; Mayor, J; Padilla-Fernández, B; Ribal, M J

    2018-05-03

    The objective of evidence-based medicine is to employ the best scientific information available to apply to clinical practice. Understanding and interpreting the scientific evidence involves understanding the available levels of evidence, where systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clinical trials are at the top of the levels-of-evidence pyramid. The review process should be well developed and planned to reduce biases and eliminate irrelevant and low-quality studies. The steps for implementing a systematic review include (i) correctly formulating the clinical question to answer (PICO), (ii) developing a protocol (inclusion and exclusion criteria), (iii) performing a detailed and broad literature search and (iv) screening the abstracts of the studies identified in the search and subsequently of the selected complete texts (PRISMA). Once the studies have been selected, we need to (v) extract the necessary data into a form designed in the protocol to summarise the included studies, (vi) assess the biases of each study, identifying the quality of the available evidence, and (vii) develop tables and text that synthesise the evidence. A systematic review involves a critical and reproducible summary of the results of the available publications on a particular topic or clinical question. To improve scientific writing, the methodology is shown in a structured manner to implement a systematic review. Copyright © 2018 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Electron transport in unipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures grown by NH3 molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Browne, David A.; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Speck, James S.

    2015-01-01

    on electron transport through quantum well active regions. These unipolar structures served as a test vehicle to test our 2D model of the effect of compositional fluctuations on polarization-induced barriers. Variables that were systematically studied included

  6. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  7. Transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    The increasing use of radioactive substances, not only in reactor operations but also in medicine, industry and other fields, is making the movement of these materials progressively wider, more frequent and larger in volume. Although regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials have been in existence for many years, it has now become necessary to modify or supplement the existing provisions on an international basis. It is essential that the regulations should be applied uniformly by all countries. It is also desirable that the basic regulations should be uniform for all modes of transport so as to simplify the procedures to be complied with by shippers and carriers

  8. The Trojan. [supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Trojan is the culmination of thousands of engineering person-hours by the Cones of Silence Design Team. The goal was to design an economically and technologically viable supersonic transport. The Trojan is the embodiment of the latest engineering tools and technology necessary for such an advanced aircraft. The efficient design of the Trojan allows for supersonic cruise of Mach 2.0 for 5,200 nautical miles, carrying 250 passengers. The per aircraft price is placed at $200 million, making the Trojan a very realistic solution for tomorrows transportation needs. The following is a detailed study of the driving factors that determined the Trojan's super design.

  9. Constrained Optimal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Ibrahim; Soner, H. Mete

    2018-03-01

    The classical duality theory of Kantorovich (C R (Doklady) Acad Sci URSS (NS) 37:199-201, 1942) and Kellerer (Z Wahrsch Verw Gebiete 67(4):399-432, 1984) for classical optimal transport is generalized to an abstract framework and a characterization of the dual elements is provided. This abstract generalization is set in a Banach lattice X with an order unit. The problem is given as the supremum over a convex subset of the positive unit sphere of the topological dual of X and the dual problem is defined on the bi-dual of X. These results are then applied to several extensions of the classical optimal transport.

  10. Transportation of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Shipment of used fuel from nuclear reactors to a central fuel management facility is discussed with particular emphasis on the assessment of the risk to the public due to these shipments. The methods of transporting used fuel in large shipping containers is reviewed. In terms of an accident scenario, it is demonstrated that the primary risk of transport of used fuel is due to injury and death in common road accidents. The radiological nature of the used fuel cargo is, for all practical purposes, an insignificant factor in the total risk to the public. (author)

  11. Transporte de equinos

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, Diego

    2012-01-01

    El transporte de caballos es una actividad muy frecuente que se realiza por distintos motivos: competencias de equitación, cría, subastas, tratamientos, etc. En todos los casos, una de las principales preocupaciones de los propietarios es procurar un traslado seguro y confortable. Esto sucede porque si el medio de transporte no es el adecuado puede provocar en los equinos un importante distrés, que se manifiesta en patologías de origen respiratorio, así como traumatismos en los miembros, lo q...

  12. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  13. TRANSPORT OF COUNTERFEIT GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Babčanová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a current problem of transport of counterfeit goods in the European Union. Counterfeiting has a strong influence on the distribution organizations worldwide because most of counterfeit goods threaten the health and safety of consumers. Counterfeiting is a serious problem in the world economy today. The purpose of this paper is to point out the danger of counterfeiting in connection with the transport of Intellectual Property (IP rights - infringing goods. Background of the paper’s content is based on secondary data research of publicly available sources - international statistics and world reports.

  14. Transcellular transport of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terepka, A R; Coleman, J R; Armbrecht, H J; Gunter, T E

    1976-01-01

    Studies of two calcium transporting epithelia, embryonic chick chorioallantoic membrane and the small intestine of rat and chick, have strongly suggested that the transfer of calcium across a cell involves processes distinctly different from intracellular calcium ion regulation. In the proposed model, transcellular calcium transport is considered as a specialized process developed only by certain cells in those tissues charged with bulk transfer of calcium. The overall effect of the endocytotic mechanism is bulk calcium movement across a cell, protection of mitochondria from exposure to high concentrations of calcium, and the avoidance of wide and potentially toxic fluctuations in cytosol ionic calcium levels. (MFB)

  15. PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION PLANNERS

    OpenAIRE

    FREDERICO DOS SANTOS LIPORACE

    2005-01-01

    Oleodutos têm um papel importante no transporte de petróleo e de seus derivados, pois são a maneira mais eficaz de transportar grandes volumes por longas distâncias. A motivação deste trabalho é que uma parte não negligenciável do preço final de um derivado de petróleo é influenciada pelo custo de transporte. Apesar disso, até onde sabemos, apenas alguns autores trabalharam neste problema específico, a maioria utilizando técnicas de programação inteira. Este tr...

  16. Transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During november and december 2001, 2 events concerning nuclear transport were reported and classified on the first grade (grade 1) of the INES scale. The first event concerns a hole in a transport cask of contaminated tools. The hole seems to have been made by the fork of a handling equipment. The second event concerns the loss of a parcel containing a technetium generator, this generator represented an activity of about 141 G Becquerel of 99 Mo the day it left the premises of CIS-bio in Saclay. (A.C.)

  17. Introduction to radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This lecture will present time-dependent radiation transport where the radiation is coupled to a static medium, i.e., the material is not in motion. In reality, radiation exerts a pressure on the materials it propagates through and will accelerate the material in the direction of the radiation flow. This fully coupled problem with radiation transport and materials in motion is referred to as radiation-hydrodynamics (or in a shorthand notation: rad-hydro) and is beyond the scope of this lecture

  18. Energy for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; Lah, Oliver; Fulton, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Global transportation energy use is steeply rising, mainly as a result of increasing population and economic activity. Petroleum fuels remain the dominant energy source, reflecting advantages such as high energy density, low cost, and market availability. The movement of people and freight makes......, cost, distribution, infrastructure, storage, and public acceptability. The transition to low-carbon equitable and sustainable transport will take time but can be fostered by numerous short- and medium-term strategies that would benefit energy security, health, productivity, and sustainability....

  19. Evaluation of public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Kahr, Kjeld; Petersen, Peter Bo

    1986-01-01

    by a given supply of transport. In contrast with conventional methods, this method operates with real measures, i.e. real location (instead of traffic zones), real time (instead of average travel time), and real costs (instead of proxy-costs). The purpose is to produce relevant and easily understandable......This paper discusses a method to evaluate sceduled, fixed-route public transport. One major evaluation criterion in the method is total travel time, subdivided into walking time, waiting time, time on vehicle, transfer time, and concealed waiting time. The other major criterion is cost incurred...

  20. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. METHODS: We identified eligible systematic reviews...... through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality...... assessment tool. We compared the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in regular journals with that of Cochrane systematic reviews. RESULTS: We included 117 systematic reviews, 99 systematic reviews published in regular journals and 18 Cochrane systematic reviews. The average methodological...

  1. Factores que condicionan el rendimiento del transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediavilla, A.

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of motor transport depends on the rational and precise coordination of the various factors which affect movement by motor vehicles, namely: Correct space and time planning. Speed, by using suitable material and exploiting effectively the power and the capacity of the drivers. Continuity of performance, due to a systematic and efficient maintenance service and intelligent traffic control. Flexibility to introduce modifications in the existing schedules, without interrupting the flow of traffic. By applying effectively the above principles it will be possible to organise transport in the best possible manner. Briefly the above requirements can be summarised thus: «to place, rapidly and regularly, at the preappointed places, all the necessary material for the execution of a particular project».El rendimiento del transporte efectuado por vehículos automóviles, depende de la coordinación racional y armónica de los principios que rigen los movimientos motorizados: Ordenación en tiempo y espacio. Rapidez, mediante el uso del adecuado material y el aprovechamiento de su potencia y de la capacidad de los conductores. Continuidad, merced a un entretenimiento constante y eficaz y a tina inteligente regulación del tráfico. Flexibilidad para introducir, en los movimientos, las modificaciones que se estimen convenientes, sin interrumpir los desplazamientos. Con la aplicación acertada de estos principios se logrará cumplir, en condiciones óptimas, la misión del transporte, la cual puede ser definida como: «situar, con rapidez y regularidad en los lugares prefijados, todos los elementos precisos para el normal desarrollo y ejecución de un plan».

  2. Three dimensions transport calculations for PWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richebois, E.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to define improved 3-D core calculation methods based on the transport theory. These methods can be particularly useful and lead to more precise computations in areas of the core where anisotropy and steep flux gradients occur, especially near interface and boundary conditions and in regions of high heterogeneity (bundle with absorbent rods). In order to apply the transport theory a new method for calculating reflector constants has been developed, since traditional methods were only suited for 2-group diffusion core calculations and could not be extrapolated to transport calculations. In this thesis work, the new method for obtaining reflector constants is derived regardless of the number of energy groups and of the operator used. The core calculations results using the reflector constants thereof obtained have been validated on the EDF's power reactor Saint Laurent B1 with MOX loading. The advantages of a 3-D core transport calculation scheme have been highlighted as opposed to diffusion methods; there are a considerable number of significant effects and potential advantages to be gained in rod worth calculations for instance. These preliminary results obtained with on particular cycle will have to be confirmed by more systematic analysis. Accidents like MSLB (main steam line break) and LOCA (loss of coolant accident) should also be investigated and constitute challenging situations where anisotropy is high and/or flux gradients are steep. This method is now being validated for others EDF's PWRs' reactors, as well as for experimental reactors and other types of commercial reactors. (author)

  3. Reducing transport costs and improving sustainability simultaneously through horizontal logistics collaboration: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lier, Tom; Macharis, Cathy; Caris, An; Vrenken, Huub

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the potential of a more systematic bundling of the outbound freight flows out of three neighboring distribution centers (DCs) of the same company, each specialized in a specific product category and each using a separate planning system, is investigated. Most of the outbound flows are currently still transported by truck, so one way to simultaneously achieve lower transport costs and more sustainable logistics is through supply chain collaboration in outbound logistics. This pap...

  4. Transport research: Quo Vadis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available the national R&D programme in transport became fragmented and consequently very little R&D has been done in the 2000s. This paper analyses the lessons learnt from six historic research programmes in both the public and private sector and in several project...

  5. Transportation cask contamination weeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Doughty, D.H.; Chambers, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of cask contamination weeping, and efforts to understand the phenomenon and to eliminate its occurrence during spent nuclear fuel transport. The paper summarizes analyses of field experience and scoping experiments, and concentrates on current modelling and experimental validation efforts. (J.P.N.)

  6. Urban Transportation Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Kurt A.; Foster, Patrick N.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a learning activity that involves planning a community and then altering the transportation system to meet new specifications. Includes the rationale for the activity, how it fits into the technology education curriculum, and how it was implemented to fit a variety of age and grade levels. (JOW)

  7. Urban Mass Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervine, K. E.

    This bibliography is part of a series of Environmental Resource Packets prepared under a grant from EXXON Education Foundation. The most authoritative and accessible references in the urban transportation field are reviewed. The authors, publisher, point of view, level, and summary are given for each reference. The references are categorized…

  8. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  9. Transport near slippery interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, A. Sander

    2016-01-01

    Some surfaces exhibit wall slip, meaning that a owing uid has a velocity relative to that surface. This leads to increased advection in the direct vicinity of the wall. As this directly a ects the rate of transport at larger scales, slippery surfaces have a potentially important application in

  10. Transport processes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.

    1988-01-01

    This part is devoted to the neoclassical transport theory. Ch. 8 deals with toroidal magnetic confinement. Ch. 9 studies the motion of an individual particle in a toroidal field. Ch.'s 10 and 11 are devoted to the study of the kinetic equation appropriate to the situation that prevails in the neoclassical theory. Ch. 12 is devoted to the general study of the macroscopic moment equations in toroidal geometry. In ch. 13 the first new transport equations are derived. They include the strange Pfirsch-Schlueter effect. In ch. 14 the method of solution of the kinetic equation in the long free path regime is developed. In ch. 15 the typical long mean free path neoclassical transport equations are obtained and discussed; their very pecular differences with the classicial ones are emphasized. Ch. 16 introduces a mean free path regime as well as a method of interpolation of the results over the whole range of collisionalities. Ch. 17 provides the connection of the transport theory with non-equilibrium thermodynamics in a regime (long mean free path) where the applicability of the latter seems, at first sight, questionable. Nevertheless a complete and consistent thermodynamic theory can be set up, even in this regime. Finally, ch. 18 goes back to the hydrodynamical equations and treats the problem of their closure (in toroidal geometry)

  11. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  12. Helium transport in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Chan, A.

    1986-09-01

    Initial measurements of the 15 MeV protons produced in TFTR by the d( 3 He, p)α fusion reaction have been used to determine the time evolution of the central 3 He density. The signals following short 3 He gas puffs indicate inward transport times of about 100 msec

  13. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Solute transport in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Leijnse, A.

    2013-01-01

    Solute transport is of importance in view of the movement of nutrient elements, e.g. towards the plant root system, and because of a broad range of pollutants. Pollution is not necessarily man induced, but may be due to geological or geohydrological causes, e.g. in the cases of pollution with

  15. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...

  16. What can Transport Deliver?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Fulton, Lewis; Figueroa, Maria J.

    We compare detailed projections of transport energy consumption and CO2 emissions up to the year 2050 and review representative pathways towards the specific mitigation targets outlined in the Fifth Assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR5), contrasting sectora...

  17. Lightweight Monorail Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Harold F.; Wood, Kenneth E.; Strecker, Myron T.

    1987-01-01

    Report proposes monorail transportation system for zero-gravity environment. System carries materials and parts between locations on space station. Includes tubular rails instead of open channels usually found in overhead conveyor systems. Since resistance to torque of closed tube greater than that of open channel for same amount of material, tubular monorail designed for higher loads or for greater spacing between support points.

  18. Transport properties of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, K.

    1976-07-01

    The transport coefficients, self diffusivity, dinamical viscosity,total viscosity (i.e., the first and second viscosity coefficient) and thermal conductivity, are calculated at several temperatures and saturation pressures for the Argon, Krypton and Xenon liquids, from the Mie otential and the hard sphere theory. (L.C.) [pt

  19. Phloem transport in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Shinichi. Asao

    2014-01-01

    Phloem is like an enigmatic central banker: we know how important phloem is to plant function, but very little about how phloem functions as part of a whole-plant economy. Phloem transports carbohydrates, produced by photosynthesis and hydrolysis of reserve compounds, to sink tissues for growth, respiration and storage. At photosynthetic tissues, carbohydrates are...

  20. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  1. Decentralization in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udluft, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work,we demonstrate that decentralized control can result in stable, efficient, and robust operations in the Air Transportation System. We implement decentralized control for aircraft taxiing operations and use Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation to analyze the resulting system behavior

  2. Atomic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyss, M.

    2015-01-01

    As presented in the first chapter of this book, atomic transport properties govern a large panel of nuclear fuel properties, from its microstructure after fabrication to its behaviour under irradiation: grain growth, oxidation, fission product release, gas bubble nucleation. The modelling of the atomic transport properties is therefore the key to understanding and predicting the material behaviour under irradiation or in storage conditions. In particular, it is noteworthy that many modelling techniques within the so-called multi-scale modelling scheme of materials make use of atomic transport data as input parameters: activation energies of diffusion, diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, all of which are then required to be known accurately. Modelling approaches that are readily used or which could be used to determine atomic transport properties of nuclear materials are reviewed here. They comprise, on the one hand, static atomistic calculations, in which the migration mechanism is fixed and the corresponding migration energy barrier is calculated, and, on the other hand, molecular dynamics calculations and kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations, for which the time evolution of the system is explicitly calculated. (author)

  3. Radioactive materials transport experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhaar, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the kinds of packaging suitable for different types of waste, the roles of highway and rail transport, restrictions imposed by political entities and carriers, and safety. The U. S. accident record is described, with some statistics given

  4. Water transport and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Wieland

    2017-06-01

    Water transport in plants occurs along various paths and is driven by gradients in its free energy. It is generally considered that the mode of transport, being either diffusion or bulk flow, is a passive process, although energy may be required to sustain the forces driving water flow. This review aims at putting water flow at the various organisational levels (cell, organ, plant) in the context of the energy that is required to maintain these flows. In addition, the question is addressed (1) whether water can be transported against a difference in its chemical free energy, 'water potential' (Ψ), through, directly or indirectly, active processes; and (2) whether the energy released when water is flowing down a gradient in its energy, for example during day-time transpiration and cell expansive growth, is significant compared to the energy budget of plant and cell. The overall aim of review is not so much to provide a definite 'Yes' and 'No' to these questions, but rather to stimulate discussion and raise awareness that water transport in plants has its real, associated, energy costs and potential energy gains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. VIVITRON beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadji, A.

    1989-07-01

    The VIVITRON is a new 35 MV particle accelerator which presents a great number of innovations. One of the major problem is the beam transport in this electrostatic machine of 50 m length for ions with masses between 1 and 200. Our work consisted in the study of various experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam transport in Tandem accelerators from the ion source to the analysing magnet. Calculations of the beam optics were performed with a Strasbourg version of the computer code Transport. They allowed us to optimize the beam transport parameters of the VIVITRON elements. Special attention has been focused on the design of the charge state selector to be installed in the terminal of the new machine. Beam transmission measurements were carried out in the Strasbourg MP 10 Tandem accelerator for ions beams of masses between 1 and 127 and for terminal voltages from 9 to 15 MV. Partial and total transmissions were obtained and explanations of the beam losses were proposed in terms of the vacuum pressure and/or the optics of the beam accelerator system. The results have been extrapolated to the VIVITRON for which the best working conditions are now clearly defined [fr

  6. Bystruktur og transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2003-01-01

    Paperet præsenterer hovedkonklusionerne fra et PhD-studie af sammenhængene mellem bystruktur (særligt boliglokalisering) og transport i Aalborg. Det konkluderes at boliglokaliseringen har væsentlig betydning for transporten i det daglige. Det gælder især lokaliseringen i forhold til det samlede...

  7. Transport of solar electrons in the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablaßmayer, J.; Tautz, R. C., E-mail: robert.c.tautz@gmail.com [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Dresing, N., E-mail: dresing@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The turbulent transport of solar energetic electrons in the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated by means of a test-particle Monte-Carlo simulation. The magnetic fields are modeled as a combination of the Parker field and a turbulent component. In combination with the direct calculation of diffusion coefficients via the mean-square displacements, this approach allows one to analyze the effect of the initial ballistic transport phase. In that sense, the model complements the main other approach in which a transport equation is solved. The major advancement is that, by recording the flux of particles arriving at virtual detectors, intensity and anisotropy-time profiles can be obtained. Observational indications for a longitudinal asymmetry can thus be explained by tracing the diffusive spread of the particle distribution. The approach may be of future help for the systematic interpretation of observations for instance by the solar terrestrial relations observatory (STEREO) and advanced composition explorer (ACE) spacecrafts.

  8. Generalized diffusion theory for calculating the neutron transport scalar flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcouffe, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A generalization of the neutron diffusion equation is introduced, the solution of which is an accurate approximation to the transport scalar flux. In this generalization the auxiliary transport calculations of the system of interest are utilized to compute an accurate, pointwise diffusion coefficient. A procedure is specified to generate and improve this auxiliary information in a systematic way, leading to improvement in the calculated diffusion scalar flux. This improvement is shown to be contingent upon satisfying the condition of positive calculated-diffusion coefficients, and an algorithm that ensures this positivity is presented. The generalized diffusion theory is also shown to be compatible with conventional diffusion theory in the sense that the same methods and codes can be used to calculate a solution for both. The accuracy of the method compared to reference S/sub N/ transport calculations is demonstrated for a wide variety of examples. (U.S.)

  9. Transport parameter estimation from lymph measurements and the Patlak equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P D; Wolf, M B

    1992-01-01

    Two methods of estimating protein transport parameters for plasma-to-lymph transport data are presented. Both use IBM-compatible computers to obtain least-squares parameters for the solvent drag reflection coefficient and the permeability-surface area product using the Patlak equation. A matrix search approach is described, and the speed and convenience of this are compared with a commercially available gradient method. The results from both of these methods were different from those of a method reported by Reed, Townsley, and Taylor [Am. J. Physiol. 257 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 26): H1037-H1041, 1989]. It is shown that the Reed et al. method contains a systematic error. It is also shown that diffusion always plays an important role for transmembrane transport at the exit end of a membrane channel under all conditions of lymph flow rate and that the statement that diffusion becomes zero at high lymph flow rate depends on a mathematical definition of diffusion.

  10. Optimum MRS site location to minimize spent fuel transportation impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A range of spent fuel transportation system parameters are examined in terms of attributes important to minimizing transportation impacts as a basis for identifying geographic regions best suited for siting a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Transportation system parameters within existing transport cask design and transportation mode capabilities were systematically analyzed. The optimum MRS location was found to be very sensitive to transportation system assumptions particularly with regard to the relative efficiencies of the reactor-to-MRS and MRS-to-repository components of the system. Moreover, dramatic improvements in the reactor-to-MRS component can be made through use of multiple cask shipment of the largest practical casks by dedicated train compared to the traditional single cask rail (70%) and truck (30%) shipments assumed the Department of Energy in their studies that defined the optimum MRS location in the vicinity of Tennessee. It is important to develop and utilize an efficient transportation system irrespective of whether or not an MRS is in the system. Assuming reasonably achievable efficiency in reactor-to-MRS spent fuel transportation and assigning equal probabilities to the three western sites selected for characterization of being the repository site, the optimum MRS location would be in the far-mid-western states. Based on various geographic criteria including barge access and location in a nuclear service area, the State of Tennessee ranks any place from 12th to the 25th at a penalty of about 30% over the minimum achievable impacts. While minimizing transportation impacts is an important factor, other criteria should also be considered in selecting an MRS site

  11. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-01-01

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R col is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R col that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k att , and detachment rate constants, k det , of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R col uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly

  12. Binding proteins enhance specific uptake rate by increasing the substrate-transporter encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Evert; Magnúsdóttir, Stefanía; Bruggeman, Frank J; Teusink, Bas; Molenaar, Douwe

    2015-06-01

    Microorganisms rely on binding-protein assisted, active transport systems to scavenge for scarce nutrients. Several advantages of using binding proteins in such uptake systems have been proposed. However, a systematic, rigorous and quantitative analysis of the function of binding proteins is lacking. By combining knowledge of selection pressure and physiochemical constraints, we derive kinetic, thermodynamic, and stoichiometric properties of binding-protein dependent transport systems that enable a maximal import activity per amount of transporter. Under the hypothesis that this maximal specific activity of the transport complex is the selection objective, binding protein concentrations should exceed the concentration of both the scarce nutrient and the transporter. This increases the encounter rate of transporter with loaded binding protein at low substrate concentrations, thereby enhancing the affinity and specific uptake rate. These predictions are experimentally testable, and a number of observations confirm them. © 2015 FEBS.

  13. Heat and damp transport in cavity bricks. Waerme- und Feuchtetransport in Hochlochziegeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, M

    1987-11-19

    The aim of this work is a systematic measurement of the structural effect of cavity bricks on the thermal insulation and thermal storage values depending on the material values of the bricks and the mortar. The arrangement and orientation of the hollow spaces and their dimensions should be varied. Brick shapes with socalled handle slots, which give more convenient handling, and with mortar pockets instead of mortar gaps, should be taken into account in the investigation. Special attention should be paid to the heat transport mechanism in the hollow spaces, where thermal conduction, thermal radiation and convection heat transport are superimposed on one another. The second main aim of the work is the calculation of the coupled heat and damp transport in hollow bricks. The heat and damp transport is described by a coupled system of differential equations, where the decisive transport coefficients should be shown as a function of the variables determining the transport processes. (orig./MM).

  14. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  15. A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E

    2002-01-01

    Homeopathy remains one of the most controversial subjects in therapeutics. This article is an attempt to clarify its effectiveness based on recent systematic reviews. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews/meta-analysis on the subject. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Six of them related to re-analyses of one landmark meta-analysis. Collectively they implied that the overall positive result of this meta-analysis is not supported by a critical analysis of the data. Eleven independent systematic reviews were located. Collectively they failed to provide strong evidence in favour of homeopathy. In particular, there was no condition which responds convincingly better to homeopathic treatment than to placebo or other control interventions. Similarly, there was no homeopathic remedy that was demonstrated to yield clinical effects that are convincingly different from placebo. It is concluded that the best clinical evidence for homeopathy available to date does not warrant positive recommendations for its use in clinical practice. PMID:12492603

  16. Mathematical modeling of solute transport in the subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naymik, T.G.

    1987-01-01

    A review of key works on solute transport models indicates that solute transport processes with the exception of advection are still poorly understood. Solute transport models generally do a good job when they are used to test scientific concepts and hypotheses, investigate natural processes, systematically store and manage data, and simulate mass balance of solutes under certain natural conditions. Solute transport models generally are not good for predicting future conditions with a high degree of certainty, or for determining concentrations precisely. The mathematical treatment of solute transport far surpasses their understanding of the process. Investigations of the extent of groundwater contamination and methods to remedy existing problems show the along-term nature of the hazard. Industrial organic compounds may be immiscible in water, highly volatile, or complexed with inorganic as well as other organic compounds; many remain stable in nature almost indefinitely. In the worst case, future disposal of hazardous waste may be restricted to deep burial, as is proposed for radioactive wastes. For investigations pertinent to transport of radionuclides from a geologic repository, the process cannot be fully understood without adequate thermodynamic and kinetic data bases

  17. Earth's portfolio of extreme sediment transport events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korup, Oliver

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative estimates of sediment flux and the global cycling of sediments from hillslopes to rivers, estuaries, deltas, continental shelves, and deep-sea basins have a long research tradition. In this context, extremely large and commensurately rare sediment transport events have so far eluded a systematic analysis. To start filling this knowledge gap I review some of the highest reported sediment yields in mountain rivers impacted by volcanic eruptions, earthquake- and storm-triggered landslide episodes, and catastrophic dam breaks. Extreme specific yields, defined here as those exceeding the 95th percentile of compiled data, are ~ 104 t km- 2 yr- 1 if averaged over 1 yr. These extreme yields vary by eight orders of magnitude, but systematically decay with reference intervals from minutes to millennia such that yields vary by three orders of magnitude for a given reference interval. Sediment delivery from natural dam breaks and pyroclastic eruptions dominate these yields for a given reference interval. Even if averaged over 102-103 yr, the contribution of individual disturbances may remain elevated above corresponding catchment denudation rates. I further estimate rates of sediment (re-)mobilisation by individual giant terrestrial and submarine mass movements. Less than 50 postglacial submarine mass movements have involved an equivalent of ~ 10% of the contemporary annual global flux of fluvial sediment to Earth's oceans, while mobilisation rates by individual events rival the decadal-scale sediment discharge from tectonically active orogens such as Taiwan or New Zealand. Sediment flushing associated with catastrophic natural dam breaks is non-stationary and shows a distinct kink at the last glacial-interglacial transition, owing to the drainage of very large late Pleistocene ice-marginal lakes. Besides emphasising the contribution of high-magnitude and low-frequency events to the global sediment cascade, these findings stress the importance of sediment storage

  18. HZETRN radiation transport validation using balloon-based experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, James E.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2018-05-01

    The deterministic radiation transport code HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) was developed by NASA to study the effects of cosmic radiation on astronauts and instrumentation shielded by various materials. This work presents an analysis of computed differential flux from HZETRN compared with measurement data from three balloon-based experiments over a range of atmospheric depths, particle types, and energies. Model uncertainties were quantified using an interval-based validation metric that takes into account measurement uncertainty both in the flux and the energy at which it was measured. Average uncertainty metrics were computed for the entire dataset as well as subsets of the measurements (by experiment, particle type, energy, etc.) to reveal any specific trends of systematic over- or under-prediction by HZETRN. The distribution of individual model uncertainties was also investigated to study the range and dispersion of errors beyond just single scalar and interval metrics. The differential fluxes from HZETRN were generally well-correlated with balloon-based measurements; the median relative model difference across the entire dataset was determined to be 30%. The distribution of model uncertainties, however, revealed that the range of errors was relatively broad, with approximately 30% of the uncertainties exceeding ± 40%. The distribution also indicated that HZETRN systematically under-predicts the measurement dataset as a whole, with approximately 80% of the relative uncertainties having negative values. Instances of systematic bias for subsets of the data were also observed, including a significant underestimation of alpha particles and protons for energies below 2.5 GeV/u. Muons were found to be systematically over-predicted at atmospheric depths deeper than 50 g/cm2 but under-predicted for shallower depths. Furthermore, a systematic under-prediction of alpha particles and protons was observed below the geomagnetic cutoff, suggesting that

  19. Nevada Transportation Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-01-01

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  20. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  1. Transport lattice models of heat transport in skin with spatially heterogeneous, temperature-dependent perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gregory T

    2004-11-01

    skin was solved by exploiting the mathematical analogy between local thermal models and local electrical (charge transport models, thereby allowing robust, circuit simulation software to obtain solutions to Kirchhoff's laws for the system model. Transport lattices allow systematic introduction of realistic geometry and spatially heterogeneous heat transport mechanisms. Local representations for both simple, passive functions and more complex local models can be easily and intuitively included into the system model of a tissue.

  2. Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data | Transportation Research |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data Photo of reporters test driving Toyota prototype electric and fuel cell vehicles. Consumer for the development and implementation of these technologies. NREL collects, analyzes, and reports on

  3. SAFETY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF TRANSPORT SERVICES ON RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Sadlovska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the provisions to improve procedure of licensing of passenger and freight transportation, technical specifications for services related to the passenger and freight transportations.

  4. Transportation programs : challenges facing the department of transportation and congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A safe, efficient, and convenient : transportation system is integral to : the health of our economy and : quality of life. Our nations vast : transportation system of airways, : railways, roads, transit systems, : and waterways has served this : ...

  5. Transporter taxonomy - a comparison of different transport protein classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Michael; Gaulton, Anna; Digles, Daniela; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-06-01

    Currently, there are more than 800 well characterized human membrane transport proteins (including channels and transporters) and there are estimates that about 10% (approx. 2000) of all human genes are related to transport. Membrane transport proteins are of interest as potential drug targets, for drug delivery, and as a cause of side effects and drug–drug interactions. In light of the development of Open PHACTS, which provides an open pharmacological space, we analyzed selected membrane transport protein classification schemes (Transporter Classification Database, ChEMBL, IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology, and Gene Ontology) for their ability to serve as a basis for pharmacology driven protein classification. A comparison of these membrane transport protein classification schemes by using a set of clinically relevant transporters as use-case reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different taxonomy approaches.

  6. Systematic Differences and Random Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Levinthal, Daniel A.; Winter, Sidney G.

    2017-01-01

    evolutionary dynamics of firm entry, and the subsequent consolidation of market share and industry shake-out is considered, then during early epochs of industry evolution, one would tend to observe systematic differences in growth rates associated with firm’s competitive fitness. Thus, it is only......A fundamental premise of the strategy field is the existence of persistent firm level differences in resources and capabilities. This property of heterogeneity should express itself in a variety of empirical “signatures,” such as firm performance and arguably systematic and persistent differences...... component, but for much of an industry’s and firm’s history should have a random pattern consistent with the Gibrat property. The intuition is as follows. In a Cournot equilibrium, firms of better “type” (i.e., lower cost) realize a larger market share, but act with some restraint on their choice...

  7. Systematics of constant roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2018-02-01

    We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.

  8. Rotation, Stability and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J. W.

    2007-07-01

    Tokamak plasmas can frequently exhibit high levels of rotation and rotation shear. This can usually be attributed to various sources: injection of momentum, e.g. through neutral beams, flows driven by plasma gradients or torques resulting from non-ambipolar particle loss; however, the source sometimes remains a mystery, such as the spontaneous rotation observed in Ohmic plasmas. The equilibrium rotation profile is given by the balance of these sources with transport and other losses; the edge boundary conditions can play an important role in determining this profile . Such plasma rotation, particularly sheared rotation, is predicted theoretically to have a significant influence on plasma behaviour. In the first place, sonic flows can significantly affect tokamak equilibria and neoclassical transport losses. However, the influence of rotation on plasma stability and turbulence is more profound. At the macroscopic level it affects the behaviour of the gross MHD modes that influence plasma operational limits. This includes sawteeth, the seeding of neoclassical tearing modes, resistive wall modes and the onset of disruptions through error fields, mode locking and reconnection. At the microscopic level it has a major effect on the stability of ballooning modes, both ideal MHD and drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. In the non-linear state, as unstable drift waves evolve into turbulent structures, sheared rotation also tears apart eddies, thereby reducing the resulting transport. There is considerable experimental evidence for these effects on both MHD stability and plasma confinement. In particular, the appearance of improved confinement modes with transport barriers, such as edge H-mode barriers and internal transport barriers (ITBs) appears to correlate well with the presence of sheared plasma rotation. This talk will describe the theory underlying some of these phenomena involving plasma rotation, on both macroscopic and microscopic

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  10. ATP-binding cassette transporters in reproduction: a new frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, E.; Ortiga-Carvalho, T.M.; Reis, F.M.; Lye, S.J.; Gibb, W.; Matthews, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters actively efflux an array of clinically relevant compounds across biological barriers, and modulate biodistribution of many physiological and pharmacological factors. To date, over 48 ABC transporters have been identified and shown to be directly and indirectly involved in peri-implantation events and fetal/placental development. They efflux cholesterol, steroid hormones, vitamins, cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, diverse xenobiotics and environmental toxins, playing a critical role in regulating drug disposition, immunological responses and lipid trafficking, as well as preventing fetal accumulation of drugs and environmental toxins. METHODS This review examines ABC transporters as important mediators of placental barrier functions and key reproductive processes. Expression, localization and function of all identified ABC transporters were systematically reviewed using PubMed and Google Scholar websites to identify relevant studies examining ABC transporters in reproductive tissues in physiological and pathophysiological states. Only reports written in English were incorporated with no restriction on year of publication. While a major focus has been placed on the human, extensive evidence from animal studies is utilized to describe current understanding of the regulation and function of ABC transporters relevant to human reproduction. RESULTS ABC transporters are modulators of steroidogenesis, fertilization, implantation, nutrient transport and immunological responses, and function as ‘gatekeepers’ at various barrier sites (i.e. blood-testes barrier and placenta) against potentially harmful xenobiotic factors, including drugs and environmental toxins. These roles appear to be species dependent and change as a function of gestation and development. The best-described ABC transporters in reproductive tissues (primarily in the placenta) are the multidrug transporters p-glycoprotein and

  11. Systematic Digital Forensic Investigation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Systematic Digital Forensic Investigation Model

    2011-01-01

    Law practitioners are in an uninterrupted battle with criminals in the application of digital/computertechnologies, and require the development of a proper methodology to systematically searchdigital devices for significant evidence. Computer fraud and digital crimes are growing day by dayand unfortunately less than two percent of the reported cases result in confidence. This paperexplores the development of the digital forensics process model, compares digital forensicmethodologies, and fina...

  12. Billionaire Entrepreneurs: A Systematic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2013-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of self-employed individuals are not entrepreneurial in the Schumpeterian sense. In order to unmistakably identify Schumpeterian entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in USD) on Forbes Magazine’s list who became wealthy by founding new firms. In this way we identify 996 billionaire entrepreneurs in over fifty countries in the 1996–2010 period. To our knowledge this is the first systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs, an economically i...

  13. Uterine transplantation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Ejzenberg

    Full Text Available Up to 15% of the reproductive population is infertile, and 3 to 5% of these cases are caused by uterine dysfunction. This abnormality generally leads women to consider surrogacy or adoption. Uterine transplantation, although still experimental, may be an option in these cases. This systematic review will outline the recommendations, surgical aspects, immunosuppressive drugs and reproductive aspects related to experimental uterine transplantation in women.

  14. Systematics of Aedes Mosquito Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Fever and Zika viruses . During a recent field trip to Cameroon and Kenya in the early part of 1983 numerous specimens were collected, mostly as reared...1942) isolated Yellow Fever virus is Aedes (Stejomyia) broeliae (Theobald) and is the common man-biting member of -th-e complex in East Africa. The...PERIOD COVERED Five Month Report Systematics of Aedes Mosquito Project August 1 - December 31, 1983 p - 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) S

  15. Systematic teaching in music education

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2011-01-01

    What is music? Is music significant in human life? What is music education? Does music education deserve a secure place in elementary education in R. Macedonia? Thе aim of this study is review on the studies on systematic teaching in music education. In this studies, we have divided six teaching function: 1. daily review, 2. presentation of new material 3. guided practise, 4. feedback and corrections, 5. independent practise, 6. weekly and mountly reviews.

  16. On the relation between neoclassical transport and turbulent transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaing, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is demonstrated through the flux-force relationship in the neoclassical theory that when neoclassical transport fluxes are improved, the damping rate of the radial electric field of the zonal flow is reduced. This, in turn, leads to improved turbulent transport fluxes. Thus, two seemingly unrelated transport fluxes are intimately connected through the momentum equation, and the neoclassical flux-force relation. This also implies a method to improve turbulent transport by improving neoclassical fluxes

  17. Perspectives of transport logistics in the railway transport enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Elagin, Yu; Obruch, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the main directions of development of transport logistics. Identified as the main types of general transport logistics, as well as the rail sector, in which logistics acquires a dominant role in terms of reform. Also highlights the main features of transport logistics for railway transport enterprises and proved the importance of integrating function in modern conditions of development. The authors noted that to ensure the effective development of railway tran...

  18. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  19. Nuclear fuel transport and particularly spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear material transport is an essential activity for COGEMA linking the different steps of the fuel cycle transport systems have to be safe and reliable. Spent fuel transport is more particularly examined in this paper because the development of reprocessing plant. Industrial, techmical and economical aspects are reviewed [fr

  20. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J; Ogilvie, David

    2010-10-18

    To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Systematic review. Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled "before and after" experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of "environmentally friendly" modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to increase cycling by modest amounts, but further controlled